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Sample records for adenomatous hyperplasia arising

  1. Solitary Atypical Adenomatous Hyperplasia in a 12-Year-Old Girl

    Jin, Moran; Lee, Yang-Haeng; Kim, Bomi; Yoon, Young Chul; Wi, Jin Hong

    2016-01-01

    Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia is a premalignant lesion reflecting a focal proliferation of atypical cells. These lesions are usually observed as incidental findings in lungs that have been resected due to other conditions, such as lung cancer. We report the youngest case of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia on record in a 12-year-old girl. In this patient, the lesion was found in association with pneumothorax.

  2. Solitary Atypical Adenomatous Hyperplasia in a 12-Year-Old Girl

    Jin, Moran; Lee, Yang-Haeng; Kim, Bomi; Yoon, Young Chul; Wi, Jin Hong

    2016-01-01

    Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia is a premalignant lesion reflecting a focal proliferation of atypical cells. These lesions are usually observed as incidental findings in lungs that have been resected due to other conditions, such as lung cancer. We report the youngest case of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia on record in a 12-year-old girl. In this patient, the lesion was found in association with pneumothorax. PMID:27065090

  3. Biochemical and immunohistochemical estrogen and progesterone receptors in adenomatous hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma: correlations with stage and other clinicopathologic features

    Nyholm, H C; Nielsen, A L; Lyndrup, J; Norup, P; Thorpe, S M

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigates clinicopathologic associations of estrogen and progesterone receptor content in endometrial carcinoma. STUDY DESIGN: One hundred fifty-two patients with endometrial cancer and 12 with adenomatous hyperplasia were included. Dextran-coated charcoal receptor assay ...

  4. [Clinical significance of telomerase activity in precancerous lesion of the liver (adenomatous hyperplasia)].

    Nishimoto, A; Miura, N; Oshimura, M

    1998-05-01

    To understand the role of telomere dynamics in hepatocellular carcinogenesis, we examined the lengths of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and surrounding tissues with chronic active hepatitis (CAH), liver cirrhosis (LC) and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH). The peak TRFs in all HCCs were significantly shorter than those of the surrounding tissues (CAH, LC). TRF in AAH was shortened and similar to that of HCC. Telomerase was examined in CAH, LC, AH, and HCC, and detected in high levels almost exclusively in HCCs. Interestingly, the intensity of telomerase activity in the AH was similar to that of HCC. Thus, the progressive shortening of telomere and the activation of telomerase may be a useful marker for the early detection of malignant progression in liver disease. PMID:9613131

  5. A typical adenomatous hyperplasia of the lung: correlation of radiographic and pathologic findings

    Objective: To study radiographic features of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) of lung and correlate them with their pathologic findings, so as to improve the imaging diagnose. Methods: The imaging features of 8 patients with pathology- proved AAH were reviewed. All patients were women with age ranging from 35 to 74 years. All cases had chest radiography and HRCT. The radiographic findings were studied retrospectively and correlated with those of pat hology. Results: On chest X-ray, the foci in five patients presented as nodule-like area of a bit high attenuation, while the chest radiograph in the other three patients were negative. On HRCT, all 8 patients presented as non-solid nodules. All lesions were round or oval shaped with well-defined margin (n=4) or poor-defined margin (n=3). The greatest dimension of the lesions ranged from 5.0 mm to 20.0 mm. Their CT value ranged from -362.7 HU to -485.6 HU, the mean CT value was (-423.0 ± 47.0) HU. Air bronchograms and/or bubbles were seen in 5 lesions. Coarse spiculation and pleural tag was not seen in any lesion. Before operation, all the nodules did not change in size over a follow-up period from one month to six months. Pathologic findings showed atypical epithelial cell proliferation along thickened alveolar septa without alveolar collapse. Conclusion: AAH should be considered in cases with the following features: (1) nodules ate found in lung cancer screening or incidentally detected; (2) the diameter of the nodule is usually less than 10 mm; (3) the lesion presented as non-solid nodule on HRCT, air bronchogram and/or bubble sign can be seen; (4) no coarse spiculation and plural tag was seen. (authors)

  6. High-resolution CT findings of pulmonary atypical adenomatous hyperplasia of 5 mm or less in diameter

    The objective of this study was to clarify the high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of pulmonary atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) of 5 mm or less in diameter. We evaluated the HRCT findings of 43 histopathologically confirmed AAH of 5 mm or less in diameter in 7 patients who underwent lobectomy for pulmonary adenocarcinoma. For comparison, we also examined the HRCT findings of 13 bronchioloalveolar carcinomas (BAC) of the same size from these patients. We identified 36 of 43 AAH and all 13 BAC on HRCT performed with multidetector-row CT. Thirty-five AAH and 11 BAC showed ground-glass opacity without any high-attenuation component. Margins of 20 AAH were well defined, and 16 were ill defined. In BAC, 11 lesions demonstrated well-defined margins, with only 2 showing ill-defined margins. Most AAH lesions of 5 mm or less in diameter are identified as ground-glass opacity on HRCT. Detection of minute ground-glass opacity is important in locating AAH on HRCT. (author)

