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Sample records for adequately robust early

  1. Ensuring Adequate Early Childhood Development for Uganda’s Children

    Kasirye, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Although Uganda has made significant progress in reducing child deaths in the past five years, the country still faces major challenges in ensuring adequate early childhood development. This briefing highlights some of the major challenges affecting children during the first five years of life with focus on: the low immunization coverage rates and vaccine availability; poor child nutritional health status; and the limited enrolment of children in Early Childhood Development Centres.

  2. How Much and What Kind? Identifying an Adequate Technology Infrastructure for Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    To realize the potential benefits of technology use in early childhood education (ECE), and to ensure that technology can help to address the digital divide, providers, families of young children, and young children themselves must have access to an adequate technology infrastructure. The goals for technology use in ECE that a technology…

  3. Information about robustness, reliability and safety in early design phases

    Marini, Vinicius Kaster

    , reliability and safety reviewed have shortcomings including the complexity of using them and dependence on expert input for mitigating uncertainty and ambiguity among solution alternatives. This research is carried out using case studies: a pilot case to assess information requirements from reliability...... methods, and an industrial case to assess how the use of information about robustness, reliability and safety as practised by current methods influences concept development. Current methods cannot be used in early design phases due to their dependence on detailed design information for the identification...... of attributes of robustness, reliability and safety. The uncertainty and ambiguity that are inherent to concept development impede the evaluation and improvement of attributes of robustness, reliability and safety in early design. A taxonomy was therefore developed to assess the information about...

  4. Robust Early Pregnancy Prediction of Later Preeclampsia Using Metabolomic Biomarkers.

    Kenny, Louise C

    2010-09-13

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome that causes substantial maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The etiology is incompletely understood, and there is no clinically useful screening test. Current metabolomic technologies have allowed the establishment of metabolic signatures of preeclampsia in early pregnancy. Here, a 2-phase discovery\\/validation metabolic profiling study was performed. In the discovery phase, a nested case-control study was designed, using samples obtained at 15±1 weeks\\' gestation from 60 women who subsequently developed preeclampsia and 60 controls taking part in the prospective Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints cohort study. Controls were proportionally population matched for age, ethnicity, and body mass index at booking. Plasma samples were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A multivariate predictive model combining 14 metabolites gave an odds ratio for developing preeclampsia of 36 (95% CI: 12 to 108), with an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.94. These findings were then validated using an independent case-control study on plasma obtained at 15±1 weeks from 39 women who subsequently developed preeclampsia and 40 similarly matched controls from a participating center in a different country. The same 14 metabolites produced an odds ratio of 23 (95% CI: 7 to 73) with an area under receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.92. The finding of a consistent discriminatory metabolite signature in early pregnancy plasma preceding the onset of preeclampsia offers insight into disease pathogenesis and offers the tantalizing promise of a robust presymptomatic screening test.

  5. Robust early pregnancy prediction of later preeclampsia using metabolomic biomarkers.

    Kenny, Louise C

    2012-01-31

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome that causes substantial maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The etiology is incompletely understood, and there is no clinically useful screening test. Current metabolomic technologies have allowed the establishment of metabolic signatures of preeclampsia in early pregnancy. Here, a 2-phase discovery\\/validation metabolic profiling study was performed. In the discovery phase, a nested case-control study was designed, using samples obtained at 15+\\/-1 weeks\\' gestation from 60 women who subsequently developed preeclampsia and 60 controls taking part in the prospective Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints cohort study. Controls were proportionally population matched for age, ethnicity, and body mass index at booking. Plasma samples were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A multivariate predictive model combining 14 metabolites gave an odds ratio for developing preeclampsia of 36 (95% CI: 12 to 108), with an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.94. These findings were then validated using an independent case-control study on plasma obtained at 15+\\/-1 weeks from 39 women who subsequently developed preeclampsia and 40 similarly matched controls from a participating center in a different country. The same 14 metabolites produced an odds ratio of 23 (95% CI: 7 to 73) with an area under receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.92. The finding of a consistent discriminatory metabolite signature in early pregnancy plasma preceding the onset of preeclampsia offers insight into disease pathogenesis and offers the tantalizing promise of a robust presymptomatic screening test.

  6. Multiple giant succular and fusiform right and left coronary artery aneurysms after early and adequate treatment of atypical kawasaki disease with unusual presentation.

    Mostafa Behjati-Ardakani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The major complication of Kawasaki disease is coronary artery dilatation and aneurysm. It occurs in approximately 15-25% of untreated children with Kawasaki Disease. Early diagnosis and treatment with Intravenous immune globulin (IVIG and aspirin (ASA can reduce the incidence of coronary artery abnormality to 2%-5%. We report one case of Atypical Kawasaki Disease with Multiple giant coronary artery aneurysms despite early adequate treatment with IVIG and ASA.

  7. Robustness

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Rizzuto, Enrico; Narasimhan, Harikrishna; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2012-01-01

    More frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure combined with increased requirements to efficiency in design and execution followed by increased risk of human errors has made the need of requirements to robustness of structures...... essential. Further, the collapse of the World Trade Centre towers and a number of collapses of structural systems during the last 10 years has increased the interest in robustness. Typically, modern structural design codes require that ‘the consequence of damages to structures should not be disproportional...... to the causes of the damages’. However, despite the importance of robustness for structural design, such requirements are not substantiated in more detail, nor has the engineering profession been able to agree on an interpretation of robustness which facilitates for its quantification. In this paper...

  8. Model-based Solution to Robust and Early Detection of Control Surface Runaways

    Zolghadri, Ali; Gheorghe, Anca; Cieslak, Jérome; Henry, David; Goupil, Philippe; Dayre, Rémy; Leberre, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a model-based fault detection scheme for robust and early detection of runaways in aircraft control surfaces servo-loop. The proposed scheme can be embedded within the structure of in-service monitoring systems as a part of the Flight Control Computer (FCC) software. The final goal is to contribute to improve the performance detection of unanticipated runaway faulty profiles having very different dynamic behaviors, while retaining a perfect robustness. The p...

  9. A Model-based Solution to Robust and Early Detection of Control Surface Runaways

    Zolghadri, Ali; Gheorghe, Anca; Cieslak, Jérôme; Henry, David; Goupil, Philippe; Dayre, Rémy; Leberre, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a model-based fault detection scheme for robust and early detection of runaways in aircraft control surfaces servo-loop. The proposed scheme can be embedded within the structure of in-service monitoring systems as a part of the Flight Control Computer (FCC) software. The final goal is to contribute to improve the performance detection of unanticipated runaway faulty profiles having very different dynamic behaviors, while retaining a perfect robustness. The p...

  10. Rapid and robust characterization of the earthquake source for tsunami early-warning

    Lomax, Anthony; Michelini, Alberto; Bernardi, Fabrizio; Lauciani, Valentino

    2015-04-01

    Effective tsunami early-warning after an earthquake is difficult when the distances and tsunami travel-times between earthquake/tsunami source regions and coast lines at risk are small, especially since the density of seismic and other monitoring stations is very low in most regions of risk. For tsunami warning worldwide, seismic monitoring and analysis currently provide the majority of information available within the first tens of minutes after an earthquake. This information is used for direct tsunami hazard assessment, and as basic input to real-time, tsunami hazard modeling. It is thus crucial that key earthquake parameters are determined as rapidly and reliably as possible, in a probabilistic, time-evolving manner, along with full uncertainties. Early-est (EArthquake Rapid Location sYstem with EStimation of Tsunamigenesis) is the module for rapid earthquake detection, location and analysis at the INGV tsunami alert center (CAT, "Centro di Allerta Tsunami"), part of the Italian, candidate Tsunami Watch Provider. Here we present the information produced by Early-est within the first 10 min after an earthquake to characterize the location, depth, magnitude, mechanism and tsunami potential of an earthquake. We discuss key algorithms in Early-est that produce fully automatic, robust results and their uncertainties in the shortest possible time using sparse observations. For example, a broadband picker and a robust, probabilistic, global-search detector/associator/locator component of Early-est can detect and locate a seismic event with as few as 4 to 5 P onset observations. We also discuss how these algorithms may be further evolved to provide even earlier and more robust results. Finally, we illustrate how the real-time, evolutionary and probabilistic earthquake information produced by Early-est, along with prior and non-seismic information and later seismic information (e.g., full-waveform moment-tensors), may be used within time-evolving, decision and modeling

  11. Validation of three early ejaculation diagnostic tools: a composite measure is accurate and more adequate for diagnosis by updated diagnostic criteria.

    Patrick Jern

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To validate three early ejaculation diagnostic tools, and propose a new tool for diagnosis in line with proposed changes to diagnostic criteria. Significant changes to diagnostic criteria are expected in the near future. Available screening tools do not necessarily reflect proposed changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from 148 diagnosed early ejaculation patients (M age = 42.8 and 892 controls (M age = 33.1 years from a population-based sample were used. Participants responded to three different questionnaires (Premature Ejaculation Profile; Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool; Multiple Indicators of Premature Ejaculation. Stopwatch measured ejaculation latency times were collected from a subsample of early ejaculation patients. We used two types of responses to the questionnaires depending on the treatment status of the patients 1 responses regarding the situation before starting pharmacological treatment and 2 responses regarding current situation. Logistic regressions and Receiver Operating Characteristics were used to assess ability of both the instruments and individual items to differentiate between patients and controls. RESULTS: All instruments had very good precision (Areas under the Curve ranging from .93-.98. A new five-item instrument (named CHecklist for Early Ejaculation Symptoms - CHEES consisting of high-performance variables selected from the three instruments had validity (Nagelkerke R (2 range .51-.79 for backwards/forwards logistic regression equal to or slightly better than any individual instrument (i.e., had slightly higher validity statistics, but these differences did not achieve statistical significance. Importantly, however, this instrument was more in line with proposed changes to diagnostic criteria. CONCLUSIONS: All three screening tools had good validity. A new 5-item diagnostic tool (CHEES based on the three instruments had equal or somewhat more favorable validity statistics compared to the other three

  12. Can Targeted Intervention Mitigate Early Emotional and Behavioral Problems?: Generating Robust Evidence within Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Orla Doyle

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of a targeted Irish early intervention program on children's emotional and behavioral development using multiple methods to test the robustness of the results. Data on 164 Preparing for Life participants who were randomly assigned into an intervention group, involving home visits from pregnancy onwards, or a control group, was used to test the impact of the intervention on Child Behavior Checklist scores at 24-months. Using inverse probability weighting to account for differential attrition, permutation testing to address small sample size, and quantile regression to characterize the distributional impact of the intervention, we found that the few treatment effects were largely concentrated among boys most at risk of developing emotional and behavioral problems. The average treatment effect identified a 13% reduction in the likelihood of falling into the borderline clinical threshold for Total Problems. The interaction and subgroup analysis found that this main effect was driven by boys. The distributional analysis identified a 10-point reduction in the Externalizing Problems score for boys at the 90th percentile. No effects were observed for girls or for the continuous measures of Total, Internalizing, and Externalizing problems. These findings suggest that the impact of this prenatally commencing home visiting program may be limited to boys experiencing the most difficulties. Further adoption of the statistical methods applied here may help to improve the internal validity of randomized controlled trials and contribute to the field of evaluation science more generally.ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN04631728.

  13. Can Targeted Intervention Mitigate Early Emotional and Behavioral Problems?: Generating Robust Evidence within Randomized Controlled Trials

    Doyle, Orla; McGlanaghy, Edel; O’Farrelly, Christine; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a targeted Irish early intervention program on children’s emotional and behavioral development using multiple methods to test the robustness of the results. Data on 164 Preparing for Life participants who were randomly assigned into an intervention group, involving home visits from pregnancy onwards, or a control group, was used to test the impact of the intervention on Child Behavior Checklist scores at 24-months. Using inverse probability weighting to account for differential attrition, permutation testing to address small sample size, and quantile regression to characterize the distributional impact of the intervention, we found that the few treatment effects were largely concentrated among boys most at risk of developing emotional and behavioral problems. The average treatment effect identified a 13% reduction in the likelihood of falling into the borderline clinical threshold for Total Problems. The interaction and subgroup analysis found that this main effect was driven by boys. The distributional analysis identified a 10-point reduction in the Externalizing Problems score for boys at the 90th percentile. No effects were observed for girls or for the continuous measures of Total, Internalizing, and Externalizing problems. These findings suggest that the impact of this prenatally commencing home visiting program may be limited to boys experiencing the most difficulties. Further adoption of the statistical methods applied here may help to improve the internal validity of randomized controlled trials and contribute to the field of evaluation science more generally. Trial Registration: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN04631728 PMID:27253184

  14. The Contradiction Index (CI): A New Metric Combining System Complexity and Robustness for Early Design Stages

    Göhler, Simon Moritz; Howard, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    For complex and integrated products, companies experience difficulties in achieving a satisfactory and consistent functional performance. When a design has “contradicting” parameter/property requirements it often requires fine tuning with numerous design iterations and complex optimizations to find...... the “sweet spot” where all functional requirements are fulfilled. This often leads to a lack of robustness, where tight tolerances are required and small defects have knock-on effects throughout the product. In this article we propose the Contradiction Index (CI) to gauge how contradicting the...

  15. A robust prognostic gene expression signature for early stage lung adenocarcinoma

    Krzystanek, Marcin; Moldvay, Judit; Szüts, David;

    2016-01-01

    Stage I lung adenocarcinoma is usually not treated with adjuvant chemotherapy; however, around half of these patients do not survive 5 years. Therefore, a reliable prognostic biomarker for early stage patients would be critical to identify those most likely to benefit from early additional...... not given adjuvant therapy. Seven genes consistently obtained statistical significance in Cox regression for overall survival. The combined signature has a weighted mean hazard ratio of 3.2 in all cohorts and 3.0 (C.I. 1.3-7.4, p ...

  16. Parental death and bipolar disorder: a robust association was found in early maternal suicide

    Tsuchiya, Kenji; Agerbo, Esben; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2005-01-01

    of a conditional logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Among 947 subjects with bipolar disorder and 47,350 controls, those having experienced the parental suicide were significantly associated with an increased risk for BPD (incidence rate ratios: 1.83 [95% confidence interval: 1.07 to 3.12] for paternal suicide......BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that early parental death may be associated with the emergence of bipolar disorder in later life. However, it remains unknown whether this association applies specifically to parental death due to suicide or only to early parental death. The present study...... were born in 1960 or later and were first admitted to or had first contact with Danish psychiatric facilities between 1981 and 1998 with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, and fifty age-matched controls per case were extracted. The effects of the deaths of relatives were estimated by means...

  17. Lands adequation in Antioquia Department

    The Colombian government programs concerning land management and adequation began since the fifties. When basic frameworks for irrigating, flood control and drainage were initially developed. Several entities have made huge investments in land adequation, that lead to the improvement of national agriculture in plain regions such as Tolima, Boyaca, Magdalena and Valle del Cauca. During the same period the region of Antioquia did not benefit from the projects, mainly due to the lack of government policies concerning land adequation. Finally, in 1983 the Himat launched the small irrigation national program, which gave solutions for water management in several countryside regions of Antioquia. Twenty-nine small water districts are now operating accounting for 3.759 ha which cover 1.510 households. Now days, thanks to the presence of more accurate policies, is the right time to improve irrigation, flood control and drainage towards to a substantial improvement in the Antioquia agricultural sector, that allows it to overcome the challenges of the next millennium. A project called Antioquia nos une 1998-2000 addresses the importance of promoting the right agricultural structure that ensures agricultural mechanization for sustainability and irrigation. On the other hand, it determines the main resources needed to promote the initiative and points out the importance of distributing them in the basis of the needs and problems of the communities

  18. Free left and right adequate semigroups

    Kambites, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Recent research of the author has given an explicit geometric description of free (two-sided) adequate semigroups and monoids, as sets of labelled directed trees under a natural combinatorial multiplication. In this paper we show that there are natural embeddings of each free right adequate and free left adequate semigroup or monoid into the corresponding free adequate semigroup or monoid. The corresponding classes of trees are easily described and the resulting geometric representation of fr...

  19. Repeatability of metabolic responses to a nutrient deficiency in early and mid lactation and implications for robustness of dairy cows.

    Gross, J J; Bruckmaier, R M

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient partitioning toward the mammary gland during insufficient energy and nutrient supply is a strategy to ensure survival of the offspring in mammalian species. This homeorhetic priority of the mammary gland is also present in the modern dairy cow, in particular in early lactation. However, despite similar metabolic loads, the adaptive response to a given metabolic load varies considerably among animals. The aim of this study was to investigate if individual cows respond in a consistent manner to a negative energy balance (NEB) in early and mid lactation. Twenty-five dairy cows experienced the usual NEB after parturition and were subjected to a second 3-wk NEB induced by feed restriction in mid lactation. Animals were retrospectively ranked according to their highest plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration in wk 1 to 4 postpartum. The animals with the 33% highest and 33% lowest values were selected and classified either as the high response (HR) or low response (LR) group. Before parturition, no differences in the studied parameters, dry matter intake, energy balance, concentrations of glucose, NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate, cholesterol, triglycerides, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1, were detected between LR and HR. After parturition, milk yield and energy-corrected milk yield was higher for HR compared with LR in wk 2 to 14 and wk 1 to 6, respectively. During feed restriction in wk 15 to 17 postpartum, no differences in energy-corrected milk between LR and HR were found. Energy balance was more negative in HR during the NEB in early lactation, but not different from LR during feed restriction in mid lactation. Although plasma concentrations of glucose, growth hormone, triglycerides, and cholesterol showed group differences in early lactation, but not during feed restriction, the plasma concentrations of NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate, and insulin-like growth factor-1 in HR changed repeatedly to a greater extent during the NEB at the 2

  20. The efficacy of support vector machines (SVM) in robust determination of earthquake early warning magnitudes in central Japan

    Ramakrushna Reddy; Rajesh R Nair

    2013-10-01

    This work deals with a methodology applied to seismic early warning systems which are designed to provide real-time estimation of the magnitude of an event. We will reappraise the work of Simons et al. (2006), who on the basis of wavelet approach predicted a magnitude error of ±1. We will verify and improve upon the methodology of Simons et al. (2006) by applying an SVM statistical learning machine on the time-scale wavelet decomposition methods. We used the data of 108 events in central Japan with magnitude ranging from 3 to 7.4 recorded at KiK-net network stations, for a source–receiver distance of up to 150 km during the period 1998–2011. We applied a wavelet transform on the seismogram data and calculating scale-dependent threshold wavelet coefficients. These coefficients were then classified into low magnitude and high magnitude events by constructing a maximum margin hyperplane between the two classes, which forms the essence of SVMs. Further, the classified events from both the classes were picked up and linear regressions were plotted to determine the relationship between wavelet coefficient magnitude and earthquake magnitude, which in turn helped us to estimate the earthquake magnitude of an event given its threshold wavelet coefficient. At wavelet scale number 7, we predicted the earthquake magnitude of an event within 2.7 seconds. This means that a magnitude determination is available within 2.7 s after the initial onset of the P-wave. These results shed light on the application of SVM as a way to choose the optimal regression function to estimate the magnitude from a few seconds of an incoming seismogram. This would improve the approaches from Simons et al. (2006) which use an average of the two regression functions to estimate the magnitude.

  1. Real Time Investments with Adequate Portfolio Theory

    Alina Kvietkauskienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify investment decision makingschemes using the adequate portfolio model. This approach can be employed to project investment in stocks, using the opportunities offered by the markets and investor intelligence. It was decided to use adequate portfolio theory for investment decision making, simulation of financial markets, and optimisation of utility function. The main conclusion of article suggests investigating return on individual portfolio level. Real investment is a way to make sure of the soundness of applicable strategies.

