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Sample records for adequate irrigation management

  1. Water relations and photosynthesis as criteria for adequate irrigation management in 'Tahiti' lime trees

    Silva Cláudio Ricardo da

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation scheduling based on soil moisture status is one of the most useful methods because of its practicality and low cost. The effects of available soil water depletion on evapotranspiration (ETc, transpiration (E, leaf water potential at predawn (psiP and midday (psiM, stomatal conductance (gs and net CO2 assimilation (A in lime 'Tahiti' trees (Citrus latifolia were evaluated to improve irrigation schedule and minimize water use without causing water stress. The trees were spaced 7 4 m and drip-irrigated by four drippers with the available soil water content (AWC depleted by suspension of irrigation (40 days. Leaf water potential was measured on a pressure chamber (psiP and psiM and leaf gas exchange was measured by infrared gas analyzer (E, gs and A. Evapotranspiration was determined with the aid of weighing lysimeter. Water soil content and potential (psiS were monitored with TDR probes and tensiometers, respectively, installed at 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m depths. Meteorological variables were monitored with an automatic weather station in the experimental area. The threshold AWC level for the onset of ETc decline was 43%, and 60% for gs, A, E and Y P. Also, psiP was more sensitive to AWC than psiM, and is therefore a better tool for irrigation. When AWC was around 60%, values of psiP and psis were -0.62 MPa and -48.8 kPa, respectively.

  2. Wireless sensor networks for irrigation management

    Sustaining an adequate food supply for the world's population will require advancements in irrigation technology and improved irrigation management. Site-specific irrigation and automatic irrigation scheduling are examples of strategies to deal with declining arable land and limited fresh water reso...

  3. Irrigation water management: Basic principles and applications

    Ella, Victor B.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation defines the term, irrigation, as well as explains the common methods of irrigation in attempt to define the fundamental principles needed to wisely design an irrigation system. It outlines a typical drip irrigation set-up, and discusses management of an irrigation system, including water volume application suggestions.

  4. Sprinkler irrigation-pesticide best management systems

    Ranjha, A. Y.; Peralta, R. C.; Hill, R. W.; Requena, A. M.; Deer, H. M.; Ehteshami, M.

    1992-01-01

    The relative reduction in potential groundwater contamination due to pesticides at several sites in Utah was determined by comparing alternative irrigation system designs, water management practices, and pesticides. Alternative sprinkler irrigation distribution coefficients were used to estimate irrigation application depths. The movement of pesticides through soils following sprinkler irrigations was simulated with a one-dimensional model. Pesticide contamination of groundwater can be reduce...

  5. Irrigation Water Management in Latin America

    Aureo S. de Oliveira; Ricardo Trezza; Eduardo Holzapfel; Ignacio Lorite; Vital Pedro S Paz

    2009-01-01

    Latin American countries show a great potential for expanding their irrigated areas. Irrigation is important for strengthening local and regional economy and for enhancing food security. The present paper aimed at providing a brief review on key aspects of irrigation management in Latin America. Poor irrigation management can have great impact on crop production and on environment while good management reduces the waste of soil and water and help farmers maximizing their profits. It was found...

  6. Contribution to the improvement of irrigation management practices through water - deficit irrigation

    The study aimed at identifying irrigation management practices which could result in water savings through -water deficit irrigation. Two field experiments, one on wheat and the other on sugar beet, were conducted and consisted of refraining from supplying water during specific stages of the cycle so as to identy the period(s) during which water deficit would have a limited effect on crop production. In the case of wheat, high water deficit occurred during the early and during these stages was the most beneficial for the crop. However, one water application during the tillering stage allowed the yield to be lower only to that of the treatement with three irrigations. Irrigation during the stage of grain filling caused the kernel weight to be as high as under three irrigations. The lowest value corresponded to the treatement with one irrigation during grain filling and that under rainfed conditions. For sugar beet, when water stress was was applied early in the crop cycle, its effect could be almost entirely recovered with adequate watering during the rest of the growing season. On the opposite, good watering early in cycle, followed by a stress, resulted in the second lowest yield. Water deficit during the maturity stage had also a limited effect on yield. The most crucial periods for adequate watering were which correspond to late filiar development and root growth which coincided with the highest water requirements period. For the same amount of water savings through deficit irrigation, it was better to partition the stress throughout the cycle than during the critical stages of the crop. However, at the national level, it would have been more important to practice deficit irrigation and the irrigated area. For both crops, high yields as high as water - use efficiency values could have been obtained. 8 tabs; 5 refs ( Author )

  7. Contribution to the improvement of irrigation management practices through water-deficit irrigation

    The study aimed at identifying irrigation management practices which could result in water savings through water-deficit irrigation. Two field experiments, one on wheat and the other on sugar beet, were conducted and consisted of not supplying water during specific stages of the season so as to identify the periods during which water deficit would have a limited effect on crop production. The year was exceptionally dry with a climatic deficit throughout the growing season. In the case of wheat, high water deficit occurred during the early stages and irrigation during these stages was the most beneficial for the crop. For sugar beet, when water stress was applied early in the growing season, its effect could be almost entirely removed with adequate watering during the rest of the growing season. On the other hand, good watering early in the season, followed by a stress, resulted in the second lowest yield. 16 refs, 2 figs, 17 tabs

  8. Dutch experience in irrigation water management modelling

    Broek, van den B.J.

    1996-01-01

    The first workshop organized by the National Committee of the Netherlands of the International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID) has brought many Dutch scientists together in the field of irrigation water management to exchange their experiences in modelling. The models range from rather

  9. Irrigation Water Management in Latin America

    Aureo S de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Latin American countries show a great potential for expanding their irrigated areas. Irrigation is important for strengthening local and regional economy and for enhancing food security. The present paper aimed at providing a brief review on key aspects of irrigation management in Latin America. Poor irrigation management can have great impact on crop production and on environment while good management reduces the waste of soil and water and help farmers maximizing their profits. It was found that additional research is needed to allow a better understanding of crop water requirements under Latin American conditions as well as to provide farmers with local derived information for irrigation scheduling. The advantages of deficit irrigation practices and the present and future opportunities with the application of remote sensing tools for water management were also considered. It is clear that due to the importance of irrigated agriculture, collaborative work among Latin American researchers and institutions is of paramount importance to face the challenges imposed by a growing population, environment degradation, and competition in the global market.

  10. Yield impact of irrigation management transfer : story from the Philippines

    Bandyopadhyay, Sushenjit; Shyamsundar, Priya; Xei, Mei

    2007-01-01

    Irrigation management transfer is an important strategy among donors and governments to strengthen farmer control over water and irrigation infrastructure. This study seeks to understand whether irrigation management transfer is meeting the promise of its commitments. The authors use data from a survey of 68 irrigator associations and 1,020 farm households in the Philippines to estimate th...

  11. New soil water sensors for irrigation management

    Effective irrigation management is key to obtaining the most crop production per unit of water applied and increasing production in the face of competing demands on water resources. Management methods have included calculating crop water needs based on weather station measurements, calculating soil ...

  12. Strategies of Smallholder Irrigation Management in Zimbabwe

    Manzungu, E.

    1999-01-01

    The smallholder irrigation sub-sector in Zimbabwe, according to literature sources, is under threat due to what are called management problems. Poor water management and low crop yields have been cited, as has also been poor financial and economic viability, resulting in heavy government subsidies.

  13. Nucleus management with irrigating vectis

    Srinivasan Aravind

    2009-01-01

    The main objective in modern cataract surgery is to achieve a better unaided visual acuity with rapid post-surgical recovery and minimal surgery-related complications. Early visual rehabilitation and better unaided vision can be achieved only by reducing the incision size. In manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS), incision is between 5.5 to 7 mm. Once the nucleus is prolapsed into the anterior chamber, it can be extracted through the tunnel. Nucleus extraction with an irrigating vect...

  14. Salinity contamination response to changes in irrigation management. Application of geochemical codes

    Iker Garcia-Garizabal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity contamination caused by irrigation has been widely studied but the analysis of geochemical processes regarding agronomic variables has not adequately been considered yet. The research presented here analyzes the influence of changes in irrigation management on salinity contamination, through the use of geochemical modeling techniques, in an agricultural basin during the hydrological year of 2001 and within the period 2005-2008. The results indicate that the changes implemented in irrigation management reduced the masses of salts exported in 72%, although water salinity increased by 25% (this salinity level does not restrict its use for irrigation. The different ionic ratios in drainage water, the results of the salinity balances, and the results of geochemical calculations (mass balances and speciation-solubility indicate, mainly, precipitation of calcite, dissolution of gypsum and halite and cation exchange. The salt contamination index decreased from approximately 70% to levels close to those presented in modern irrigation areas, indicating that the changes in irrigation management were effective. Petrocalcic genesis and punctual sodification of soils can constitute an agroenvironmental problem that requires adequate management of irrigation and drainage considering future modernization of irrigation areas.

  15. Nucleus management with irrigating vectis

    Srinivasan Aravind

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective in modern cataract surgery is to achieve a better unaided visual acuity with rapid post-surgical recovery and minimal surgery-related complications. Early visual rehabilitation and better unaided vision can be achieved only by reducing the incision size. In manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS, incision is between 5.5 to 7 mm. Once the nucleus is prolapsed into the anterior chamber, it can be extracted through the tunnel. Nucleus extraction with an irrigating vectis is a very simple technique, which combines mechanical and hydrostatic forces to express out the nucleus. This technique is time-tested with good results and more than 95% of nuclei in MSICS are extracted in this way offering all the merits of phacoemulsification with the added benefits of having wider applicability, better safety, shorter learning curve and lower cost.

  16. Transferring Irrigation Management to Farmer's Associations : Evidence from the Philippines

    Bandyopadhyay, S; Shyamsundar, P.; Xie, M.

    2010-01-01

    Irrigation management transfer (HAT) is an important strategy among donors and governments that aims to strengthen farmer control over water and irrigation infrastructure. In this study. we use data from a survey of 68 irrigator associations (IAs) and 1020 farm households in the Philippines to examine the impact of IMT on irrigation association performance and on rice yields We find that the presence of IMT is associated with an increase in maintenance activities undertaken by irrigation asso...

  17. Salinity contamination response to changes in irrigation management. Application of geochemical codes

    Iker Garcia-Garizabal; Maria J. Gimeno; Luis F. Auque; Jesus Causape

    2014-01-01

    Salinity contamination caused by irrigation has been widely studied but the analysis of geochemical processes regarding agronomic variables has not adequately been considered yet. The research presented here analyzes the influence of changes in irrigation management on salinity contamination, through the use of geochemical modeling techniques, in an agricultural basin during the hydrological year of 2001 and within the period 2005-2008. The results indicate that the changes implemented in irr...

  18. Wireless sensor networks for canopy temperature sensing and irrigation management

    For researchers, canopy temperature measurements have proven useful in characterizing crop water stress and developing protocols for irrigation management. Today, there is heightened interest in using remote canopy temperature measurements for real-time irrigation scheduling. However, without the us...

  19. Effect of irrigation amounts applied with subsurface drip irrigation on corn evapotranspiration, yield, water use efficiency, and dry matter production in a semiarid climate

    Quantifying the local crop response to irrigation is important for establishing adequate irrigation management strategies. This study evaluated the effect of irrigation applied with subsurface drip irrigation on field corn (Zea mays L.) evapotranspiration (ETc), yield, water use efficiencies (WUE = ...

  20. Using a System Model for Irrigation Management

    de Souza, Leonardo; de Miranda, Eu; Sánchez-Román, Rodrigo; Orellana-González, Alba

    2014-05-01

    When using Systems Thinking variables involved in any process have a dynamic behavior, according to nonstatic relationships with the environment. In this paper it is presented a system dynamics model developed to be used as an irrigation management tool. The model involves several parameters related to irrigation such as: soil characteristics, climate data and culture's physiological parameters. The water availability for plants in the soil is defined as a stock in the model, and this soil water content will define the right moment to irrigate and the water depth required to be applied. The crop water consumption will reduce soil water content; it is defined by the potential evapotranspiration (ET) that acts as an outflow from the stock (soil water content). ET can be estimated by three methods: a) FAO Penman-Monteith (ETPM), b) Hargreaves-Samani (ETHS) method, based on air temperature data and c) Class A pan (ETTCA) method. To validate the model were used data from the States of Ceará and Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the culture was bean. Keyword: System Dynamics, soil moisture content, agricultural water balance, irrigation scheduling.

  1. Chronic Disease Management Programmes: an adequate response to patients’ needs?

    Rijken, M; Bekkema, N.; Boeckxstaens, P.; Schellevis, F G; De Maeseneer, J M; Groenewegen, P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inspired by American examples, several European countries are now developing disease management programmes (DMPs) to improve the quality of care for patients with chronic diseases. Recently, questions have been raised whether the disease management approach is appropriate to respond to patient-defined needs. Objective: In this article we consider the responsiveness of current European DMPs to patients needs defined in terms of multimorbidity, functional and participation problems,...

  2. Irrigation system management assisted by thermal imagery and spatial statistics

    Thermal imaging has the potential to assist with many aspects of irrigation management including scheduling water application, detecting leaky irrigation canals, and gauging the overall effectiveness of water distribution networks used in furrow irrigation. Many challenges exist for the use of therm...

  3. Sustainable management after irrigation system transfer: experiences in Colombia: the RUT irrigation district

    Cobo, N.U.

    2006-01-01

    This book is focused in the formulation of a framework for the sustainable management of the irrigation systems transferred to the users organizations by the government. It describes the experience of the irrigation management transfer in Colombia, the impacts from a technical, social, environment a

  4. Irrigation management with remote sensing. [Navajo Indian Irrigation Project

    Harlan, C.; Heilman, J. L.; Moore, D.; Myers, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Two visible/near IR hand held radiometers and a hand held thermoradiometer were used along with soil moisture and lysimetric measurements in a study of soil moisture distribution in afalfa fields on the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project near farmington, New Mexico. Radiances from irrigated plots were measured and converted to reflectances. Surface soil water contents (o cm to 4 cm) were determined gravimetrically on samples collected at the same time as the spectral measurements. The relationship between the spectral measurements and the crop coefficient were evaluated to demonstrate potential for using spectral measurement to estimate crop coefficient.

  5. WATER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATION

    Antonino Capra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Deficit irrigation (DI is an optimization strategy whereby net returns are maximized by reducing the amount of irrigation water; crops are deliberated allowed to sustain some degree of water deficit and yield reduction. Although the DI strategy dates back to the 1970s, this technique is not usually adopted as a practical alternative to full irrigation by either academics or practitioners. Furthermore, there is a certain amount of confusion regarding its concept. In fact, a review of recent literature dealing with DI has shown that only a few papers use the concept of DI in its complete sense (e.g. both the agronomic and economic aspects. A number of papers only deal with the physiological and agronomical aspects of DI or concern techniques such as Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI and Partial Root Drying (PRD. The paper includes two main parts: i a review of the principal water management strategies under deficit conditions (e.g. conventional DI, RDI and PRD; and ii a description of a recent experimental research conducted by the authors in Sicily (Italy that integrates agronomic, engineering and economic aspects of DI at farm level. Most of the literature reviewed here showed, in general, quite positive effects from DI application, mostly evidenced when the economics of DI is included in the research approach. With regard to the agronomic effects, total fresh mass and total production is generally reduced under DI, whereas the effects on dry matter and product quality are positive, mainly in crops for which excessive soil water availability can cause significant reductions in fruit size, colour or composition (grapes, tomatoes, mangos, etc.. The experimental trial on a lettuce crop in Sicily, during 2005 and 2006, shows that the highest mean marketable yield of lettuce (55.3 t ha-1 in 2005 and 51.9 t ha-1 in 2006 was recorded in plots which received 100% of ET0-PM (reference evapotranspiration by the Penman- Monteith method applied water. In

  6. Implementation of efficient irrigation management for a sustainable agriculture. LIFE+ project IRRIMAN

    Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro; Garcia-Vila, Margarita; Gamero-Ojeda, Pedro; Ascensión Carmona, M.°; Hernandez, David; José Alarcón, Juan; Nicolás, Emilio; Nortes, Pedro; Aroca, Antonio; María de la Rosa, Jose; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Molina, Angel; Torres, Roque; Ruiz, Manuel; Calatrava, Javier

    2016-04-01

    In water scarcity areas, it must be highlighted that the maximum productions of the crops do not necessarily imply maximum profitability. Therefore, during the last years a special interest in the development of deficit irrigation strategies based on significant reductions of the seasonal ET without affecting production or quality has been observed. The strategies of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) are based on the reduction of water supply during non critical periods, the covering of water needs during critical periods and maximizing, at the same time, the production by unit of applied water. But its success greatly depends on the adequate application of the water deficit and requires a continuous and precise control of the plant and soil water status to adjust the water supplies at every crop phenological period. The main objective of this project is to implement, demonstrate and disseminate a sustainable irrigation strategy based on deficit irrigation to promote its large scale acceptance and use in woody crops in Mediterranean agroecosystems, characterized by water scarcity, without affecting the quality standards demanded by exportation markets. With the adoption of this irrigation management we mean to ensure efficient use of water resources, improving quantitative water management, preserving high level of water quality and avoiding misuse and deterioration of water resources. The adoption of efficient irrigation will also lead to increments in water productivity, increments in the potential carbon fixation of the agroecosystem, and decrease energy costs of pressurized irrigation, together with mitigation and adaptation to climate change. The project will achieve the general objective by implication of farmers, irrigation communities, agronomists, industry, consultants, associations and public administration, by increments in social awareness for sustainable irrigation benefits, optimization of irrigation scheduling, improvements in technology, and

  7. Performing drip irrigation by the farmer managed Seguia Khrichfa irrigation system, Morocco

    Kooij, van der S.

    2016-01-01

    Drip irrigation is represented in literature and agricultural policies as a modern and water saving technology. Because this technology is often associated with ‘modern’ agriculture and development, it seems out-of-place in ‘traditional’ farmer managed irrigation systems (FMI

  8. Sustainable management after irrigation system transfer: experiences in Colombia: the RUT irrigation district

    Cobo, N.U.

    2006-01-01

    This book is focused in the formulation of a framework for the sustainable management of the irrigation systems transferred to the users organizations by the government. It describes the experience of the irrigation management transfer in Colombia, the impacts from a technical, social, environment and economic point of view, the current status of some transferred systems and proposes management alternatives in view of sustainability based on an integrated and participatory approach.

  9. Impact of sprinkler irrigation management on the Del Reguero river (Spain). I: Water balance and irrigation performance

    Skhiri, Ahmed; Dechmi, Farida

    2012-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture notably increases crop productivity, but the generated irrigation return flows may induce surface water pollution by nutrients if irrigation water and fertilization management are inadequate. In this study, the Del Reguero watershed (Huesca, Spain) was characterized, and irrigation performance was assessed to identify sprinkler irrigation water management impact on surface and subsurface water losses during the 2008 and 2009 hydrological years. Farmers were interviewed, ...

  10. Regulated deficit irrigation and partial rootzone drying as irrigation management techniques for grapevines

    Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI), an irrigation scheduling technique originally developed for pome and stone fruit orchards, has been adapted successfully for winegrape production. Water deficit is applied during the post-set period of berry development to reduce vegetative growth and, as necessary, berry size of red-winegrape varieties. However, water deficit is avoided during the berry-ripening period, and precise irrigation management is required to ensure minimal competition between ripening berries and vegetative growth. For the variety Shiraz, in particular, this irrigation practice has resulted in significant improvements in wine quality. Partial rootzone drying (PRD) is a new irrigation technique that improves the water use efficiency of winegrape production without significant crop reduction. The technique was developed on the basis of knowledge of the mechanisms controlling transpiration, and requires that approximately half of the root system be always in a dry or drying state while the remainder is irrigated. The wetted and dried sides of the root system are alternated on a 10- to 14-day cycle. PRD irrigation reduced significantly stomatal conductance of vines when compared with vines receiving water to the entire root system. Both systems require high management skills, and accurate monitoring of soil water content is recommended. Drip and other forms of micro-irrigation facilitate the application of RDI and PRD. (author)

  11. Root Zone Sensors for Irrigation Management in Intensive Agriculture

    Jochen Hemming

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop irrigation uses more than 70% of the world’s water, and thus, improving irrigation efficiency is decisive to sustain the food demand from a fast-growing world population. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crop species and/or through the application of efficient irrigation systems, which includes the implementation of a suitable method for precise scheduling. At the farm level, irrigation is generally scheduled based on the grower’s experience or on the determination of soil water balance (weather-based method. An alternative approach entails the measurement of soil water status. Expensive and sophisticated root zone sensors (RZS, such as neutron probes, are available for the use of soil and plant scientists, while cheap and practical devices are needed for irrigation management in commercial crops. The paper illustrates the main features of RZS’ (for both soil moisture and salinity marketed for the irrigation industry and discusses how such sensors may be integrated in a wireless network for computer-controlled irrigation and used for innovative irrigation strategies, such as deficit or dual-water irrigation. The paper also consider the main results of recent or current research works conducted by the authors in Tuscany (Italy on the irrigation management of container-grown ornamental plants, which is an important agricultural sector in Italy.

  12. Salinity management in southern Italy irrigation areas

    Massimo Monteleone

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available After a synthetic review of the most worrisome pressures applied over soils and waters, general criterions and normative principles that have to lead the technical intervention on soil and water protection are accounted, both with respect to farm activity and land planning. The salinity problem is faced, then, through the analysis of the nature and origin of saline soil and of the complex quantitative relationships able to interpret the accumulation and leaching of soil salts. Having specified the theoretical bases of salinity, the related technical features are then considered in order to define a proper management of soil and waters. Particular relevance is assigned to the irrigation and leaching techniques as well as, more briefly, to other agronomic interventions in order to guarantee the most effective salinity control. Another relevant technical facet of salinity control, although quite often neglected or retained of secondary importance in comparison to irrigation, is the drainage and disposal of leached water. The increased sensibility on the environmental impacts that the disposal of these waters can produce has raised today the level of attention on these procedures that are disciplined by norms of law and, therefore, require appropriate techniques of intervention. Finally, after the different scale orders involved in the management of salinity are defined (from the field and farm level up to the land and basin, the fundamental elements in order to work out a risk analysis and an action program are illustrated; some indications about the most up to date salinity monitoring and mapping methods are also provided, considering their great importance to continuously check the possible broadening of salinization and to carefully maintain its control.

  13. Salinity management in southern Italy irrigation areas

    Massimo Monteleone

    Full Text Available After a synthetic review of the most worrisome pressures applied over soils and waters, general criterions and normative principles that have to lead the technical intervention on soil and water protection are accounted, both with respect to farm activity and land planning. The salinity problem is faced, then, through the analysis of the nature and origin of saline soil and of the complex quantitative relationships able to interpret the accumulation and leaching of soil salts. Having specified the theoretical bases of salinity, the related technical features are then considered in order to define a proper management of soil and waters. Particular relevance is assigned to the irrigation and leaching techniques as well as, more briefly, to other agronomic interventions in order to guarantee the most effective salinity control. Another relevant technical facet of salinity control, although quite often neglected or retained of secondary importance in comparison to irrigation, is the drainage and disposal of leached water. The increased sensibility on the environmental impacts that the disposal of these waters can produce has raised today the level of attention on these procedures that are disciplined by norms of law and, therefore, require appropriate techniques of intervention. Finally, after the different scale orders involved in the management of salinity are defined (from the field and farm level up to the land and basin, the fundamental elements in order to work out a risk analysis and an action program are illustrated; some indications about the most up to date salinity monitoring and mapping methods are also provided, considering their great importance to continuously check the possible broadening of salinization and to carefully maintain its control.

  14. Development of Strategies for Sustainable Irrigation Water Management in Russia

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

    2013-04-01

    During 1960 - 1990 years irrigated areas in Russia have increased rapidly, helping to boost agricultural output. Although the impressive achievements of irrigation in this period its large experience indicates problems and failures of irrigation water management. In addition to large water use and low irrigation water efficiency, environmental concerns (excessive water depletion, water quality reduction, water logging, soil degradation) are usually considered like the most significant problem of the irrigation sector. Despite of considerable shrinking of irrigated areas in Russia and decreasing of water withdrawal for irrigation purposes during two last decades a degradation of environment as well as degradation of soil and water resources in irrigated areas was prolonged and will probably continue if current irrigation practices are maintained. Nowadays, in different regions of Russia there are societal demand to restore agricultural irrigation in Russia as answer to challenges from climate pattern changes and degradation of land & water resources. In the respect of these demands there is a need to develop strategies for sustainability of agricultural irrigation in Russia that should be based on three main societal objectives: costeffective use of water in irrigated agriculture at farm level, and satisfactory preserving the natural environment. Therefore sustainable irrigation water management is not only an objective at farm level but also an overall goal at the local and regional as well. A way to achieve sustainability in irrigation water management is to solve the local conflicts arising from the interactions between water use at irrigation areas and surrounding environment. Thus should be based on the development of irrigation framework program including on the irrigation water management issues, policies & decisions making at federal and regional levels should be based on the indicators of environment & irrigation water efficiency monitoring promoting the

  15. Spatial dynamics of water management in irrigated agriculture

    Muralidharan, Daya; Knapp, Keith C.

    2009-05-01

    Irrigated agriculture provides 40% of worldwide food supplies but uses large amounts of scarce freshwater and contributes to environmental degradation. At the very core of this problem lie decisions made by irrigators subject to biophysical relations. This research develops a microeconomic model of irrigation management taking into account the dynamics of plant growth over the season, spatial variability in infiltration of applied irrigation water, and fundamental principles from subsurface hydrology. The analysis shows that spatial variability in water infiltration common to traditional irrigation systems increases both applied irrigation water and deep percolation flows by very substantial amounts compared to uniform infiltration. The analysis demonstrates that efficient irrigation management can significantly reduce both applied water and deep percolation at relatively low costs, at least up to a certain level. A long-run analysis of optimal irrigation systems including capital costs indicates that traditional furrow systems are economically efficient over a wide range of water prices and deep percolation costs. Overall, the results indicate that optimal irrigation management can achieve significant resource conservation and pollution control with low loss in agricultural net benefits and without land retirement, investment in capital-intensive systems, or crop switching.

  16. Improving irrigation management in L'Horta Nord (Valencia, Spain)

    Pascual-Seva, Nuria; San Bautista, Alberto; López-Galarza, Salvador; Maroto, Jose Vicente; Pascual, Bernardo

    2014-05-01

    irrigation system with the other studied variables. Greater yields (p≤0.01) were obtained in the first growing season, drip irrigation and maintaining a higher soil moisture level. When considering the irrigation water use efficiency, the irrigation system showed significant differences (p≤0.01) with greater efficiencies for drip irrigation. Considering the homogeneity of the plots in the area and the similarities of the irrigation managements of chufa with the other crops, the results could be extended to most of the plots and crops in the area.

  17. Irrigation Management and Water Pricing in Turkey

    Cakmak, Erol H.

    2010-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture in Turkey currently consumes 75 percent of the total water consumption, which corresponds to about 30 percent of the renewable water supply. Unfavorable future global climate and economic conditions will increase the stress in the water sector. The operation and maintenance (O&M) of almost all large surface irrigation schemes developed by the state has been transferred to irrigation associations governed by the farmers. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview...

  18. Technology transfer: Promoting irrigation progress and best management practices

    Educational efforts promoting irrigation best management practices are designed to increase adoption of these practices and increase public understanding of the importance of irrigation. They increase visibility and the impact of the Ogallala Aquifer Program and promote affiliated research and exten...

  19. The politics of policy : participatory irrigation management in Andhra Pradesh

    Nikku, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis studies the emergence, process and politics of the Andhra Pradesh reform policy of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM). The reform has been labeled as the 'A? model' of irrigation reforms and supported by external aid agencies like World Bank. Within a short span of time Andhra Pra

  20. Methane efflux in rice paddy field under different irrigation managements

    Diovane Freire Moterle

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Paddy rice fields may contribute to methane (CH4 emission from soil due to anaerobic conditions after flooding. Alternatives to continuous flooding irrigation in rice have been developed to mitigate CH4 efflux into the atmosphere. This study aims to investigate the effects of irrigation managements in the CH4 efflux during the rice growing season. An experiment was carried out at in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, during 2007/08 and 2009/10 growing seasons. The treatments were continuous flooding and intermittent irrigation in 2007/08 and continuous flooding, intermittent irrigation and flush irrigation in 2009/10. Intermittent irrigation is effective in mitigating CH4 efflux from rice fields when climatic conditions enable water absence during cultivation, but its efficiency depends on the electrochemical soil conditions during the flooding cycles.

  1. MANAGEMENT OF IRRIGATION AND NITROGEN FERTILIZERS TO REDUCE AMMONIA VOLATILIZATION

    Fernando Viero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen losses by ammonia (NH3 volatilization can be reduced by appropriate irrigation management or by alternative N sources, replacing urea. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of irrigation management and N source combinations in decreasing NH3 volatilization from an Argissolo Vermelho Distrófico típico cultivated for 28 years with black oat (Avena strigosa and maize (Zea mays, under no-tillage in the region of Depressão Central, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with split plots with three replications, where the main plots consisted of irrigation systems: no irrigation; irrigation immediately before and irrigation immediately after fertilization. The subplots were treated with different N sources: urea, urea with urease inhibitor and slow-release fertilizer, at an N rate of 180 kg ha-1, broadcast over maize, plus a control treatment without N fertilization. Ammonia volatilization was assessed using semi-open static collectors for 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10 days after N fertilization. In general, more than 90 % of total NH3-N losses occurred until three days after N fertilization, with peaks up to 15.4 kg ha-1 d-1. The irrigation was efficient to reduce NH3 losses only when applied after N fertilization. However, reductions varied according to the N fertilizer, and were higher for urea (67 % and slightly lower for urea with urease inhibitor (50 % and slow-release fertilizer (40 %, compared with the mean of the treatments without irrigation and irrigation before fertilization. The use of urea with urease inhibitor instead of urea was only promising under volatilization-favorable conditions (no irrigation or irrigation before N fertilization. Compared to urea, slow-release fertilizer did not reduce ammonia volatilization in any of the rainfed or irrigated treatments.

  2. Intervention Processes and Irrigation Institutions: Sustainability of Farmer Managed Irrigation Systems in Nepal

    Pant, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    With the support from various donors, His Majesty's Government of Nepal has implemented support programmes with a view to transform water availability, improve production, and increase the institutional capabilities of farmers to develop and sustain efficient, fair and reliable irrigation management practices in irrigation systems in Nepal. In this respect, this study aimed to understand the social, administrative and political processes involved in the social and institutional changes brough...

  3. Impact evaluation of the irrigation management reform in northern China

    Huang, Qiuqiong

    2014-05-01

    The paper evaluates the reform in the irrigation sector in northern China, in particular, the transfer of irrigation management to water user associations or contractors from the village committee. With a set of panel data collected in randomly selected villages in northern China, a fixed effects model at the canal level with instrumental variable estimation is used to control for unobservable heterogeneity and endogeneity problem. The results show that WUAs have increased maintenance expenditures, the timeliness of water deliveries, the percent of irrigated area and the rates of fee collection. There are also improvements in irrigation systems managed by contractors but with magnitudes smaller than in the case of WUAs. WUAs or contracting, however, have limited impacts on water use and crop production. Discussions on reasons for the findings of limited impacts offer some suggestions for the next steps of the irrigation reform and call for continued research efforts to collect more data for further impact evaluations.

  4. Lands adequation in Antioquia Department

    The Colombian government programs concerning land management and adequation began since the fifties. When basic frameworks for irrigating, flood control and drainage were initially developed. Several entities have made huge investments in land adequation, that lead to the improvement of national agriculture in plain regions such as Tolima, Boyaca, Magdalena and Valle del Cauca. During the same period the region of Antioquia did not benefit from the projects, mainly due to the lack of government policies concerning land adequation. Finally, in 1983 the Himat launched the small irrigation national program, which gave solutions for water management in several countryside regions of Antioquia. Twenty-nine small water districts are now operating accounting for 3.759 ha which cover 1.510 households. Now days, thanks to the presence of more accurate policies, is the right time to improve irrigation, flood control and drainage towards to a substantial improvement in the Antioquia agricultural sector, that allows it to overcome the challenges of the next millennium. A project called Antioquia nos une 1998-2000 addresses the importance of promoting the right agricultural structure that ensures agricultural mechanization for sustainability and irrigation. On the other hand, it determines the main resources needed to promote the initiative and points out the importance of distributing them in the basis of the needs and problems of the communities

  5. Simulation of soil wetting patterns in drip and sdi irrigation. Effects in design and irrigation management variables

    Rodríguez Sinobas, Leonor; Gil Rodríguez, María; Sánchez Calvo, Raúl; Losada, Ana; Castañon Lion, Guillermo; Juana Sirgado, Luis; Laguna Peñuelas, Francisco; Benitez Buelga, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Conventional drip irrigation is considered one of the most efficient irrigation systems. Alternatively to traditional surface drip irrigation systems (DI), laterals are deployed underneath the soil surface, as in subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), leading to a higher potential efficiency, which is of especial interest in places where water is a limited source. The design and management of DI and SDI systems involve selection of an appropriate combination of emitter discharge rate and spacing bet...

  6. Irrigation Training Manual. Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems [and] Irrigation Reference Manual. A Technical Reference to Be Used with the Peace Corps Irrigation Training Manual T0076 in the Selection, Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems.

    Salazar, LeRoy; And Others

    This resource for trainers involved in irrigated agriculture training for Peace Corps volunteers consists of two parts: irrigation training manual and irrigation reference manual. The complete course should fully prepare volunteers serving as irrigation, specialists to plan, implement, evaluate and manage small-scale irrigation projects in arid,…

  7. Mathematical programming models for optimising irrigation water management in Egypt

    Bader, Esam

    2004-01-01

    A major challenge facing Egypt is the ever increasing demand for water against the fixed water supplies. Therefore, a greater emphasis is currently being placed on the need to improve the efficiency in the use of the available water resources for crop production. The study presents a practical approach to manage and optimise the irrigation water use given water, land and organisational constraints. A linear programming (LP) mathematical model was developed to make decisions about irrigation w...

  8. Farm-Level Risk Management Using Irrigation and Weather Derivatives

    Lin, Shanshan; Mullen, Jeffrey D.; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    An agronomic crop growth model—the Decision Support System for Agro-Technology Transfer—and a constant relative risk aversion utility function are used to examine corn irrigation strategies in Mitchell County, Georgia. Precipitation contracts are designed to help farmers manage risk. Three conclusions originate from the findings. First, the optimal irrigation strategy can greatly increase producers’ certainty-equivalent revenue. Second, changes in water pricing policy would have a limit...

  9. New technologies for modernization and management of irrigation piping

    Alessandro Santini

    2006-01-01

    Improving the efficiency of irrigation piping-systems represents a fundamental prerequisite to achieve a sustainable irrigation under both the environmental the economic point of view. Such an issue is important not only in areas with limited water-budget, but even in those areas where the increasing reduction of the water availability has become a worrying perspective. In the last twenty years, the reduction in water-availability and the increasing costs of system-management have highly limi...

  10. Participatory management reforms in irrigation sector of sindh

    Pakistan has been making efforts to restructuring the century old irrigation system by involving beneficiaries (water users) at various units of the irrigation system management. The main purposes of reforms are to improve O and M (Operation and Maintenance) of irrigation system, to make balance in expenditure and revenue, to improve crop production through efficient use of water, to maintain affordable drainage system and to adopt PWRM (Participatory Water Resource Management) approach. In these reforms, the Sindh provincial irrigation department was transferred to an autonomous body as SmA (Sindh Irrigation and Drainage Authority). Under SmA, CAWB (Canal Area Water Board) at each canal command area, water users association at watercourse level and Farmer Organizations at each secondary canal (Distributary/ Minor) command area were being formed. So far 335 FOs (Farmers Organizations) have been formed in Sindh. To evaluate the performance of FOs in their day to day activities such as water distribution, O and M of irrigation channels, conflict management and revenue (Abiana) collection, IMI (Institutional Maturity Index) of FOs is conducted. The objective IMI analysis was to assess the maturity of FOs in terms of organizational aspects, conflict resolution, financial aspects, water distribution, operation and maintenance, environmental aspects and capacity building of FOs. The IMI analyses identified the weaker aspects of the FOs and need of focus these aspects for improved performance of FOs through effective social mobilization and capacity building activities. (author)

  11. Intervention Processes and Irrigation Institutions: Sustainability of Farmer Managed Irrigation Systems in Nepal

    Pant, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    With the support from various donors, His Majesty's Government of Nepal has implemented support programmes with a view to transform water availability, improve production, and increase the institutional capabilities of farmers to develop and sustain efficient, fair and reliable irrigation management

  12. Drip irrigation management in different chufa planting strategies: yield and irrigation water use efficiency

    Pascual-Seva, Nuria; San Bautista, Alberto; López-Galarza, Salvador; Maroto, José Vicente; Pascual, Bernardo

    2013-04-01

    In a study presented in the EGU assembly 2012, it was analysed how yield and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) in chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. var. sativus), crop, were affected by planting strategy (ridges and flat raised beds, with two and three plant rows along them) and irrigation system [furrow (FI) and drip irrigation (DI)]. Each irrigation session started when the Volumetric Soil Water Content (VSWC) in ridges dropped to 80% of field capacity; beds were irrigated simultaneously with ridges and with the same irrigation duration. R produced lower yield than the two types of beds, and yields in DI were higher than those FI. Ridges led to the highest IWUE with DI, and to the lowest with FI. Then, it was decided to analyse, in DI, how yield and IWUE responded to start each irrigation session when the VSWC in the central point of different planting strategies [ridges (R), and flat raised beds with two (b) and three (B) plant rows along them] dropped to 80% of field capacity. In R and b, plants were irrigated by a single dripline per plant row, while in B two irrigation layouts were assayed: a single dripline per plant row (B3) and two driplines per bed (B2), placing each dripline between two planting rows. Irrigation session stop was also automated as a function of the VSWC. Results show that yield was affected (P˜0.01) by planting strategy; the greatest yield was obtained in b (2.4 kgm-2), differing (P˜0.05) from that obtained in R (2.1 kgm-2), with intermediate yields in B2 (2.3 kgm-2) and B3 (2.3 kgm-2). Yield was not affected (P˜0.05) by the utilisation of two or three driplines in B. Considerably less irrigation water was applied (IWA) in R (376 mm) than in B3 (465 mm), B2 (475 mm) and b (502 mm). This automatic irrigation management, as a function of the VSWC in each planting strategy, lead to adjust the IWA to the plant water requirements, which were similar in all three flat raised beds, since they correspond to the same planting density, that was

  13. Agro-Ecology and Irrigation Technology : Comparative Research on Farmer-Management Irrigation Systems in the Mid- Hills of Nepal

    Parajuli, U.N.

    1999-01-01

    Design and management of irrigation infrastructure in farmer managed irrigation systems (FMISs) are strongly influenced by social and agro-ecological conditions of an area. This thesis analyzes the elements of social and agro-ecological conditions in FMISs in the mid-hills of Nepal and examines their relationships with irrigation infrastructure, especially water division structures. Of the various types of water division structures, this thesis concentrates mainly on the proportioning weir, w...

  14. Traditional Irrigation Management in Betmera-Hiwane, Ethiopia: The Main Peculiarities for the Persistence of Irrigation Practices

    Solomon Habtu; Kitamura Yoshinobu

    2006-01-01

    Traditional irrigation, as part of the ancient agricultural practices in northern Ethiopia (Tigray), has persisted for long time since 500 B.C.,while many newly introduced irrigation projects have usually failed there. The main objective of this study is thus to investigate the peculiarities pertinent to irrigation management and those having contributed for the persistence of traditional irrigation practices for a long period of time. The experience gained from such areas can definitely help make irrigation management system of new irrigation schemes sustainable. Betmera-Hiwane, one of the ancient traditional irrigation areas in Tigray region, was selected for the field study. Direct observations through field visits accompanied by interviews to farmers, local officials, local knowledgeable individuals and higher officials were made. After analyzing the collected primary and secondary information, the main peculiarities that contributed to the persistence of traditional irrigation areas were identified, and they are: the presence of communally constructed local rules, locally designed hydraulic control structures, ownership feeling of the irrigators and accountability of water distributors to the irrigation management, the culture for mobilizing communal resources and the culture of self-initiating local water management strategies.

  15. New technologies for modernization and management of irrigation piping

    Alessandro Santini

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Improving the efficiency of irrigation piping-systems represents a fundamental prerequisite to achieve a sustainable irrigation under both the environmental the economic point of view. Such an issue is important not only in areas with limited water-budget, but even in those areas where the increasing reduction of the water availability has become a worrying perspective. In the last twenty years, the reduction in water-availability and the increasing costs of system-management have highly limited the cultivated areas which are irrigated by means of water-distribution nets. In the recent years, most of the Italian investments in the irrigation-field have been oriented toward upgrading the open-channels irrigation nets, which were built starting from 50’, by substituting these latter with pipes. The modernization of the piping-systems has been achieved via innovative design solutions, such as back and loading water tanks or towers, which have lead to an improvement into the flexibility of the net management. Nearby the employment of such technologies, nowadays it is also possible to use the knowledge of the physical processes involved in the management of an irrigation system, starting from energy as well as mass exchange in the continuum soil-plant-atmosphere till to a detailed hydraulic description of a water distribution net under different flow regimes. Such a type of knowledge may be used to improve as well as buildup mathematical models for a decisions-support toward the management of complex irrigation districts. The acquirement of the data needed to implement such models has been deeply improved thanks to Geographical Information Systems (GIS, and techniques to analyze satellite-data coming from the Earth observation, which enable to characterize and monitor vegetation at different spatial, spectral and radiometric resolutions.

  16. WATER MANAGEMENT POLICIES TO IMPROVE SURFACE IRRIGATION

    S. Uku

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available An economic and environmental analysis of various policy measures is undertaken in this paper. A bio economic model of agricultural activities in the Bardenas irrigation area of the Ebro basin in Spain is constructed. The model includes production function of crops, estimated with EPIC crop growth package. The model results show the effects on crop yields, water and nitrogen demand, and on control nitrogen pollution when the different measures are considered. These measures are evaluated by their cost efficiency. A standard in water applied by 25 per cent is the best measure to abate nitrogen pollution, following by the quantitative limit on applied fertilizer and nitrogen price increases. The limit on water applied is an appropriate measure to avoid the overuse of water resources, and this option would require the establishment limits on concession to the irrigation district associations, measure the flow and control the water applied by farmers.

  17. MANAGEMENT OF IRRIGATION AND NITROGEN FERTILIZERS TO REDUCE AMMONIA VOLATILIZATION

    Fernando Viero; Cimélio Bayer; Renan Costa Beber Vieira; Eduardo Carniel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nitrogen losses by ammonia (NH3) volatilization can be reduced by appropriate irrigation management or by alternative N sources, replacing urea. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of irrigation management and N source combinations in decreasing NH3 volatilization from an Argissolo Vermelho Distrófico típico cultivated for 28 years with black oat (Avena strigosa) and maize (Zea mays), under no-tillage in the region of Depressão Central, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazi...

  18. Assessment of alternative water management options for irrigated agriculture

    Jhorar, R.K.; Smit, A.A.M.F.R.; Roest, C.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation study on alternative water management strategies was carried out for Sirsa Irrigation Circle in Haryana, covering an area of about 4800 km(2). Results showed that crop evapotranspiration and soil salinity development under reduction in canal water supply and increase in groundwater use,

  19. Using soil water sensors to improve irrigation management

    Irrigation water management has to do with the appropriate application of water to soils, in terms of amounts, rates, and timing to satisfy crop water demands while protecting the soil and water resources from degradation. In this regard, sensors can be used to monitor the soil water status; and som...

  20. Management of irrigation water storages: carryover rights and capacity sharing

    Hughes, Neal

    2009-01-01

    The intertemporal management of irrigation water involves a consumption-storage decision, where the benefits of using water today are evaluated against the uncertain benefits of storing water for future use. Traditionally in Australia, state governments have centrally managed the major water storages: making decisions on water allocations given prevailing storage levels. However, in practice there are a number of factors which may prevent a centralised approach from achieving an optimal alloc...

  1. Irrigation management with remote sensing techniques. Crop water requirements and biophysical indicators

    Toureiro, Célia; Serralheiro, Ricardo; Shahidian, Shakib

    2013-01-01

    In irrigated agriculture, increasing water management efficiency is the way to save water and to render irrigation a sustainable activity. In the present work procedures with remote sensing are used to determine the contents of available water in the soil at each moment and therefore the opportunity for the application of the water volume strictly necessary to optimize crop growth (irrigation opportunity and irrigation amount). The analysis applied to the Irrigation District of Divor, Évora, ...

  2. Irrigation Water Management in Latin America Manejo del Agua de Riego en Sudamérica

    Aureo S. de Oliveira; Ricardo Trezza; Eduardo Holzapfel; Ignacio Lorite; Vital Pedro S Paz

    2009-01-01

    Latin American countries show a great potential for expanding their irrigated areas. Irrigation is important for strengthening local and regional economy and for enhancing food security. The present paper aimed at providing a brief review on key aspects of irrigation management in Latin America. Poor irrigation management can have great impact on crop production and on environment while good management reduces the waste of soil and water and help farmers maximizing their profits. It was found...

  3. Sustainability analysis for irrigation water management: concepts, methodology, and application to the Aral Sea region

    Cai, Ximing; McKinney, Daene C.; Rosegrant, Mark W.

    2001-01-01

    Sustainable irrigation water management should simultaneously achieve two objectives: sustaining irrigated agriculture for food security and preserving the associated natural environment. A stable relationship should be maintained between these two objectives now and in the future, while potential conflicts between these objectives should be mitigated through appropriate irrigation practices. Lessons learned from unsustainable water management practices around the world demonstrate the necess...

  4. The success of a policy model: Irrigation management transfer in Mexico

    Rap, E.R.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis studies the emergence, process and outcomes of the Mexican policy of Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT). Under the influence of neo-liberal government policies, the transfer of government-managed irrigation districts to water users' associations (WUAs) has radically changed irrigation

  5. Management Strategies for Transition to Sustainable Agricultural Irrigation

    Ahlfeld, D.; Mulligan, K.; Brown, C. M.; Yang, Y. E.

    2011-12-01

    In many agricultural regions of the world, aquifer overdrafting for agricultural irrigation continues. Management strategies are investigated that transition from this unsustainable use of water to a future, diminished use of irrigation. Complications arising from climate change and volatile energy prices are considered. A command and control strategy is modeled using combined simulation and optimization techniques. This strategy is compared with market based mechanisms such as cap and trade and Pigouvian pricing that are modeled using agent based methods. The formulations are designed to model the effects of different management strategies including those that seek to avoid rapid changes in basin-wide water utilization (considered a surrogate for agricultural production) over this time period. Formulations also include limits on total reduction in aquifer storage and controls on streamflow in the basin. The management formulations used in this study are developed for planning horizons of 50 to 100 years and use the Republican River Basin in the High Plains Aquifer as a case study. Historical and climate-adjusted recharge patterns are considered. Spatial and temporal variation in total irrigated acreage and the aquifer storage change determined by the solutions of the management formulations are analyzed and presented.

  6. Sustainable management after irrigation system transfer : experiences in Colombia - the RUT irrigation district

    Urrutia Cobo, N.

    2006-01-01

    Colombiais a tropical country located in South America. It has a total area of 114 million ha. In Colombia two irrigation sectors are distinguished: the small-scale irrigation and the large-scale irrigation sector. The small-scale irrigation sector is developed on lands locat

  7. Remote sensing technologies applied to the irrigation water management on a golf course

    Pedras, Celestina; Lança, Rui; Martins, Fernando; Soares, Cristina; Guerrero, Carlos; Paixão, Helena

    2015-04-01

    An adequate irrigation water management in a golf course is a complex task that depends upon climate (multiple microclimates) and land cover (where crops differ in morphology, physiology, plant density, sensitivity to water stress, etc.). These factors change both in time and space on a landscape. A direct measurement provides localized values of the evapotranspiration and climate conditions. Therefore this is not a practical or economical methodology for large-scale use due to spatial and temporal variability of vegetation, soils, and irrigation management strategies. Remote sensing technology combines large scale with ground measurement of vegetation indexes. These indexes are mathematical combinations of different spectral bands mostly in the visible and near infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. They represent the measures of vegetation activity that vary not only with the seasonal variability of green foliage, but also across space, thus they are suitable for detecting spatial landscape variability. The spectral vegetation indexes may enhance irrigation management through the information contained in spectral reflectance data. This study was carried out on the 18th fairway of the Royal Golf Course, Vale do Lobo, Portugal, and it aims to establish the relationship between direct measurements and vegetation indexes. For that it is required (1) to characterize the soil and climatic conditions, (2) to assessment of the irrigation system, (3) to estimate the evapotranspiration (4) and to calculate the vegetation indices. The vegetation indices were determined with basis on spectral bands red, green and blue, RGB, and near Infrared, NIR, obtained from the analysis of images acquired from a unpiloted aerial vehicle, UAV, platform. The measurements of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) were obtained from two meteorological stations located in the study area. The landscape evapotranspiration, ETL, was determined in the fairway with multiple microclimates

  8. Water Management For Drip Irrigated Corn In The Arid Southeastern Anatolia Project Area In Turkey

    Yazar, A.; Gencel, B.

    Microirrigation has the potential to minimize application losses to evaporation, runoff and deep percolation; improve irrigation control with smaller, frequent applications; supply nutrients to the crop as needed; and improve crop yields. The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), when completed, 1.7 million ha of land will be irrigated. Wa- ter supplies are limited, and traditional irrigation practices result in high losses and low irrigation efficiences. This study was conducted to evaluate surface drip irrigation on crop performance. The effect of irrigation frequency and amount on crop yield, yield components, water use, and water use efficiency of corn (Zea mays L., PIO- 3267) were investigated in the Harran Plain in the arid Southeastern Turkey on a clay textured Harran Soil Series. Irrigation frequencies were once in three-day, and once in six-day; irrigation levels varied from full (I-100), medium (I-67; 2/3rd of full), and low (I-33; 1/3rd of full). The full irrigation treatment received 100% of the cumula- tive evaporation within the irrigation interval. Liquid nitrogen was injected into the irrigation water throughout the growing season. Treatments received the same amount of fertilizers. Highest average corn grain yield (11920 kg/ha) was obtained from the full irrigation treatment (I-100) with six-day irrigation interval. Irrigation intervals did not affect corn yields; however, deficit irrigation affected crop yields by reducing seed mass, and the seed number. Maximum water use efficiency (WUE) was found as 2.27 kg/m3 in the I-33 treatment plots with three-day irrigation interval. On the clay soil at Harran, irrigation frequencies are less critical than proper irrigation management for drip irrigation systems to avoid water deficits that have a greater effect on corn yields. The results revealed that about 40% water saving is possible with drip irrigation as compared to traditional surface irrigation methods in the region.

  9. Irrigation Strategies and Crop Breeding As Complementary Measures for Improved Water Management and Ecosystem Services

    Vico, G.; Manzoni, S.; Weih, M.; Porporato, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    The projected population growth and changes in climate and dietary habits will further increase the pressure on water resources globally. Within precision farming, a host of technical solutions has been developed to reduce water consumption for agricultural uses. Examples are the shift from scheduled to demand-based irrigation and the use of sophisticated water distribution techniques. The next frontier for a more sustainable agriculture is the combination of reduced water requirements with enhanced ecosystem services. Currently, staple grains are obtained from annuals crops. Enhanced ecosystem services could be obtained shifting from annual to perennial crops, obtained by means of targeted breeding. In fact, perennial plants, with their continuous soil cover and the higher allocation of resources to the below ground, contribute to the reduction of soil erosion, water and nutrient losses, while enhancing carbon sequestration in the root zone. We explore here the implications for water management at the field- to farm-scale of both improved irrigation methods and targeted breeding. A probabilistic description of the soil water balance and crop development is employed to quantify water requirements and yields and their inter-annual variability, as a function of rainfall patterns, soil and crop features. Optimal irrigation strategies are thus defined in terms of maximization of yield and minimization of required irrigation volumes and their inter-annual variability. The probabilistic model is parameterized based on an extensive meta-analysis of traits of co-generic annual and perennial species (including both selected and wild species) to explore the consequences for water requirements of shifting from annual to perennial crops under current and future climates. The larger and more developed roots of perennial crops may allow a better exploitation of soil water resources than annual species. At the same time, perennial crops may require adequate water supply for

  10. Weighing lysimeter studies as basis for irrigation management

    Cepuder, P.; Nolz, R.

    2009-04-01

    Efficient irrigation management aims for an optimum water supply for the plant in order to maximize yield on the one hand, and minimize losses of water and energy on the other hand. One approach in this regard is to keep the soil water content within an ideal range for plant water uptake. Therefore, it is essential to know the current soil water content during the vegetation period. In general, the soil water content is increased by rainfall R and irrigation I, and it is decreased by evapotranspiration ET and deep percolation P. Provided that the necessary data are available, the change of the soil water content dS can be computed using the water balance equation dS=R+I-ET-P. Beside this method, the soil water content can be measured using soil water sensors. For example, FDR-sensors can measure the water content in a soil profile with a high temporal resolution. Both methods are the basis for irrigation scheduling in the Marchfeld, an intensively used agricultural area in the eastern part of Austria. The lysimeter- and agro-meteorological station in Groß-Enzersdorf lies in the Marchfeld. The lysimeters are operated by the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna. Two weighing lysimeters are used to adapt and improve irrigation management practices. One lysimeter is grown with grass in order to determine the reference-evapotranspiration, the second one is planted with different annual crops that are typical for the Marchfeld. The amount of percolation water and the change of weight are measured and stored automatically. FDR-sensors are installed in the lysimeter for measuring the soil water content in different soil layers. ET is determined from the lysimeter data and calculated from equations, e.g. Penman-Montieth. The essential weather data originate from the nearby meteorological station of the Austrian national weather service. As a result, daily measured soil water content is compared with calculated soil water and FDR-sensor readings

  11. A study on the role and importance of irrigation management in integrated river basin management.

    Koç, Cengiz

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the role and the importance of irrigation management in integrated river basin management during arid and semi-arid conditions. The study has been conducted at Büyük Menderes Basin which is located in southwest of Turkey and where different sectors (irrigation, drinking and using, industry, tourism, ecology) related to the use and distribution of water sources compete with each other and also where the water demands for important ecological considerations is evaluated and where the river pollution has reached important magnitudes. Since, approximately 73% of the water resources of the basin are utilized for irrigation; as a result, irrigation management becomes important for basin management. Irrigation operations have an effect on basin soil resources, water users, and environmental and ecological conditions. Thus, the determination of the role and importance of irrigation management require an integrated and interdisciplinary approach. In the studies conducted in Turkey, usually the environmental reactions have been analyzed in the basin studies and so the other topics related to integrated river basin management have not been taken into account. Therefore, this study also is to address these existing gaps in the literature and practice. PMID:26148688

  12. Real-time drought forecasting system for irrigation management

    Ceppi, A.; Ravazzani, G.; Corbari, C.; Salerno, R.; Meucci, S.; Mancini, M.

    2014-09-01

    In recent years frequent periods of water scarcity have enhanced the need to use water more carefully, even in European areas which traditionally have an abundant supply of water, such as the Po Valley in northern Italy. In dry periods, water shortage problems can be enhanced by conflicting uses of water, such as irrigation, industry and power production (hydroelectric and thermoelectric). Furthermore, in the last decade the social perspective in relation to this issue has been increasing due to the possible impact of climate change and global warming scenarios which emerge from the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC, 2013). Hence, the increased frequency of drought periods has stimulated the improvement of irrigation and water management. In this study we show the development and implementation of the PREGI real-time drought forecasting system; PREGI is an Italian acronym that means "hydro-meteorological forecast for irrigation management". The system, planned as a tool for irrigation optimization, is based on meteorological ensemble forecasts (20 members) at medium range (30 days) coupled with hydrological simulations of water balance to forecast the soil water content on a maize field in the Muzza Bassa Lodigiana (MBL) consortium in northern Italy. The hydrological model was validated against measurements of latent heat flux acquired by an eddy-covariance station, and soil moisture measured by TDR (time domain reflectivity) probes; the reliability of this forecasting system and its benefits were assessed in the 2012 growing season. The results obtained show how the proposed drought forecasting system is able to have a high reliability of forecast at least for 7-10 days ahead of time.

  13. Role of sediment in the design and management of irrigation canals : Sunsari Morang Irrigation Scheme, Nepal

    Paudel, K.

    2010-01-01

    Sediment transport in irrigation canals The sediment transport aspect is a major factor in irrigation development as it determines to a large extent the sustainability of an irrigation scheme, particularly in case of unlined canals in alluvial soils. Investigations in this respect started since Ken

  14. Simulation and Management of On-Demand Irrigation Systems: A combined agrological and remote sensing approach

    D'Urso, G.