  7. Massive nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast arising simultaneously in the axilla and vulva.

    Jordan, Adrienne C; Jaffer, Shabnam; Mercer, Stephen E

    2011-02-01

    The authors describe a 52-year-old woman with a history of bilateral mastectomies for macromastia caused by massive nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH), who presented with 2 large growths in her left axilla and groin. These masses had been increasing in size for nearly a year. When excised, the axillary mass had dimensions of 14.0 × 14.0 × 5.5 cm(3) and weighed 664 g. The groin mass was slightly smaller at 14.5 × 11.0 × 5.0 cm(3) and 518 g. Microscopic examination of both masses revealed breast tissue expanded by a hyalinized stroma with prominent slit-like pseudovascular spaces, consistent with PASH. Small incidental foci of PASH are common findings in breast excisions; however, large nodular foci are rare. Furthermore, nodular foci in accessory breast tissue are exceedingly rarer and can raise clinical concerns for malignancy. Histopathologically, PASH can be mistaken for low-grade angiosarcoma. To the authors' knowledge, the present case appears to be the first description of multiple simultaneous foci of massive nodular PASH arising in accessory breast tissue. PMID:21285079

  8. Focal epithelial hyperplasia arising after delivery of metal-ceramic fixed dental prosthesis

    Park, Min-Woo; Cho, Young-Ah; Kim, Soung-Min; Myoung, Hoon; Lee, Jong-Ho; Lee, Suk-Keun

    2014-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced alteration of the oral mucosa that presents with a clinically distinct appearance. While other HPV-infected lesions such as squamous papilloma, verruca vulgaris, and condyloma acuminatum involve the skin, oral mucosa, and genital mucosa, FEH occurs only in the oral mucosa. The affected oral mucosa exhibits multiple papules and nodules with each papule/nodule being flat-topped or sessile. The affected region resembles t...

  9. Papillary endothelial hyperplasia arising in the irradiated breast: A diagnostic dilemma.

    Khazai, Laila; Chau, Alec; Hoover, Susan; Rosa, Marilin

    2016-07-01

    Papillary endothelial hyperplasia (PEH) is a benign proliferative lesion that may occur in any site of the body, but most commonly affects the skin and subcutaneous tissues. In the breast, PEH has been documented but is rare. PEH is notorious for being misdiagnosed as angiosarcoma due to its complex growth pattern, papillary processes and interlacing vascular channels. The occurrence of PEH years after breast irradiation constitutes a pathological and clinical diagnostic challenge because angiosarcoma is far more common in this setting. The most important features that differentiate papillary endothelial hyperplasia from angiosarcoma are its presentation as a round nodule without infiltrative borders, its localization inside a vessel or in association with thrombus, and the lack of significant cytologic atypia or areas of solid growth, even in the presence of a complex architecture. Clinical history and site of involvement (cutaneous versus parenchymal) are usually of help to establish a correct diagnosis. Herein, we describe two cases of PEH presenting in patients with history of breast carcinoma and breast radiation therapy. The clinical and morphological features as well as the differential diagnoses are discussed. To our knowledge, no other cases of PEH of the breast occurring in the post-radiation setting have been described in the literature. PMID:27157404

  10. Focal epithelial hyperplasia arising after delivery of metal-ceramic fixed dental prosthesis.

    Park, Min-Woo; Cho, Young-Ah; Kim, Soung-Min; Myoung, Hoon; Lee, Jong-Ho; Lee, Suk-Keun

    2014-12-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced alteration of the oral mucosa that presents with a clinically distinct appearance. While other HPV-infected lesions such as squamous papilloma, verruca vulgaris, and condyloma acuminatum involve the skin, oral mucosa, and genital mucosa, FEH occurs only in the oral mucosa. The affected oral mucosa exhibits multiple papules and nodules with each papule/nodule being flat-topped or sessile. The affected region resembles the normal color of oral mucosa rather than appearing as a white color since the epithelial surface is not hyperkeratinized. Almost all cases present with multiple sites of occurrence. This rare, benign epithelial proliferation is related to low-risk HPV, especially HPV-13 and -32, and is not transformed into carcinoma. We report a case of FEH that arose on the attached gingiva of an East Asian male adult related to prosthesis without detection of any HPV subtype in HPV DNA chip and sequencing. PMID:25558348