  2. Adequate supervision for children and adolescents.

    Anderst, James; Moffatt, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Primary care providers (PCPs) have the opportunity to improve child health and well-being by addressing supervision issues before an injury or exposure has occurred and/or after an injury or exposure has occurred. Appropriate anticipatory guidance on supervision at well-child visits can improve supervision of children, and may prevent future harm. Adequate supervision varies based on the child's development and maturity, and the risks in the child's environment. Consideration should be given to issues as wide ranging as swimming pools, falls, dating violence, and social media. By considering the likelihood of harm and the severity of the potential harm, caregivers may provide adequate supervision by minimizing risks to the child while still allowing the child to take "small" risks as needed for healthy development. Caregivers should initially focus on direct (visual, auditory, and proximity) supervision of the young child. Gradually, supervision needs to be adjusted as the child develops, emphasizing a safe environment and safe social interactions, with graduated independence. PCPs may foster adequate supervision by providing concrete guidance to caregivers. In addition to preventing injury, supervision includes fostering a safe, stable, and nurturing relationship with every child. PCPs should be familiar with age/developmentally based supervision risks, adequate supervision based on those risks, characteristics of neglectful supervision based on age/development, and ways to encourage appropriate supervision throughout childhood. PMID:25369578

  3. Volume and geometry of homogeneously adequate knots

    Bartholomew, Paige; McQuarrie, Shane; Purcell, Jessica S.; Weser, Kai

    2014-01-01

    We bound the hyperbolic volumes of a large class of knots and links, called homogeneously adequate knots and links, in terms of their diagrams. To do so, we use the decomposition of these links into ideal polyhedra, developed by Futer, Kalfagianni, and Purcell. We identify essential product disks in these polyhedra.

  4. The radiographic appearances following adequate transfusion in β-thalassaemia

    The main lesions of the skull and hand, observed in a group of hypertransfused β-thalassaemic patients, are compared with a control group of low-transfused patients. Bony abnormalities reflect the relationship between proliferating bone marrow and bone cortex, and hypertransfusion therapy will prevent development of lesions only if established early in life. If this is done, the diploe in the skull may become normal, overgrowth of facial bones is moderate, pneumatisation of the paranasal sinuses is not completely prevented, and the 'hair-brush' pattern may disappear completely. A normal appearance of the hand in adequately treated patients differentiates between prepubertal patients and adults. (orig.)

  5. Radiographic appearances following adequate transfusion in. beta. -thalassaemia

    Scutellari, P.N.; Orzincolo, C.; Bagni, B.; Franceschini, F.

    1989-01-01

    The main lesions of the skull and hand, observed in a group of hypertransfused ..beta..-thalassaemic patients, are compared with a control group of low-transfused patients. Bony abnormalities reflect the relationship between proliferating bone marrow and bone cortex, and hypertransfusion therapy will prevent development of lesions only if established early in life. If this is done, the diploe in the skull may become normal, overgrowth of facial bones is moderate, pneumatisation of the paranasal sinuses is not completely prevented, and the 'hair-brush' pattern may disappear completely. A normal appearance of the hand in adequately treated patients differentiates between prepubertal patients and adults.

  6. Iron absorption from adequate Filipinos meals

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 +- 1.26%. Central Visayas, 6.3 +- 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 +- 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P>0.01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry; and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid, did not give significant results. The overall average of 6.4 +- 1.20% may be used as the iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976. (Auth.). 21 refs.; 3 tabs.; 3 annexes

  7. Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 ± 1.26%, Central Visayas, 6.3 ± 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 ± 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P > .01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid did not give significant results. The overall bar x of 6.4 ± 1.20% may be used as the non-heme iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976

  8. Robust arkitektur

    Stylsvig Madsen, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    . Teamet kan samles i det følgende hovedspørgsmål:   Hvordan sikrer man, at en bygning aktivt kan indgå i nye situationer, som man ikke har kunnet forudse på det tidspunkt, hvor bygningen blev skabt?   Afhandlingen peger på begrebet robust arkitektur som svaret på dette spørgsmål. For at skabe en...... arkitektur, som er robust over for forandringer, skal arkitekturen i sig selv være i stand til at forny sig. En bygning og dens betydning bliver på den måde en løbende udviklingsproces, hvor arkitekturen opstår i mødet med de forskellige sammenhæng, som den gennem tiden kommer til at indgå i. Robustheden er...

  9. Robust correlators

    Fridman, P A

    2010-01-01

    Radio frequency interference (RFI) already limits the sensitivity of existing radio telescopes in several frequency bands and may prove to be an even greater obstacle for future generation instruments to overcome. I aim to create a structure of radio astronomy correlators which will be statistically stable (robust) in the presence of interference. A statistical analysis of the mixture of system noise + signal noise + RFI is proposed here which could be incorporated into the block diagram of a correlator. Order and rank statistics are especially useful when calculated in both temporal and frequency domains. Several new algorithms of robust correlators are proposed and investigated here. Computer simulations and processing of real data demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed algorithms.

  10. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise. PMID:9670174

  11. Robust Regression.

    Huang, Dong; Cabral, Ricardo; De la Torre, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    Discriminative methods (e.g., kernel regression, SVM) have been extensively used to solve problems such as object recognition, image alignment and pose estimation from images. These methods typically map image features ( X) to continuous (e.g., pose) or discrete (e.g., object category) values. A major drawback of existing discriminative methods is that samples are directly projected onto a subspace and hence fail to account for outliers common in realistic training sets due to occlusion, specular reflections or noise. It is important to notice that existing discriminative approaches assume the input variables X to be noise free. Thus, discriminative methods experience significant performance degradation when gross outliers are present. Despite its obvious importance, the problem of robust discriminative learning has been relatively unexplored in computer vision. This paper develops the theory of robust regression (RR) and presents an effective convex approach that uses recent advances on rank minimization. The framework applies to a variety of problems in computer vision including robust linear discriminant analysis, regression with missing data, and multi-label classification. Several synthetic and real examples with applications to head pose estimation from images, image and video classification and facial attribute classification with missing data are used to illustrate the benefits of RR. PMID:26761740

  12. Robust factorization

    Aanæs, Henrik; Fisker, Rune; Åström, Kalle; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2002-01-01

    techniques and models enable the factorization scheme to deal effectively with mismatched features, missing features, and noise on the individual features. The proposed approach further includes a new method for Euclidean reconstruction that significantly improves convergence of the factorization algorithms......Factorization algorithms for recovering structure and motion from an image stream have many advantages, but they usually require a set of well-tracked features. Such a set is in generally not available in practical applications. There is thus a need for making factorization algorithms deal...... effectively with errors in the tracked features. We propose a new and computationally efficient algorithm for applying an arbitrary error function in the factorization scheme. This algorithm enables the use of robust statistical techniques and arbitrary noise models for the individual features. These...

  13. Robust Scientists

    Gorm Hansen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    The concepts of “socially robust knowledge” and “mode 2 knowledge production” (Nowotny 2003, Gibbons et al. 1994) have migrated from STS into research policy practices. Both STSscholars and policy makers have been known to propomote the idea that the way forward for today’s scientist is to jump...... from the ivory tower and learn how to create highflying synergies with citizens, corporations and governments. In STS as well as in Danish research policy it has thus been argued that scientists will gain more support and enjoy greater success in their work by “externalizing” their research...... the development of the danish GMO research group and one of their objects of study: A toxic moth capable of adapting to a hostile environment. Insect strategies for survival are not unlike those deployed by the GMO scientists who study them. The paper argues that scientific ecologies respond to policy change...

  14. Robust Scientists

    Gorm Hansen, Birgitte

    The concepts of “socially robust knowledge” and “mode 2 knowledge production” (Nowotny 2003, Gibbons et al. 1994) have migrated from STS into research policy practices. Both STS-scholars and policy makers have been known to propomote the idea that the way forward for today’s scientist is to jump...... from the ivory tower and learn how to create high-flying synergies with citizens, corporations and governments. In STS as well as in Danish research policy it has thus been argued that scientists will gain more support and enjoy greater success in their work by “externalizing” their research...... the development of the danish GMO research group and one of their objects of study: A toxic moth capable of adapting to a hostile environment. Insect strategies for survival are not unlike those deployed by the GMO scientists who study them. The paper argues that scientific ecologies respond to policy change...

  15. Biochemical criteria at 1 year are not robust indicators of response to ursodeoxycholic acid in early primary biliary cirrhosis: results from a 29-year cohort study

    Papastergiou, V; Tsochatzis, E A; Rodriquez-Peralvarez, M; Thalassinos, E.; Pieri, G.; Manousou, P.; Germani, G.; Rigamonti, C.; Arvaniti, V.; Karatapanis, S.; Burroughs, A K

    2013-01-01

    Background: In primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), biochemical criteria at 1 year are considered surrogates of response to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). However, due to the slow natural history of PBC, evaluation at 1 year may be suboptimal to assess the therapeutic response, particularly in early disease. Aim: To determine whether evaluation of biochemical criteria at 1 year is a reliable surrogate of UDCA response in early PBC. Methods: We analysed the prospectively collected data of 21...

  16. Adequate peritoneal dialysis: theoretical model and patient treatment.

    Tast, C

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adequate PD with sufficient weekly Kt/V (2.0) and Creatinine clearance (CCR) (60l) and necessary daily dialysate volume. This recommended parameter was the result of a recent multi-centre study (CANUSA). For this there were 40 patients in our hospital examined and compared in 1996, who carried out PD for at least 8 weeks and up to 6 years. These goals (CANUSA) are easily attainable in the early treatment of many individuals with a low body surface area (BSA). With higher BSA or missing RRF (Residual Renal Function) the daily dose of dialysis must be adjusted. We found it difficult to obtain the recommended parameters and tried to find a solution to this problem. The simplest method is to increase the volume or exchange rate. The most expensive method is to change from CAPD to APD with the possibility of higher volume or exchange rates. Selection of therapy must take into consideration: 1. patient preference, 2. body mass, 3. peritoneal transport rates, 4. ability to perform therapy, 5. cost of therapy and 6. risk of peritonitis. With this information in mind, an individual prescription can be formulated and matched to the appropriate modality of PD. PMID:10392062

  17. Early

    Houssiau, F A; Vasconcelos, C; D'Cruz, D; G.D. Sebastiani; DE RAMON GARRIDO, E.; Danieli, M.G.; ABRAMOVICZ, D.; Blockmans, D; Mathieu, A; Direskeneli, H; Galeazzi, M; Gul, A; Levy, Y; Petera, P.; Popovic, R.

    2004-01-01

    Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Dec;50(12):3934-40. Early response to immunosuppressive therapy predicts good renal outcome in lupus nephritis: lessons from long-term followup of patients in the Euro-Lupus Nephritis Trial. Houssiau FA, Vasconcelos C, D'Cruz D, Sebastiani GD, de Ramon Garrido E, Danieli MG, Abramovicz D, Blockmans D, Mathieu A, Direskeneli H, Galeazzi M, Gül A, Levy Y, Petera P, Popovic R, Petrovic R, Sinico RA, Cattaneo R, Font J, Depresseux G, Cosyns JP, Cervera R. Universi...

  18. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo…

  19. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  20. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  1. Robust control investigations for equipment loaded panels

    Aglietti, G.S.; Langley, R.S.; Rogers, E.;

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a modelling technique for equipment load panels which directly produces (adequate) models of the underlying dynamics on which to base robust controller design/evaluations. This technique is based on the use of the Lagrange's equations of motion and the resulting models are...

  2. The justification of Chinese traditional thought on the right to adequate food

    Du, Gangjian; Sun, Juanjuan

    2010-01-01

    15 pages As declared by the Universal Declaration of Human right, the right to adequate food is one of fundamental contents embodying in the right to a standard of living adequate. However, the recognition of this right has developed progressively and its realization still has a long way to go. Undoubtedly, the guarantee of food supply is a fundamental way to ensure a standard living. In this aspect, early in the pre-Qin period, there have been a great number of schools of thought devoting...

  3. Robust Watermarking of Video Streams

    T. Polyák

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years there has been an explosion in the use of digital video data. Many people have personal computers at home, and with the help of the Internet users can easily share video files on their computer. This makes possible the unauthorized use of digital media, and without adequate protection systems the authors and distributors have no means to prevent it.Digital watermarking techniques can help these systems to be more effective by embedding secret data right into the video stream. This makes minor changes in the frames of the video, but these changes are almost imperceptible to the human visual system. The embedded information can involve copyright data, access control etc. A robust watermark is resistant to various distortions of the video, so it cannot be removed without affecting the quality of the host medium. In this paper I propose a video watermarking scheme that fulfills the requirements of a robust watermark. 

  4. Methods for robustness programming

    Olieman, N.J.

    2008-01-01

    Robustness of an object is defined as the probability that an object will have properties as required. Robustness Programming (RP) is a mathematical approach for Robustness estimation and Robustness optimisation. An example in the context of designing a food product, is finding the best composition

  5. Robustness of Structures

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    An important aspect of the COST Action TU0601 “Robustness of structures” concerns the development of a theoretically sound basis for the assessment of robustness and acceptance criteria for structural robustness which can form the basis for development of practical relevant methods for ensuring...... robust design as well as strategies for maintaining the robustness of existing structures throughout their service life. This paper describes an overall theoretical framework for assessing robustness of structures developed within WG1 “Robustness of structures”. Robustness can be defined in different...... ways and on different levels of complexity / applicability. On the most general level robustness is assessed taking basis in decision analysis theory by estimating both direct risk, which is associated with the direct consequences of potential damages to the structure, and indirect risk, which...

  6. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    2010-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  7. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  8. Is the Marketing Concept Adequate for Continuing Education?

    Rittenburg, Terri L.

    1984-01-01

    Because educators have a social responsibility to those they teach, the marketing concept may not be adequate as a philosophy for continuing education. In attempting to broaden the audience for continuing education, educators should consider a societal marketing concept to meet the needs of the educationally disadvantaged. (SK)

  9. ACHIEVEMENT FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATION USING ADEQUATE MLTI-THREDING ARCHITECTURES

    Rajeev Ranjan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A major role is played in the layout and evaluation of any empirical wireless structure to manifest is the goal of this paper that counterfeit mode architectures affect counterfeit conduct, regarding structure accomplishment metrics, essentially and therefore, the excellent architecture should be explored in order to accomplish the most accurate and reliable results. It is found that the most analytical factors it is found that that actuate counterfeit mode accomplishment are counterfeit time, structure event organizing and grade of adequate. It is, also, found that counterfeit time in relation to event existence in the real structure along with the usage of modern architectural concepts such as multi-interweave technology complement analytical issues too in the advancement of an adequate counterfeit organization for wireless communications. In order to evaluate the above findings an extensive empirical review has been demeanored analysising several distinct events counterfeit organizations towards presenting the relation between channel designing collections, counterfeit time and structure accomplishment.

  10. Arabidopsis: An Adequate Model for Dicot Root Systems?

    Zobel, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis root system is frequently considered to have only three classes of root: primary, lateral, and adventitious. Research with other plant species has suggested up to eight different developmental/functional classes of root for a given plant root system. If Arabidopsis has only three classes of root, it may not be an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems. Recent research, however, can be interpreted to suggest that pre-flowering Arabidopsis does have at least five (5) of t...

  11. Robust Adaptive Control

    Narendra, K. S.; Annaswamy, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    Several concepts and results in robust adaptive control are are discussed and is organized in three parts. The first part surveys existing algorithms. Different formulations of the problem and theoretical solutions that have been suggested are reviewed here. The second part contains new results related to the role of persistent excitation in robust adaptive systems and the use of hybrid control to improve robustness. In the third part promising new areas for future research are suggested which combine different approaches currently known.

  12. Towards a Robust Society

    Jansson, Erik

    2004-01-01

    This is a project where a method for assessing the robustness of a neighbourhood/residential area has been introduced and applied in Buffalo City Municipality in South Africa. The purpose of the project was to investigate and evaluate the use of the Swedish analysis method for assessing the robustness of a neighbourhood /residential area. The ideas of the robustness method have been developed by the National board of Housing and the former Swedish Agency for Civil Emergency Planning (ÖCB). Th...

  13. Robustness and Generalization

    Xu, Huan; Mannor, Shie

    2010-01-01

    We derive generalization bounds for learning algorithms based on their robustness: the property that if a testing sample is "similar" to a training sample, then the testing error is close to the training error. This provides a novel approach, different from the complexity or stability arguments, to study generalization of learning algorithms. We further show that a weak notion of robustness is both sufficient and necessary for generalizability, which implies that robustness is a fundamental p...

  14. The crane robust control

    2004-01-01

    The article is about a control design for complete structure of the crane: crab, bridge and crane uplift. The most important unknown parameters for simulations are burden weight and length of hanging rope. We will use robust control for crab and bridge control to ensure adaptivity for burden weight and rope length. Robust control will be designed for current control of the crab and bridge, necessary is to know the range of unknown parameters. Whole robust will be split to subinter...

  15. Robustness of Spatial Micronetworks

    McAndrew, Thomas C.; Danforth, Christopher M.; Bagrow, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Power lines, roadways, pipelines and other physical infrastructure are critical to modern society. These structures may be viewed as spatial networks where geographic distances play a role in the functionality and construction cost of links. Traditionally, studies of network robustness have primarily considered the connectedness of large, random networks. Yet for spatial infrastructure physical distances must also play a role in network robustness. Understanding the robustness of small spatia...

  16. Robustness in laying hens

    Star, L.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the project ‘The genetics of robustness in laying hens’ was to investigate nature and regulation of robustness in laying hens under sub-optimal conditions and the possibility to increase robustness by using animal breeding without loss of production. At the start of the project, a robust animal was defined as ‘an animal under a normal physical condition that has the potential to keep functioning and take short periods to recover under varying environmental conditions’. Next, parame...

  17. Robustness of networks

    Wang, H.

    2009-01-01

    Our society depends more strongly than ever on large networks such as transportation networks, the Internet and power grids. Engineers are confronted with fundamental questions such as “how to evaluate the robustness of networks for a given service?”, “how to design a robust network?”, because networks always affect the functioning of a service. Robustness is an important issue for many complex networks, on which various dynamic processes or services take place. In this work, we define robust...

  18. Robust Geometric Spanners

    Bose, Prosenjit; Morin, Pat; Smid, Michiel

    2012-01-01

    Highly connected and yet sparse graphs (such as expanders or graphs of high treewidth) are fundamental, widely applicable and extensively studied combinatorial objects. We initiate the study of such highly connected graphs that are, in addition, geometric spanners. We define a property of spanners called robustness. Informally, when one removes a few vertices from a robust spanner, this harms only a small number of other vertices. We show that robust spanners must have a superlinear number of edges, even in one dimension. On the positive side, we give constructions, for any dimension, of robust spanners with a near-linear number of edges.

  19. [Abdominal cure procedures. Adequate use of Nobecutan Spray].

    López Soto, Rosa María

    2009-12-01

    Open abdominal wounds, complicated by infection and/or risk of eventration tend to become chronic and usually require frequent prolonged cure. Habitual changing of bandages develop into one of the clearest risk factors leading to the deterioration of perilesional cutaneous integrity. This brings with it new complications which draw out the evolution of the process, provoking an important deterioration in quality of life for the person who suffers this and a considerable increase in health costs. What is needed is a product and a procedure which control the risk of irritation, which protect the skin, which favor a patient's comfort and which shorten treatment requirements while lowering health care expenses. This report invites medical personnel to think seriously about the scientific rationale, and treatment practice, as to why and how to apply Nobecutan adequately, this reports concludes stating the benefits in the adequate use of this product. The objective of this report is to guarantee the adequate use of this product in treatment of complicated abdominal wounds. This product responds to the needs which are present in these clinical cases favoring skin care apt isolation and protection, while at the same time, facilitating the placement and stability of dressings and bandages used to cure wounds. In order for this to happen, the correct use of this product is essential; medical personnel must pay attention to precautions and recommendations for proper application. The author's experiences in habitual handling of this product during various years, included in the procedures for standardized cures for these wounds, corroborates its usefulness; the author considers use of this product to be highly effective while being simple to apply; furthermore, one succeeds in providing quality care and optimizes resources employed. PMID:20143738

  20. Robustness - theoretical framework

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Rizzuto, Enrico; Faber, Michael H.

    disproportional to the causes of the damages'. However, despite the importance of robustness for structural design such requirements are not substantiated in more detail, nor have the engineering profession been able to agree on an interpretation of robustness which facilitates for its quantification. The ain of...