    2001-01-01

    Rational use of water resources in agriculture requires improvements in the efficiency of irrigation. Many irrigation systems, particularly in Mediterranean regions, have been enhanced by replacing open channel conveyance systems with pressurised pipelines. This allows to provide water on-demand. Increased demand of water for civil and industrial uses and a progressive reduction of available water resources compel a more efficient use of irrigation water. To achieve this goal irrigation manag...

  15. A database program for enhancing irrigation district management in the Ebro Valley (Spain)

    Playán Jubillar, Enrique; Cavero Campo, José; Mantero, Ignacio; Salvador Esteban, Raquel; Lecina Brau, Sergio; Faci González, José María; Andrés, Jesús; Salvador, V; Cardeña, Gustavo; Ramón, Saúl; Lacueva, José Luis; Tejero-Juste, Miguel; Ferri, J.; Martínez-Cob, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade irrigation districts in the Ebro Valley of Spain have started to use database applications to enhance their management operations. Such applications often put more emphasis on administrative issues than on water management issues. A new irrigation district management software called “Ador” is presented in this paper. This database application has been designed to overcome limitations identified in an analysis of the software used in the study area. Ador can be used in irrig...

  16. Water and energy management in an automated irrigation district

    Stambouli, Talel; Faci González, José María; Zapata Ruiz, Nery

    2014-01-01

    An important modernization process providing pressurized irrigation systems to the traditional surface irrigation districts has taken place in Spain over the last 20 years However, an adverse consequence of modernization is the important increase in the energy cost in the modernized irrigation districts, which is aggravated by the current high energy prices. The Almudévar irrigation district (AID), a traditional surface irrigation district, was transformed into a pressurized sprinkler irrigat...

  17. Real-time drought forecasting system for irrigation managment

    Ceppi, Alessandro; Ravazzani, Giovanni; Corbari, Chiara; Masseroni, Daniele; Meucci, Stefania; Pala, Francesca; Salerno, Raffaele; Meazza, Giuseppe; Chiesa, Marco; Mancini, Marco

    2013-04-01

    In recent years frequent periods of water scarcity have enhanced the need to use water more carefully, even in in European areas traditionally rich of water such as the Po Valley. In dry periods, the problem of water shortage can be enhanced by conflictual use of water such as irrigation, industrial and power production (hydroelectric and thermoelectric). Further, over the last decade the social perspective on this issue is increasing due to climate change and global warming scenarios which come out from the last IPCC Report. The increased frequency of dry periods has stimulated the improvement of irrigation and water management. In this study we show the development and implementation of the real-time drought forecasting system Pre.G.I., an Italian acronym that stands for "Hydro-Meteorological forecast for irrigation management". The system is based on ensemble prediction at long range (30 days) with hydrological simulation of water balance to forecast the soil water content in every parcel over the Consorzio Muzza basin. The studied area covers 74,000 ha in the middle of the Po Valley, near the city of Lodi. The hydrological ensemble forecasts are based on 20 meteorological members of the non-hydrostatic WRF model with 30 days as lead-time, provided by Epson Meteo Centre, while the hydrological model used to generate the soil moisture and water table simulations is the rainfall-runoff distributed FEST-WB model, developed at Politecnico di Milano. The hydrological model was validated against measurements of latent heat flux and soil moisture acquired by an eddy-covariance station. Reliability of the forecasting system and its benefits was assessed on some cases-study occurred in the recent years.

  18. Role of sediment in the design and management of irrigation canals : Sunsari Morang Irrigation Scheme, Nepal

    Paudel, K.

    2010-01-01

    Sediment transport in irrigation canals The sediment transport aspect is a major factor in irrigation development as it determines to a large extent the sustainability of an irrigation scheme, particularly in case of unlined canals in alluvial soils. Investigations in this respect started since Kennedy published his channel-forming discharge theory in 1895. Subsequently different theories have been developed and are used around the world. All of them assume uniform and steady flow conditions ...

  19. Water-Saving Irrigation Management and Decision Support System Based on WEBGIS

    CHEN, ZHIFANG; Wang, JingLei; Sun, Jingsheng; Duan, Aiwang; Liu, Zugui; Song, Ni; Liu, Xiaofei

    2011-01-01

    Part 1: Decision Support Systems, Intelligent Systems and Artificial Intelligence Applications International audience To improve the management of irrigation district is a key to develop water-saving agriculture. Based on the basic principles of water-saving irrigation, and using the method of Modified Penman Monteith and water balance equation, The system of irrigation management and decision support based on WEBGIS was developed, which is according to the soil moisture, crop growth st...

  20. Optimizing Flood and Sediment Management of Spate Irrigation In Aba'ala Plains

    Gebrehiwot, K.; Mehari Haile, A.; Fraiture, de C.M.S.; Demissie Chulkalla, A.; Embaye, T.G.

    2015-01-01

    The Aba’ala spate irrigation systems, traditional and modern, have experienced different set of floodwater and sediment management problems. Despite the dire need of alternative spate irrigation system layout, operational strategy and locally maintainable structures, efforts made to manage floodwate

  1. Water, Works and Wages The everyday politics of Irrigation management reform in the Philippines

    Oorthuizen, H.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Water, Works and Wages gives an in-depth assessment of the world-famous ‘Philippine experience’ in water resource management. It unravels the socio-political dimensions of large-scale irrigation management and shows the impact of turnover policies, the change to a financially autonomous irrigation a

  2. Root Zone Sensors for Irrigation Management in Intensive Agriculture

    Jochen Hemming; Paolo Marzialetti; Bernardo Rapi; Laura Bacci; Piero Battista; Fernando Malorgio; Giorgio Incrocci; Luca Incrocci; Alberto Pardossi; Jos Balendonck

    2009-01-01

    Crop irrigation uses more than 70% of the world’s water, and thus, improving irrigation efficiency is decisive to sustain the food demand from a fast-growing world population. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crop species and/or through the application of efficient irrigation systems, which includes the implementation of a suitable method for precise scheduling. At the farm level, irrigation is generally scheduled based on the grower’s experience or on th...

  3. Soil and Water Management in Spate Irrigation Systems in Eritrea

    Tesfai, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Spate irrigation has been practised over 100 years in the Red Sea coastal zone of Eritrea such as the Sheeb area. Main problem of the spate irrigation system is water shortage caused by irregular rainfall in the highlands of Eritrea and breaching of the irrigation structures by destructive big floods. Annually, a tremendous amount of soil with nutrients is eroded from the adjacent highlands, transported by seasonal streams (wadis) and deposited on the lowlands in the irrigated fields. The dom...

  4. A management perspective on the performance of the irrigation subsector.

    Nijman, Ch.

    1993-01-01

    INVESTMENT IN IRRIGATION has been immense in the past. Estimated average annual investments of US$ 15 billion makes irrigation the largest subsector of the agricultural sector, that is itself by far the largest sector of development investment. Since the mid-1960s the awareness spread that the performance of irrigation investments was far below its potential. The size of this underperformance is well represented by Seckler's alarming conclusion that the average irrigation investment costs twi...

  5. Effect of irrigation management on soil salinization in Manas River Valley,Xinjiang,China

    2008-01-01

    The irrigated area of Manas River Valley in Northwest China is an example of the successful reclamation of massive land affected by shallow ground water levels and salinization.To determine the effect of irrigation management practices on soil salinization,soil profiles representing various soil types were sampled.The historical records on the characteristics of irrigation management practices,groundwater level and soil salts accumulation in this region at four key periods,namely:flood irrigation without drainage;flood irrigation with drainage but of low efficiency;irrigation in combination with lined irrigation canals and exploitation of groundwater;and irrigation with the application of water-saving irrigation techniques,were analyzed emphatically.In addition,the salinization status of cultivated land in 2010 and 2020 was also predicted by using analogism according to the relationship between soil salinization and irrigation practices.The results revealed that the application of the traditional irrigation methods,such as flood irrigation and ridge irrigation,resulted in a rapid rising of groundwater level and salts accumulation in soil surface layers.However,with the way of well irrigation and well drainage,the groundwater level and the desalinization in soil layers apparently lowered,leading to a substantial increase of crop yield.Currently,the application of drip irrigation under mulch decreased the salts concentration in soil layers and increased the crop yield.With the continuous application of drip irrigation,the average soil desalinization efficiency in soil layers may increase.It is predicted that the percentage of salinized land would be reduced to 35%-40% when irrigation water is utilized reasonably in 2010.With the high efficient utilization of irrigation water after 2020,the salinized land would remain below 30%.It is concluded that with the improvement of irrigation management,an obvious desalinization would appear in the soil surface layers and the

  6. Principles of root water uptake, soil salinity and crop yield for optimizing irrigation management

    The paper reviews the principles of water and salt transport, root water uptake, crop salt tolerance, water quality, and irrigation methods which should be considered in optimizing irrigation management for sustained, viable agriculture with protection of the quality of land and water resources. In particular, the advantages of high-frequency irrigation at small leaching fractions with closed systems are discussed, for which uptake-weighted mean salinity is expected to correlate best with crop yields. Optimization of irrigation management depends on the scale considered. Non-technical problems which are often much harder to solve than technical problems, may well be most favourable for new projects in developing countries. (author)

  7. Advanced techniques using the plant as indicator of irrigation management

    Barbara dos Santos Esteves

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The methodologies which are considered the most promising for irrigation management are those based on the analysis of the water status of the plants themselves. This justifies the study and improvement of indicators based on automatic and continuous measures to enable real-time monitoring data, as indices from sap flow, dendrometry and leaf turgor pressure techniques. The aim of this paper is to analyze such methodologies in order to demonstrate their principles, advantages and challenges. In conclusion, the methodologies analyzed still have many technological advances and challenges before being presented to the final user. The future research should work these tools for elaboration of technical indexes that allow their simplification, on the instrumental point of view, and the interpretation of their results.

  8. Decentralising Zimbabwe’s water management: The case of Guyu-Chelesa irrigation scheme

    Tambudzai, Rashirayi; Everisto, Mapedza; Gideon, Zhou

    Smallholder irrigation schemes are largely supply driven such that they exclude the beneficiaries on the management decisions and the choice of the irrigation schemes that would best suit their local needs. It is against this background that the decentralisation framework and the Dublin Principles on Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) emphasise the need for a participatory approach to water management. The Zimbabwean government has gone a step further in decentralising the management of irrigation schemes, that is promoting farmer managed irrigation schemes so as to ensure effective management of scarce community based land and water resources. The study set to investigate the way in which the Guyu-Chelesa irrigation scheme is managed with specific emphasis on the role of the Irrigation Management Committee (IMC), the level of accountability and the powers devolved to the IMC. Merrey’s 2008 critique of IWRM also informs this study which views irrigation as going beyond infrastructure by looking at how institutions and decision making processes play out at various levels including at the irrigation scheme level. The study was positioned on the hypothesis that ‘decentralised or autonomous irrigation management enhances the sustainability and effectiveness of irrigation schemes’. To validate or falsify the stated hypothesis, data was gathered using desk research in the form of reviewing articles, documents from within the scheme and field research in the form of questionnaire surveys, key informant interviews and field observation. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used to analyse data quantitatively, whilst content analysis was utilised to analyse qualitative data whereby data was analysed thematically. Comparative analysis was carried out as Guyu-Chelesa irrigation scheme was compared with other smallholder irrigation scheme’s experiences within Zimbabwe and the Sub Saharan African region at large. The findings were that whilst the

  9. Management of irrigation frequency and nitrogen fertilization to mitigate GHG and NO emissions from drip-fertigated crops

    Abalos, Diego, E-mail: diego.abalos@upm.es [ETSI Agronomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez-Martin, Laura; Garcia-Torres, Lourdes [ETSI Agronomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Groenigen, Jan Willem van [Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Vallejo, Antonio [ETSI Agronomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Drip irrigation combined with split application of fertilizer nitrogen (N) dissolved in the irrigation water (i.e. drip fertigation) is commonly considered best management practice for water and nutrient efficiency. As a consequence, its use is becoming widespread. Some of the main factors (water-filled pore space, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup −}) regulating the emissions of greenhouse gases (i.e. N{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) and NO from agroecosystems can easily be manipulated by drip fertigation without yield penalties. In this study, we tested management options to reduce these emissions in a field experiment with a melon (Cucumis melo L.) crop. Treatments included drip irrigation frequency (weekly/daily) and type of N fertilizer (urea/calcium nitrate) applied by fertigation. Crop yield, environmental parameters, soil mineral N concentrations and fluxes of N{sub 2}O, NO, CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} were measured during 85 days. Fertigation with urea instead of calcium nitrate increased N{sub 2}O and NO emissions by a factor of 2.4 and 2.9, respectively (P < 0.005). Daily irrigation reduced NO emissions by 42% (P < 0.005) but increased CO{sub 2} emissions by 21% (P < 0.05) compared with weekly irrigation. We found no relation between irrigation frequency and N{sub 2}O emissions. Based on yield-scaled Global Warming Potential as well as NO cumulative emissions, we conclude that weekly fertigation with a NO{sub 3}{sup −}-based fertilizer is the best option to combine agronomic productivity with environmental sustainability. Our study shows that adequate management of drip fertigation, while contributing to the attainment of water and food security, may provide an opportunity for climate change mitigation. - Highlights: • The effect of fertigation management techniques on GHG and NO emissions was studied. • Fertigation with urea instead of calcium nitrate increased N{sub 2}O by a factor of 2.4. • Daily irrigation reduced NO (42%) but increased CO

  10. Management of irrigation frequency and nitrogen fertilization to mitigate GHG and NO emissions from drip-fertigated crops

    Drip irrigation combined with split application of fertilizer nitrogen (N) dissolved in the irrigation water (i.e. drip fertigation) is commonly considered best management practice for water and nutrient efficiency. As a consequence, its use is becoming widespread. Some of the main factors (water-filled pore space, NH4+ and NO3−) regulating the emissions of greenhouse gases (i.e. N2O, CO2 and CH4) and NO from agroecosystems can easily be manipulated by drip fertigation without yield penalties. In this study, we tested management options to reduce these emissions in a field experiment with a melon (Cucumis melo L.) crop. Treatments included drip irrigation frequency (weekly/daily) and type of N fertilizer (urea/calcium nitrate) applied by fertigation. Crop yield, environmental parameters, soil mineral N concentrations and fluxes of N2O, NO, CH4 and CO2 were measured during 85 days. Fertigation with urea instead of calcium nitrate increased N2O and NO emissions by a factor of 2.4 and 2.9, respectively (P < 0.005). Daily irrigation reduced NO emissions by 42% (P < 0.005) but increased CO2 emissions by 21% (P < 0.05) compared with weekly irrigation. We found no relation between irrigation frequency and N2O emissions. Based on yield-scaled Global Warming Potential as well as NO cumulative emissions, we conclude that weekly fertigation with a NO3−-based fertilizer is the best option to combine agronomic productivity with environmental sustainability. Our study shows that adequate management of drip fertigation, while contributing to the attainment of water and food security, may provide an opportunity for climate change mitigation. - Highlights: • The effect of fertigation management techniques on GHG and NO emissions was studied. • Fertigation with urea instead of calcium nitrate increased N2O by a factor of 2.4. • Daily irrigation reduced NO (42%) but increased CO2 (21%) emissions. • Drip-fertigation management provides an opportunity for climate change

  11. Determinants of Household Contributions to Collective Irrigation Management: A Case of the Doho Rice Scheme in Uganda

    Nakano, Yuko; Otsuka, Keijiro

    2010-01-01

    In order to explore the conditions of successful irrigation management, this study investigates the determinants of household contributions to the cleaning of irrigation channels and the availability of water. By using primary data collected in an irrigation scheme in Uganda, we find that household contributions to the cleaning of irrigation channels are determined by the scarcity of irrigation water, opportunity cost of labor, and private benefit associated with plot size. We also find that ...

  12. Adapting irrigation management to water scarcity: constraints of plant growth, hydraulics and carbon assimilation.

    Water shortages are responsible for the greatest crop losses around the world and are expected to worsen. In arid areas where agriculture is dependent on irrigation, various forms of deficit irrigation management have been suggested to optimize crop yields for available soil water. The relationshi...

  13. Middle East Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems project-Some science products

    Similarities in the aridity of environments and water scarcity for irrigation allow common approaches to irrigation management problems and research methods in the Southern Great Plains of the United States and the Middle East. Measurement methods involving weighing lysimeters and eddy covariance sy...

  14. Managing Irrigation Water to Enhance Crop Productivity under Water Limiting Conditions: A Role for Isotopic Techniques

    Agriculture consumes about 75% of all freshwater withdrawals. This amount is predicted to increase by 50% by 2025 in developing countries, and by 18% in developed countries to feed the growing population (WWAP, 2006). However, crop water productivity (the amount of water per unit of production, CWP) is less than 40% in many coutries. This was due to sparse vegetation cover as a result of sub-optimal or inefficient soil and irrigation management practices. One of the main losses of water is soil evaporation. By knowing the proportion of water loss as soil evaporation (E) and crop transpiration (T) allows management practices to be implemented to minimize the E component. This article summarizes results obtained from Malawi (maize), China (maize) and Vietnam (coffee) from an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on Managing Irrigation Water to Enhance Crop Productivity under Water Limiting Conditions: A Role for Isotopic Techniques, implemented from 2007 to 2012. Both isotopic and conventional techniques have been used at these two field sites to separate E and T from ET. The isotopic data obtained was analysed for E and T using the isotopic mixing relationship (Keeling plot) and the isotopic mass balance approaches (Keeling plot, Keeling, 1961; Williams et al., 2004; Hsieh et al., 1998). Results of maize from Malawi showed that increasing nitrogen (N) application rates from 50 kg N ha-1 to 150 kg N ha-1 reduced the proportion of E under both crop water requirement (ETc) treatments, with the proportion of E the least in treatment receiving 150 kg N ha-1 and 100% ETc, attributed to the combination of both adequate N and water for crop growth

  15. Improvement of sustainability of irrigation in olive by the accurate management of regulated deficit irrigation

    Memmi, Houssem; Moreno, Marta M.; Gijón, M. Carmen; Pérez-López, David

    2015-04-01

    Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI) is a useful tool to balance the improvement of productivity and water saving. This methodology is based in keeping the maximum yield with deficit irrigation. The key consists in setting water deficit during a non-sensitive phenological period. In olive, this phenological period is pit hardening, although, the accurate delimitation of the end of this period is nowadays under researching. Another interesting point in this methodology is how deep can be the water stress during the non-sensitive period. In this assay, three treatments were used in 2012 and 2013. A control treatment (T0), irrigated following FAO methodology, without water stress during the whole season and two RDI treatments in which water stress was avoided only during stage I and III of fruit growth. During stage II, widely considered as pit hardening, irrigation was ceased until trees reach the stated water stress threshold. Water status was monitored by means of stem water potential (ψs) measurements. When ψs value reached -2 MPa in T1 treatment, trees were irrigated but with a low amount of water with the aim of keeping this water status for the whole stage II. The same methodology was used for T2 treatment, but with a threshold of -3 MPa. Water status was also controlled by leaf conductance measurements. Fruit size and yield were determined at the end of each season. The statistically design was a randomized complete blocks with four repetitions. The irrigation amount in T1 and T2 was 50% and 65% less than T0 at the end of the study. There were no significant differences among treatments in terms of yield in 2012 (year off) and 2013 (year on).

  16. Root Zone Sensors for Irrigation Management in Intensive Agriculture

    Pardossi, A.; Incrocci, L.; Incrocci, G.; Marlorgio, F.; Battista, P.; Bacci, L.; Rapi, B.; Marzialetti, P.; Hemming, J.; Balendonck, J.

    2009-01-01

    Crop irrigation uses more than 70% of the world’s water, and thus, improving irrigation efficiency is decisive to sustain the food demand from a fast-growing world population. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crop species and/or through the application of effici

  17. A management perspective on the performance of the irrigation subsector.

    Nijman, Ch.

    1993-01-01

    INVESTMENT IN IRRIGATION has been immense in the past. Estimated average annual investments of US$ 15 billion makes irrigation the largest subsector of the agricultural sector, that is itself by far the largest sector of development investment. Since the mid-1960s the awareness spread that the perfo

  18. Remote sensing, GIS and hydrological modelling for irrigation management

    Menenti, M.; Azzali, S.; d'Urso, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of literature and of work done by the authors between 1988 and 1993. It was presented at a NATO expert meeting on sustainability of irrigated agriculture in 1994. The paper deals with crop water requirements and crop waterstress, assessing irrigation performance with sat

  19. Using models to determine irrigation applications for water management

    Simple models are used by field researchers and production agriculture to estimate crop water use for the purpose of scheduling irrigation applications. These are generally based on a simple volume balance approach based on estimates of soil water holding capacity, irrigation application amounts, pr...

  20. Irrigation Management with Remote Sensing Techniques. Crop Water Requirements and Biophysical Indicators

    Toureiro, Célia; Serralheiro, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    Saving water in irrigated agriculture is increasingly relevant, as the irrigation sector is in many regions the biggest water consumer, but must be a sustainable activity. Therefore, the need urges for water use control methods and water resources planning. In irrigated agriculture, the right way for saving water is constituted by the increase of efficiency in water management. This work validates procedures and methodologies with remote sensing to determine the water availability in the soil at each moment and therefore the opportunity for the application of the water volume strictly necessary to optimize crop growth (irrigation opportunity and irrigation amount). The analysis applied to the Irrigation District of Divor, Évora, having used 7 experiment plots, which are areas watered by center-pivot systems, cultivated to corn. Data were determined from multispectral and infrared images of the cultivated surface obtained by satellite or by flying unmanned platform and integrated with parameters of the atmosphere and of the crops for calculating biophysical indicators and indices of water stress in the vegetation (NDVI, Kc, Kcb, CWSI). Therefore, evapotranspiration (ETc) was estimated, with which crop water requirement was calculated, with the opportunity and the amount of irrigation water to allocate. As this information is geographic referenced, maps can be prepared with GIS technology, describing water situation and the opportunity for watering crops. If the remote images are available with enough high spatial and temporal resolution, the frequent availability of maps can serve as a basis for a farmers irrigation advice system and for the regional irrigation authority to make decisions on the irrigation management at the regional scale. This can be a significant contribute to an efficient water management technology and a sustainable irrigated agriculture. Key-Words: Remote Sensing, Vegetation Index, Crop Coefficients, Water Balance

  1. Web-based management of research groups - using the right tools and an adequate integration strategy

    Nowadays broad interest in a couple of inter linked subject areas can make the configuration of a research group to be much diversified both in terms of its components and of the binding relationships that glues the group together. That is the case of the research group for knowledge management and its applications to nuclear technology - KMANT at IPEN, a living entity born 7 years ago and that has sustainably attracted new collaborators. This paper describes the strategic planning of the group, its charter and credo, the present components of the group and the diversified nature of their relations with the group and with IPEN. Then the technical competencies and currently research lines (or programs) are described as well as the research projects, and the management scheme of the group. In the sequence the web-based management and collaboration tools are described as well our experience with their use. KMANT have experiment with over 20 systems and software in this area, but we will focus on those aimed at: (a) web-based project management (RedMine, ClockinIT, Who does, PhProjekt and Dotproject); (b) teaching platform (Moodle); (c) mapping and knowledge representation tools (Cmap, Freemind and VUE); (d) Simulation tools (Matlab, Vensim and NetLogo); (e) social network analysis tools (ORA, MultiNet and UciNet); (f) statistical analysis and modeling tools (R and SmartPLS). Special emphasis is given to the coupling of the group permanent activities like graduate courses and regular seminars and how newcomers are selected and trained to be able to enroll the group. A global assessment of the role the management strategy and available tool set for the group performance is presented. (author)

  2. Web-based management of research groups - using the right tools and an adequate integration strategy

    Barroso, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira; Menezes, Mario Olimpio de, E-mail: barroso@ipen.b, E-mail: mario@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisa em Gestao do Conhecimento Aplicada a Area Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays broad interest in a couple of inter linked subject areas can make the configuration of a research group to be much diversified both in terms of its components and of the binding relationships that glues the group together. That is the case of the research group for knowledge management and its applications to nuclear technology - KMANT at IPEN, a living entity born 7 years ago and that has sustainably attracted new collaborators. This paper describes the strategic planning of the group, its charter and credo, the present components of the group and the diversified nature of their relations with the group and with IPEN. Then the technical competencies and currently research lines (or programs) are described as well as the research projects, and the management scheme of the group. In the sequence the web-based management and collaboration tools are described as well our experience with their use. KMANT have experiment with over 20 systems and software in this area, but we will focus on those aimed at: (a) web-based project management (RedMine, ClockinIT, Who does, PhProjekt and Dotproject); (b) teaching platform (Moodle); (c) mapping and knowledge representation tools (Cmap, Freemind and VUE); (d) Simulation tools (Matlab, Vensim and NetLogo); (e) social network analysis tools (ORA, MultiNet and UciNet); (f) statistical analysis and modeling tools (R and SmartPLS). Special emphasis is given to the coupling of the group permanent activities like graduate courses and regular seminars and how newcomers are selected and trained to be able to enroll the group. A global assessment of the role the management strategy and available tool set for the group performance is presented. (author)

  3. Irrigation management strategies for winter wheat using AquaCrop model

    M. H. Ali

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Many regions of the world face the challenge to ensure high yield with limited water supply. This calls for utilization of available water in an efficient and sustainable manner. Quantitative models can assist in management decision and planning purposes. The FAO’s newly developed crop-water model, AquaCrop, which simulates yield in response to water, has been calibrated for winter wheat and subsequently used to simulate yield under different sowing dates, irrigation frequencies, and irrigation sequences using 10 years daily weather data. The simulation results suggest that “2 irrigation frequency” is the most water-efficient schedule for wheat under the prevailing climatic and soil conditions. The results also indicate decreasing yield trend under late sowing. The normal/recommended sequence of irrigation performed better than the seven-days shifting from the normal. The results will help to formulate irrigation management plan based on the resource availability (water, and land availability from previous crop.

  4. Remote sensing and simulation modelling for on-demand irrigation systems management

    D'Urso, G.; Menenti, M.; Santini, A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure for monitoring and improving the performance of on-demand irrigation networks, based on the integration of remote sensing techniques and simulation modelling of water flow in each component of the system. In order to adequately reproduce the actual operation of an on

  5. Safe operation of nuclear power plants - Is safety culture an adequate management method?

    One of the characteristics of a good safety culture is a definable commitment to the improvement of safety behaviours and attitudes at all organisational levels. A second characteristic of an organisation with excellent safety culture is free and open communication. The general understanding has been that safety culture is a part of organisation culture. In addition to safety culture thinking, proactive programmes and displays of proactive work to improve safety are required. This work needs to include, qt a minimum, actions aiming at reducing human errors, the development of human error prevention tools, improvements in training, and the development of working methods and the organisation's activities. Safety depends not only on the technical systems, but also on the organisation. There is a need for better methods and tools for organisational assessment and development. Today there is universal acceptance of the significant impact that management and organisational factors have over the safety significance of complex industrial installations such as nuclear power plants. Many events with significant economic and public impact had causes that have been traced to management deficiencies. The objective of this study is development of new methods to increase safety of nuclear power plant operation. The research has been limited to commercial nuclear power plants that are intended for electrical power generation in Finland. Their production activities, especially operation and maintenance, are primarily reviewed from a safety point of view, as well as human performance and organisational factors perspective. This defines the scope and focus of the study. The research includes studies related to knowledge management and tacit knowledge in the project management context and specific studies related to transfer of tacit knowledge in the maintenance organization and transfer of tacit knowledge between workers of old generation and young generation. The empirical results

  6. Safe operation of nuclear power plants - Is safety culture an adequate management method?

    Piirto, A.

    2012-07-01

    One of the characteristics of a good safety culture is a definable commitment to the improvement of safety behaviours and attitudes at all organisational levels. A second characteristic of an organisation with excellent safety culture is free and open communication. The general understanding has been that safety culture is a part of organisation culture. In addition to safety culture thinking, proactive programmes and displays of proactive work to improve safety are required. This work needs to include, qt a minimum, actions aiming at reducing human errors, the development of human error prevention tools, improvements in training, and the development of working methods and the organisation's activities. Safety depends not only on the technical systems, but also on the organisation. There is a need for better methods and tools for organisational assessment and development. Today there is universal acceptance of the significant impact that management and organisational factors have over the safety significance of complex industrial installations such as nuclear power plants. Many events with significant economic and public impact had causes that have been traced to management deficiencies. The objective of this study is development of new methods to increase safety of nuclear power plant operation. The research has been limited to commercial nuclear power plants that are intended for electrical power generation in Finland. Their production activities, especially operation and maintenance, are primarily reviewed from a safety point of view, as well as human performance and organisational factors perspective. This defines the scope and focus of the study. The research includes studies related to knowledge management and tacit knowledge in the project management context and specific studies related to transfer of tacit knowledge in the maintenance organization and transfer of tacit knowledge between workers of old generation and young generation. The empirical

  7. Optimizing irrigation management using CropSyst: Solving water allocation problems under Climate Change scenarios

    Meza, F. J.; Maureira, F.; Stockle, C.

    2012-12-01

    Irrigation is fundamental to achieve economically viable yields in Mediterranean and semi-arid areas. Under normal conditions, irrigation systems are designed considering unlimited water supply and in many cases operated at relatively low marginal costs. Total satisfaction of plant water demands is seen as the main objective to maximize crop productivity. This paradigm is currently challenged by higher pressure on water resources as a consequence of economic and population growth, increasing exposure to impacts associated to droughts. In addition, future climate projections for these regions show likely increase in temperature and significant reductions in precipitation that will affect snowmelt dynamics and streamflows. This new scenario requires an efficient management of water resources at all levels, and especially to explore irrigation alternatives to maximize productivity with limited water resources. Crop Simulation models can become a very attractive tool to evaluate ex ante the results of different irrigation strategies. In this study, we used CropSyst to simulate the responses of maize as function of multiple combinations of monthly irrigation decisions. We generated six irrigation treatments that represented a range from 100% to 50% irrigation water demands. Each treatment was evaluated using a series of daily climate in the basin of Limari, Chile. Model results showed that crop productivity can be improved when compared to standard irrigation practices that consider constant irrigation reductions proportional to expected decreases in water availability.

  8. Local Irrigation Management Institutions Mediate Changes Driven by External Policy and Market Pressures in Nepal and Thailand

    Bastakoti, Ram C.; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.; Lebel, Louis

    2010-09-01

    This article assesses the role of local institutions in managing irrigation water use. Fifty irrigation systems in each country were studied in Nepal and Thailand to compare the influence of local institutions on performance of irrigation systems amid changes in external policy and market pressures. Nepal’s new irrigation policy after the re-instatement of multiparty democracy in 1990 emphasized participatory irrigation management transferring the management responsibility from state authorities to water users. The water user associations of traditional farmer-managed irrigation systems were formally recognized by requiring registration with related state authorities. In Thailand also government policies encouraged people’s participation in irrigation management. Today water users are directly involved in management of even some large irrigation systems at the level of tertiary canals. Traditional communal irrigation systems in northern Thailand received support for system infrastructure improvement but have faced increased interference from government. In Thailand market development supported diversification in farming practices resulting in increased areas under high water-demanding commercial crops in the dry season. In contrast, the command areas of most irrigation systems in Nepal include cereal-based subsistence farming with only one-third having commercial farming. Cropping intensities are higher in Nepal than in Thailand reflecting, in part, differences in availability of land and management. In both countries local institutions play an important role in maintaining the performance of irrigation systems as external drivers and local contexts change. Local institutions have provided alternative options for irrigation water use by mediating external pressures.

  9. Adequate technologies for wireless real-time dose rate monitoring for off-site emergency management

    Full text: What are the requirements for off-site gamma dose rate monitoring systems? What are the pros and cons of available communication technologies? This report gives an overview of modern communication techniques and their applicability for reliable real-time data acquisition as basis for off-site nuclear emergency management. The results of three years operating experience with a wireless gamma dose rate monitoring system, installed around the NPPs of KURSK, KALININ and BALAKOVA (Russia) in the year 2000, are shown. (author)

  10. Adaptive management of irrigation and crops' biodiversity: a case study on tomato

    De Lorenzi, Francesca; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Basile, Angelo; Bonfante, Antonello; Monaco, Eugenia; Riccardi, Maria; Menenti, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    We have assessed the impacts of climate change and evaluated options to adapt irrigation management in the face of predicted changes of agricultural water demand. We have evaluated irrigation scheduling and its effectiveness (versus crop transpiration), and cultivars' adaptability. The spatial and temporal variations of effectiveness and adaptability were studied in an irrigated district of Southern Italy. Two climate scenarios were considered: reference (1961-90) and future (2021-2050) climate, the former from climatic statistics, and the latter from statistical downscaling of general circulation models (AOGCM). Climatic data consist of daily time series of maximum and minimum temperature, and daily rainfall on a grid with a spatial resolution of 35 km. The work was carried out in the Destra Sele irrigation scheme (18.000 ha. Twenty-five soil units were identified and their hydrological properties were determined (measured or estimated from texture through pedo-transfer functions). A tomato crop, in a rotation typical of the area, was considered. A mechanistic model of water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system (SWAP) was used to study crop water requirements and water consumption. The model was calibrated and validated in the same area for many different crops. Tomato crop input data and model parameters were estimated on the basis of scientific literature and assumed to be generically representative of the species. Simulations were performed for reference and future climate, and for different irrigation scheduling options. In all soil units, six levels of irrigation volumes were applied: full irrigation (100%), deficit irrigation (80%, 60%, 40%, 20%), no irrigation. From simulation runs, indicators of soil water availability were calculated, moreover the marginal increases of transpiration per unit of irrigation volume, i.e. the effectiveness of irrigation (ΔT/I), were computed, in both climate scenarios. Indicators and marginal increases were used to

  11. Crop And Irrigation Water Management Using High Resolution Remote Sensing And Agrohydrological Models

    Minacapilli, M.; Iovino, M.; D'Urso, G.

    2006-08-01

    A combined agrohydrological and remote sensing approach, called SIMODIS (Simulation and Management of On-Demand Irrigation Systems) (D'Urso, 2001), has been used in a Sicilian test area to simulate the operation of on-demand irrigation system. In SIMODIS the spatial distribution of crop factor, Kc, is directly calculated from canopy variables r (albedo), LAI (Leaf Area Index) and hc (crop height) derived from satellite-based canopy spectral reflectance. Coupling these canopy variables with a specific data set of soil properties, the SIMODIS procedure was setup to simulate, in a distributed way, the water balance and, therefore, the irrigation deliveries for a set of 136 grape fields. For the 2002 irrigation season a good agreement was found between measured and simulated irrigation deliveries both at district and secondary unit level. At these scales, the proposed approach is able to describe the behaviour of on-demand irrigation systems and can be a useful support to irrigation technicians who have to take decisions for improving the efficiency of irrigation systems.

  12. Review of the water management systems in the Gujarat Medium Irrigation II Project (Credit 1496-IN)

    Brouwer, R.

    1993-01-01

    Different activities are ongoing in the Medium Irrigation II project simultaneously. These are: - emancipation of farmers through their involvement in the operation and management; - change over from Sheshpali type water management to RWS type water management; - design and construction of remaining

  13. Optimal management of water resources demand and supply in irrigated agriculture from plot to regional scale

    Schütze, Niels; Wagner, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Growing water scarcity in agriculture is an increasing problem in future in many regions of the world. For assessing irrigation as a measure to increase agricultural water security a generalized stochastic optimization framework for a spatial distributed estimation of future irrigation water demand is proposed, which ensures safe yields and a high water productivity at the same time. Different open loop and closed loop control strategies are evaluated within this stochastic optimization framework in order to generate reliable stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF). The resulting database of SCWPF can serve as a central decision support tool for both, (i) a cost benefit analysis of farm irrigation modernization on a local scale and (ii) a regional water demand management using a multi-scale approach for modeling and implementation. The new approach is applied using the example of a case study in Saxony, which is dealing with the sustainable management of future irrigation water demands and its implementation.

  14. Boundary concepts for interdisciplinary analysis of irrigation water management in South Asia

    Mollinga, Peter P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the boundary concepts that have emerged in interdisciplinary irrigation studies in South Asia, particularly India. The focus is concepts that capture the hybridity of irrigation systems as complex systems, and cross the boundaries of the natural and social sciences. Concepts capturing the materialisation of rights, design-management relations and the social construction of technology, the notions of landesque capital and (the valuation of) ecosystem goods and services, and ...

  15. Decentralised Management and Community Participation : A Minor Field Study about Irrigation and Communication in Central India

    Glaas, Erik

    2007-01-01

    India and many other developing countries confront serious problems of declining water tables. In India there is no real water shortage, but ineffective use of surface water leads to freshwater run-off. By building dams and irrigation water systems the Indian government has been trying to find a more effective use of surface water and thereby increase the agricultural productivity. But mismanagement of irrigation systems by local governments called for alternative management techniques, and d...

  16. A Linear Dynamic Programming Approach to Irrigation System Management with Depleting Groundwater

    Stoecker, A. L.; A. Seidmann; Lloyd, G S

    1985-01-01

    A model for measuring the economic benefits of irrigation system development over a depleting aquifer is presented, along with related methodology for detailed long-range farm planning. The paper considers management issues, such as distribution system configuration, drilling policy, area developed for irrigation, and crop production. A Linear Dynamic Programming (LDP) method is developed and applied to derive optimal temporal investments in the use of stock resources and long-term cropping p...

  17. Studies of the waterscape of Kilimanjaro, Tanzania Water management in hill furrow irrigation

    Tagseth, Mattias

    2010-01-01

    The present study analyses the waters of Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania, conceptualised as a waterscape constituted by material, institutional and ideational aspects. It draws on studies of the water management and the historical geography of hill furrow irrigation systems, based on 16 months of fieldwork.Hill furrow irrigation systems are operated by groups of farmers who continue to use and develop long-standing traditions. Their practices and technology are of relevance to debates about indi...

  18. THE ROLE OF IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT IN INCREASING RICE PRODUCTION IN SOUTH KOREA

    I GUSTI NGURAH SANTOSA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing of rice production is one of a highlight program in South Korea. In order to support this, enough water supply for paddy field is one of determined main factors to maintain good plant growth and high yield. Water from the rainfall is usually not enough for paddy field, so it must be supplied from irrigation system. The water source for irrigation can be derived from surface water and or ground water which is usually located in long distance, consequently it needs irrigation facilities to deliver water until reach paddy field area. Therefore government, and, or farmer need to manage irrigation to fulfill paddy field water requirement and they have been doing it. By working hard and holding strong commitment, South Korea has been reaching rice self sufficiency average 98,9% since 1970s for 38 years period. Average rice yield was 5.20 ton per ha in 2008 and this indicates as the highest level of rice yield in the world as well. Based on this reality, it needs to be studied the role of irrigation management in increasing rice production in South Korea. It was found that irrigation management in South Korea has very important role and it has significant effect in increasing rice production. This reality was supported by increasing of safety paddy field area by year. The water potential developed and to be developed is higher than water use. Government provided K Water (Korea Water Resources Cooperation to handle everything in relation to water problem.

  19. Influence of Container Mulches on Irrigation and Nutrient Management

    An experiment was conducted in 2005 and repeated in 2006 to determine the influence of mulch products and controlled release fertilizer (CRF) placement on irrigation and nutrition requirements of container-grown crops. Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla 'Fasan' and 'Endless Summer') were grown in 2.7...

  20. DROUGHT RISK MANAGEMENT FOR IRRIGATED POTATO PRODUCTION IN IDAHO

    Streamflow in much of the western United States originates as snowfall that has accumulated in the mountains during the winter and early spring. During periods of drought, the water supply for a large portion of irrigated cropland in Idaho is at risk of depletion before the growing season ends. In...

  1. Interpretation of Thermal Infrared Imagery for Irrigation Water Resource Management.

    Nellis, M. Duane

    1985-01-01

    Water resources play a major role in the character of agricultural development in the arid western United States. This case study shows how thermal infrared imagery, which is sensitive to radiant or heat energy, can be used to interpret crop moisture content and associated stress in irrigated areas. (RM)

  2. Integrated water resource management under water supply and irrigation development uncertainty

    Hassanzadeh, E.; Elshorbagy, A. A.; Nazemi, A.; Wheater, H. S.; Gober, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Saskatchewan River Basin (SaskRB) in Saskatchewan, Canada, supports various water demands including municipal, industrial, irrigated agriculture, hydropower and environmental sectors. Proposals for future development include significantly increased irrigation. However, proposing an appropriate level of irrigation development requires incorporation of water supply uncertainties in the water resources management analysis, including effects of climate variability and change. To evaluate potential climate change effects, a feasible range of shifts in annual volume and peak timing of headwater flows are considered to stochastically generate flows at the Alberta/Saskatchewan border. This envelope of flows, 30,800 realizations, is further combined with various irrigation expansion areas to form various future scenarios. Using an integrated water resources model developed for Saskatchewan, the impact of irrigation development on the system is assessed under the changing water supply conditions. The results of this study show that level of irrigation development as well as variation in volume and peak timing of flows can all contribute to change the water availability, vulnerability and economic productivity of the water resources system in Saskatchewan. In particular, the combined effect of large irrigation expansion, reduction in the volume of flows and earlier timing of the annual peak can exacerbate water resources system vulnerability, produce unstable net revenues, and decrease flood frequency in the Saskatchewan River Delta.

  3. Irrigation management strategies to improve Water Use Efficiency of potatoes crop in Central Tunisia

    Ghazouani, Hiba; Provenzano, Giuseppe; Rallo, Giovanni; Mguidiche, Amel; Douh, Boutheina; Boujelben, Abdelhamid

    2015-04-01

    In Tunisia, the expansion of irrigated area and the semiarid climate make it compulsory to adopt strategies of water management to increase water use efficiency. Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), providing the application of high frequency small irrigation volumes below the soil surface have been increasingly used to enhance irrigation efficiency. At the same time, deficit irrigation (DI) has shown successful results with a large number of crop in various countries. However, for some crops like potatoes, DI is difficult to manage due to the rapid effect of water stress on tuber yield. Irrigation frequency is a key factor to schedule subsurface drip irrigation because, even maintaining the total seasonal volume, soil wetting patterns can result different during the growth period, with consequence on crop yield. Despite the need to enhance water use efficiency, only a few studies related to deficit irrigation of horticultural crops have been made in Tunisia. Objective of the paper was to assess the effects of different on-farm irrigation strategies on water use efficiency of potatoes crop irrigated with subsurface drip irrigation in a semiarid area of central Tunisia. After validation, Hydrus-2D model was used to simulate soil water status in the root zone, to evaluate actual crop evapotranspiration and then to estimate indirectly water use efficiency (IWUE), defined as the ratio between crop yield and total amount of water supplied with irrigation. Field experiments, were carried out in Central Tunisia (10° 33' 47.0" E, 35° 58' 8.1° N, 19 m a.s.l) on a potatoes crop planted in a sandy loam soil, during the growing season 2014, from January 15 (plantation of tubers) to May 6 (harvesting). Soil water status was monitored in two plots (T1 and T2) maintained under the same management, but different irrigation volumes, provided by a SDI system. In particular, irrigation was scheduled according to the average water content measured in the root zone, with a total of 8

  4. Assessment of the environmental risks associated with higher irrigation water supplies and finding out management option

    Where Irrigation ensures better crop production in Pakistan's arid to semi-arid climate on one hand, it creates serious problems if practiced injudiciously, on the other. Currently, poor water management practices prevail everywhere in the irrigated agriculture of Pakistan. These practices cause many agro-environmental problems water supplied for irrigation purposes is used injudiciously which come up in the form of water logging. A study was carried out from April 2004 to April 2005 for monitoring the effects of higher irrigation supplies a irrigation water use on the groundwater level fluctuations. The water table data was recorded on fortnightly basis for a period of one year. The spatio-temporal variations in the water table were studied in detail. Results show that there is a rising trend in the water table with some seasonal fluctuations, which were caused by frequent irrigation applications, rainfall and high delta crops cultivation like hybrid maize, sugarcane and tobacco. Management options have been proposed for controlling water table rise using the results from of the prim, data collected in the field. (author)

  5. AnnAGNPS model as a potential tool for seeking adequate agriculture land management in Navarre (Spain)

    Chahor, Y.; Giménez, R.; Casalí, J.

    2012-04-01

    runoff was. On the other hand, a significant increment (30%) on annual sediment yield was predicted when rapeseed is the alternative major crop. Besides, a large decrease in annual runoff (up to 41%) and sediment (up to 98%) was predicted as the watershed is gradually occupied by shrubs. Finally, no-tillage appears as an interesting management method for cereals, with an over 90% reduction of in sediment yield -but only 4% in runoff. This is a first approach to evaluate AnnAGNPS as a management tool under local conditions. The above results may be then taking with caution especially in terms of absolute predicted values. However, AnnAGNPS can be considered as a promising tool for assessing the effect of the agricultural activities and implementing adequate land management alternatives in Mediterranean environment.

  6. Irrigated agriculture: Water resources management for a sustainable environment

    Provenzano, Giuseppe; Rodríguez Sinobas, Leonor; Roldán Cañas, José

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, research on irrigation has mainly been aimed at reducing crop water consumption. In arid and semi-arid environments, in relation to the limited water resources, the use of low quality water in agriculture has also been investigated in order to detect their effects on soil physical properties and on crop production. More recently, even the reduction of energy consumption in agriculture, as well as the effects of external factors, climate change and agricultural policies, ha...

  7. THE WATER MANAGEMENT COUNCIL: A SEARCH FOR A MODEL OF ADMINISTRATION AND OPERATION OF AN IRRIGATION SYSTEM

    Benito Rodríguez Haros; Rocío Rosas Vargas; Héctor Ruíz Rueda

    2010-01-01

    The present research shows the ability that posses theusers organization to manage and operate successfully theirrigation systems during certain periods. In the specificcase of the water management council, the MexicanGovernment promotes them and makes them in from1920 to 1940, mainly, to receive an Irrigation NationalDistricts that from now had been built by NationalIrrigation Council (CNI). The entrance of the NationalDistricts of Irrigation implied that the water managementcouncil was resp...

  8. Evaluation of alternative irrigation technologies based upon applied water and simulated yields

    Santos, Francisco Lúcio

    1998-01-01

    Abstract Adequate estimates of yields under comparable amounts of infiltrated water of different irrigation systems are essential for evaluation and adoption of irrigation decisions. A simulation model, crop evapotranspiration and Young's criteria for subjective probability estimates from objective data were used to simulate water management regimes for pressurized and surface-irrigation systems. Historical climatic data, representative soil series and irrigation technologies for CentralAr...

  9. An optimal management of water for a turf irrigation system in Milan area (Italy)

    Deangelis, Maria Laura; Mazzoleni, Abramo

    2015-04-01

    The design of an irrigation system is not just "draw", but a complex organization that takes into account of a whole range of information that are inherently contained in the graphic representation of the final plan. The various stages that make up the activity of designing an irrigation system include: general survey of the site to be irrigated, meteorological analysis of the site and the calculation of the water requirement, development of the project with the choice and location of the components. The use of a numerical model based on water balance in a soil-water-atmosphere system allows the evaluation of the optimal water requirement as a function of meteorological characteristics. The water saving is enabled through a smart programming of a modern automation system for irrigation. The meteorological data analysis was conducted choosing from the series of two special years: the year 2002, particularly rainy, and the other in 2007, extraordinarily drought. The determination of the water requirements of turf was conducted on a daily scale. The water consumption was calculated in a classic irrigation system that covers the delivery of 5 mm of water per day, interrupted only by a rain sensor. In the second case water consumption was analysed by managing an irrigation controller based on actual water needs of turf day by day. For the two years in question water savings ranges between 13 and 27%.

  10. IRRIMET: a web 2.0 advisory service for irrigation water management

    De Michele, Carlo; Anzano, Enrico; Colandrea, Marco; Marotta, Luigi; Mula, Ileana; Pelosi, Anna; D'Urso, Guido; Battista Chirico, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Irrigation agriculture is one the biggest consumer of water in Europe, especially in southern regions, where it accounts for up to 70% of the total water consumption. The EU Common Agricultural Policy, combined with the Water Framework Directive, imposes to farmers and irrigation managers a substantial increase of the efficiency in the use of water in agriculture for the next decade. Irrigating according to reliable crop water requirement estimates is one of the most convincing solution to decrease agricultural water use. Here we present an innovative irrigation advisory service, applied in Campania region (Southern Italy), where a satellite assisted irrigation advisory service has been operating since 2006. The advisory service is based on the optimal combination of VIS-NIR high resolution satellite images (Landsat, Deimos, Rapideye) to map crop vigour, and high resolution numerical weather prediction for assessing the meteorological variables driving the crop water needs in the short-medium range. The advisory service is broadcasted with a simple and intuitive web app interface which makes daily real time irrigation and evapotranspiration maps and customized weather forecasts (based on Cosmo Leps model) accessible from desktop computers, tablets and smartphones.

  11. Integration of soil moisture and geophysical datasets for improved water resource management in irrigated systems

    Finkenbiner, Catherine; Franz, Trenton E.; Avery, William Alexander; Heeren, Derek M.

    2016-04-01

    Global trends in consumptive water use indicate a growing and unsustainable reliance on water resources. Approximately 40% of total food production originates from irrigated agriculture. With increasing crop yield demands, water use efficiency must increase to maintain a stable food and water trade. This work aims to increase our understanding of soil hydrologic fluxes at intermediate spatial scales. Fixed and roving cosmic-ray neutron probes were combined in order to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture at three study sites across an East-West precipitation gradient in the state of Nebraska, USA. A coarse scale map was generated for the entire domain (122 km2) at each study site. We used a simplistic data merging technique to produce a statistical daily soil moisture product at a range of key spatial scales in support of current irrigation technologies: the individual sprinkler (˜102m2) for variable rate irrigation, the individual wedge (˜103m2) for variable speed irrigation, and the quarter section (0.82 km2) for uniform rate irrigation. Additionally, we were able to generate a daily soil moisture product over the entire study area at various key modeling and remote sensing scales 12, 32, and 122 km2. Our soil moisture products and derived soil properties were then compared against spatial datasets (i.e. field capacity and wilting point) from the US Department of Agriculture Web Soil Survey. The results show that our "observed" field capacity was higher compared to the Web Soil Survey products. We hypothesize that our results, when provided to irrigators, will decrease water losses due to runoff and deep percolation as sprinkler managers can better estimate irrigation application depth and times in relation to soil moisture depletion below field capacity and above maximum allowable depletion. The incorporation of this non-contact and pragmatic geophysical method into current irrigation practices across the state and globe has the

  12. A Simple Soil Moisture Simulation Model to Address Irrigation Water Management Issues

    Aftab Hussain Azhar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple soil moisture simulation model to use in irrigation water management issues was developed. The model employs traditional water budgeting approach, and includes mechanisms for simulating soil moisture movement, root growth and crop evapotranspiration. The model requires only a few readily available input parameters. This model was evaluated through a case study conducted at a farm in the Goulburn Irrigation Area in Victoria (Australia. The soil moisture simulation results demonstrated the effectiveness of model and revealed that the developed model was quite successful to account for the variability of evaporative demand of tested perennial pasture and the amount of rainfall received during the irrigation period. The qualitative and quantitative procedures used in model\\'s evaluation supported its use to deal with agricultural water management issues for yielding significant water savings.

  13. Agricultural irrigated land-use inventory for the counties in the Suwannee River Water Management District in Florida, 2015

    Marella, Richard L.; Dixon, Joann F.; Berry, Darbi R.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed inventory of irrigated crop acreage is not available at the level of resolution needed to accurately estimate agricultural water use or to project future water demands in many Florida counties. A detailed digital map and summary of irrigated acreage during the 2015 growing season was developed for 13 of the 15 counties that compose the Suwannee River Water Management District. The irrigated areas were delineated using land-use data, orthoimagery, and information obtained from the water management district consumptive water-use permits that were then field verified between May and November of 2015. Selected attribute data were collected for the irrigated areas, including crop type, primary water source, and type of irrigation system. Results indicate that an estimated 113,134 acres were either irrigated or had potential for irrigation in all or part of the 13 counties within the Suwannee River Water Management District during 2015. This estimate includes 108,870 acres of field-verified, irrigated crops and 4,264 acres of irrigated land observed as (1) idle (with an irrigation system visible but no crop present at the time of the field-verification visit), (2) acres that could not be verified during field visits, or (3) acres that were located on publicly owned research lands.

  14. Overview of advances in water management in agricultural production:Sensor based irrigation management

    Technological advances in irrigated agriculture are crucial to meeting the challenge of increasing demand for agricultural products given limited quality and quantity of water resources for irrigation, impacts of climate variability, and the need to reduce environmental impacts. Multidisciplinary ap...

  15. Savannah River Site Mixed Waste Management Facility Southwest Plume Tritium Phytoremediation Evaluating Irrigation Management Strategies Over 25 Years

    Riah, Susan; Rebel, Karin

    2004-02-27

    To minimize movement of tritium into surface waters at the Mixed Waste Management Facility at the Savannah River Site, tritium contaminated seepage water is being retained in a constructed pond and used to irrigate forest acreage that lies above the pond and over the contaminated groundwater. Twenty five-year potential evapotranspiration and average precipitation are 1443 mm/year and 1127 mm/year, respectively, for the region in which the site is located. Management of the application of tritium contaminated irrigation water needs to be evaluated in the context of the large amount of rainfall relative to evapotranspiration, the strong seasonality in evapotranspiration, and intraannual and inter-annual variability in precipitation. A dynamic simulation model of water and tritium fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum was developed to assess the efficiency (tritium transpired/tritium applied) of several irrigation management strategies.

  16. Integrating irrigation water demand, supply, and delivery management in a stochastic environment

    Dudley, Norman J.; Scott, Bradley W.

    1993-09-01

    Previously developed suites of models integrate irrigation water supply and demand management for simplified surface reservoir supply systems. A central stochastic dynamic programming model is supported by simulation models, including a soil water-plant growth model. That modeling is extended herein to include decisions about timing and quantity of reservoir water releases into the delivery system, resulting in the integration of supply, demand, and delivery management. Irrigators have rights to percentages of reservoir capacity, reservoir inflows, and downstream tributary flows. Natural rivers are the supply channels in the study area. Large on-farm water storages exist for storing regulated and unregulated river flows available to the irrigators. Farms can be many days flow from the reservoir, requiring orders for reservoir releases to be lodged before the arrival of a previous order. The probability of unregulated flows from tributaries downstream of the reservoir further complicates ordering decisions. Abandonment of irrigated area to rain-fed status occurs at two levels, forced abandonment if insufficient water is available at the farm when the irrigation-trigger soil water deficit is reached, and planned abandonment to save water for possible later use. The need for forced abandonment is determined by simulation models; planned abandonment decisions are derived by stochastic dynamic programming. Results show annual net revenue means and standard deviations as functions of different capacities of the on-farm storages and water supplies from either regulated or unregulated flows, or both.

  17. Holistic irrigation water management approach based on stochastic soil water dynamics

    Alizadeh, H.; Mousavi, S. J.

    2012-04-01

    Appreciating the essential gap between fundamental unsaturated zone transport processes and soil and water management due to low effectiveness of some of monitoring and modeling approaches, this study presents a mathematical programming model for irrigation management optimization based on stochastic soil water dynamics. The model is a nonlinear non-convex program with an economic objective function to address water productivity and profitability aspects in irrigation management through optimizing irrigation policy. Utilizing an optimization-simulation method, the model includes an eco-hydrological integrated simulation model consisting of an explicit stochastic module of soil moisture dynamics in the crop-root zone with shallow water table effects, a conceptual root-zone salt balance module, and the FAO crop yield module. Interdependent hydrology of soil unsaturated and saturated zones is treated in a semi-analytical approach in two steps. At first step analytical expressions are derived for the expected values of crop yield, total water requirement and soil water balance components assuming fixed level for shallow water table, while numerical Newton-Raphson procedure is employed at the second step to modify value of shallow water table level. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, combined with the eco-hydrological simulation model, has been used to solve the non-convex program. Benefiting from semi-analytical framework of the simulation model, the optimization-simulation method with significantly better computational performance compared to a numerical Mote-Carlo simulation-based technique has led to an effective irrigation management tool that can contribute to bridging the gap between vadose zone theory and water management practice. In addition to precisely assessing the most influential processes at a growing season time scale, one can use the developed model in large scale systems such as irrigation districts and agricultural catchments. Accordingly

  18. Regional application of one-dimensional water flow models for irrigation management

    D'Urso, G.; Menenti, M.; Santini, A.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical models for the simulation of soil water processes can be used to evaluate the spatial and temporal variations of crop water requirements; this information can support the irrigation management in a rationale usage of water resources. This latter objective requires the knowledge of spatiall

  19. In-Soil and Down-Hole Soil Water Sensors: Characteristics for Irrigation Management

    The past use of soil water sensors for irrigation management was variously hampered by high cost, onerous regulations in the case of the neutron probe (NP), difficulty of installation or maintenance, and poor accuracy. Although many sensors are now available, questions of their utility still abound....