  11. Desmoid tumours in familial adenomatous polyposis.

    Gurbuz, A K; Giardiello, F.M.; Petersen, G M; Krush, A J; Offerhaus, G. J.; Booker, S V; Kerr, M.C.; Hamilton, S R

    1994-01-01

    Desmoids are rare, benign fibromatous lesions, which can arise in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), a disorder caused by germline adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene mutation. This study investigated the risk of desmoids in FAP, the relation between specific APC gene mutations and desmoid formation, and the clinical characteristics of FAP patients with desmoids. Eighty three of 825 FAP patients (10%) from 49 of 161 kindreds (30%) had desmoids. The absolute risk of desmoids...

  12. Familial adenomatous polyposis

    Bülow, Steffen

    1989-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis is an autosomal dominant disease that includes early development of up to thousands of colorectal adenomas and several extracolonic manifestations. All untreated patients will develop colorectal adenocarcinoma. The treatment of choice is colectomy and ileorectal ana...... a national or regional polyposis register. The recent detection of a specific gene for familial adenomatous polyposisis a long step forward, and several problems may be solved by increasing international cooperation.......Familial adenomatous polyposis is an autosomal dominant disease that includes early development of up to thousands of colorectal adenomas and several extracolonic manifestations. All untreated patients will develop colorectal adenocarcinoma. The treatment of choice is colectomy and ileorectal...... frequent occurrence of premalignant duodenal adenomas. The prognosis is good after prophylactic colectomy in patients without carcinoma. All first degree relatives of affected family members should be examined regularly with proctosigmoidoscopy from the age of ten, and prophylaxis should be organised using...

  13. Familial adenomatous polyposis

    Bülow, Steffen

    1989-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis is an autosomal dominant disease that includes early development of up to thousands of colorectal adenomas and several extracolonic manifestations. All untreated patients will develop colorectal adenocarcinoma. The treatment of choice is colectomy and ileorectal ana...... a national or regional polyposis register. The recent detection of a specific gene for familial adenomatous polyposis is a long step forward, and several problems may be solved by increasing international cooperation.......Familial adenomatous polyposis is an autosomal dominant disease that includes early development of up to thousands of colorectal adenomas and several extracolonic manifestations. All untreated patients will develop colorectal adenocarcinoma. The treatment of choice is colectomy and ileorectal...... frequent occurrence of premalignant duodenal adenomas. The prognosis is good after prophylactic colectomy in patients without carcinoma. All first degree relatives of affected family members should be examined regularly with proctosigmoidoscopy from the age of ten, and prophylaxis should be organised using...

  14. Familial adenomatous polyposis

    Rozen Paul

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP is characterized by the development of many tens to thousands of adenomas in the rectum and colon during the second decade of life. FAP has an incidence at birth of about 1/8,300, it manifests equally in both sexes, and accounts for less than 1% of colorectal cancer (CRC cases. In the European Union, prevalence has been estimated at 1/11,300-37,600. Most patients are asymptomatic for years until the adenomas are large and numerous, and cause rectal bleeding or even anemia, or cancer develops. Generally, cancers start to develop a decade after the appearance of the polyps. Nonspecific symptoms may include constipation or diarrhea, abdominal pain, palpable abdominal masses and weight loss. FAP may present with some extraintestinal manifestations such as osteomas, dental abnormalities (unerupted teeth, congenital absence of one or more teeth, supernumerary teeth, dentigerous cysts and odontomas, congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE, desmoid tumors, and extracolonic cancers (thyroid, liver, bile ducts and central nervous system. A less aggressive variant of FAP, attenuated FAP (AFAP, is characterized by fewer colorectal adenomatous polyps (usually 10 to 100, later age of adenoma appearance and a lower cancer risk. Some lesions (skull and mandible osteomas, dental abnormalities, and fibromas on the scalp, shoulders, arms and back are indicative of the Gardner variant of FAP. Classic FAP is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and results from a germline mutation in the adenomatous polyposis (APC gene. Most patients (~70% have a family history of colorectal polyps and cancer. In a subset of individuals, a MUTYH mutation causes a recessively inherited polyposis condition, MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP, which is characterized by a slightly increased risk of developing CRC and polyps/adenomas in both the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. Diagnosis is based on a

  15. Diagnosis of familial adenomatous polyposis

    Bülow, Steffen

    1991-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) includes early development of up to thousands of colorectal adenomas and of colorectal adenocarcinoma in all untreated cases. Moreover, a variety of extracolonic manifestations are seen. Proctosigmoidoscopy is used for screening; when adenomas are found, the d...... preclinical diagnosis in the future. A centralized registration of FAP has resulted in an improved prognosis, and the establishment of international groups will contribute to increased research of this disease....