  1. Robustness of structures

    Vrouwenvelder, T.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    After the collapse of the World Trade Centre towers in 2001 and a number of collapses of structural systems in the beginning of the century, robustness of structural systems has gained renewed interest. Despite many significant theoretical, methodical and technological advances, structural...... robustness is still an issue of controversy and poses difficulties in regard to interpretation as well as regulation. Typically modern structural design codes require that ‘the consequence of damages to structures should not be disproportional to the causes of the damages'. However, despite the importance of...... robustness for structural design such requirements are not substantiated in more detail, nor have the engineering profession been able to agree on an interpretation of robustness which facilitates for its uantification. A European COST action TU 601 on ‘Robustness of structures' has started in 2007 by a...

  2. Is prophetic discourse adequate to address global economic justice?

    Piet J. Naudé

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article outlined key features of prophetic discourse and investigated whether this form of moral discourse adequately addresses issues of economic injustice. It is shown that the strength of prophetic discourse is its ability to denounce instances of injustice whilst at the same time announcing a God-willed alternative future. The ‘preferential option for the poor’ in Latin American liberation theologies is treated as a case study of the influence of prophetic discourse in contexts of perceived economic injustice. Also the core weaknesses of prophetic discourse are investigated, specifically its incomplete moral argument, weak moral analyses, silence on transition measures, and its inability to take a positive stance on reforms in the system from which itself benefits. In the final section it is concluded that prophetic discourse plays an indispensable role in addressing issues of global economic justice, but – taken by itself – it is not an adequate form of moral discourse to address concrete matters of justice.

  3. Adequate drainage system design for heap leaching structures.

    Majdi, Abbas; Amini, Mehdi; Nasab, Saeed Karimi

    2007-08-17

    The paper describes an optimum design of a drainage system for a heap leaching structure which has positive impacts on both mine environment and mine economics. In order to properly design a drainage system the causes of an increase in the acid level of the heap which in turn produces severe problems in the hydrometallurgy processes must be evaluated. One of the most significant negative impacts induced by an increase in the acid level within a heap structure is the increase of pore acid pressure which in turn increases the potential of a heap-slide that may endanger the mine environment. In this paper, initially the thickness of gravelly drainage layer is determined via existing empirical equations. Then by assuming that the calculated thickness is constant throughout the heap structure, an approach has been proposed to calculate the required internal diameter of the slotted polyethylene pipes which are used for auxiliary drainage purposes. In order to adequately design this diameter, the pipe's cross-sectional deformation due to stepped heap structure overburden pressure is taken into account. Finally, a design of an adequate drainage system for the heap structure 2 at Sarcheshmeh copper mine is presented and the results are compared with those calculated by exiting equations. PMID:17321044

  4. Robustness Beamforming Algorithms

    Sajad Dehghani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive beamforming methods are known to degrade in the presence of steering vector and covariance matrix uncertinity. In this paper, a new approach is presented to robust adaptive minimum variance distortionless response beamforming make robust against both uncertainties in steering vector and covariance matrix. This method minimize a optimization problem that contains a quadratic objective function and a quadratic constraint. The optimization problem is nonconvex but is converted to a convex optimization problem in this paper. It is solved by the interior-point method and optimum weight vector to robust beamforming is achieved.

  5. Robustness Beamforming Algorithms

    Sajad Dehghani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive beamforming methods are known to degrade in the presence of steering vector and covariance matrix uncertinity. In this paper, a new approach is presented to robust adaptive minimum variance distortionless response beamforming make robust against both uncertainties in steering vector and covariance matrix. This method minimize a optimization problem that contains a quadratic objective function and a quadratic constraint. The optimization problem is nonconvex but is converted to a convex optimization problem in this paper. It is solved by the interior-point method and optimum weight vector to robust beamforming is achieved.

  6. CAN A SINGLE SECURITY FRAMEWORK ADDRESS INFORMATION SECURITY RISKS ADEQUATELY?

    Walid Al-Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that modern society depends heavily on information technology in nearly every facet of human activity. Organizations of all kinds are increasingly exposed to various kinds of risks, including information technology risks. There are many security standards and frameworks available to help organizations manage these risks. The question which one is best and can address the information security risks adequately warrants further investigation and research. The purpose of this research work is to highlight the challenges facing enterprises in their efforts to properly manage information security risks when adopting international standards and frameworks. To assist in selecting the best framework to use in risk management, the article presents an overview of the most popular and widely used standards. It then identifies some selection criteria and suggests an approach to proper implementation. A case study is used to prove the usefulness of the new model for selecting an appropriate security model to manage information security risks.

  7. Nuclear waste disposal: achieving adequate financing - special study

    An analysis by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) evaluates whether the current one mill fee now charged to nuclear-electricity consumers will adequately finance the waste disposal program. The CBO found that, if the fee is adjusted annually for inflation, it should provide enough revenues to cover all program costs under all nuclear growth forecasts. If the fee is unchanged, however, the fees will be inadequate if inflation exceeds 3% annually. The report suggests two alternatives for fee revision, but makes no recommendations. The alternatives are to increase the fee only at specific intervals or to automatically adjust the fee through indexation. The report examines the effect of delaying the program, cost overruns, and alternative inflation rate and interest rate assumptions. 3 figures, 12 tables

  8. Robust procedures in chemometrics

    Kotwa, Ewelina

    not resistant towards outliers (which are known to be more the rule than the exception for empirical data). That is the reason for robust methods being a valuable tool for both semi-automated detection of outliers and model building. The approach adapted in this thesis, can be split in two main parts......: 1. applying a multivariate and multi-way data analytical frame-work in fields where less sophisticated data analysis methods are currently used, and 2. developing new, more robust alternatives to already existing multivariate tools. The first part of the study was realised by applying two- and three...... qualitative properties of the analysed data. The broad theoretical background of robust procedures was given as a very useful supplement to the classical methods, and a new tool, based on robust PCA, aiming at identifying Rayleigh and Raman scatters in excitation-mission (EEM) data was developed. The results...

  9. Robustness of Structures

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    This paper describes the background of the robustness requirements implemented in the Danish Code of Practice for Safety of Structures and in the Danish National Annex to the Eurocode 0, see (DS-INF 146, 2003), (DS 409, 2006), (EN 1990 DK NA, 2007) and (Sørensen and Christensen, 2006). More...... frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure combined with increased requirements to efficiency in design and execution followed by increased risk of human errors has made the need of requirements to robustness of new structures essential....... According to Danish design rules robustness shall be documented for all structures in high consequence class. The design procedure to document sufficient robustness consists of: 1) Review of loads and possible failure modes / scenarios and determination of acceptable collapse extent; 2) Review of the...

  10. Robustness of Structures

    Faber, M.H.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Chryssanthopoulos, M.K.; Narasimhan, H.

    In 2005, the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) together with Working Commission (WC) 1 of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) organized a workshop on robustness of structures. Two important decisions resulted from this workshop, namely the developm......In 2005, the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) together with Working Commission (WC) 1 of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) organized a workshop on robustness of structures. Two important decisions resulted from this workshop, namely the...... development of a joint European project on structural robustness under the COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) programme and the decision to develop a more elaborate document on structural robustness in collaboration between experts from the JCSS and the IABSE. Accordingly, a project titled...

  11. Developmental origins of metabolic disorders: The need for biomarker candidates and therapeutic targets from adequate preclinical models

    Antonio Gonzalez-Bulnes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The investigation on obesity and associated disorders have changed from an scenario in which genome drove the phenotype to a dynamic setup in which prenatal and early-postnatal conditions are determinant. However, research in human beings is difficult due to confounding factors (lifestyle and socioeconomic heterogeneity plus ethical issues. Hence, there is currently an intensive effort for developing adequate preclinical models, aiming for an adequate combination of basic studies in rodent models and specific preclinical studies in large animals. The results of these research strategies may increase the identification and development of contrasted biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  12. Robust Crane Control

    Marek Hičár; Juraj Ritók

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents robust crane design by asynchronnous motor with frequencyconvertor at ensuring system robustness against load weight and rope length variation.Exact position control and elimination of swinging in the final position are required too.Firstly were assemblied mathematical models of main crane components: crab, bridge anduplift by real model of double beamed bridge experimental crane. Was designed robustcontrol for defined interval variation of weight and rope length for real c...

  13. Qualitative Robustness in Estimation

    Mohammed Nasser

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Qualitative robustness, influence function, and breakdown point are three main concepts to judge an estimator from the viewpoint of robust estimation. It is important as well as interesting to study relation among them. This article attempts to present the concept of qualitative robustness as forwarded by first proponents and its later development. It illustrates intricacies of qualitative robustness and its relation with consistency, and also tries to remove commonly believed misunderstandings about relation between influence function and qualitative robustness citing some examples from literature and providing a new counter-example. At the end it places a useful finite and a simulated version of   qualitative robustness index (QRI. In order to assess the performance of the proposed measures, we have compared fifteen estimators of correlation coefficient using simulated as well as real data sets.

  14. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  15. Robust control of accelerators

    Joel, W.; Johnson, D.; Chaouki, Abdallah T.

    1991-07-01

    The problem of controlling the variations in the rf power system can be effectively cast as an application of modern control theory. Two components of this theory are obtaining a model and a feedback structure. The model inaccuracies influence the choice of a particular controller structure. Because of the modelling uncertainty, one has to design either a variable, adaptive controller or a fixed, robust controller to achieve the desired objective. The adaptive control scheme usually results in very complex hardware; and, therefore, shall not be pursued in this research. In contrast, the robust control method leads to simpler hardware. However, robust control requires a more accurate mathematical model of the physical process than is required by adaptive control. Our research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the University of New Mexico (UNM) has led to the development and implementation of a new robust rf power feedback system. In this article, we report on our research progress. In section 1, the robust control problem for the rf power system and the philosophy adopted for the beginning phase of our research is presented. In section 2, the results of our proof-of-principle experiments are presented. In section 3, we describe the actual controller configuration that is used in LANL FEL physics experiments. The novelty of our approach is that the control hardware is implemented directly in rf. without demodulating, compensating, and then remodulating.

  16. Engineering robust intelligent robots

    Hall, E. L.; Ali, S. M. Alhaj; Ghaffari, M.; Liao, X.; Cao, M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the challenge of engineering robust intelligent robots. Robust intelligent robots may be considered as ones that not only work in one environment but rather in all types of situations and conditions. Our past work has described sensors for intelligent robots that permit adaptation to changes in the environment. We have also described the combination of these sensors with a "creative controller" that permits adaptive critic, neural network learning, and a dynamic database that permits task selection and criteria adjustment. However, the emphasis of this paper is on engineering solutions which are designed for robust operations and worst case situations such as day night cameras or rain and snow solutions. This ideal model may be compared to various approaches that have been implemented on "production vehicles and equipment" using Ethernet, CAN Bus and JAUS architectures and to modern, embedded, mobile computing architectures. Many prototype intelligent robots have been developed and demonstrated in terms of scientific feasibility but few have reached the stage of a robust engineering solution. Continual innovation and improvement are still required. The significance of this comparison is that it provides some insights that may be useful in designing future robots for various manufacturing, medical, and defense applications where robust and reliable performance is essential.

  17. Monitoring the eye lens: which dose quantity is adequate?

    Behrens, R [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Dietze, G, E-mail: rolf.behrens@ptb.d [Paracelsusstrasse 7, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-07-21

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low dose threshold (below 0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimized and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. The question of which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens arises from this situation. While in many countries dosemeters calibrated in terms of the dose equivalent quantity H{sub p}(0.07) have been seen as being adequate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens, this might be questionable in the case of reduced dose limits and, thus, it may become necessary to use the dose equivalent quantity H{sub p}(3) for this purpose. To discuss this question, the dose conversion coefficients for the equivalent dose of the eye lens (in the following eye lens dose) were determined for realistic photon and beta radiation fields and compared with the values of the corresponding conversion coefficients for the different operational quantities. The values obtained lead to the following conclusions: in radiation fields where most of the dose comes from photons, especially x-rays, it is appropriate to use dosemeters calibrated in terms of H{sub p}(0.07) on a slab phantom, while in other radiation fields (dominated by beta radiation or unknown contributions of photon and beta radiation) dosemeters calibrated in terms of H{sub p}(3) on a slab phantom should be used. As an alternative, dosemeters calibrated in terms of H{sub p}(0.07) on a slab phantom could also be used; however, in radiation fields containing beta radiation with the end point energy near 1 MeV, an overestimation of the eye lens dose by up to a factor of 550 is possible.

  18. Monitoring the eye lens: which dose quantity is adequate?

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low dose threshold (below 0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimized and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. The question of which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens arises from this situation. While in many countries dosemeters calibrated in terms of the dose equivalent quantity Hp(0.07) have been seen as being adequate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens, this might be questionable in the case of reduced dose limits and, thus, it may become necessary to use the dose equivalent quantity Hp(3) for this purpose. To discuss this question, the dose conversion coefficients for the equivalent dose of the eye lens (in the following eye lens dose) were determined for realistic photon and beta radiation fields and compared with the values of the corresponding conversion coefficients for the different operational quantities. The values obtained lead to the following conclusions: in radiation fields where most of the dose comes from photons, especially x-rays, it is appropriate to use dosemeters calibrated in terms of Hp(0.07) on a slab phantom, while in other radiation fields (dominated by beta radiation or unknown contributions of photon and beta radiation) dosemeters calibrated in terms of Hp(3) on a slab phantom should be used. As an alternative, dosemeters calibrated in terms of Hp(0.07) on a slab phantom could also be used; however, in radiation fields containing beta radiation with the end point energy near 1 MeV, an overestimation of the eye lens dose by up to a factor of 550 is possible.

  19. Robust Manufacturing Control

    2013-01-01

    This contributed volume collects research papers, presented at the CIRP Sponsored Conference Robust Manufacturing Control: Innovative and Interdisciplinary Approaches for Global Networks (RoMaC 2012, Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany, June 18th-20th 2012). These research papers present the latest developments and new ideas focusing on robust manufacturing control for global networks. Today, Global Production Networks (i.e. the nexus of interconnected material and information flows through which products and services are manufactured, assembled and distributed) are confronted with and expected to adapt to: sudden and unpredictable large-scale changes of important parameters which are occurring more and more frequently, event propagation in networks with high degree of interconnectivity which leads to unforeseen fluctuations, and non-equilibrium states which increasingly characterize daily business. These multi-scale changes deeply influence logistic target achievement and call for robust planning and control ...

  20. Robust plasmonic substrates

    Kostiučenko, Oksana; Fiutowski, Jacek; Tamulevicius, Tomas; Tamulevicius, Sigitas; Silbernagl, Dorothee; Sturm, Heinz; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2014-01-01

    Robustness is a key issue for the applications of plasmonic substrates such as tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, surface-enhanced spectroscopies, enhanced optical biosensing, optical and optoelectronic plasmonic nanosensors and others. A novel approach for the fabrication of robust plasmonic...... considered robust plasmonic substrates, nanoindentation and wear resistance experiments as well as ablation experiment were performed. The mechanical properties of the layered substrates are tested via atomic force microscopy, evaluating spatially resolved threshold loads both for plastic deformation and...... breaking. DLC coating with thicknesses between 25 and 105 nm is found to considerably increase the mechanical strength of the substrates while at the same time ensuring conservation of sufficient field enhancements of the gold plasmonic substrates....

  1. Robustness of Spatial Micronetworks

    McAndrew, Thomas C; Bagrow, James P

    2015-01-01

    Power lines, roadways, pipelines and other physical infrastructure are critical to modern society. These structures may be viewed as spatial networks where geographic distances play a role in the functionality and construction cost of links. Traditionally, studies of network robustness have primarily considered the connectedness of large, random networks. Yet for spatial infrastructure physical distances must also play a role in network robustness. Understanding the robustness of small spatial networks is particularly important with the increasing interest in microgrids, small-area distributed power grids that are well suited to using renewable energy resources. We study the random failures of links in small networks where functionality depends on both spatial distance and topological connectedness. By introducing a percolation model where the failure of each link is proportional to its spatial length, we find that, when failures depend on spatial distances, networks are more fragile than expected. Accounting...

  2. Identification of children with reading difficulties: Cheap can be adequate

    Poulsen, Mads; Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber

    Classification of reading difficulties: Cheap screening can be accurate Purpose: Three factors are important for identification of students in need of remedial instruction: accuracy, timeliness, and cost. The identification has to be accurate to be of any use, the identification has to be timely......, inexpensive testing. The present study investigated the classification accuracy of three screening models varying in timeliness and cost. Method: We compared the ROC statistics of three logistic models for predicting end of Grade 2 reading difficulties in a sample of 164 students: 1) an early, comprehensive...... model using a battery of Grade 0 tests, including phoneme awareness, rapid naming, and paired associate learning, 2) a late, comprehensive model adding reading measures from January of Grade 1, and 3) a late, inexpensive model using only group-administered reading measures from January of Grade 1...

  3. Robust Self Tuning Controllers

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    1985-01-01

    The present thesis concerns robustness properties of adaptive controllers. It is addressed to methods for robustifying self tuning controllers with respect to abrupt changes in the plant parameters. In the thesis an algorithm for estimating abruptly changing parameters is presented. The estimator...

  4. Robustness - acceptance criteria

    Rizzuto, Enrico; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kroon, Inger B.

    2010-01-01

    This factsheet describes the general framework on the bases of which acceptance criteria for requirements on the robustness of structures can be set. Such framework is based on the more general concept of risk-based assessment of engineering systems. The present factsheet is to be seen in...

  5. Robustness via Diffractal Architectures

    Moocarme, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    When plane waves diffract through fractal-patterned apertures, the resulting far-field profiles or diffractals also exhibit iterated, self-similar features. Here we show that this specific architecture enables robust signal processing and spatial multiplexing: arbitrary parts of a diffractal contain sufficient information to recreate the entire original sparse signal.

  6. Robustness of Structural Systems

    Canisius, T.D.G.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Baker, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of robustness as a property of structural systems has been recognised following several structural failures, such as that at Ronan Point in 1968,where the consequenceswere deemed unacceptable relative to the initiating damage. A variety of research efforts in the past decades have ...

  7. Robust Adaptive Structural Control

    Yang, Chi-Ming; Beck, James L.

    1995-01-01

    A new robust adaptive structural control design methodology is developed and presented which treats modeling uncertainties and limitations of control devices. Furthermore, no restriction is imposed on the structural models and the nature of the control devices so that the proposed method is very general. A simple linear single degree-of-freedom numerical example is presented to illustrate this approach.

  8. Robustness of spatial micronetworks

    McAndrew, Thomas C.; Danforth, Christopher M.; Bagrow, James P.

    2015-04-01

    Power lines, roadways, pipelines, and other physical infrastructure are critical to modern society. These structures may be viewed as spatial networks where geographic distances play a role in the functionality and construction cost of links. Traditionally, studies of network robustness have primarily considered the connectedness of large, random networks. Yet for spatial infrastructure, physical distances must also play a role in network robustness. Understanding the robustness of small spatial networks is particularly important with the increasing interest in microgrids, i.e., small-area distributed power grids that are well suited to using renewable energy resources. We study the random failures of links in small networks where functionality depends on both spatial distance and topological connectedness. By introducing a percolation model where the failure of each link is proportional to its spatial length, we find that when failures depend on spatial distances, networks are more fragile than expected. Accounting for spatial effects in both construction and robustness is important for designing efficient microgrids and other network infrastructure.