  20. The Middle Eastern Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems project-update

    The Middle Eastern Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems Project (MERIMIS) was formulated at a meeting of experts from the region in Jordan in 2003. Funded by the U.S. Department of State, it is a cooperative regional project bringing together participants from Israel, Jordan, Palestini...

  1. Uncertainty analysis of an irrigation scheduling model for water management in crop production

    Irrigation scheduling tools are critical to allow producers to manage water resources for crop production in an accurate and timely manner. To be useful, these tools need to be accurate, complete, and relatively reliable. The current work presents the uncertainty analysis and its results for the Mis...

  2. The System Nobody Sees: Irrigated Wetland Management and Alpaca Herding in the Peruvian Andes

    Verzijl, A.; Guerrero Quispe, S.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, attention in regional, national, and international water governance arenas has focused on high-altitude wetlands. However, existing local water management practices in these wetlands are often overlooked. This article looks at the irrigation activities of alpaca herders in the communit

  3. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGRICULTURAL LAND SYSTEMS AND WATER USE DURING THE APPLICATION OF PARTICIPATORY IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT

    Naoko OKA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The identification of water rights is essential to the application of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM policies. Water and agricultural land have traditionally had strong relationships. We must clarify land tenure conditions and their relationships with water rights. This paper presents the results of studies focused on the relationships between agricultural land systems and water use in several African and Asian countries. It describes different situations related to land systems and water use, as well as the relationships between them. In study areas, in addition to historical backgrounds, land tenure may be associated with the extent to which state, customary, and individual involvements affect farmers’ de facto water rights. In general, water rights are clearly established in developed countries because formal administration of land and water resources has been functional and well-established. In developing countries, further institutional arrangements may be required to enable farmers to maintain water rights and increase efficient water use and management. However, no single solution is available. This paper describes how local contexts may vary with respect to land and water tenure. When PIM is introduced into irrigation schemes, it must be carefully integrated into agricultural land systems and the regulation of water rights in target areas. First, a land management system must be developed that secures farmers’ rights to ensure rational/optimal use of irrigation water. This offers important implications for rice irrigation and other crops that requires relatively intense and long-term investments in land development and advanced water management.

  4. Use of crop simulation models to evaluate limited irrigation management options for corn in a semiarid environment

    Saseendran, S. A.; Ahuja, L. R.; Nielsen, D. C.; Trout, T. J.; Ma, L.

    2008-07-01

    Increasing competition for land and water resources due to increasing demands from rapid population growth calls for increasing water use efficiency of irrigated crops. It is important to develop location-specific agronomic practices to maximize water use efficiency (WUE). Adequately calibrated and validated agricultural systems models provide a systems approach and a fast alternative method for developing and evaluating agronomic practices that can utilize technological advances in limited irrigation agriculture. The objectives of this study were to (1) calibrate and validate the CERES-maize model under both dryland and irrigated corn (Zea mays L.) production in northeastern Colorado and (2) use the model with a long-term weather record to determine (1) optimum allocation of limited irrigation between vegetative and reproductive growth stages and (2) optimum soil water depletion level for initiating limited irrigation. The soil series was a Rago silt loam, and the initial water content on 1 January of each year was equal to field capacity in the upper 300 mm and half of the field capacity below this depth. Optimum production and WUE with minimum nitrogen (N) losses were found when (1) a water allocation ratio of 40:60 or 50:50 (uniform) between vegetative and reproductive stages for irrigations up to 100 mm, and a ratio of 20:80 for irrigations above 100 mm was used; and (2) irrigation was initiated at 20% plant-available water (PAW) (80% depletion). When available water for irrigation is limited to 100 mm, irrigating 50% of the area with 200 mm of water at 20:80 split irrigations between the vegetative and reproductive stages produced greater yield than irrigating 100% of the area with 100 mm water. Concepts developed in the study can potentially be adapted to other locations, climates, and crops. However, precise site-specific recommendations need to be developed for each soil-climate zone using the validated system model.

  5. A role playing game to address future water management issues in a large irrigated system : experience from Mali

    Hertzog, T.; Poussin, Jean-Christophe; Tangara, B.; Kouriba, I.; Jamin, J. Y.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment undertaken in the Office du Niger irrigation scheme (100,000 ha) in Mali, where the unprecedented development of irrigation driven by large scale investors is dramatically increasing uncertainty surrounding future water management. Coping with future uncertainty in irrigated systems is essential but existing approaches based on scenarios and decision support systems are mainly expert-driven, making them difficult for local users to understand and use on the...

  6. Irrigation and crop management in Gandak Canal command of India

    The Gandak Project is one of the biggest irrigation projects in India, covering a culturable command area (CCA) of 4.44 lakh ha in U.P., 9.6 lakh ha CCA in Bihar and 0.44 lakh ha in Nepal (Singh and Khan, 2002). The total culturable command areas are 14.44 lakh hectares. The command area is located in between latitude 25 deg 40' to 27 deg 25' and longitude between 83 deg 15' to 85 deg 15'. It is a diversion project through construction of a barrage on the river Gandak. This project area covers up to five districts in the Command of Tirhut Main Canal (TMC) and 3 districts in the Saran Main Canal (SMC) command. The length of main canal is usually long (990 and 650 R.D.'s in eastern and western side, respectively) and the channels are unlined and seepage loss is quite high. (author)

  7. Regulated deficit irrigation as a water management strategy in Vitis vinifera production

    An initial six-year study in a commercial vineyard located in the Columbia River Valley of Washington State, United States of America, examined the management practices and potential benefits of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on Vitis vinifera cv. Sauvignon blanc. The objective of the treatments was to evaluate the effect of deficit irrigation prior to, compared with after, veraison. Each of four irrigation treatments was applied to 1.6 ha and replicated four times for a total 27.0 ha. Irrigation treatments were based on desired soil moisture levels in the top metre of the profile where most of the root system is found. Soil moisture was monitored using a neutron probe and the information was combined with calculations of evaporative demand to determine the irrigation required on a weekly basis. Vine growth, yield, fruit quality and cold hardiness were monitored throughout the study. The results indicated that RDI prior to veraison was effective in controlling shoot growth, as determined by shoot length and elongation rate, as well as pruning weights. Sixteen wine lots, each of approximately 12,000 litres, were prepared each season. Although there was some effect on berry weight, yield was not always significantly reduced. Full irrigation prior to veraison resulted in excessive shoot growth. RDI applied after veraison to vines with large canopies resulted in greater water deficit stress. Fruit quality was increased by pre-veraison RDI compared to postveraison RDI based on wines made. Regulated deficit irrigation applied at anytime resulted in better early-season lignification of canes and cold hardening of buds. There was a slight improvement in mid-winter cold hardiness of vines subjected to RDI. However, this effect was inconsistent. Studies on Cabernet Sauvignon and White Riesling are underway to confirm these results and to investigate the impact of RDI on fruit quality and winemaking practices. (author)

  8. Integrated water-crop-soil-management system for evaluating the quality of irrigation water

    The authors make use of an independent balance of the salts and ions present in the water available for irrigation, based on the residence times in the soil solution that are allowed by solubility limits and drainage conditions, to develop an efficient system for evaluating the quality of such water which combines the factors: water, crop, soil and management. The system is based on the principle that such quality depends not only on the concentration and composition of the salts dissolved in the water, but also on existing possibilities and limitations in using and managing it in respect of the soil and crops, with allowance for the crop's tolerance of salinity, drainage conditions and hydrological properties of the soils, climate and current or potential practices for the management of the irrigation. If this system is used to quantify approximately the time behaviour of the concentration and composition of the salts in the soil solution, it is possible not only to predict the effects on soil, crops and drainage water, but also to evaluate the various combinations of irrigation water, soil, crops and management and to select the most suitable. It is also useful for fairly accurately diagnosing current problems of salinity and for identifying alternatives and possibilities for reclamation. Examples of its use for these purposes in Venezuela are presented with particular reference to the diagnosis of the present and future development of ''salino-sodic'' and ''sodic'' soils by means of low-salt irrigation water spread over agricultural soils with very poor drainage in a sub-humid or semi-arid tropical climate. The authors also describe the use of radiation techniques for gaining an understanding of the relations between the factors making up the system and for improving the quantitative evaluations required to diagnose problems and to select the best management methods for the available irrigation water. (author)

  9. Decision Support system- DSS- for irrigation management in greenhouses: a case study in Campania Region

    Monaco, Eugenia; De Mascellis, Roberto; Riccardi, Maria; Basile, Angelo; D'Urso, Guido; Magliulo, Vincenzo; Tedeschi, Anna

    2016-04-01

    In Mediterranean Countries the proper management of water resources is important for the preservation of actual production systems. The possibility to manage water resources is possible especially in the greenhouses systems. The challenge to manage the soil in greenhouse farm can be a strategy to maintain both current production systems both soil conservation. In Campania region protected crops (greenhouses and tunnels) have a considerable economic importance both for their extension in terms of surface harvested and also for their production in terms of yields. Agricultural production in greenhouse is closely related to the micro-climatic condition but also to the physical and agronomic characteristics of the soil-crop system. The protected crops have an high level of technology compare to the other production systems, but the irrigation management is still carried out according to empirical criteria. The rational management of the production process requires an appropriate control of climatic parameters (temperature, humidity, wind) and agronomical inputs (irrigation, fertilization,). All these factors need to be monitored as well is possible, in order to identify the optimal irrigation schedule. The aim of this work is to implement a Decision Support system -DSS- for irrigation management in greenhouses focused on a smart irrigation control based on observation of the agro-climatic parameters monitored with an advanced wireless sensors network. The study is conducted in a greenhouse farm of 6 ha located in the district of Salerno were seven plots were cropped with rocket. Preliminary a study of soils proprieties was conducted in order to identify spatial variability of the soil in the farm. So undisturbed soil samples were collected to define chemical and physical proprieties; moreover soil hydraulic properties were determined for two soils profiles deemed representation of the farm. Then the wireless sensors, installed at different depth in the soils

  10. Spatial Variability of Electrical Conductivity of Desert Soil Irrigated with Treated Wastewater: Implications for Irrigation Management

    Knowledge of spatial variability is important for management of land affected by various anthropogenic activities. This study was conducted at West Mesa land application site to determine the spatial variability of electrical conductivity (EC1:1) and suggest suitable management strategy. Study area was divided into five classes with EC increasing from class I to V. According to the coefficient of variation (CV), during 2009 and 2010, EC1:1 values for different classes were low to moderately variable at each depth. Semivariogram analysis showed that EC1:1 displayed both short and long range variability. Area coverage of classes I and II were much higher than classes III, IV, and V during 2009. However, during 2010 area coverage decreased from 26% to 14.91% for class II, increased from 12.11% to 22.97%, and 10.95% to 20.55 for classes IV and V, respectively. Overall area under EC1:1= 4 dS/m increased during 2009. Soil EC map showed EC classes IV (4.1-5dS/m) and V (>5.1 dS/m) were concentrated at northwest and southeast and classes I and II were at the middle of the study plot. Thus, higher wastewater should be applied in the center and lower in the northwest and southwest part of the field.

  11. Fertilizer efficiency and environmental risk of irrigating Impatiens with composting leachate in decentralized solid waste management

    The reduction and reuse of composting leachate is an issue of importance in the field of decentralized solid waste management. In this study, composting leachate from source-separated food waste was treated and subsequently used as liquid fertilizer to irrigate Impatiens (Impatiens balsamina). The leachate was altered by adjusting storage time and dilution, and through addition of microbial inocula. For each test case, the effects of irrigation were monitored by analyzing the Impatiens extension degree, numbers of leaves and flowers, dry weight, and photosynthetic pigment content to assess fertilizer efficiency. The main results obtained revealed that the addition of microbial inocula and lengthening of storage times may lower COD concentrations, adjust pH value and maintain a comparatively high level of nutrient contents. By adding microbial inocula, a COD concentration of 9.6% and BOD5 concentration of 6.7% were obtained for non-treated leachate with the same storage time. COD concentrations in leachate decreased to 69.4% after 36 weeks storage. Moreover, composting leachate promoted growth of Impatiens. The dry weight biomass of Impatiens irrigated using treated diluted leachate was 1.15-2.94 times that obtained for Impatiens irrigated using tap water. Lastly, following the irrigation of Impatiens over a short period, soil did not accumulate VOCs and heavy metals to levels exceeding relative standards. Further research on heavy metal and salinity accumulation in plants should be undertaken to meet the needs of large-scale applications.

  12. Cooperative Management of a Traditional Irrigation System in the Swiss Alps

    Robert Finger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional channel irrigation systems in Switzerland are managed on a community basis and have high cultural, touristic and ecological values. However, many irrigation communities disappeared in the last decades. This paper analyzes the factors contributing to the continuation of a still existent irrigation community. Our analysis thus provides insights into how to avoid further losses of these unique agricultural systems and to preserve the associated benefits. Based on hypotheses derived from game theoretical analysis, a survey was conducted in an irrigation community located in the canton of Valais. Our results show that the motivation of community members to remain in the traditional system is not a financial one. In contrast, factors such as long-term perspectives, system knowledge, communication and the institutional setting seem to be the basis for the continuation of the analyzed irrigation community. For policy makers, this example shows that the creation of institutions that enable self-governance, communication and knowledge transfer should be considered in this field of rural and agricultural policy making.

  13. Risk Management Strategies in Humid Production Regions: A Comparison of Supplemental Irrigation and Crop Insurance

    Dalton, Timothy J.; Porter, Gregory A.; Winslow, Noah G.

    2004-01-01

    Recent federal agricultural programs have accelerated the devolution of enterprise risk management responsibility from the state to individual producers. Using a biophysical simulation model, the risk management benefits of federal crop insurance and supplemental irrigation are derived and compared to uninsured rainfed crop production in an expected utility framework. Federal crop insurance programs are inefficient at reducing producer exposure to weather-related production risk in humid regi...

  14. Problems and Countermeasures of the Irrigation Management in Irrigation and Water Conservancy%农田水利灌溉管理存在的问题及对策

    姚凌燕; 高旭梅

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the basic requirements of far-mland irrigation, the significance of strengthening irrigation management of irrigation and water conservancy, and then an-alyzes the existing problems of irrigation management of irrig-ation and water conservancy. In order to improve the irrigation works of farmland water conservancy construction, reasonable and scientific management mode is necessary, need to improve the irrigation management system of irrigation and water cons-ervancy irrigation project management, increase capital inves-tment, making the farmland irrigation got good use.%本文分析了农田水利灌溉的基本要求,加强农田水利灌溉管理的意义,进而分析了农田水利灌溉管理存在的问题。为了改善农田水利灌溉工程,构建科学合理的管理模式是有必要的,要健全农田水利灌溉管理制度,加大灌溉工程管理资金投入,使农田水利灌溉得到很好的利用。

  15. Modeling the effects of irrigation frequencies, initial water and nitrogen on corn yield responses for best management

    Competing demands for fresh water resources necessitate adaptation of limited water irrigations in agriculture. In this context, the Crop Water Production Functions (CWPF) used in limited water irrigation management need to integrate the effects of climate, initial soil water content at planting, an...

  16. Managing Irrigation Risk with Inflow-Based Derivatives: The Case of Rio Mayo Irrigation District in Sonora, Mexico

    Leiva, Akssell J.; Skees, Jerry R.

    2005-01-01

    Uncertain reservoir inflows represent a major source of risk for irrigated agriculture. A derivative instrument that uses reservoir inflows as the underlying variable is designed and tested with a recursive stochastic simulation of the Rio Mayo irrigations system. The results indicate that the instrument effectively protects against downside risk.

  17. Wheat Irrigation Management Using Multispectral Crop Coefficients: II. Irrigation Scheduling Performance, Grain Yield, and Water Use Efficiency

    Current irrigation scheduling is based on well-established crop coefficient-reference evapotranspiration methods. However, appropriate irrigation scheduling can be negated when crop evapotranspiration (ETc) is poor due to imprecise crop coefficients. The premise of this research is that real-time mo...

  18. Irrigation Water Management in Latin America Manejo del Agua de Riego en Sudamérica

    Aureo S de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Latin American countries show a great potential for expanding their irrigated areas. Irrigation is important for strengthening local and regional economy and for enhancing food security. The present paper aimed at providing a brief review on key aspects of irrigation management in Latin America. Poor irrigation management can have great impact on crop production and on environment while good management reduces the waste of soil and water and help farmers maximizing their profits. It was found that additional research is needed to allow a better understanding of crop water requirements under Latin American conditions as well as to provide farmers with local derived information for irrigation scheduling. The advantages of deficit irrigation practices and the present and future opportunities with the application of remote sensing tools for water management were also considered. It is clear that due to the importance of irrigated agriculture, collaborative work among Latin American researchers and institutions is of paramount importance to face the challenges imposed by a growing population, environment degradation, and competition in the global market.Los países sudamericanos tienen un gran potencial para aumentar sus áreas regadas. El riego es importante para fortalecer las economías locales y regionales y para mejorar la seguridad alimentaria. Esta revisión tiene por objeto proporcionar un resumen de los aspectos más importantes del manejo del riego en Sudamérica. Un manejo pobre del riego puede tener un alto impacto en la producción de cultivos y en el ambiente, en tanto que un buen manejo reduce las pérdidas de suelo y agua, y ayuda a los productores a maximizar sus ingresos. Se encontró que se requiere investigación adicional que permita una mejor comprensión de los requerimientos de agua de los cultivos en las condiciones sudamericanas, y también para proporcionar a los agricultores información local que permita hacer programaci

  19. Improving Agricultural Water Management through Low-Cost Small-Scale Irrigation Technologies in Kenya

    Agriculture is the second largest contributor to Kenya's gross domestic product and accounts for about 24% of GDP and 50% of revenue from exports. About half of Kenya's total agricultural output is subsistence production and farming provides employment to about 70% of the population. Approximately 80% of Kenyan farmland is classified as arid and semi-arid, with low and erratic rainfall, and food production is low with frequent crop failures. In order to ensure food security and sustainable farmer livelihoods there is an urgent need to improve agricultural water management practices that ensure optimal water use efficiency. A promising option is the use of low-cost small-scale irrigation technologies that are affordable for resource poor farmers. Through an IAEA technical cooperation project, the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) has developed low-cost small-scale irrigation technologies to improve water- and nutrient use efficiencies of high-value crops, including cucumber, tomato, kale and lettuce. Yields of these crops were compared under rain-fed conditions, with irrigation using traditional hand-watering method and small-scale drip irrigation. Using the soil moisture neutron probe to determine the soil water content at any time during the growing season and the optimal timing and amount of water to be applied, KARI devised and employed small-scale low-cost drip irrigation technologies and compared yields under a variety of water management applications. Using these technologies, tomato yields of 9.7 t/ha were obtained under rain-fed conditions (with 221 mm of rainfall), 13.0 t/ha with traditional hand watering of 927 mm and 32 t/ha when applying 510 mm of water using small-scale drip irrigation, hence increasing the yield by 3.3 and 2.5 times, compared to rain-fed and hand watering, respectively. In the latter case, this yield increase was obtained despite a 45% reduction in the amount of water applied to the crop. Results also showed that a total of

  20. Yield and Irrigation Water Use Efficiency Response of Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. var. sativus Boeck.) to Drip Irrigation Management

    Pascual-Seva, Nuria; San Bautista, Alberto; López-Galarza, Salvador; Maroto, José Vicente; Pascual, Bernardo

    2016-04-01

    Chufa, also known as tigernut, is a typical crop in Valencia, Spain, where it is cultivated in ridges with furrow irrigation. Its cultivation uses large amounts of water, in the order of 10,000 m3 ha‑1 year‑1, so different studies have been undertaken in order to maximize the irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE). One of these studies faced the application of drip irrigation in the chufa cultivation, comparing three different irrigation strategies. These strategies differed on the volumetric soil water content (VSWC) when each irrigation event started. Starting each irrigation when the VSWC dropped to 90% of field capacity (FC) leaded to the highest yield, while the highest IWUE was obtained when irrigation started at 80% FC. It can be stated that starting each irrigation event when the VSWC is between 80 and 90% FC leads to the best results in terms of yield and IWUE. However, these results may still be improved by defining the best strategy in the irrigation stop, which is the aim of the herein presented research. This investigation comprises the productive response of the chufa crop with drip irrigation, determining yield and IWUE. The VSWC was monitored using multi-depth capacitance probes, with sensors at 0.10, 0.20 and 0.30 m below the top of the ridge. Each irrigation event started when the volumetric soil water content at 0.10 m dropped to 85% FC. Three irrigation strategies were considered, T1: each event being stopped when the average of the VSWC values at 0.10, 0.20 and 0.30 m depth reached the corresponding FC value; T2: each event being stopped when the VSWC values at 0.20 m reached the corresponding FC value; T3 each irrigation event lasted 30 min (corresponding to 7.33 mm). The largest yield (P ≤0.05) was obtained in T2 (2.31 kg m‑2), with no statistical differences (P ≤0.05) between T1 (1.94 kg m‑2) and T3 (1.92 kg m‑2). The highest yield in T2 was obtained with the largest volume of irrigation water applied (722 mm), resulting in the

  1. Evaluating regional water scarcity: Irrigated crop water budgets for groundwater management in the Wisconsin Central Sands

    Nocco, M. A.; Kucharik, C. J.; Kraft, G.

    2013-12-01

    Regional water scarcity dilemmas between agricultural and aquatic land users pervade the humid northern lake states of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan, where agricultural irrigation relies on groundwater drawn from shallow aquifers. As these aquifers have strong connectivity to surface waters, irrigation lowers water levels in lakes and wetlands and reduces stream discharges. Irrigation expansion has cultivated a 60-year water scarcity dilemma in The Wisconsin Central Sands, the largest irrigated region in the humid northern lake states, dedicated to potato, maize, and processing vegetable production. Irrigation has depleted Wisconsin Central Sands surface waters, lowering levels in some lakes by over 2 m and drying some coldwater trout streams. Aquatic ecosystems, property values, and recreational uses in some surface waters have been devastated. While the causal link between pumping and surface water stress is established, understanding crop-mediated processes, such as the timing and magnitude of groundwater consumption by evapotranspiration (ET) and groundwater recharge, will be useful in management of groundwater, irrigated cropping systems, and surface water health. Previous modeling and field efforts have compared irrigated crop water use to a natural reference condition on a net annual basis. As a result, we presently understand that for irrigated potatoes and maize, the average annual ET is greater and therefore, the average annual recharge is less than rainfed row crops, grasslands, and both coniferous and deciduous forests. However, we have a limited understanding of the magnitude and timing of ET and recharge from irrigated cropping systems on shorter time scales that proceed with the annual cropping cycle (i.e. planting, full canopy, harvest, residue cover). We seek to understand the spatiotemporal variability of crop water budgets and associated water scarcity in the Wisconsin Central Sands through detailed measurements of drainage (potential

  2. Yield-scaled global warming potential of two irrigation management systems in a highly productive rice system

    Silvana Tarlera; María Cristina Capurro; Pilar Irisarri; Ana Fernández Scavino; Guillermina Cantou; Alvaro Roel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Water management impacts both methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from rice paddy fields. Although controlled irrigation is one of the most important tools for reducing CH4emission in rice production systems it can also increase N2O emissions and reduce crop yields. Over three years, CH4 and N2O emissions were measured in a rice field in Uruguay under two different irrigation management systems, using static closed chambers: conventional water management (continuous flood...

  3. Earth observation products for operational irrigation management: the PLEIADeS project

    D'Urso, G.; Vuolo, F.; Richter, K.; Calera Belmonte, A.; Osann, M. A.

    2009-09-01

    In the context of a sustainable agriculture, a controlled and efficient irrigation management is required to avoid negative effects of the increasing water scarcity, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Within this background, the project 'Participatory multi-Level EO-assisted tools for Irrigation water management and Agricultural Decision-Support' (PLEIADeS: http://www.pleiades.es) addressed the efficient and sustainable use of water for food production in water-scarce environments. Economical, environmental, technical, social and political dimensions are considered by means of a synergy of leading-edge technologies and participatory approaches. Project partners, represented by a set of nine pilot case studies, include a broad range of conditions characteristic for the European, Southern Mediterranean and American regions. PLEIADeS aimed at improving the performance of irrigation schemes by means of a range of measures, made possible through wide space-time coverage of Earth observation (E.O.) data and interactive networking capabilities of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Algorithms for a number of basic products to estimate Irrigation Water Requirements (IWR) in an operational context are defined. In this study, the pilot zone at the Nurra site in Sardinia, Italy, is chosen to test, validate and apply these methodologies.

  4. Integrated management of water resources demand and supply in irrigated agriculture from plot to regional scale

    Schütze, Niels; Wagner, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Growing water scarcity in agriculture is an increasing problem in future in many regions of the world. Recent trends of weather extremes in Saxony, Germany also enhance drought risks for agricultural production. In addition, signals of longer and more intense drought conditions during the vegetation period can be found in future regional climate scenarios for Saxony. However, those climate predictions are associated with high uncertainty and therefore, e.g. stochastic methods are required to analyze the impact of changing climate patterns on future crop water requirements and water availability. For assessing irrigation as a measure to increase agricultural water security a generalized stochastic approach for a spatial distributed estimation of future irrigation water demand is proposed, which ensures safe yields and a high water productivity at the same time. The developed concept of stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF) can serve as a central decision support tool for both, (i) a cost benefit analysis of farm irrigation modernization on a local scale and (ii) a regional water demand management using a multi-scale approach for modeling and implementation. The new approach is applied using the example of a case study in Saxony, which is dealing with the sustainable management of future irrigation water demands and its implementation.

  5. Winter wheat grain yield and its components in the North China Plain: irrigation management, cultivation, and climate

    Lihua Lv

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation has been identified as the main driving factor of groundwater drawdown in the North China Plain (NCP. In order to develop appropriate irrigation strategies for satisfactory yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., grain yield (GY, yield components, and water use efficiency (WUE were studied. A field experiment was conducted with two types of winter wheat, 'Shimai15' and 'Shixin733', and five irrigation treatments, including rainfed and four spring irrigation water applications, in four growing seasons (2005 to 2009. Results showed that maximum GY was achieved with three irrigation treatments in the 2005-2006 and 2008-2009 dry seasons and two irrigation treatments in the 2006-2007 normal season. However, in the 2007-2008 wet season, the four irrigation treatments, especially the additional irrigation event at the reviving stage (28, produced maximum GY. Grain yield was significantly related to seasonal full evapotranspiration (ET and 410 to 530 mm of seasonal full ET, including 143 mm rainfall and 214 mm irrigation water, which led to maximum GY. The two types of cultivars responded differently to irrigation management in different rainfall years. The yield of the water-saving cv. 'Shimai 15' was much higher in the dry seasons than in the other seasons. Variations of yield components were mainly caused by irrigation time and meteorological factors. The higher accumulated temperature during the sowing and tillering stages (24 and irrigation or precipitation at the reviving stage (28 significantly improved tiller growth. The lower average temperature in March and April greatly increased grain number per spike. Sunshine duration played a decisive role in improving grain weight. Our results provide very useful information about irrigation time and frequency of winter wheat in the NCP in order to obtain high yield but reduce the use of underground water.

  6. LandCaRe-DSS - model based tools for irrigation management under climate change

    Dotterweich, Markus; Wilkinson, Kristina; Cassel, Martin; Scherzer, Jörg; Köstner, Barbara; Berg, Michael; Grocholl, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is expected to have a strong influence on agricultural systems in the future. It will be important for decision makers and stakeholders to assess the impact of climate change at the farm and regional level in order to facilitate and maintain a sustainable and profitable farming infrastructure. Climate change impact studies have to incorporate aspects of uncertainty and the underlying knowledge is constantly expanding and improving. Decision support systems (DSS) with flexible data bases are therefore a useful tool for management and planning: different models can be applied under varying boundary conditions within a conceptual framework and the results can be used e.g. to show the effects of climate change scenarios and different land management options. Within this project, the already existing LandCaRe DSS will be further enhanced and improved. A first prototype had been developed for two regions in eastern Germany, mainly to show the effects of climate change on yields, nutrient balances and farm economy. The new model version will be tested and applied for a region in north-western Germany (Landkreis Uelzen) where arable land makes up about 50% of overall land-use and where 80 % of the arable land is already irrigated. For local decision makers, it will be important to know how water demand and water availability are likely to change in the future: Is more water needed for irrigation? Is more water actually available for irrigation? Will the existing limits for ground water withdrawal be sufficient for farmers to irrigate their crops? How can the irrigation water demand be influenced by land management options like the use of different crops and varieties or different farming and irrigation techniques? The main tasks of the project are (I) the integration of an improved irrigation model, (II) the development of a standardized interface to apply the DSS in different regions, (III) to optimize the graphical user interface, (IV) to transfer and

  7. Optimization strategies for improving irrigation water management of lower jhelum canal

    The paper includes computing crop water requirement, identification of problems and optimization strategies for improved irrigation water management of a canal command. Lower Jhelum Canal (LJC) System was selected as a case study. Possible strategies for optimization are enhancing irrigation water productivity by high value and high yield crops, adoption of resource conservation interventions (RCIs) at the farm level, improving irrigation system efficiency and its management. Estimation of daily reference evapotranspiration of LJC command was carried out by Penman Montieth -2000 method and metrological data of Sargodha for the period 1999 to 2010 was used. Crop water requirements were computed from reference evapotranspiration, crop coefficients and periods of crops for existing cropping pattern. The comparison of the crop water requirements and available water supplies indicated shortage of more than 51% in Kharif and 54% in Rabi seasons. The gap between requirements and supplies is fulfilled by groundwater in the command. The structural measures identified in the present study for improving canal management include rationalization of canal capacities in keeping with the current water requirements and availability, rehabilitation and remodeling of canal network and lining of distributaries and minors in saline groundwater areas. An array of measures and practices identified for improved water management at the farm level include: improvement and lining of watercourses, proper farm design and layout, adoption of resource conservation technologies involving laser land leveling, zero tillage, and bed-furrow irrigation method. Adopting proper cropping systems considering land suitability and capacity building of farming community in improved soil, crop and water management technologies would enhance the water productivity in an effective and sustainable manner. (author)

  8. Review: Computer-based models for managing the water-resource problems of irrigated agriculture

    Singh, Ajay

    2015-09-01

    Irrigation is essential for achieving food security to the burgeoning global population but unplanned and injudicious expansion of irrigated areas causes waterlogging and salinization problems. Under this backdrop, groundwater resources management is a critical issue for fulfilling the increasing water demand for agricultural, industrial, and domestic uses. Various simulation and optimization approaches were used to solve the groundwater management problems. This paper presents a review of the individual and combined applications of simulation and optimization modeling for the management of groundwater-resource problems associated with irrigated agriculture. The study revealed that the combined use of simulation-optimization modeling is very suitable for achieving an optimal solution for groundwater-resource problems, even with a large number of variables. Independent model tools were used to solve the problems of uncertainty analysis and parameter estimation in groundwater modelling studies. Artificial neural networks were used to minimize the problem of computational complexity. The incorporation of socioeconomic aspects into the groundwater management modeling would be an important development in future studies.

  9. Forest Irrigation Of Tritiated Water: A Proven Tritiated Water Management Tool

    Vangelas, Karen; Blount, Gerald; Kmetz, Thomas; Prater, Phil

    2012-11-08

    Tritium releases from the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground (ORWBG) at the SRS in South Carolina has impacted groundwater and surface water. Tritiated groundwater plumes discharge into Fourmile Branch which is a small tributary of the Savannah River, a regional water resource. Taking advantage of the groundwater flow paths and the local topography a water collection and irrigation system was constructed and has been used at the SRS for over a decade to reduce these tritiated water releases to Fourmile Branch. The tritiated water is transferred to the atmosphere by evaporation from the pond surface, and after irrigation, wetted surface evaporation and evapotranspiration through the forest vegetation. Over the last decade SRS has irrigated over 120,000,000 gallons of tritiated water, which diverted over 6000 curies away from Fourmile Branch and the Savannah River. The system has been effective in reducing the flux of tritiated groundwater by approximately 70%. Mass balance studies of tritium in the forest soils before operations and over the last decade indicate that approximately 90% of the tritiated water that is irrigated is transferred to the atmosphere. Dose studies indicate that exposure to site workers and offsite maximally exposed individual is very low, approximately 6 mrem/year and 0.004 mrem/year, respectively. To consistently meet the flux reduction goal of tritium into Fourmile Branch optimization activities are proposed. These efforts will increase irrigation capacity and area. An additional 17 acres are proposed for an expansion of the area to be irrigated and a planting of approximately 40 acres of pine forest plantations is underway to expand irrigation capacity. Co-mingled with the tritiated groundwater are low concentrations of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (cVOCs), and 1,4-dioxane. Research studies and SRS field data indicate the forest irrigation system may have an added benefit of reducing the mass of these co-contaminants via

  10. Irrigator responses to groundwater resource management in northern Victoria, southeastern Australia

    Gill, Bruce C.; Webb, John; Wilkinson, Roger; Cherry, Don

    2014-10-01

    In northern Victoria, farmers are the biggest users of groundwater and therefore the main stakeholders in plans that seek to sustainably manage the resource. Interviews with 30 irrigation farmers in two study areas, analysed using qualitative social research methods, showed that the overwhelming majority of groundwater users agreed with the need for groundwater management and thought that the current plans had achieved sustainable resource use. The farmers also expressed a strong need for clear technical explanations for management decisions, in particular easily understood water level data. The social licence to implement the management plans arose through effective consultation with the community during plan development. Several additional factors combined to gain acceptance for the plans: good data on groundwater usage and aquifer levels is available; irrigation farmers had been exposed to usage restrictions since the late 1990s; an ‘adaptive’ management approach is in use which allowed refinements to be readily incorporated and fortuitously, plan development coincided with the 1998-2009 drought, when declines in groundwater levels reinforced the usefulness of the plans. The imposition of a nation-wide water use reduction plan in 2012 had relatively little impact in Victoria because of the early implementation of effective groundwater management plans. However, economic difficulties that reduce groundwater users’ capacity to pay groundwater management charges mean that the future of the plans in Victoria is not assured. Nevertheless, the high level of trust that exists between Victorian irrigation farmers and the management agencies suggests that the continued use of a consultative approach will continue to produce workable outcomes. Lessons from the Victorian experience may be difficult to apply in other areas of groundwater use in Australia and overseas, where there may be a quite different history of development and culture of groundwater management.

  11. Two irrigation systems in Colombia : their performance and transfer of management to users'associations

    Plusquellec, Herve

    1989-01-01

    Two Colombian irrigation projects are studied in this report, the Coello and RUT projects. Management of the RUT project is going to be transfered soon from public managers to farmers. The Coello project has been farmer managed for about 13 years. The keys to its success have been: 1) the dynamism of the private farming sector and support services in Colombia, 2) the high level of farmer training, 3) patterns of land tenure - with farms an average size of 15 hectares, 4) regular maintenance, ...

  12. Management of water for irrigation agriculture in semi-arid areas: Problems and prospects

    Mvungi, A.; Mashauri, D.; Madulu, N. F.

    Most of the Mwanga district is classified as semi-arid with a rainfall range of 300 and 600 mm. Rainfall patterns in the district are unpredictable and are subject to great fluctuations. Like other semi-arid areas, the district is characterized with land degradation, unreliable rainfall, repeated water shortage, periodic famine, overgrazing, dry land cultivation in the marginal areas and heavy competition for limited biomass between farmers and cattle. Vulnerability here is high due to unreliability of weather. The people of Mwanga are dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. However agriculture is difficult in the area due to inadequate rainfall. For a very long time the people have been dependent on irrigation agriculture to ensure food security. Of late the traditional irrigation system is on the decline threatening food security in the area. This paper examines the state and status of the irrigation canal system in Mwanga district with the view of recommending ways in which it can be improved. The study used participatory, survey and in-depth interviews to obtain both quantitative and qualitative data. The major findings are that social, political, environmental and demographic bases that supported the traditional irrigation system have changed drastically. As a corollary to this, the cultural and religious belief systems that supported and guided the traditional canal system management have been replaced by mistrust and corruption in water allocation. In addition the ownership and management system of the water resources that was vested in the initiator clans has changed and now water user groups own the canals/furrows but they do not own the water sources. This has rendered the control of the water sources difficult if not impossible. Currently the system is faced by a number of problems including shortage of water and poor management as demand for water increases and this has led to serious conflicts among and between crop producers and pastoralists

  13. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGRICULTURAL LAND SYSTEMS AND WATER USE DURING THE APPLICATION OF PARTICIPATORY IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT

    Naoko OKA; Junji KOIDE; Mostafa, Harby; Satoshi SAKATA; Wakeyo, Mekonnen B.; Naoya FUJIMOTO

    2013-01-01

    The identification of water rights is essential to the application of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) policies. Water and agricultural land have traditionally had strong relationships. We must clarify land tenure conditions and their relationships with water rights. This paper presents the results of studies focused on the relationships between agricultural land systems and water use in several African and Asian countries. It describes different situations related to land systems an...

  14. AQUATER Software as a DSS for Irrigation Management in Semi-Arid Mediterranean Areas

    Marco Acutis; Alessia Perego; Ettore Bernardoni; Michele Rinaldi

    2010-01-01

    Irrigation management at district or regional scale can be dealt using ecological process-based models and remote sensing data. Simulation crop models simulate at a certain time step the main biophysical variables determining crop photosynthesis and water consumption rates. The research consists in an integrated approach to combine field data, simulation crop model and remote sensing information. Detailed data sets related to topography, soil, climate and land cover were collected and organiz...

  15. A New Soil Water and Bulk Electrical Conductivity Sensor Technology for Irrigation and Salinity Management

    Existing soil water content sensing systems based on electromagnetic (EM) properties of soils often over estimate and sometimes underestimate water content in saline and salt-affected soils due to severe interference from the soil bulk electrical conductivity (BEC), which varies strongly with temperature and which can vary greatly throughout an irrigation season and across a field. Many soil water sensors, especially those based on capacitance measurements, have been shown to be unsuitable in salt-affected or clayey soils (Evett et al., 2012a). The ability to measure both soil water content and BEC can be helpful for the management of irrigation and leaching regimes. Neutron probe is capable of accurately sensing water content in salt-affected soils but has the disadvantages of being: (1) labour-intensive, (2) not able to be left unattended in the field, (3) subject to onerous regulations, and (4) not able to sense salinity. The Waveguide-On-Access-Tube (WOAT) system based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) principles, recently developed by Evett et al. (2012) is a new promising technology. This system can be installed at below 3 m in 20-cm sensor segments to cover as much of the crop root zone as needed for irrigation management. It can also be installed to measure the complete soil profile from the surface to below the root zone, allowing the measurement of crop water use and water use efficiency - knowledge of which is key for irrigation and farm management, and for the development of new drought tolerant and water efficient crop varieties and hybrids, as well as watershed and environmental management

  16. Assessing Water Charges under Changing Institutional Irrigation Management in Pakistan: A Methodological Framework

    Mahmood Ul Hassan; M. GHAFFAR CHAUDHRY

    1998-01-01

    The Government of Pakistan has opted for institutional reforms for canal irrigation system of the country with a view to undertaking efficient operation and maintenance of the system and improving cost recovery. In the new reforms, the Farmers’ Organisations will manage distributaries and minors and pay the cost of upstream water in full. The complex hierarchy of the system poses serious challenges for working out the cost of water delivery for various channels. The paper presents a methodolo...

  17. MIKE BASIN Based Decision Support Tool for Water Sharing and Irrigation Management in Rangawan Command of India

    R. K. Jaiswal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, MIKE BASIN has been used as a decision support tool for irrigation management and water sharing of Rangawan reservoir, an interstate project of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh in India. The water sharing and optimum irrigation releases have been analyzed by developing two separate models in decision support tool; the first model computes irrigation demand and offers inputs to the second model, which calculates water supplies and deficits as per the water sharing agreements between the two states. The models have been used to generate twelve different scenarios for evaluation of irrigation demands, water supply, and demand deficit/excess for actual cropping pattern in command of Madhya Pradesh part. Simulated results showed, in average/wet rainfall year with conveyance efficiency of 60% and application efficiency of 70%, the irrigation demand of 11.83 Mm3 has been found satisfying without any deficit. By improving efficiencies, conjunctive use, and managing irrigation supplies as recommended from scenarios of DSS application, more areas in the command can be brought under irrigation. The developed models can be used for real time reservoir operation and irrigation planning under variable climatic conditions, conveyance and application efficiencies, consumptive use of surface and groundwater, and probable runoff and cropping pattern.

  18. Solar powered irrigation management using neutron scattering technique

    This study was conducted to modify a locally assembled solar-powered irrigation system. A direct-coupled photovoltaic pumping system has been assembled and installed in the Egyptian desert in Inshas at the Nuclear Research Center (31 degree 21' E, 30 degree 17' N). 800 Watt DC motor with brushes was modified to match unsteady PV generator current output. The DC motor was supplied with PV generator current, which was divided between 9 and 4 modules. Pump-set output was tested at different insolation levels and a relationship was carried out from observed data. Hourly solar insolation averages for ten years period were obtained from a program named (Meteo-Norm) software in order to predict and calculate the average daily pumping system water delivery in cubic meters. Preliminary experiment was conducted to acquire a relationship between PVP system outputs and solar-radiation intensity values; which differ from time to time during the day and through different seasons. Solar radiation, power consumption (as Voltage and Current), motor RPM and pump flow varied, while head was kept constant at 4 meter.The system showed trustworthy response to the PV generator output power demonstrated in DC motor RPM and consequently water deliver Based on the obtained results of this study, conclusions are:1.Parameters affecting the performance of solar generator under desert conditions were ambient temperature and contaminants. Focusing on the controllable parameter; dust contaminants; experiments were made to find out the best cleaning period which has limited decrease of the PV output. Results showed that output power was 22% lower for the panel with no cleaning for 20 days. Recommendation is made to do cleaning schedule every three days. 2.Maximizing photovoltaic system efficiency is achieved in order to minimize the initial costs, in other words; more power generated from the PV system unit. These can be obtained by tracking the sun rays through the daytime. Solar tracker was

  19. Study on the Roles of FWUA in Construction, Management and Maintenance of Small-Scale Irrigation and Water Conservancy

    Shaoshu; LI; Ke; YUAN

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, China has been frequented by floods and droughts which has greatly evoked much concern from the Central Government about rural water conservancy construction. Irrigation is closely related to the "three rural" issues and concerns about the vital interests of farmers. To achieve a virtuous circle of agricultural water supply, it is necessary and urgent to establish Farmer Water User Association (FWUA) to participate in the construction, management and maintenance of small-scale irrigation system. Based on the survey on nationwide "Small-scale irrigation conditions", the roles of FWUA in the construction, management and maintenance of small-scale water conservancy have studied in this study.

  20. Water and energy sustainable management in irrigation systems network

    Kaloyan N. Kenov, Helena M. Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity, water quality deterioration and the increasing demand for water and for renewable energy in water systems, require sound planning and management practices supported by computer modeling. Such management practices must ensure the sustainable use of water resources, including the achievement of a good status of water bodies as prescribed by the EU Water Framework Directive. The purpose of this paper is to establish the applicability and limitations of two commercial software products to simulate the operation of a water system based on the Sorraia water project in Portugal. Particular attention was given to two products: (1 AQUATOOL, developed by the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia (UPV; and, (2 WEAP developed by the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI. The capabilities of the two models were analyzed focusing on the following aspects: (1 capability to reproduce the operation of a water system; (2 capacity to estimate the system’s reliability to meet water demands; (3 easiness of the modeling process, including entry data requirements and presentation of results; (4 usefulness to support decisions of water authorities. From the modeling activity process it is possible to conclude that: (1 AQUATOOL and WEAP are applicable in planning exercises, for which it is necessary to evaluate possible modifications in existing water systems and to analyze the effectiveness of resource exploitation policies, by taking into account objectives and infrastructure; and, (2 within certain modeling limitations, these software products can be used for water allocation predictions, multi-reservoir modeling, and reliability assessment of water systems.

  1. A decomposition approach for optimal management of groundwater resources and irrigated agriculture in arid coastal regions

    Grundmann, Jens; Schütze, Niels; Heck, Vera

    2013-04-01

    For ensuring an optimal sustainable water resources management in arid coastal environments, we develop a new simulation based integrated water management system. It aims at achieving best possible solutions for groundwater withdrawals for agricultural and municipal water use including saline water management together with a substantial increase of the water use efficiency in irrigated agriculture. To achieve a robust and fast operation of the management system, it unites process modelling with artificial intelligence tools and evolutionary optimisation techniques for managing both, water quality and water quantity of a strongly coupled groundwater-agriculture system. However, such systems are characterized by a large number of decision variables if abstraction schemes, cropping patterns and cultivated acreages are optimised simultaneously for multiple years. Therefore, we apply the principle of decomposition to separate the original large optimisation problem into smaller, independent optimisation problems which finally allow for a faster and more reliable solution. At first, within an inner optimisation loop, cropping patterns and cultivated acreages are optimised to achieve a most profitable agricultural production for a given amount of water. Thereby, the behaviour of farms is described by crop-water-production functions which can be derived analytically. Secondly, within an outer optimisation loop, a simulation based optimisation is performed to find optimal groundwater abstraction pattern by coupling an evolutionary optimisation algorithm with an artificial neural network for modelling the aquifer response, inclusive the seawater interface. We demonstrate the decomposition approach by an exemplary application of the south Batinah region in the Sultanate of Oman which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture. We show the effectiveness of our methodology for the evaluation

  2. Methane emission from rice fields in relation to management of irrigation water.

    Khosa, Maninder Kaur; Sidhu, B S; Benbi, D K

    2011-03-01

    A field experiment was conducted for two years to find out best water management practice to mitigate methane emission from the rice-fields. Continuously flooded conditions yielded two major flushes of methane emission and on an average resulted in relatively higher rate of methane emission (2.20 and 1.30 mg m(-2) hr(-1), respectively in 2005 and 2006) during the kharif season. The methane flux was reduced to half (1.02 and 0.47 mg m(-2) hr(-1), respectively in 2005 and 2006) when rice fields were irrigated 2-3 days after infiltration of flood water into the soil. Irrigating the field at 0.15 bar matric potential reduced seasonal methane flux by 60% (0.99 and 0.41 mg m(-2) hr(-1), respectively in 2005 and 2006) as compared to completely flooded conditions, without any decline in grain yield (60 q ha(-1)). PMID:21882650

  3. Design and Management of Irrigation Systems Diseño y Manejo de Sistemas de Riego

    Eduardo A Holzapfel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation systems should be a relevant agent to give solutions to the increasing demand of food, and to the development, sustainability and productivity of the agricultural sector. The design, managing, and operation of irrigation systems are crucial factors to achieve an efficient use of the water resources and the success in the production of crops and orchards. The aim of this paper is to analyze knowledge and investigations that enable to identify the principal criteria and processes that allow improving the design and managing of the irrigation systems, based on the basic concept that they facilitate to develop agriculture more efficient and sustainable. The design and managing of irrigation systems must have its base in criteria that are relevant, which implies to take into account agronomic, soil, hydraulic, economic, energetic, and environmental factors. The optimal design and managing of irrigation systems at farm level is a factor of the first importance for a rational use of water, economic development of the agriculture and its environmental sustainability.Los sistemas de riego deberían ser un agente relevante para dar soluciones a la demanda creciente de alimentos, y el desarrollo, sustentabilidad y productividad del sector agrícola. El diseño, manejo, y operación de los sistemas de riego son factores cruciales para lograr un uso eficiente de los recursos hídricos y el éxito en la producción de cultivos y frutales. El objetivo de este artículo fue analizar conocimientos e investigaciones que permitan identificar los principales criterios y procesos para mejorar el diseño y manejo de los sistemas de riego, basados en el concepto básico de desarrollar una agricultura más eficiente y sostenible. El diseño y manejo de los sistemas de riego deben tener su base en criterios que sean relevantes, lo que implica considerar aspectos agronómicos, de suelo, hidráulicos, económicos, energéticos, y ambientales. El diseño y

  4. Performance of the irrigameter in management of irrigation in the Jaíba Irrigated Perimeter, MG, Brazil

    Luan Brioschi Giovanelli; Samuel Petraccone Caixeta; Júlio César Machado Baptestini; André Leonardo Tavares de Paula; Rubens Alves de Oliveira; Ednaldo Miranda de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the coefficient of irrigameter device (KI) and to assess its performance in the irrigation of sunflower. The experiment was conducted in the Jaíba Irrigated Perimeter, Jaíba, MG, located at 15° 36' S and 43° 42' W, with an altitude of 460 m. For the evaluation of the performance of the irrigameter, the water level in the evaporimeter was kept at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 cm high, and the evapotranspiration estimated by the irrigameter was compared to the...

  5. Performance of the irrigameter in management of irrigation in the Jaíba Irrigated Perimeter, MG, Brazil

    Luan Brioschi Giovanelli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the coefficient of irrigameter device (KI and to assess its performance in the irrigation of sunflower. The experiment was conducted in the Jaíba Irrigated Perimeter, Jaíba, MG, located at 15° 36' S and 43° 42' W, with an altitude of 460 m. For the evaluation of the performance of the irrigameter, the water level in the evaporimeter was kept at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 cm high, and the evapotranspiration estimated by the irrigameter was compared to the reference evapotranspiration, calculated by the standard method Penman-Monteith FAO 56 (Allen et al., 1998. It was concluded that the values of KI obtained were 0.42, 0.69, 0.85, 1.07, 1.34 and 1.61 for the water levels in the evaporimeter corresponding to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 cm, respectively. There was no significant difference between the yield of sunflower crop irrigated during day or night time; higher average values then reported by the literature were found. The irrigameter device was found to be satisfactory for irrigation control. To estimate the reference evapotranspiration in similar regions with similar climatic conditions, it is recommended to use the unit with evaporimeter adjusted to the level 3.7 cm.

  6. Optimal Management of Irrigation Water Allocation and Cropping Pattern Utilizing Conjunctive Use of Surface and Subsurface Water Resources

    M Zibaei; T. Honar; M. K. Shaabani

    2008-01-01

    Limitations of rainfall and surface water resources farmers have to use both surface and subsurface resources for growing different crops. In this study optimal management of irrigation water allocation and cropping pattern utilizing conjunctive use of surface and subsurface water resources is studied. Also the effect of reducing water consumption in different growth stages with different irrigation strategies for major crops (wheat, barely, corn, sugar beet, rice) in Fars province was studie...

  7. Yield and quality responses of Aragonez grapevines under deficit irrigation and different soil management practices in a Mediterranean climate

    Tomaz, Alexandra; Martinez, José Miguel Coleto; Pacheco, Carlos Arruda

    2015-01-01

    In Mediterranean-type climates, increased irrigation efficiency is a key goal for viticulture, as it is for fruit production in general. The objective of the present study was to determine the responses of yield, berry composition, and wine quality to various degrees of irrigation supply and different soil management practices in a vineyard. Data were collected during two years from ‘Aragonez’ grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. syn. ‘Tempranillo’). The experimental site was located in a p...

  8. A crop needs more than a drop : towards a new praxis in irrigation management in North Africa

    2009-01-01

    We designed and implemented an action-research programme in large-scale irrigation schemes in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia, aiming to develop a regional network of competences by conducting research, training and development activities, and involving local actors. We worked on three issues: (i) the sustainability of North Africa's growing groundwater economy, (ii) the integration of environmental constraints in the management of irrigated agriculture, and(iii) the analysis of new coordination...

  9. Water saving at the field scale with Irrig-OH, an open-hardware environment device for soil water potential monitoring and irrigation management

    Masseroni, Daniele; Facchi, Arianna; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    Sustainability of irrigation practices is an important objective which should be pursued in many countries, especially in areas where water scarcity causes strong conflicts among the different water uses. The efficient use of water is a key factor in coping with the food demand of an increasing world population and with the negative effects of the climate change on water resources availability in many areas. In this complex context, it is important that farmers adopt instruments and practices that enable a better management of water at the field scale, whatever the irrigation method they adopt. This work presents the hardware structure and the functioning of an open-hardware microstation based on the Arduino technology, called Irrig-OH, which allows the continuous and low-cost monitoring of the soil water potential (SWP) in the root zone for supporting the irrigation scheduling at the field scale. In order to test the microstation, an experiment was carried out during the agricultural season 2014 at Lodi (Italy), with the purpose of comparing the farmers' traditional management of irrigation of a peach variety and the scheduling based on the SWP measurements provided by the microstation. Additional measurements of leaf water potential (LWP), stomatal resistance, transpiration (T), crop water stress index (CWSI) and fruit size evolution were performed respectively on leafs and fruits for verifying the plant physiological responses on different SWP levels in soil. At the harvesting time, the peach production in term of quantity and quality (sucrose content was measured by a rifractometer over a sample of one hundred fruits) of the two rows were compared. Irrigation criteria was changed with respect to three macro-periods: up to the endocarp hardening phase (begin of May) soil was kept well watered fixing the SWP threshold in the first 35 cm of the soil profile at -20 kPa, during the pit hardening period (about the entire month of May) the allowed SWP threshold was

  10. Using the depleted fraction to manage the groundwater table in irrigated areas

    Bos, M. G.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.

    2003-01-01

    The depleted fraction, defined as the ratio of ETactual over (P + Vc ), relates parameters of the water balance of an irrigated area with each other in such a way that the (water) manager obtains information on the rate of change of water stored in the area (soil moisture and groundwater). If the depleted fraction equals about 0.6 water storage in the area is stable, while water is stored for lower values of the depleted fraction. If the value of the depleted fraction exceeds 0.6, the volume ...

  11. SOCIAL MANAGEMENT OF IRRIGATION WATER IN THE SAN JUAN EJIDO, URIREO, SALVATIERRA, GUANAJUATO

    Julieta Aidee Díaz-Rosillo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In irrigated agriculture, producers are responsible for the management and administration of multiple common resources, among which include land and water. These common resources are used jointly by the whole community and in the same way are removed, depending on the needs of each individual. In the case of well 15 in the Ejido San Juan, has been maintained to be administered only by users without needing them, so far, the involvement of people outside the community or any government body for best results.

  12. Irrigation Management

    Crop water use (evapotranspiration = ET) is often estimated as ET = Kc x ETo, where ETo is a reference ET calculated from weather data and Kc is a crop coefficient that is specific to a crop variety and stage of growth. This paradigm has become the dominant one in state and federal efforts to provid...

  13. Yield-scaled global warming potential of two irrigation management systems in a highly productive rice system

    Silvana Tarlera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water management impacts both methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions from rice paddy fields. Although controlled irrigation is one of the most important tools for reducing CH4emission in rice production systems it can also increase N2O emissions and reduce crop yields. Over three years, CH4 and N2O emissions were measured in a rice field in Uruguay under two different irrigation management systems, using static closed chambers: conventional water management (continuous flooding after 30 days of emergence, CF30; and an alternative system (controlled deficit irrigation allowing for wetting and drying, AWDI. AWDI showed mean cumulative CH4 emission values of 98.4 kg CH4 ha−1, 55 % lower compared to CF30, while no differences in nitrous oxide emissions were observed between treatments ( p > 0.05. No yield differences between irrigation systems were observed in two of the rice seasons ( p > 0.05 while AWDI promoted yield reduction in one of the seasons ( p< 0.05. When rice yield and greenhouse gases (GHG emissions were considered together, the AWDI irrigation system allowed for lower yield-scaled total global warming potential (GWP. Higher irrigation water productivity was achieved under AWDI in two of the three rice seasons. These findings suggest that AWDI could be an option for reducing GHG emissions and increasing irrigation water productivity. However, AWDI may compromise grain yield in certain years, reflecting the importance of the need for fine tuning of this irrigation strategy and an assessment of the overall tradeoff between relationships in order to promote its adoption by farmers.