  16. The Pancreas in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    Alaa Elkharwily

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial adenomatous polyposis is an archetypal disease illustrating the genetic basis of human cancer. The adenomatouspolyposis coli gene functions as a tumor suppressor with hundreds of known mutations that result in a defective adenomatous polyposis coli protein. In addition to the certain fate of colon cancer without colectomy, patients with familialadenomatous polyposis are also at increased risk for other types of neoplasms, including those which affect the pancreas. This review focuses on periampullary and ampullary tumors, benign and malignant pancreatic neoplasms that are associated with familial adenomatous polyposis and Gardner syndrome and pancreatitis in these patients. An individualized surveillance regimen is suggested which for certain patients could include endoscopic ultrasound.

  17. The Pancreas in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    Alaa Elkharwily; Klaus Gottlieb

    2008-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis is an archetypal disease illustrating the genetic basis of human cancer. The adenomatouspolyposis coli gene functions as a tumor suppressor with hundreds of known mutations that result in a defective adenomatous polyposis coli protein. In addition to the certain fate of colon cancer without colectomy, patients with familialadenomatous polyposis are also at increased risk for other types of neoplasms, including those which affect the pancreas. This review focuses...

  18. Analysis of mtDNA sequence variants in colorectal adenomatous polyps

    Grizzle William

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Colorectal tumors mostly arise from sporadic adenomatous polyps. Polyps are defined as a mass of cells that protrudes into the lumen of the colon. Adenomatous polyps are benign neoplasms that, by definition display some characteristics of dysplasia. It has been shown that polyps were benign tumors which may undergo malignant transformation. Adenomatous polyps have been classified into three histologic types; tubular, tubulovillous, and villous with increasing malignant potential. The ability to differentially diagnose these colorectal adenomatous polyps is important for therapeutic intervention. To date, little efforts have been directed to identifying genetic changes involved in adenomatous polyps. This study was designed to examine the relevance of mitochondrial genome alterations in the three adenomatous polyps. Using high resolution restriction endonucleases and PCR-based sequencing, fifty-seven primary fresh frozen tissues of adenomatous polyps (37 tumors and 20 matched surrounding normal tissues obtained from the southern regional Cooperative Human Tissue Network (CHTN and Grady Memorial Hospital at Atlanta were screened with three mtDNA regional primer pairs that spanned 5.9 kbp. Results from our data analyses revealed the presence of forty-four variants in some of these mitochondrial genes that the primers spanned; COX I, II, III, ATP 6, 8, CYT b, ND 5, 6 and tRNAs. Based on the MITODAT database as a sequence reference, 25 of the 44 (57% variants observed were unreported. Notably, a heteroplasmic variant C8515G/T in the MT-ATP 8 gene and a germline variant 8327delA in the tRNAlys was observed in all the tissue samples of the three adenomatous polyps in comparison to the referenced database sequence. A germline variant G9055A in the MT-ATP 6 gene had a frequency of 100% (17/17 in tubular and 57% (13/23 in villous adenomas; no corresponding variant was in tubulovillous adenomas. Furthermore, A9006G variant at MT-ATP 6 gene was

  19. Chemoprevention of familial adenomatous polyposis.

    Lynch, Patrick M

    2016-07-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) has always been first and foremost a surgical disease, whose treatment with colectomy has long been known to reduce risk of premature cancer death. The notion of reducing polyp burden and potentially delaying surgical intervention has spawned a host of "chemoprevention" trials. In this paper I selectively review the findings from these studies, highlighting trial design issues and in particular some of the limitations of historical and existing trial endpoint measures. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents have been the most commonly employed chemopreventive agents. Sulindac, largely by historical accident, has been the most extensively studied, and is widely considered the standard of care when a clinical decision to intervene medically is made. Newer trials are evaluating combinations of agents in order to take advantage of differing mechanisms of action, in the hope of achieving synergy, as no single agent predictably or completely suppresses adenoma growth. Some of these studies and other single-agent interventions are discussed, though an exploration of the various mechanisms of action is beyond the scope of this paper. It is essential that future trials focus on the issue of "clinical benefit", not simply because the US Food and Drug Administration has insisted on it, but because only real evidence-based advances can improve the standard of medical care for FAP patients. Hence my focus on issues of trial design and clinically relevant endpoints. PMID:27083160

  20. Familial adenomatous polyposis: from bedside to benchside.

    O'Sullivan, M J

    2012-02-03

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a dominantly inherited cancer-predisposition syndrome with an incidence of between 1:17,000 and 1:5,000. The condition has been causally linked to mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene located at 5q21. Virtually all mutations in the APC gene are truncating mutations, resulting in loss of function of the APC protein. Spontaneous germline mutation of this gene occurs frequently and accounts for the high incidence of FAP. The gene is somatically mutated at an early point in the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma progression. Somatic mutations of the APC gene are also frequently observed in a variety of other human carcinomas. Isolation of the APC gene has led to the recognition of genotype-phenotype correlations and, together with protein studies, has helped to elucidate the structure and function of the APC protein. This report aims to take the reader from a clinical appreciation to a molecular understanding of FAP.