  9. Teaching children with diabetes about adequate dietary choices.

    Maffeis, Claudio; Pinelli, Leonardo

    2008-02-01

    Recent recommendations by the American Diabetes Association suggest that children with type 1 diabetes should follow the recommendations for age, sex and body size of the general population. In the case of being overweight or obese, weight-control strategies should be applied. Adherence to recommendations should be pursued by continuous nutritional education that should start at the onset of diabetes and maintained by means of nutritional counselling to the family. The second main target of nutritional intervention is to encourage a reproducible daily meal plan that can be maintained by acquiring good habits when making nutritional choices. Finally, children and parents should be taught how to count carbohydrates, which would help them manage exceptions in their daily meal plan. Specifically, nutritional recommendations for children with diabetes focus on limiting the intake of foods of animal origin (red meat, cheese, cold cuts), moderating fat intake and promoting the intake of foods that naturally contain fibre (mainly vegetables, legumes, fruit). There are two at-risk periods in the lives of children when nutritional education procedures as well as diabetes care in general are less likely to be effective: early years of life and adolescence. In the case of very young children, new behavioural-based intervention strategies to help parents improve mealtimes could be useful in teaching diabetic children to learn to follow a structured eating schedule, which is desirable for long-lasting efficacy in diabetes care. In adolescents, eating disorders and insulin misuse for weight control purposes are concrete and difficult problems to deal with. A good balance between eating for pleasure and maintaining one's health is a challenge for anyone. Appropriate nutritional education helps children with diabetes to find this balance and enjoy a better quality of life. PMID:18257950

  10. Robust verification analysis

    Rider, William; Witkowski, Walt; Kamm, James R.; Wildey, Tim

    2016-02-01

    We introduce a new methodology for inferring the accuracy of computational simulations through the practice of solution verification. We demonstrate this methodology on examples from computational heat transfer, fluid dynamics and radiation transport. Our methodology is suited to both well- and ill-behaved sequences of simulations. Our approach to the analysis of these sequences of simulations incorporates expert judgment into the process directly via a flexible optimization framework, and the application of robust statistics. The expert judgment is systematically applied as constraints to the analysis, and together with the robust statistics guards against over-emphasis on anomalous analysis results. We have named our methodology Robust Verification. Our methodology is based on utilizing multiple constrained optimization problems to solve the verification model in a manner that varies the analysis' underlying assumptions. Constraints applied in the analysis can include expert judgment regarding convergence rates (bounds and expectations) as well as bounding values for physical quantities (e.g., positivity of energy or density). This approach then produces a number of error models, which are then analyzed through robust statistical techniques (median instead of mean statistics). This provides self-contained, data and expert informed error estimation including uncertainties for both the solution itself and order of convergence. Our method produces high quality results for the well-behaved cases relatively consistent with existing practice. The methodology can also produce reliable results for ill-behaved circumstances predicated on appropriate expert judgment. We demonstrate the method and compare the results with standard approaches used for both code and solution verification on well-behaved and ill-behaved simulations.

  11. Robust Learning Equilibrium

    Ashlagi, Itai; Monderer, Dov; Tennenholtz, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    We introduce robust learning equilibrium. The idea of learning equilibrium is that learning algorithms in multi-agent systems should themselves be in equilibrium rather than only lead to equilibrium. That is, learning equilibrium is immune to strategic deviations: Every agent is better off using its prescribed learning algorithm, if all other agents follow their algorithms, regardless of the unknown state of the environment. However, a learning equilibrium may not be immune to non strategic m...

  12. Robustness of Interdependent Networks

    Havlin, Shlomo

    2011-03-01

    In interdependent networks, when nodes in one network fail, they cause dependent nodes in other networks to also fail. This may happen recursively and can lead to a cascade of failures. In fact, a failure of a very small fraction of nodes in one network may lead to the complete fragmentation of a system of many interdependent networks. We will present a framework for understanding the robustness of interacting networks subject to such cascading failures and provide a basic analytic approach that may be useful in future studies. We present exact analytical solutions for the critical fraction of nodes that upon removal will lead to a failure cascade and to a complete fragmentation of two interdependent networks in a first order transition. Surprisingly, analyzing complex systems as a set of interdependent networks may alter a basic assumption that network theory has relied on: while for a single network a broader degree distribution of the network nodes results in the network being more robust to random failures, for interdependent networks, the broader the distribution is, the more vulnerable the networks become to random failure. We also show that reducing the coupling between the networks leads to a change from a first order percolation phase transition to a second order percolation transition at a critical point. These findings pose a significant challenge to the future design of robust networks that need to consider the unique properties of interdependent networks.

  13. Robustness of metabolic networks

    Jeong, Hawoong

    2009-03-01

    We investigated the robustness of cellular metabolism by simulating the system-level computational models, and also performed the corresponding experiments to validate our predictions. We address the cellular robustness from the ``metabolite''-framework by using the novel concept of ``flux-sum,'' which is the sum of all incoming or outgoing fluxes (they are the same under the pseudo-steady state assumption). By estimating the changes of the flux-sum under various genetic and environmental perturbations, we were able to clearly decipher the metabolic robustness; the flux-sum around an essential metabolite does not change much under various perturbations. We also identified the list of the metabolites essential to cell survival, and then ``acclimator'' metabolites that can control the cell growth were discovered. Furthermore, this concept of ``metabolite essentiality'' should be useful in developing new metabolic engineering strategies for improved production of various bioproducts and designing new drugs that can fight against multi-antibiotic resistant superbacteria by knocking-down the enzyme activities around an essential metabolite. Finally, we combined a regulatory network with the metabolic network to investigate its effect on dynamic properties of cellular metabolism.

  14. The Crane Robust Control

    Marek Hicar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is about a control design for complete structure of the crane: crab, bridge and crane uplift.The most important unknown parameters for simulations are burden weight and length of hanging rope. We will use robustcontrol for crab and bridge control to ensure adaptivity for burden weight and rope length. Robust control will be designed for current control of the crab and bridge, necessary is to know the range of unknown parameters. Whole robust will be splitto subintervals and after correct identification of unknown parameters the most suitable robust controllers will be chosen.The most important condition at the crab and bridge motion is avoiding from burden swinging in the final position. Crab and bridge drive is designed by asynchronous motor fed from frequency converter. We will use crane uplift with burden weightobserver in combination for uplift, crab and bridge drive with cooperation of their parameters: burden weight, rope length and crab and bridge position. Controllers are designed by state control method. We will use preferably a disturbance observerwhich will identify burden weight as a disturbance. The system will be working in both modes at empty hook as well asat maximum load: burden uplifting and dropping down.

  15. The robust australopithecine face: a morphogenetic perspective.

    McCollum, M A

    1999-04-01

    The robust australopithecines were a side branch of human evolution. They share a number of unique craniodental features that suggest their monophyletic origin. However, virtually all of these traits appear to reflect a singular pattern of nasomaxillary modeling derived from their unusual dental proportions. Therefore, recent cladistic analyses have not resolved the phylogenetic history of these early hominids. Efforts to increase cladistic resolution by defining traits at greater levels of anatomical detail have instead introduced substantial phyletic error. PMID:10195892

  16. Robustness Analyses of Timber Structures

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Hald, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    The robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest arising from a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. In order to minimise the likelihood of such disproportionate structural failures, many...... modern building codes consider the need for the robustness of structures and provide strategies and methods to obtain robustness. Therefore, a structural engineer may take necessary steps to design robust structures that are insensitive to accidental circumstances. The present paper summaries issues with...... respect to robustness of timber structures and will discuss the consequences of such robustness issues related to the future development of timber structures....

  17. Robust vertex fitters

    While linear estimators are optimal when the model is linear and all random noise is Gaussian, they are very sensitive to outlying tracks. Non-linear vertex reconstruction algorithms offer a higher degree of robustness against such outliers. Two of the algorithms presented, the Adaptive filter and the Trimmed Kalman Filter are able to down-weight or discard these outlying tracks, while a third, the Gaussian-sum filter, offers a better treatment of non-Gaussian distributions of track parameter errors when these are modelled by Gaussian mixtures

  18. Robust quantum spatial search

    Tulsi, Avatar

    2016-07-01

    Quantum spatial search has been widely studied with most of the study focusing on quantum walk algorithms. We show that quantum walk algorithms are extremely sensitive to systematic errors. We present a recursive algorithm which offers significant robustness to certain systematic errors. To search N items, our recursive algorithm can tolerate errors of size O(1{/}√{ln N}) which is exponentially better than quantum walk algorithms for which tolerable error size is only O(ln N{/}√{N}). Also, our algorithm does not need any ancilla qubit. Thus our algorithm is much easier to implement experimentally compared to quantum walk algorithms.

  19. Robust Kriged Kalman Filtering

    Baingana, Brian; Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Mateos, Gonzalo; Giannakis, Georgios B.

    2015-11-11

    Although the kriged Kalman filter (KKF) has well-documented merits for prediction of spatial-temporal processes, its performance degrades in the presence of outliers due to anomalous events, or measurement equipment failures. This paper proposes a robust KKF model that explicitly accounts for presence of measurement outliers. Exploiting outlier sparsity, a novel l1-regularized estimator that jointly predicts the spatial-temporal process at unmonitored locations, while identifying measurement outliers is put forth. Numerical tests are conducted on a synthetic Internet protocol (IP) network, and real transformer load data. Test results corroborate the effectiveness of the novel estimator in joint spatial prediction and outlier identification.

  20. Robustness of Liesegang patterns

    We propose a conceptual analysis of stationary reaction–diffusion patterns with geometric spatial scaling laws as observed in Liesegang patterns. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for such patterns to occur in a robust fashion. The main ingredients are a skew-product structure in the kinetics, caused by irreversible chemical reactions, the existence of localized spikes and slowly decaying boundary layers. The proofs invoke the analysis of homoclinic orbits in orbit-flip position for spatial dynamics. In particular, we show that there exists a manifold of initial conditions that do not converge to the equilibrium but to the homoclinic orbit as a set

  1. Robust control for uncertain structures

    Douglas, Joel; Athans, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on robust control for uncertain structures are presented. Topics covered include: robust linear quadratic regulator (RLQR) formulas; mismatched LQR design; RLQR design; interpretations of RLQR design; disturbance rejection; and performance comparisons: RLQR vs. mismatched LQR.

  2. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for...

  3. Gaussian Robust Classification

    Ginodi, Ido

    2011-01-01

    Supervised learning is all about the ability to generalize knowledge. Specifically, the goal of the learning is to train a classifier using training data, in such a way that it will be capable of classifying new unseen data correctly. In order to acheive this goal, it is important to carefully design the learner, so it will not overfit the training data. The later can is done usually by adding a regularization term. The statistical learning theory explains the success of this method by claiming that it restricts the complexity of the learned model. This explanation, however, is rather abstract and does not have a geometric intuition. The generalization error of a classifier may be thought of as correlated with its robustness to perturbations of the data: a classifier that copes with disturbance is expected to generalize well. Indeed, Xu et al. [2009] have shown that the SVM formulation is equivalent to a robust optimization (RO) formulation, in which an adversary displaces the training and testing points with...

  4. International Conference on Robust Statistics

    Filzmoser, Peter; Gather, Ursula; Rousseeuw, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Aspects of Robust Statistics are important in many areas. Based on the International Conference on Robust Statistics 2001 (ICORS 2001) in Vorau, Austria, this volume discusses future directions of the discipline, bringing together leading scientists, experienced researchers and practitioners, as well as younger researchers. The papers cover a multitude of different aspects of Robust Statistics. For instance, the fundamental problem of data summary (weights of evidence) is considered and its robustness properties are studied. Further theoretical subjects include e.g.: robust methods for skewness, time series, longitudinal data, multivariate methods, and tests. Some papers deal with computational aspects and algorithms. Finally, the aspects of application and programming tools complete the volume.

  5. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  6. Passion, Robustness and Perseverance

    Lim, Miguel Antonio; Lund, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    pleasure achieve an exalted status as something compulsory. The scholar ought to feel passionate about her work and signal that she takes pleasure also in the difficult moments. Passion has become a signal of robustness and perseverance in a job market characterised by funding shortages, increased pressure...... to produce measurable output, and precariousness. For young academics in particular it is increasingly important to demonstrate the “right attitude”, “feelings”, and “personality traits” because they have yet to accumulate a record of past achievements that are used as the basis of merit. In hiring...... our support, we question and propose what counts as valuable and what counts as worthwhile feeling passionate about. Academics, we suggest, are increasingly unable to ’blame’ institutional pressures when engaging with standardized measures, but must argue that their engagement springs from their own...

  7. A Robust Potato Model

    Haverkort, A.J.; Franke, A.C.; Steyn, J.M.; Pronk, A.A.; Caldiz, D.O.; Kooman, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    In 1994, LINTUL-POTATO was published, a comprehensive model of potato development and growth. The mechanistic model simulated early crop processes (emergence and leaf expansion) and light interception until extinction, through leaf layers. Photosynthesis and respiration in a previous crop growth model—SUCROS—were substituted by a temperature-dependent light use efficiency. Leaf senescence at initial crop stages was simulated by allowing a longevity per daily leaf class formed, and crop senesc...

  8. Robust underwater visibility parameter.

    Zaneveld, J Ronald; Pegau, W

    2003-11-17

    We review theoretical models to show that contrast reduction at a specific wavelength in the horizontal direction depends directly on the beam attenuation coefficient at that wavelength. If a black target is used, the inherent contrast is always negative unity, so that the visibility of a black target in the horizontal direction depends on a single parameter only. That is not the case for any other target or viewing arrangement. We thus propose the horizontal visibility of a black target to be the standard for underwater visibility. We show that the appropriate attenuation coefficient can readily be measured with existing simple instrumentation. Diver visibility depends on the photopic beam attenuation coefficient, which is the attenuation of the natural light spectrum convolved with the spectral responsivity of the human eye (photopic response function). In practice, it is more common to measure the beam attenuation coefficient at one or more wavelength bands. We show that the relationship: visibility is equal to 4.8 divided by the photopic beam attenuation coefficient; originally derived by Davies-Colley [1], is accurate with an average error of less than 10% in a wide variety of coastal and inland waters and for a wide variety of viewing conditions. We also show that the beam attenuation coefficient measured at 532 nm, or attenuation measured by a WET Labs commercial 20 nm FWHM transmissometer with a peak at 528nm are adequate substitutes for the photopic beam attenuation coefficient, with minor adjustments. PMID:19471421

  9. Early Retirement in Portugal

    Albuquerque, Paula; Arcanjo, Manuela; Escária, Vítor

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the early retirement decisions made by Portuguese workers aged 50 to 64. It investigates the main characteristics of early retirees, and the main determinants of their decision, based on the eight waves of the European Community Household Panel for Portugal, from 1994 to 2001. Several definitions of early retirement are considered in order to take into account the different pathways to retirement that workers may follow. Some results are robust to different methodologie...

  10. Robust correlation tracker

    M Sankar Kishore; K Veerabhadra Rao

    2001-06-01

    Correlation tracking plays an important role in the automation of weapon systems. Area correlation is an effective technique for tracking targets that have neither prominent features nor high contrast with the background and the ‘target’ can even be an area or a scene of interest. Even though this technique is robust under varying conditions of target background and light conditions, it has some problems like target drift and false registration. When the tracker or target is moving, the registration point drifts due to the discrete pixel size and aspect angle change. In this research work, an attempt has been made to improve the performance of a correlation tracker for tracking ground targets with very poor contrast. In the present work only the CCD visible images with very poor target to background contrast are considered. Applying novel linear and nonlinear filters, the problems present in the correlation tracker are overcome. Confidence and redundancy measures have been proposed to improve the performance by detecting misregistration. The proposed algorithm is tested on different sequences of images and its performance is satisfactory.

  11. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    ... Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease and ... Examination Survey. Age Group Percentage of People with High Blood Pressure that is Controlled by Age Group f94q-uyye ...

  12. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  13. 75 FR 69648 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    2010-11-15

    ... SAFETY BOARD Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers... TO THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the... rule is designed to hold firmly in place. 10 CFR Part 830 imposes a requirement that a...

  14. Robustness Analysis of Kinetic Structures

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    The present paper considers robustness of kinetic structures. Robustness of structures has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. Especially for these types of structural syst...

  15. A Robust Design Applicability Model

    Ebro, Martin; Lars, Krogstie; Howard, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a model for assessing the applicability of Robust Design (RD) in a project or organisation. The intention of the Robust Design Applicability Model (RDAM) is to provide support for decisions by engineering management considering the relevant level of RD activities. The...

  16. Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure.......Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure....

  17. Robust, Optimal Subsonic Airfoil Shapes

    Rai, Man Mohan

    2014-01-01

    A method has been developed to create an airfoil robust enough to operate satisfactorily in different environments. This method determines a robust, optimal, subsonic airfoil shape, beginning with an arbitrary initial airfoil shape, and imposes the necessary constraints on the design. Also, this method is flexible and extendible to a larger class of requirements and changes in constraints imposed.

  18. Minimax Robust Quickest Change Detection

    Unnikrishnan, Jayakrishnan; Meyn, Sean

    2009-01-01

    The two popular criteria of optimality for quickest change detection procedures are Lorden's criterion and the Bayesian criterion. In this paper a robust version of these quickest change detection problems is considered when the pre-change and post-change distributions are not known exactly but belong to known uncertainty classes of distributions. For uncertainty classes that satisfy a specific condition, it is shown that one can identify least favorable distributions (LFDs) from the uncertainty classes, such that the detection rule designed for the LFDs is optimal for the robust problem in a minimax sense. The condition is similar to that required for the identification of LFDs for the robust hypothesis testing problem studied by Huber. An upper bound on the delay incurred by the robust test is also obtained in the asymptotic setting under Lorden's criterion of optimality, which quantifies the delay penalty incurred to guarantee robustness. When the LFDs can be identified, the proposed test is easier to impl...

  19. Robust statistical methods with R

    Jureckova, Jana

    2005-01-01

    Robust statistical methods were developed to supplement the classical procedures when the data violate classical assumptions. They are ideally suited to applied research across a broad spectrum of study, yet most books on the subject are narrowly focused, overly theoretical, or simply outdated. Robust Statistical Methods with R provides a systematic treatment of robust procedures with an emphasis on practical application.The authors work from underlying mathematical tools to implementation, paying special attention to the computational aspects. They cover the whole range of robust methods, including differentiable statistical functions, distance of measures, influence functions, and asymptotic distributions, in a rigorous yet approachable manner. Highlighting hands-on problem solving, many examples and computational algorithms using the R software supplement the discussion. The book examines the characteristics of robustness, estimators of real parameter, large sample properties, and goodness-of-fit tests. It...

  20. Robustness Metrics: Consolidating the multiple approaches to quantify Robustness

    Göhler, Simon Moritz; Eifler, Tobias; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    The robustness of a design has a major influence on how much the product's performance will vary and is of great concern to design, quality and production engineers. While variability is always central to the definition of robustness, the concept does contain ambiguity and although subtle......, this ambiguity can have significant influence on the strategies used to combat variability, the way it is quantified and ultimately, the quality of the final design. In this contribution the literature for robustness metrics was systematically reviewed. From the 108 relevant publications found, 38 metrics were...

  1. RSRE: RNA structural robustness evaluator.

    Shu, Wenjie; Bo, Xiaochen; Zheng, Zhiqiang; Wang, Shengqi

    2007-07-01

    Biological robustness, defined as the ability to maintain stable functioning in the face of various perturbations, is an important and fundamental topic in current biology, and has become a focus of numerous studies in recent years. Although structural robustness has been explored in several types of RNA molecules, the origins of robustness are still controversial. Computational analysis results are needed to make up for the lack of evidence of robustness in natural biological systems. The RNA structural robustness evaluator (RSRE) web server presented here provides a freely available online tool to quantitatively evaluate the structural robustness of RNA based on the widely accepted definition of neutrality. Several classical structure comparison methods are employed; five randomization methods are implemented to generate control sequences; sub-optimal predicted structures can be optionally utilized to mitigate the uncertainty of secondary structure prediction. With a user-friendly interface, the web application is easy to use. Intuitive illustrations are provided along with the original computational results to facilitate analysis. The RSRE will be helpful in the wide exploration of RNA structural robustness and will catalyze our understanding of RNA evolution. The RSRE web server is freely available at http://biosrv1.bmi.ac.cn/RSRE/ or http://biotech.bmi.ac.cn/RSRE/. PMID:17567615

  2. Robust Rudder Roll Damping Control

    Yang, C.

    uncertainty, three controllers with different kind of control schemes are designed by the mixed sensitivity method in Chapter 5. Sea-way simulation results show that each of these controllers have good robust stability and performance. The roll damping reduction is above 35% for all of these controllers. Roll...... reduction of near 70% has been obtained by the cascade controller. Using structured model of uncertainty, a m controller is designed in Chapter 6. The good robust performance has been recognized in the simulation results. It is shown that the m controller has the best robust characteristics with respect to...