  14. A comparative study of wireless and wired sensors networks for deficit irrigation management

    Torres Sánchez, Roque; Domingo Miguel, Rafael; Valles, Fulgencio Soto; Perez-Pastor, Alejandro; Lopez Riquelme, Juan Antonio; Blanco Montoya, Victor

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, the including of sensors in the context of agricultural water management, has received an increasing interest for the establishment of irrigation strategies, such as regulated deficit irrigation (RDI). These strategies allow a significant improvement of crop water productivity (marketable yield / water applied), especially in woody orchards. The application of these deficit irrigation strategies, requires the monitoring of variables related to the orchard, with the purpose of achieving an efficiently irrigation management, since it is necessary to know the soil and plant water status to achieve the level of water deficit desired in each phenological stage. These parameters involve the measurements of soil and plant parameters, by using appropriate instrumentation devices. Traditional centralized instrumentation systems include soil matric potential, water content and LVDT sensors which information is stored by dataloggers with a wired connection to the sensors. Nowadays, these wired systems are being replaced by wireless ones due, mainly, to cost savings in wiring and labor. These technologies (WSNs) allow monitoring a wide variety of parameters in orchards with high density of sensors using discrete and autonomous nodes in the trees or soil places where it is necessary, without using wires. In this paper we present a trial in a cherry crop orchard, with different irrigation strategies where both a wireless and a wired system have been deployed with the aim of obtaining the best criteria on how to select the most suitable technology in future agronomic monitoring systems. The first stage of this study includes the deploying of nodes, wires, dataloggers and the installation of the sensors (same for both, wired and wireless systems). This stage was done during the first 15 weeks of the trial. Specifically, 40 MPS6 soil matric potential, 20 Enviroscan water content and 40 (LVDT and band) dendometers were installed in order to cover the experimental

  15. Real time soil moisture forecasts for irrigation management: the Pre.G.I. project

    Ceppi, A.; Ravazzani, G.; Mancini, M.; Salerno, R.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years frequent periods of water scarcity have enhanced the need to use water more carefully. Future climate change scenarios, combined with limited water resources require better irrigation management and planning for farmers' water cooperatives. This has occurred also in areas traditionally rich of water as Lombardy Region, in the North of Italy. In this study we show the development and implementation of a real-time drought forecasting system with a soil moisture hydrological alert, in particular we describe preliminary results of the Pre.G.I. Project, an Italian acronym that stands for "Hydro-Meteorological forecast for irrigation management", funded by Lombardy Region. The project develops a support decision system based on an ensemble weather prediction in the medium-long range (up to 30 days) with hydrological simulation of water balance to forecast the soil water content in every parcel over the Consorzio Muzza basin, in order to use the irrigation water in a wiser and thriftier way. The studied area covers 74,000 ha in the middle of the Po Valley, near Lodi city. The hydrological ensemble forecasts are based on 20 meteorological members of a modified version of the non-hydrostatic WRF model, with multiple nesting to scale to the region of interest. Different physical schemes are also used to take into account a larger variability; these data are provided by Epson Meteo Centre. The hydrological model used to generate the soil moisture and water table simulations is the rainfall-runoff distributed FEST-WB model, developed at Politecnico di Milano. The analysis shows the system reliability based on most significant case-studies occurred in the recent years.

  16. Crop and irrigation management strategies for saline-sodic soils and waters aimed at environmentally sustainable agriculture.

    Qadir, M; Oster, J D

    2004-05-01

    Irrigation has long played a key role in feeding the expanding world population and is expected to play a still greater role in the future. As supplies of good-quality irrigation water are expected to decrease in several regions due to increased municipal-industrial-agricultural competition, available freshwater supplies need to be used more efficiently. In addition, reliance on the use and reuse of saline and/or sodic drainage waters, generated by irrigated agriculture, seems inevitable for irrigation. The same applies to salt-affected soils, which occupy more than 20% of the irrigated lands, and warrant attention for efficient, inexpensive and environmentally acceptable management. Technologically and from a management perspective, a couple of strategies have shown the potential to improve crop production under irrigated agriculture while minimizing the adverse environmental impacts. The first strategy, vegetative bioremediation--a plant-assisted reclamation approach--relies on growing appropriate plant species that can tolerate ambient soil salinity and sodicity levels during reclamation of salt-affected soils. A variety of plant species of agricultural significance have been found to be effective in sustainable reclamation of calcareous and moderately sodic and saline-sodic soils. The second strategy fosters dedicating soils to crop production systems where saline and/or sodic waters predominate and their disposal options are limited. Production systems based on salt-tolerant plant species using drainage waters may be sustainable with the potential of transforming such waters from an environmental burden into an economic asset. Such a strategy would encourage the disposal of drainage waters within the irrigated regions where they are generated rather than exporting these waters to other regions via discharge into main irrigation canals, local streams, or rivers. Being economically and environmentally sustainable, these strategies could be the key to future

  17. Feasibility of Farmers’Participation in OptimalIrrigation Management System (Case of Guilan Province

    Mohammad Taleghani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Farmers’ participation in the maintenance and operation of water facilities has a positive impact on their attitude and internal trends and incentives to have closer cooperation with Regional Water Organization. The transfer of irrigation management to farmers enhances the productivity of water facilities and ultimately, results in efficient water use in agriculture. In order to evaluate the effect of participation and transfer of irrigation management to farmers, four hypotheses have been proposed. The study was an applied research according to the goal and was a descriptive survey as data collection method. Judgmental sampling was used to take samples from the population. A researcher-made questionnaire was employed for data collection. It was conducted among 120 people in Guilan Regional Water Organization engaged in agricultural sections. The questionnaire's validity was confirmed by content validity and its total reliability was estimated by Cronbach's alpha as to be 0.86 using SPSS software. The effects of participation on farmers’ commitment, cooperation, and satisfaction and the legitimacy of Regional Water Organization of Guilan province were evaluated at 0.01 level, and no evidence was found to reject the hypotheses.

  18. Management of Obstetric Perineal Tears: Do Obstetrics and Gynaecology Residents Receive Adequate Training? Results of an Anonymous Survey

    A. Cornet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. To evaluate the obstetrics and gynaecology residents' perspective of their training and experience in the management of perineal tears that occur during assisted vaginal delivery. We hypothesised that residents would perceive room for improvement in their knowledge of pelvic floor anatomy and the training received in tears repair. Design. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Population/Setting. Seventy-two major residents from all teaching hospitals in Catalonia. Methods. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate experience, perception of the training and supervision provided. Results. The questionnaire was sent to all residents (=72, receiving 46 responses (64%. The participants represented 15 out of the 16 teaching hospitals included in the study (94% of the hospitals represented. Approximately, 52% of residents were in their third year while 48% were in their fourth. The majority of them thought that their knowledge of pelvic floor anatomy was poor (62%, although 98% felt confident that they would know when an episiotomy was correctly indicated. The survey found that they lacked experience in the repair of major degree tears (70% had repaired fewer than ten, and most did not carry out followup procedures. Conclusion. The majority of them indicated that more training in this specific area is necessary (98%.

  19. Impact of infield irrigation management by Botswana cabbage farmers on soil salinity

    Molatakgosi, Goitsemodimo

    2006-01-01

    Some vegetable farmers in the semi- arid Botswana are struggling or closing down their enterprises citing the cost of irrigation and salty water as the problem. Irrigation with water from the salt-laden underground water is known to be the main sources of salts for arid and semi-arid agricultural land. Crops grown in saline environments show symptoms similar to those shown by drought-affected crops hence more irrigation is needed therefore increasing the irrigation cost. Resear...

  20. Simulation of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization management of maize under edaphic conditions of south of Havana

    The main objective of this work is to validate the crop simulation model STICS for the soil and climate conditions of south of Havana, especially for the water and nitrogen balances on Maize crop on Ferralitic soil, For this purpose was used all the available information from field experiments carried out in the Experimental Stations of the Irrigation and Drainage and Soil Research Institutes, both on south of Havana, The comparison between the simulation and observed values showed a good fitness for the variables related to the crop water uptake, while for the soil water content when the root water uptake flux is minimum and the soil water redistribution flux is maximum wasn't good, The soil nitrogen balance was adjusted from the optimization of the parameters related to the mineralization velocity of soil organic nitrogen, Nevertheless is necessary to complete this study involving other climate conditions and water and nitrogen managements to define the optimum strategy for irrigation and fertilization of Maize crop on the studied conditions,

  1. Development of services for irrigation management: the experience with the users

    Vuolo, Francesco; Neugebauer, Nikolaus; D'Urso, Guido; De Michele, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Irrigated agriculture is the main user of freshwater resources (30% in Central Europe, 60% in the South). Efficient water management is therefore of essential importance, especially where water scarcity and water quality are becoming severe challenges. To achieve a successful and effective use of resources, farmers and water managers require easy-to-use decision support tools and reliable information. Our approach is based on Earth observation (EO) techniques and decision support tools. Generally, the service concept is based on two main components: i) the processing of time-series of high spatial resolution (10-30-m pixel size) images from satellite, currently available from public and commercial data providers, to timely monitor the crop growth and to estimate the crop water requirements throughout the growing season; ii) the adaptation and integration in local management practices & tools of easy to use geo-spatial technologies to make the information available to users and to support the decision-making process in near-real-time. The participation and feedback we receive from the users is fundamental to develop and provide easy-to-use technologies that can be embedded in standard approaches. In this paper, we briefly describe some examples of pre- and fully operational applications at field and irrigation scheme level and report some success stories of cooperation between decision makers and scientists. The paper includes the outcomes of ongoing activities such as Irrisat (www.irrisat.it), a regional operational service supported by rural development funds in Southern Italy and EO4Water (www.eo4water.com), a case study of knowledge and technology transfer in Eastern Austria funded by the Austrian Space Application Programme. The new capacities we develop to assist farmers in monitoring their crops are a step towards a better integration of tools and production. More technical advice and recommendation regarding sustainable land and resource use could then be

  2. Optimal integrated management of groundwater resources and irrigated agriculture in arid coastal regions

    Grundmann, J.; Schütze, N.; Heck, V.

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater systems in arid coastal regions are particularly at risk due to limited potential for groundwater replenishment and increasing water demand, caused by a continuously growing population. For ensuring a sustainable management of those regions, we developed a new simulation-based integrated water management system. The management system unites process modelling with artificial intelligence tools and evolutionary optimisation techniques for managing both water quality and water quantity of a strongly coupled groundwater-agriculture system. Due to the large number of decision variables, a decomposition approach is applied to separate the original large optimisation problem into smaller, independent optimisation problems which finally allow for faster and more reliable solutions. It consists of an analytical inner optimisation loop to achieve a most profitable agricultural production for a given amount of water and an outer simulation-based optimisation loop to find the optimal groundwater abstraction pattern. Thereby, the behaviour of farms is described by crop-water-production functions and the aquifer response, including the seawater interface, is simulated by an artificial neural network. The methodology is applied exemplarily for the south Batinah re-gion/Oman, which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture. Due to contradicting objectives like profit-oriented agriculture vs aquifer sustainability, a multi-objective optimisation is performed which can provide sustainable solutions for water and agricultural management over long-term periods at farm and regional scales in respect of water resources, environment, and socio-economic development.

  3. Macroeconomic Effects of the Stock Management for Irrigation and Drainage Facilities in Japan: Application of Recursive- Dynamic CGE model

    Kunimitsu, Yoji

    2011-01-01

    The stock management of irrigation and drainage facilities was macro-economically evaluated. The recursive-dynamic CGE model was developed and used for policy simulation. Results demonstrated that effects of activity spread to other industries and total benefit calculated by the consumers’ surplus change was more than the total costs.

  4. Distributed ecohydrological modelling to evaluate irrigation system performance in Sirsa district, India II: Impact of viable water management scenarios

    Singh, R.; Jhorar, R.K.; Dam, van J.C.; Feddes, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the identification of appropriate strategies to improve water management and productivity in an irrigated area of 4270 km2 in India (Sirsa district). The field scale ecohydrological model SWAP in combination with field experiments, remote sensing and GIS has been applied in a d

  5. The Management of a Patient with Elevated Intraocular Pressure Resistant to Medical Treatment: Anterior Chamber Irrigation

    Abdullah Beyoğlu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year-old male patient was medically treated in another center for hyphema which occurred after blunt trauma to his right eye. He was admitted to our clinic when his visual acuity decreased after being discharged. Biomicroscopic examination revealed total hyphema. Intraocular pressure (IOP was 48 mm Hg in the right eye with Goldmann applanation tonometry. Since IOP could not be managed by medical therapy and there was no regression in hyphema, anterior chamber was irrigated. As in our case, it should not be forgotten that re-hemorrhage may occur in the first week of hyphema during childhood. Moreover, surgical treatment should be considered when hemorrhage does not regress with medical treatment, increased IOP persists, and when there is a risk of corneal endothelial staining (corneal blood staining. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 400-2

  6. Irrigation Management Transfer and WUAs' dynamics: evidence from the South-Kazakhstan province

    zinzani, andrea

    2014-05-01

    The importance of water resources management in the arid and semi-arid lands can not be overestimated being related with environmental, economical and socio-political issues. In Central Asia, due to the physical and climatic features, water control and irrigation have always played a strategic role in territorial and societal development. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in Kazakhstan, as in the other Central Asian republics, significant changes in both the water and agricultural sector have emerged; water management shifted from a purely technical issue to a sociopolitical and economic one leading to several institutional and organizational changes. To address this transitional water management context and the related governance and technical issues, since the 1990s several development organizations and donor agencies (such as the World Bank, United Nations, USAID, and others), according to the international water community, have sought to streamline the Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT) and the establishment of the Water Users Associations (WUAs); this initiatives are sponsored and related to the IWRM framework, the water program globally supported by the Global Water Partnership and widely debated and questioned in the last years. This paper aims to discuss these transitional water management processes focusing on the meso-local level in the Arys valley, administratively included in the South-Kazakhstan province, ten years since the enactment of the law formalizing the WUAs. Three districts (Tyulkibas, Ordabasy and Otrar) were selected to analyse and understand the specific local transitional water institutional/organizational framework and to highlight the differences among them. The fieldwork was conducted in two different phases, April-May and November-December 2012. Within those periods, semi-structured interviews were carried out to the members of the state organizations (river basin agencies and district/province water departments) as well as the

  7. Water reuse for irrigated agriculture in Jordan: challenges of soil sustainability and the role of management strategies

    Carr, G.; Nortcliff, Stephen; Potter, Robert Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Reclaimed water provides an important contribution to the water balance in water-scarce Jordan, but the quality of this water presents both benefits and challenges. Careful management of reclaimed water is required to maximize the nutrient benefits while minimizing the salinity risks. This work uses a multi-disciplinary research approach to show that soil response to irrigation with reclaimed water is a function of the management strategies adopted on the farm by the water user. The adoption ...

  8. Water management policies and their impact on irrigated crop production in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia

    Burdack, Doreen

    2014-01-01

    The economic impact analysis contained in this book shows how irrigation farming is particularly susceptible when applying certain water management policies in the Australian Murray-Darling Basin, one of the world largest river basins and Australia’s most fertile region. By comparing different pricing and non-pricing water management policies with the help of the Water Integrated Market Model, it is found that the impact of water demand reducing policies is most severe on crops that need to b...

  9. A low cost micro-station to monitor soil water potential for irrigation management

    Vannutelli, Edoardo; Masseroni, Daniele; Facchi, Arianna; Gandolfi, Claudio; Renga, Filippo

    2014-05-01

    The RISPArMiA project (which stands for "reduction of water wastage through the continuous monitoring of agri-environmental parameters") won in 2013 the contest called "LINFAS - The New Ideas Make Sustainable Agriculture" and sponsored by two Italian Foundations (Fondazione Italiana Accenture and Fondazione Collegio Università Milanesi). The objective of the RISPArMiA project is to improve the irrigation efficiency at the farm scale, by providing the farmer with a valuable decision support system for the management of irrigation through the use of low-cost sensors and technologies that can easily be interfaced with Mobile devices. Through the installation of tensiometric sensors within the cropped field, the soil water potential can be continuously monitored. Using open hardware electronic platforms, a data-logger for storing the measured data will be built. Data will be then processed through a software that will allow the conversion of the monitored information into an irrigation advice. This will be notified to the farmer if the measured soil water potential exceed literature crop-specific tensiometric thresholds. Through an extrapolation conducted on the most recent monitored data, it will be also possible to obtain a simple soil water potential prevision in absence of rain events. All the information will be sent directly to a virtual server and successively on the farmer Mobile devices. Each micro-station is completely autonomous from the energy point of view, since it is powered by batteries recharged by a solar panel. The transmission modulus consists of a GSM apparatus with a SIM card. The use of free platforms (Arduino) and low cost sensors (Watermark 200SS tensiometers and soil thermocouples) will significantly reduce the costs of construction of the micro-station which are expected to be considerably lower than those required for similar instruments on the market today . Six prototype micro-stations are actually under construction. Their field testing

  10. Adaptive management of irrigated rice in the changing environments of the Sahel

    De, Vries

    2011-01-01

    Key words: Alternate wetting and drying, Climate change adaptation, Crop growth simulation models, Genotype × environment interaction, N use efficiency,  Oryza sativa L., Phenology, Sahelian irrigation schemes, Sowing date, Spikelet sterility, Temperature increase, Water productivity, Weed control. In the vulnerable environment of the Sahel with its erratic rainfall pattern, irrigated rice production is of major importance. To aid Sahelian rice farmers to sustain irrigated rice pro...

  11. Water scarcity and the impact of improved irrigation management : a CGE analysis

    Calzadilla, Alvaro; Rehdanz, Katrin; Tol, Richard S. J.

    2008-01-01

    We use the new version of the GTAP-W model to analyze the economy-wide impacts of enhanced irrigation efficiency. The new production structure of the model, which introduces a differentiation between rainfed and irrigated crops, allows a better understanding of the use of water resources in agricultural sectors. The results indicate that a water policy directed to improvements in irrigation efficiency in water-stressed regions is not beneficial for all. For water-stressed regions the effects ...

  12. SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT-FEE COLLECTION MECHANISM FOR IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE FACILITIES IN ISLAMIC LAW

    Mostafa, Harby; Naoya FUJIMOTO; Juniji KOIDE; Naoko OKA

    2013-01-01

    Increasing the environmental stresses on water resources are causing countries to reconsider various mechanisms to improve water use efficiency. This is especially true for irrigation agriculture, a major consumer of water. The physical and hydraulic characteristics of the irrigation distribution system often form a major limit. Also the implementations of irrigation water fees are sensitive to physical, social, and religious beliefs, making it necessary to design allocation mechanisms accord...

  13. Soil salinisation and irrigation management of date palms in a Saharan environment.

    Haj-Amor, Zied; Ibrahimi, Mohamed-Khaled; Feki, Nissma; Lhomme, Jean-Paul; Bouri, Salem

    2016-08-01

    The continuance of agricultural production in regions of the world with chronic water shortages depends upon understanding how soil salinity is impacted by irrigation practises such as water salinity, irrigation frequency and amount of irrigation. A two-year field study was conducted in a Saharan oasis of Tunisia (Lazala Oasis) to determine how the soil electrical conductivity was affected by irrigation of date palms with high saline water. The study area lacked a saline shallow water table. Field results indicate that, under current irrigation practises, soil electrical conductivity can build up to levels which exceed the salt tolerance of date palm trees. The effects of irrigation practises on the soil electrical conductivity were also evaluated using model simulations (HYDRUS-1D) of various irrigation regimes with different frequencies, different amounts of added water and different water salinities. The comparison between the simulated and observed results demonstrated that the model gave an acceptable estimation of water and salt dynamics in the soil profile, as indicated by the small values of root mean square error (RMSE) and the high values of the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (NSE). The simulations demonstrated that, under field conditions without saline shallow groundwater, saline irrigation water can be used to maintain soil electrical conductivity and soil water content at safe levels (soil electrical conductivity 0.04 cm(3) cm(-3)) if frequent irrigations with small amounts of water (90 % of the evapotranspiration requirements) were applied throughout the year. PMID:27476071

  14. Farm-Level Optimal Water Management : assistent for irrigation under deficit, second Executive summery report for FP6-European project nr. 036958

    Balendonck, J.

    2008-01-01

    FLOW-AID is a 6th Framework European project which started in autumn 2006. Its objective is to contribute to sustainability of irrigated agriculture by developing, testing in relevant conditions, and then optimizing an irrigation management system that can be used at farm level. The system will be u

  15. Golf Course Irrigation with Reclaimed Water in the Mediterranean: A Risk Management Matter

    Miquel Salgot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Controversy regarding the amount of water consumed or saved as a result of human activity is currently paramount in water-scarce areas. In recent decades, golf—a land and water consuming activity—has been implanted in several areas of the Mediterranean basin, where the scarcity of water resources is well-known. As a result, the use of conventional water resources for golf course irrigation is increasingly contested and its replacement by reclaimed water has become essential. This paper examines the wide range of issues involved in its use on golf courses, including hazards—due to the presence of microorganisms and pollutants—and the corresponding risks that can appear. The resulting biological, chemical and physical water quality concerns are analyzed. Legal aspects related to the use of reclaimed water are also discussed and good reuse practices are suggested, including a detailed examination of risk assessment procedures and tools through observation or chemical, physical and microbiological analysis. The HACCP system—which focuses on quality determination in water samples from relevant control points—is described in detail, as it is generally accepted as one of the most scientific ways to detect health problems on a golf course. The paper concludes that, given the increasing availability of treated and reclaimed water and the water needs of golf courses, the future development of the sport in areas without surplus water resources—such as the Mediterranean basin—will predictably depend upon the use of reclaimed water. In recent years, risk assessment or analysis has emerged as an essential tool to guarantee the application of reclaimed water at an acceptable risk level. There certainly have been considerable advances and improvements in the tools that guarantee the safe use of reclaimed water, although current methods available require simplification for their practical application. Nevertheless, protocols applied at present

  16. Transpirative Deficit Index (TDI) for the management of water scarcity in irrigated areas: development and application in northern Italy

    Borghi, Anna; Facchi, Arianna; Rienzner, Michele; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    In Europe, the monitoring and assessment of drought is entrusted to the European Drought Observatory (EDO). EDO indicators are calculated considering rainfed agriculture and delivered on a 5 km grid. However, in southern Europe, irrigation may compensate for potentially severe agricultural droughts and specific water scarcity indicators that explicitly consider irrigation are needed. In the Po River Plain, irrigated crops cover more than 70% of the agricultural land, massive amounts of water are diverted from rivers for irrigation, and surface irrigation methods are largely applied. Nowadays, the region is not a water scarce basin, but irrigation water shortages have occurred with increased frequency during the last two decades. Moreover, a recent EU report shows that the Po River Plain is included among areas in Europe that by 2030 shall be affected by water scarcity. In this context, a study was started to select and develop indicators for the management and prevention of Water Scarcity and Drought (WS&D) based on the synergic use of hydrological modelling and Earth Observation data applied at a spatial scale of interest for end-users (250m grid). These indicators shall be better suited for the assessment of WS&D in Italy as well as in other southern European countries. This work presents the development and the application of the TDI (Transpirative Deficit Index) to a study area, within the Po River Plain. TDI is an agricultural drought index based on the transpiration deficit (TDx, calculated as the difference between potential and actual transpiration), computed by the spatially distributed hydrological model IDRAGRA and cumulated over a period of x days. TDx for each day of a specific year is compared to the long-term TDx probability distribution (e.g., over 20-30 years), which is transformed into a standardized normal distribution. The non-exceedance probability of TDx is finally expressed in terms of unit of standard deviation (TDI), following the approach

  17. Conservation program works as an alternative irrigation districts in sustainable water management of agricultural use

    Víctor Manuel Peinado Guevara

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is an issue of worldwide concern since it is already having an impact on social development. Mexico is not an exception to this problem because in several regions of the country are great difficulties in supplying water, primarily for agricultural use. In Sinaloa, it had been mentioned repeatedly by the media that in the Irrigation District 063, located in the northern of the state, there are problems of water scarcity, and yet there still exist difficulties in conserving the resource. More than 49% of the water used for agriculture is wasted. To resolve this problem, producers and government agencies spend significant resources for investment in water conservation. However, the results have not been entirely satisfactory because the waste is high, a situation that motivates them to study more deeply the main weaknesses that affect sustainable resource use. Farmer’s participation in the administration of water infrastructure is important, as well as providing financial resources for the conservation of water system; and participation in activities of construction and repaired of water infrastructure. Farmer’s should also plan and design strategies for water conservation. This situation requires an appropriate level of technology and intellectual, rather than local producers and thus no complicated sustainable resource management. That is what local producers don’t have and therefore it complicates the sustainable management of the resource.

  18. Chicanery at the canal. Changing practice in irrigation management in Western Mexico.

    Zaag, van der P.

    1992-01-01

    Existing studies of irrigation systems show that technical elements influence social processes, and also, that certain social relationships may have technical implications. However, little has been said about the precise content of this interplay. A better insight seems important, as irrigation syst

  19. Water management for controlling the breeding of Anopheles mosquitoes in rice irrigation schemes in Kenya

    Mutero, C M; Blank, H; Konradsen, F;

    2000-01-01

    . Intermittent irrigation was carried out on a weekly schedule, with flooded conditions from Saturday through Tuesday morning. Larval sampling at each plot was conducted every Monday and prior to draining of intermittently irrigated subplots on Tuesday. All the adult anopheline mosquitoes emerging from larvae...

  20. Safe and high quality food production using low quality waters and improved irrigation systems and management

    Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai;

    2010-01-01

    uneven irrigation patterns can increase the water use efficiency as well as the quality of vegetable crops. Furthermore, recent innovations in the water treatment and irrigation industry have shown potential for the use of low quality water resources, such as reclaimed water or surface water in peri...

  1. Improved Evapotranspiration Simulation In the CERES-Maize Crop Model Under Limited Irrigation Management

    An increasingly considered alternative to full irrigation practices is limited irrigation, where the crop is intentionally stressed during specific growth stages in an effort to maximize yield per unit water consumed, or evapotranspiration (ET). Recent studies have shown that CERES-Maize crop model...

  2. Simulation and Management of On-Demand Irrigation Systems: A combined agrological and remote sensing approach

    D'Urso, G.

    2001-01-01

    Rational use of water resources in agriculture requires improvements in the efficiency of irrigation. Many irrigation systems, particularly in Mediterranean regions, have been enhanced by replacing open channel conveyance systems with pressurised pipelines. This allows to provide water on-demand. In

  3. Modeling nitrate leaching and optimizing water and nitrogen management under irrigated maize in desert oases in Northwestern China.

    Hu, Kelin; Li, Yong; Chen, Weiping; Chen, Deli; Wei, Yongping; Edis, Robert; Li, Baoguo; Huang, Yuanfang; Zhang, Yuanpei

    2010-01-01

    Understanding water and N transport through the soil profile is important for efficient irrigation and nutrient management to minimize nitrate leaching to the groundwater, and to promote agricultural sustainable development in desert oases. In this study, a process-based water and nitrogen management model (WNMM) was used to simulate soil water movement, nitrate transport, and crop growth (maize [Zea mays L.]) under desert oasis conditions in northwestern China. The model was calibrated and validated with a field experiment. The model simulation results showed that about 35% of total water input and 58% of the total N input were leached to water, together with the sandy soil texture, resulted in large nitrate leaching. Nitrate leaching was significantly reduced under the improved management practice suggested by farm extension personnel; however, the water and nitrate inputs still far exceeded the crop requirements. More than 1700 scenarios combining various types of irrigation and fertilizer practices were simulated. Quantitative analysis was conducted to obtain the best management practices (BMPs) with simultaneous consideration of crop yield, water use efficiency, fertilizer N use efficiency, and nitrate leaching. The results indicated that the BMPs under the specific desert oasis conditions are to irrigate the maize with 600 mm of water in eight times with a single fertilizer application at a rate of 75 kg N ha(-1). PMID:20176839

  4. Ancestral irrigation method by kanis in Bolivia

    Roldán-Cañas, José; Chipana, René; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María

    2015-04-01

    Irrigation in the Andean region is an ancient practice. For centuries, farmers were able to use the waters of rivers, lakes and springs to complement or supplement the scarce rainfall regime. The inter-Andean valleys of the Department of La Paz are the best areas for the study of traditional irrigation systems. This work has been carried out in the community of Jatichulaya located in te town of Charazani, 300 km from the city of La Paz, which lies 3250 meters above sea level. The annual rainfall ranges around 450 mm distributed mainly between the months of December to March. Therefore, water is needed to achieve adequate crop yields. The traditional irrigation system is done by the method of Kanis, consisting of a surface irrigation already developed by traditional Andean cultures of the country, in harmony with the ecological and productive characteristics of the area. Water enters the irrigation plot through a main channel (mama kani) from which the secondary channels (juchuy kanis) are derived. The fundamental characteristic of this irrigation is that these channels are open at the same time the water enters into the plot. The system works properly, adapting to the topography of the area. The irrigation method practiced in this community does not cause water erosion of soils because water management within the plot is based on the ancient knowledge of farmers following the contour lines. This practice allows good irrigation development and soil protection without causing any problems. However, it was evident a high use of labor in irrigation practice. Irrigation scheduling is done according to requests made by the irrigators in a given period. Delivering of water to the farmers is made by the so-called Water Agent (Agente de Aguas) or person in charge of the distribution of water. The Water Agent is elected annually and its functions include the maintenance and care of all system waterworks. The period between August and January is the highest water demand and

  5. Irrigation drainage in and near Stillwater, Humboldt, and Fernley Wildlife Management Areas and Carson Lake, West-Central Nevada, 1988-90 : Part II effects on wildlife

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses the affects of irrigation induced contaminants on fish, wildlife, and human health near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area. In 1988, the U.S....

  6. Multivariate Bayesian Machine Learning Regression for Operation and Management of Multiple Reservoir, Irrigation Canal, and River Systems

    Ticlavilca, Andres M.

    2010-01-01

    The principal objective of this dissertation is to develop Bayesian machine learning models for multiple reservoir, irrigation canal, and river system operation and management. These types of models are derived from the emerging area of machine learning theory; they are characterized by their ability to capture the underlying physics of the system simply by examination of the measured system inputs and outputs. They can be used to provide probabilistic predictions of system behavior using onl...

  7. Thermal and water management in irrigating lands in the arid and semi-arid regions

    Excess heat and scarcity of water are the two major problems, which are usually encountered in irrigating lands especially in the arid and semi-arid regions. This paper introduces a technical approach of managing agricultural lands in the arid and semi arid regions through determination of daily water requirement and amount of heat the land is being exposed at various meteorological conditions. Through setting up a mathematical model consisting of basic heat and mass transfer equations and fluid properties, daily rate of water evaporation, different modes of heat transfer such as radiation, convection and heat transfer by evaporation at a wide range relative humidities are determined. Furthermore, the analyses are performed at two different scenarios at average air velocities of 1 and 5 m/s. Our findings showed that the volume of water evaporation at relative humidity and air temperature of phi=50% and T∞=20 deg. C is 22% higher than at phi=100% and T∞=20 deg. C. Moreover, at a specified phi and T∞, the total rate of heat transfer at air velocity of 5 m/s is at least 25% higher than the total rate of heat transfer at air velocity of 1 m/s

  8. SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT-FEE COLLECTION MECHANISM FOR IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE FACILITIES IN ISLAMIC LAW

    Harby MOSTAFA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the environmental stresses on water resources are causing countries to reconsider various mechanisms to improve water use efficiency. This is especially true for irrigation agriculture, a major consumer of water. The physical and hydraulic characteristics of the irrigation distribution system often form a major limit. Also the implementations of irrigation water fees are sensitive to physical, social, and religious beliefs, making it necessary to design allocation mechanisms accordingly. The purpose of this work is to study the water pricing mechanisms to improve cost recovery for irrigation and drainage facilities under the Islamic law and its impact on water saving. The study tries to find out if there is an irrigation water pricing system that better meets the social, economical, and environmental needs. Also the research tries to highlight Egypt's experience in dealing with the cost recovery in irrigated agriculture. the main findings to agree with Islamic law that cost recovery for irrigation and drainage services would be limited to those infrastructures that are used solely for direct irrigation and drainage and should ensure that at least the full operation and maintenance costs are recovered, because they reflect the service costs of providing farmers with irrigation water and ensuring acceptable drainage. When the pressure of demand on water resources is high and competition exists between uses of water, quota systems are imposed on agriculture. To get high cost-recovery rates, farmers should not only agree on the costs to be recovered but also see the fees collected are used to maintain and improve “their” system.

  9. Irrigation and fertilization effects on Nantucket Pine Tip Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Damage levels and pupal weight in an intensively-managed pine plantation.

    Coyle, David, R.; Nowak, John, T.; Fettig, Christopher, J.

    2003-10-01

    The widespread application of intensive forest management practices throughout the southeastern U.S. has increased loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., yields and shortened conventional rotation lengths. Fluctuations in Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), population density and subsequent damage levels have been linked to variations in management intensity. We examined the effects of two practices, irrigation and fertilization, on R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights in an intensively-managed P. taeda plantation in South Carolina. Trees received intensive weed control and one of the following treatments; irrigation only. fertilization only, irrigation + fertilization, or control. Mean whole-tree tip moth damage levels ranged from <1 to 48% during this study. Damage levels differed significantly among treatments in two tip moth generations in 2001, but not 2000. Pupal weight was significantly heavier in fertilization compared to the irrigation treatment in 2000, but no significant differences were observed in 2001. Tree diameter. height. and aboveground volume were significantly greater in the irrigation + fertilization than in the irrigation treatment after two growing seasons. Our data suggest that intensive management practices that include irrigation and fertilization do not consistently increase R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights as is commonly believed. However, tip moth suppression efforts in areas adjacent to our study may have partially reduced the potential impacts of R. frustrana on this experiment.

  10. Best Management of Irrigation Fertilization to Sustain Environment and High yield of Maize in the Arid land in Egypt

    Gameh Ali, M.

    2012-04-01

    Assiut is a county in the middle of Egypt,located 600 km south of the Mediterranean Sea. Water and fertilization management experimental trails were conducted to search for the best water consumption of Maize beside the best rate and type of nitrogen fertilization to reduce nitrate pollution and reduce fertilizer and save energy. Three irrigation regimes ( 25, 50, and 75% of soil moisture depletion of the available water, SMD) were used to irrigate Corn (Maize : Zea mays L. ) variety Tri hybrid cross. Three nitrogen fertilizer sources (Urea 46.5% N; Ammonium nitrate 33.5%N and slow release nitrogen 40%N) were applied at three rates of 90; 120 and 150 kg/ Feddan (4200m2 about one Acre). The results suggested that the best management is to use the slow release fertilizer at rate of 150 kg N/ Feddan (4200m2 ) with 50% SMD the highest Maize yield with good quality and reducing the environmental hazardous. Key words: Slow release fertilizer, Nitrogen leaching; Irrigation management. Environmental protection.

  11. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  12. Participatory innovation process for testing new practices for soil fertility management in Chókwè Irrigation Scheme (Mozambique)

    Sánchez Reparaz, Maite; de Vente, Joris; Famba, Sebastiao; Rougier, Jean-Emmanuel; Ángel Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel; Barberá, Gonzalo G.

    2015-04-01

    Integrated water and nutrient management are key factors to increase productivity and to reduce the yield gap in irrigated systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. These two elements are affected by an ensemble of abiotic, biotic, management and socio-economic factors that need to be taken into account to reduce the yield gap, as well as farmers' perceptions and knowledge. In the framework of the project European Union and African Union cooperative research to increase Food production in irrigated farming systems in Africa (EAU4Food project) we are carrying out a participatory innovation process in Chókwè irrigation scheme (Mozambique) based on stakeholders engagement, to test new practices for soil fertility management that can increase yields reducing costs. Through a method combining interviews with three farmers' associations and other relevant stakeholders and soil sampling from the interviewed farmers' plots with the organization of Communities of Practices, we tried to capture how soil fertility is managed by farmers, the constraints they find as well as their perceptions about soil resources. This information was the basis to design and conduct a participatory innovation process where compost made with rice straw and manure is being tested by a farmers' association. Most important limitations of the method are also evaluated. Our results show that socio-economic characteristics of farmers condition how they manage soil fertility and their perceptions. The difficulties they face to adopt new practices for soil fertility management, mainly related to economic resources limitations, labour availability, knowledge time or farm structure, require a systemic understanding that takes into account abiotic, biotic, management and socio-economic factors and their implication as active stakeholders in all phases of the innovation process.

  13. Chicanery at the canal. Changing practice in irrigation management in Western Mexico.

    Zaag, van der, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    Existing studies of irrigation systems show that technical elements influence social processes, and also, that certain social relationships may have technical implications. However, little has been said about the precise content of this interplay. A better insight seems important, as irrigation systems, when put into operation, often have unforeseen organisational and social consequences, and a disappointing performance. The present thesis aims to answer the question: How do the social practi...

  14. Managing nitrate pollution in a Tunisian irrigated area: A multi-criteria analysis approach

    Laajimi, Abderraouf; Ben Nasr, J.; Ferchichi, M.

    2008-01-01

    In Tunisia, the extension of irrigated area is justified by its important role in the development and diversification of agricultural production. Nevertheless, the strong intensification of the agricultural activities may lead to the pollution of underground water resources due to an excess use of fertilisers and other chemical products. In fact, the high nitrate concentrations observed in some Tunisian irrigated areas, are related to the excessive use of nitrate fertilizers in intensive agri...

  15. Sustainable management of nitrogen fertilization in irrigated forage systems in nitrate vulnerable zones

    Demurtas, Clara Ella

    2014-01-01

    The research was conducted in an intensive dairy farming Nitrate Vulnerable Zone (NVZ) under irrigated Mediterranean conditions focusing on the irrigated maize-Italian ryegrass cropping system. The aims of study were i) quantification of the cropping system nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of organic fertilizers in relation to the prescriptions imposed by the Nitrate Directive (91/676/CEE), ii) assessment of the nitrate leaching dynamics under the maize-ryegrass cropping system in relation to co...

  16. Soil fertility management in irrigated rice system in the Sahel and Savana regions of West Africa

    Donovan, C.; Wopereis, M.C.S.; Guindo, D.; Nebie, B.

    1999-01-01

    In irrigated rice production in West Africa, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers make up about 20% of total production costs. This research seeks to evaluate whether those fertilizers are profitable under current use by farmers and to identify the factors that may improve fertilizer efficiency and profitability. A combination of farmer surveys and on-farm trials were used to determine actual fertilizer use, costs, and net revenues from fertilizer in key irrigated system in Mali (Offic...

  17. Managing variability and scarcity. An analysis of Engaruka : A Maasai smallholder irrigation farming community

    Caretta, Martina Angela

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the common-pool regime of Engaruka, a smallholder irrigation farming community in northern Tanzania. Irrigation is a complex issue due to water asymmetry. Water use is regulated in Engaruka through boundary, allocation, input and penalty rules by a users’ association that controls and negotiates water allocation to avoid conflicts among headenders and tailenders. As different crops – maize and beans, bananas and vegetables – are cultivated, different watering schemes are...

  18. Measuring evapotranspiration of hardy ornamental nursery stock: a hurdle for irrigation management

    Grant, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Although the land area dedicated to the production of hardy ornamental nursery stock (HONS) is relatively small, the sector places considerable demands on water supplies: production is largely in pots with limited water-holding capacity, and therefore frequent irrigation is essential. It has been shown that accurate scheduling to meet crop demand (rather than over- or under-watering) benefits quality of HONS, as well as reducing water use and run-off of nutrients and pesticides. Deficit irrig...

  19. Irrigation management in pruned coffee tree crop Manejo da irrigação na lavoura cafeeira recepada

    Anselmo A. de P. Custódio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the effect of irrigation management on the production characteristics of coffee cultivar Acaiá MG-1474, planted in spacing of 3.00 m x 0.60 m, pruned in 2004, and irrigated by drip since the planting, in 1997. The experimental designed used was of randomized blocks with five treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of irrigation management strategies, applying or not applying controlled moisture deficit in layer of 0 to 0.4m, in dry seasons of the year: A = no irrigation (control, B = irrigation during all year considering the factor of water availability in the soil (f equal to 0.75, C = irrigation during all year considering f = 0.25, D = irrigation during all year, but in January /February /March /July /October /November /December with f = 0.25 and April /May /June /August /September with f = 0.75, E = irrigation only during April /May /June /August /September with f = 0.25. From July /2005 to June /2007 the applied water depth was defined based on Class A pan evaporation (ECA and the period from July/2007 to June/2008 based on readings of matric potential of soil obtained from Watermark® sensors. Each plot consisted of three rows with ten plants per row, considering as useful plot five plants of center line. The results indicated that the E irrigation management was the most suitable for technical reasons.Foi avaliado o efeito do manejo de irrigação nas características produtivas do cafeeiro da cultivar Acaiá MG-1474, plantado no espaçamento 3,00 m x 0,60 m, recepado em 2004 e irrigado por gotejamento desde o plantio, em 1997. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos utilizados constaram de estratégias de manejo de irrigação, aplicando ou não déficit controlado de umidade, na camada de 0 - 0,40m, nas épocas secas do ano, ou seja: A = Sem irrigação (testemunha; B = Irrigação o ano todo, considerando-se o

  20. Water Policy Reform in China’s Fragmented Hydraulic State: Focus on Self-Funded/Managed Irrigation and Drainage Districts

    James Nickum

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the nature of China’s unique decentralised 'authoritarian' regime and its various origins; the continuous dialectic between state-directed and market-directed approaches to the economy (including water; the economic and budgetary drivers of water policy change; whether the concept of integrated water resources management (IWRM is overly 'loaded' with liberal ideas or even if not, whether it provides any insights beyond concepts more widely accepted in China; whether the state-society dichotomy makes sense in China’s guanxi (personal relations culture; and the course of the World Bank-sponsored Self-funded/managed Irrigation and Drainage District (SIDD reforms.

  1. Energy requirements in pressure irrigation systems

    Sánchez Calvo, Raúl; Rodríguez Sinobas, Leonor; Juana Sirgado, Luis; Laguna Peñuelas, Francisco; Castañon Lion, Guillermo; Gil Rodríguez, María; Benitez Buelga, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Modernization of irrigation schemes, generally understood as transformation of surface irrigation systems into pressure –sprinkler and trickle- irrigation systems, aims at, among others, improving irrigation efficiency and reduction of operation and maintenance efforts made by the irrigators. However, pressure irrigation systems, in contrast, carry a serious energy cost. Energy requirements depend on decisions taken on management strategies during the operation phase, which are co...

  2. Apple tree production in Italy: rootstocks, cultivars, fertilization, and irrigation

    Giovambattista Sorrenti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the main apple producers in Europe, primarily intended for fresh consumption, both in the domestic and foreign markets. Fruit yield and quality depends on the cultivar, rootstock, and management practices, such as the fertilization and irrigation adopted in the orchard. This review aims at reporting the main apple cultivars and rootstocks, the management of fertilization and irrigation, as well as their adaptation to apple tree orchards in Italy. The programs for genetic improvement carried out in this country involved the selection of apple tree cultivars and rootstocks which enable a high fruit yield and quality, in order to meet the requirements from the consumer market. In the fertilization and irrigation management, nutrients and water are supplied in amounts next to the actual need of the plants, providing an adequate nutrition, a satisfactory yield, and high quality fruits, besides preventing, whenever possible, nutrients and water losses in the environment.

  3. Sensitivity Analysis for Model Simulations of the Effects of Irrigation Water Management on Crop Yields and Groundwater Salt Loading

    Skaggs, T. H.; Suarez, D. L.; Corwin, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    One strategy for sustaining irrigated agricultural productivity in the face of diminishing water and land availability is to make greater use of marginal quality water for crop production. In implementing such a strategy, a key factor for maintaining productivity will be soil salinity. Irrigation waters, especially recycled or otherwise marginal quality waters, contain salts that can accumulate in soils over time and reduce yields. In arid regions where rainfall is not sufficient to flush the salts from the root zone, it is necessary to apply excess irrigation water to leach the soil. To avoid wasting water, and to lessen impacts on groundwater quality, it is desirable that soil leaching be minimized to the extent possible. Classical guidelines for managing salinity are intended to be general, providing a conservative estimate of the leaching requirement that is appropriate across a range of soils and waters. A consequence of this generality is that in some cases the guidelines recommend more leaching (and hence more salt and nutrient loading to groundwater) than is necessary. A simulation modeling approach offers potential advantages over classical methods for site-specific management, but the technique is considerably more complex, and difficulties exist with respect to developing procedures for routine use. The models typically have a large number of parameters and the simulations can have a high degree of uncertainty. Global sensitivity analyses can reveal which parameter variations or uncertainties have the greatest impact on variations or uncertainties in model predictions. In this work we evaluate UNSATCHEM model parameter sensitivities in simulating a seasonal irrigated cropping scenario. Parameters sensitivities are determined with respect to three performance measures: crop yield, root zone average soil salinity, and salt loading to groundwater.

  4. Assessing best management practices for remediation of selenium loading in groundwater to streams in an irrigated region

    Bailey, Ryan T.; Romero, Erica C.; Gates, Timothy K.

    2015-02-01

    Selenium (Se) contamination in groundwater and surface water in numerous river basins worldwide has become a critical issue in recent decades. An essential micro-nutrient, Se can prove harmful to fish, water fowl, livestock, and even humans at elevated concentrations. In an overall effort to curb Se contamination in environmental systems, this study aims to identify best-management practices (BMPs) that can assist in remediating Se contamination in irrigated river basins. Using multi-decadal simulations of a calibrated and tested groundwater flow model (MODFLOW-UZF) and Se chemical reactive transport model (UZF-RT3D), the impact of water- and land-management strategies in reducing Se contamination are explored for a 500 km2 study region in the Lower Arkansas River Valley (LARV) in southeastern Colorado. The effectiveness of reduced applied irrigation volumes, sealing of earthen irrigation canals, rotational fallowing of cultivated land, reduced fertilizer loading, and enhanced riparian buffer zones, implemented individually as well as concurrently in various combinations, is explored. Results indicate that significant (>10%) decreases in Se mass loading to the Arkansas River system (main stem and tributaries) can be achieved when individual BMPs are implemented, with land fallowing, reduced irrigation, and enhanced riparian buffer zones providing the best results (13-14% load reduction). Even greater impacts (20-50% Se load reduction) can be achieved with 3 or 4 BMPs implemented concurrently. Results demonstrate that Se remediation can potentially be achieved within the LARV, and also can serve as a guide for other Se-affected river basins within the western United States and throughout the world.

  5. Irrigation of wetlands in Tanzania

    Masija, E.H.

    1993-01-01

    Over 1,164,000 ha of wetland areas are listed as suitable for irrigation, mainly for cropproduction and livestock grazing. Existing and planned irrigation schemes are described forthe ,main river basins where large areas are devoted to rice and sugar cane. Emphasis' isplaced on the value of small scale, farmer-managed irrigation schemes and the rehabilitation of traditional systems.

  6. Irrigation management to optimize controlled drainage in a semi-arid area

    Soppe, R.W.O.; Ayars, J.E.; Christen, E.W.; Shouse, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    On the west side of the San Joaquin Valley, California, groundwater tables have risen after several decades of irrigation. A regional semi-permeable layer at 100 m depth (Corcoran Clay) combined with over-irrigation and leaching is the major cause of the groundwater rise. Subsurface drain systems were installed from the 60¿s to the 80¿s to remove excess water and maintain an aerated root zone. However, drainage water resulting from these subsurface systems contained trace elements like seleni...

  7. Managing Microbial Risks from Indirect Wastewater Reuse for Irrigation in Urbanizing Watersheds.

    Verbyla, Matthew E; Symonds, Erin M; Kafle, Ram C; Cairns, Maryann R; Iriarte, Mercedes; Mercado Guzmán, Alvaro; Coronado, Olver; Breitbart, Mya; Ledo, Carmen; Mihelcic, James R

    2016-07-01

    Limited supply of clean water in urbanizing watersheds creates challenges for safely sustaining irrigated agriculture and global food security. On-farm interventions, such as riverbank filtration (RBF), are used in developing countries to treat irrigation water from rivers with extensive fecal contamination. Using a Bayesian approach incorporating ethnographic data and pathogen measurements, quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) methods were employed to assess the impact of RBF on consumer health burdens for Giardia, Cryptosporidium, rotavirus, norovirus, and adenovirus infections resulting from indirect wastewater reuse, with lettuce irrigation in Bolivia as a model system. Concentrations of the microbial source tracking markers pepper mild mottle virus and HF183 Bacteroides were respectively 2.9 and 5.5 log10 units lower in RBF-treated water than in the river water. Consumption of lettuce irrigated with river water caused an estimated median health burden that represents 37% of Bolivia's overall diarrheal disease burden, but RBF resulted in an estimated health burden that is only 1.1% of this overall diarrheal disease burden. Variability and uncertainty associated with environmental and cultural factors affecting exposure correlated more with QMRA-predicted health outcomes than factors related to disease vulnerability. Policies governing simple on-farm interventions like RBF can be intermediary solutions for communities in urbanizing watersheds that currently lack wastewater treatment. PMID:26992352

  8. Double row spacing and drip irrigation as technical options in energy sorghum management

    Neri Roncucci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two row spacing configurations and four water supply levels was investigated on sweet and fibre sorghum in Central Italy for two consecutive years. Results highlighted the influence of both irrigation and row spatial configuration on crop productivity. Indeed, several studies have pointed out the positive response of sorghum to irrigation in Mediterranean climate, as in this environment water stress represents one of the main limiting factors on crop productivity. On the other hand, few attempts have been made to explore the role of row spacing on energy sorghum productivity. Results outlined an average increase in sorghum dry biomass yield ranging from +23% to +79% at variable rates of water supply as compared to rainfed control. The positive effect of irrigation was also observed on leaf area index and radiation use efficiency. Moreover, we observed a crop yield increase, from 9% to 20%, under double row spacing compared to the standard planting pattern (i.e. single row spacing. Finally, it was confirmed the efficient use of water by sorghum and the great ability of sorghum to increase its biomass yield in response to increasing volumes of water supplied. Therefore, this work suggests how row spacing configuration and drip irrigation could be feasible technical options to increase sorghum biomass yields in Mediterranean environments. These techniques should be experienced by farmers towards a sustainable intensification of current cropping systems.

  9. Irrigated small-grain residue management effects on soil chemical and physical properties and nutrient cycling

    The effects of straw removal from irrigated wheat and barley fields cropped to wheat and barley on soil properties and nutrient cycling is a concern due to its potential impact on the sustainability of agricultural production. Increasing demand of straw for animal bedding and the potential developm...

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions, irrigation water use, and arsenic concentrations; a common thread in rice water management

    Rice has historically been grown as a flooded crop in the United States. As competition for water resources has grown, there is interest in reducing water use in rice production so as to maintain a viable and sustainable rice industry into the future. An irrigation study was established in 2011 at ...

  11. Nitrogen placement, row spacing, and water management for furrow-irrigated field corn

    Banding and sidedressing N fertilizer on a never-irrigated side of a row of corn (Zea mays L.) were hypothesized to maintain yield and decrease nitrate leaching. In a two-year field study on Portneuf silt loam (Durinodic Xeric Haplocalcid) in southern Idaho, we evaluated effects on yield and N upta...

  12. Information Technology Supports Integration of Satellite Imagery with Irrigation Management in California's Central Valley

    Remotely sensed data can potentially be used to develop crop coefficient estimates over large areas and make irrigation scheduling more practical, convenient, and accurate. A demonstration system is being developed under NASA's Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) to automatically r...

  13. Directed manipulation of crop water status through canopy temperature-based irrigation management

    While the relationship between canopy temperature and plant water status is well established, canopy temperature as a means of controlling crop irrigation has been limited in production applications due to the cost and complexity of temperature monitoring. A new low-cost infrared thermometry system...

  14. A risk-based framework for water resource management under changing water availability, policy options, and irrigation expansion

    Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Elshorbagy, Amin; Wheater, Howard; Gober, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    Long-term water resource management requires the capacity to evaluate alternative management options in the face of various sources of uncertainty in the future conditions of water resource systems. This study proposes a generic framework for determining the relative change in probabilistic characteristics of system performance as a result of changing water availability, policy options and irrigation expansion. These probabilistic characteristics can be considered to represent the risk of failure in the system performance due to the uncertainty in future conditions. Quantifying the relative change in the performance risk can provide a basis for understanding the effects of multiple changing conditions on the system behavior. This framework was applied to the water resource system of the Saskatchewan River Basin (SaskRB) in Saskatchewan, Canada. A "bottom-up" flow reconstruction algorithm was used to generate multiple realizations for water availability within a feasible range of change in streamflow characteristics. Consistent with observed data and projected change in streamflow characteristics, the historical streamflow was perturbed to stochastically generate feasible future flow sequences, based on various combinations of changing annual flow volume and timing of the annual peak. In addition, five alternative policy options, with and without potential irrigation expansion, were considered. All configurations of water availability, policy decisions and irrigation expansion options were fed into a hydro-economic water resource system model to obtain empirical probability distributions for system performance - here overall and sectorial net benefits - under the considered changes. Results show that no one specific policy can provide the optimal option for water resource management under all flow conditions. In addition, it was found that the joint impacts of changing water availability, policy, and irrigation expansion on system performance are complex and

  15. Key Challenges and Opportunities for Conjunctive Management of Surface and Groundwater in Mega-Irrigation Systems: Lower Indus, Pakistan

    Frank van Steenbergen; Muhammad Basharat; Bakhshal Khan Lashari

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the scope of conjunctive management in the Lower Indus part of the Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS), and the contribution this could make towards food security and socio-economic development. The total Gross Command Area (GCA) of the Lower Indus is 5.92 Mha, with a cultivable command area (CCA) of 5.43 Mha, most of which is in Sindh Province. There is a limited use of groundwater in Sindh (about 4.3 Billion Cubic Meter (BCM)) for two reasons: first, there is a large...

  16. AQUATER Software as a DSS for Irrigation Management in Semi-Arid Mediterranean Areas

    Marco Acutis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation management at district or regional scale can be dealt using ecological process-based models and remote sensing data. Simulation crop models simulate at a certain time step the main biophysical variables determining crop photosynthesis and water consumption rates. The research consists in an integrated approach to combine field data, simulation crop model and remote sensing information. Detailed data sets related to topography, soil, climate and land cover were collected and organized into a Geographic Information System, which is routinely updated with remotely sensed images. The code implementation of these two models allows for an improvement of simulation reliability for the crop types considered in the present study in Mediterranean area. Remote sensing images detected by optical and radar satellite sensors at different spatial scales (from 10 to 50 m have been collected over the analyzed crop cycles. Therefore, remote sensing information about land use and leaf area index (LAI are assimilated dynamically by the model, to increase the effectiveness of simulation. The integration of crop and water dynamics models with the updated remote sensing information is a Decision Support Systems, AQUATER software, able to integrate remote sensing images, to estimate crop and soil variables related to drought, and subsequently to assimilate these variables into a simulation model at district scale. The significant final outputs are estimated values of evapotranspiration, plant water status and drought indicators. The present work describes the structure of AQUATER software and reports some application results over 2006 and 2007 cropping seasons in Capitanata, South-East Italy. This region has been divided in simulation units cropped by tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum L., sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. saccharifera and durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.. Two types of comparison have been carried out: (i between some tomato observed and

  17. Design and Implementation of Management Information System in Irrigation Area%研究灌区管理信息系统的设计与实现

    何林

    2014-01-01

    随着网络技术的发展,信息化管理技术的提高,计算机技术被应用在各个领域,水利方面也不断采用现代化技术,研究灌区管理信息系统,实现灌区管理的信息化、自动化,是规范我国灌区管理工作的重要举措。本文将对灌区管理信息系统的设计与实现作简要分析。%With the development of network technology and improvement of information management technology, computer technology has been applied in various fields. Water conservancy also continues to use modern technology, study irrigation management information system in irrigation area, achieve the information and automation of irrigation area management, which is the important measure of standardizing management of irrigation districts. This paper analyzes the design and implementation of management information system in irrigation area.

  18. Key Challenges and Opportunities for Conjunctive Management of Surface and Groundwater in Mega-Irrigation Systems: Lower Indus, Pakistan

    Frank van Steenbergen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the scope of conjunctive management in the Lower Indus part of the Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS, and the contribution this could make towards food security and socio-economic development. The total Gross Command Area (GCA of the Lower Indus is 5.92 Mha, with a cultivable command area (CCA of 5.43 Mha, most of which is in Sindh Province. There is a limited use of groundwater in Sindh (about 4.3 Billion Cubic Meter (BCM for two reasons: first, there is a large area where groundwater is saline; and second, there is a high surface irrigation supply to most of the canal commands, e.g., average annual supply to rice command is 1723 mm, close to the annual reference crop evapotranspiration for the area, while there is an additional annual rainfall of about 200 mm. These high irrigation allocations, even in areas where groundwater is fresh, create strong disincentives for farmers to use groundwater. Consequently, areas are waterlogged to the extent of 50% and 70% before and after the monsoon, respectively, which contributes to surface salinity through capillary rise. In Sindh, about 74%–80% of the available groundwater recharge is lost in the form of non-beneficial evaporation. This gives rise to low cropping intensities and yields compared to fresh groundwater areas elsewhere in the IBIS. The drought of 1999–2002 has demonstrated a reduction in waterlogging without any corresponding reduction in crop yields. Therefore, in order to efficiently meet current water requirements of all the sectors, i.e., agriculture, domestic and industrial, an ab initio level of water reallocation and efficient water management, with consideration to groundwater quality and its safe yield, in various areas are recommended. This might systematically reduce the waterlogged areas, support greater cropping intensity than is currently being practiced, and free up water for horizontal expansion, such as in the Thar Desert.