  1. Surgical treatment in familial adenomatous polyposis

    Tudyka, Vera N.; Clark, Susan K.

    2012-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a dominantly inherited condition caused by germline mutation of the APC gene resulting in formation of numerous large bowel adenomas in late childhood or adolescence. Unless these are removed, colorectal cancer inevitably develops. Prophylactic surgical treatment is required to prevent this. In surgical decision making, considerations should include genotype-phenotype correlation, perioperative morbidity and risk of impaired sexual and reproductive func...

  2. Causes of death in familial adenomatous polyposis

    Galle, T S; Juel, K; Bülow, S

    1999-01-01

    The prognosis in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) has improved over the past decades owing to a reduction in the prevalence of colorectal cancer, resulting from effective early screening. During the same period several polyposis registers have recorded an increasing number of deaths due to du...... duodenal/periampullary cancer and desmoid tumours. The aim of this study was to examine the causes of death with special emphasis on duodenal/periampullary cancer....

  3. Rare combination of familial adenomatous polyposis and gallbladder polyps

    MORI, YASUHISA; Sato, Norihiro; Matayoshi, Nobutaka; Tamura, Toshihisa; Minagawa, Noritaka; Shibao, Kazunori; Higure, Aiichiro; Nakamoto, Mitsuhiro; Taguchi, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis is associated with a high incidence of malignancies in the upper gastrointestinal tract (particularly ampullary adenocarcinomas). However, few reports have described a correlation between familial adenomatous polyposis and gallbladder neoplasms. We present a case of a 60-year-old woman with familial adenomatous polyposis who presented with an elevated mass in the neck of the gallbladder (measuring 16 mm × 8 mm in diameter) and multiple small cholecystic polyps. ...

  4. Cribiform variant of papillary thyroid cancer and familial adenomatous polyposis

    Perea del Pozo, E.; Ramirez Plaza, C.; J. Padillo Ruiz; J.M. Martos Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndrome characterised by the progressive development of multiple colorectal adenomatous polyps and an increased incidence of colorectal carcinoma. It is often accompanied by other benign or malignant extracolonic manifestations, including gastric and duodenal tumours, osteomas, desmoid tumours, retinal pigmentation, and thyroid and adrenocortical tumours Methods and results: We report the case ...

  5. Attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis (AFAP). A review of the literature

    Knudsen, Anne Lyster; Bisgaard, Marie Luise; Bülow, Steffen

    2003-01-01

    Over the last decade, a subset of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients with a milder course of disease termed attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis (AFAP) has been described. AFAP is not well-defined as a disease entity - the reports on AFAP are largely casuistic or only deal with a...

  6. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Mutation Leads to Myopia Development in Mice

    Liu, Zhen; Qiu, Fangfang; Li, Jing; Zhu, Zhenzhen; Yang, Wenzhao; Zhou, Xiangtian; An, Jianhong; Huang, Furong; Wang, Qiongsi; Reinach, Peter S.; Li, Wei; Chen, Wensheng; Liu, Zuguo

    2015-01-01

    Myopia incidence in China is rapidly becoming a very serious sight compromising problem in a large segment of the general population. Therefore, delineating the underlying mechanisms leading to myopia will markedly lessen the likelihood of other sight compromising complications. In this regard, there is some evidence that patients afflicted with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), havean adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutation and a higher incidence of myopia. To clarify this possible ass...

  7. Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia With Eosinophilia

    Rath Namita

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia is a disease of the occident. It is mainly seen in middle aged women. It presents as multiple small pink or purple popular or nodular eruptions, in the head and neck area. Lesions of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia are often confused with lesions of Kimura’s disease, which is more common in young males. We report a case of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia in a 34 year old female. The patient is responding to monthly intralesional triamcinolone acetate along with cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen. This case is being reported due to its rarity in Indian patients.