  3. Theoretical Framework for Robustness Evaluation

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical framework for evaluation of robustness of structural systems, incl. bridges and buildings. Typically modern structural design codes require that ‘the consequence of damages to structures should not be disproportional to the causes of the damages’. However, although...... the importance of robustness for structural design is widely recognized the code requirements are not specified in detail, which makes the practical use difficult. This paper describes a theoretical and risk based framework to form the basis for quantification of robustness and for pre...

  4. Robustness of airline route networks

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  5. Robust chaos and its applications

    Zeraoulia, Elhadj

    2011-01-01

    Robust chaos is defined by the absence of periodic windows and coexisting attractors in some neighborhoods in the parameter space of a dynamical system. This unique book explores the definition, sources, and roles of robust chaos. The book is written in a reasonably self-contained manner and aims to provide students and researchers with the necessary understanding of the subject. Most of the known results, experiments, and conjectures about chaos in general and about robust chaos in particular are collected here in a pedagogical form. Many examples of dynamical systems, ranging from purely mat

  6. A more robust boosting algorithm

    Freund, Yoav

    2009-01-01

    We present a new boosting algorithm, motivated by the large margins theory for boosting. We give experimental evidence that the new algorithm is significantly more robust against label noise than existing boosting algorithm.

  7. Dosimetry robustness with stochastic optimization

    Nohadani, Omid; Seco, Joao; Martin, Benjamin C.; Bortfeld, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    All radiation therapy treatment planning relies on accurate dose calculation. Uncertainties in dosimetric prediction can significantly degrade an otherwise optimal plan. In this work, we introduce a robust optimization method which handles dosimetric errors and warrants for high-quality IMRT plans. Unlike other dose error estimations, we do not rely on the detailed knowledge about the sources of the uncertainty and use a generic error model based on random perturbation. This generality is sought in order to cope with a large variety of error sources. We demonstrate the method on a clinical case of lung cancer and show that our method provides plans that are more robust against dosimetric errors and are clinically acceptable. In fact, the robust plan exhibits a two-fold improved equivalent uniform dose compared to the non-robust but optimized plan. The achieved speedup will allow computationally extensive multi-criteria or beam-angle optimization approaches to warrant for dosimetrically relevant plans.

  8. System Identification and Robust Control

    Tøffner-Clausen, S.

    uncertainty structures permitted by m is definitely much more flexible than those used in H inifity. Unfortunately m synthesis is a very difficult mathematical problem which is only well developed for purely complex perturbation sets. In order to develop our main result we will unfortunately need to...... these uncertainty ellipses may be represented or, more correct, approximated with a mixed complex and real perturbation set. This is the link needed to combine the results in robust control and system identification into a step-by-step design philosophy for synthesis of robust control systems for scalar......The main purpose of this work is to develop a coherent system identification based robust control design methodology by combining recent results from system identification and robust control. In order to accomplish this task new theoretical results will be given in both fields. Firstly, however, an...

  9. Multifidelity Robust Aeroelastic Design Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nielsen Engineering & Research (NEAR) proposes a new method to generate mathematical models of wind-tunnel models and flight vehicles for robust aeroelastic...

  10. Shaping Robust System through Evolution

    Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2008-01-01

    Biological functions are generated as a result of developmental dynamics that form phenotypes governed by genotypes. The dynamical system for development is shaped through genetic evolution following natural selection based on the fitness of the phenotype. Here we study how this dynamical system is robust to noise during development and to genetic change by mutation. We adopt a simplified transcription regulation network model to govern gene expression, which gives a fitness function. Through simulations of the network that undergoes mutation and selection, we show that a certain level of noise in gene expression is required for the network to acquire both types of robustness. The results reveal how the noise that cells encounter during development shapes any network's robustness, not only to noise but also to mutations. We also establish a relationship between developmental and mutational robustness through phenotypic variances caused by genetic variation and epigenetic noise. A universal relationship betwee...

  11. Sustainable Resilient, Robust & Resplendent Enterprises

    Edgeman, Rick

    Although organizational resilience and robustness may be cast in many lights, their core constructs are simply represented. Resplendence is, however, a less well-defined and perhaps more transient enterprise condition that is complementary to, but relatively distinct from resilience and robustness....... Resilience may be regarded as enterprise ability to recover or rebound from negative shocks or extreme challenges to its ecosystem (Contu, 2002). Robustness, in contrast to resilience, is not so much enterprise ability to recover from shocks or challenges to its ecosystem, but rather resistance or immunity...... performance. Herein resilience, robustness, and resplendence (R3) are integrated with sustainable enterprise excellence (Edgeman and Eskildsen, 2013) or SEE and social-ecological innovation (Eskildsen and Edgeman, 2012) to aid progress of a firm toward producing continuously relevant performance that proceed...

  12. Auditory information processing during adequate propofol anesthesia monitored by electroencephalogram bispectral index

    C. Kerssens (Chantal); J. Klein (Jan); A. van der Woerd; B. Bonke (Benno)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMemory for intraoperative events may arise from inadequate anesthesia when the hypnotic state is not continuously monitored. Electroencephalogram bispectral index (BIS) enables monitoring of the hypnotic state and titration of anesthesia to an adequate level

  13. Robust regression in computer vision

    Meer, Peter; Mintz, Doron

    1991-02-01

    We describe the least median of squares (LMedS) robust estimator which identifies the surface corresponding to the absolute majority of the data points. However when all the data points are corrupted by noise LMedS may fail. This is the case in computer vision applications and we have developed a new approach which preserves the robustness of LMedS but avoids its artifacts in the presence of noise.

  14. A Robust Enough Virtue Epistemology

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    What is the nature of knowledge? A popular answer to that long-standing question comes from robust virtue epistemology, whose key idea is that knowing is just a matter of succeeding cognitively—i.e., coming to believe a proposition truly—due to an exercise of cognitive ability. Versions of robust...... epistemological account of knowledge based on a different understanding of the nature and structure of the kind of abilities that give rise to knowledge....

  15. Robust methods for data reduction

    Farcomeni, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Robust Methods for Data Reduction gives a non-technical overview of robust data reduction techniques, encouraging the use of these important and useful methods in practical applications. The main areas covered include principal components analysis, sparse principal component analysis, canonical correlation analysis, factor analysis, clustering, double clustering, and discriminant analysis.The first part of the book illustrates how dimension reduction techniques synthesize available information by reducing the dimensionality of the data. The second part focuses on cluster and discriminant analy

  16. Distributed Cooperation for Robust Estimation /

    Ouimet, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation contains work in novel algorithms which ensure robust estimation of physical phenomena. In the context of cooperative control of multi-agent networks, robustness refers to the fact that, despite the possibility of individual agent failures and the presence of noisy measurements, we wish to be able to characterize the network's performance at solving a given task (estimation). The contributions come from two problems of spatial estimation. The first problem's motivation comes...

  17. Current strategies for the restoration of adequate lordosis during lumbar fusion

    Barrey, Cédric; Darnis, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Not restoring the adequate lumbar lordosis during lumbar fusion surgery may result in mechanical low back pain, sagittal unbalance and adjacent segment degeneration. The objective of this work is to describe the current strategies and concepts for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. Theoretical lordosis can be evaluated from the measurement of the pelvic incidence and from the analysis of spatial organization of the lumbar spine with 2/3 of the lordosis given by the L4-S1 ...

  18. Almost equal: Method of adequality from Diophantus to Fermat and beyond

    Katz, Mikhail G.; Schaps, David M.; Shnider, Steven

    2012-01-01

    We analyze some of the main approaches in the literature to the method of `adequality' with which Fermat approached the problems of the calculus, as well as its source in the parisotes of Diophantus, and propose a novel reading thereof. Adequality is a crucial step in Fermat's method of finding maxima, minima, tangents, and solving other problems that a modern mathematician would solve using infinitesimal calculus. The method is presented in a series of short articles in Fermat's collected wo...

  19. Delivering Access to Safe Drinking Water and Adequate Sanitation in Pakistan

    Faheem Jehangir Khan; Yaser Javed

    2007-01-01

    Provision of safe drinking water, adequate sanitation and personal hygiene are vital for the sustainable environmental conditions and reducing the incidence of diarrhoea, malaria, trachoma, hepatitis A & B and morbidity levels. Not having access to water and sanitation is a courteous expression for a form of deprivation that threatens life, destroys opportunity and undermines human dignity. Thus, investing in the provision of safe water supply and adequate sanitation is not only a development...

  20. Narita Target Heart Rate Equation Underestimates the Predicted Adequate Exercise Level in Sedentary Young Boys

    Siahkouhian, Marefat; Khodadadi, Davar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Optimal training intensity and the adequate exercise level for physical fitness is one of the most important interests of coaches and sports physiologists. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of the Narita et al target heart rate equation for the adequate exercise training level in sedentary young boys. Methods Forty two sedentary young boys (19.07±1.16 years) undertook a blood lactate transition threshold maximal treadmill test to volitional exhaustion with continuo...

  1. Robust Reliability or reliable robustness? - Integrated consideration of robustness and reliability aspects

    Kemmler, S.; Eifler, Tobias; Bertsche, B.; Howard, Thomas J.

    Commonly, the terms reliability and robustness are used to describe products and processes, which are in accordance with the customer requirements and fulfil high quality expectations. However, significant differences between the underlying definitions raise the questions how reliable robust...... products are and vice versa. For a comprehensive understanding and to use existing synergies between both domains, this paper discusses the basic principles of Reliability- and Robust Design theory. The development of a comprehensive model will enable an integrated consideration of both domains in the...

  2. How robust is a robust policy? A comparative analysis of alternative robustness metrics for supporting robust decision analysis.

    Kwakkel, Jan; Haasnoot, Marjolijn

    2015-04-01

    In response to climate and socio-economic change, in various policy domains there is increasingly a call for robust plans or policies. That is, plans or policies that performs well in a very large range of plausible futures. In the literature, a wide range of alternative robustness metrics can be found. The relative merit of these alternative conceptualizations of robustness has, however, received less attention. Evidently, different robustness metrics can result in different plans or policies being adopted. This paper investigates the consequences of several robustness metrics on decision making, illustrated here by the design of a flood risk management plan. A fictitious case, inspired by a river reach in the Netherlands is used. The performance of this system in terms of casualties, damages, and costs for flood and damage mitigation actions is explored using a time horizon of 100 years, and accounting for uncertainties pertaining to climate change and land use change. A set of candidate policy options is specified up front. This set of options includes dike raising, dike strengthening, creating more space for the river, and flood proof building and evacuation options. The overarching aim is to design an effective flood risk mitigation strategy that is designed from the outset to be adapted over time in response to how the future actually unfolds. To this end, the plan will be based on the dynamic adaptive policy pathway approach (Haasnoot, Kwakkel et al. 2013) being used in the Dutch Delta Program. The policy problem is formulated as a multi-objective robust optimization problem (Kwakkel, Haasnoot et al. 2014). We solve the multi-objective robust optimization problem using several alternative robustness metrics, including both satisficing robustness metrics and regret based robustness metrics. Satisficing robustness metrics focus on the performance of candidate plans across a large ensemble of plausible futures. Regret based robustness metrics compare the

  3. Prebiotic supplementation and adequate calcium intake have beneficial effects on body mass index changes during early adolescence

    Prebiotics have been shown to enhance bone and gastrointestinal health. Recent data suggest a benefit to weight maintenance as well. However, few data are available in children or adolescents. The interactive effects of prebiotic intake and calcium intake on weight maintenance are unknown. Our objec...

  4. Robust Schur Stability and Robust H^2 Performance

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Zhao, K.-Y.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we address the problems of robust stability androbust QTR H^2 performance for uncertain discrete time systemswith nonlinear parametric uncertainties. We consider two families ofsystems with parametric uncertainties described by state space modelswhich offer a fairly general represen......In this paper we address the problems of robust stability androbust QTR H^2 performance for uncertain discrete time systemswith nonlinear parametric uncertainties. We consider two families ofsystems with parametric uncertainties described by state space modelswhich offer a fairly general...... representation of most uncertain systemswith one or two parameters (the approach can be extended to more parameters).For these two families we obtain explicit expressions for the Schurstability radius and for the QTR H^2 robust performance radiusin the case of uncertainties with a single parameter. Moreover, we...... providea line search algorithm for the these two problems in case of two parameters.Both for the robust stability and the robust performance probelm, explicitnecessary and sufficient conditions are derived. An illustrative exampledemonstrates the algorithms....

  5. Poor neurological sequelae of herpes simplex virus encephalitis in an infant despite adequate antiviral and adjunct corticosteroid therapy

    Ratna B Basak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-month-old infant presented to our emergency department with fever, altered consciousness, and focal seizures of acute onset. He had vesicular skin lesions over the right preauricular region. CT brain showed a large hypodense lesion involving the left temporo-parietal region, left basal ganglia and left thalamus. MRI brain revealed bilateral multifocal corticomedullary lesions suggestive of encephalitis. CSF-PCR was positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV type I. He was treated with standard dose intravenous acyclovir for 15 days along with a trial of pulse methylprednisolone, but was readmitted within a week with features of an early relapse. The infant survived but developed significant neurological sequelae. Although treatment of HSV is available, the neurological outcome is guarded even with adequate antiviral therapy. Adjunct corticosteroid therapy did not appear to attenuate the neurological sequelae.

  6. From the Right of Adequate Housing to the Social Right of Adequate Housing%住宅自由权到住宅社会权之流变

    张震

    2015-01-01

    满足公民基本居住需要的住宅权是一项基本权利。面对因住宅价格和质量标准而制约公民住宅权实现的社会现实,有必要在理论上进行检视并提供解决思路。在自由权和社会权划分的理论基础上,我国《宪法》第39条规定的“住宅不受侵犯”具有社会权色彩。而且从权利社会基础和宪法解释功能的双重视角看,住宅社会权在实践中应被侧重。住宅社会权的权利功能以积极受益权为主,消极受益权为次,以国家给付义务的存在为前提。在此基础上,形成对国家权力的规范效力,并具特定内涵。%The right of adequate housing that satisfies the citizens’ basic living needs is a basic right. By the theory of division of freedom and social right, the 39th provision of our Constitution which provides that“the right of adequate housing is free from infringement”is immersed with color of social right. And from the duel perspective of the rights’social basis and the function of Constitu⁃tional interpretation, the social right of adequate housing should be emphasized in practice. The func⁃tion of social right of adequate housing is firstly the positive benefit right, and secondly the negative benefit right, in the premise of the existence of the national duty. On this basis, it forms the regula⁃tory effectiveness to the national power, and contains specific connotation.

  7. Onion structure and network robustness

    Wu, Zhi-Xi; 10.1103/PhysRevE.84.026106

    2011-01-01

    In a recent work [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 3838 (2011)], Schneider et al. proposed a new measure for network robustness and investigated optimal networks with respect to this quantity. For networks with a power-law degree distribution, the optimized networks have an onion structure-high-degree vertices forming a core with radially decreasing degrees and an over-representation of edges within the same radial layer. In this paper we relate the onion structure to graphs with good expander properties (another characterization of robust network) and argue that networks of skewed degree distributions with large spectral gaps (and thus good expander properties) are typically onion structured. Furthermore, we propose a generative algorithm producing synthetic scale-free networks with onion structure, circumventing the optimization procedure of Schneider et al. We validate the robustness of our generated networks against malicious attacks and random removals.

  8. Smart Rewiring for Network Robustness

    Louzada, V H P; Herrmann, H J; Tomassini, M

    2013-01-01

    While new forms of attacks are developed every day to compromise essential infrastructures, service providers are also expected to develop strategies to mitigate the risk of extreme failures. In this context, tools of Network Science have been used to evaluate network robustness and propose resilient topologies against attacks. We present here a new rewiring method to modify the network topology improving its robustness, based on the evolution of the network largest component during a sequence of targeted attacks. In comparison to previous strategies, our method lowers by several orders of magnitude the computational effort necessary to improve robustness. Our rewiring also drives the formation of layers of nodes with similar degree while keeping a highly modular structure. This "modular onion-like structure" is a particular class of the onion-like structure previously described in the literature. We apply our rewiring strategy to an unweighted representation of the World Air Transportation network and show t...

  9. Robustness of digital artist authentication

    Jacobsen, Robert; Nielsen, Morten

    In many cases it is possible to determine the authenticity of a painting from digital reproductions of the paintings; this has been demonstrated for a variety of artists and with different approaches. Common to all these methods in digital artist authentication is that the potential of the method...... is in focus, while the robustness has not been considered, i.e. the degree to which the data collection process influences the decision of the method. However, in order for an authentication method to be successful in practice, it needs to be robust to plausible error sources from the data collection....... In this paper we investigate the robustness of the newly proposed authenticity method introduced by the authors based on second generation multiresolution analysis. This is done by modelling a number of realistic factors that can occur in the data collection....

  10. Robust estimation and hypothesis testing

    Tiku, Moti L

    2004-01-01

    In statistical theory and practice, a certain distribution is usually assumed and then optimal solutions sought. Since deviations from an assumed distribution are very common, one cannot feel comfortable with assuming a particular distribution and believing it to be exactly correct. That brings the robustness issue in focus. In this book, we have given statistical procedures which are robust to plausible deviations from an assumed mode. The method of modified maximum likelihood estimation is used in formulating these procedures. The modified maximum likelihood estimators are explicit functions of sample observations and are easy to compute. They are asymptotically fully efficient and are as efficient as the maximum likelihood estimators for small sample sizes. The maximum likelihood estimators have computational problems and are, therefore, elusive. A broad range of topics are covered in this book. Solutions are given which are easy to implement and are efficient. The solutions are also robust to data anomali...

  11. Attractive ellipsoids in robust control

    Poznyak, Alexander; Azhmyakov, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    This monograph introduces a newly developed robust-control design technique for a wide class of continuous-time dynamical systems called the “attractive ellipsoid method.” Along with a coherent introduction to the proposed control design and related topics, the monograph studies nonlinear affine control systems in the presence of uncertainty and presents a constructive and easily implementable control strategy that guarantees certain stability properties. The authors discuss linear-style feedback control synthesis in the context of the above-mentioned systems. The development and physical implementation of high-performance robust-feedback controllers that work in the absence of complete information is addressed, with numerous examples to illustrate how to apply the attractive ellipsoid method to mechanical and electromechanical systems. While theorems are proved systematically, the emphasis is on understanding and applying the theory to real-world situations. Attractive Ellipsoids in Robust Control will a...

  12. Robust Disaster Recovery System Model

    2006-01-01

    Highly security-critical system should possess features of continuous service. We present a new Robust Disaster Recovery System Model (RDRSM). Through strengthening the ability of safe communications, RDRSM guarantees the secure and reliable command on disaster recovery. Its self-supervision capability can monitor the integrality and security of disaster recovery system itself. By 2D and 3D real-time visible platform provided by GIS, GPS and RS, the model makes the using, management and maintenance of disaster recovery system easier. RDRSM possesses predominant features of security, robustness and controllability. And it can be applied to highly security-critical environments such as E-government and bank. Conducted by RDRSM, an important E-government disaster recovery system has been constructed successfully. The feasibility of this model is verified by practice. We especially emphasize the significance of some components of the model, such as risk assessment, disaster recovery planning, system supervision and robust communication support.

  13. Robust coarticulatory modeling for continuous speech recognition

    Schwartz, R.; Chow, Y. L.; Dunham, M. O.; Kimball, O.; Krasner, M.; Kubala, F.; Makhoul, J.; Price, P.; Roucos, S.