  19. Novel application of vacuum sealing drainage with continuous irrigation of potassium permanganate for managing infective wounds of gas gangrene.

    Hu, Ning; Wu, Xing-Huo; Liu, Rong; Yang, Shu-Hua; Huang, Wei; Jiang, Dian-Ming; Wu, Qiang; Xia, Tian; Shao, Zeng-Wu; Ye, Zhe-Wei

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic gas gangrene is a fatal infection mainly caused by Clostridium perfringens. It is a challenge to manage gas gangrene in open wounds and control infection after debridement or amputation. The aim of the present study was to use vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) with continuous irrigation of potassium permanganate to manage infective wounds of gas gangrene and observe its clinical efficacy. A total of 48 patients with open traumatic gas gangrene infection were included in this study. Amputations were done for 27 patients, and limb salvage procedures were performed for the others. After amputation or aggressive debridement, the VSD system, including polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) foam dressing and polyurethane (PU) film, with continuous irrigation of 1:5000 potassium permanganate solutions, was applied to the wounds. During the follow-up, all the patients healed without recurrence within 8-18 months. There were four complications. Cardiac arrest during amputation surgery occurred in one patient who suffered from severe septic shock. Emergent resuscitation was performed and the patient returned to stable condition. One patient suffered from mixed infection of Staphylococcal aureus, and a second-stage debridement was performed. One patient suffered from severe pain of the limb after the debridement. Exploratory operation was done and the possible reason was trauma of a local peripheral nerve. Three cases of crush syndrome had dialysis treatment for concomitant renal failure. In conclusion, VSD can convert open wound to closed wound, and evacuate necrotic tissues. Furthermore, potassium permanganate solutions help eliminate anaerobic microenvironment and achieve good therapeutic effect on gas gangrene and mixed infection. VSD with continuous irrigation of potassium permanganate is a novel, simple and feasible alternative for severe traumatic open wounds with gas gangrene infection. PMID:26223928

  20. Water for food: a human rights obligation : How states can manage conflicts between the human right to water and the human right to adequate food

    Windfuhr, Michael

    2013-01-01

    While the right to water is a universal human right, water resources are limited. The single largest consumer of water globally is agriculture with its function to safeguard the right to adequate food. At the same time, water resources available for human consumption are decreasing, and more and more countries face water shortages. Conflicts related to water will become a serious issue. Local authorities as well as state governments need to develop mechanisms and criteria that allow them ...

  1. Groundwater-fed irrigation impacts spatially distributed temporal scaling behavior of the natural system: a spatio-temporal framework for understanding water management impacts

    Regional scale water management analysis increasingly relies on integrated modeling tools. Much recent work has focused on groundwater–surface water interactions and feedbacks. However, to our knowledge, no study has explicitly considered impacts of management operations on the temporal dynamics of the natural system. Here, we simulate twenty years of hourly moisture dependent, groundwater-fed irrigation using a three-dimensional, fully integrated, hydrologic model (ParFlow-CLM). Results highlight interconnections between irrigation demand, groundwater oscillation frequency and latent heat flux variability not previously demonstrated. Additionally, the three-dimensional model used allows for novel consideration of spatial patterns in temporal dynamics. Latent heat flux and water table depth both display spatial organization in temporal scaling, an important finding given the spatial homogeneity and weak scaling observed in atmospheric forcings. Pumping and irrigation amplify high frequency (sub-annual) variability while attenuating low frequency (inter-annual) variability. Irrigation also intensifies scaling within irrigated areas, essentially increasing temporal memory in both the surface and the subsurface. These findings demonstrate management impacts that extend beyond traditional water balance considerations to the fundamental behavior of the system itself. This is an important step to better understanding groundwater’s role as a buffer for natural variability and the impact that water management has on this capacity. (paper)

  2. Is irrigation water price an effective leverage for water management? An empirical study in the middle reaches of the Heihe River basin

    Zhou, Qing; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Qian

    Serious water scarcity, low water-use efficiency, and over-exploitation of underground water have hindered socio-economic development and led to environmental degradation in the Heihe River basin, northwestern China. Price leveraging is an important tool in water demand management, and it is considered to be effective in promoting water conservation and improving water use efficiency on the premise that water demand is elastic. In the present study, we examine whether price is an effective and applicable instrument for restraining the increasing demand for agricultural irrigation water in the middle reaches of the Heihe River basin and how will it affect farmers' decisions on irrigation and crop structure. Specifically, the price elasticity of agricultural water demand was estimated based on the irrigation water demand function. The results show that the agricultural irrigation water price is statistically significant, but its elasticity is very low under current low water price. Price leverage cannot play a significant role in the context of the current pricing regime and farmers' response to price increase is intrinsically weak. To create incentives for conserving water and improving irrigation efficiency, price mechanism should be accompanied with clearly defined and legally enforceable water rights, restricted water quota measures, and reform of water authorities and water-user associations. Furthermore, increases of surface irrigation water price may lead to the over-withdrawal of groundwater, consequently, effective groundwater licensing and levying must take place to limit the total volume of groundwater withdrawal. In all, improving irrigation efficiency through better management and the adoption of water-saving technologies is the ultimate way to deal with the challenges facing irrigated agriculture in the middle reaches of the Heihe River basin.

  3. An Update on the Management of Endodontic Biofilms Using Root Canal Irrigants and Medicaments

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Soltani, Mohammad Karim; Shalavi, Sousan

    2014-01-01

    Microbial biofilm is defined as a sessile multicellular microbial community characterized by cells that are firmly attached to a surface and enmeshed in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Biofilms play a very important role in pulp and periradicular pathosis. The aim of this article was to review the role of endodontic biofilms and the effects of root canal irrigants, medicaments as well as lasers on biofilms A Medline search was performed on the English articles pu...

  4. Management of Irrigation Water Demand: Application of Multi-Attribute Utility Technique

    SH. Shajari; J. Torkmani

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to study the differential impacts of various irrigation water pricing policies. The methodology used is based upon Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT) mathematical programming models and also simulation. Two kinds of data needed to feed the models were obtained from official records and surveying. The analysis of water pricing policy indicates that the most important relative savings take place in the more conservative farmers due to their risk-aversion b...

  5. CANDI: A decision support system for management of agricultural pesticides with irrigation

    Peralta, R. C.; Aly, A. H.

    1994-01-01

    The use of pesticides is an integral part of today's agriculture. Pesticides contribute significantly to improved crop productivity and to public health. Some pesticides, even in extremely low concentrations, can pose a risk to human health and to the environment. Applied to plants or soil, pesticides can leach to the groundwater or may be washed off by surface water. A portion of water that has fallen on the earth, either from precipitation or irrigation, infiltrates the soil through pore sp...

  6. Modeling of basin-wide water management for dry-season paddy irrigation with large reservoirs in the Mekong River Basin

    Kudo, R.; Masumoto, T.; Horikawa, N.; Yoshida, T.

    2012-12-01

    . Irrigation and crop patterns are set as agricultural conditions in each mesh, and then irrigation water and actual evapotranspiration can be estimated according to crop stage and soil moisture. We also modeled water management of 160 reservoirs (10 large reservoirs and 150 medium reservoirs) and water allocation process of 10 large irrigated areas in the basin. The results obtained in this study are as follows: 1) The reservoir operation model reproduced water management such as impoundment of flood discharge during rainy seasons and release of irrigation water controlled by water requirement in downstream irrigation area during dry seasons. 2) The paddy water use and the water allocation models estimated water withdrawals at diversion weirs and water supply in paddy fields depending on water demands in large irrigation areas. 3) Based on the difference in water use patterns between rainy and dry seasons, the cropping model represented the actual conditions of rice planting pattern in both seasons. These results show that the interaction among the sub-models (reservoir operation, paddy water use, water allocation and so on) enables this hydrological model to represent the detailed processes of paddy water use and to evaluate the interaction between hydrological cycle and agricultural activities through anthropogenic water management for paddy irrigation.

  7. Rainfall Variability, Adaptation through Irrigation, and Sustainable Management of Water Resources in India

    Fishman, R.

    2013-12-01

    Most studies of the impact of climate change on agriculture account for shifts in temperature and total seasonal (or monthly) precipitation. However, climate change is also projected to increase intra-seasonal precipitation variability in many parts of the world. To provide first estimates of the potential impact, I paired daily rainfall and rice yield data during the period 1970-2004, from across India, where about a fifth of the world's rice is produced, and yields have always been highly dependent on the erratic monsoon rainfall. Multivariate regression models revealed that the number of rainless days during the wet season has a statistically robust negative impact on rice yields that exceeds that of total seasonal rainfall. Moreover, a simulation of climate change impacts found that the negative impact of the projected increase in the number of rainless days will trump the positive impact of the projected increase in total precipitation, and reverse the net precipitation effect on rice production from positive (+3%) to negative (-10%). The results also indicate that higher irrigation coverage is correlated with reduced sensitivity to rainfall variability, suggesting the expansion of irrigation can effectively adapt agriculture to these climate change impacts. However, taking into account limitations on water resource availability in India, I calculate that under current irrigation practices, sustainable use of water can mitigate less than a tenth of the impact.

  8. Frequency inverter and irrigation management in irrigated perimeter on Jaiba region - MG, Brazil; Uso de inversor de frequencia e do manejo da irrigacao em perimetro da regiao do Jaiba, MG

    Moraes, Maria Joselma de; Oliveira Filho, Delly; Vieira, Gustavo H.S. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: maria.moraes@ufv.br, delly@ufv.br, ghsvieira@ifes.edu.br; Scarcelli, Ricardo de O.C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], E-mail: rocvenceslau@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-01

    The electric energy expenditure and the irrigation depth for one irrigated perimeter on Jaiba region/MG, Brazil, for the cultures: pineapple, banana, guava, lemon, papaya, mango, passion fruit, cantaloupe, pine cone and grape. With the monthly irrigation depth data for an hypothetical area of 12 lots (10 ha each), it was simulated, with Galateia software, the head pressure for 4 combinations of cultures: first - papaya (12 lots); second - banana (8 lots), guava (1), papaya (1), mango (1) and passion fruit (1); third - papaya (8), guava (1), pineapple (1), (1) and lemon (1); and fourth - guava (8), mango (1), papaya (1), pine cone (1) and passion fruit (1). It was dimensioned the necessary power and the electrical energy expenses with TOU (green category tariff) for the biggest irrigation depth. The frequency inverter use and the management of the number of working hours were simulated for each combination, in order to maximize the motor's load and the pump-motor set performance. For the combinations 2, 3, and 4 occurred reduction on the electrical energy consumption of 6%, 8% and 20%, respectively in respect of the combination 1. (author)

  9. Carbon dioxide emissions as affected by alternative long-term irrigation and tillage management practices in the lower Mississippi River Valley.

    Smith, S F; Brye, K R

    2014-01-01

    Ensuring the sustainability of cultivated soils is an ever-increasing priority for producers in the Lower Mississippi River Valley (LMRV). As groundwater sources become depleted and environmental regulations become more strict, producers will look to alternative management practices that will ensure the sustainability and cost-effectiveness of their production systems. This study was conducted to assess the long-term (>7 years) effects of irrigation (i.e., irrigated and dryland production) and tillage (conventional and no-tillage) on estimated carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from soil respiration during two soybean (Glycine max L.) growing seasons from a wheat- (Triticum aestivum L.-) soybean, double-cropped production system in the LMRV region of eastern Arkansas. Soil surface CO2 fluxes were measured approximately every two weeks during two soybean growing seasons. Estimated season-long CO2 emissions were unaffected by irrigation in 2011 (P > 0.05); however, during the unusually dry 2012 growing season, season-long CO2 emissions were 87.6% greater (P = 0.044) under irrigated (21.9 Mg CO2 ha(-1)) than under dryland management (11.7 Mg CO2 ha(-1)). Contrary to what was expected, there was no interactive effect of irrigation and tillage on estimated season-long CO2 emissions. Understanding how long-term agricultural management practices affect soil respiration can help improve policies for soil and environmental sustainability. PMID:25371912

  10. A MICROCOMPUTER MODEL FOR IRRIGATION SYSTEM EVALUATION

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Buller, Orlan H.; Dvorak, Gary J.; Manges, Harry L.

    1988-01-01

    ICEASE (Irrigation Cost Estimator and System Evaluator) is a microcomputer model designed and developed to meet the need for conducting economic evaluation of adjustments to irrigation systems and management techniques to improve the use of irrigated water. ICEASE can calculate the annual operating costs for irrigation systems and has five options that can be used to economically evaluate improvements in the pumping plant or the way the irrigation system is used for crop production.

  11. Integrating MODFLOW and GIS technologies for assessing impacts of irrigation management and groundwater use in the Hetao Irrigation District,Yellow River basin

    2009-01-01

    Due to severe water scarcity, water resources used in agricultural sector have been reduced markedly in Hetao irrigation district. Application of water-saving practices (WSPs) is required for the sustainable agricultural development. The human activities including WSPs and increase of groundwater abstraction can lower down the groundwater table, which is helpful to the salinity control. Meanwhile, an excessively large groundwater table depth may result in negative impact on crop growth and fragile ecological environment. In this paper, the Jiefangzha irrigation system in Hetao irrigation district was selected as a typical area, a groundwater flow model based on ArcInfo Geographic Information System (GIS) was developed and implemented to quantify the effect of human activities on the groundwater system in this area. The preand post-processing of model data was performed efficiently by using the available GIS tools. The time-variant data in boundary conditions was further edited in Microsoft Excel with programs of Visual Basic for Application (VBA). The model was calibrated and validated with independent data sets. Application of the model indicated that it can well describe the effect of human activities on groundwater dynamics in Jiefangzha irrigation system.

  12. Integrating MODFLOW and GIS technologies for assess-ing impacts of irrigation management and groundwater use in the Hetao Irrigation District, Yellow River basin

    XU Xu; HUANG GuanHua; QU ZhongYi

    2009-01-01

    Due to severe water scarcity, water resources used in agricultural sector have been reduced markedly in Hetao irrigation district.Application of water-saving practices (WSPs) is required for the sustainable agricultural development.The human activities including WSPs and increase of groundwater abstrac-tion can lower down the groundwater table, which is helpful to the salinity control.Meanwhile, an ex-cessively large groundwater table depth may result in negative impact on crop growth and fragile eco-logical environment.In this paper, the Jiefangzha irrigation system in Hetao irrigation district was se-lected as a typical area, a groundwater flow model based on Arclnfo Geographic Information System (GIS) was developed and implemented to quantify the effect of human activities on the groundwater system in this area.The pre-and post-processing of model data was performed efficiently by using the available GIS tools.The time-variant data in boundary conditions was further edited in Microsoft Excel with programs of Visual Basic for Application (VBA).The model was calibrated and validated with in-dependent data sets.Application of the model indicated that it can well describe the effect of human activities on groundwater dynamics in Jiefangzha irrigation system.

  13. Water storage in wetted strips under irrigated coffee trees with different criteria of irrigation management Armazenamento de água em faixas molhadas sob cafeeiros irrigados com diferentes critérios de manejo de irrigação

    Alberto Colombo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for water resources accentuates the need to reduce water waste through a more appropriate irrigation management. In the particular case of irrigated coffee planting, which in recent years presented growth with the predominance of drip irrigation, the improvement of drip irrigation management techniques is a necessity. The proper management of drip irrigation depends on the knowledge of the spatial pattern of soil moisture distribution inside the wetted strip formed under the irrigation lines. In this study, grids of 24 tensiometers were used to determine the water storage within the wetted strip formed under drippers, with a 3.78 L h-1 discharge, evenly spaced by 0.4 m, subjected to two different management criteria (fixed irrigation interval and 60 kPa tension. Estimates of storage based on a one-dimensional analysis, that only considers depth variations, were compared with two-dimensional estimates. The results indicate that for high-frequency irrigation the one-dimensional analysis is not appropriate. However, under less frequent irrigation, the two-dimensional analysis is dispensable, being the one-dimensional sufficient for calculating the water volume stored in the wetted strip.A crescente demanda por recursos hídricos acentua a necessidade de redução do desperdício de água através de um manejo mais adequado da irrigação. No caso particular da cafeicultura irrigada, que nos últimos anos apresentou crescimento com predominância da irrigação por gotejamento, o aprimoramento das técnicas de manejo da irrigação por gotejamento é uma necessidade. O manejo adequado do gotejamento depende do conhecimento do padrão espacial de distribuição de umidade no interior da faixa molhada, formada sob as linhas de irrigação. Neste trabalho, foram utilizadas malhas de 24 tensiômetros para determinar o armazenamento de água no interior de faixas molhadas, formadas sob gotejadores, com vazão de 3,78 L h-1

  14. Productivity of irrigation technologies in the White Volta basin

    Ofosu, E. A.; van der Zaag, P.; van de Giesen, N. C.; Odai, S. N.

    Parts of the White Volta basin in northern Ghana and southern Burkina Faso have witnessed a spectacular rise of irrigated agriculture since about 2000, largely without government support, and seems to have been triggered by a strong and growing demand for vegetables, notably tomatoes in the urban centres of southern Ghana. It is interesting to note the variety of different irrigation technologies that individual and groups of smallholder farmers adopted, adapted and implemented. Some technologies are well-known, such as those associated with conventional sources of water like small and large reservoirs; others have been rarely described in literature, such as temporal shallow wells and alluvial dugouts. This paper describes and characterises these different irrigation technologies and conducts a comparative analysis of their productivities, in terms of crop yield, water use and financial returns. The study was conducted in three neighbouring and transboundary watersheds (Anayari, Atankwidi and Yarigatanga) located in the Upper East Region of Ghana and southern Burkina Faso. For the study, 90 tomato farmers with different irrigation technologies were surveyed during one crop season (2007/2008). The results show that adequate fertilizer application is the major contributor to irrigation productivity. Technologies characterised by relatively small farm sizes are better managed by the surveyed farmers because they are able to provide adequate water and crop nutrients thus resulting in higher productivity, and high profit margins. Apart from technologies that depend on reservoirs, all other technologies surveyed in the paper are farmer driven and required no government support. This ongoing type of endogenous irrigation development provides a strong backing that the way forward in sub-Saharan Africa is for governments to create policies that facilitate poor farmers becoming irrigation entrepreneurs. Such policies should aim to enhance the reliability of markets (both

  15. Water-right and water-allocation procedures of farmers' managed perennial spate irrigation systems of mithawan watershed, D.G. Khan, Pakistan

    A study was conducted on water rights, water allocation and local institutions prevailing in the perennial spate irrigation systems of Mithawan watershed o D.G. Khan District of Punjab. The Study Area was selected is the Mthawan watershed on the D.G. Khan-Quetta Road almost 70 kms from D.G. Khan and 10 km away from the road, representing real-life operating systems. Small-scale isolated and large-scale contiguous perennial spate irrigation systems were selected for study. A three-prong methodology was designed covering (a) interactive dialogue of the focus groups to document the community-perceptions regarding systems water-rights, water allocation and local institution prevailing in the area; (b) structured interviews to document systematic data regarding some of the study-aspects; and (c) diagnostic surveys to document some of the measured data regarding scheme performance. Water rights and allocation procedures both in small-scale isolated and large-scale Contiguous perennial spate irrigation-system are very clearly defined and do not change with time and space. Local institutions like Biradri and Muchi take care of just allocation of water. An irrigator is deputed who takes care of allocated time among various tribes. At the same time, the community is bringing more area under irrigation. Obviously it has increased water-requirements and in turn management of irrigation system. Previously they were reconstructing the diversion structure only. Present expansion in irrigated area has increased the necessity of maintaining the water-conveyance network more frequently, particularly at critical sections. However, the realization regarding water-losses still needs to be promoted. The linkages of resource-management with water-productivity are going to be the future area of consideration in theses systems, due to expansion of the system largely because of increased population and urge to increase their livelihood. (author)

  16. Prediction of future methane emission from irrigated rice paddies in central Thailand under different water management practices.

    Minamikawa, Kazunori; Fumoto, Tamon; Iizumi, Toshichika; Cha-Un, Nittaya; Pimple, Uday; Nishimori, Motoki; Ishigooka, Yasushi; Kuwagata, Tsuneo

    2016-10-01

    There is concern about positive feedbacks between climate change and methane (CH4) emission from rice paddies. However, appropriate water management may mitigate the problem. We tested this hypothesis at six field sites in central Thailand, where the irrigated area is rapidly increasing. We used DNDC-Rice, a process-based biogeochemistry model adjusted based on rice growth data at each site to simulate CH4 emission from a rice-rice double cropping system from 2001 to 2060. Future climate change scenarios consisting of four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) and seven global climate models were generated by statistical downscaling. We then simulated CH4 emission in three water management practices: continuous flooding (CF), single aeration (SA), and multiple aeration (MA). The adjusted model reproduced the observed rice yield and CH4 emission well at each site. The simulated CH4 emissions in CF from 2051 to 2060 were 5.3 to 7.8%, 9.6 to 16.0%, 7.3 to 18.0%, and 13.6 to 19.0% higher than those from 2001 to 2010 in RCPs 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5, respectively, at the six sites. Regionally, SA and MA mitigated CH4 emission by 21.9 to 22.9% and 53.5 to 55.2%, respectively, relative to CF among the four RCPs. These mitigation potentials by SA and MA were comparable to those from 2001 to 2010. Our results indicate that climate change in the next several decades will not attenuate the quantitative effect of water management practices on mitigating CH4 emission from irrigated rice paddies in central Thailand. PMID:27239710

  17. Seasonal simulation of water, salinity and nitrate dynamics under drip irrigated mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and assessing management options for drainage and nitrate leaching

    Phogat, V.; Skewes, M. A.; Cox, J. W.; Sanderson, G.; Alam, J.; Šimůnek, J.

    2014-05-01

    and to reduce their leaching out of the crop root zone. Slightly higher nitrogen uptake (1.73 kg ha-1) was recorded when fertigation was applied second to last hour in an irrigation event, as compared to applying it earlier during an irrigation event. Similarly, a 20% reduction in irrigation and N application produced a pronounced reduction in drainage (28%) and N leaching (46.4%), but it also decreased plant N uptake by 15.8% and water uptake by 4.8%, and increased salinity by 25.8%, as compared to the normal practice. This management would adversely impact the sustainability of this expensive irrigation system. However, reducing only irrigation by 30% during the 2nd half of the crop season (January to August) reduced drainage and N leaching by 37.2% and 50.5%, respectively, and increased N uptake by 6.9%. Such management of irrigation would be quite promising for the sustainability of the entire system. It is concluded that judicious manipulations of irrigation and fertilizer applications can be helpful in designing drip irrigation schedules for perennial horticultural crops to achieve improved efficiency of irrigation and fertigation applications and reduced contamination of receiving water bodies.

  18. Irrigation Management, Evolving Canal Systems and Social Simulation in Hohokam Society, Central Arizona

    Ertsen, Maurits; Murphy, John; Purdue, Louise

    2015-04-01

    As may societies that rely on irrigation, the Hohokam civilization in South West Arizona faced challenges arising from the variability and unpredictability of water supply and the physics underlying the flow of water through open channels. Such challenges can be overcome through cooperation and other forms of structured social interactions and institutions ranging from simple to complex. These interactions are influenced by and are influenced themselves by environmental conditions, including hydrology, soils and vegetation. At the same time, the environmental record provides clues to these interactions. To better understand these past interactions we combine geoarchaeological studies with flow simulations and Agent Based Modeling. Fieldwork conducted on Hohokam irrigation revealed new details about canal morphology, including shape, size, elevation, slope, and cleaning events. Micromorphological study of the sediments in these structures allow finer resolution in discerning the performance (velocity, discharge, etc.) of the canal channels and their evolution through time. We couple this with basic agent-based modeling to explore how these constraints might have required alternative strategies for cooperation. The combination of both approaches is key to discerning both broad differences between periods and fine variation within major chronological periods. We show that the coupling of social and physical models on very fine time scales can offer insight into the social arrangements and day-to-day life of people in the prehistoric past and inform our understanding of those societies' long-term changes.

  19. Integrated water resources management (IWRM) approach in water governance in Lao PDR. Cases of hydropower and irrigation

    Jusi, S.

    2013-06-01

    Water resources are essential for socio-economic development, enabling, for example, hydropower and irrigation. Water resources management and development are expected to become more complex and challenging and to involve new uncertainties as water development increases and accelerates in different water use sectors and is coupled with increasing population, urbanisation, and climate change. Hence, water resources need to be managed in more integrated and sustainable way, both in Lao PDR and in the whole Mekong Basin area. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) has become a universal paradigm of enhancing and promoting sustainable and equal water resources management and use. However, integrating water functions is a very complex task as it involves many actors with different interests. This research analyses the application of the IWRM approach and the related principles of integration, decentralisation, and participation in the development and management of water resources in Laotian water regime at the water use sectors of hydropower and irrigation. A case study approach was used for the research and for the four appended articles in order to examine hydropower and irrigation sectors, institutional structures, and processes of institutional change - Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) at constitutional, organisational, and operational levels. The constitutional level refers to water policy and law, organisational to water resource management, and operational to water use. The Management and Transition Framework (MTF) and one of its components, Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework, have been used for the research to explore processes, institutions, and actors related to water governance reforms including the adoption of the IWRM paradigm, and to increase understanding of the strengths and weaknesses related to different institutional contexts and levels in Laotian water management. Through Action Situations, IAD and MTF have

  20. Water Stress & Biomass Monitoring and SWAP Modeling of Irrigated Crops in Saratov Region of Russia

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

    2016-04-01

    Development of modern irrigation technologies are balanced between the need to maximize production and the need to minimize water use which provides harmonious interaction of irrigated systems with closely-spaced environment. Thus requires an understanding of complex interrelationships between landscape and underground of irrigated and adjacent areas in present and future conditions aiming to minimize development of negative scenarios. In this way in each irrigated areas a combination of specific factors and drivers must be recognized and evaluated. Much can be obtained by improving the efficiency use of water applied for irrigation. Modern RS monitoring technologies offers the opportunity to develop and implement an effective irrigation control program permitting today to increase efficiency of irrigation water use. These technologies provide parameters with both high temporal and adequate spatial needed to monitor agrohydrological parameters of irrigated agricultural crops. Combination of these parameters with meteorological and biophysical parameters can be used to estimate crop water stress defined as ratio between actual (ETa) and potential (ETc) evapotranspiration. Aggregation of actual values of crop water stress with biomass (yield) data predicted by agrohydrological model based on weather forecasting and scenarios of irrigation water application may be used for indication of both rational timing and amount of irrigation water allocation. This type of analysis facilitating an efficient water management can be easily extended to irrigated areas by developing maps of water efficiency application serving as an irrigation advice system for farmers at his fields and as a decision support tool for the authorities on the large perimeter irrigation management. This contribution aims to communicate an illustrative explanation about the practical application of a data combination of agrohydrological modeling and ground & space based monitoring. For this aim some

  1. Use of Clay Deposits in Water Management of Calcareous Sandy Soils Under-surface and Sub-surface Drip Irrigation

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of irrigation (levels and methods) and type of clay deposits on lettuce yield, water use efficiency WUE and the distributions of soil moisture and salts in the root zone of sandy calcareous soils. A field experiment was conducted at the college experimental station in 2002-2003. It consists of three clay deposits, three rates (0, 1.0 and 2.0%), and four total irrigation applied water levels, 360 mm (T1), 520 mm (T2), 635 mm (T3) and 822 mm (T4), using surface and subsurface drip irrigation. Results indicated that yield was significantly increased with the increase of irrigation level, whereas WUE significantly decreased with increase of irrigation level. The average yield increased by 9.30% in a high irrigation level compared to a moderate irrigation level, and decreased by 14.2% at the more stressed irrigation level. WUE decreased by 49.0% at a moderate irrigation level and yield was significantly affected by amendment rates. The difference between surface and subsurface drip on yields and WUE were also significant. Results indicated that the moisture content of the subsurface treated layer increased dramatically, while salts were accumulated at the surface and away from the emitters in subsurface drip irrigation. The advantages of surface drip irrigation were related to the relative decrease in salt accumulation in the root zone area where the plant roots were active and the water content was relatively high. (author)

  2. Performanance Evaluation of the Cauvery Irrigation System, India, Using Remote Sensing and Gis Technology

    T. Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of any irrigation project involves the assessment of area, improved by the project. Irrigated agriculture will play a major role in determining the future food security of most Asian countries, and it will also be the major contributor to the additional food production required as world population expands. Therefore, it is important to raise the agricultural performance of low productivity/ irrigation systems, while sustaining the performance of more-productive systems. In many countries, and particularly in India, accurate evaluation of irrigation system performance and sustainability is hampered by lack of adequate, reliable, and timely irrigation statistics. Usually, performance indicators such as yield, cropping intensity, and irrigation intensity are measured at an aggregated level, often at the state or national levels. Data at project level are rarely collected. If collected, they frequently are unreliable or not easily accessible. It is in this context emerging technologies in irrigation management, applied remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS techniques to study the Cauvery Irrigation System and to analyze agricultural performance issues.

  3. Can Efficient Irrigation and Nitrogen Management Practices Contribute to Nitrate Reduction in Groundwater under Intensive Farmer-Managed Vegetable Fields in Slovenia Catchments?

    Groundwater is a very important source of drinking water in Slovenia. However, the intensification of agriculture through the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers and organic manure from livestock (pig farms) to enhance crop yields may be one of the causes of groundwater contamination through nitrate leaching. It is predicted that intensive vegetable production is the major cause of nitrate contamination in the Ljubljana aquifer which is the major source of drinking water in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The Project. Slovenia aims to meet the EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and national standards for good quality groundwater status by 2013 while maintaining an intensive agriculture production. A Technical Cooperation Project (TCP) SLO5002 was funded by IAEA to help improve the capabilities of the Slovenia Counterpart institutes to address nitrate (and also) pesticides in drinking water by establishing a monitoring system for soil water balance, and for pesticide and nitrate leaching from agricultural benchmark sites in Slovenia catchments. The objective of the study is to assess how different irrigation, nitrogen and cropping system management strategies could help reduce nitrate leaching while sustaining yields in a farmer-managed vegetable field using farmers' (one time fertilizer application before planting and irrigating shortly after planting) and improved practices (scheduled irrigation and fertilization) in a benchmark site in Sneberje, Slovenia. The project also aims to transfer knowledge to the stakeholders. Nitrogen-15 fertilizer was used as a tracer to monitor N acquisition by plants and nitrate movement in the soil. Soil water was monitored using 2 capacitance probes (EnviroScan and the Time Domain Reflectometer). The IAEA provided experts, training, equipment, stable and radioactive tracers and consumables and the Government of Slovenia executed the Project

  4. Fate of fertilizer nitrogen in soil under different cultivation, irrigation and fertilizer management practices

    Separate field experiments were conducted to evaluate the fate of fertilizer nitrogen and the contribution of residual N to the following crop for two different sequential cropping systems adapted to the growing conditions of Bangladesh in order to sustain high yield crop production. The results from 15N application study suggests that the maximum efficiency of N utilization for Aman rice, Boro rice and wheat was 33, 28 and 29% respectively. The corresponding total residual - N in 0-40 cm soil profile after each crop harvest were 12, 12 and 18% respectively. The nitrogen utilization rate of the crops averages 30%, residual N in 0-40 cm profile 14% and loss accounted for was 56%. Results from moisture regimes and depth of ploughing suggests that the average N utilization for Aman rice, wheat and Aus rice were 35, 22 and 41% for rainfed and 44, 36 and 48% for irrigated plots respectively. The corresponding total residual-N in 0-40 cm soil profile was 12% and loss accounted for was 55%. For the same under irrigated conditions, N utilization averages 43%, residual N in 0-40 cm profile 13% and loss accounted for was 44%. Results from plant recovery of residual fertilizer nitrogen revealed that the relative availability of the residual N to the following crop (Aman rice) were 17, 9 and 9% with respect to residual 15N present in 0-40 cm soil profile after preceding wheat, chickpea and lentil respectively. The data show that around 50% of the N applied is lost irrespective of the cropping pattern and the method of N treatment suggesting that further studies are needed to find ways by which these losses could be reduced so as to maximize N fertilizer use efficiency and to make rice based cropping systems more sustainable. (author). 5 refs, 3 tabs

  5. Sawdust and Bark-Based Substrates for Soilless Strawberry Production: Irrigation and Electrical Conductivity Management.

    Depardieu, Claire; Prémont, Valérie; Boily, Carole; Caron, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to optimize a soilless growing system for producing bare-root strawberry transplants in three organic substrates. Three trials were conducted in the Quebec City area to determine the productivity potential of a peat-sawdust mixture (PS25) and an aged bark (AB) material compared to conventional coconut fiber (CF) substrate. A first experiment was carried out to define appropriate irrigation set points for each substrate that allowed optimal plant growth and fruit yields. For all substrates, wetter conditions (irrigation started at -1.0 kPa for CF; -1.5 kPa for AB and PS25, relative to -1.5 kPa for CF; -2.5 kPa for AB and PS25) enhanced plant growth and fruit production. The second trial was carried out to test the productivity potential for commercial production of the three substrates using high-tunnels. After the addition of an initial fertilizer application to PS25, we successfully established bare-root plants that gave similar fruit yields than those in CF and AB. The productivity potential of PS25 and AB were further confirmed during a third trial under greenhouse conditions. The critical factor for plant establishment in PS25 was attributed to consistent N, P and S immobilization by microorganisms, as well as the retention of other elements (Mg2+, K+) in the growth media. Taken together, our results showed that PS25 and AB are promising alternative substrates to coconut coir dust for strawberry cultivation. This paper also provides a useful guide for strawberry cultivation in Quebec, and suggests future research that might be conducted to optimize soilless systems for cold-climate strawberry production in Northern America. PMID:27099949

  6. Irrigation performance assessment tool (IPAT)

    Roerink, G.J.; Noordman, E.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Currently, the use of remote sensing data in irrigation water management is very limited, due to its low user-friendliness and the limited acquaintance of irrigation engineers with the remote sensing possibilities. To overcome these problems an easy to use GIS/Remote Sensing user interface is developed (by Alterra and WaterWatch), called Irrigation Performance Assessment Tool (IPAT), in consultation with the end users. IPAT is successfully tested and demonstrated for three pilot areas in Arge...

  7. Are high generalised and asthma-specific self-efficacy predictive of adequate self-management behaviour among adult asthma patients?

    Palen, van der, Job; Klein, Jakob J.; Seydel, Erwin R

    1997-01-01

    In asthma self-management training, often self-treatment guidelines are included, because increased knowledge of asthma alone is not sufficient to change behaviour. One way to achieve behavioural changes is by increasing the patient's general and asthma-specific self-efficacy expectancies. This refers to beliefs in one's capabilities to execute the recommended course of action successfully. We wanted to assess whether high generalised and asthma-specific self-efficacy expectancies were predic...

  8. Calibration and validation of the STICS crop model for managing wheat irrigation in the semi-arid Marrakech/Al-Haouz Plain

    In the first part of this work, we shoot growth module and grain yield of the STICS crop model were calibrated and validated by using field data which was collected from irrigated winter wheat fields in the Haouz plain near Marrakech. The calibration was performed on the thermal units between the four phonological stages that control the dynamics of leaf area index and thermal unit between emergence and beginning of grain filling. The plant phenology was calibrated for three fields monitored during the 2002/03 season. Evaluation of the green yields and the temporal evolution of leaf area index were done for six validation fields during 2003/04. The results showed the significant accuracy of the model in simulating these variables and also indicated that the plants mainly suffered from lack of nitrogen. The results in the second part show the potential of crop modeling to schedule irrigation water, on the assumption that the plants were growing under optimal conditions of fertilization. In this case, the model was used to manage the time of irrigation according to a threshold for water deficit. Various simulations displayed logical trends in the relationship between the grain yield and both the amount and timing of irrigation water. These results were finally compared with those obtained from real irrigation practices. For the particular climate pf 2003/04, the comparison showed that 70mm 40 mm of water could be saved in case of early and late showing, respectively. (author)

  9. Dimensioning the Irrigation Variables for Table Grape Vineyards in Litho-soils

    Pasquale Campi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The pedo-climatic and farm characteristics of Bari’s hinterland have allowed for the diffusion of prestigious table viticulture. The typical “tendone” vineyard structure is set up after managing the surface of the soil. The karstic nature of the region and the thermo-rainfall trend during the vegetative season impede the vineyard from producing adequately without irrigation. Given the importance of water contributions to table grapes, it is necessary to correctly measure the water variables for economic and environmental reasons. Farmers often irrigate according to “fixed” turns and volumes, against the rules of “good irrigation practice” which consider monitoring the water status of the soil or plant as a prerequisite of irrigation scheduling. During this experiment, two methods of irrigation management were compared: “fixed-turn” and “on demand”. For “on demand” irrigation, the irrigation volume is calculated on the basis of the soil water status (estimated according to the “water balance” method described in the “Paper n. 56 FAO” and the irrigation is scheduled on the basis of the experimental relationship between “pre-dawn” leaf water potential and the water available in the soil. For this comparison, data from a 2-year “on farm” experimentation, in an area typical of table grape cultivation in Southern Italy, have been used. The results obtained show that, in respect to the “fixed-turn” management, the “on demand” management allows for a 20% reduction in water volumes, without compromising production. The water balance method proved to be a promising criterion for irrigation scheduling in these shallow soils, rich in stones (litho-soils. This only held true when the depth of the soil layer explored by the root system was defined by the “equivalent depth” and not by the actual soil’s depth.

  10. Effects of Residue Management on Decomposition in Irrigated Rice Fields Are Not Related to Changes in the Decomposer Community.

    Anja Schmidt

    Full Text Available Decomposers provide an essential ecosystem service that contributes to sustainable production in rice ecosystems by driving the release of nutrients from organic crop residues. During a single rice crop cycle we examined the effects of four different crop residue management practices (rice straw or ash of burned straw scattered on the soil surface or incorporated into the soil on rice straw decomposition and on the abundance of aquatic and soil-dwelling invertebrates. Mass loss of rice straw in litterbags of two different mesh sizes that either prevented or allowed access of meso- and macro-invertebrates was used as a proxy for decomposition rates. Invertebrates significantly increased total loss of litter mass by up to 30%. Initially, the contribution of invertebrates to decomposition was significantly smaller in plots with rice straw scattered on the soil surface; however, this effect disappeared later in the season. We found no significant responses in microbial decomposition rates to management practices. The abundance of aquatic fauna was higher in fields with rice straw amendment, whereas the abundance of soil fauna fluctuated considerably. There was a clear separation between the overall invertebrate community structure in response to the ash and straw treatments. However, we found no correlation between litter mass loss and abundances of various lineages of invertebrates. Our results indicate that invertebrates can contribute to soil fertility in irrigated paddy fields by decomposing rice straw, and that their abundance as well as efficiency in decomposition may be promoted by crop residue management practices.

  11. Effects of Residue Management on Decomposition in Irrigated Rice Fields Are Not Related to Changes in the Decomposer Community.

    Schmidt, Anja; John, Katharina; Arida, Gertrudo; Auge, Harald; Brandl, Roland; Horgan, Finbarr G; Hotes, Stefan; Marquez, Leonardo; Radermacher, Nico; Settele, Josef; Wolters, Volkmar; Schädler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Decomposers provide an essential ecosystem service that contributes to sustainable production in rice ecosystems by driving the release of nutrients from organic crop residues. During a single rice crop cycle we examined the effects of four different crop residue management practices (rice straw or ash of burned straw scattered on the soil surface or incorporated into the soil) on rice straw decomposition and on the abundance of aquatic and soil-dwelling invertebrates. Mass loss of rice straw in litterbags of two different mesh sizes that either prevented or allowed access of meso- and macro-invertebrates was used as a proxy for decomposition rates. Invertebrates significantly increased total loss of litter mass by up to 30%. Initially, the contribution of invertebrates to decomposition was significantly smaller in plots with rice straw scattered on the soil surface; however, this effect disappeared later in the season. We found no significant responses in microbial decomposition rates to management practices. The abundance of aquatic fauna was higher in fields with rice straw amendment, whereas the abundance of soil fauna fluctuated considerably. There was a clear separation between the overall invertebrate community structure in response to the ash and straw treatments. However, we found no correlation between litter mass loss and abundances of various lineages of invertebrates. Our results indicate that invertebrates can contribute to soil fertility in irrigated paddy fields by decomposing rice straw, and that their abundance as well as efficiency in decomposition may be promoted by crop residue management practices. PMID:26225556

  12. Modelling wet and dry spells for daily rainfall data series: an application to irrigation management in North-West Italy

    Ferraris, Stefano; Agnese, Carmelo; Baiamonte, Giorgio; Cat Berro, Daniele; Mercalli, Luca

    2016-04-01

    rainfall events for Italian Sub-Alpine and Mediterranean areas". Adv. Sci. Res., 1, 1-7, 2012, doi:10.5194/asr-1-1-2012 Agnese C., Baiamonte G., Cammalleri C. (2014)."Modelling the occurrence of rainy days under a typical Mediterranean climate". Adv. Water Res., 64, 62-76 Canone D., Previati M., Bevilacqua I., Salvai L., Ferraris S. (2015) "Field measurements based model for surface irrigation efficiency assessment". Agric. Water Manag., vol. 156(1) pp. 30-42, doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2015.03.01 Chatfield C., Wet and dry spells. Weather 1966; 21:308-10.

  13. Manejo da irrigação em pastagem irrigada por pivô-central Irrigated pasture: water management under center pivot irrigation

    Alexandre C. Xavier

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de lâminas de irrigação em pastagem irrigada sob pivô-central é, de maneira geral, realizada sem um critério técnico pertinente ao sistema, pois se deve considerar que para um mesmo período a pastagem se encontra em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento em cada parcela, apresentando taxas de evapotranspiração diferenciadas dentro da área irrigada; todavia, usualmente se aplica uma única lâmina para toda a área. Neste trabalho foi desenvolvido um modelo para aplicação de lâminas de irrigação distinta para cada parcela do pivô o qual, de modo geral, considera: i a capacidade do pivô-central de aplicar lâminas distintas na área; ii o nível de desenvolvimento da cultura em cada parcela; iii o período de retorno do gado a determinada parcela (ciclo de pastejo; e iv o potencial de desenvolvimento da pastagem de certa região. Para modelar o coeficiente de cultura (Kc foram utilizadas duas metodologias, a primeira com taxa de variação do Kc constante com o número de dias em que a parcela está em descanso (k, e a segunda, com taxa de variação do Kc na forma senoidal com k. O modelo foi aplicado para pastagens hipotéticas nas regiões de Piracicaba e Pereira Barreto, para avaliação e, como resultado, observou-se que o modelo se mostrou sensível ao nível de desenvolvimento de cada parcela e às condições de variação do clima de cada região.The application of irrigation depths in irrigated pasture under center pivot machines, in a general way, is accomplished without a pertinent technical criterion, because it should be considered that for any time period, the pasture plots are at different development stages (rotary pasture, presenting different evapotranspiration rates inside the irrigated area. Furthermore, farmers usually apply a single irrigation depth for the whole area. In this study a model was developed for the application of different irrigation depths in each portion of the pivot (pizza

  14. Performance Assessment and Management of Groundwater in an Irrigation Scheme by Coupling Remote Sensing Data and Numerical Modeling Approaches

    Usman, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    The irrigated agriculture in the Lower Chenab Canal (LCC) of Pakistan is characterized by huge water utilization both from surface and groundwater resources. Need of utilization of water from five rivers in Punjab province along with accelerated population growth has forced the construction of world’s largest irrigation network. Nevertheless, huge irrigation infrastructure, together with inappropriate drainage infrastructure, led to a build-up of shal-low groundwater levels, followed by ...

  15. Effectiveness of the GAEC cross-compliance standard management of stubble and crop residues in the maintenance of adequate contents of soil organic carbon

    Domenico Ventrella

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies carried out on the effects of stubble and crop residue incorporation have shown positive effects on chemical-physical soil characteristics. However, not all studies agree on the extent of soil organic matter increase which derives from this process, as this effect is strongly affected by other factors: the pedo-climatic features of the area in which the study is carried out, the type of crop residue incorporation and the agronomical management adopted to improve the decomposition of the incorporated fresh organic material. The burning of stubble and straw is common in the areas where cereals are traditionally grown. The adoption of this method is based on different technical and work-related factors, which become less important when taking into account the impact on the local environment and soil. A research is currently carried out at the CRA-SCA experimental farm in Foggia (Southern Italy on the effects of either residues incorporation or burning on the chemical-physical characteristics of the soil and on the wheat yield performance since 1977. This experiment allows for a comparison among the effects of burning, the simple incorporation of stubble and crop residues and incorporation carried out with some agronomical techniques (such as the distribution of increasing amounts of nitrogen on crop residue before incorporation and the simulation of rain (50 mm on the decomposition of organic material. The objective of the study was to understand the effect of the different residues management practices on soil chemical properties after 32 years of experimentation. The simple incorporation of straw and stubble showed a slight increase in organic soil matter of 0.7% with respect to burning. The best results for soil organic carbon and soil quality were obtained when residual incorporation included a treatment with additional mineral nitrogen.

  16. Effects of different on-farm management on yield and water use efficiency of Potato crop cultivated in semiarid environments under subsurface drip irrigation

    Ghazouani, Hiba; Provenzano, Giuseppe; Rallo, Giovanni; Mguidiche, Amel; Douh, Boutheina; Boujelben, Abdelhamid

    2016-04-01

    In Tunisia the amount of water for irrigated agriculture is higher than about 80% of the total resource.The increasing population and the rising food demand, associated to the negative effects of climate change,make it crucial to adopt strategies aiming to improve water use efficiency (WUE). Moreover, the absence of an effective public policy for water management amplifies the imbalance between water supply and its demand. Despite improved irrigation technologies can enhance the efficiency of water distribution systems, to achieve environmental goals it is also necessaryto identify on-farm management strategies accounting for actual crop water requirement. The main objective of the paper was to assess the effects of different on-farm managementstrategies (irrigation scheduling and planting date) on yield and water use efficiency of Potato crop (Solanumtuberosum L.) irrigated with a subsurface drip system, under the semi-arid climate of central Tunisia. Experiments were carried out during three growing seasons (2012, 2014 and 2015) at the High Agronomic Institute of ChottMariem in Sousse, by considering different planting dates and irrigation depths, the latter scheduled according to the climate observed during the season. All the considered treatments received the same pesticide and fertilizer management. Experiments evidenced that the climatic variability characterizing the examined seasons (photoperiod, solar radiation and average temperature) affects considerably the crop phenological stages, and the late sowing shortens the crop cycle.It has also been demonstrated that Leaf Area Index (LAI) and crop yield resulted relatively higher for those treatments receiving larger amounts of seasonal water. Crop yield varied between 16.3 t/ha and 39.1 t/ha, with a trend linearly related to the ratio between the seasonal amount of water supplied (Irrigation, I and Precipitation, P) and the maximum crop evapotranspiration (ETm). The maximum crop yield was in particular

  17. The role of stakeholders in Murray-Darling Basin water management: How do irrigators make water use decisions and how can this influence water policy?

    Douglas, E. M.; Wheeler, S. A.; Smith, D. J.; Gray, S.; Overton, I. C.; Crossman, N. D.; Doody, T.

    2014-12-01

    Water stress and overallocation are at the forefront of water management and policy challenges in Australia, especially in the Murray Darling Basin (MDB). Farmland within the MDB generates 40 percent of Australia's total agricultural production and utilizes 60 percent of all irrigation water withdrawn nationally. The Murray Darling Basin Plan, drafted in 2008 and enacted in November 2012, has at its core the establishment of environmentally sustainable diversion limits based on a threshold of water extraction which, if exceeded, would cause harm to key environmental assets in the MDB. The overall goal of the Plan is to balance economic, social and environmental outcomes within the Basin. Because irrigated agriculture is the major water user in the MDB, it is important to understand the factors that influence irrigation water use. We applied a mental modeling approach to assessing farmer water use decisions. The approach allowed us to solicit and document farmer insights into the multifaceted nature of irrigation water use decisions in the MDB. Following are a few insights gained from the workshops: 1) For both environmental and economic reasons, irrigators in the MDB have become experts in water use and water efficiency. Water managers and government officials could benefit by partnering with farmers and incorporating this expertise into water management decisions. 2) Irrigators in the MDB may have been misperceived when it comes to accepting policy change. Many, if not most, of the farmers we talked to understood the need for, or at least the inevitability of, governmental policies and regulations. But a lack of accountability and predictability has added to the uncertainty in farming decisions. 3) Irrigators in the MDB subscribe to the concept of environmental sustainability, although they might not always agree with how the concept is implemented. Farmers should be recognized for their significant investments in the long-term sustainability of their farms and

  18. Acute wound management: revisiting the approach to assessment, irrigation, and closure considerations

    Nicks, Bret A.; Ayello, Elizabeth A.; Woo, Kevin; Nitzki-George, Diane; Sibbald, R. Gary

    2010-01-01

    Background As millions of emergency department (ED) visits each year include wound care, emergency care providers must remain experts in acute wound management. The variety of acute wounds presenting to the ED challenge the physician to select the most appropriate management to facilitate healing. A complete wound history along with anatomic and specific medical considerations for each patient provides the basis of decision making for wound management. It is essential to apply an evidence‐bas...

  19. Formal and informal decision making on water management at the village level: A case study from the Office du Niger irrigation scheme (Mali)

    Vandersypen, Klaartje; Keita, Abdoulaye C. T.; Coulibaly, Y.; Raes, D.; Jamin, J.-Y.

    2007-06-01

    Water Users Associations (WUAs) are all too often considered a panacea for improving water management in irrigation schemes. Where grassroots movements are absent, they are usually imposed on farmers by national governments, NGOs, and international donors, without fully considering existing forms of organization. This also happened in the Office du Niger irrigation scheme in Mali, where after a partial irrigation management transfer, WUAs were created to fill the resulting power vacuum. This paper demonstrates that, despite active efforts to organize farmers in WUAs, informal patterns of decision making remain dominant. Given the shortcomings of these informal patterns, WUAs could provide a much-needed platform for institutionalizing collective action, on the condition that farmers accept them. Therefore WUAs should adopt some crucial characteristics of informal patterns of decision making while avoiding their weaknesses. First, making use of the existing authority of village leadership and the central management can improve the credibility of WUAs. Second, allowing flexibility in procedures and rules can make them more appropriate for dealing with collective action problems that are typically temporary and specific. Last, formalizing the current pattern of conflict management and sanctioning might enhance its sphere of action and tackle the current absence of firm engagement with respect to some informal management decisions. In addition, WUAs should represent and be accountable to all farmers, including those residing outside the village community.

  20. Distributed ecohydrological modelling to evaluate irrigation system performance in Sirsa district, India II: Impact of viable water management scenarios

    Singh, R.; Jhorar, R. K.; van Dam, J. C.; Feddes, R. A.

    2006-10-01

    SummaryThis study focuses on the identification of appropriate strategies to improve water management and productivity in an irrigated area of 4270 km 2 in India (Sirsa district). The field scale ecohydrological model SWAP in combination with field experiments, remote sensing and GIS has been applied in a distributed manner generating the required hydrological and biophysical variables to evaluate alternative water management scenarios at different spatial and temporal scales. Simulation results for the period 1991-2001 show that the water and salt limited crop production is 1.2-2.0 times higher than the actual recorded crop production. Improved crop husbandry in terms of improved crop varieties, timely sowing, better nutrient supply and more effective weed, pest and disease control, will increase crop yields and water productivity in Sirsa district. The scenario results further showed that reduction of seepage losses to 25-30% of the total canal inflow and reallocation of 15% canal water inflow from the northern to the central canal commands will improve significantly the long term water productivity, halt the rising and declining groundwater levels, and decrease the salinization in Sirsa district.

  1. Fertilizer management effects on nitrate leaching and indirect nitrous oxide emissions in irrigated potato production.

    Venterea, Rodney T; Hyatt, Charles R; Rosen, Carl J

    2011-01-01

    Potato ( L.) is a N-intensive crop, with high potential for nitrate (NO) leaching, which can contribute to both water contamination and indirect nitrous oxide (NO) emissions. Two approaches that have been considered for reducing N losses include conventional split application (CSA) of soluble fertilizers and single application of polymer-coated urea (PCU). The objectives of this study were to: (i) compare NO leaching using CSA and two PCUs (PCU-1 and PCU-2), which differed in their polymer formulations, and (ii) use measured NO leaching rates and published emissions factors to estimate indirect NO emissions. Averaged over three growing seasons (2007-2009), NO leaching rates were not significantly different among the three fertilizer treatments. Using previously reported direct NO emissions data from the same experiment, total direct plus indirect growing season NO emissions with PCU-1 were estimated to be 30 to 40% less than with CSA. However, PCU-1 also resulted in greater residual soil N after harvest in 2007 and greater soil-water NO in the spring following the 2008 growing season. These results provide evidence that single PCU applications for irrigated potato production do not increase growing season NO leaching compared with multiple split applications of soluble fertilizers, but have the potential to increase N losses after the growing season and into the following year. Estimates of indirect NO emissions ranged from 0.8 to 64% of direct emissions, depending on what value was assumed for the emission factor describing off-site conversion of NO to NO. Thus, our results also demonstrate how more robust models are needed to account for off-site conversion of NO to NO, since current emission factor models have an enormous degree of uncertainty. PMID:21712579

  2. Effect of land management on soil properties in flood irrigated citrus orchards in Eastern Spain

    Morugán-Coronado, A.; García-Orenes, F.; Cerdà, A.

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural land management greatly affects soil properties. Microbial soil communities are the most sensitive and rapid indicators of perturbations in land use and soil enzyme activities are sensitive biological indicators of the effects of soil management practices. Citrus orchards frequently have degraded soils and this paper evaluates how land management in citrus orchards can improve soil quality. A field experiment was performed in an orchard of orange trees (Citrus Sinensis) in the Alcoleja Experimental Station (Eastern Spain) with clay-loam agricultural soils to assess the long-term effects of herbicides with inorganic fertilizers (H), intensive ploughing and inorganic fertilizers (P) and organic farming (O) on the soil microbial properties, and to study the relationship between them. Nine soil samples were taken from each agricultural management plot. In all the samples the basal soil respiration, soil microbial biomass carbon, water holding capacity, electrical conductivity, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium, aggregate stability, cation exchange capacity, pH, texture, macronutrients (Na, Ca and Mg), micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu), calcium carbonate equivalent, calcium carbonate content of limestone and enzimatic activities (urease, dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase) were determined. The results showed a substantial level of differentiation in the microbial properties, which were highly associated with soil organic matter content. The management practices including herbicides and intensive ploughing had similar results on microbial soil properties. O management contributed to an increase in the soil biology quality, aggregate stability and organic matter content.

  3. Assisting community management of groundwater: Irrigator attitudes in two watersheds in Rajasthan and Gujarat, India

    Varua, M. E.; Ward, J.; Maheshwari, B.; Oza, S.; Purohit, R.; Hakimuddin; Chinnasamy, P.

    2016-06-01

    The absence of either state regulations or markets to coordinate the operation of individual wells has focussed attention on community level institutions as the primary loci for sustainable groundwater management in Rajasthan and Gujarat, India. The reported research relied on theoretical propositions that livelihood strategies, groundwater management and the propensity to cooperate are associated with the attitudinal orientations of well owners in the Meghraj and Dharta watersheds, located in Gujarat and Rajasthan respectively. The research tested the hypothesis that attitudes to groundwater management and farming practices, household income and trust levels of assisting agencies were not consistent across the watersheds, implying that a targeted approach, in contrast to default uniform programs, would assist communities craft rules to manage groundwater across multiple hydro-geological settings. Hierarchical cluster analysis of attitudes held by survey respondents revealed four statistically significant discrete clusters, supporting acceptance of the hypothesis. Further analyses revealed significant differences in farming practices, household wealth and willingness to adapt across the four groundwater management clusters. In conclusion, the need to account for attitudinal diversity is highlighted and a framework to guide the specific design of processes to assist communities craft coordinating instruments to sustainably manage local aquifers described.

  4. Resposta das culturas do girassol e do milho a diferentes cenários de rega deficitária Deficit irrigation as a criterion for irrigation water management with sunflower and maize crops

    C. M. Toureiro

    2007-01-01

    the water use optimisation from an environmental point of view. This means that the decision criterion in irrigation management is “deficit irrigation”, rather than maximum ETc as the irrigation water amount. Some experiments with “deficit irrigation” of a sunflower crop (in 2004 irrigation season and maize (in 2005 were carried out in the Irrigation District of Divor (Alentejo, South Portugal. Crop growth and production parameters were evaluated relative to three experimental irrigation regimes: 1 irrigation opportunity and amount with soil available water equalling “optimum yield level”, this corresponding to a non restrictive water use by the crop, according to current procedure, irrigation amount corresponding to maximum ETc; 2 and 3 levels 1 and 2 of deficit irrigation, considering irrigation opportunity with soil available water respectively 10% and 30% under the “optimum yield level” and irrigation amounts 10% and 30% less than ETc between irrigation events. During the flowering periods normal irrigation for full ETc was practiced in all experiment plots. Crop yield data and the economic analysis show that a remarkable potential exists for saving water with “deficit irrigation”.