  8. Atypical focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver

    Muhammad Rizwan Khan; Taimur Saleem; Tanveer Ul Haq; Kanwal Aftab

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Focal nodular hyperplasia, a benign hepatic tumor, is usually asymptomatic. However, rarely the entity can cause symptoms, mandating intervention. METHOD: We present a case of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver, which caused a considerable diagnostic dilemma due to its atypical presentation. RESULTS: A 29-year-old woman presented with a 15-year history of a progressively increasing mass in the right upper quadrant which was associated with pain and emesis. Examination showed a firm, mobile mass palpable below the right subcostal margin. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed an exophytic mass arising from hepatic segments III and IVb. Trucut biopsy of the hepatic mass was equivocal. Angiography showed a vascular tumor that was supplied by a tortuous branch of the proper hepatic artery. Surgical intervention for removal of the mass was undertaken. Intra-operatively, two large discrete tumors were found and completely resected. Histopathological examination showed features consistent with focal nodular hyperplasia. CONCLUSION: This description of an unusual case of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver highlights the point that the diagnosis of otherwise benign hepatic tumors may be difficult despite extensive work-up in some cases.

  9. Exophytic benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Blaschko, Sarah D; Eisenberg, Michael L

    2011-08-01

    A 60-year-old man had incidental finding of a multilobular 8 × 7 × 7-cm mass identified posterior to the urinary bladder in continuity with the prostate. The man's prostate-specific antigen was 1.87, and he denied any lower urinary tract symptoms. A transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy demonstrated benign prostatic tissue. A computed tomography-guided needle aspiration demonstrated a benign epithelium-lined cyst, likely prostatic in origin. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a proliferation of prostatic epithelial and stromal cells. Although prostatic hyperplasia is usually restricted to the prostate gland, hyperplastic nodules occasionally protrude outside the prostate and rarely form exophytic pelvic masses. PMID:20869104

  10. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia

    Ghosh SK

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A 28 year old female presented with multiple, firm, nodular lesions on the back of left pinna and adjoining skull with severe itching and eczematous changes of left pinna. Histopathology revealed picture consistent with angiolymphoid hyperplasia. The nodules persisted for 3 year and surgically excised.

  11. Results of national registration of familial adenomatous polyposis

    Bülow, Steffen

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Danish Polyposis Register was established in 1971 with the aim of improving the poor prognosis of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), and in 1975 the register became national. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of colorectal cancer and survival ...

  12. Attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis presenting as ampullary adenocarcinoma

    Trimbath, J.D.; Griffin, C; Romans, K; Giardiello, F M

    2003-01-01

    The risk of periampullary cancer in patients with classic familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is significantly increased compared with the general population. However, the incidence of this extracolonic manifestation in attenuated FAP (AFAP) is unknown. We report the case of a 38 year old woman with no known family history of polyposis or colorectal cancer, who presented with ampullary adenocarcinoma. Diagnosis of AFAP was made only after evaluation of the patient’s extended family history a...

  13. Age and manifestation related symptoms in familial adenomatous polyposis

    Hohenberger Werner; Reingruber Bertram; Brueckl Wolfgang M; Croner Roland S; Guenther Klaus

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background To identify early symptoms of familial adenomatous polyposis with a view to improve early diagnosis and treatment. Diagnosis on the basis of genetic testing is usually limited to where there is a known family history, so FAP is more usually diagnosed on clinical grounds. Except for those identified via FAP registers, the majority of patients are symptomatic at the time of diagnosis. Methods We undertook a retrospective study of 143 FAP patients treated at the Department of...

  14. Nonclassic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Selma Feldman Witchel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH due to P450c21 (21-hydroxylase deficiency is a common autosomal recessive disorder. This disorder is due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene which is located at chromosome 6p21. The clinical features predominantly reflect androgen excess rather than adrenal insufficiency leading to an ascertainment bias favoring diagnosis in females. Treatment goals include normal linear growth velocity and “on-time” puberty in affected children. For adolescent and adult women, treatment goals include regularization of menses, prevention of progression of hirsutism, and fertility. This paper will review key aspects regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of NCAH.

  15. Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasias.

    Gilliam, A C; Wood, G S

    2000-06-01

    Benign hyperplastic lymphoid infiltrates of the skin (pseudolymphoma, older term) simulate lymphoma clinically and histologically. They can be divided into B-cell predominant (typical cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia (CLH), angiolymphoid hyperplasia, Kimura's disease, and Castleman's disease) and T-cell predominant (T-cell CLH, lymphomatoid contact dermatitis, and lymphomatoid drug eruption). Both types may represent exaggerated reactions to diverse external antigens (insect bite, tattoo, zoster, trauma, among others). A composite assessment of clinical presentation and behavior, routine histology, immunophenotyping, and molecular studies is essential for the diagnosis of benign cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates. Treatment includes antibiotics, intralesional and systemic corticosteroids, excision, radiotherapy, and immunosuppressants. Treatment depends on the assessment and biologic behavior, which is usually benign. Molecular biologic analysis has shown that a significant proportion of cases harbor occult B- or T-cell clones (clonal CLH). Progression to overt cutaneous lymphoma has been observed in a minority of cases. Patients with clonal populations of B or T cells and persistent lesions should be closely observed for emergence of a lymphoma. PMID:10892716

  16. SOLITARY VILLO ADENOMATOUS POLYP WITH CARCINOMATOUS CHANGES – RECTUM: A CASE REPORT

    Divvya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available olitary villo-adenomatous polyp in the rectum with focal dysplastic changes involving both adenomatous and villous component is very uncommon. This 60 year old male patient presented with intermittent hematochezia. Colonoscopy did not reveal any other polypoidal lesion in the colon.