    1986-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to perform research into algorithms for the automatic recognition of individual sounds or phonemes in continuous speech. The algorithms developed should be appropriate for understanding large-vocabulary continuous speech input and are to be made available to the Strategic Computing Program for incorporation in a complete word recognition system. This report describes process to date in developing phonetic models that are appropriate for continuous speech recognition. In continuous speech, the acoustic realization of each phoneme depends heavily on the preceding and following phonemes: a process known as coarticulation. Thus, while there are relatively few phonemes in English (on the order of fifty or so), the number of possible different accoustic realizations is in the thousands. Therefore, to develop high-accuracy recognition algorithms, one may need to develop literally thousands of relatively distance phonetic models to represent the various phonetic context adequately. Developing a large number of models usually necessitates having a large amount of speech to provide reliable estimates of the model parameters. The major contributions of this work are the development of: (1) A simple but powerful formalism for modeling phonemes in context; (2) Robust training methods for the reliable estimation of model parameters by utilizing the available speech training data in a maximally effective way; and (3) Efficient search strategies for phonetic recognition while maintaining high recognition accuracy.

  14. Asymptotics of robust utility maximization

    Knispel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    For a stochastic factor model we maximize the long-term growth rate of robust expected power utility with parameter $\\lambda\\in(0,1)$. Using duality methods the problem is reformulated as an infinite time horizon, risk-sensitive control problem. Our results characterize the optimal growth rate, an optimal long-term trading strategy and an asymptotic worst-case model in terms of an ergodic Bellman equation. With these results we propose a duality approach to a "robust large deviations" criterion for optimal long-term investment.

  15. Minimal Adequate Model of Unemployment Duration in the Post-Crisis Czech Republic

    Adam Čabla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is one of the leading economic problems in a developed world. The aim of this paper is to identify the differences in unemployment duration in different strata in the post-crisis Czech Republic via building a minimal adequate model, and to quantify the differences. Data from Labour Force Surveys are used and since they are interval censored in nature, proper metodology must be used. The minimal adequate model is built through the accelerated failure time modelling, maximum likelihood estimates and likelihood ratio tests. Variables at the beginning are sex, marital status, age, education, municipality size and number of persons in a household, containing altogether 29 model parameters. The minimal adequate model contains 5 parameters and differences are found between men and women, the youngest category and the rest and the university educated and the rest. The estimated expected values, variances, medians, modes and 90th percentiles are provided for all subgroups.

  16. Robustness for slope stability modelling under deep uncertainty

    Almeida, Susana; Holcombe, Liz; Pianosi, Francesca; Wagener, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    Landslides can have large negative societal and economic impacts, such as loss of life and damage to infrastructure. However, the ability of slope stability assessment to guide management is limited by high levels of uncertainty in model predictions. Many of these uncertainties cannot be easily quantified, such as those linked to climate change and other future socio-economic conditions, restricting the usefulness of traditional decision analysis tools. Deep uncertainty can be managed more effectively by developing robust, but not necessarily optimal, policies that are expected to perform adequately under a wide range of future conditions. Robust strategies are particularly valuable when the consequences of taking a wrong decision are high as is often the case of when managing natural hazard risks such as landslides. In our work a physically based numerical model of hydrologically induced slope instability (the Combined Hydrology and Stability Model - CHASM) is applied together with robust decision making to evaluate the most important uncertainties (storm events, groundwater conditions, surface cover, slope geometry, material strata and geotechnical properties) affecting slope stability. Specifically, impacts of climate change on long-term slope stability are incorporated, accounting for the deep uncertainty in future climate projections. Our findings highlight the potential of robust decision making to aid decision support for landslide hazard reduction and risk management under conditions of deep uncertainty.

  17. An Improved Robust Fuzzy Extractor

    Kanukurthi, Bhavana

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of building robust fuzzy extractors, which allow two parties holding similar random variables W, W' to agree on a secret key R in the presence of an active adversary. Robust fuzzy extractors were defined by Dodis et al. in Crypto 2006 to be noninteractive, i.e., only one message P, which can be modified by an unbounded adversary, can pass from one party to the other. This allows them to be used by a single party at different points in time (e.g., for key recovery or biometric authentication), but also presents an additional challenge: what if R is used, and thus possibly observed by the adversary, before the adversary has a chance to modify P. Fuzzy extractors secure against such a strong attack are called post-application robust. We construct a fuzzy extractor with post-application robustness that extracts a shared secret key of up to (2m-n)/2 bits (depending on error-tolerance and security parameters), where n is the bit-length and m is the entropy of W. The previously best known res...

  18. Robust control design with MATLAB

    Gu, Da-Wei; Konstantinov, Mihail M

    2013-01-01

    Robust Control Design with MATLAB® (second edition) helps the student to learn how to use well-developed advanced robust control design methods in practical cases. To this end, several realistic control design examples from teaching-laboratory experiments, such as a two-wheeled, self-balancing robot, to complex systems like a flexible-link manipulator are given detailed presentation. All of these exercises are conducted using MATLAB® Robust Control Toolbox 3, Control System Toolbox and Simulink®. By sharing their experiences in industrial cases with minimum recourse to complicated theories and formulae, the authors convey essential ideas and useful insights into robust industrial control systems design using major H-infinity optimization and related methods allowing readers quickly to move on with their own challenges. The hands-on tutorial style of this text rests on an abundance of examples and features for the second edition: ·        rewritten and simplified presentation of theoretical and meth...

  19. Robustness of multimodal processes itineraries

    Bocewicz, G.; Banaszak, Z.; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa

    determining stream-like moving transportation means, a problem of an alternative itinerary selection for an origin–destination (O-D) trip in the context of emergency relief is considered. Emergency relief dealing with the contingency events and deciding on MTS robustness can be evaluated in terms of feasible...

  20. Facial Symmetry in Robust Anthropometrics

    Kalina, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2012), s. 691-698. ISSN 0022-1198 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : forensic science * anthropology * robust image analysis * correlation analysis * multivariate data * classification Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.244, year: 2012

  1. Robust visual hashing via ICA

    Designed to maximize information transmission in the presence of noise, independent component analysis (ICA) could appear in certain circumstances as a statistics-based tool for robust visual hashing. Several ICA-based scenarios can attempt to reach this goal. A first one is here considered.

  2. Robustness as an evolutionary principle.

    Bornholdt, S.; K. Sneppen

    2000-01-01

    We suggest simulating evolution of complex organisms using a model constrained solely by the requirement of robustness in its expression patterns. This scenario is illustrated by evolving discrete logical networks with epigenetic properties. Evidence for dynamical features in the evolved networks is found that can be related to biological observables.

  3. Nested potentials and robust equilibria

    UNO, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of nested best-response potentials for complete in- formation games. It is shown that a unique maximizer of such a potential is a Nash equilibrium that is robust to incomplete information in the sense of Kajii and Morris (1997, mimeo).

  4. Robust power system frequency control

    Bevrani, Hassan

    2008-01-01

    Emphasizes the physical and engineering aspects of the power system frequency control design problem while providing a conceptual understanding of frequency regulation and application of robust control techniques. This book summarizes the author's research outcomes, contributions and experiences with power system frequency regulation.

  5. Network Robustness: the whole story

    Longjas, A.; Tejedor, A.; Zaliapin, I. V.; Ambroj, S.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2014-12-01

    A multitude of actual processes operating on hydrological networks may exhibit binary outcomes such as clean streams in a river network that may become contaminated. These binary outcomes can be modeled by node removal processes (attacks) acting in a network. Network robustness against attacks has been widely studied in fields as diverse as the Internet, power grids and human societies. However, the current definition of robustness is only accounting for the connectivity of the nodes unaffected by the attack. Here, we put forward the idea that the connectivity of the affected nodes can play a crucial role in proper evaluation of the overall network robustness and its future recovery from the attack. Specifically, we propose a dual perspective approach wherein at any instant in the network evolution under attack, two distinct networks are defined: (i) the Active Network (AN) composed of the unaffected nodes and (ii) the Idle Network (IN) composed of the affected nodes. The proposed robustness metric considers both the efficiency of destroying the AN and the efficiency of building-up the IN. This approach is motivated by concrete applied problems, since, for example, if we study the dynamics of contamination in river systems, it is necessary to know both the connectivity of the healthy and contaminated parts of the river to assess its ecological functionality. We show that trade-offs between the efficiency of the Active and Idle network dynamics give rise to surprising crossovers and re-ranking of different attack strategies, pointing to significant implications for decision making.

  6. Robust rf control of accelerators

    The problem of controlling the variations in the rf power systems can be effectively cast as an application of modern control theory. Two components of this theory are obtaining a model and a feedback structure. The model inaccuracies influence the choice of a particular controller structure. One can design wither a variable, adaptive controller or a fixed, robust controller to achieve the desired objective. The adaptive control scheme usually results in very complex hardware; and therefore, shall not be pursued. In contrast, the robust control method leads to simplified hardware. However, robust control requires a more accurate mathematical model of the physical process than is required by adaptive control. Our research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the University of New Mexico has led to the development and implementation of a new rf power feedback system. In this paper, we report on our research progress. In section one, the robust control problem for the rf power system and the philosophy adopted for the beginning phase of our research is presented. In section two, results of our proof-of-principle experiments are presented. In section three, we describe the actual controller configuration that is used in LANL FEL physics experiments. The novelty of our approach is that the control hardware is implemented directly in rf without demodulating, compensating, and then remodulating

  7. Robust RF control of accelerators

    The problem of controlling the variations in the rf power system can be effectively cast as an application of modern control theory. Two components of this theory are obtaining a model and a feedback structure. The model inaccuracies influence the choice of a particular controller structure. One can design either a variable, adaptive controller or a fixed, robust controller to achieve the desired objective. The adaptive control scheme usually results in very complex hardware; and, therefore, shall not be pursued. In contrast, the robust control method leads to simpler hardware. However, robust control requires a more accurate mathematical model of the physical process than is required by adaptive control. The research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the University of New Mexico (UNM) has led to the development and implementation of a new rf power feedback system. In this paper, the authors report on their research progress. In section one, the robust control problem for the rf power system and the philosophy adopted for the beginning phase of our research is presented. In section two, the results of their proof-of principle experiments are represented. In section three, they describe the actual controller configuration that is used in LANL FEL physics experiments. The novelty of their approach is that the control hardware is implemented directly in rf without demodulating, compensating, and the remodulating

  8. Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    of the timber material proposed in the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS). The results show that the requirements for robustness of the structure are highly related to the modelling of the snow load used on the structures when ‘removal of a limited part...

  9. The Unequal Effect of Adequate Yearly Progress: Evidence from School Visits

    Brown, Abigail B.; Clift, Jack W.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report insights, based on annual site visits to elementary and middle schools in three states from 2004 to 2006, into the incentive effect of the No Child Left Behind Act's requirement that increasing percentages of students make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in every public school. They develop a framework, drawing on the physics…

  10. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    2010-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... conducted: (i) Placebo concurrent control. The new animal drug is compared with an inactive preparation... control is appropriate when the use of a placebo control or of an untreated concurrent control...

  11. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Adequate Yearly Progress among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Schools

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Using national data from the 2007-08 School and Staffing Survey, we compared the relationships between parental involvement and school outcomes related to adequate yearly progress (AYP) in urban, suburban, and rural schools. Parent-initiated parental involvement demonstrated significantly positive relationships with both making AYP and staying off…

  12. A Model for Touch Technique and Computation of Adequate Cane Length.

    Plain-Switzer, Karen

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a model for the motion of a long-cane executing the touch technique and presents formulas for the projected length of a cane adequate to protect an individual with blindness against wall-type and pole-type hazards. The paper concludes that the long-cane should reach from the floor to the user's armpit. (JDD)

  13. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled: ``Hemoglobin... discuss blood donor hemoglobin and hematocrit qualification standards in the United States, its impact...

  14. Does the new conceptual framework provide adequate concepts for reporting relevant information about performance?

    A. Brouwer; A Faramarzi; M. Hoogendoorn

    2014-01-01

    The basic question we raise in this paper is whether the 2013 Discussion Paper (DP 2013) on the Conceptual Framework provides adequate principles for reporting an entity’s performance and what improvements could be made in light of both user needs and evidence from academic literature. DP 2013 propo

  15. Perceptions of Teachers in Their First Year of School Restructuring: Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress

    Moser, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The 2007-2008 school year marked the first year Florida's Title I schools that did not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for five consecutive years entered into restructuring as mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. My study examines the perceptions of teacher entering into their first year of school restructuring due to failure to…

  16. Determinants of prompt and adequate care among presumed malaria cases in a community in eastern Rwanda

    Ingabire, Chantal Marie; Kateera, Fredrick; Hakizimana, Emmanuel; Rulisa, Alexis; Muvunyi, Claude; Mens, Petra; Koenraadt, Sander; Mutesa, Leon; Vugt, Van Michele; Borne, Van Den Bart; Alaii, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background: In order to understand factors influencing fever/malaria management practices among community-based individuals, the study evaluated psychosocial, socio-demographic and environmental determinants of prompt and adequate healthcare-seeking behaviours. Methods: A quantitative household (

  17. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared. PMID:16315443

  18. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    2010-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  19. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    2010-01-01

    ... animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4) Guidance to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  20. Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach

    Deborah A. Verstegen

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky’s State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional-“all of its parts and parcels”. The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including: (i “sufficient oral and written communication skills to enable students to function in a complex and rapidly changing civilization . . . .and (vii sufficient levels of academic or vocational skills to enable public school students to compete favorably with their counterparts in surrounding states, in academics or in the job market”. Now, over a decade later, key questions remain regarding whether these objectives have been fulfilled. This research is designed to calculate the cost of an adequate education by aligning resources to State standards, laws and objectives, using a professional judgment approach. Seven focus groups were convened for this purpose and the scholarly literature was reviewed to provide multiple inputs into study findings. The study produced a per pupil base cost for each of three prototype school districts and an total statewide cost, with the funding gap between existing revenue and the revenue needed for current operations of $1.097 billion per year (2001-02. Additional key resource requirements needed to achieve an adequate education, identified by professional judgment panels, include: (1 extending the school year for students and teachers, (2 adding voluntary half-day preschool for three and four year olds, and (3 raising teacher salaries. This increases the funding gap to $1.23 billion and suggests that significant new funding is required over time if the Commonwealth of Kentucky is to provide an adequate and equitable education of high quality for all children and youth as directed by the State Supreme Court.

  1. Robust Outlier Detection in Linear Regression

    Nethal K. Jajo; Xizhi Wu

    2004-01-01

    New methodology of robust outlier detection based on Robustly Studentized Robust Residuals (RSRR) examination is well established in linear regression analysis. Two new robust location estimators of linear regression parameters are developed in simple and multiple cases. Based on these robust estimators we obtain RSRR. We used RSRR to derive a new measure of distance to be used in outlier detection. A graphical display using new measure of distance is constructed for detecting multiple outlie...

  2. Algebraic connectivity and graph robustness.

    Feddema, John Todd; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Abdallah, Chaouki T. (University of New Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    Recent papers have used Fiedler's definition of algebraic connectivity to show that network robustness, as measured by node-connectivity and edge-connectivity, can be increased by increasing the algebraic connectivity of the network. By the definition of algebraic connectivity, the second smallest eigenvalue of the graph Laplacian is a lower bound on the node-connectivity. In this paper we show that for circular random lattice graphs and mesh graphs algebraic connectivity is a conservative lower bound, and that increases in algebraic connectivity actually correspond to a decrease in node-connectivity. This means that the networks are actually less robust with respect to node-connectivity as the algebraic connectivity increases. However, an increase in algebraic connectivity seems to correlate well with a decrease in the characteristic path length of these networks - which would result in quicker communication through the network. Applications of these results are then discussed for perimeter security.

  3. Robust Decentralized Formation Flight Control

    Zhao Weihua

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the idea of multiplexed model predictive control (MMPC, this paper introduces a new framework for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs formation flight and coordination. Formulated using MMPC approach, the whole centralized formation flight system is considered as a linear periodic system with control inputs of each UAV subsystem as its periodic inputs. Divided into decentralized subsystems, the whole formation flight system is guaranteed stable if proper terminal cost and terminal constraints are added to each decentralized MPC formulation of the UAV subsystem. The decentralized robust MPC formulation for each UAV subsystem with bounded input disturbances and model uncertainties is also presented. Furthermore, an obstacle avoidance control scheme for any shape and size of obstacles, including the nonapriorily known ones, is integrated under the unified MPC framework. The results from simulations demonstrate that the proposed framework can successfully achieve robust collision-free formation flights.

  4. Robust Transitivity in Hamiltonian Dynamics

    Nassiri, Meysam

    2011-01-01

    A goal of this work is to study the dynamics in the complement of KAM tori with focus on non-local robust transitivity. We introduce $C^r$ open sets ($r=1, 2, ..., \\infty$) of symplectic diffeomorphisms and Hamiltonian systems, exhibiting "large" robustly transitive sets. We show that the $C^\\infty$ closure of such open sets contains a variety of systems, including so-called a priori unstable integrable systems. In addition, the existence of ergodic measures with large support is obtained for all those systems. A main ingredient of the proof is a combination of studying minimal dynamics of symplectic iterated function systems and a new tool in Hamiltonian dynamics which we call symplectic blender.

  5. Inefficient but robust public leadership.

    Matsumura, Toshihiro; Ogawa, Akira

    2014-01-01

    We investigate endogenous timing in a mixed duopoly in a differentiated product market. We find that private leadership is better than public leadership from a social welfare perspective if the private firm is domestic, regardless of the degree of product differentiation. Nevertheless, the public leadership equilibrium is risk-dominant, and it is thus robust if the degree of product differentiation is high. We also find that regardless of the degree of product differentiation, the public lead...

  6. Robustness Aspects of Knowledge Discovery

    Kalina, Jan

    Ostrava : VŠB - Technická univerzita, 2013 - (Pokorný, J.; Šaloun, P.; Paralič, J.; Horváth, T.), s. 34-43 ISBN 978-80-248-3189-3. [Znalosti 2013. Ostrava (CZ), 13.10.2013-15.10.2013] Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-01930S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : machine learning * outliers * neural networks * robust estimation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  7. Testing Heteroscedasticity in Robust Regression

    Kalina, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 4 (2011), s. 25-28. ISSN 2045-3345 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA402/09/0557 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : robust regression * heteroscedasticity * regression quantiles * diagnostics Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://www.researchjournals.co.uk/documents/Vol4/06%20Kalina.pdf

  8. Robust Estimation of Cronbach's Alpha

    Christmann, A.; Van Aelst, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Cronbach’s alpha is a popular method to measure reliability, e.g. in quantifying the reliability of a score to summarize the information of several items in question- naires. The alpha coefficient is known to be non-robust. We study the behavior of this coefficient in different settings to identify situations, which can easily occur in practice, but under which the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient is extremely sensitive to violations of the classical model assumptions. Furthermore,...

  9. Are Any Growth Theories Robust?

    Durlauf, Steven N.; Kourtellos, Andros; Chih Ming Tan

    2007-01-01

    The recent growth literature has seen an explosion of work exploring the role of new and fundamental theories of growth such as geography, institutions, ethnic fractionalization, and religion. Nevertheless, claims about the empirical validity of these new growth theories are typically made within very particular specifications of the growth model. In this paper, we investigate the robustness of these theories when the researcher appropriately accounts for model uncertainty. We first consider ...

  10. Robust power system frequency control

    Bevrani, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition of the industry standard reference on power system frequency control provides practical, systematic and flexible algorithms for regulating load frequency, offering new solutions to the technical challenges introduced by the escalating role of distributed generation and renewable energy sources in smart electric grids. The author emphasizes the physical constraints and practical engineering issues related to frequency in a deregulated environment, while fostering a conceptual understanding of frequency regulation and robust control techniques. The resulting control strategi

  11. Numerically erasure-robust frames

    Fickus, Matthew; Mixon, Dustin G.

    2012-01-01

    Given a channel with additive noise and adversarial erasures, the task is to design a frame that allows for stable signal reconstruction from transmitted frame coefficients. To meet these specifications, we introduce numerically erasure-robust frames. We first consider a variety of constructions, including random frames, equiangular tight frames and group frames. Later, we show that arbitrarily large erasure rates necessarily induce numerical instability in signal reconstruction. We conclude ...