  5. GSM BASED IRRIGATION CONTROL AND MONITORING SYSTEM

    GODFREY A. MILLS; STEPHEN K. ARMOO; AGYEMAN K. ROCKSON; ROBERT A. SOWAH; MOSES A. ACQUAH

    2013-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture is one of the primary water consumers in most parts of the world. With developments in technology, efforts are being channeled into automation of irrigation systems to facilitate remote control of the irrigation system and optimize crop production and cost effectiveness. This paper describes an on-going work on GSM based irrigation monitoring and control systems. The objective of the work is to provide an approach that helps farmers to easily access, manage and regulate ...

  6. The socio-economic base line survey; first chapter of the handbook under preparation: "Managing farmers: a handbook for working with farmers in irrigation and drainage projects"

    Schrevel, A.

    2002-01-01

    The text The socio-economic base line survey is the first chapter of a book under preparation meant to instruct senior staff of irrigation and drainage projects on techniques to work with farmers. It informs the reader of best practices to set up and execute a socio-economic baseline survey. The work relation between the social scientist responsible for the survey and the project manager receives ample attention.

  7. Production of potato crisps and chips in organic farming: Effect of sprinkler irrigation, manure and preceeding crop management of clover grass on yield and quality

    Krause, Tanja; Böhm, Herwart; Loges, Ralf; Taube, Friedrich; Haase, Norbert U.

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to conventional agriculture the nutrient supply in organic potato production must be secured by preceding crop or organic fertilization. On lighter sites nitrogen mineralisation of organic fertilisation depends highly on water supply. Over two years field experiments with sprinkler irrigation relating to different manure fertilization and varied clover grass management systems (mulching, cut mowing) has been conducted and effects on yield, grading and qualitative properties of pr...

  8. Proper Management Of Irrigation Water And Nitrogen Fertilizer To Improve Spinach Yield And Reserve Environment Using 15N Tracer Technique

    The effect of water regime and N-fertilizer application rate and modality of its application were studied by the aim of identifying the most proper and effective combination of the above studied variables that provide a satisfactory spinach yield as well as to minimize the rational use of chemical nitrogen fertilizers to save the surrounding environment and to achieve a good water saving. The results indicated that reasonable production of spinach crop could be achieved by using 75% of the recommended rate of nitrogen fertilizer combined with 80% of the required water. It means that 20% of the required water could be saved as well as 25% of the required quantity of N-fertilizer. Similarly, the splitting of N-fertilizer into two equal doses prevented the excess of nitrate to be moved to the underground water lowering its concentration in the blades and plant leaves. Drip irrigation system accompanied with proper water scheduling regime and good fertilizer application practices is considered as a useful management practice that could be applied to improve the sandy soil productivity.

  9. Integrating GIS, remote sensing and mathematical modelling for surface water quality management in irrigated watersheds

    Azab, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    The intensive uses of limited water resources, the growing population rates and the various increasing human activities put high and continuous stresses on these resources. Major problems affecting the water quality of rivers, streams and lakes may arise from inadequately treated sewage, poor land use practices, inadequate controls on the discharges of industrial waste waters, uncontrolled poor agricultural practices, excessive use of fertilizers, and a lack of integrated watershed management...

  10. Manejo da irrigação na cultura do feijoeiro em sistemas plantio direto e convencional Irrigation management in dry bean under conventional and no tillage systems

    Luiz C. Pavani

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O manejo inadequado do solo e da água é limitante à produtividade do feijoeiro irrigado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar dois métodos de manejo da irrigação, um via solo (tensiometria e outro via clima (tanque Classe A, conjugados com os sistemas plantio direto e convencional de manejo do solo com a cultura do feijoeiro de "inverno", no segundo ano de plantio direto, em Jaboticabal - SP. Foi medido o potencial mátrico do solo e estimada a variação diária do armazenamento de água no solo, na camada de 0 a 0,40 m de profundidade, e avaliados os componentes de produtividade, além de determinadas a evapotranspiração real média e a eficiência média de uso de água pela cultura. O sistema de preparo convencional do solo com manejo de irrigação pelo tanque Classe A proporcionou maior produtividade de grãos, evapotranspiração média e eficiência de uso de água pela cultura, seguido pelo plantio direto com manejo de irrigação por tensiometria e por tanque Classe A. O sistema plantio direto foi menos suscetível às variações hídricas no solo decorrentes dos manejos de irrigação empregados do que o sistema de preparo convencional, resultando em menor variação na produtividade de grãos.The unsuitable soil and water management in irrigated bean crop is a limitant factor for the yield of this crop. The objective of this research was to compare the performance of two methods of irrigation management, one by soil (tensiometry and another by climate (Class A pan, in conventional and no tillage systems on the irrigated dry bean winter crop in the second year of no tillage system in Jaboticabal - SP. It was evaluated; average number of pods, grains per pods, weight of 1000 grains, grain yield per hectare, soil humidity variation, real evapotranspiration and crop water use efficiency. It was concluded that the biggest grains yield, mean daily evapotranspiration and crop water use efficiency was found in the conventional

  11. EVALUATION OF BASIN INFLOW CUTOFF CRITERION IN THE IRRIGATION DISTRICTS OF SOUTHWEST ARIZONA

    Low irrigation efficiencies persist in irrigated areas near Yuma, Arizona due to poorly designed irrigation systems, poor condition of existing systems, inaccurate delivery of flow rates, and inadequate criteria for determining irrigation cutoff. In farms where growers lack adequate control over the...

  12. Irrigation Water Management Recovery on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 449

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP449), Irrigation...

  13. Reform in Indian canal irrigation: does technology matter?

    Narain, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of technology - the design of canal irrigation for irrigation management reform. With reference to two different design systems in Indian irrigation - shejpali and warabandi - it shows that the potential for reform varies with the design of canal irrigation. Thre

  14. Designing and assessing groundwater management tools combining economic incentives and social preferences - the case of groundwater withdrawals for irrigation

    Figureau, Anne-Gaëlle

    2015-01-01

    In order to prevent overexploitation of natural resources, decision makers have been implementing individual quota-based systems. Yet, in the particular case of groundwater abstraction for irrigation, farmers’ demand is likely to vary relevantly from year to year, due to annual agricultural, environmental and economic conditions. In this thesis, we propose two instruments for regulating groundwater withdrawals for irrigation that ensure compliance with the total abstractable volume while intr...

  15. Safe and High Quality Food Production using Low Quality Waters and Improved Irrigation Systems and Management (SAFIR)

    Cary, L.; Kloppmann, W.; Battilani, A.; Bertaki, M.; Blagojevic, S.; Chartzoulakis, K.; Dalsgaard, A.; Forslund, A.; Jovanovic, Z.; Kasapakis, I.

    2009-04-01

    The safe use of treated domestic wastewater for irrigation needs to address the risks for humans (workers, exposed via contact with irrigation water, soil, crops and food, consumers, exposed via ingestion of fresh and processed food), for animals (via ingestion of crops an soil), for the crops and agricultural productivity (via salinity and trace element uptake), for soil (via accumulation or release of pollutants) as well as for surface, groundwaters and the associated ecosystems (via runoff and infiltration, Kass et al., 2005, Bouwer, 2000). A work package in the EU FP5 project SAFIR is dedicated to study the impact of wastewater irrigation on the soil-water-plant-product system. Its monitoring program comprises pathogens and inorganic pollutants, including both geogenic and potentially anthropogenic trace elements in the aim to better understand soil-irrigation water interactions. The SAFIR field study sites are found in China, Italy, Crete, and Serbia. A performance evaluation of SAFIR-specific treatment technology through the monitoring of waste water and irrigation water quality was made through waste water chemical and microbiological qualities, which were investigated upstream and downstream of the SAFIR specific treatment three times per season. Irrigation water transits through the uppermost soil decimetres to the crop roots. The latter will become, in the course of the irrigation season, the major sink of percolating water, together with evaporation. The water saving irrigation techniques used in SAFIR are surface and subsurface drip irrigation. The investigation of the solid soil phase concentrates on the root zone as main transit and storage compartment for pollutants and, eventually, pathogens. The initial soil quality was assessed through a sampling campaign before the onset of the first year irrigation; the soil quality has been monitored throughout three years under cultivation of tomatoes or potatoes. The plot layout for each of the study sites

  16. Evaluating the relative contribution of methane oxidation to methane emissions from young floodplain soils under Alternative Irrigation Management

    Pierreux, Sofie; Verhoeven, Elizabeth; Akter, Masuda; Sleutel, Steven; Said-Pullicino, Daniel; Romani, Marco; Boeckx, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    To keep the pace with a yearly growing demand for rice by 1-2%, future rice production must come primarily from high yielding irrigated rice, putting a pressure on fresh water reserves. In this context, water saving Alternative Irrigation Management (AIM) is progressively applied worldwide. By introducing repeated or mid-seasonal drainage, AIM suppresses emission of CH4, otherwise prevalent in continuously flooded rice. However, little is known about the effect of AIM on the balance of CH4 genesis and oxidation in paddy soils. We studied relevant soil parameters and CH4 emissions in continuously flooded (CF) and alternately wetted and dried (AWD) rice paddies. During a field campaign at the Castello d'Agogna experimental station (Pavia, Italy), we measured in situ CH4 oxidation and emission rates using the closed gas chamber technique with or without application of CH2F2 as a selective inhibitor of CH4 oxidation. In addition, we determined potential CH4 oxidation rates using incubated soil slurries originating from the same experimental plots. The dataset was supplemented with depth differentiated monitoring of redox potential, temperature, moisture content and soil solution parameters (DOC, Fe2+, Mn3+, mineral N and dissolved CH4). Peaks in dissolved CH4 manifested at 5 and 12.5cm depth, with much lower and equal levels at 25, 50 and 80cm depth. Also depth distributions of dissolved Fe and Mn followed this pattern, indicating that methanogenic activity was primarily confounded to the topsoil. Seasonal CH4 emissions were about halved by AWD compared to CF management. After a fast decline of in situ oxidation within the AWD treatment at the beginning of the season, CH4 oxidation percentages in CF and AWD increased until the booting stage (67DAS), reaching peak values of 83% and 69% of produced CH4, respectively. CH4 oxidation thereafter gradually declined to nearly 50% in both treatments after the final drainage (103 DAS). Seasonal trends of potential CH4 oxidation

  17. Impact of integrated nutrient management on growth and grain yield of wheat under irrigated cropping system

    Field study was conducted during 2001-02 and 2002-03 to investigate the effect of cropping patterns and farm yard manure, potassium and zinc on the grain yield of wheat. Trials were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, KPK Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. Two factors cropping patterns and manures/fertilizers were studied in the experiment. Randomized complete block design was used with split plot arrangements and four replications having net plot size of 12 m/sup 2/. Wheat variety Ghaznavi-98 was sown in November soon after ploughing the soil at proper moisture level suitable for wheat seed germination. Five cropping patterns were allotted to main plots and the eight combinations of FYM, K and Zn to the sub-plots. Same plots were used for next year sowing. Effects of five cropping patterns i.e., rice-wheat, maize-wheat, sunflower-wheat, sorghum-wheat and pigeon pea-wheat and three organic and in-organic fertilizers (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) on subsequent wheat crop were observed. Highest grain yield was obtained when wheat was planted after pigeon pea. Manures/fertilizer application (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) produced significantly higher grain yield than the control plots. The findings of the present study revealed that leguminous crops can significantly increase the yield of succeeding crops. Thus use of Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc should be included in integrated crop management approaches for sustainable agriculture. (author)

  18. IACUBA 28: rice mutant variety for irrigated areas with its cultural management

    The variety IACuba 28 was obtained by irradiation of seeds of the cultivar J 104, with 20 Gy of fast neutrons of 14 MeV in 1989. From 1990 to 1995 was conducted the selection, in order to reach the homocigosity in the mutant line J 104 N2- C4-4-5P1-3-1. This mutant, with the code number 3763, was included in the observational trials in 1996. In dry season 1996-1997 began the evaluation in multi location trials around the country. From 1999 to 2001 the new variety was evaluated in validation test in four different provinces. IACuba 28 has a semi dwarf type with high tillering ability and resistance to lodging. This variety possess high yield potential (yielded 0.7 t/ha and 0.5 t/ha in dry and wet season, respectively, over the parent), and showed resistance to tagosodes orizicolus Muir., Pyricularia grisea Sacc. and other diseases, as well as presented a better grain quality than the parent variety. The cultural management for the new variety was determined, including nitrogen fertilization, sowing density, moisture range to harvest, dormancy of the seeds and the milling technology

  19. Assessing the Feasibility of Managed Aquifer Recharge for Irrigation under Uncertainty

    Muhammad Arshad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Additional storage of water is a potential option to meet future water supply goals. Financial comparisons are needed to improve decision making about whether to store water in surface reservoirs or below ground, using managed aquifer recharge (MAR. In some places, the results of cost-benefit analysis show that MAR is financially superior to surface storage. However, uncertainty often exists as to whether MAR systems will remain operationally effective and profitable in the future, because the profitability of MAR is dependent on many uncertain technical and financial variables. This paper introduces a method to assess the financial feasibility of MAR under uncertainty. We assess such uncertainties by identification of cross-over points in break-even analysis. Cross-over points are the thresholds where MAR and surface storage have equal financial returns. Such thresholds can be interpreted as a set of minimum requirements beyond which an investment in MAR may no longer be worthwhile. Checking that these thresholds are satisfied can improve confidence in decision making. Our suggested approach can also be used to identify areas that may not be suitable for MAR, thereby avoiding expensive hydrogeological and geophysical investigations.

  20. Irrigation System

    1984-01-01

    Under contract with Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a Lubrication Handbook intended as a reference source for designers and manufacturers of aerospace hardware and crews responsible for maintenance of such equipment. Engineers of Lindsay Manufacturing Company learned of this handbook through NASA Tech Briefs and used it for supplemental information in redesigning gear boxes for their center pivot agricultural irrigation system.

  1. Use of the FAO CROPWAT model in deficit irrigation studies

    Dwindling water resources and increasing food requirements require greater efficiency in water use, both in rainfed and in irrigated agriculture. Regulated deficit irrigation provides a means of reducing water consumption while minimizing adverse effects on yield. Models can play a useful role in developing practical recommendations for optimizing crop production under conditions of scarce water supply. To assess the applicability of the FAO CROPWAT model for deficit irrigation scheduling, a study utilized data provided in studies from a joint FAO/IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on 'The use of nuclear and related techniques in assessment of irrigation schedules of field crops to increase effective use of water in irrigation projects,' carried out in Turkey, Morocco and Pakistan on cotton, sugar beet, and potato, respectively. The study revealed that the CROPWAT model can adequately predict the effects of water stress, but requires calibration of the main crop parameters. Procedures were developed to calibrate the various crop parameters based on research findings from the treatments. The study demonstrated that the model could be useful in improving the design of experimental methods in research studies and in identifying inconsistencies in procedures and results. Furthermore, the model permitted a more systematic analysis of results, a more uniform presentation of data, and a greater compatibility of results. Moreover, this paper concludes that models are a powerful tool for extending findings and conclusions to conditions not tested in the field, and that useful predictions on deficit irrigation scheduling are possible under various conditions of water supply, soil, and of crop management. (author)

  2. Managing neurogenic bowel dysfunction: what do patients prefer? A discrete choice experiment of patient preferences for transanal irrigation and standard bowel management

    Nafees B

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Beenish Nafees,1 Andrew J Lloyd,2 Rachel S Ballinger,2 Anton Emmanuel3 1Health Outcomes Research, Nafees Consulting Limited, London, 2Patient-Reported Outcomes Research, ICON plc, Oxford, 3Department of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, University College Hospital, London, UK Background: Most patients with bowel dysfunction secondary to neurological illness are managed by a range of nonsurgical methods, including dietary changes, laxatives, and suppository use to transanal irrigation (TAI. The aim of the present study was to explore individuals’ preferences regarding TAI devices and furthermore investigate willingness to pay (WTP for attributes in devices in the UK. Methods: A discrete choice experiment survey was conducted to evaluate the patients’ perceived value of TAI devices. Attributes were selected based upon a literature review and input from clinicians. Interviews were conducted with three clinicians and the survey was developed and finalized with the input from both patients and professionals. The final attributes were “risk of urinary tract infections” (UTIs, “risk of fecal incontinence” (FI, “frequency of use”, “time spent on toilet”, “ease of use”, “level of control/independence”, and “cost”. Participants were recruited by a patient panel of TAI device users in the UK. Data were analyzed using the conditional logit model whereby the coefficients obtained from the model provided an estimate of the (log odds ratios (ORs of preference for attributes. WTP was also estimated for each attribute. Results: A total of 129 participants were included in the final analyses. Sixty two percent of the participants had suffered from three UTIs in the preceding year and 58% of patients reported currently experiencing FI using their current device. All attributes were significant predictors of choice. The most important attributes for participants were the “risk of FI”, “frequency of use”, and “risk of UTIs

  3. Evaluation of Modern Irrigation Techniques with Brackish Water

    Aboulila, Tarek Selim

    2012-01-01

    Modern irrigation techniques are becoming increasingly important in water-scarce countries especially in arid and semiarid regions. Higher crop production and better water use efficiency are usually achieved by drip irrigation as compared to other irrigation methods. Furthermore, by using drip irrigation simultaneously with brackish irrigation water, some of the water stress due to shortage of fresh water resources can be managed. The objective of the current study was to investigate the infl...

  4. Assessment of Water and Nitrate-N deep percolation fluxes in soil as affected by irrigation and nutrient management practices

    Tsehaye, Habte; Ceglie, Francesco; Mimiola, Giancarlo; dragonetti, giovanna; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Coppola, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Many farming practices can result in contamination of groundwater, due to the downward migration of fertilizers and pesticides through the soil profile. The detrimental effects of this contamination are not limited to deterioration of chemical and physical properties of soils and waters, but also constitute a real risk to human and ecosystem health. Groundwater contamination may come from a very large array of chemicals. Nevertheless, on a global scale the main cause of pollution is a high nitrate concentration in the aquifer water. Nitrate concentrations of groundwater have constantly increased during the last decades, and the widespread use of commercial N fertilizers has been implicated as the main causative factor. It is often claimed that nutrient management in organic farming is more environmentally sustainable than its conventional counterpart. It is commonly presumed that organic agriculture causes only minimal environmental pollution. There is scientific evidence that organic management may enhance some soil physical and biological properties. In particular, soil fertility management strategies can affect soil properties and the related hydrological processes. It is thus crucial to quantify and predict management effects on soil properties in order to evaluate the effects of soil type, natural processes such as decomposition of organic matter, irrigation applications and preferential flow on the deep percolation fluxes of water and nitrates to the groundwater. In this study, we measured the water fluxes and the quality of water percolating below the root zone, underlying organic agriculture systems in greenhouse. Specifically, the aim was to examine the effects of application time and type of organic matter in the soil on the nitrate-N deep percolation fluxes under the following three organic soil fertility strategies in greenhouse tomato experiment: i. Organic input Substitution (which will be hereafter denoted SUBST) is represented as typical

  5. Analysis of the functioning of an irrigated rice field on alkali soil. Application to the integrated nitrogen fertilizer management and cultural calendar in the interior delta of the Niger (Mali).

    Dicko, Mohamed

    2005-01-01

    The irrigated perimeters of the “Office du Niger” (Mali), is characterized by a tendency of soils toward alkalization and the variable yield performances of irrigated rice, as influenced by nitrogen fertilization. The objective of this study is to analyze the interactions between the in situ physical/chemical properties of soil and the modes of application of cultural practices such as nitrogen fertilization, rice transplanting and water management, and their influence on the nitrogen use eff...

  6. Gendered participation in water management in Nepal : discourses, policies and practices in the irrigation and drinking water sectors

    Bhushan Udas, P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This thesis is about gendered policy processes in the irrigation and drinking water sectors in Nepal. Globally, increased women’s participation in formal decision making bodies such as water users’ associations is extensively advocated as a means to reduce exis

  7. Integrated Water Resources Management for Sustainable Irrigation at the Basin Scale Manejo Integrado de Recursos Hídricos para Riego Sustentable a Nivel de Cuenca

    Max Billib; Karin Bardowicks; José Luis Arumí

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the state of art on integrated water resources management (IWRM) approaches for sustainable irrigation at the basin scale under semi-arid and arid climatic conditions, with main emphasis on Latin America, but including case studies of other semi-arid and arid regions in the world. In Latin America the general concept of IWRM has proved to be hard to implement. Case studies recommend to develop the approach from lower to upper scale and oriented at the ...

  8. Irrigation Analysis Based on Long-Term Weather Data

    James R. Mahan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation management is based upon delivery of water to a crop in the correct amount and time, and the crop’s water need is determined by calculating evapotranspiration (ET using weather data. In 1994, an ET-network was established in the Texas High Plains to manage irrigation on a regional scale. Though producers used the ET-network, by 2010 public access was discontinued. Why did producers allow a valuable irrigation-management tool to be eliminated? Our objective was to analyze the effect of declining well capacities on the usefulness of cotton ET (ETc for irrigation. Thirty years (1975–2004 of daily ETc data were used to compare irrigation demand vs. irrigation responses at four locations, analyzed for multiple years and range of well capacities for three irrigation-intervals. Results indicated that when well capacities declined to the point that over-irrigation was not possible, the lower well capacities reduced the value of ETc in terms of the number of irrigations and total amount of water applied. At well capacities <1514 L·min−1 the fraction of irrigations for which ETc information was used to determine the irrigation amount was <35% across years and irrigation intervals. The value of an ETc-based irrigation may fall into disuse when irrigation-water supplies decline.

  9. Safe and High Quality Food Production using Low Quality Waters and Improved Irrigation Systems and Management, EU Project

    Plauborg, Finn; Jensen, Christian Richardt; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2009-01-01

    while at the same time reducing the use of natural resources and the impact on aquatic ecosystems that are frequently already polluted. These problems are linked, since most of our vegetables are produced using irrigation water from the same ecosystems. To ensure food safety and quality, the innovative...... intelligent tool for efficient and safe use and re-use of low-quality water are being developed. Already published results indicate water saving in the order of 25-30% in agricultural crops as potatoes and tomatoes are possible without yield reduction. Slightly treated waste water can be used safely when......Globally, agricultural irrigation is the number one user of freshwater. Agriculture consumes about 70% of all water withdrawn worldwide, and up to 95% in some developing countries. The SAFIR project contributes to solving this challenge, addressing two major public concerns at the same time...

  10. Productivity of Onions Using Subsurface Drip Irrigation versus Furrow Irrigation Systems with an Internet Based Irrigation Scheduling Program

    Juan Enciso; John Jifon; Juan Anciso; Luis Ribera

    2015-01-01

    Selection of the proper irrigation method will be advantageous to manage limited water supplies and increase crop profitability. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) and furrow irrigation on onion yield and irrigation use efficiency. This study was conducted in two locations, a commercial field and a field located at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research Center in Weslaco, TX. This study was conducted as a split-plot design for both site...

  11. Integrated Water Resources Management for Sustainable Irrigation at the Basin Scale Manejo Integrado de Recursos Hídricos para Riego Sustentable a Nivel de Cuenca

    Max Billib

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to review the state of art on integrated water resources management (IWRM approaches for sustainable irrigation at the basin scale under semi-arid and arid climatic conditions, with main emphasis on Latin America, but including case studies of other semi-arid and arid regions in the world. In Latin America the general concept of IWRM has proved to be hard to implement. Case studies recommend to develop the approach from lower to upper scale and oriented at the end-user. As IWRM is an interdisciplinary approach and used for very different objectives, the main emphasis is given to IWRM approaches for sustainable irrigation and their environmental aspects. The review shows that in Latin America the environmental impact is mostly analysed at the field level, the impact on the whole basin is less considered. Many publications present the development of models, advisory services and tools for decision support systems at a high technical level. Some papers present studies of environmental aspects of sustainable irrigation, especially for salt affected areas. Multi-criteria decision making models are developed for irrigation planning and irrigation scenarios are used to show the impact of different irrigation management decision. In general integrated approaches in Latin America are scarce.El objetivo de esta publicación es revisar el estado del arte de los diferentes enfoques que se han usado para lograr un manejo integrado de los recursos hídricos (MIRH asociados a una agricultura de riego sustentable a nivel de cuenca en condiciones áridas y semiáridas, con énfasis en Latinoamérica, pero incluyen casos de estudio de otras regiones similares del mundo. En Latinoamérica el concepto general de MIRH ha resultado difícil de implementar. De los estudios de casos, se recomienda desarrollar este enfoque desde una escala menor a una mayor orientándose al usuario final. MIRH es un enfoque interdisciplinario usado para

  12. Manejo de água e de fertilizante potássico na cultura de arroz irrigado Water and potassium fertilization management for irrigated rice cultivation

    Alberto Baêta dos Santos

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available O manejo da água de irrigação e as doses e épocas de aplicação de fertilizantes tornam-se aspectos de extrema importância no êxito do aproveitamento das várzeas para o cultivo de arroz (Oryza sativa L. irrigado ou este seguido de outras espécies. Com o objetivo de comparar distintas formas de manejo de água e de fertilizante potássico no comportamento do arroz irrigado, foram conduzidos experimentos por três anos consecutivos, em um Inceptissolo. Foram estudados os efeitos de manejo de água (MA1 - inundação contínua e MA2 - inundação intermitente seguida de contínua e o modo de aplicação de fertilizante potássico (K1 - na semeadura; K2 - parcelada e K3 - meia dose parcelada. O manejo de água apresentou efeito mais expressivo sobre o comportamento do arroz que o do fertilizante potássico. A inundação contínua durante todo o ciclo da cultura proporcionou maiores rendimentos de grãos, expressando maiores valores dos parâmetros produtivos, e melhorou a qualidade industrial dos grãos. Com esta irrigação, o parcelamento da adubação potássica aumentou o aproveitamento do fertilizante. Os manejos do fertilizante potássico afetaram diferentemente o comportamento da cultura do arroz nas distintas formas de manejo de água.Irrigation water levels and timing of potassium fertilization is extremely important for the use of lowlands for irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivation in crop rotation. A field experiment was conduced for three consecutive years in Inceptisol to study the effects of water management (WM1 - continuous flooding and WM2 - intermittent flooding followed continuous flooding and mode of potassium fertilizer application (K1 - at sowing; K2 - fractional application and K3 - fractional application of half levels on grain yield and yield components of irrigated rice. Water management presented expressive effect on rice performance as compared to potassium fertilization. Continuous flooding during whole

  13. Free left and right adequate semigroups

    Kambites, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Recent research of the author has given an explicit geometric description of free (two-sided) adequate semigroups and monoids, as sets of labelled directed trees under a natural combinatorial multiplication. In this paper we show that there are natural embeddings of each free right adequate and free left adequate semigroup or monoid into the corresponding free adequate semigroup or monoid. The corresponding classes of trees are easily described and the resulting geometric representation of fr...

  14. Status of Irrigation Water Use on Pecans in Georgia: Lesson for Growers, Extension Specialists, Extension Agents, Professional Farm Managers, and Appraisers

    Fonsah, Esendugue; Harrison, Kerry; Foster, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This study examines recent irrigation water use by pecan farmers in Georgia. Data on yields, total water use, and irrigation cost was collected. In total, data from 10 systems were obtained and analyzed. Data was acquired via a survey instrument that was mailed to likely participants. Yearly averages were calculated for water use, irrigation cost, and crop yield. Irrigation water use numbers were combined with rainfall data to produce total water application numbers for each year from 1999 to...

  15. A parametric study of the value of hydrological information for irrigation and hydropower management of the Feather River

    Wetzler, E.; Sand, F.; Stevenson, P.; Putnam, M.

    1975-01-01

    A case study analysis is presented of the relationships between improvements in the accuracy, frequency, and timeliness of information used in making hydrological forecasts and economic benefits in the areas of hydropower and irrigation. The area chosen for the case study is the Oroville Dam and Reservoir. Emphasis is placed on the use of timely and accurate mapping of the aerial extent of snow in the basin by earth resources survey systems such as LANDSAT. The subject of benefits resulting from improved runoff forecasts is treated in a generalized way without specifying the source of the improvements.

  16. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Churchill County, Nevada, 1986-87

    An investigation was initiated to determine whether irrigation drainage in and near the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area has caused or has potential to cause harmful effects on human health or fish and wildlife, or may adversely affect the suitability of water for beneficial uses. Samples of surface and groundwater, bottom sediment, and biota were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Fallon agricultural area in the Carson Desert and were analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements, including selenium. Other analyses included radioactive substances, major dissolved constituents, and nutrients in water, and pesticide residues in bottom sediments and biota. In areas affected by irrigation drainage, concentrations of the following constituents commonly were found to exceed baseline concentrations or federal and state criteria for the protection of aquatic life or the propagation of wildlife: in water, arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediments, arsenic, lithium, mercury, molybdenum, and selenium; and in biota, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. In some wetlands, selenium and mercury appear to be biomagnified whereas arsenic is bioaccumulated. Some radioactive substances were substantially higher at the downstream sites compared with upstream background sites, but the significance of this to wildlife is unknown at present. 88 refs., 32 figs., 19 tabs

  17. Gerenciamento do lado da demanda no bombeamento de água para perímetro irrigado Demand side management for water pumping for irrigated perimeter

    Maria J. de Moraes

    2011-09-01

    ´s load and the motor pump set performance. It is concluded that the frequency inverter use and the management of the availability of the number of hours of irrigation secure energy savings that varies around 7 to 62% for the studied combinations.

  18. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    A. D. Chukalla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumptive water footprint (WF reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for fresh water. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET and yield (Y and thus the consumptive WF of crops (ET/Y. The management practices are: four irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip (SSD; four irrigation strategies (full (FI, deficit (DI, supplementary (SI and no irrigation; and three mulching practices (no mulching, organic (OML and synthetic (SML mulching. Various cases were considered: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid environments; wet, normal and dry years; three soil types; and three crops. The AquaCrop model and the global WF accounting standard were used to relate the management practices to effects on ET, Y and WF. For each management practice, the associated green, blue and total consumptive WF were compared to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching. The average reduction in the consumptive WF is: 8–10 % if we change from the reference to drip or SSD; 13 % when changing to OML; 17–18 % when moving to drip or SSD in combination with OML; and 28 % for drip or SSD in combination with SML. All before-mentioned reductions increase by one or a few per cent when moving from full to deficit irrigation. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to blue WF. The WF of growing a crop for a particular environment is smallest under DI, followed by FI, SI and rain-fed. Growing crops with sprinkler irrigation has the largest consumptive WF, followed by furrow, drip and SSD. Furrow irrigation has a smaller consumptive WF compared with sprinkler, even though the classical measure of "irrigation efficiency" for furrow is lower.

  19. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    Chukalla, A. D.; Krol, M. S.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for freshwater. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and thus the consumptive WF of crops (ET / Y). The management practices are four irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip (SSD)), four irrigation strategies (full (FI), deficit (DI), supplementary (SI) and no irrigation), and three mulching practices (no mulching, organic (OML) and synthetic (SML) mulching). Various cases were considered: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid environments in Israel, Spain, Italy and the UK, respectively; wet, normal and dry years; three soil types (sand, sandy loam and silty clay loam); and three crops (maize, potato and tomato). The AquaCrop model and the global WF accounting standard were used to relate the management practices to effects on ET, Y and WF. For each management practice, the associated green, blue and total consumptive WF were compared to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The average reduction in the consumptive WF is 8-10 % if we change from the reference to drip or SSD, 13 % when changing to OML, 17-18 % when moving to drip or SSD in combination with OML, and 28 % for drip or SSD in combination with SML. All before-mentioned reductions increase by one or a few per cent when moving from full to deficit irrigation. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to blue WF. The WF of growing a crop for a particular environment is smallest under DI, followed by FI, SI and rain-fed. Growing crops with sprinkler irrigation has the largest consumptive WF, followed by furrow, drip and SSD. Furrow irrigation has a smaller consumptive WF compared with sprinkler, even though the classical measure of "irrigation efficiency" for furrow

  20. Urban landscape irrigation requirements: the case study of Mirandela, Portugal

    A.C. RIBEIRO; Ferreiro, Gualter

    2013-01-01

    The technological development is leading to the emergence of modern equipment for the automation of irrigation systems, with especial relevance for landscape irrigation systems. Thus, the development of methodologies for irrigation requirements of landscape, that allowed an improvement of the utilization of those technologies and equipment, and consequently to an improvement in irrigation management, is very timely and opportune. In this study, water requirements for landscape irrigatio...

  1. Water-Energy balance in pressure irrigation systems

    Sánchez, Raúl; Rodríguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Juana, Luis; Laguna, Francisco V.; Castañón, Guillermo; Gil, María; Benitez, Javier

    2013-04-01

    Modernization of irrigation schemes, generally understood as transformation of surface irrigation systems into pressure -sprinkler and trickle- irrigation systems, aims at, among others, improving irrigation efficiency and reduction of operation and maintenance efforts made by the irrigators. Automation techniques become easier after modernization, and operation management plays an important role in energy efficiency issues. Modern systems use to include elevated water reservoirs with enough capacity to irrigate during peak water demand period about 16 to 48 h. However, pressure irrigation systems, in contrast, carry a serious energy cost. Energy requirements depend on decisions taken on management strategies during the operation phase, which are conditioned by previous decisions taken on the design project of the different elements which compose the irrigation system. Most of the countries where irrigation activity is significant bear in mind that modernization irrigation must play a key role in the agricultural infrastructure policies. The objective of this study is to characterize and estimate the mean and variation of the energy consumed by common types of irrigation systems according to their management possibilities. Also is an objective to estimate the fraction of the water reservoirs available along the irrigation campaign for storing the energy from renewable sources during their availability periods. Simulation taking into account all elements comprising the irrigation system has been used to estimate the energy requirements of typical irrigation systems of several crop production systems. The simulation of various types of irrigation systems and management strategies, in the framework imposed by particular cropping systems, would help to develop criteria for improving the energy balance in relation to the irrigation water supply productivity and new opportunities in the renewable energy field.

  2. Preventing pesticide contamination of groundwater while maximizing irrigated crop yield

    Peralta, R C; Hegazy, M. A.; Musharrafieh, G.

    1994-01-01

    A simulation/optimization model is developed for maximizing irrigated crop yield while avoiding unacceptable pesticide leaching. The optimization model is designed to help managers prevent non-point source contamination of shallow groundwater aquifers. It computes optimal irrigation amounts for given soil, crop, chemical, and weather data and irrigation frequencies. It directly computes the minimum irrigated crop yield reduction needed to prevent groundwater contamination. Constraint equation...

  3. Irrigation Cost Estimation Procedures Used in the Irrigation Economics Evaluation System (lEES)

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Llewelyn, Richard V.; DeLano, Dan; Thangavelu, Ilango

    1996-01-01

    Establishment of efficient farm irrigation practices is influenced by the knowledge the irrigator has concerning both the economic and technological aspects of irrigation. The eventual goal of water conservation research is to have water users establish conservation techniques as parts of their continuing operating procedures. However, this will happen only when economic incentives exist. The farm manager requires a basic understanding of the economics of water use in order to evaluate adjust...

  4. Irrigation Patterns and Scheduling of a Telecontrolled Irrigation District in Northeastern Spain

    Stambouli, Talel; Zapata Ruiz, Nery; Faci González, José María

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, telecontrol systems have been incorporated into the majority of modern collective pressurized irrigation networks in Spain. This type of infrastructure provides many opportunities for irrigation management but actually, in Spain, is only used for standardized network operations. The Candasnos irrigation district (CID), located in northeastern Spain, is equipped with this system, and contains a variety of different pressurized systems. Telecontrol data and crop water re...

  5. An object-oriented watershed management tool (QnD-VFS) to engage stakeholders in targeted implementation of filter strips in an arid surface irrigation area

    Campo, M. A.; Perez-Ovilla, O.; Munoz-Carpena, R.; Kiker, G.; Ullman, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source pollution cause the majority of the 1,224 different waterbodies failing to meet designated water use criteria in Washington. Although various best management practices (BMPs) are effective in mitigating agricultural pollutants, BMP placement is often haphazard and fails to address specific high-risk locations. Limited financial resources necessitate optimization of conservation efforts to meet water quality goals. Thus, there is a critical need to develop decision-making tools that target BMP implementation in order to maximize water quality protection. In addition to field parameters, it is essential to incorporate economic and social determinants in the decision-making process to encourage producer involvement. Decision-making tools that identify strategic pollution sources and integrate socio-economic factors will lead to more cost-effective water quality improvement, as well as encourage producer participation by incorporating real-world limitations. Therefore, this study examines vegetative filter strip use under different scenarios as a BMP to mitigate sediment and nutrients in the highly irrigated Yakima River Basin of central Washington. We developed QnD-VFS to integrate and visualize alternative, spatially-explicit, water management strategies and its economic impact. The QnDTM system was created as a decision education tool that incorporates management, economic, and socio- political issues in a user-friendly scenario framework. QnDTM, which incorporates elements of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) and risk assessment, is written in object-oriented Java and can be deployed as a stand-alone program or a web-accessed tool. The model performs Euler numerical integration of various rate transformation and mass-balance transfer equations. The novelty of this object-oriented approach is that these differential equations are detailed in modular XML format for instantiation within the Java code. This design allows many levels

  6. Is ‘Social Cooperation’ for traditional irrigation, while ‘Technology’ is for motor pump irrigation?

    Dessalegn, Mengistu; Merrey, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    Based on a case study in Ethiopia, this paper shows that while farmers understand the social nature of community-managed irrigation, they share a narrow understanding of pump irrigation with policymakers as being primarily ‘technical’. They perceive pumps as liberating them from the ‘social’ limitations of traditional communal irrigation. However, the rapid expansion of pump irrigation is leading to increasing competition and conflict over limited water resources. We analyze the wider implica...

  7. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS - Idaho Model Watershed Habitat Projects - L-9 Irrigation Diversion Modification

    N/A

    2004-08-02

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to fund a fish passage improvement project at the L-9 diversion on the Lemhi River in Lemhi County, Idaho with the Lemhi Soil and Water Conservation District. The project proposes to replace the existing rock push-up irrigation diversion dam with a single rock weir that will incorporate a geotextile membrane to create a permanent diversion. The new weir will be a v-shaped vortex weir with a six-foot wide notch for fish passage. In addition, a ramp flume will be constructed in the diversion canal between the headgate and existing fish screen to provide for water measurement. The new diversion will provide better water delivery/control and improved passage for adult and juvenile resident and anadromous fish.

  8. Deficit irrigation for reducing agricultural water use.

    Fereres, Elias; Soriano, María Auxiliadora

    2007-01-01

    At present and more so in the future, irrigated agriculture will take place under water scarcity. Insufficient water supply for irrigation will be the norm rather than the exception, and irrigation management will shift from emphasizing production per unit area towards maximizing the production per unit of water consumed, the water productivity. To cope with scarce supplies, deficit irrigation, defined as the application of water below full crop-water requirements (evapotranspiration), is an important tool to achieve the goal of reducing irrigation water use. While deficit irrigation is widely practised over millions of hectares for a number of reasons - from inadequate network design to excessive irrigation expansion relative to catchment supplies - it has not received sufficient attention in research. Its use in reducing water consumption for biomass production, and for irrigation of annual and perennial crops is reviewed here. There is potential for improving water productivity in many field crops and there is sufficient information for defining the best deficit irrigation strategy for many situations. One conclusion is that the level of irrigation supply under deficit irrigation should be relatively high in most cases, one that permits achieving 60-100% of full evapotranspiration. Several cases on the successful use of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) in fruit trees and vines are reviewed, showing that RDI not only increases water productivity, but also farmers' profits. Research linking the physiological basis of these responses to the design of RDI strategies is likely to have a significant impact in increasing its adoption in water-limited areas. PMID:17088360

  9. Effects of irrigation on seed production and vegetative characteristics of four moist-soil plants on impounded wetlands in California

    Mushet, D.M.; Euliss, N.H., Jr.; Harris, S.W.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the effects of irrigation on 4 moist-soil plants commonly managed for waterfowl in the Sacramento Valley, California. Irrigation resulted in taller and heavier swamp timothy (Heleochloa schoenoides), pricklegrass (Crypsis niliaca), and sprangletop (Leptochloa fasicularis). Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli) grew taller in irrigated wetlands, but no significant difference in weight was detected. Only sprangletop yielded larger seed masses in response to irrigation. Without irrigation, swamp timothy and pricklegrass assumed a typical prostrate growth form, but with irrigation, they assumed a vertical growth form. Irrigation did not significantly affect plant density. Because of rising water costs, wetland managers should consider wildlife management objectives and plant responses before implementing irrigation practices.

  10. Influência do manejo da irrigação no meloeiro rendilhado cultivado em ambiente protegido Irrigation management on net-melon fruits cultivated under greenhouse

    Tonny J. A. Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Visando a avaliar a cultura do melão rendilhado em função do manejo da irrigação, foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação com a cultivar Bônus nº 2, na área experimental do Departamento de Engenharia Rural da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" - ESALQ/USP. Foram avaliados dois sistemas de manejo (tensiômetro e lisímetro de tensão controlada, e dois níveis de fertilidade (presença e ausência de fertilizantes. O lisímetro de tensão controlada é um dispositivo que utiliza cápsula porosa, capaz de fornecer água automaticamente, acoplado a um tubo de Mariotte, que permite realizar leituras de volume de água consumido pela planta. Para os tratamentos com lisímetro de tensão controlada, a porosidade livre de água média (PLA foi de 15%; já para os irrigados com base nos tensiômetros, a PLA permaneceu em média 35%, favorecendo boa relação ar-água durante todo o experimento. Com relação à variação temporal do potencial matricial do solo (média das três profundidades, os tratamentos com tensiômetro apresentaram valores médios de tensões com desvios de 9,10%, enquanto, para os tratamentos com lisímetro de tensão controlada, os desvios foram de 1,33%. Com manejo da irrigação por tensiômetros, sem adição de fertilizantes, a massa média dos frutos (1.070,4 g quase duplicou em relação ao padrão mínimo comercial (550 g. Adicionando a fertirrigação nesse manejo, o incremento passou a ser de 4,5 vezes (2.493,8 g. O meloeiro apresentou baixo rendimento em condição de porosidade livre de água inferior a 20%.Aiming to evaluate net-melon fruits under irrigation management, it was carried out an experiment in greenhouse conditions. The experimental area was located at the irrigation farm of the Engineering Department of - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" - ESALQ/USP in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil, planted with Bonus 2 cultivar. Two irrigation management systems were

  11. Institutionalizing the Informal: Irrigation and government intervention in Bali

    Stephan Lorenzen; Rachel P Lorenzen

    2008-01-01

    Although there is greater acceptance that farmers can manage their irrigation systems efficiently, many irrigation experts believe that a shift from informal to more formal management strategies will lead to even better water-flow management. Stephan and Rachel Lorenzen examine a case in Bali where attempts to introduce formal institutions led to confusion within the farming community. They argue that irrigation improvement projects need to engage with the local context and encourage a minimu...

  12. Irrigation and groundwater in Pakistan

    Ertsen, Maurits; Iftikhar Kazmi, Syed

    2010-05-01

    Introduction of large gravity irrigation system in the Indus Basin in late nineteenth century without a drainage system resulted in water table rise consequently giving rise to water logging and salinity problems over large areas. In order to cope with the salinity and water logging problem government initiated salinity control and reclamation project (SCARP) in 1960. Initially 10,000 tube wells were installed in different areas, which not only resulted in the lowering of water table, but also supplemented irrigation. Resulting benefits from the full irrigation motivated framers to install private tube wells. Present estimate of private tube wells in Punjab alone is around 0.6 million and 48 billion cubic meter of groundwater is used for irrigation, contributing is 1.3 billion to the economy. The Punjab meets 40% of its irrigation needs from groundwater abstraction. Today, farmers apply both surface water flows and groundwater from tubewells, creating a pattern of private and public water control. As the importance of groundwater in sustaining human life and ecology is evident so are the threats to its sustainability due to overexploitation, but sufficient information for its sustainable management especially in developing countries is still required. Sustainable use of groundwater needs proper quantification of the resource and information on processes involved in its recharge and discharge. Groundwater recharge is broadly defined as water that reaches the aquifer from any direction (Lerner 1997). Sustainability and proper management of groundwater resource requires reliable quantification of the resource. In order to protect the resource from contamination and over exploitation, identification of recharge sources and their contribution to resource is a basic requirement. Physiochemical properties of some pesticides and their behavior in soil and water can make them potential tracers of subsurface moisture movement. Pesticides are intensively used in the area to

  13. Mapping suitability of rice production systems for mitigation: Strategic approach for prioritizing improved irrigation management across scales

    Wassmann, Reiner; Sander, Bjoern Ole

    2016-04-01

    After the successful conclusion of the COP21 in Paris, many developing countries are now embracing the task of reducing emissions with much vigor than previously. In many countries of South and South-East Asia, the agriculture sector constitutes a vast share of the national GHG budget which can mainly be attributed to methane emissions from flooded rice production. Thus, rice growing countries are now looking for tangible and easily accessible information as to how to reduce emissions from rice production in an efficient manner. Given present and future food demand, mitigation options will have to comply with aim of increasing productivity. At the same time, limited financial resources demand for strategic planning of potential mitigation projects based on cost-benefit ratios. At this point, the most promising approach for mitigating methane emissions from rice is an irrigation technique called Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD). AWD was initially developed for saving water and subsequently, represents an adaptation strategy in its own right by coping with less rainfall. Moreover, AWD also reduces methane emissions in a range from 30-70%. However, AWD is not universally suitable. It is attractive to farmers who have to pump water and may save fuel under AWD, but renders limited incentives in situations where there is no real pressing water scarcity. Thus, planning for AWD adoption at larger scale, e.g. for country-wide programs, should be based on a systematic prioritization of target environments. This presentation encompasses a new methodology for mapping suitability of water-saving in rice production - as a means for planning adaptation and mitigation programs - alongside with preliminary results. The latter comprises three new GIS maps on climate-driven suitability of AWD in major rice growing countries (Philippines, Vietnam, Bangladesh). These maps have been derived from high-resolution data of the areal and temporal extent of rice production that are now

  14. Farmer managed irrigation systems in the changed context: Proceedings of the Second International Seminar held on 18-19 April 2002, Kathmandu, Nepal

    Pradhan, P.; Gautam, U

    2002-01-01

    Metadata only record In these conference proceedings, multiple scholars contributed research and analysis regarding the institutional arrangements used to govern irrigation systems in multiple countries.

  15. Manejo de irrigação para cultivo de alface em ambiente protegido Irrigation management for growing lettuce in greenhouse

    George RL Bandeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A determinação do consumo de água de irrigação é fundamental para o manejo correto dos cultivos irrigados. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de estudar o desenvolvimento de duas cultivares da alface (AF 1743 e OGR 326, em ambiente protegido, no município de Juazeiro-BA, sob dois métodos de manejos de irrigação: reposição de água de irrigação determinada por tensiometria (M1 e reposição de água determinada na evaporação de água de tanque reduzido (M2, instalados em ambiente protegido. Observou-se efeito de interação entre os tratamentos impostos e as cultivares de alface estudadas, para a massa fresca das raízes das plantas. O uso da tensiometria promoveu desempenho superior para as variáveis de produção analisadas, como observado na massa fresca da parte aérea, apresentando média geral de 145,0 g, enquanto no manejo M2 tal valor foi de 59,4 g. Dentre as cultivares analisadas para referida variável, observou-se um resultado superior para a cultivar OGR 326 quando comparada à AF 1743.The determination of the water consumption is fundamental for the correct management of irrigated crops. The development of two lettuce cultivars (AF 1743 and OGR 326 was determined, when cultivated in a protected environment under two irrigation management methods: water consumption determined by the tensiometry (M1 and water consumption determined by evaporation of water in the reduced pan (M2, which were installed inside the protected environment. There was significant interaction among the imposed treatment and the cultivars of lettuce studied, for the fresh weight of the roots of the plants. The use of tensiometry promoted superior performance for the analyzed production variables as observed in the fresh weight of the aboveground part, with an overall average of 145.0 g, whereas for the management M2 the overall average was 59.4 g. For this variable, among the cultivars a superior result was obtained for the cultivar OGR 326 in

  16. Irrigation and Autocracy

    Jeanet Sinding Bentzen; Nicolai Kaarsen; Asger Moll Wingender

    2012-01-01

    We show that societies with a history of irrigation-based agriculture have been less likely to adopt democracy than societies with a history of rainfed agriculture. Rather than actual irrigation, the empirical analysis is based on how much irrigation potentially can increase yields. Irrigation potential is derived from a range of exogenous geographic factors, and reverse causality is therefore ruled out. Our results hold both at the cross-country level, and at the subnational level in premode...

  17. Root canal irrigants

    Kandaswamy Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are...

  18. Water Requirements Of Irrigated Garlic

    A replicated field trial was conducted on the West side of the San Joaquin Valley to determine the crop coefficient and water requirements of irrigated garlic. Irrigation systems used included flood irrigation, subsurface drip irrigation, and surface drip irrigation. Irrigation levels were set at 5...

  19. Soil Enzyme Activities with Greenhouse Subsurface Irrigation

    ZHANG Yu-Long; WANG Yao-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Various environmental conditions determine soil enzyme activities, which are important indicators for changes of soil microbial activity, soil fertility, and land quality. The effect of subsurface irrigation scheduling on activities of three soil enzymes (phosphatase, urease, and catalase) was studied at five depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, and 40-60 cm) of a tomato greenhouse soil. Irrigation was scheduled when soil water condition reached the maximum allowable depletion(MAD) designed for different treatments (-10, -16, -25, -40, and -63 kPa). Results showed that soil enzyme activities had significant responses to the irrigation scheduling during the period of subsurface irrigation. The neutral phosphatase activity and the catalase activity were found to generally increase with more frequent irrigation (MAD of -10 and -16kPa). This suggested that a higher level of water content favored an increase in activity of these two enzymes. In contrast,the urease activity decreased under irrigation, with less effect for MAD of -40 and -63 kPa. This implied that relatively wet soil conditions were conducive to retention of urea N, but relatively dry soil conditions could result in increasing loss of urea N. Further, this study revealed that soil enzyme activities could be alternative natural bio-sensors for the effect of irrigation on soil biochemical reactions and could help optimize irrigation management of greenhouse crop production.

  20. ESTIMATING IRRIGATION COSTS

    Having accurate estimates of the cost of irrigation is important when making irrigation decisions. Estimates of fixed costs are critical for investment decisions. Operating cost estimates can assist in decisions regarding additional irrigations. This fact sheet examines the costs associated with ...

  1. Crop evapotranspiration-based irrigation management during the growing season in the arid region of northwestern China.

    Chang, Xuexiang; Zhao, Wenzhi; Zeng, Fanjiang

    2015-11-01

    In arid northwestern China, water shortages have triggered recent regulations affecting irrigation water use in desert-oasis agricultural systems. In order to determine the actual water demand of various crops and to develop standards for the rational use of water resources, we analyzed meteorological data from the Fukang desert ecosystem observation and experiment station (FKD), the Cele desert-grassland ecosystem observation and research station (CLD), and the Linze Inland River Basin Comprehensive Research Station (LZD), which all belong to the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network. We researched crop evapotranspiration (ETc) using the water balance method, the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith method, the Priestley-Taylor method, and the Hargreaves method, during the growing seasons of 2005 through 2009. Results indicate substantial differences in ETc, depending on the method used. At the CLD, the ETc from the soil water balance, FAO-56 Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor, and Hargreaves methods were 1150.3±380.8, 783.7±33.6, 1018.3±22.1, and 611.2±23.3 mm, respectively; at the FKD, the corresponding results were 861.0±67.0, 834.2±83.9, 1453.5±47.1, and 1061.0±38.2 mm, respectively; and at the LZD, 823.4±110.4, 726.0±0.4, 722.3±29.4, and 1208.6±79.1 mm, respectively. The FAO-56 Penman-Monteith method provided a fairly good estimation of E Tc compared with the Priestley-Taylor and Hargreaves methods. PMID:26497559

  2. A web application for cotton irrigation management on the U.S. southern high plains. Part I: Crop yield modeling and profit analysis

    Irrigated cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) production is a central part of west Texas agriculture that depends on the essentially non-renewable water resource of the Ogallala aquifer. Web-based decision support tools that estimate the profit effects of irrigation for cotton under varying lint price, p...

  3. Irrigação de pastagem: atualidade e recomendações para uso e manejo Pasture irrigation: present and recommendations for use and management

    Carlos Augusto Brasileiro de Alencar

    2009-07-01

    , management irrigation and fertigation. This interest has increased the demand for information and practical advice to help clarify the important aspects as the choice of irrigation system, the potential evapotranspiration (ETo, the culture of coefficient (Kc, the evapotranspiration of the crop (ECc, the shift of water (SW, the selection of sprinklers, the flow (m3/h.ha, power (hp / ha and the parameters for estimation of irrigation such as: field capacity (Fc, permanent wilting point (Pwp, bulk density (Bd, effective depth of the root system (Z availability of soil water factor (f and efficiency of application (EA. In this context the present work presents key information for deployment and conduct of safe irrigation of pasture togrther. The information available are fruit of partnerships between various institutions (Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV, Universidade Federal de Tocantins - UFT, University Vale do Rio Doce - UNIVALE and Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Gado de Leite - Embrapa, in search of work and extension, as well as experience of field staff. The objectives of this publication are: disseminating scientific knowledge, with experience in the field, in irrigation of pasture and focus, with a practical and succinct way, how, how many and when and how much should fertirrigated pastures cost, stimulating new observations thus facilitating the decisions as a whole, increasing the profitability of livestock for milk and cut.

  4. Water type and irrigation time effects on microbial metabolism of a soil cultivated with Bermuda-grass Tifton 85

    Sandra Furlan Nogueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the microbial metabolism in Bermuda-grass Tifton 85 areas after potable-water and effluent irrigation treatments. The experiment was carried out in Lins/SP with samples taken in the rainy and dry seasons (2006 after one year and three years of irrigation management, and set up on an entirely randomized block design with four treatments: C (control, without irrigation or fertilization, PW (potable water + 520 kg of N ha-1 year-1; TE3 and TE0 (treated effluent + 520 kg of N ha-1 year-1 for three years and one year, respectively. The parameters determined were: microbial biomass carbon, microbial activity, and metabolic quotient. Irrigation with wastewater after three years indicated no alteration in soil quality for C and ET3; for PW, a negative impact on soil quality (microbial biomass decrease suggested that water-potable irrigation in Lins is not an adequate option. Microbial activity alterations observed in TE0 characterize a priming effect.

  5. Lessons Learnt from the Irrigation Perspective of the Sayama-ike Land Improvement District : Irrigation Development in Zambia (I)

    MULENGA, Barnabas; OGINO, Yoshihiko; NAKAGIRI, Takao; HORINO, Haruhiko

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a case study of the Sayama-ike LID and looks at the functions, roles and operation and management aspects of the scheme. Highlights of valuable lessons of irrigation practices that could be transferred and adopted are presented to enhance development of irrigated agriculture in Zambia. The Sayama-ike LID demonstrates successful features of participatory irrigation management as a non-profit making and privatized irrigation organization. The LID has remained viable and sust...

  6. A Research Report of the Management and Maintenance of Rural Irrigation in China%我国农村水利建设与管护问题调研报告

    吴雪明; 张文方; 彭星芸; 陈秋萍

    2012-01-01

    The management and maintenance of rural irrigation are related to agricultural production, farmers' income, and rural devel opment, so it has a great significance. The research shows that now we have problems in building our rural irrigation, such as low quality, lack of money and maintenance system, and lack of knowledge about the importance of the rural irrigation. In order to build our rural irrigation, we should do something in money input, organization and system construction.%农村水利的建设与管护关系到农业生产,关系到农民的收入,关系到农村的发展,具有重大意义。调研表明,目前我国农村水利主要存在的问题有现存水利设施质量低、建设资金欠缺、维护制度不完善、农民认识不足等问题。要加快农村水利建设,就要从资金投入、组织建设和制度建设等方面进行完善。

  7. Real Time Investments with Adequate Portfolio Theory

    Alina Kvietkauskienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify investment decision makingschemes using the adequate portfolio model. This approach can be employed to project investment in stocks, using the opportunities offered by the markets and investor intelligence. It was decided to use adequate portfolio theory for investment decision making, simulation of financial markets, and optimisation of utility function. The main conclusion of article suggests investigating return on individual portfolio level. Real investment is a way to make sure of the soundness of applicable strategies.