  17. Structural basis of the Axin–adenomatous polyposis coli interaction

    Spink, Katharine Eklof; Polakis, Paul; Weis, William I.

    2000-01-01

    Axin and the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor protein are components of the Wnt/Wingless growth factor signaling pathway. In the absence of Wnt signal, Axin and APC regulate cytoplasmic levels of the proto-oncogene β-catenin through the formation of a large complex containing these three proteins, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and several other proteins. Both Axin and APC are known to be critical for β-catenin regulation, and truncations in APC that eliminate the Axin-b...

  18. Guidelines for the clinical management of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)

    Vasen, H.F.; Moslein, G.; Alonso, A.; Aretz, S.; Bernstein, I.; Bertario, L.; Blanco, I.; Bulow, S.; Burn, J.; Capella, G.; Colas, C.; Engel, C.; Frayling, I.; Friedl, W.; Hes, F.J.; Hodgson, S.; Jarvinen, H.; Mecklin, J.P.; Moller, P.; Myrhoi, T.; Nagengast, F.M.; Parc, Y.; Phillips, R.; Clark, S.K.; Leon, M.P. de; Renkonen-Sinisalo, L.; Sampson, J.R.; Stormorken, A.; Tejpar, S.; Thomas, H.J.; Wijnen, J.; Vasen, H F A; Möslein, G; Alonso, A; Aretz, S; Bernstein, Inge Thomsen; Bertario, L; Blanco, I; Bülow, Steffen; Burn, J; Capella, G; Colas, C; Engel, C; Frayling, I; Friedl, W; Hes, F J; Hodgson, S; Järvinen, H; Mecklin, J-P; Møller, P; Myrhøi, T; Nagensgast, F M; Parc, Y; Phillips, R; Clark, S K; Ponz de Leon, M; Renkonen-Sinisalo, L; Sampson, J R; Stormorken, A; Tejpar, S; Thomas, H J W; Wijnen, J

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a well-described inherited syndrome, which is responsible for <1% of all colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. The syndrome is characterised by the development of hundreds to thousands of adenomas in the colorectum. Almost all patients will develop CRC...... typical FAP. The gene is the MUTYH gene and the inheritance is autosomal recessive. In April 2006 and February 2007, a workshop was organised in Mallorca by European experts on hereditary gastrointestinal cancer aiming to establish guidelines for the clinical management of FAP and to initiate...

  19. Glycoprotein expression by adenomatous polyps of the colon

    Roney, Celeste A.; Xie, Jianwu; Xu, Biying; Jabour, Paul; Griffiths, Gary; Summers, Ronald M.

    2008-03-01

    Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States. Specificity in diagnostic imaging for detecting colorectal adenomas, which have a propensity towards malignancy, is desired. Adenomatous polyp specimens of the colon were obtained from the mouse model of colorectal cancer called adenomatous polyposis coli-multiple intestinal neoplasia (APC Min). Histological evaluation, by the legume protein Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-1), determined expression of the glycoprotein α-L-fucose. FITC-labelled UEA-1 confirmed overexpression of the glycoprotein by the polyps on fluorescence microscopy in 17/17 cases, of which 13/17 included paraffin-fixed mouse polyp specimens. In addition, FITC-UEA-1 ex vivo multispectral optical imaging of 4/17 colonic specimens displayed over-expression of the glycoprotein by the polyps, as compared to non-neoplastic mucosa. Here, we report the surface expression of α-L-fucosyl terminal residues by neoplastic mucosal cells of APC specimens of the mouse. Glycoprotein expression was validated by the carbohydrate binding protein UEA-1. Future applications of this method are the development of agents used to diagnose cancers by biomedical imaging modalities, including computed tomographic colonography (CTC). UEA-1 targeting to colonic adenomas may provide a new avenue for the diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma by CT imaging.