  12. On Heteroscedasticity in Robust Regression

    Kalina, Jan

    Slaný : Melandrium, 2011 - (Löster, T.), s. 228-237 ISBN 978-80-86175-77-5. [International Days of Statistics and Economics /5./. Prague (CZ), 22.09.2011-23.09.2011] Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA402/09/0732 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : robust statistics * linear regression * diagnostics Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://msed.vse.cz/files/2011/Kalina.pdf

  13. Evaluating Random Mutant Selection at Class-Level in Projects with Non-Adequate Test Suites

    Parsai, Ali; Murgia, Alessandro; Demeyer, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Mutation testing is a standard technique to evaluate the quality of a test suite. Due to its computationally intensive nature, many approaches have been proposed to make this technique feasible in real case scenarios. Among these approaches, uniform random mutant selection has been demonstrated to be simple and promising. However, works on this area analyze mutant samples at project level mainly on projects with adequate test suites. In this paper, we fill this lack of empirical validation by...

  14. Evaluation of lymph node numbers for adequate staging of Stage II and III colon cancer

    Bumpers Harvey L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although evaluation of at least 12 lymph nodes (LNs is recommended as the minimum number of nodes required for accurate staging of colon cancer patients, there is disagreement on what constitutes an adequate identification of such LNs. Methods To evaluate the minimum number of LNs for adequate staging of Stage II and III colon cancer, 490 patients were categorized into groups based on 1-6, 7-11, 12-19, and ≥ 20 LNs collected. Results For patients with Stage II or III disease, examination of 12 LNs was not significantly associated with recurrence or mortality. For Stage II (HR = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.12-0.91, but not for Stage III patients (HR = 1.59; 95% CI, 0.54-4.64, examination of ≥20 LNs was associated with a reduced risk of recurrence within 2 years. However, examination of ≥20 LNs had a 55% (Stage II, HR = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.23-0.87 and a 31% (Stage III, HR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.38-1.26 decreased risk of mortality, respectively. For each six additional LNs examined from Stage III patients, there was a 19% increased probability of finding a positive LN (parameter estimate = 0.18510, p Conclusions Thus, the 12 LN cut-off point cannot be supported as requisite in determining adequate staging of colon cancer based on current data. However, a minimum of 6 LNs should be examined for adequate staging of Stage II and III colon cancer patients.

  15. Enhancing entrepreneurship development in Bosnia and Herzegovina through adequate governmental financial support

    Umihanić, Bahrija; Đonlagić, Sabina; Piplica, Damir

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurship and SME sector is extremely important for general economic development in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In order to enhance further development of the SME sector adequate sources of financing for businesses need to be available and accessible. Entrepreneurs and owners of small and medium businesses in Bosnia and Herzegovina are facing certain challenges in obtaining finances. The issue of accessing sources of finance for SMEs in this country has remained problematic for years. Many...

  16. Impact of adequate empirical combination therapy on mortality from bacteremic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia

    Park So-Youn; Park Hyun; Moon Song; Park Ki-Ho; Chong Yong; Kim Mi-Na; Kim Sung-Han; Lee Sang-Oh; Kim Yang; Woo Jun; Choi Sang-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa has gained an increasing amount of attention in the treatment of patients with pneumonia. However, the benefit of empirical combination therapy for pneumonia remains unclear. We evaluated the effects of adequate empirical combination therapy and multidrug-resistance in bacteremic Pseudomonas pneumonia on the mortality. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed at the 2,700-bed tertiary care university hospital. We reviewed the medical record...

  17. Ensuring adequate orientation for a new employee : case company Nestlé

    Ashtiani, Shilan

    2015-01-01

    The following thesis will concentrate on the importance of ensuring adequate orientation throughout the recruitment process and after. A new employee orientation (NEO) plan is consisted of different areas and stages to be recognized, analyzed and implemented at the factory of Nestlé. The goal for every company nowadays is to make a new employee a valued resource for their profitability. This research was commissioned by Nestlé Oy, Turku factory. The concept of new employee orientation (NE...

  18. Towards the Full Realization of the Human Right to Adequate Food and Nutrition*

    Flavio Luiz Schieck Valente

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the conceptual evolution of the right to food into its current denomination as human right to adequate food and nutrition in the broader context of the indivisibility of human rights, women’s rights and food sovereignty. It also explores the challenges and opportunities provided by the Second International Conference on Nutrition and describes the political foundations of civil society’s engagement in the preparation and planned follow-up of the conference.

  19. The definition of rural area as a primary solution of its adequate development

    Ivana Faltová Leitmanová; Eva Cudlínová; Milan Jílek; Renata Klufová; Ladislav Rolínek

    2009-01-01

    The realistic approach to the rural development requires primarily a consensual definition of a rural area. The selection of tools to be applied and measures to be taken to influence rural areas as well as the setting up the institutional framework would be difficult without defining the object of interest. The adequate definition of rural areas is therefore one of essential prerequisites for the effective resource allocation within the rural development policy.

  20. Self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction differences in women with adequate and inadequate prenatal care.

    Higgins, P; Murray, M L; Williams, E M

    1994-03-01

    This descriptive, retrospective study examined levels of self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction with prenatal care in 193 low-risk postpartal women who obtained adequate and inadequate care. The participants were drawn from a regional medical center and university teaching hospital in New Mexico. A demographic questionnaire, the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory, the personal resource questionnaire part 2, and the prenatal care satisfaction inventory were used for data collection. Significant differences were found in the level of education, income, insurance, and ethnicity between women who received adequate prenatal care and those who received inadequate care. Women who were likely to seek either adequate or inadequate prenatal care were those whose total family income was $10,000 to $19,999 per year and high school graduates. Statistically significant differences were found in self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction between the two groups of women. Strategies to enhance self-esteem and social support have to be developed to reach women at risk for receiving inadequate prenatal care. PMID:8155221

  1. Robustness in Railway Operations (RobustRailS)

    Jensen, Jens Parbo; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    This study considers the problem of enhancing railway timetable robustness without adding slack time, hence increasing the travel time. The approach integrates a transit assignment model to assess how passengers adapt their behaviour whenever operations are changed. First, the approach considers...... the existing stopping patterns of the railway lines. Then, based on the passenger demand we try to optimize the overall utility by changing the stopping pattern in a way that capacity utilization is reduced without affecting the frequency of the train lines nor increasing the passengers’ travel time....

  2. Robustness Analysis of Timber Truss Structure

    Rajčić, Vlatka; Čizmar, Dean; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning;

    2010-01-01

    The present paper discusses robustness of structures in general and the robustness requirements given in the codes. Robustness of timber structures is also an issues as this is closely related to Working group 3 (Robustness of systems) of the COST E55 project. Finally, an example of a robustness...... evaluation of a widespan timber truss structure is presented. This structure was built few years ago near Zagreb and has a span of 45m. Reliability analysis of the main members and the system is conducted and based on this a robustness analysis is preformed....

  3. Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Cizmar, D.; Dietsch, P.

    The present paper outlines results from working group 3 (WG3) in the EU COST Action E55 – ‘Modelling of the performance of timber structures’. The objectives of the project are related to the three main research activities: the identification and modelling of relevant load and environmental expos...... exposure scenarios, the improvement of knowledge concerning the behaviour of timber structural elements and the development of a generic framework for the assessment of the life-cycle vulnerability and robustness of timber structures....

  4. Robust Adaptive Quantum Phase Estimation

    Roy, Shibdas; Huntington, Elanor H

    2014-01-01

    Quantum parameter estimation is central to many fields such as quantum computation, communications and metrology. Optimal estimation theory has been instrumental in achieving the best accuracy in quantum parameter estimation, which is possible when we have very precise knowledge of and control over the model. However, uncertainties in key parameters underlying the system are unavoidable and may impact the quality of the estimate. We show here how quantum optical phase estimation of a squeezed state of light exhibits improvement when using a robust fixed-interval smoother designed with uncertainties explicitly introduced in parameters underlying the phase noise.

  5. Learning Robust Deep Face Representation

    Wu, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    With the development of convolution neural network, more and more researchers focus their attention on the advantage of CNN for face recognition task. In this paper, we propose a deep convolution network for learning a robust face representation. The deep convolution net is constructed by 4 convolution layers, 4 max pooling layers and 2 fully connected layers, which totally contains about 4M parameters. The Max-Feature-Map activation function is used instead of ReLU because the ReLU might lea...

  6. Robust Optimization Using Computer Experiments

    Stinstra, E.; den Hertog, D.

    2005-01-01

    During metamodel-based optimization three types of implicit errors are typically made.The first error is the simulation-model error, which is defined by the difference between reality and the computer model.The second error is the metamodel error, which is defined by the difference between the computer model and the metamodel.The third is the implementation error.This paper presents new ideas on how to cope with these errors during optimization, in such a way that the final solution is robust...

  7. Robust Software Architecture for Robots

    Aghazanian, Hrand; Baumgartner, Eric; Garrett, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Robust Real-Time Reconfigurable Robotics Software Architecture (R4SA) is the name of both a software architecture and software that embodies the architecture. The architecture was conceived in the spirit of current practice in designing modular, hard, realtime aerospace systems. The architecture facilitates the integration of new sensory, motor, and control software modules into the software of a given robotic system. R4SA was developed for initial application aboard exploratory mobile robots on Mars, but is adaptable to terrestrial robotic systems, real-time embedded computing systems in general, and robotic toys.

  8. Onion structure and network robustness

    Wu, Zhi-Xi; Holme, Petter

    2011-01-01

    In a recent work [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 3838 (2011)], Schneider et al. proposed a new measure for network robustness and investigated optimal networks with respect to this quantity. For networks with a power-law degree distribution, the optimized networks have an onion structure—high-degree vertices forming a core with radially decreasing degrees and an over-representation of edges within the same radial layer. In this paper we relate the onion structure to graphs with good expander...

  9. Robust and Sparse Factor Modelling

    Croux, Christophe; Exterkate, Peter

    Factor construction methods are widely used to summarize a large panel of variables by means of a relatively small number of representative factors. We propose a novel factor construction procedure that enjoys the properties of robustness to outliers and of sparsity; that is, having relatively few...... nonzero factor loadings. Compared to the traditional factor construction method, we find that this procedure leads to a favorable forecasting performance in the presence of outliers and to better interpretable factors. We investigate the performance of the method in a Monte Carlo experiment and in an...

  10. Robust procedure for fringe analysis

    Rivera, Mariano; Rodriguez-Vera, Ramon; Marroquin, Jose L.

    1997-11-01

    A robust procedure for analyzing fringe patterns obtained from speckle interferometric techniques is proposed. The fringes generally are observed only in a region S of a rectangular lattice L . We give a method for computing (from S ) the region R , where the unwrapped phase is to be computed; this computation is done by use of a morphological filter (in particular, a closing filter). We then use a fast-unwrapping algorithm to compute the phase: a preconditioned conjugate-gradient algorithm that uses the discrete Fourier transform.

  11. Autocorrelated residuals of robust regression

    Kalina, Jan

    Slaný : Melandrium, 2013 - (Löster, T.; Pavelka, T.), s. 551-560 ISBN 978-80-86175-87-4. [International Days of Statistics and Economics /7./. Prague (CZ), 19.09.2013-21.09.2013] Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-01930S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : linear regression * robust statistics * diagnostics * autocorrelation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://msed.vse.cz/files/2013/1-Kalina-Jan-paper.pdf

  12. Robust optimization : formulation, kriging and evolutionary approaches

    Le Riche, Rodolphe

    2014-01-01

    This is a two hours class on robust optimization. It starts with motivations and formulations for robust optimization, and then focuses on approaches based 1) on kriging 2) on evolutionary computation as complementary alternatives.

  13. Progressive refinement for robust image registration

    Li Song; Yuanhua Zhou; Jun Zhou

    2005-01-01

    @@ A new image registration algorithm with robust cost function and progressive refinement estimation is developed on the basis of direct method (DM). The robustness lies in M-estimation to avert larger local noise and outliers.

  14. A robust standard deviation control chart

    Schoonhoven, M.; Does, R.J.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    This article studies the robustness of Phase I estimators for the standard deviation control chart. A Phase I estimator should be efficient in the absence of contaminations and resistant to disturbances. Most of the robust estimators proposed in the literature are robust against either diffuse disturbances, that is, outliers spread over the subgroups, or localized disturbances, which affect an entire subgroup. In this article, we compare various robust standard deviation estimators and propos...

  15. Analyzing the robustness of telecommunication networks

    Eller, Karol Schaeffer

    1992-01-01

    This project report defines network robustness and discusses capability indicators that could be used to analyze network robustness. Growing dependence on telecommunication networks and recent network outages have focused attention on network robustness. The National Communications System (NCS), a confederation of 23 Federal departments and agencies, has been concerned with network robustness since its formation in 1963. The NCS is developing and implementing systems a...

  16. New vessel formation in the context of cardiomyocyte regeneration – the role and importance of an adequate perfusing vasculature

    Katherine C. Michelis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The history of revascularization for cardiac ischemia dates back to the early 1960’s when the first coronary artery bypass graft procedures were performed in humans. With this 50 year history of providing a new vasculature to ischemic and hibernating myocardium, a profound depth of experience has been amassed in clinical cardiovascular medicine as to what does, and does not work in the context of cardiac revascularization, alleviating ischemia and adequacy of myocardial perfusion. These issues are of central relevance to contemporary cell-based cardiac regenerative approaches. While the cardiovascular cell therapy field is surging forward on many exciting fronts, several well accepted clinical axioms related to the cardiac arterial supply appear to be almost overlooked by some of our current basic conceptual and experimental cell therapy paradigms. We present here information drawn from five decades of the clinical revascularization experience, review relevant new data on vascular formation via cell therapy, and put forward the case that for optimal cell-based cardiac regeneration due attention must be paid to providing an adequate vascular supply.

  17. Robust Instrumentation[Water treatment for power plant]; Robust Instrumentering

    Wik, Anders [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-08-01

    Cementa Slite Power Station is a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) with moderate steam data; 3.0 MPa and 420 deg C. The heat is recovered from Cementa, a cement industry, without any usage of auxiliary fuel. The Power station commenced operation in 2001. The layout of the plant is unusual, there are no similar in Sweden and very few world-wide, so the operational experiences are limited. In connection with the commissioning of the power plant a R and D project was identified with the objective to minimise the manpower needed for chemistry management of the plant. The lean chemistry management is based on robust instrumentation and chemical-free water treatment plant. The concept with robust instrumentation consists of the following components; choice of on-line instrumentation with a minimum of O and M and a chemical-free water treatment. The parameters are specific conductivity, cation conductivity, oxygen and pH. In addition to that, two fairly new on-line instruments were included; corrosion monitors and differential pH calculated from specific and cation conductivity. The chemical-free water treatment plant consists of softening, reverse osmosis and electro-deionisation. The operational experience shows that the cycle chemistry is not within the guidelines due to major problems with the operation of the power plant. These problems have made it impossible to reach steady state and thereby not viable to fully verify and validate the concept with robust instrumentation. From readings on the panel of the online analysers some conclusions may be drawn, e.g. the differential pH measurements have fulfilled the expectations. The other on-line analysers have been working satisfactorily apart from contamination with turbine oil, which has been noticed at least twice. The corrosion monitors seem to be working but the lack of trend curves from the mainframe computer system makes it hard to draw any clear conclusions. The chemical-free water treatment has met all

  18. Methodology in robust and nonparametric statistics

    Jurecková, Jana; Picek, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and SynopsisIntroductionSynopsisPreliminariesIntroductionInference in Linear ModelsRobustness ConceptsRobust and Minimax Estimation of LocationClippings from Probability and Asymptotic TheoryProblemsRobust Estimation of Location and RegressionIntroductionM-EstimatorsL-EstimatorsR-EstimatorsMinimum Distance and Pitman EstimatorsDifferentiable Statistical FunctionsProblemsAsymptotic Representations for L-Estimators

  19. Robust estimation in finite population sampling

    Ghosh, Malay

    2008-01-01

    The paper proposes some robust estimators of the finite population mean. Such estimators are particularly suitable in the presence of some outlying observations. Included as special cases of our general result are robust versions of the ratio estimator and the Horvitz-Thompson estimator. The robust estimators are derived on the basis of certain predictive influence functions.

  20. Robust distributed cognitive relay beamforming

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we present a distributed relay beamformer design for a cognitive radio network in which a cognitive (or secondary) transmit node communicates with a secondary receive node assisted by a set of cognitive non-regenerative relays. The secondary nodes share the spectrum with a licensed primary user (PU) node, and each node is assumed to be equipped with a single transmit/receive antenna. The interference to the PU resulting from the transmission from the cognitive nodes is kept below a specified limit. The proposed robust cognitive relay beamformer design seeks to minimize the total relay transmit power while ensuring that the transceiver signal-to-interference- plus-noise ratio and PU interference constraints are satisfied. The proposed design takes into account a parameter of the error in the channel state information (CSI) to render the performance of the beamformer robust in the presence of imperfect CSI. Though the original problem is non-convex, we show that the proposed design can be reformulated as a tractable convex optimization problem that can be solved efficiently. Numerical results are provided and illustrate the performance of the proposed designs for different network operating conditions and parameters. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. Robust Inflation from fibrous strings

    Burgess, C. P.; Cicoli, M.; de Alwis, S.; Quevedo, F.

    2016-05-01

    Successful inflationary models should (i) describe the data well; (ii) arise generically from sensible UV completions; (iii) be insensitive to detailed fine-tunings of parameters and (iv) make interesting new predictions. We argue that a class of models with these properties is characterized by relatively simple potentials with a constant term and negative exponentials. We here continue earlier work exploring UV completions for these models—including the key (though often ignored) issue of modulus stabilisation—to assess the robustness of their predictions. We show that string models where the inflaton is a fibration modulus seem to be robust due to an effective rescaling symmetry, and fairly generic since most known Calabi-Yau manifolds are fibrations. This class of models is characterized by a generic relation between the tensor-to-scalar ratio r and the spectral index ns of the form r propto (ns‑1)2 where the proportionality constant depends on the nature of the effects used to develop the inflationary potential and the topology of the internal space. In particular we find that the largest values of the tensor-to-scalar ratio that can be obtained by generalizing the original set-up are of order r lesssim 0.01. We contrast this general picture with specific popular models, such as the Starobinsky scenario and α-attractors. Finally, we argue the self consistency of large-field inflationary models can strongly constrain non-supersymmetric inflationary mechanisms.

  2. Robust Inflation from Fibrous Strings

    Burgess, C P; de Alwis, S; Quevedo, F

    2016-01-01

    Successful inflationary models should (i) describe the data well; (ii) arise generically from sensible UV completions; (iii) be insensitive to detailed fine-tunings of parameters and (iv) make interesting new predictions. We argue that a class of models with these properties is characterized by relatively simple potentials with a constant term and negative exponentials. We here continue earlier work exploring UV completions for these models, including the key (though often ignored) issue of modulus stabilisation, to assess the robustness of their predictions. We show that string models where the inflaton is a fibration modulus seem to be robust due to an effective rescaling symmetry, and fairly generic since most known Calabi-Yau manifolds are fibrations. This class of models is characterized by a generic relation between the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ and the spectral index $n_s$ of the form $r \\propto (n_s -1)^2$ where the proportionality constant depends on the nature of the effects used to develop the inf...

  3. On Robust H2 Estimation

    Lihua Xie

    2005-01-01

    The problem of state estimation for uncertain systems has attracted a recurring interest in the past decade. In this paper, we shall give an overview on some of the recent development in the area by focusing on the robust H2 (Kaiman) filtering of uncertain discrete-time systems. The robust H2 estimation is concerned with the design of a fixed estimator for a family of plants under consideration such that the estimation error covariance is of a minimal upper bound. The uncertainty under consideration includes norm-bounded uncertainty and polytopic uncertainty. In the finite horizon case, we shall discuss a parameterized difference Riccati equation approach for systems with normbounded uncertainty and pinpoint the difference of state estimation between systems without uncertainty and those with uncertainty. In the infinite horizon case, we shall deal with both the norm-bounded and polytopic uncertainties using a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. In particular, we shall demonstrate how the conservatism of design can be improved using a slack variable technique. We also propose an iterative algorithm to refine a designed estimator. An example will be given to compare estimators designed using various techniques.