  8. 2008 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Irrigation Management Technology. (Program CIP:01.0699 - Applied Horticulture/Horticultural Business Services, Other)

    Oliver, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  9. Precision overhead irrigation is suitable for several Central Valley crops

    Jeffrey P. Mitchell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Overhead systems are the dominant irrigation technology in many parts of the world, but they are not widely used in California even though they have higher water application efficiency than furrow irrigation systems and lower labor requirements than drip systems. With water and labor perennial concerns in California, the suitability of overhead systems merits consideration. From 2008 through 2013, in studies near Five Points, California, we evaluated overhead irrigation for wheat, corn, cotton, tomato, onion and broccoli as an alternative to furrow and drip irrigation. With the exception of tomato, equal or increased yields were achieved with overhead irrigation. Many variables are involved in the choice of an irrigation system, but our results suggest that, with more research to support best management practices, overhead irrigation may be useful to a wider set of California farmers than currently use it.

  10. Bayesian Belief Networks Approach for Modeling Irrigation Behavior

    Andriyas, S.; McKee, M.

    2012-12-01

    Canal operators need information to manage water deliveries to irrigators. Short-term irrigation demand forecasts can potentially valuable information for a canal operator who must manage an on-demand system. Such forecasts could be generated by using information about the decision-making processes of irrigators. Bayesian models of irrigation behavior can provide insight into the likely criteria which farmers use to make irrigation decisions. This paper develops a Bayesian belief network (BBN) to learn irrigation decision-making behavior of farmers and utilizes the resulting model to make forecasts of future irrigation decisions based on factor interaction and posterior probabilities. Models for studying irrigation behavior have been rarely explored in the past. The model discussed here was built from a combination of data about biotic, climatic, and edaphic conditions under which observed irrigation decisions were made. The paper includes a case study using data collected from the Canal B region of the Sevier River, near Delta, Utah. Alfalfa, barley and corn are the main crops of the location. The model has been tested with a portion of the data to affirm the model predictive capabilities. Irrigation rules were deduced in the process of learning and verified in the testing phase. It was found that most of the farmers used consistent rules throughout all years and across different types of crops. Soil moisture stress, which indicates the level of water available to the plant in the soil profile, was found to be one of the most significant likely driving forces for irrigation. Irrigations appeared to be triggered by a farmer's perception of soil stress, or by a perception of combined factors such as information about a neighbor irrigating or an apparent preference to irrigate on a weekend. Soil stress resulted in irrigation probabilities of 94.4% for alfalfa. With additional factors like weekend and irrigating when a neighbor irrigates, alfalfa irrigation

  11. Custo de energia elétrica em cultura do feijoeiro irrigado por pivô central, afetado pelo manejo da irrigação e sistemas de cultivo Cost of electric energy in irrigated dry bean for center pivot affected by the irrigation management and tillage systems

    José E. P. Turco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o consumo e o custo de energia elétrica em cultura do feijoeiro irrigado por pivô central, cultivar IAC-Carioca, submetida a dois manejos de irrigação: TENS - tensiometria; TCA - balanço hídrico-climatológico, baseado no tanque "Classe A"; e dois sistemas de cultivo em Latossolo Vermelho: PD - plantio direto; PC - plantio convencional, no ano de 2002. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida na Área Demonstrativa e Experimental de Irrigação - ADEI da FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal - SP. O consumo de energia elétrica do sistema de irrigação foi monitorado, e seu custo, analisado para dois grupos tarifários: A e B, sendo os preços do kWh dos sistemas tarifários de energia elétrica obtidos na CPFL (Companhia Paulista de Força e Luz. Os tratamentos em que o manejo da irrigação foi realizado pelo método do tanque "Classe A", ocasionaram os maiores consumos e custos de energia elétrica, em relação aos tratamentos em que o manejo foi realizado por tensiometria; entre os sistemas de plantio, não foram observadas diferenças. A tarifa Horo-Sazonal (verde e/ou azul, com desconto, foi a melhor opção para os quatro tratamentos.The objective of this work was to analyze the consumption and cost of electric energy in dry bean crop, IAC-Carioca, irrigated by center pivot, submitted to two irrigation managements: tensiometry and climatoligical water balance with Class A pan, under conventional and no-tillage systems, growed in Oxisol, in the year of 2002. The research was developed at the Demonstrative and Experimental Area of Irrigation - ADEI, of FCAV/UNESP, Campus of Jaboticabal - SP, Brazil. The irrigation system electric energy consumption was monitored for two tariff groups: A and B. The prices of kWh of the tariff systems of electric energy had been gotten in the CPFL (São Paulo Company of Force and Light. The treatments where the irrigation management was carried through the method of the Class A

  12. Information technology and innovative drainage management practices for selenium load reduction from irrigated agriculture to provide stakeholder assurances and meet contaminant mass loading policy objectives

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2009-10-15

    Many perceive the implementation of environmental regulatory policy, especially concerning non-point source pollution from irrigated agriculture, as being less efficient in the United States than in many other countries. This is partly a result of the stakeholder involvement process but is also a reflection of the inability to make effective use of Environmental Decision Support Systems (EDSS) to facilitate technical information exchange with stakeholders and to provide a forum for innovative ideas for controlling non-point source pollutant loading. This paper describes one of the success stories where a standardized Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology was modified to better suit regulation of a trace element in agricultural subsurface drainage and information technology was developed to help guide stakeholders, provide assurances to the public and encourage innovation while improving compliance with State water quality objectives. The geographic focus of the paper is the western San Joaquin Valley where, in 1985, evapoconcentration of selenium in agricultural subsurface drainage water, diverted into large ponds within a federal wildlife refuge, caused teratogenecity in waterfowl embryos and in other sensitive wildlife species. The fallout from this environmental disaster was a concerted attempt by State and Federal water agencies to regulate non-point source loads of the trace element selenium. The complexity of selenium hydrogeochemistry, the difficulty and expense of selenium concentration monitoring and political discord between agricultural and environmental interests created challenges to the regulation process. Innovative policy and institutional constructs, supported by environmental monitoring and the web-based data management and dissemination systems, provided essential decision support, created opportunities for adaptive management and ultimately contributed to project success. The paper provides a retrospective on the contentious planning

  13. Volume and geometry of homogeneously adequate knots

    Bartholomew, Paige; McQuarrie, Shane; Purcell, Jessica S.; Weser, Kai

    2014-01-01

    We bound the hyperbolic volumes of a large class of knots and links, called homogeneously adequate knots and links, in terms of their diagrams. To do so, we use the decomposition of these links into ideal polyhedra, developed by Futer, Kalfagianni, and Purcell. We identify essential product disks in these polyhedra.

  14. Adequate supervision for children and adolescents.

    Anderst, James; Moffatt, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Primary care providers (PCPs) have the opportunity to improve child health and well-being by addressing supervision issues before an injury or exposure has occurred and/or after an injury or exposure has occurred. Appropriate anticipatory guidance on supervision at well-child visits can improve supervision of children, and may prevent future harm. Adequate supervision varies based on the child's development and maturity, and the risks in the child's environment. Consideration should be given to issues as wide ranging as swimming pools, falls, dating violence, and social media. By considering the likelihood of harm and the severity of the potential harm, caregivers may provide adequate supervision by minimizing risks to the child while still allowing the child to take "small" risks as needed for healthy development. Caregivers should initially focus on direct (visual, auditory, and proximity) supervision of the young child. Gradually, supervision needs to be adjusted as the child develops, emphasizing a safe environment and safe social interactions, with graduated independence. PCPs may foster adequate supervision by providing concrete guidance to caregivers. In addition to preventing injury, supervision includes fostering a safe, stable, and nurturing relationship with every child. PCPs should be familiar with age/developmentally based supervision risks, adequate supervision based on those risks, characteristics of neglectful supervision based on age/development, and ways to encourage appropriate supervision throughout childhood. PMID:25369578

  15. Effects of Residue Management on Decomposition in Irrigated Rice Fields Are Not Related to Changes in the Decomposer Community

    Schmidt, Anja; John, Katharina; Arida, Gertrudo; Auge,Harald; Brandl, Roland; Horgan, Finbarr G; Hotes, Stefan; Marquez, Leonardo; Radermacher, Nico; Settele, Josef; Wolters, Volkmar; Schädler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Decomposers provide an essential ecosystem service that contributes to sustainable production in rice ecosystems by driving the release of nutrients from organic crop residues. During a single rice crop cycle we examined the effects of four different crop residue management practices (rice straw or ash of burned straw scattered on the soil surface or incorporated into the soil) on rice straw decomposition and on the abundance of aquatic and soil-dwelling invertebrates. Mass loss of rice straw...

  16. Optimization of modern irrigation for biosaline agriculture

    Supplementation water is a must to offset the water requirement to produce profitable crops in most arid and semiarid zones, where fresh water resources are insufficient to meet the pressure of irrigated agriculture. This necessitates the use of poor quality water resources. These waters if not properly managed and used can cause serious soil related problems (salinity, sodicity, destruction of soil structure) in addition to decline in crop yields. Biosaline agriculture (using saline water on saline soils to grow salt-tolerant crops) becomes the only option for the farmer when both soil and water resources are saline and the water resource is scarce. In this regards key design considerations must be taken into account when irrigating with salty waters to optimize water uses and to reduce subsequent soil salinity development. Sprinkler irrigation systems are commonly used in irrigation of large-scale irrigational production systems. However they tend to concentrate salts on the leaves of plants. For this reason discharge and degree of overlap between consecutive sprinkler heads, are key design parameters when applying salty waters. Trickle irrigation is the most efficient system and is gaining importance in the GCC countries in the agriculture and landscape irrigation. The objective of this study was to optimize modern irrigation systems through development of design standards for drip (emitters spacing) and sprinkler irrigation systems (single head jet and overlapping) by applying saline water. The effect of emitter spacing (drip) and overlapping (sprinkler) were tested for the formation of salt contours in soil. The leaching ratio (LR) is the overall soil sanity within rhizosphere divided by the average irrigation water salinity. In this study LR is used to evaluate the effectiveness of irrigation systems in developing soil sanity. From the present investigations it is concluded that when using saline water for irrigation, the soil sanity development can be

  17. Irrigation Dynamics and Tactics - Developing a Sustainable and Profitable Irrigation Strategy for Agricultural Areas

    Van Opstal, J.; Neale, C. M. U.; Lecina, S.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigation management is a dynamic process that adapts according to weather conditions and water availability, as well as socio-economic influences. The goal of water users is to adapt their management to achieve maximum profits. However, these decisions should take into account the environmental impact on the surroundings. Agricultural irrigation systems need to be viewed as a system that is an integral part of a watershed. Therefore changes in the infrastructure, operation and management of an irrigated area, has an impact on the water quantity and quality available for other water users. A strategy can be developed for decision-makers using an irrigation system modelling tool. Such a tool can simulate the impact of the infrastructure, operation and management of an irrigation area on its hydrology and agricultural productivity. This combination of factors is successfully simulated with the Ador model, which is able to reproduce on-farm irrigation and water delivery by a canal system. Model simulations for this study are supported with spatial analysis tools using GIS and remote sensing. Continuous measurements of drainage water will be added to indicate the water quality aspects. The Bear River Canal Company located in Northern Utah (U.S.A.) is used as a case study for this research. The irrigation area encompasses 26,000 ha and grows mainly alfalfa, grains, corn and onions. The model allows the simulation of different strategies related to water delivery, on-farm water use, crop rotations, and reservoirs and networks capacities under different weather and water availability conditions. Such changes in the irrigation area will have consequences for farmers in the study area regarding crop production, and for downstream users concerning both the quantity and quality of outflows. The findings from this study give insight to decision-makers and water users for changing irrigation water delivery strategies to improve the sustainability and profitability of

  18. Applying CSM-CERES-Maize to define a sowing window for irrigated maize crop - The Riacho´s Farm case study

    Denise Freitas Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation use constitutes an alternative to improve maize production in Central Minas Gerais State, Brazil. However, even under adequate water supply conditions, other environmental factors may influence maize crop growth and development and may, ultimately, affect grain yield. This study aimed to establish a sowing window for irrigated maize crop, based on simulation results obtained with the decision support model CSM-CERES-Maize. Simulations were made for crop management conditions of Riacho´s Farm, located in Matozinhos, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. It was employed the model´s seasonal tool, along with a data set containing 46 years of weather data records, to simulate maize yield for weekly sowing scenarios, starting on August 1st and ending on July 24th of each year. One defined an irrigated maize sowing window, taking into account the yield break risk that a farmer would be willing to take. The model proved to be an interesting tool to assist in decision making, regarding crop and irrigation management, for an irrigated maize production system. Assuming a 10% yield break in the expected average maximum maize yield, it was defined as sowing window, the period from January 23rd to March 6th, with February 20th as the best sowing date. Other sowing windows may be established according to the risk that the farmer would be willing to take.

  19. A web-based tool that combines satellite and weather station observations to support irrigation scheduling

    Abstract: The Satellite Irrigation Management Support (SIMS) project combines NASA's Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS), Landsat and MODIS satellite imagery, and reference evapotranspiration from surface weather station networks to map daily crop irrigation demand in California in ...

  20. Incentives and technologies for improving irrigation water use efficiency

    Bruggeman, Adriana; Djuma, Hakan; Giannakis, Elias; Eliades, Marinos

    2014-05-01

    The European Water Framework Directive requires Member States to set water prices that provide adequate incentives for users to use water resources efficiently. These new water pricing policies need to consider cost recovery of water services, including financial, environmental and resource cost. Prices were supposed to have been set by 2010. So far the record has been mixed. The European Commission has sent reasoned opinions to a number of countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Sweden) requesting them to adjust their national legislation to include all water services. Unbalanced water pricing may negatively affect the agricultural sector, especially in the southern EU countries, which are more dependent on irrigation water for production. The European Commission is funding several projects that aim to reduce the burden of increasing water prices on farmers by developing innovative technologies and decision support systems that will save water and increase productivity. The FP7 ENORASIS project (grant 282949) has developed a new integrated irrigation management decision support platform, which include high-resolution, ensemble weather forecasting, a GIS widget for the location of fields and sensors and a comprehensive decision support and database management software package to optimize irrigation water management. The field component includes wireless, solar-powered soil moisture sensors, small weather stations, and remotely controlled irrigation valves. A mobile App and a web-package are providing user-friendly interfaces for farmers, water companies and environmental consultants. In Cyprus, agricultural water prices have been set to achieve a cost recovery rate of 54% (2010). The pricing policy takes in consideration the social importance and financial viability of the agricultural sector, an important flexibility provided by the Water Framework Directive. The new price was set at 0.24 euro per m3 for water supply

  1. Research advances on thereasonable water resources allocation in irrigation district

    Xuebin, Qi; Zhongdong, Huang; Dongmei, Qiao;

    2015-01-01

    The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area. The...... progress of research on the rational allocation of water resources in irrigation districts both at home and abroad may be summarized in four key aspects of the policy regarding water re?sources management:① The mechanism of water resource cycle and ② Transformation in irrigation district, ③ The water...... resources optimal allocation model and④The hydrological ecosystem analysis in irrigation district. Our analysis showed that there are four major problems in domestic irrigation water resources allocation:Policies for rational water resources allocation and protection are not in place, unified management...

  2. Water users associations and irrigation water productivity in northern China

    Zhang, L.; Heerink, N.; Dries, L.K.E.; Qu, F.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional irrigation water management systems in China are increasingly replaced by user-based, participatory management through water users associations (WUAs) with the purpose to promote, economically and ecologically beneficial, water savings and increase farm incomes. Existing research shows t

  3. Mediterranean agriculture: More efficient irrigation needed to compensate increases in future irrigation water requirements

    Fader, Marianela; Shi, Sinan; von Bloh, Werner; Bondeau, Alberte; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. Our research shows that, at present, Mediterranean region could save 35% of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries like Syria, Egypt and Turkey have higher saving potentials than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume in average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops (1). Also under climate change, more efficient irrigation is of vital importance for counteracting increases in irrigation water requirements. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4% and 18% from climate change alone by the end of the century if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved. Population growth increases these numbers to 22% and 74%, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to compensate to some degree the increases due to climate change and population growth. Both subregions would need around 35% more water than today if they could afford some degree of modernization of irrigation and conveyance systems and benefit from the CO2-fertilization effect (1). However, in some scenarios (in this case as combinations of climate change, irrigation technology, influence of population growth and CO2-fertilization effect) water scarcity may constrain the supply of the irrigation water needed in future in Algeria, Libya, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Serbia, Morocco, Tunisia and Spain (1). In this study, vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL ("Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land") after a

  4. Mediterranean irrigation under climate change: more efficient irrigation needed to compensate for increases in irrigation water requirements

    Fader, M.; Shi, S.; von Bloh, W.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.

    2016-03-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. This study systematically assesses how climate change and increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may affect irrigation requirements in the Mediterranean region by 2080-2090. Future demographic change and technological improvements in irrigation systems are taken into account, as is the spread of climate forcing, warming levels and potential realization of the CO2-fertilization effect. Vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL (Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land) after an extensive development that comprised the improved representation of Mediterranean crops. At present the Mediterranean region could save 35 % of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries such as Syria, Egypt and Turkey have a higher savings potential than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume on average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops. Different crops show different magnitudes of changes in net irrigation requirements due to climate change, the increases being most pronounced in agricultural trees. The Mediterranean area as a whole may face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4 and 18 % from climate change alone if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved (4 and 18 % with 2 °C global warming combined with the full CO2-fertilization effect and 5 °C global warming combined with no CO2-fertilization effect, respectively). Population growth increases these numbers to 22 and 74 %, respectively, affecting mainly the southern and eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have a large water saving potential, especially in the eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to

  5. CAN A SINGLE SECURITY FRAMEWORK ADDRESS INFORMATION SECURITY RISKS ADEQUATELY?

    Walid Al-Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that modern society depends heavily on information technology in nearly every facet of human activity. Organizations of all kinds are increasingly exposed to various kinds of risks, including information technology risks. There are many security standards and frameworks available to help organizations manage these risks. The question which one is best and can address the information security risks adequately warrants further investigation and research. The purpose of this research work is to highlight the challenges facing enterprises in their efforts to properly manage information security risks when adopting international standards and frameworks. To assist in selecting the best framework to use in risk management, the article presents an overview of the most popular and widely used standards. It then identifies some selection criteria and suggests an approach to proper implementation. A case study is used to prove the usefulness of the new model for selecting an appropriate security model to manage information security risks.

  6. Irrigation Systems. Instructor's Guide.

    Amarillo Coll., TX.

    This guide is intended for use by licensed irrigators who wish to teach others how to design and install residential and commercial irrigation systems. The materials included in the guide have been developed under the assumption that the instructors who use it have little or no formal training as teachers. The first section presents detailed…

  7. Irrigation Systems. Student's Guide.

    Amarillo Coll., TX.

    This guide is intended for use by individuals preparing for a career in commercial and residential irrigation. The materials included are geared toward students who have had some experience in the irrigation business; they are intended to be presented in 10 six-hour sessions. The first two sections deal with using this guide and preparing for the…

  8. Irrigation water quality assessments

    Increasing demands on fresh water supplies by municipal and industrial users means decreased fresh water availability for irrigated agriculture in semi arid and arid regions. There is potential for agricultural use of treated wastewaters and low quality waters for irrigation but this will require co...

  9. Water management and regional environment in the Hetao irrigation area, Inner Mongolia, China; Uchimoko kagaikanku ni okeru mizu kanri to chiiki kankyo

    Ji, B.; Akae, T.; Nagahori, K. [Okayama Univ. (Japan)] Otsuki, K. [Tottori Univ. (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    The history of the Hetao irrigation area can be said as the history of war in arid and semi-arid areas fought between human activity and environmental harmony. Balance of the natural water circulation is damaged as a result of agricultural production by irrigation in the Hetao irrigation area, and salt damage occurred to worsen the environment of the area. Drainage facilities are introduced as the improvement measures, but it is not easy to restore the once-damaged natural environment. Increase of salt damaged land in the area is restrained by the drainage facilities, but the incoming of salt exceeds the outgoing. The scale of the present drainage facilities is not satisfactory for restoring the salt damaged land. The salt content of the water taken in the Hetao irrigation area from the Yellow River is increasing every year influenced by the drainage from the upstream areas of the Hetao irrigation area. At the same time, untreated waste water is drained in the Yellow River. As a result, the present drainage facilities work to mitigate salt drainage in the area, but help to worsen the salt damage in downstream areas. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Root canal irrigants

    Kandaswamy Deivanayagam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were ′root canal irrigants′ and ′endodontic irrigants.′ The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance.

  11. Constructing a SAM for Egypt (2008/09). Introducing Water and Irrigation Seasonality

    OSMAN Rehab; FERRARI EMANUELE; McDonald, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Analysing agricultural and irrigation policy for Egypt within a CGE modelling frameworkhas been constrained by lack of data. The available Egyptian SAMs do not provide adequate information on seasonal agricultural and irrigation activities. This paper describes the construction process for a SAM for Egypt (2008/2009). The SAM introduces irrigation water as a separate production factor. Furthermore, it provides detailed representation for the agricultural activities and factors across differen...

  12. Climate Change Impacts of Irrigation on the Central High Plains

    Cotterman, K. A.; Kendall, A. D.; Basso, B.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    Since the 1940s, the High Plains Aquifer (HPA) has been pivotal for irrigation over the Central High Plains (CHP), a region spanning parts of five states in the central U.S.. Today after decades of over-pumping, many areas of the CHP are no longer able to irrigate due to localized depletion of the HPA. With a range of global climate models predicting an increase in temperature and decrease in growing-season precipitation for the CHP, demand for irrigation is likely to increase and exacerbate drawdown and depletion of the aquifer. Here we apply the Landscape Hydrology Model (LHM) coupled with the crop simulation model SALUS to simulate irrigation water use in response to historical climate and land use. This model is validated using historical groundwater levels. We then simulate future climate scenarios to predict how irrigation demand and water availability will alter the hydrology of the CHP. This study provides a predictive relationship of future irrigation demand linked to both climate change and agricultural management, and presents a modeling approach to answer two questions: How will future climate change affect irrigation demand? How will climate change and irrigation demand affect groundwater availability for the future? Different climate scenarios based on the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) are used to simulate the impact of different projected future climate conditions through the year 2100. By examining predicted groundwater levels along with saturated thickness we analyze where irrigation is likely to be viable in the future and compare this to current irrigation extent.

  13. Iron absorption from adequate Filipinos meals

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 +- 1.26%. Central Visayas, 6.3 +- 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 +- 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P>0.01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry; and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid, did not give significant results. The overall average of 6.4 +- 1.20% may be used as the iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976. (Auth.). 21 refs.; 3 tabs.; 3 annexes

  14. Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 ± 1.26%, Central Visayas, 6.3 ± 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 ± 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P > .01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid did not give significant results. The overall bar x of 6.4 ± 1.20% may be used as the non-heme iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976

  15. Grower demand for sensor-controlled irrigation

    Lichtenberg, Erik; Majsztrik, John; Saavoss, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is likely to increase in the coming years, making improvements in irrigation efficiency increasingly important. An emerging technology that promises to increase irrigation efficiency substantially is a wireless irrigation sensor network that uploads sensor data into irrigation management software, creating an integrated system that allows real-time monitoring and control of moisture status that has been shown in experimental settings to reduce irrigation costs, lower plant loss rates, shorten production times, decrease pesticide application, and increase yield, quality, and profit. We use an original survey to investigate likely initial acceptance, ceiling adoption rates, and profitability of this new sensor network technology in the nursery and greenhouse industry. We find that adoption rates for a base system and demand for expansion components are decreasing in price, as expected. The price elasticity of the probability of adoption suggests that sensor networks are likely to diffuse at a rate somewhat greater than that of drip irrigation. Adoption rates for a base system and demand for expansion components are increasing in specialization in ornamental production: growers earning greater shares of revenue from greenhouse and nursery operations are willing to pay more for a base system and are willing to purchase larger numbers of expansion components at any given price. We estimate that growers who are willing to purchase a sensor network expect investment in this technology to generate significant profit, consistent with findings from experimental studies.

  16. INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK FOR AUTOMATED IRRIGATION

    An in-field sensor-based irrigation system is of benefit to producers in efficient water management. A distributed wireless sensor network eliminates difficulties to wire sensor stations across the field and reduces maintenance cost. Implementing wireless sensor-based irrigation system is challengin...

  17. Status and migration of irrigation in the USA

    Irrigated agriculture produces 49% of crop market value on 18% of cropped lands in the USA. Irrigation is essential to the most highly productive, intensely managed, and internationally competitive sectors of our agricultural economy, which play a key role in meeting growing global food, fiber, and ...

  18. Impacts of Irrigation on the Heat Fluxes and Near-Surface Temperature in an Inland Irrigation Area of Northern China

    Li Jiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated agriculture has the potential to alter regional to global climate significantly. We investigate how irrigation will affect regional climate in the future in an inland irrigation area of northern China, focusing on its effects on heat fluxes and near-surface temperature. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model, we compare simulations among three land cover scenarios: the control scenario (CON, the irrigation scenario (IRR, and the irrigated cropland expansion scenario (ICE. Our results show that the surface energy budgets and temperature are sensitive to changes in the extent and spatial pattern of irrigated land. Conversion to irrigated agriculture at the contemporary scale leads to an increase in annual mean latent heat fluxes of 12.10 W m−2, a decrease in annual mean sensible heat fluxes of 8.85 W m−2, and a decrease in annual mean temperature of 1.3 °C across the study region. Further expansion of irrigated land increases annual mean latent heat fluxes by 18.08 W m−2, decreases annual mean sensible heat fluxes by 12.31 W m−2, and decreases annual mean temperature by 1.7 °C. Our simulated effects of irrigation show that changes in land use management such as irrigation can be an important component of climate change and need to be considered together with greenhouse forcing in climate change assessments.

  19. Grain sorghum response to irrigation scheduling with the time-temperature threshold method and deficit irrigation levels

    Studies using the Time Temperature Threshold (TTT) method for irrigation scheduling have been documented for cotton, corn, and soybean. However, there are limited studies of the irrigation management of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L.) with this plant-feedback system. In this two-year study, th...

  20. Assessment of drainage water quality in pre- and post-irrigation seasons for supplemental irrigation use.

    Alexakis, Dimitris; Gotsis, Dimitris; Giakoumakis, Spyros

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge on hydrochemistry is very important to assess the quality of water for effective management of water resources or drainage water reuse. On this basis, an assessment of water quality was conducted in the Agoulinitsa district in Peloponnese (western Greece). Both drainage and irrigation channel water samples have been collected, treated, and subjected to chemical analysis. A characterization has been carried out using the Piper-trilinear diagram. Assessment of the water samples from the point of view of sodium adsorption ratio, Na(+)%, and residual sodium carbonate indicated that 60.0% and 83.3% of the drainage water samples during pre- and post-irrigation season, respectively, as well as the irrigation channel water samples, are chemically suitable for irrigation use. Moreover, assessment of the water samples by comparing quality parameters with the Food and Agriculture Organization guidelines indicated that 20.0% and 44.4% of the drainage water samples collected during pre- and post-irrigation season, respectively, as well as the irrigation channel water samples could cause slight to moderate problems to the plants. On the other hand, 80.0% and 55.6% of the drainage water samples collected during pre- and post-irrigation season, respectively, could cause immediate development of severe problems to the plants growth. PMID:21915601

  1. Analytical steady-state solutions for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation water

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems mod...

  2. Modelo de gestão de rega em espaços verdes Model of irrigation management on green spaces

    A. Serafim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este Modelo de Gestão de rega foi con­cebido para aplicação aos Espaços Verdes de Lazer. O Modelo reconhece a água como um factor de produção e optimiza a sua aplica­ção na rega de Espaços Verdes, dando espe­cial atenção e cuidado à variação temporal e espacial dos factores intervenientes. O Modelo envolve diversas matérias: as espécies vegetais implantadas ou a plantar, fases fenológicas, os solos existentes, sua localização e características físicas, a topo­grafia, os elementos e factores do clima. Os métodos a utilizar são os preconizados em Allen et al. (1998: o método da FAO Penman-Monteith para o cálculo da evapo­transpiração de referência, a técnica dos coeficientes culturais duais para a obtenção da evapotranspiração cultural, e a oportuni­dade de rega pelos balanços hídricos. O Modelo integra a programação de algo­ritmos implementados em Visual Basic 6, VB6 e um Sistema de Informação Geográ­fica (SIG. O Modelo determina os parâme­tros de rega em tempo real, momento da rega, dotação, tempo de rega, intervalo de tempo entre regas, bem como, para a asper­são, a intensidade média de precipitação e grau de pulverização. A utilização do Modelo é feita associada à estação meteorológica automática e ao sis­tema de rega também automático.The presented Model of Irrigation Man­agement was designed for application on green spaces and leisure areas. The Model recognizes water as a produc­tion key-factor and optimizes its use on the irrigation of green spaces, giving particular attention to the temporal and spatial varia­tion of input variables. Variables entered in the Model included existing or future target plant species, phenological phases, type of soil (i.e. loca­tion and physical characteristics, topogra­phy and climate factors. Model construction was similar to the methods outlined in FAO Report 56, namely: the method of Penman-Monteith for the calculation of

  3. Comparative study of irrigation water use and groundwater recharge under various irrigation schemes in an agricultural region, central Taiwan

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Tsai, Cheng-Bin

    2016-04-01

    irrigation water use can be reduced when adopting the SRI methodology in the future. The reducing of groundwater recharge could be supplemented by using 1,500 hectares of fallow paddy fields, located at proximal-fan region, as recharge pools in the wet season. The adoption of water-saving irrigation would be helpful for the relevant government agency to formulate the integral water resource management strategies in this region. Keywords:Groundwater recharge, SRI, FEMWATER, Field irrigation requirement

  4. Vision of irrigation

    Fernando Braz-Tangerino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation not only has been a key factor for the development and maintenance of human societies but it still plays this role now and it is foreseen that in the future as well. Its evolution has been constrained to the advance in knowledge on matters regarding Agronomy and Water Engineering and in technology however, many challenges deserve further research. It is worth to note that Brazil has strongly promoted irrigation in the last decade. Within the limited extension of this article, some current topics in irrigation, some of them are innovative such us the research line studying water flow in soil-plant in Mediterranean plants and its consequences on water use,. and future challenges are presented with the purpose of stimulate publication of Irrigation papers in the journal “Ingeniería del Agua” among Portuguese and Spanish language communities.

  5. Modelling economic impacts of deficit irrigated maize in Brazil with consideration of different rainfall regimes

    Rodrigues, Gonçalo C.; Martins, Juliano D.; Silva, Francisco G. da; Carlesso, Reimar; L. S. Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Deficit irrigation is often required to cope with droughts and limited water availability. However, to select an appropriate irrigation management, it is necessary to assess when economic impacts of deficit irrigation are acceptable. Thus, the main goal of this study was to evaluate economic water productivity for maize submitted to various levels of water deficits and different irrigation systems. The study was based on two different experiments conducted in Southern Brazil, o...

  6. Accounting for water. Institutional viability and impacts of market-oriented irrigation interventions in Central Mexico

    Kloezen, W.H.

    2002-01-01

     During the past decade, many countries throughout the world have attempted to improve their generally poor performance record of agency-managed irrigation systems by designing and implementing institutional policy programs. This thesis analyses the institutional viability and the local impact on irrigation performance of two such institutional intervention programs. This is done in the context of the Alto Río Lerma irrigation district (ARLID), a large-scale irrigation system with a command a...

  7. Performance of Large-Scale Gezira Irrigation Scheme and its Implications for Downstream River Nile Flow

    Al Zayed, Islam

    2015-01-01

    Policy makers adopt irrigated agriculture for food security, since irrigation doubles crop production. Therefore, the development of large irrigation systems has a long history in many places worldwide. Although large-scale irrigation schemes play an important role in improving food security, many schemes, especially in Africa, do not yield the expected outcomes. This is related to poor water management, which is generally due to a lack of effective evaluation and monitoring. The objective of...

  8. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise. PMID:9670174

  9. Evapotranspiration-based irrigation scheduling of lettuce and broccoli

    Estimation of crop evapotranspiration supports efficient irrigation water management, which in turn supports water conservation, mitigation of groundwater depletion/degradation, energy savings, and crop quality maintenance. Past research in California has revealed strong relationships between fract...

  10. ESTIMATING MICROORGANISM DENSITIES IN AEROSOLS FROM SPRAY IRRIGATION OF WASTEWATER

    This document summarizes current knowledge about estimating the density of microorganisms in the air near wastewater management facilities, with emphasis on spray irrigation sites. One technique for modeling microorganism density in air is provided and an aerosol density estimati...

  11. Production of mungbean under reclaimed sandy soil and irrigation levels using N-15 labeled

    Field experiment were performed at the Atomic Energy Authority, Experimental farm, Inshas, Egypt. During 1998 growing season. In tafla and sand mixture soil (1:7 Wt./Wt.). The treatments were laid out using a single line source sprinkler irrigation system which allows a gradual variation of irrigation from excess to little irrigation in which the calculated amount of irrigation water levels were 2241, 1562 and 1093 m3/ feddan (W1, W2 and W3 ). The obtained results indicated that, there was a clear relationship between adequate amount of irrigation water and both total seed yield and total green pods/plot as well as there were significant increase in both characters due to irrigation W1 and W2 compared with W3. The results also indicated that W2 irrigation level could be used in irrigation under the same conditions. Water use efficiency was significantly increased with middle irrigation level than with other two irrigation treatments. The result concerned fertilizer use efficiency using N15 labeled fertilizers and total seed protein content were increased with decreasing irrigation level

  12. [Ecological risks of reclaimed water irrigation: a review].

    Chen, Wei-Ping; Zhang, Wei-Ling; Pan, Neng; Jiao, Wen-Tao

    2012-12-01

    Wastewater reclamation and reuse have become an important approach to alleviate the water crisis in China because of its social, economic and ecological benefits. The irrigation on urban green space and farmland is the primary utilization of reclaimed water, which has been practiced world widely. To understand the risk of reclaimed water irrigation, we summarized and reviewed the publications associated with typical pollutants in reclaimed water including salts, nitrogen, heavy metals, emerging pollutants and pathogens, systematically analyzed the ecological risk posed by reclaimed water irrigation regarding plant growth, groundwater quality and public health. Studies showed that salt and salt ions were the major risk sources of reclaimed water irrigation, spreading disease was another potential risk of using reclaimed water, and emerging pollutants was the hot topic in researches of ecological risk. Based on overseas experiences, risk control measures on reclaimed water irrigation in urban green space and farmland were proposed. Five recommendations were given to promote the safe use of reclaimed water irrigation including (1) strengthen long-term in situ monitoring, (2) promote the modeling studies, (3) build up the connections of reclaimed water quality, irrigation management and ecological risk, (4) evaluate the soil bearing capacity of reclaimed water irrigation, (5) and establish risk management system of reclaimed water reuse. PMID:23379125

  13. Preventing pesticide contamination of groundwater while maximizing irrigated crop yield

    Peralta, R. C.; Hegazy, M. A.; Musharrafieh, G. R.

    1994-11-01

    A simulation/optimization model is developed for maximizing irrigated crop yield while avoiding unacceptable pesticide leaching. The optimization model is designed to help managers prevent non-point source contamination of shallow groundwater aquifers. It computes optimal irrigation amounts for given soil, crop, chemical, and weather data and irrigation frequencies. It directly computes the minimum irrigated crop yield reduction needed to prevent groundwater contamination. Constraint equations used in the model maintain a layered soil moisture volume balance; describe percolation, downward unsaturated zone solute transport and pesticide degradation; and limit the amount of pesticide reaching groundwater. Constraints are linear, piecewise linear, nonlinear, and exponential. The problem is solved using nonlinear programming optimization. The model is tested for different scenarios of irrigating corn. The modeling approach is promising as a tool to aid in the development of environmentally sound agricultural production practices. It allows direct estimation of trade-offs between crop production and groundwater protection for different management approaches. More frequent irrigation tends to give better crop yield and reduce solute movement. Trade-offs decrease with increasing irrigation frequency. More frequent irrigation reduces yield loss due to moisture stress and requires less water to fill the root zone to field capacity. This prevents the solute from moving to deeper soil layers. Yield-environmental quality trade-offs are smaller for deeper groundwater tables because deeper groundwater allows more time for chemical degradation.

  14. Irrigation Water Quality Evaluation of Aldelam Groundwater

    Abdullah A. Alsheikh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Good quality water helps to maintain agricultural productivity and sustain soil fertility. Agricultural activities in Saudi Arabia depend on surface water and groundwater as the main sources for irrigation. Groundwater is the main source used for irrigation purposes in this area. This study was done to evaluate the status of groundwater quality and its suitability for irrigated agriculture. To achieve this objective, water samples from fourteen wells were collected from different areas of Aldelam in May and July of 2011. The water quality of these wells in the study area was estimated from different water quality parameters such as chloride, bicarbonate, sodium, calcium, total dissolved solids (TDS, EC, pH, sodium adsorption ratio, and percentage of sodium. The results showed that the overall concentration of all the ions was very high, but the sodium hazard in the well water was moderate. About 78 percent of the wells had suitable water quality for boron, and they had a concentration below the permissible limit for crop irrigation. TDS in the groundwater ranged between 1114.88 to 2897.71 ppm during the investigation period. High EC and low SAR in all the wells showed that the water from these wells could be used for irrigation purposes with special management.

  15. COEFICIENTE DE CULTURA E RELAÇÕES HÍDRICAS DO CAFEEIRO, CULTIVAR CATUCAÍ, SOB DOIS SISTEMAS DE MANEJO DA IRRIGAÇÃO CROP COEFFICIENT AND WATER RELATIONSHIPS OF COFFEE CATUCAÍ CULTIVAR UNDER TWO SYSTEMS OF IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT

    Tiago Roberto Wehr

    2007-10-01

    study was to determine the crop coefficient (kc, diffusion resistance and leaf water potential coffee, Catucaí cultivar, in blooming and grain formation phases, submitted to two irrigation system management. The coffee evapotranspiration was determined by soil water balance, and crop evapotranspiration was assessed by Penman-Monteith (FAO-56 method. The irrigation application times were determined in two management systems: based on the percentage wetted area (P, and based on the location coefficient (Kl. The results allowed to conclude that the irrigation management using the location coefficient provided an increase of the irrigation application time, and, consequently, increasing the irrigation depth and the crop coefficient values, which reached the mean of 1.12. For the management system based on the percentage wetted area, the mean value of the crop coefficient, in the appraised period, was 1.06. The mean diffusion resistance and leaf water potential were lower when the management system was adopted with base in Kl, which provided an increase of the transpiration and, consequently, of kc.

    KEY-WORDS: Evapotranspiration; diffusion resistance; leaf water potential.

  16. Irrigation with desalinated water: A step toward increasing water saving and crop yields

    Silber, Avner; Israeli, Yair; Elingold, Idan; Levi, Menashe; Levkovitch, Irit; Russo, David; Assouline, Shmuel

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impact of two different approaches to managing irrigation water salinity: salt leaching from the field ("conventional" management) and water desalination before field application ("alternative" management). Freshwater commonly used for irrigation (FW) and desalinated water (DS) were applied to the high-water-demanding crop banana at four different rates. Both irrigation rate and water salinity significantly affected yield. DS application consistently produced higher yields than FW, independently of irrigation rate. The highest yield for FW-irrigation was achieved with the highest irrigation rate, whereas the same yield was obtained in the case of DS-irrigation with practically half the amount of water. Yield decreased with FW-irrigation, even when the water salinity, ECi, was lower than the limit considered safe for soil and crops. Irrigating with FW provided a massive amount of salt which accumulated in the rhizosphere, inducing increased osmotic potential of the soil solution and impairing plant water uptake. Furthermore, applying the "conventional" management, a significant amount of salt is leached from the rhizosphere, accumulating in deeper soil layers, and eventually reaching groundwater reservoirs, thus contributing to the deterioration of both soil and water quality. Removal of salt excess from the water before it reaches the field by means of DS-irrigation may save significant amounts of irrigation water by reducing the salt leaching requirements while increasing yield and improving fruit quality, and decreasing salt load in the groundwater.

  17. Manejo da irrigação (tensiometria e balanço hídrico climatológico para a cultura do feijoeiro em sistemas de cultivo direto e convencional Irrigation management (tensiometry and simplified climatological water balance in irrigated bean under conventional and no tillage systems

    Adriano S. Lopes

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Dois métodos de manejo de irrigação, por tensiometria e pelo balanço hídrico climatológico simplificado baseado no tanque "Classe A", foram aplicados e avaliados os resultados no balanço de água no solo, na evapotranspiração e na produtividade de grãos da cultura do feijoeiro, cultivar IAC-Carioca, conduzida na estação seca com irrigação por pivô central, após uma cultura de milho (estação úmida, no primeiro ano de cultivo, nos sistemas de plantio direto e convencional em uma área de Latossolo Vermelho. Concluiu-se que ambos os métodos são possíveis de serem adotados por irrigantes ou técnicos com níveis médios de tecnologia e conhecimento, embora com a tensiometria seja possível um melhor entendimento das reais condições hídricas do solo na região do sistema radicular da cultura. Não foram verificadas diferenças importantes de armazenamento de água no solo e de produtividade de grãos entre os sistemas de plantio nesse primeiro ano; o manejo por tensiometria resultou em maiores variações na água disponível consumida do que o do balanço hídrico climatológico simplificado e resultou, em relação a esse, economia de 15% na água de irrigação aplicada, sem afetar a produtividade de grãos.Two methods of irrigation management, tensiometry and simplified climatological water balance with Class A pan, were applied in a bean crop, IAC-Carioca cultivar, growing in a Oxisol, irrigated by center pivot under conventional and no tillage systems. The soil water balance, evapotranspiration and bean yield were evaluated. The results showed that, both irrigation management methods are possible to be adopted for farmers or technicians with average level of technology and knowledge. However, the tensiometry offers a better understanding of the real soil water conditions at plant root system. Differences of soil water storage and grain yield between tillage systems were not verified. The tensiometry management method

  18. Quantitative sustainability and qualitative concerns in an irrigations system using recycled water to supplement limited groundwater supply

    Gowing, John; Alataway, Abed

    2013-04-01

    Sustainability of irrigation in a country facing water scarcity depends upon adoption of best management practices to deliver 'more crop per drop' together with use of recycled waste-water from urban sewage systems. Saudi Arabia is a country facing extreme water scarcity and in this paper we report on research conducted at an extensive irrigation system where a concerted effort over several years has been devoted to achieving a high level of water productivity. Al-Ahsa oasis is located about 60 km inland from the Persian Gulf and has been inhabited since prehistoric times, due to the abundance of water in an otherwise arid region. It is one of the largest oases in the world with 12,000 hectares of irrigated land and more than 2 million palm trees. Historically the oasis was watered by over 60 artesian springs, but water is now pumped from the aquifer. To supplement this groundwater source, treated waste-water reuse has been practiced since 1992 and now comprises 30% of total supply. In addition, a comparable amount of agricultural drainage water is collected and recycled, so that the 'first-use' water represents only 40% of total irrigation supply. While this re-use system permits sustained irrigation with greatly reduced groundwater abstraction, there is a potential down-side in that fertilizers and contaminants applied with irrigation water move through the soil and return to the irrigation supply enhancing the risk for human and animal health. We investigated this problem using E coli and helminth eggs as indicators of human health risk. We sampled each of the three sources which are delivered separately to the head of the main irrigation canal where they are blended. The groundwater was free from E coli and helminths and the treated wastewater source was generally within designated quality standards. The recycled drainage water was delivered untreated into the canal system and was found to be contaminated with both E coli and helminths above acceptable

  19. Administration and Management of Irrigation Water in 24 User Organizations in Chile Administración y Gestión del Agua de Riego en 24 Organizaciones de Usuarios en Chile

    Jara Jorge

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 85% of the water consumed in Chile is destined to agricultural irrigation and is managed by the users themselves. This study analyzed the price that irrigation water users pay to their Water User Associations (WUAs to which they belong and the relationship of this price to the professional level and performance of the WUAs. The study included 24 WUAs: 10 River Administration Boards (JV and 14 Irrigation Canal Associations (AC. The annual operational budget of each WUA, the price paid by users and the management capacities of the board of directors of each WUA were compared. The study also determined the relative value of user payments to WUAs as a proportion of total production costs of the main crops in each zone. The variability of user fees per irrigated hectare decreases when the irrigation area of the WUA is more than 10 000 ha, though this was not observed in JVs. The presence of technical-professional staff directly affects the development and growth of the WUAs. As well, the WUAs with a greater level of capacity development (NDC have more board members with a higher education level and have lower rates of unpaid user fees. The price that users pay to the WUA by irrigated hectare represents less than 4.0% of the average total production cost of the main crops in the study area. Finally, no correlation was found between the prices that users pay and the average profitability of the main crops, or between price and the geographical location of the WUAs.Aproximadamente, el 85% del agua consumida en Chile es destinada al riego agrícola, siendo administrada por los propios usuarios. En este estudio, se analizó el costo que cancelan los usuarios del agua de riego a sus Organizaciones de Usuarios de Agua (WUAs y el nivel de profesionalización y desempeño de éstas. Se estudiaron 24 WUAs: 10 Juntas de Vigilancia (JV y 14 Asociaciones de Canalistas (AC. Se comparó el presupuesto anual de operaciones de cada WUA, el valor que

  20. ROOT CANAL IRRIGANTS AND IRRIGATION TECHNIQUES: A REVIEW

    Aniketh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Root canal irrigation is not much emphasised in endodontic therapy. Most articles discussed are on root canal shaping and obturation not much emphasis is given for irrigation. There are many irrigation solutions which are introduced into market. The primary objective of root canal therapy is the ret ention of the pulpless or pulpally involved tooth with its associated periapical tissues in a healthy state. Achievement of this objective requires that the pulpal spaces and contents be eliminated as sources of infection. As the Enterococcus faecalis is a lso found to be the most important cause for endodontic failures, the action and efficacy of fewer irrigants against E. faecalis should also be given prime importance as of others. Therefore, the introduction of an antimicrobial endodontic irrigant during root canal therapy should be given priority in the hierarchy of root canal treatment. The purpose of this article is to analyse root canal irrigants, irrigation techniques and irrigation protocol.

  1. Soybean seed yield and its components as affected by different irrigation regimes at different reproductive stages

    Development of an efficient and economical irrigation management system for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is essential to apply irrigations at specific stages of reproductive ontogeny. Soybean cultivar, Williams-82 was subjected to a factorial set of irrigated treatments: R1 to R2 flowering (F), R3 to R4 pod elongation (P) and R5 to R6 seed enlargement (S). The experiment was conducted for two years in spring 1986 and 1987 on a clay-loam soil at the National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad. An F-irrigation at flowering sage had great effect on seed yield (2253 kg/ha). Almost similar yield response was observed for an F-S irrigation and F-P-S irrigation, soybean seed yield for S-irrigation, P-irrigation, F-P and P-S irrigations were significantly lower than a single F-irrigation, F-S and F-P-S irrigation. Also a single irrigation at pod elongation stage (P) and seed enlargement stage (S) enhanced more yield than duel irrigations of F-P and P-S.(author)

  2. Winter Irrigation Effects in Cotton Fields in Arid Inland Irrigated Areas in the North of the Tarim Basin, China

    Pengnian Yang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Winter irrigation is one of the water and salt management practices widely adopted in arid irrigated areas in the Tarim Basin located in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the People’s Republic of China. A winter irrigation study was carried out from November 2013 to March 2014 in Korla City. A cotton field was divided into 18 plots with a size of 3 m × 3 m and five winter irrigation treatments (1200 m3/ha, 1800 m3/ha, 2400 m3/ha, 3000 m3/ha, and 3600 m3/ha and one non-irrigation as a control were designed. The results showed that the higher winter irrigation volumes allowed the significant short-term difference after the irrigation in the fields with the higher soil moisture content. Therefore, the soil moisture in the next sowing season could be maintained at the level which was slightly lower than field capacity and four times that in the non-irrigation treatment. The desalination effect of winter irrigation increased with the increase of water irrigation volume, but its efficiency decreased with the increase of water irrigation volume. The desalination effect was characterized by short-term desalination, long-term salt accumulation, and the time-dependent gradually decreasing trend. During the winter irrigation period, air temperature was the most important external influencing factor of the soil temperature. During the period of the decrease in winter temperatures from December to January, soil temperature in the 5-cm depth showed no significant difference in all the treatments and the control. However, during the period of rising temperatures from January to March, soil temperature in the control increased significantly, faster than that in all treatments. Under the same irrigation volume, the temperature difference between the upper soil layer and the lower soil layer increased during the temperature drop period and decreased during the temperature rise period. In this paper, we proposed the proper winter irrigation volume of 1800

  3. Using Cotton Model Simulations to Estimate Optimally Profitable Irrigation Strategies

    Mauget, S. A.; Leiker, G.; Sapkota, P.; Johnson, J.; Maas, S.

    2011-12-01

    In recent decades irrigation pumping from the Ogallala Aquifer has led to declines in saturated thickness that have not been compensated for by natural recharge, which has led to questions about the long-term viability of agriculture in the cotton producing areas of west Texas. Adopting irrigation management strategies that optimize profitability while reducing irrigation waste is one way of conserving the aquifer's water resource. Here, a database of modeled cotton yields generated under drip and center pivot irrigated and dryland production scenarios is used in a stochastic dominance analysis that identifies such strategies under varying commodity price and pumping cost conditions. This database and analysis approach will serve as the foundation for a web-based decision support tool that will help producers identify optimal irrigation treatments under specified cotton price, electricity cost, and depth to water table conditions.

  4. Sustainable Irrigation with Brackish Groundwater in Heilonggang Region, China

    1998-01-01

    Saline groundwater is widely distributed in Heilonggang region. While deep confined water is being mined, saline water has not been used in most part of the region. Extension of saline water irrigation is of significance to resolve water shortage, slow down environmental degradation and support the sustainable development of the local agriculture. Four key points are proposed to be managed by comprehensive measures: (1) adapting salt-resistant ability; (2) reducing salt input; (3) decreasing soil surface evaporation and salt accumulation in the root zone, and (4) washing away salt from the root zone. Experiments and farming practices demonstrated that brackish water with TDS (total dissolved solids) of 2-5 g/l can be used for crop irrigation. For example, winter wheat can be sustainably irrigated by brackish water with a water limitation of 120 mm every year. Irrigation in combination with different comprehensive measures can increase the efficiency of saline water irrigation.

  5. Water savings potentials of irrigation systems: dynamic global simulation

    Jägermeyr, J.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Schaphoff, S.; Kummu, M.; Lucht, W.

    2015-04-01

    Global agricultural production is heavily sustained by irrigation, but irrigation system efficiencies are often surprisingly low. However, our knowledge of irrigation efficiencies is mostly confined to rough indicative estimates for countries or regions that do not account for spatio-temporal heterogeneity due to climate and other biophysical dependencies. To allow for refined estimates of global agricultural water use, and of water saving and water productivity potentials constrained by biophysical processes and also non-trivial downstream effects, we incorporated a dynamic representation of the three major irrigation systems (surface, sprinkler, and drip) into a process-based bio- and agrosphere model, LPJmL. Based on this enhanced model we provide a gridded worldmap of dynamically retrieved irrigation efficiencies reflecting differences in system types, crop types, climatic and hydrologic conditions, and overall crop management. We find pronounced regional patterns in beneficial irrigation efficiency (a refined irrigation efficiency indicator accounting for crop-productive water consumption only), due to differences in these features, with lowest values ( 60%) in Europe and North America. We arrive at an estimate of global irrigation water withdrawal of 2396 km3 (2004-2009 average); irrigation water consumption is calculated to be 1212 km3, of which 511 km3 are non-beneficially consumed, i.e. lost through evaporation, interception, and conveyance. Replacing surface systems by sprinkler or drip systems could, on average across the world's river basins, reduce the non-beneficial consumption at river basin level by 54 and 76%, respectively, while maintaining the current level of crop yields. Accordingly, crop water productivity would increase by 9 and 15%, respectively, and by much more in specific regions such as in the Indus basin. This study significantly advances the global quantification of irrigation systems while providing a framework for assessing potential

  6. Optimizing the Irrigation Scheduling Strategy and the Water Use Efficiency in Steppe and Irrigated Crop Production Ecosystems in the Northwestern China

    1999-01-01

    In an irrigation management problem, decisions are made at various levels for assessment of water availability and requirements, proposing the type of irrigation scheduling, and deriving an actual operational policy for various crop scenarios.In this study, a plan was developed for water management.A general strategy for planning and application of irrigation management was proposed.Since the Penman method was used, the focus was on a synthetic study involving basic project situations, relevant data, water requirement calculation, irrigation scheduling, and discussion on optimizing water use efficiency in the steppe and irrigated crop production ecosystems.Effective use of tabular displays made interpreting and analyzing results easier.Based on the statistical analysis between spring wheat water availability and water requirement, a new type of index called water niche suitability was proposed.The particular type of irrigation scheduling was based on this index together with concrete situation of irrigated areas.The research showed that there are great potentiality of water resources in optimizing Ningxia irrigation management.The irrigation scheduling in this paper was found to be reasonable and demonstrated that results could be used to assist in improving water management decisions in the northwestern China.

  7. An empirical method to measure the relative efficiency of irrigation methods in agricultural industry

    Mohammad Ebrahim MohammadPour zarandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues affecting future world is managing the existing water resources. There is no doubt that global warming has created significant troubles on people's lives and it has caused shortage of water in the world. Therefore, we need to manage the water resources by allocating appropriate methods. In this paper, we use data envelopment analysis to measure the relative efficiency of fourteen different irrigation methods. The proposed model of this paper uses four inputs including cost, risk, maintenance and expertise and two outputs including flexibility and durability of irrigation methods. The preliminary results indicate that two surface irrigation methods, one sprinkler irrigation method and one subsurface irrigation technique are considered efficient. Other irrigation techniques are only as much as 50 to 94 percent efficient compared with these five irrigation techniques

  8. Measuring irrigation performance in Africa:

    Svendsen, Mark; Ewing, Mandy; Msangi, Siwa

    2009-01-01

    "The paper develops indicators to look at the performance of the irrigation sector in Sub-Saharan Africa, where demand for food is high and irrigation has a proven potential to boost levels of agricultural productivity. By looking at six indicator categories—institutional framework, water resource use, irrigation area, irrigation technology, agricultural productivity, and poverty and food security—we assess the potential for improving performance in the agricultural food security sector throu...

  9. Low-cost and low-power dissipation system to monitor soil water status in real time for areal irrigation management%低功耗经济型区域墒情实时监测系统

    蔡甲冰; 刘钰; 白亮亮; 陈鹤; 李新

    2015-01-01

    It is a very important and fundamental work to monitor soil water status in real time for irrigation management in modern irrigation district. This paper presented a system with low cost and low power dissipation to monitor soil water status for areal irrigation management. The instrument of soil water monitoring contains a microcontroller-based system and is powered by 1# dry cell. All of the measurement data would be sent to web server through GPRS (general packet radio services) chipset assembled in it, for analysis and use in irrigation management based on each point of distributed framework. There were 4 sets of soil water content and temperature sensors and 1 set of water potential sensor designed, which could be installed at different depth in the crop root zone to meet the demand of irrigation management. However, it could be configured with less or more sensors in the system according to the channel values of the data acquisition unit, if there was a demand in the field investigation. This process had an advantage to assess the soil moisture more accurately. The microcontroller-based system and designed circuit had the responsibility to collect/log/transfer/control the data of soil water content, temperature and water potential once every 1 h. It was a very low-power dissipation system because the center processor supported energy to each unit when it needed. The interval of data collecting could be scheduled from 30 min to 24 h if necessary. All of the daily data would be transferred to the web server and the user's E-mailbox to check out or analyze. Users could receive the alarm information if the monitoring system had errors or was out of gear. They could configure the data logger near the monitoring system in wireless network, or through the internet server using GPRS technology. The designed system was installed in the whole crop growth season in 2014 in Jiefangzha Irrigation Area, Hetao Irrigation District, Inner Mongolia. The 10 sets of real

  10. Micro-irrigation systems, automation and fertigation in citrus

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Citrus is number one group of fruits grown in more than 140 countries in the world. Micro-irrigation systems and fertigation management is one of the main concerns of the modem citrus fruit production irrespective of availability of soil, water and fertilizer resources. A variety of recommendations have emerged world over on irrigation systems and fertigation based on soil and leaf analysis of the nutrients, evapo-transpiration and water use pattern. The research review of literature has revealed best promising results on irrigation scheduling based on depletion pattern of soil available water content, irrigation systems and fertigation. Various micro-irrigation systems have established their superiority over traditionally used flood irrigation with micro-jets having little edge over rest of the others. Similarly, fertigation has shown good responses on growth, yield, quality and uniform distribution pattern of applied nutrients within the plant rootzone compared to band placement involving comparatively localized fertilization. Automated fertigation in citrus orchards is a new concept, which would be the only solitary choice amongst many irrigation monitoring methods in near future. The present status of the review on micro-irrigation and fertigation in citrus cultivars is clearly indicated in this article.

  11. Planning for an Irrigation System.

    Turner, J. Howard; Anderson, Carl L.

    The publication, with the aid of tables and colored illustrations and diagrams, presents information to help the farmer who is considering the installation of an irrigation system determine whether or not to irrigate, the type of system to use, and the irrigation cost and return on investment. Information is presented on the increase in yield to…

  12. Drip irrigation using a PLC based adaptive irrigation system

    Shahidian, Shakib; Serralheiro, Ricardo; Teixeira, José Luís; Santos, Francisco; Oliveira, Mario do Rosário; Costa, José; Toureiro, Célia; Haie, Naim; Machado, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Irrigation is presently the main user of world´s fresh water. Most of it goes to irrigating small plots where it is not feasible to implement full-scale Evapotranspiration based irrigation controllers. The dramatic development of Programmable Logic Controllers, PLCs, and their rather affordable price has made it possible to use them as stand-alone irrigation controllers. In this paper a PLC is used to adapt the daily irrigation amount to actual ETc, using a Hargreaves-Samani type equation. On...

  13. Root canal irrigation

    L. van der Sluis; C. Boutsioukis; L.M. Jiang; R. Macedo; B. Verhaagen; M. Versluis

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana

  14. Investing in Smallholder Irrigation

    Naugle, Jon; Sellen, Daniel; Darghouth, Salah; Dinar, Ariel

    2006-01-01

    Smallholder irrigated horticulture has proven to be a viable and attractive option for poor farmers in developing countries. This paper relates two important lessons learned: low-cost productive technologies must be available to smallholders in terms of both location and price and must correspond to their needs, and the importance of a market-led approach for financing technology acquisi...

  15. [Runoff Pollution Experiments of Paddy Fields Under Different Irrigation Patterns].

    Zhou, Jing-wen; Su, Bao-lin; Huang, Ning-bo; Guan, Yu-tang; Zhao, Kun

    2016-03-15

    To study runoff and non-point source pollution of paddy fields and to provide a scientific basis for agricultural water management of paddy fields, paddy plots in the Jintan City and the Liyang City were chosen for experiments on non-point source pollution, and flood irrigation and intermittent irrigation patterns were adopted in this research. The surface water level and rainfall were observed during the growing season of paddies, and the runoff amount from paddy plots and loads of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were calculated by different methods. The results showed that only five rain events of totally 27 rainfalls and one artificially drainage formed non-point source pollution from flood irrigated paddy plot, which resulted in a TN export coefficient of 49.4 kg · hm⁻² and a TP export coefficient of 1.0 kg · hm⁻². No any runoff event occurred from the paddy plot with intermittent irrigation even in the case of maximum rainfall of 95.1 mm. Runoff from paddy fields was affected by water demands of paddies and irrigation or drainage management, which was directly correlated to surface water level, rainfall amount and the lowest ridge height of outlets. Compared with the flood irrigation, intermittent irrigation could significantly reduce non-point source pollution caused by rainfall or artificial drainage. PMID:27337888

  16. Mediterranean irrigation under climate change: more efficient irrigation needed to compensate increases in irrigation water requirements

    M. Fader; Shi, S; von Bloh, W.; A. Bondeau; Cramer, W.

    2015-01-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. This study systematically assesses how climate change and increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may affect irrigation requirements in the Mediterranean region by 2080–2090. Future demographic change and technological improvements in irrigation systems are accounted for, as is the spread of climate forcing, warming l...

  17. Remote sensing based water-use efficiency evaluation in sub-surface irrigated wine grape vines

    Zúñiga, Carlos Espinoza; Khot, Lav R.; Jacoby, Pete; Sankaran, Sindhuja

    2016-05-01

    Increased water demands have forced agriculture industry to investigate better irrigation management strategies in crop production. Efficient irrigation systems, improved irrigation scheduling, and selection of crop varieties with better water-use efficiencies can aid towards conserving water. In an ongoing experiment carried on in Red Mountain American Viticulture area near Benton City, Washington, subsurface drip irrigation treatments at 30, 60 and 90 cm depth, and 15, 30 and 60% irrigation were applied to satisfy evapotranspiration demand using pulse and continuous irrigation. These treatments were compared to continuous surface irrigation applied at 100% evapotranspiration demand. Thermal infrared and multispectral images were acquired using unmanned aerial vehicle during the growing season. Obtained results indicated no difference in yield among treatments (p<0.05), however there was statistical difference in leaf temperature comparing surface and subsurface irrigation (p<0.05). Normalized vegetation index obtained from the analysis of multispectral images showed statistical difference among treatments when surface and subsurface irrigation methods were compared. Similar differences in vegetation index values were observed, when irrigation rates were compared. Obtained results show the applicability of aerial thermal infrared and multispectral images to characterize plant responses to different irrigation treatments and use of such information in irrigation scheduling or high-throughput selection of water-use efficient crop varieties in plant breeding.

  18. Ecohydrology of managed ecosystems: Linking rainfall unpredictability, agronomic performance, and sustainable water use

    Vico, Giulia; Porporato, Amilcare

    2014-05-01

    The field of ecohydrology, traditionally focusing on natural ecosystems, can offer the necessary quantitative tools to assess and compare the sustainability of agriculture across climates, soil types, crops, and irrigation strategies, including rainfall unpredictability. In particular, irrigation is one of the main strategies to enhance and stabilize agricultural productivity, but represents a cost in terms of often scarce water resources. Here, the sustainability of irrigated and rainfed agriculture is assessed by means of water productivity (defined as the ratio between yield and total supplied water), yields, water requirements, and their variability. These indicators are quantified using a probabilistic description of the soil water balance and crop development. Employing this framework, we interpret changes in water productivity as total water input is altered, in two staple crops (maize and wheat) grown under different soils, climates, and irrigation strategies. Climate change scenarios are explored by using the same approach and altering the rainfall statistics. For a given irrigation strategy, intermediate rainfall inputs leads to the highest variability in yield and irrigation water requirement - it is under these conditions that water management is most problematic. When considering the contrasting needs of limiting water requirements while ensuring adequate yields, micro-irrigation emerges as the most sustainable strategy at the field level, although consideration should be given to its profitability and long-term environmental implications.

  19. An Analysis of the Management and Maintenance of Irrigation Channels in Fields and Water Conservancy Facilities in Small Size Farming Fields%田间沟渠及小型农田水利设施管护分析

    姜波; 黄海霞; 张富春; 陈兵; 侍晓冬; 朱莲

    2012-01-01

      田间沟渠及农田水利设施是抵御自然灾害,改善农村生产生活条件和农村生态环境,促进农业增产、农民增收、农村发展的重要基础设施,田间沟渠及农田水利设施管理与养护至关重要。%  The author in this article briefly presents the strategies of managing and maintaining irrigation channels in fields and water conservancy facilities so as to improve the productivity of the field and thus bet er the life in vil ages.

  20. Assessment of equity and adequacy of water delivery in irrigation systems using remote sensing-based indicators in semi-arid region, Morocco

    Kharrou, M.H.; Le Page, M.; Chehbouni, A.; Simonneaux, Vincent; Er-Raki, S.; Jarlan, Lionel; Ouzine, L.; Khabba, S.; Chehbouni, Abdelghani

    2013-01-01

    The irrigation performance criteria of equity and adequacy are of primary concern for irrigation managers. The input data required at various scales to assess irrigation performance, often not available, need costly intensive field campaigns. Remote sensing techniques, used to directly estimate crop evapotranspiration (ETc), became recently an attractive option to assess irrigation performance from individual fields to irrigation scheme or river basin scale. In this study, ETc maps were obtai...

  1. Analysis of the relationship between the volumetric soil moisture content and the NDVI from high resolution multi-spectral images for definition of vineyard management zones to improve irrigation

    Martínez-Casasnovas, J. A.; Ramos, M. C.

    2009-04-01

    As suggested by previous research in the field of precision viticulture, intra-field yield variability is dependent on the variation of soil properties, and in particular the soil moisture content. Since the mapping in detail of this soil property for precision viticulture applications is highly costly, the objective of the present research is to analyse its relationship with the normalised difference vegetation index from high resolution satellite images to the use it in the definition of vineyard zonal management. The final aim is to improve irrigation in commercial vineyard blocks for better management of inputs and to deliver a more homogeneous fruit to the winery. The study was carried out in a vineyard block located in Raimat (NE Spain, Costers del Segre Designation of Origin). This is a semi-arid area with continental Mediterranean climate and a total annual precipitation between 300-400 mm. The vineyard block (4.5 ha) is planted with Syrah vines in a 3x2 m pattern. The vines are irrigated by means of drips under a partial root drying schedule. Initially, the irrigation sectors had a quadrangular distribution, with a size of about 1 ha each. Yield is highly variable within the block, presenting a coefficient of variation of 24.9%. For the measurement of the soil moisture content a regular sampling grid of 30 x 40 m was defined. This represents a sample density of 8 samples ha-1. At the nodes of the grid, TDR (Time Domain Reflectometer) probe tubes were permanently installed up to the 80 cm or up to reaching a contrasting layer. Multi-temporal measures were taken at different depths (each 20 cm) between November 2006 and December 2007. For each date, a map of the variability of the profile soil moisture content was interpolated by means of geostatistical analysis: from the measured values at the grid points the experimental variograms were computed and modelled and global block kriging (10 m squared blocks) undertaken with a grid spacing of 3 m x 3 m. On the

  2. Deficit irrigation practices

    Irrigated agriculture makes a major contribution to food security, producing nearly 40 percent of food and agricultural commodities on 17 percent of agricultural land. Irrigated areas have almost doubled in recent decades and contributed much to the growth in agricultural productivity over the last 50 years. Irrigated agriculture uses more than 70 percent of the water withdrawn from the earth's rivers; in developing countries the proportion exceeds 80 percent. The scope for further irrigation development to meet food requirements in the coming years is, however, severely constrained by decreasing water resources and growing competition for clean water. While on a global scale water resources are still ample, serious water shortages are developing in the arid and semi-arid regions as existing water resources reach full exploitation. The situation is exacerbated by the declining quality of water and soil resources. The dependency on water has become a critical constraint on further progress and threatens to slow down development, endangering food supplies and aggravating rural poverty. The great challenge for the coming decades will therefore be the task of increasing food production with less water, particularly in countries with limited water and land resources. Water productivity for food production was a major issue at the Second World Water Forum convened in March 2000 by the World Water Council in The Hague, the Netherlands, where a vision of progress towards water security was presented and an action framework for achieving this was developed. One of its main targets was defined as the need to increase water productivity for food production from rainfed and irrigated agriculture by 30 percent by 2015. Water stress affects crop growth and productivity in many ways. Most of the responses have a negative effect on production but crops have different and often complex mechanisms to react to shortages of water. Several crops and genotypes have developed different

  3. Gaussian processes-based predictive models to estimate reference ET from alternative meteorological data sources for irrigation scheduling

    Accurate estimates of daily crop evapotranspiration (ET) are needed for efficient irrigation management, especially in arid and semi-arid irrigated regions where crop water demand exceeds rainfall. The impact of inaccurate ET estimates can be tremendous in both irrigation cost and the increased dema...

  4. Estimating the own-price elasticity of demand for irrigation water in the Musi catchment of India

    Davidson, Brian; Hellegers, Petra

    2011-10-01

    SummaryAs irrigation water is an input into a production process, its demand must be 'derived'. According to theory, a derived demand schedule should be downward sloping and dependent on the outputs produced from it, the prices of other inputs and the price of the water itself. Problems arise when an attempt is made to estimate the demand for irrigation water and the resulting own-price elasticity of demand, as the uses to which water is put are spatially, temporarily and geographically diverse. Because water is not generally freely traded, what normally passes for an estimate of the own-price elasticity of demand for irrigation water is usually a well argued assumption or an estimate that is derived from a simulation model of a hypothesized producer. Such approaches tend to provide an inadequate explanation of what is an extremely complex and important relationship. An adequate explanation of the relationship between the price and the quantity demanded of water should be one that not only accords with the theoretical expectations, but also accounts for the diversity of products produced from water (which includes the management practices of farmers), the seasons in which it is used and over the region within which it is used. The objective in this article is to present a method of estimating the demand curve for irrigation water. The method uses actual field data which is collated using the Residual Method to determine the value of the marginal product of water deployed over a wide range of crops, seasons and regions. These values of the marginal products, all which must lie of the input demand schedule for water, are then ordered from the highest value to the lowest. Then, the amount of irrigation water used for each product, in each season and in each region is cumulatively summed over the range of uses according to the order of the values of the marginal products. This data, once ordered, is then used to econometrically estimate the demand schedule from which

  5. Micro-irrigation systems, automation and fertigation in citrus

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2012-01-01

    Citrus is number one group of fruits grown in more than 140 countries in the world. Micro-irrigation systems and fertigation management is one of the main concerns of the modem citrus fruit production irrespective of availability of soil, water and fertilizer resources. A variety of recommendations have emerged world over on irrigation systems and fertigation based on soil and leaf analysis of the nutrients, evapo-transpiration and water use pattern. The research review of literature has reve...

  6. Masculinities among irrigation engineers and water professionals in Nepal

    Liebrand, J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary This thesis documents my attempt to study masculinities among irrigation engineers and water professionals in Nepal. It is based on the recognition that more than two decades of mainstreaming gender in development research and policy have failed to come to grips with the masculine subject. In this thesis, it is hypothesized that there is something intrinsically masculine about the irrigation and water management profession, both in the West and in Nepal. This hypothesis is based on pe...

  7. Software Design for Wireless Sensor-based Site-specific Irrigation

    In-field sensor-based site-specific irrigation management is of benefit to producers for efficient water management. Integration of the decision making process with the controls is a viable option for determining when and where to irrigate, and how much water to apply. This research presents the des...

  8. SANITARY SEWAGE REUSE IN AGRICULTURAL CROP IRRIGATION

    Lidiane Bittencourt Barroso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The water availability was exceeded by demand, becoming a limiting factor in irrigated agriculture. This study aimed to provide a general theoretical framework on the issue of water reuse for agricultural purposes. This is due to the fact that we need a prior knowledge of the state of the art concerning the matter. To that end, we performed a review of irrigated agriculture, the effects on cultivated land and the development of agricultural crops as well as aspects of security to protect groups at risk. The amount of macro and micronutrients in the effluent may reduce or eliminate the use of commercial fertilizers. And this addition of organic matter acts as a soil conditioner, increasing its capacity to retain water. Depending on the characteristics of sewage, the practice of irrigation for long periods may lead to accumulation of toxic compounds and the significant increase of salinity. The inhibition of plant growth by salinity may be due to osmotic effect, causing drought and / or specific effects of ions, which can cause toxicity or nutritional imbalance. The minimization of human exposure to the practice of agricultural reuse is based on a set of mitigation measures that must be implemented by the authorities responsible for operating and monitoring systems for water recycling. It is concluded that the use of sewage depends on management of irrigation, monitoring of soil characteristics and culture.

  9. Progress in study on irrigation practice with saline groundwater on sandlands of Taklimakan Desert Hinterland

    XU Xinwen; LI Bingwen; WANG Xiaojing

    2006-01-01

    The study on the distribution and dynamic changes of soil moistures and salts under different irrigating methods and managements of using saline groundwater on the sand lands of the hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert, started in 1997. The results show that drip irrigation can be applied to seedlings (furrow irrigation can be applied to level lands) using saline groundwater in the process of constructing the biological shifting sand control system along the desert highway in the hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert; an irrigation frequency of 20 days and an irrigation amount of 30 kg/m2.time are suitable to the shifting sand control forest belts at the same year as they were afforested. Along with the increase of forest age, the irrigation norm can be properly increased, the irrigation interval can be prolonged.

  10. Remote sensing based water-use efficiency evaluation in sub-surface irrigated wine grape vines

    Zúñiga, Carlos Espinoza; Khot, Lav R.; Jacoby, Pete; Sankaran, Sindhuja

    2016-05-01

    Increased water demands have forced agriculture industry to investigate better irrigation management strategies in crop production. Efficient irrigation systems, improved irrigation scheduling, and selection of crop varieties with better water-use efficiencies can aid towards conserving water. In an ongoing experiment carried on in Red Mountain American Viticulture area near Benton City, Washington, subsurface drip irrigation treatments at 30, 60 and 90 cm depth, and 15, 30 and 60% irrigation were applied to satisfy evapotranspiration demand using pulse and continuous irrigation. These treatments were compared to continuous surface irrigation applied at 100% evapotranspiration demand. Thermal infrared and multispectral images were acquired using unmanned aerial vehicle during the growing season. Obtained results indicated no difference in yield among treatments (pscheduling or high-throughput selection of water-use efficient crop varieties in plant breeding.

  11. Risk Assessment of Regional Irrigation Water Demand and Supply in an Arid Inland River Basin of Northwestern China

    Bin Guo; Weihong Li; Jinyun Guo; Chuanfa Chen

    2015-01-01

    Irrigation water demand accounts for more than 95% of the total water use in the Kaidu-kongqi River Basin. Determination of the spatial and temporal trends in irrigation water demand is important for making sustainable and wise water management strategies in this highly water deficit region. In this study, the spatial and temporal trends in irrigation water demand as well as net crop irrigation water requirements for nine major crops during 1985–2009 were analyzed by combining the Penman-Mont...

  12. Asian irrigation, African rain: Remote impacts of irrigation

    Vrese, Philipp; Hagemann, Stefan; Claussen, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Irrigation is not only vital for global food security but also constitutes an anthropogenic land use change, known to have strong effects on local hydrological and energy cycles. Using the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology's Earth System Model, we show that related impacts are not confined regionally but that possibly as much as 40% of the present-day precipitation in some of the arid regions in Eastern Africa are related to irrigation-based agriculture in Asia. Irrigation in South Asia also substantially influences the climate throughout Southeast Asia and China via the advection of water vapor and by altering the Asian monsoon. The simulated impact of irrigation on remote regions is sensitive to the magnitude of the irrigation-induced moisture flux. Therefore, it is likely that a future extension or decline of irrigated areas due to increasing food demand or declining fresh water resources will also affect precipitation and temperatures in remote regions.

  13. On farm evaluation of the effect of low cost drip irrigation on water and crop productivity compared to conventional surface irrigation system

    Maisiri, N.; Senzanje, A.; Rockstrom, J.; Twomlow, S. J.

    This on-farm research study was carried out at Zholube irrigation scheme in a semi-arid agro tropical climate of Zimbabwe to determine how low cost drip irrigation technologies compare with conventional surface irrigation systems in terms of water and crop productivity. A total of nine farmers who were practicing surface irrigation were chosen to participate in the study. The vegetable English giant rape ( Brassica napus) was grown under the two irrigation systems with three fertilizer treatments in each system: ordinary granular fertilizer, liquid fertilizer (fertigation) and the last treatment with no fertilizer. These trials were replicated three times in a randomized block design. Biometric parameters of leaf area index (LAI) and fresh weight of the produce, water use efficiency (WUE) were used to compare the performance of the two irrigation systems. A water balance of the inflows and outflows was kept for analysis of WUE. The economic profitability and the operation, maintenance and management requirements of the different systems were also evaluated. There was no significant difference in vegetable yield between the irrigation systems at 8.5 ton/ha for drip compared to 7.8 ton/ha in surface irrigation. There were significant increases in yields due to use of fertilizers. Drip irrigation used about 35% of the water used by the surface irrigation systems thus giving much higher water use efficiencies. The leaf area indices were comparable in both systems with the same fertilizer treatment ranging between 0.05 for surface without fertilizer to 6.8 for low cost drip with fertigation. Low cost drip systems did not reflect any labour saving especially when manually lifting the water into the drum compared to the use of siphons in surface irrigation systems. The gross margin level for surface irrigation was lower than for low cost drip irrigation but the gross margin to total variable cost ratio was higher in surface irrigation systems, which meant that surface

  14. Portable photovoltaic irrigation pumps

    Furber, J.D.

    1980-07-01

    Experiences in developing a solar-powered irrigation pump to meet the needs of poor farmers in developing nations are summarized. The design which evolved is small and portable, employing a high-efficiency electric pump, powered by photovoltaic panels. Particular emphasis is placed on how the system works, and on early field problems experienced with the first prototypes. The resolution of these problems and the performance of actual systems in various countries is presented and user responses are noted.

  15. ROOT CANAL IRRIGANTS AND IRRIGATION TECHNIQUES: A REVIEW

    Aniketh; Mohamed; Geeta; Nandakishore; Gourav Kumar; Patrick Timothy; Jayson Mathew; Sahle Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Root canal irrigation is not much emphasised in endodontic therapy. Most articles discussed are on root canal shaping and obturation not much emphasis is given for irrigation. There are many irrigation solutions which are introduced into market. The primary objective of root canal therapy is the ret ention of the pulpless or pulpally involved tooth with its associated periapical tissues in a healthy state. Achievement of this objective requires that the pulpal spaces and con...

  16. Irrigation and Maize Cultivation Erode Plant Diversity Within Crops in Mediterranean Dry Cereal Agro-Ecosystems

    Fagúndez, Jaime; Olea, Pedro P.; Tejedo, Pablo; Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Gómez, David

    2016-07-01

    The intensification of agriculture has increased production at the cost of environment and biodiversity worldwide. To increase crop yield in dry cereal systems, vast farmland areas of high conservation value are being converted into irrigation, especially in Mediterranean countries. We analyze the effect of irrigation-driven changes on the farm biota by comparing species diversity, community composition, and species traits of arable plants within crop fields from two contrasting farming systems (dry and irrigated) in Spain. We sampled plant species within 80 fields of dry wheat, irrigated wheat, and maize (only cultivated under irrigation). Wheat crops held higher landscape and per field species richness, and beta diversity than maize. Within the same type of crop, irrigated wheat hosted lower plant diversity than dry wheat at both field and landscape scales. Floristic composition differed between crop types, with higher frequencies of perennials, cosmopolitan, exotic, wind-pollinated and C4 species in maize. Our results suggest that irrigation projects, that transform large areas of dry cereal agro-ecosystems into irrigated crop systems dominated by maize, erode plant diversity. An adequate planning on the type and proportion of crops used in the irrigated agro-ecosystems is needed in order to balance agriculture production and biodiversity conservation.

  17. Irrigation and Maize Cultivation Erode Plant Diversity Within Crops in Mediterranean Dry Cereal Agro-Ecosystems.

    Fagúndez, Jaime; Olea, Pedro P; Tejedo, Pablo; Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Gómez, David

    2016-07-01

    The intensification of agriculture has increased production at the cost of environment and biodiversity worldwide. To increase crop yield in dry cereal systems, vast farmland areas of high conservation value are being converted into irrigation, especially in Mediterranean countries. We analyze the effect of irrigation-driven changes on the farm biota by comparing species diversity, community composition, and species traits of arable plants within crop fields from two contrasting farming systems (dry and irrigated) in Spain. We sampled plant species within 80 fields of dry wheat, irrigated wheat, and maize (only cultivated under irrigation). Wheat crops held higher landscape and per field species richness, and beta diversity than maize. Within the same type of crop, irrigated wheat hosted lower plant diversity than dry wheat at both field and landscape scales. Floristic composition differed between crop types, with higher frequencies of perennials, cosmopolitan, exotic, wind-pollinated and C4 species in maize. Our results suggest that irrigation projects, that transform large areas of dry cereal agro-ecosystems into irrigated crop systems dominated by maize, erode plant diversity. An adequate planning on the type and proportion of crops used in the irrigated agro-ecosystems is needed in order to balance agriculture production and biodiversity conservation. PMID:26994604

  18. Impacts of Irrigation and Drought on Salem Ground Water

    T. Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is the first of three phases of a ground-water management study. In this report, effects of irrigation and drought on the ground-water resources of Salem are examined. Irrigation water use for five soil types is estimated from a monthly water budget model on the basis of precipitation and temperature data from the last 30 years at selected weather stations across Salem. Moisture deficits are computed for each soil type on the basis of the water requirements of a corn crop. It is assumed that irrigation is used to make up the moisture deficit in those places where irrigation systems already exist. Irrigation water use from each township with irrigated acreage is added to municipal and industrial ground-water use data and then compared to aquifer potential yields. The spatial analysis is accomplished with a statewide geographic information system. An important distinction is made between the seasonal effects of irrigation water use and the annual or long-term effects.

  19. IRRIGATION STATION EQUIPMENT FOR PREVENTING THE USE OF LOW WATER QUALITY

    Constantin Nicolescu; Sorin Cimpeanu; Daniel Bucur; Luminita Cruceanu; Carmen Marin; Gheorghe Sovaiala

    2010-01-01

    In Romania the economically efficient irrigated area is estimated at 3.5 million hectares. On national scale there is nointegrated approach for monitoring the quantity and quality of the irrigation water, using adequate equipment at thepumping station. On international scale, in many countries the pumping stations are provided with equipment formonitoring, on real time, the quality or the pumped water and for warning about critical situations (emergencies).This paper describes a technical sol...

  20. A global dataset of the extent of irrigated land from 1900 to 2005

    S. Siebert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation intensifies land use by increasing crop yield but also impacts water resources. It affects water and energy balances and consequently the microclimate in irrigated regions. Therefore, knowledge of the extent of irrigated land is important for hydrological and crop modelling, global change research, and assessments of resource use and management. Information on the historical evolution of irrigated lands is limited. The new global Historical Irrigation Dataset (HID provides estimates of the temporal development of the area equipped for irrigation (AEI between 1900 and 2005 at 5 arc-minute resolution. We collected subnational irrigation statistics from various sources and found that the global extent of AEI increased from 63 million ha (Mha in 1900 to 112 Mha in 1950 and 306 Mha in 2005. We developed eight gridded versions of time series of AEI by combining subnational irrigation statistics with different data sets on the historical extent of cropland and pasture. Different rules were applied to maximize consistency of the gridded products to subnational irrigation statistics or to historical cropland and pasture data sets. The HID reflects very well the spatial patterns of irrigated land in the western United States as shown on historical maps. Mean aridity on irrigated land increased and river discharge decreased from 1900–1950 whereas aridity decreased from 1950–2005. The dataset and its documentation are made available in an open data repository at https://mygeohub.org/publications/8 (doi:10.13019/M2MW2G.

  1. Tomato yield, biomass accumulation, root distribution and irrigation water use efficiency on a sandy soil, as affected by nitrogen rate and irrigation scheduling

    Zotarelli, L.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Dukes, M.D.; Munoz-Carpena, R.; Icerman, J.

    2009-01-01

    Florida is the largest producer of fresh-market tomatoes in the United States. Production areas are typically intensively managed with high inputs of fertilizer and irrigation. The objectives of this 3-year field study were to evaluate the interaction between N-fertilizer rates and irrigation schedu

  2. Integrated assessment of the effects of dams on irrigation sustainability in a data scarce watershed

    Yoshida, T.; Masumoto, T.; Kudo, R.

    2014-12-01

    Several development projects are currently under way in developing countries to meet growing demand for water and energy. However, due to the lack of the hydro-meteorological data, some projects were conducted without rigorous check of water balance and the potential changes in the flow regime likely to be induced by reservoirs, and their implications for irrigation projects and ecosystems. To cope with this issues, we carried out analysis by using a hydrological model and quasi-observed rainfall data. A distributed water circulation model was introduced as a tool to implement the analysis. Given daily meteorological data, the model calculates spatial distribution of surface runoff, evapotranspiration, river flow and water demand. In addition, it represents operation of water use facilities, and return flow from irrigated areas. We performed a case study in the Pursat River Basin in Cambodia, where multiple projects are ongoing. We first calculated river discharge with observed rain data and calibrated it. Next, we performed a water balance analysis of the basin using the compiled model with 7 years of rainfall data. Because 20-30 years of data is generally required for water resources planning, we thus prepared 25 years of data by using a climate model with a statistically corrected bias. We determined a reference year for irrigation planning from the long-term data such that annual precipitation of 5-year return period. We selected a scenario for irrigated areas from the Water Balance Study Report (JICA, 2013) to project the future water demand, and checked the water balance under no-dam conditions. The results revealed that water supply was more than adequate to meet water demand in the reference year. We finally incorporated the future dam operations into the calculations and evaluated the impact of the dams on river flows and irrigation projects. Even under the changed flow regimes, the water balance was satisfied in the reference year. However, river flows

  3. Automatic Irrigation System using WSNs

    Ravinder Singh Dhanoa1; Ravinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    During the entire, I went through various electronics equipment for the project. I learned about Controller 8051, Contact type sensors, Comparator and a little about other electrical equipments. Irrigation systems are as old as man itself since agriculture is the foremost occupation of civilized humanity. To irrigate large areas of plants is an onerous job. In order to overcome this problem many irrigation scheduling techniques have been developed which are mainly based on mon...

  4. Irrigated Acreage Projections in Georgia

    Cai, Ruohong; Mullen, Jeffrey D.; Bergstrom, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Irrigated acreage is an important indicator for agricultural water demand which is a major category of water use. Three methodologies were applied in this study to project irrigated acreage of major crops in Georgia from 2010 to 2050. These three methodologies show consistent results. Total irrigated acreage of major crops in Georgia is projected to increase for the next 40 years. The acreage projection results provide useful information for Georgia agricultural policy makers and farmers. How...

  5. Sediment transport in irrigation canals

    Méndez V., N.J.

    1998-01-01

    The world population is rapidly increasing and is expected to double to about 10 billion by the year 2050. To support an increasing population in terms of food sufficiency, more and more water will be required. Irrigation is the most critical component of the modern package of inputs to effect high crop production. Irrigation has been the largest recipient of public agricultural investment in the developing world. Hence, continued investment in irrigation along with reforms in institutional a...

  6. Argentine development of the ARCAL RLA/1/010 Project on the improvement of the regional management of the pollution of water bodies contaminated by metals

    The countries of the Latin American region face the challenge of an adequate management of their water resources in order to satisfy not only quantitatively, but also qualitatively its different uses: irrigation, stock breeding, industrial, rural and municipal supply and recreational. The regional ARCAL project RLA/1/010, according to international recommendations (PAHO and WHO), set out to contribute to the improvement of the management of the water quality of surface water bodies. (author)

  7. Improving efficiencies of irrigation and nitrogen uptake in wheat

    Three years of field studies and lysimeter experiments on irrigated wheat had the objective of finding ways of managing irrigation and N fertilization to minimize losses and reduce contamination of groundwater. Applied N had significant positive effects on crop-water consumptive use. The highest N losses occurred during early growth. Irrigation had little effect on N loss when it was practiced efficiently. Under the prevailing conditions, it is recommended that no N be applied to wheat at planting, in order to limit N losses by leaching caused by the high precipitation that usually occurs during early development when crop-N requirements are small. No more than 120 kg N ha-1 should be applied in total to minimize groundwater pollution and maximize N-uptake efficiency and economic returns. Also, for economic and environmental reasons, irrigation should be limited to 80% of the total requirement and to depths of 40 to 60 mm. (author)

  8. Comparison of Irrigation Performance Based on the Basin, Crop Pattern, and Scheme Sizes Using External Indicators

    Merdun, Hasan

    2004-01-01

    A comparative assessment allows screening of irrigation systems based on the key issues relative to performance and indicates where improvements should be made, such as in type of management, infrastructure, crop pattern and intensity, and system size. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of 239 irrigation schemes (57 DSI-operated and 182 transferred to Irrigation Associations) based on the basin, crop pattern, and scheme sizes using 6 external indicators for 2001. The ba...

  9. Sustainability of irrigated agriculture under salinity pressure – A study in semiarid Tunisia

    Bouksila, Fethi

    2011-01-01

    In semiarid and arid Tunisia, water quality and agricultural practices are the major contributing factors to the degradation of soil resources threatening the sustainability of irrigation systems and agricultural productivity. Nowadays, about 50% of the total irrigated areas in Tunisia are considered at high risk for salinization. The aim of this thesis was to study soil management and salinity relationships in order to assure sustainable irrigated agriculture in areas under salin...

  10. Economic evaluation of alternative irrigation practices for sugarcane production in the Burdekin Delta

    Qureshi, Muhammad Ejaz; Mallawaarachchi, Thilak; Wegener, Malcolm K.; Bristow, Keith L.; Charlesworth, Philip B.; Lisson, Shaun N.

    2001-01-01

    The Burdekin delta in north Queensland is a major irrigation area producing over 35,000 ha of irrigated sugarcane and other crops. This area is unique because it overlies shallow aquifers and relies heavily on groundwater supply for irrigation water. The long-term 'health' of the groundwater systems is therefore critical to the economic and environmental well being of the whole region. The Delta Water Boards are responsible for the management and replenishment of the groundwater systems, and ...

  11. COLT: seasonal prediction of crop irrigation needs

    Villani, Giulia; Spisni, Andrea; Mariani, Maria Cristina; Pratizzoli, William; Pavan, Valentina; Tomei, Fausto; Botarelli, Lucio; Marletto, Vittorio

    2013-04-01

    from the ARPA-SIMC web site. Since 2010 forecasts of the crops water irrigation requirements have been computed and compared with the simulated data at the end of the summer with good results. The COLT scheme is able to predict the very large interannual variability of the seasonal crop water needs: in 2010 the summer was rather wet and COLT predicted about 500 Mm3, while in 2011 the median forecast was 850 Mm3, a value considered as normal. The summer of 2012 was exceptionally dry, thus the median COLT forecast was 1077 Mm3, while the value computed with observed summer data reached 1340 Mm3 (+24%). The COLT scheme was also tested in a study area located near Ravenna (570 ha), where actual crop irrigation volumes are measured. The median forecasted irrigation (0.50 Mm3) resulted 14% higher than the observed value for 2011 (0.44 Mm3), mainly due to errors in classification of non irrigated crops as irrigated, and possibly to the water table not being accounted for in the model. COLT looks like a promising approach for assessing, planning and managing water resources in agriculture, and for mitigating the impacts of intense climate anomalies in the agricultural sector.

  12. Irrigation trends in Kansas, 1991–2011

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This fact sheet examines trends in total reported irrigation water use and acres irrigated as well as irrigation water use by crop type and system type in Kansas...

  13. Water-Saving and High-Yielding Irrigation for Lowland Rice by Controlling Limiting Values of Soil Water Potential

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated whether an irrigation system could be established to save water and increase grain yield to enhance water productivity by proper water management at the field level in irrigated lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.). Using two field-grown rice cultivars, two irrigation systems; conventional irrigation and water-saving irrigation, were conducted.In the water-saving irrigation system, limiting values of soil water potential related to specific growth stages were proposed as irrigation indices. Compared with conventional irrigation where drainage was in mid-season and flooded at other times,the water-saving irrigation increased grain yield by 7.4% to 11.3%, reduced irrigation water by 24.5% to 29.2%, and increased water productivity (grain yield per cubic meter of irrigation water) by 43.1% to 50.3%. The water-saving irrigation significantly increased harvest index, improved milling and appearance qualities, elevated zeatin +zeatin riboside concentrations in root bleedings and enhanced activities of sucrose synthase, adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase and starch branching enzyme in grains. Our results indicate that water-saving irrigation by controlling limiting values of soil water potential related to specific growth stages can enhance physiological activities of roots and grains,reduce water input, and increase grain yield.

  14. Analysis of Factors Affecting Adoption and Application of Sprinkler Irrigation by Farmers in Famenin County, Iran

    Hassan Afrakhteh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its location in the dry belt, the vast country of Iran has always been faced with the problem of water shortages. In such a climate one should take measures to increase the productivity and improve the efficiency of irrigation through expansion of water-conserving technology in the agricultural sector, as this is the largest and most important consumer of water. Therefore this study aimed at investigating factors affecting the adoption and application of sprinkler irrigation technology by farmers in the county of Famenin, Iran. Survey research was the dominant approach. The statistical population consisted of farmers in the Famenin County, and, using Cochran’s formula, 280 of them were selected through multi-stage stratified random-sampling equally among adopters and non-adopters. In order to assess the validity of the questionnaire the opinions of experts were used and to measure the reliability of the questionnaire Cronbach’s alpha statistic was used (82%. The results showed the adoption of sprinkler irrigation systems to be influenced by environmental factors such as the area under cultivation, access to water, water quality, and non-environmental factors such as the workforce number in the family, employment diversity, and participation in extension education and courses on agricultural water management. Ultimately the logit model is estimated in this paper. Adopters have also expressed reasons such as failure to adequately train farmers for maintenance after system installation, scientific and practical justifications, lack of availability of efficient repairs, inappropriate design and implementation by companies, low-quality components and fittings, clogging of sprinklers due to salty water, non-compliance with environmental conditions, difficulty using machines, the large area occupied by these systems, transportation, parts shortage, lack of security and the possibility of the theft of parts and fittings, and communal

  15. Management of saline soils in Israel

    The main soil salinity problem in Israel is the danger of gradual salinization as a result of excessively efficient water management. Aquifer management is aimed at preventing flow of groundwater into the ocean, causing a creeping salinization at a rate of about 2 ppm per year. Successful efforts to improve irrigation efficiency brought with them the danger of salt accumulation in the soil. A ten-year monitoring programme carried out by the Irrigation Extension Service at 250 sampling sites showed that appreciable salt accumulation indeed occurred during the rainless irrigation season. However, where annual rainfall is more than about 350 mm this salt accumulation is adequately leached out of the root zone by the winter rains. Soil salinity in the autumn is typically two to three times that in the spring, a level which does not affect yields adversely. In the drier regions of the country long-term increasing soil salinity has been observed, and leaching is required. This is generally accomplished during the pre-irrigation given in the spring, whose size is determined by the rainfall amount of the preceding winter. The increasing need to utilize brackish groundwater and recycled sewage effluent requires special measures, which have so far been successful. In particular, drip irrigation with its high average soil-water potential regime and partial wetting of the soil volume has achieved high yields under adverse conditions. However, the long-term trend of water-quality deterioration is unavoidable under present conditions, and will eventually necessitate either major changes in agricultural patterns or the provision of desalinated water for dilution of the irrigation water. (author)

  16. Qualidade de solo sob diferentes usos e manejos no Perímetro Irrigado Jaguaribe/Apodi, CE Soil quality under different land use and management in the Irrigated Perimeter of Jaguaribe/Apodi, Brazil

    Joana d'Arc N. Dantas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade do solo reflete sua capacidade em atuar de forma positiva na regulagem do fluxo energético dentro de um agroecossistema. Considerando o impacto da produção agrícola nas áreas de perímetros irrigados, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade de um Cambissolo Háplico Eutrófico típico sob diferentes usos e manejos, no Perímetro Irrigado Jaguaribe/Apodi, CE, Brasil. Os sistemas de produção avaliados foram o de cultivo perene de banana irrigada (CPB e o de cultivo anual de milho irrigado (CAMI além de áreas de referência sob vegetação natural. Coletaram-se amostras de solo nas camadas entre 0-5, 5-15, 15-25 e 25-40 cm de profundidade, avaliando-se os atributos físicos (densidade do solo - Ds, densidade de partículas - Dp, condutividade hidráulica - Ks, estabilidade dos agregados em água e químicos (pH em H2O, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, COT, NT, CTC a pH 7.0, SB - soma de bases, V - saturação de bases. A área sob CAMI apresentou maiores impactos negativos sobre Ds, Ks, Dp quando comparada com as dos demais usos, sendo Ds e Ks mais sensíveis na avaliação do impacto do uso do solo. Os teores de Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ e K+ foram maiores nas áreas cultivadas. Na área cultivada com bananeiras houve redução nos teores de K+ em função, provavelmente, da depleção deste elemento com a colheita dos frutos . No geral, ocorreu degradação da qualidade física e química do solo com o cultivo, resultando na redução da estabilidade estrutural, na percolação de água no solo e em impacto negativo sobre a matéria orgânica do solo.The soil quality reflects its ability in regulating the energy flux into an agroecosystem. Considering the impact of agricultural production in the irrigated areas, the objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical changes of a Typic Inceptisol under different uses and managements in the Irrigated Perimeter Jaguaribe / Apodi, CE, Brazil. Production systems were evaluated

  17. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo…

  18. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  19. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  20. Soil Water Distribution and Irrigation Uniformity Under Alternative Furrow Irrigation

    PAN Ying-hua; KANG Shao-zhong; DU Tai-sheng; YANG Xiu-ying

    2003-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to investigate the spatial-temporal distribution and the uni-formity of soil water under alternative furrow irrigation in spring maize field in Gansu Province. Resultsshowed that during the crop growing season, alternative drying and wetting furrows could incur crops to en-dure a water stress, thus the adsorptive ability of root system could be enhanced. As there was no zero fluxplane between irrigated furrows and non-irrigated furrows under alternative furrow irrigation, lateral infiltra-tion of water was obviously increased, thus decreasing the deep percolation. Compared with the conventionalirrigation, although the water consumption in alternative furrow irrigation was reduced, the uniformity of soilwater was not obviously affected.

  1. 基于语义本体的柑橘肥水管理决策支持系统%A decision support system for fertilization and irrigation management of citrus based on semantic ontology

    王艺; 王英; 原野; 郭云龙; 张自力; 邓烈; 李莉

    2014-01-01

    The key problems for realizing precision agriculture include integrating heterogeneous and multi-source agricultural information, developing localization agricultural resources, and providing personalized and active information services for individual farmers. In this paper, we present an approach to precision farming in citrus production management by using semantic technology. In our work, the first step was to transfer the expert knowledge existing in technical reports and books into the citrus fertilization and irrigation ontology that could be understood and directly computed by computer systems. By developing the ontology based on the semantic technology such as the resource framework description triples graph, heterogeneous and multi-source information was integrated into computable localization resources. We described how knowledge in the form of texts, pictures, and tables were encoded into resource description framework triples respectively. In addition, we also discussed how to establish properties, which is a difficulty in ontology development. Our ontology development process was supported by a set of professional tools:TopBraid Composer, the world’s most powerful modeling environment, and Gruff, a graphical triple-store browser. We created 31 properties in total and used another five standard properties from the Semantic Web standards. As our aim for building the ontology was to support the decision making for citrus production management, our citrus ontology was not just taxonomy for the citrus management knowledge compared to the existing agricultural ontologies. Then we developed a personalized decision support system for citrus fertilization and irrigation management, based on the ontology. Different from the existing agricultural information services, our system can actively provide personalized production management instructions for individual farmers via multiple terminal devices, including mobile phones and Web browsers. The demo application

  2. Effects of climate variability on irrigation scheduling in white varieties of Vitis vinifera of NW Spain

    Martínez, Emma M.; Trigo-Córdoba, Emiliano; Bouzas-Cid, Yolanda; Fandiño, María; Rey, Benjamín J.; Mirás-Avalos, Jose M.; Cancela, Javier J.

    2014-05-01

    Inter-annual climate variability, in particular the temporal distribution of rainfall is regarded as a critical factor to obtain an optimal irrigation management on crops, being more marked their relevance in Atlantic climates. The presence of precision irrigation systems in Vitis vinifera (L.) has created the need to understand the physiological effects on plant, and vineyard soils, together with production and quality parameters, to achieve and adequate irrigation management. This trial was performed on two relevant white grapevine varieties from Galicia (NW-Spain), cv. `Albariño` (D.O. Rías Baixas and Ribeiro) and cv. `Godello` (D.O. Valdeorras and D.O. Monterrei) during the 2012 and 2013 seasons. Two treatments were established following a completely randomized block design with four replications (7 plants each). The treatments were rainfed (R) and surface drip irrigation (DI), these last one was not applied in DO Monterrei during 2012. Irrigation was initiated when an average value of 400 cumulative degree days was reached, ending 15 days before the harvest. Different bioclimatic indices were calculated to characterize each season and location: Cool night index (CI); Heliothermal index (HI), which corresponds to Huglin's heliothermal index; and Winkler index. To assess the water status of the vines leaf (Ψmid) and stem (Ψstem) water potentials were measured at noon. Finally, production and qualitative data were collected for each treatment. No differences between DOs were observed for 'Godello' cultivar in bioclimatic indices within the Geoviticulture MCC system (Tonietto and Carboneau, 2004), indicating temperate warm-temperate (HI) and very cool nights (CI). For the Winkler index, cv. Godello is within the region I, near the region II in the case of D.O. Valdeorras in both years. In the case of 'Albariño', warmer nights were observed in DO Rías Baixas compared with DO Ribeiro, whereas the opposite was found for the thermal index. Leaf water potential

  3. Energy and irrigation in India.

    Hurst C

    1985-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper, cost benefit analysis of energy sources for groundwater irrigation in India - considers petroleum and biomass engines, electric motors and rural area electrification, animal traction, handpumps, etc.; considers irrigation potential and its impact on agricultural production; assesses the economic implications of energy policy, and the impact of farm size. Graphs, map, references, statistical tables.

  4. Are There Infinite Irrigation Trees?

    Bernot, M.; Caselles, V.; Morel, J. M.

    2006-08-01

    In many natural or artificial flow systems, a fluid flow network succeeds in irrigating every point of a volume from a source. Examples are the blood vessels, the bronchial tree and many irrigation and draining systems. Such systems have raised recently a lot of interest and some attempts have been made to formalize their description, as a finite tree of tubes, and their scaling laws [25], [26]. In contrast, several mathematical models [5], [22], [10], propose an idealization of these irrigation trees, where a countable set of tubes irrigates any point of a volume with positive Lebesgue measure. There is no geometric obstruction to this infinitesimal model and general existence and structure theorems have been proved. As we show, there may instead be an energetic obstruction. Under Poiseuille law R(s) = s -2 for the resistance of tubes with section s, the dissipated power of a volume irrigating tree cannot be finite. In other terms, infinite irrigation trees seem to be impossible from the fluid mechanics viewpoint. This also implies that the usual principle analysis performed for the biological models needs not to impose a minimal size for the tubes of an irrigating tree; the existence of the minimal size can be proven from the only two obvious conditions for such irrigation trees, namely the Kirchhoff and Poiseuille laws.

  5. Evapotranspiration of deficit irrigated sorghum

    Deficit irrigation is used commonly in regions with reduced or limited irrigation capacity to increase water use efficiency (WUE). This research measured sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) water use (ET) and yield so WUE could be determined. Two precision weighing lysimeters were used to accurate...

  6. Racionalização energética de uma estação de pressurização de um perímetro irrigado Energy management of pumping station in an irrigated perimeter

    Delly Oliveira Filho

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as formas de se diminuir os custos de energia elétrica dos irrigantes e seus custos de produção, listam-se: (i a adequação do bombeamento de água; (ii a adequação de força motriz, e (iii o gerenciamento do uso da água. O experimento foi realizado no Perímetro Irrigado de Mirorós, localizado no município de Ibipeba, Bahia. O estudo foi feito para a estação de pressurização 1 e analisados dois, de seus quatro conjuntos de motobombas. O processo de otimização do uso de energia adotado envolveu a adequação da bomba, do motor elétrico e a avaliação do conjunto motobomba. O potencial de economia de energia global, com a adequação do conjunto motobomba 1, foi de cerca de 8,75% e, para o conjunto 2, de 31,6%. Observou-se também que, quanto maior for o índice de carregamento, menor será o valor cobrado da água e, para tal, é necessário gerenciar o número de lotes em que se usa a irrigação simultaneamente.In order to decrease the production costs of small farmers - the participants of irrigation district, the possibilities to save electrical energy are: (i sizing the water pumping systems; (ii adopt the electric motive power, and (iii management of the water use. The experiment was conducted in the Miroros Irrigated Perimeter, located in Ibipeba, Bahia, Brazil. The study was done on the pressurization station 1, where two out of four motor pump sets were analyzed. The process of energy optimization used includes the pump and electric motor dimensioning and the evaluation of the pump-motor set. The global savings potential with the motor pump Set1 was around 8.75% and for the Set 2 was around 31.6%. It was observed as well, that the greater the load index (ratio between the actual load and the rated power smaller would be the water charges. In order to achieve the desired savings in the water use management, measures are to be implemented to stimulate simultaneous water use by the farmers.

  7. Determinants of prompt and adequate care among presumed malaria cases in a community in eastern Rwanda

    Ingabire, Chantal Marie; Kateera, Fredrick; Hakizimana, Emmanuel; Rulisa, Alexis; Muvunyi, Claude; Mens, Petra; Koenraadt, Sander; Mutesa, Leon; Vugt, Van Michele; Borne, Van Den Bart; Alaii, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background: In order to understand factors influencing fever/malaria management practices among community-based individuals, the study evaluated psychosocial, socio-demographic and environmental determinants of prompt and adequate healthcare-seeking behaviours. Methods: A quantitative household (

  8. Report of Wildlife Management Study : Monitoring Program of Wildlife Habitat and Associated Use in the Truckee-Carson Irrigation District, Nevada : Progress Report No. 1

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lahontan Valley contains approximately 48,745 acres of wetland habitat. The size of the areas range from small seep ponds of less than an acre to management...

  9. Report of Wildlife Management Study : Monitoring Program of Wildlife Habitat and Associated Use in the Truckee-Carson Irrigation District, Nevada : Progress Report No. 4

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lahontan Valley contains approximately 48,745 acres of wetland habitat. The size of the areas range from small seep ponds of less than an acre to management...

  10. Report of Wildlife Management Study : Monitoring Program of Wildlife Habitat and Associated Use in the Truckee-Carson Irrigation District, Nevada : Progress Report No. 5

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lahontan Valley contains approximately 48,745 acres of wetland habitat. The size of the areas range from small seep ponds of less than an acre to management...

  11. Report of Wildlife Management Study : Monitoring Program of Wildlife Habitat and Associated Use in the Truckee-Carson Irrigation District, Nevada : Progress Report No. 6

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lahontan Valley contains approximately 48,745 acres of wetland habitat. The size of the areas range from small seep ponds of less than an acre to management...

  12. Report of Wildlife Management Study : Monitoring Program of Wildlife Habitat and Associated Use in the Truckee-Carson Irrigation District, Nevada : Progress Report No. 3

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lahontan Valley contains approximately 48,745 acres of wetland habitat. The size of the areas range from small seep ponds of less than an acre to management...

  13. Report of Wildlife Management Study : Monitoring Program of Wildlife Habitat and Associated Use in the Truckee-Carson Irrigation District, Nevada : Progress Report No. 2

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lahontan Valley contains approximately 48,745 acres of wetland habitat. The size of the areas range from small seep ponds of less than an acre to management...

  14. Efeitos do sistema de condução, poda e irrigação na produção do maracujazeiro doce Effect of management system, pruning and irrigation on fruits production of sweet passion fruit

    Helena Adélia da Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O maracujá é um fruto de ampla aceitação dada a qualidade de seu suco, sendo o maracujazeiro-amarelo o mais cultivado no Brasil. Nos últimos anos, cresceu o interesse pelo maracujazeiro doce, em função de alcançar bons preços no mercado in natura. Assim, informações técnicas por parte dos agricultores têm se intensificado. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção e a qualidade dos frutos desta espécie, cultivada sob poda e irrigação em diferentes sistemas de condução. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento em faixas, contendo 12 tratamentos (plantas com e sem irrigação, com e sem poda e três sistemas de condução e 3 repetições. Com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir: a o sistema de condução e a poda não afetaram o tamanho dos frutos; b o sistema de condução não afetou a massa dos frutos, porém as plantas podadas produziram frutos com maior massa; c a poda diminuiu o número de frutos por planta e o rendimento por área, nos sistemas de condução em T normal e espaldeira vertical com um fio de arame; d a poda não alterou o número de frutos por planta e o rendimento por área, no sistema de condução em espaldeira vertical com dois fios de arame.The passion fruit is a fruit of large acceptance due to its juice quality, being the yellow passion fruit plant more cultivated in Brazil. In the last years, the interest for the sweet passion fruit plant increased because the good price in the market 'in natura'. This work had as objective to evaluate production and fruit quality of this species, cultivated with pruning and irrigation in different management systems. The experiment was carried out at randomized block design in strip with 12 treatments (3 management systems x plant irrigated or not x plant pruned or not in 3 replications. It can be concluded: a the management systems and the pruning did not affect the fruit size; b the management systems did not affect the fruit mass; however

  15. Deficit subsurface drip irrigation of cotton

    An experiment in arid west Texas, United States of America, grew cotton with subsurface drip irrigation providing four basic levels of water resource and three row widths (1.02 m, 0.76 m, and approximately 0.38 m). The former two row-width treatments contained three planting configurations (a full pattern and two skip patterns). In all, there were seven row-width-pattern configurations, each of which had four water levels, for a total of 28 treatments. Where farmers do not have enough water with which to irrigate their crops, they may choose: (1) to reduce their planted area and apply more water (up to the full water requirement) on this portion of their land; or (2) plant the entire area, whereby they apply a quantity of irrigation water that only partially meets consumptive use requirements. The purpose of this study was to develop mathematical characterizations for yield as a function of water resource for various popular row width/patterns, and then to use these equations in crop budget models to determine economically optimum scenarios for local cotton growers. The full cotton production budgets were based on a 405-ha farm. The assumed water resource varied from scarcely any to enough, with proper management, to supply the majority of crop water needs. In almost all scenarios, it was economically sound to stretch the water resource over the entire farm, rather than to try to maximize yield on portions of the farm. A break-even economic water resource between covering the entire farm irrigating only portions of it was about 2.0 mm/day. Ultra-narrow-row treatments significantly exceeded the treatments with traditional row widths at all four water levels. The highest yield of lint was 1 833 kg/ha. Applying large portions of the moisture requirement as pre-planting irrigation enabled yields of 600-900 kg/ha of lint for the full pattern width treatments on the smallest water treatment, which applied 36 mm of in-season irrigation. The skip-row patterns did not yield

  16. Remote sensing and control of irrigation system using a distributed wireless sensor network

    Distributed in-field sensor-based irrigation systems offer the potential to support site-specific irrigation management that allows producers to maximize their productivity while saving water. However, the seamless integration of sensor fusion, data interface, software design, and communications for...

  17. Irrigation scheduling and controlling crop water use efficiency with Infrared Thermometry

    Scientific methods for irrigation scheduling include weather, soil and plant-based techniques. Infrared thermometers can be used a non-invasive practice to monitor canopy temperature and better manage irrigation scheduling. This presentation will discuss the theoretical basis for monitoring crop can...

  18. Determinants of prompt and adequate care among presumed malaria cases in a community in eastern Rwanda: A cross sectional study

    Ingabire, C.M.; Kateera, F.; Hakizimana, E.; Rulisa, A.; Muvunyi, C.; Mens, P.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Mutesa, L.; Vugt, M. van; Borne, B. van den; Alaii, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In order to understand factors influencing fever/malaria management practices among community-based individuals, the study evaluated psychosocial, socio-demographic and environmental determinants of prompt and adequate healthcare-seeking behaviours. Methods: A quantitative household (HH)

  19. Quantifying the Impacts of Irrigation Technology Adoption on Water Resources in the High Plains Aquifer, USA

    Kendall, Anthony; Cotterman, Kayla; Hyndman, David

    2016-04-01

    Producers in key agricultural regions worldwide are contending with increasing demand while simultaneously managing declining water resources. The High Plains Aquifer (HPA) is the largest aquifer system in the United States, and supplied most of the water to irrigate 6 million hectares in 2012. Water levels in the central and southern sections of the aquifer have steadily declined, as groundwater recharge in this semi-arid region is insufficient to meet water demands. Individual irrigators have responded to these declines by moving from less efficient irrigation technologies to those that apply water more precisely. Yet, these newer technologies have also allowed for water to be pumped from lower-yielding wells, thus extending the life of any given well and allowing drawdown to continue. Here we use a dataset of the annual irrigation technology choices from every irrigator in the state of Kansas, located in the Central High Plains. This irrigation data, along with remotely-sensed Leaf Area Index, crop choice, and irrigated area, drives a coupled surface/groundwater simulation created using the Landscape Hydrology Model (LHM) to examine the impacts of changing irrigation technology on the regional water cycle, and water levels in the HPA. The model is applied to simulate cases in which no irrigation technology change had occurred, and complete adoption of newer technologies to better understand impacts of management choices on regional water resources.

  20. Application of PDCA skill in project management of irrigation works%PDCA技术在水利工程施工管理中的应用

    刘新浩

    2009-01-01

    介绍了PICA技术是基于施工全过程的管理模式,通过分析水利工程施工的特点和管理难点,以及建设市场对管理技术的要求,探讨了将PDCA技术运用到水利工程施工管理中的方法,同时证实了该技术的可行性.%The paper introduces that PDCA skill is a managing mode on the whole constructional process, through analyzes features and diffi-cult point of project construction as well as requirements of market to managing skill, the paper discusses about methods of using PDCA skill in project management of irrgation works, and proves feasibility of the skill.