  4. Reliable and robust entanglement witness

    Yuan, Xiao; Mei, Quanxin; Zhou, Shan; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2016-04-01

    Entanglement, a critical resource for quantum information processing, needs to be witnessed in many practical scenarios. Theoretically, witnessing entanglement is by measuring a special Hermitian observable, called an entanglement witness (EW), which has non-negative expected outcomes for all separable states but can have negative expectations for certain entangled states. In practice, an EW implementation may suffer from two problems. The first one is reliability. Due to unreliable realization devices, a separable state could be falsely identified as an entangled one. The second problem relates to robustness. A witness may not be optimal for a target state and fail to identify its entanglement. To overcome the reliability problem, we employ a recently proposed measurement-device-independent entanglement witness scheme, in which the correctness of the conclusion is independent of the implemented measurement devices. In order to overcome the robustness problem, we optimize the EW to draw a better conclusion given certain experimental data. With the proposed EW scheme, where only data postprocessing needs to be modified compared to the original measurement-device-independent scheme, one can efficiently take advantage of the measurement results to maximally draw reliable conclusions.

  5. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt

    Emma Jones

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC, a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415 was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100–199 μg/L. The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001 and ethnicity (p = 0.006. The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate.

  6. The Nigerian health care system: Need for integrating adequate medical intelligence and surveillance systems

    Menizibeya Osain Welcome

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : As an important element of national security, public health not only functions to provide adequate and timely medical care but also track, monitor, and control disease outbreak. The Nigerian health care had suffered several infectious disease outbreaks year after year. Hence, there is need to tackle the problem. This study aims to review the state of the Nigerian health care system and to provide possible recommendations to the worsening state of health care in the country. To give up-to-date recommendations for the Nigerian health care system, this study also aims at reviewing the dynamics of health care in the United States, Britain, and Europe with regards to methods of medical intelligence/surveillance. Materials and Methods : Databases were searched for relevant literatures using the following keywords: Nigerian health care, Nigerian health care system, and Nigerian primary health care system. Additional keywords used in the search were as follows: United States (OR Europe health care dynamics, Medical Intelligence, Medical Intelligence systems, Public health surveillance systems, Nigerian medical intelligence, Nigerian surveillance systems, and Nigerian health information system. Literatures were searched in scientific databases Pubmed and African Journals OnLine. Internet searches were based on Google and Search Nigeria. Results : Medical intelligence and surveillance represent a very useful component in the health care system and control diseases outbreak, bioattack, etc. There is increasing role of automated-based medical intelligence and surveillance systems, in addition to the traditional manual pattern of document retrieval in advanced medical setting such as those in western and European countries. Conclusion : The Nigerian health care system is poorly developed. No adequate and functional surveillance systems are developed. To achieve success in health care in this modern era, a system well grounded in routine

  7. Determining Adequate Margins in Head and Neck Cancers: Practice and Continued Challenges.

    Williams, Michelle D

    2016-09-01

    Margin assessment remains a critical component of oncologic care for head and neck cancer patients. As an integrated team, both surgeons and pathologists work together to assess margins in these complex patients. Differences in method of margin sampling can impact obtainable information and effect outcomes. Additionally, what distance is an "adequate or clear" margin for patient care continues to be debated. Ultimately, future studies and potentially secondary modalities to augment pathologic assessment of margin assessment (i.e., in situ imaging or molecular assessment) may enhance local control in head and neck cancer patients. PMID:27469263

  8. Family Structure Types and Adequate Utilization of Antenatal Care in Kenya.

    Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Muga, Miriam Adoyo; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Hsu, Yi-Hsin Elsa; Huang, Nicole; Chien, Li-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Features of the health care delivery system may not be the only expounding factors of adequate utilization of antenatal care among women. Other social factors such as the family structure and its environment contribute toward pregnant women's utilization of antenatal care. An understanding of how women in different family structure types and social groups use basic maternal health services is important toward developing and implementing maternal health care policy in the post-Millennium Development Goal era, especially in the sub-Saharan Africa where maternal mortality still remains high. PMID:27214674

  9. Robust Proportional Integral Control of Water Level in an Irrigation Main Canal

    Ybrain Hernández López

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays In this paper, the design of a robust PI controller for effective level control in the second poolof the irrigation main canal Güira de Melena is developed. A mathematical model that adequately describesthe dynamic behavior of the plant under study is obtained from system identification procedure.This model is characterized by its simplicity (first order with time delay. The robustness analysis of thedesigned PI controller vs parametric variations of the obtained mathematical model showed satisfactoryresults, and therefore the implementation of this controller is validated.

  10. Adaptive robust PID controller design based on a sliding mode for uncertain chaotic systems

    A robust adaptive PID controller design motivated from the sliding mode control is proposed for a class of uncertain chaotic systems in this paper. Three PID control gains, K p, K i, and K d, are adjustable parameters and will be updated online with an adequate adaptation mechanism to minimize a previously designed sliding condition. By introducing a supervisory controller, the stability of the closed-loop PID control system under with the plant uncertainty and external disturbance can be guaranteed. Finally, a well-known Duffing-Holmes chaotic system is used as an illustrative to show the effectiveness of the proposed robust adaptive PID controller

  11. Response of cotton genotypes to boron under-b-adequate conditions

    Balanced boron (B) application is well-known to enhance the cotton production; however, the narrow range between B-deficiency and toxicity levels makes it difficult to manage. Cotton genotypes extensively differ in their response to B requirements. The adequate dose of B for one genotype may be insufficient or even toxic to other genotype. The effects of boron (B) on seed cotton yield and its various yield associated traits were studied on 10 cotton genotypes of Pakistan. The pot studies were undertaken to categorize cotton genotypes using B-deficient (control) and B-adequate (2.0 kg B ha-1) levels arranged in CRD with four repeats. The results indicated that the seed cotton yield, yield attributes and B-uptake of genotypes were comparatively decreased in B-deficient stressed treatment. Genotype NIA-Ufaq exhibited wide range of adaptation and ranked as efficient-responsive, as it produced higher seed cotton yield under both B-regimes. SAU-2 and CIM-506 were highly-efficient and remaining all genotypes were medium-efficient. Genotype Sindh-1 produced low seed cotton yield under B deficient condition and ranked as low-efficient. B-efficient cotton genotypes can be grown in B deficient soils without B application. (author)

  12. Incentives for an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss transmission grid. Final version

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses incentives necessary for the implementation of an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss electricity transmission grid. As Switzerland moves towards a more liberalised and competitive electricity market, an essential task of policy makers will be to ensure that incentives are in place for the construction, maintenance and operation of adequate, economic and reliable transmission infrastructure. As well as continuing to serve the domestic market, the location of Switzerland at the centre of Europe also means that policy should embrace opportunities in servicing the developing European Internal Market by providing transit and other services. Topics discussed include the economic evaluation of transmission investment proposals, regulated transmission investment, investments in transmission lines by power merchants, power auctions and congestion management as well as inter-TSO compensation mechanisms. European regulations and practice are discussed as are access questions and transmission charges. Developments in interconnection management and harmonisation are examined. The particular characteristics of the Swiss energy system, its prices and its legal frameworks are discussed. Cross-border trading and security of supply are also discussed

  13. Incentives for an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss transmission grid. Final version

    Twomey, P.; Neuhoff, K.; Newbery, D.

    2006-11-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses incentives necessary for the implementation of an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss electricity transmission grid. As Switzerland moves towards a more liberalised and competitive electricity market, an essential task of policy makers will be to ensure that incentives are in place for the construction, maintenance and operation of adequate, economic and reliable transmission infrastructure. As well as continuing to serve the domestic market, the location of Switzerland at the centre of Europe also means that policy should embrace opportunities in servicing the developing European Internal Market by providing transit and other services. Topics discussed include the economic evaluation of transmission investment proposals, regulated transmission investment, investments in transmission lines by power merchants, power auctions and congestion management as well as inter-TSO compensation mechanisms. European regulations and practice are discussed as are access questions and transmission charges. Developments in interconnection management and harmonisation are examined. The particular characteristics of the Swiss energy system, its prices and its legal frameworks are discussed. Cross-border trading and security of supply are also discussed

  14. Measuring Robustness on Generalized Gaussian Distribution

    Hyeon-Cheol Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Different from previous work that measured robustness its own distribution, measuring robustness with a robust estimator on a generalized Gaussian distribution is introduced here. In detail, an unbiased Maximum Likelihood (ML variance estimator and a robust variance estimator of the Gaussian distribution with a given censoring value are applied to the generalized Gaussian distribution that represents Gaussian, Laplace, and Cauchy distributions; then, Mean Square Error (MSE is calculated to measure robustness. Afterward, how robustness changes is shown because the actual distribution varies over the generalized Gaussian distribution. The results indicate that measuring the MSE of the system can be used to point out how robust the system is when the system distribution changes.

  15. Robust PCA via Outlier Pursuit

    Xu, Huan; Sanghavi, Sujay

    2010-01-01

    Singular Value Decomposition (and Principal Component Analysis) is one of the most widely used techniques for dimensionality reduction: successful and efficiently computable, it is nevertheless plagued by a well-known, well-documented sensitivity to outliers. Recent work has considered the setting where each point has a few arbitrarily corrupted components. Yet, in applications of SVD or PCA such as robust collaborative filtering or bioinformatics, malicious agents, defective genes, or simply corrupted or contaminated experiments may effectively yield entire points that are completely corrupted. We present an efficient convex optimization-based algorithm we call Outlier Pursuit, that under some mild assumptions on the uncorrupted points (satisfied, e.g., by the standard generative assumption in PCA problems) recovers the exact optimal low-dimensional subspace, and identifies the corrupted points. Such identification of corrupted points that do not conform to the low-dimensional approximation, is of paramount ...

  16. Robust characterization of leakage errors

    Wallman, Joel J.; Barnhill, Marie; Emerson, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Leakage errors arise when the quantum state leaks out of some subspace of interest, for example, the two-level subspace of a multi-level system defining a computational ‘qubit’, the logical code space of a quantum error-correcting code, or a decoherence-free subspace. Leakage errors pose a distinct challenge to quantum control relative to the more well-studied decoherence errors and can be a limiting factor to achieving fault-tolerant quantum computation. Here we present a scalable and robust randomized benchmarking protocol for quickly estimating the leakage rate due to an arbitrary Markovian noise process on a larger system. We illustrate the reliability of the protocol through numerical simulations.

  17. CONTAINER MATERIALS, FABRICATION AND ROBUSTNESS

    Dunn, K.; Louthan, M.; Rawls, G.; Sindelar, R.; Zapp, P.; Mcclard, J.

    2009-11-10

    The multi-barrier 3013 container used to package plutonium-bearing materials is robust and thereby highly resistant to identified degradation modes that might cause failure. The only viable degradation mechanisms identified by a panel of technical experts were pressurization within and corrosion of the containers. Evaluations of the container materials and the fabrication processes and resulting residual stresses suggest that the multi-layered containers will mitigate the potential for degradation of the outer container and prevent the release of the container contents to the environment. Additionally, the ongoing surveillance programs and laboratory studies should detect any incipient degradation of containers in the 3013 storage inventory before an outer container is compromised.

  18. Robust matching for voice recognition

    Higgins, Alan; Bahler, L.; Porter, J.; Blais, P.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes an automated method of comparing a voice sample of an unknown individual with samples from known speakers in order to establish or verify the individual's identity. The method is based on a statistical pattern matching approach that employs a simple training procedure, requires no human intervention (transcription, work or phonetic marketing, etc.), and makes no assumptions regarding the expected form of the statistical distributions of the observations. The content of the speech material (vocabulary, grammar, etc.) is not assumed to be constrained in any way. An algorithm is described which incorporates frame pruning and channel equalization processes designed to achieve robust performance with reasonable computational resources. An experimental implementation demonstrating the feasibility of the concept is described.

  19. Robust holographic storage system design.

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Watanabe, Minoru

    2011-11-21

    Demand is increasing daily for large data storage systems that are useful for applications in spacecraft, space satellites, and space robots, which are all exposed to radiation-rich space environment. As candidates for use in space embedded systems, holographic storage systems are promising because they can easily provided the demanded large-storage capability. Particularly, holographic storage systems, which have no rotation mechanism, are demanded because they are virtually maintenance-free. Although a holographic memory itself is an extremely robust device even in a space radiation environment, its associated lasers and drive circuit devices are vulnerable. Such vulnerabilities sometimes engendered severe problems that prevent reading of all contents of the holographic memory, which is a turn-off failure mode of a laser array. This paper therefore presents a proposal for a recovery method for the turn-off failure mode of a laser array on a holographic storage system, and describes results of an experimental demonstration. PMID:22109441

  20. The adequacy of different robust statistical tests in comparing two independent groups

    Peró, Maribel; Guàrdia Olmos, Joan

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, we evaluated various robust statistical methods for comparing two independent groups. Two scenarios for simulation were generated: one of equality and another of population mean differences. In each of the scenarios, 33 experimental conditions were used as a function of sample size, standard deviation and asymmetry. For each condition, 5000 replications per group were generated. The results obtained by this study show an adequate type error I rate but not a high power fo...

  1. An adequate approach to image retrieval based on local level feature extraction

    Image retrieval based on text annotation has become obsolete and is no longer interesting for scientists because of its high time complexity and low precision in results. Alternatively, increase in the amount of digital images has generated an excessive need for an accurate and efficient retrieval system. This paper proposes content based image retrieval technique at a local level incorporating all the rudimentary features. Image undergoes the segmentation process initially and each segment is then directed to the feature extraction process. The proposed technique is also based on image?s content which primarily includes texture, shape and color. Besides these three basic features, FD (Fourier Descriptors) and edge histogram descriptors are also calculated to enhance the feature extraction process by taking hold of information at the boundary. Performance of the proposed method is found to be quite adequate when compared with the results from one of the best local level CBIR (Content Based Image Retrieval) techniques. (author)

  2. Adequate bases of phase space master integrals for $gg \\to h$ at NNLO and beyond

    Höschele, Maik; Ueda, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    We study master integrals needed to compute the Higgs boson production cross section via gluon fusion in the infinite top quark mass limit, using a canonical form of differential equations for master integrals, recently identified by Henn, which makes their solution possible in a straightforward algebraic way. We apply the known criteria to derive such a suitable basis for all the phase space master integrals in afore mentioned process at next-to-next-to-leading order in QCD and demonstrate that the method is applicable to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order as well by solving a non-planar topology. Furthermore, we discuss in great detail how to find an adequate basis using practical examples. Special emphasis is devoted to master integrals which are coupled by their differential equations.

  3. An Adequate Approach to Image Retrieval Based on Local Level Feature Extraction

    Sumaira Muhammad Hayat Khan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Image retrieval based on text annotation has become obsolete and is no longer interesting for scientists because of its high time complexity and low precision in results. Alternatively, increase in the amount of digital images has generated an excessive need for an accurate and efficient retrieval system. This paper proposes content based image retrieval technique at a local level incorporating all the rudimentary features. Image undergoes the segmentation process initially and each segment is then directed to the feature extraction process. The proposed technique is also based on image?s content which primarily includes texture, shape and color. Besides these three basic features, FD (Fourier Descriptors and edge histogram descriptors are also calculated to enhance the feature extraction process by taking hold of information at the boundary. Performance of the proposed method is found to be quite adequate when compared with the results from one of the best local level CBIR (Content Based Image Retrieval techniques.

  4. Providing for decommissioning funds: minimum conditions for adequate funding and comparative analysis

    The present contribution analyses the minimum criteria that need to be applied for adequate financial arrangements for decommissioning, as well as the possible financing mechanisms and the recommended investment policy for decommissioning funds. Furthermore, practical examples of decommissioning mechanisms in the United States of America, France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, Spain and Belgium will be studied. A question frequently asked about nuclear energy is how to deal with its impact on the environment. The issue of decommissioning of nuclear power plants, and in particular the funding of such decommissioning, is part of this discussion. The IAEA fundamental safety principles and safety requirements already make clear that radioactive waste must be managed in such a way as to avoid imposing an undue burden on future generations. The government shall make provision for the safe decommissioning of facilities, the safe management and disposal of radioactive waste arising from facilities and activities, and the safe management of spent fuel. (author)

  5. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt.

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8-10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100-199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  6. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    2010-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  7. Early eruption of permanent canines

    S Madhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic and local factors can modify the eruption time of teeth. Generalized eruption time changes could be due to some systemic diseases like hyperthyroidism, hypophosphatasia, precocious puberty, Proteus syndrome, etc. Localized early eruption of permanent teeth could be due to early extraction of deciduous teeth. Presented here is an extremely rare case of early eruption of permanent canines in a 7-year old female child. Though the number of such cases is very limited, the clinician should poses adequate knowledge and keeps an open eye to identify such cases.

  8. Quantifying the robustness of metro networks

    Wang, Xiangrong; Derrible, Sybil; Ahmad, Sk Nasir; Kooij, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Metros (heavy rail transit systems) are integral parts of urban transportation systems. Failures in their operations can have serious impacts on urban mobility, and measuring their robustness is therefore critical. Moreover, as physical networks, metros can be viewed as network topological entities, and as such they possess measurable network properties. In this paper, by using network science and graph theoretical concepts, we investigate both theoretical and experimental robustness metrics (i.e., the robustness indicator, the effective graph conductance, and the critical thresholds) and their performance in quantifying the robustness of metro networks under random failures or targeted attacks. We find that the theoretical metrics quantify different aspects of the robustness of metro networks. In particular, the robustness indicator captures the number of alternative paths and the effective graph conductance focuses on the length of each path. Moreover, the high positive correlation between the theoretical m...

  9. Robust Face Sketch Style Synthesis.

    Shengchuan Zhang; Xinbo Gao; Nannan Wang; Jie Li

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous image conversion is a critical issue in many computer vision tasks, among which example-based face sketch style synthesis provides a convenient way to make artistic effects for photos. However, existing face sketch style synthesis methods generate stylistic sketches depending on many photo-sketch pairs. This requirement limits the generalization ability of these methods to produce arbitrarily stylistic sketches. To handle such a drawback, we propose a robust face sketch style synthesis method, which can convert photos to arbitrarily stylistic sketches based on only one corresponding template sketch. In the proposed method, a sparse representation-based greedy search strategy is first applied to estimate an initial sketch. Then, multi-scale features and Euclidean distance are employed to select candidate image patches from the initial estimated sketch and the template sketch. In order to further refine the obtained candidate image patches, a multi-feature-based optimization model is introduced. Finally, by assembling the refined candidate image patches, the completed face sketch is obtained. To further enhance the quality of synthesized sketches, a cascaded regression strategy is adopted. Compared with the state-of-the-art face sketch synthesis methods, experimental results on several commonly used face sketch databases and celebrity photos demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26595919

  10. Efficient robust conditional random fields.

    Song, Dongjin; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Tianyi; Tao, Dacheng; Meyer, David A

    2015-10-01

    Conditional random fields (CRFs) are a flexible yet powerful probabilistic approach and have shown advantages for popular applications in various areas, including text analysis, bioinformatics, and computer vision. Traditional CRF models, however, are incapable of selecting relevant features as well as suppressing noise from noisy original features. Moreover, conventional optimization methods often converge slowly in solving the training procedure of CRFs, and will degrade significantly for tasks with a large number of samples and features. In this paper, we propose robust CRFs (RCRFs) to simultaneously select relevant features. An optimal gradient method (OGM) is further designed to train RCRFs efficiently. Specifically, the proposed RCRFs employ the l1 norm of the model parameters to regularize the objective used by traditional CRFs, therefore enabling discovery of the relevant unary features and pairwise features of CRFs. In each iteration of OGM, the gradient direction is determined jointly by the current gradient together with the historical gradients, and the Lipschitz constant is leveraged to specify the proper step size. We show that an OGM can tackle the RCRF model training very efficiently, achieving the optimal convergence rate [Formula: see text] (where k is the number of iterations). This convergence rate is theoretically superior to the convergence rate O(1/k) of previous first-order optimization methods. Extensive experiments performed on three practical image segmentation tasks demonstrate the efficacy of OGM in training our proposed RCRFs. PMID:26080050