  20. Desmoid tumour in familial adenomatous polyposis. A review of literature

    Knudsen, Anne Louise; Bülow, Steffen

    2001-01-01

    Desmoid tumours (DT) are rare benign tumours that do not metastasise, but tend to invade locally. DT are frequently seen in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), and diagnosis and treatment are often difficult. Surgical trauma, genetic predisposition and hormonal factors are...... considered to be correlated with the development and growth of DT. In patients with FAP, 50% of the tumours are localised intra-abdominally, and 85-100% of these are mesenteric. DT frequently present as non- tender, slowly growing masses. The symptoms are abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhoea or haematochezia....... Mesenteric DT can cause small bowel obstruction or ischaemia, hydronephrosis or form fistulas. Diagnosis is obtained through biopsy and the extension is determined by a CT-scan. Surgical excision is recommended in patients with DT in the abdominal wall. First line treatment of mesenteric DT is a NSAID in...

  1. Clinicopathological features of familial adenomatous polyposis in Korean patients

    Jung, Sung Min; Yoon, Yong Sik; Lim, Seok-Byeong; Yu, Chang Sik; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To identify prognostic factors and to correlate APC mutations with clinical features, including extracolic manifestations. METHODS: One hundred thirty-five patients who underwent surgical procedures for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) were included. FAP was diagnosed when the number of adenomatous polyps was > 100. Data related to patient, extracoloic manifestations, cancer characteristics, operative procedure, follow up and surveillance were collected. APC mutation testing was performed in the 30 most recent patients. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and polymerase chain reaction products using 31 primer pairs on APC gene were sequenced. A retrospective study was performed to investigate a causal relationship between prognosis and feature of patient. RESULTS: The mean age of the 51 patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) was older than that of those without CRC (30.5 vs 36.9, P = 0.002). Older individuals were more likely to have colon cancer at the time of FAP diagnosis [odds ratio, 4.75 (95%CI: 1.71-13.89) and 5.91(1.76-22.12) for 40-49 years and age > 50 vs age < 30). The number of confirmed deaths was 13 and the median age at death was 40 years (range, 27 to 85 years). Ten of the deaths (76.9%) were from CRC. Another cause of two cases of death were desmoid tumors (15.4%). Development of cancer on remnant rectal or ileal mucosa after surgery was not observed. The APC mutation testing revealed 23 pathogenic mutations and one likely pathogenic mutation, among which were four novel mutations. The correlation between mutational status and clinical manifestations was investigated. Mutations that could prodict poor prognosis were at codon 1309 which located on mutation cluster region, codon 1465 and codon 1507. CONCLUSION: Identification of APC mutations should aid in the diagnosis and counseling of family members in terms of early diagnosis and management of FAP. PMID:27158207

  2. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Mutation Leads to Myopia Development in Mice.

    Zhen Liu

    Full Text Available Myopia incidence in China is rapidly becoming a very serious sight compromising problem in a large segment of the general population. Therefore, delineating the underlying mechanisms leading to myopia will markedly lessen the likelihood of other sight compromising complications. In this regard, there is some evidence that patients afflicted with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP, havean adenomatous polyposis coli (APC mutation and a higher incidence of myopia. To clarify this possible association, we determined whether the changes in pertinent biometric and biochemical parameters underlying postnatal refractive error development in APCMin mice are relevant for gaining insight into the pathogenesis of this disease in humans. The refraction and biometrics in APCMin mice and age-matched wild-type (WT littermates between postnatal days P28 and P84 were examined with eccentric infrared photorefraction (EIR and customized optical coherence tomography (OCT. Compared with WT littermates, the APCMin mutated mice developed myopia (average -4.64 D on P84 which was associated with increased vitreous chamber depth (VCD. Furthermore, retinal and scleral changes appear in these mice along with: 1 axial length shortening; 2 increased retinal cell proliferation; 3 and decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH expression, the rate-limiting enzyme of DA synthesis. Scleral collagen fibril diameters became heterogeneous and irregularly organized in the APCMin mice. Western blot analysis showed that scleral alpha-1 type I collagen (col1α1 expression also decreased whereas MMP2 and MMP9 mRNA expression was invariant. These results indicate that defective APC gene function promotes refractive error development. By characterizing in APCMin mice ocular developmental changes, this approach provides novel insight into underlying pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to human myopia development.

  3. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Mutation Leads to Myopia Development in Mice

    Li, Jing; Zhu, Zhenzhen; Yang, Wenzhao; Zhou, Xiangtian; An, Jianhong; Huang, Furong; Wang, Qiongsi; Reinach, Peter S.; Li, Wei; Chen, Wensheng; Liu, Zuguo

    2015-01-01

    Myopia incidence in China is rapidly becoming a very serious sight compromising problem in a large segment of the general population. Therefore, delineating the underlying mechanisms leading to myopia will markedly lessen the likelihood of other sight compromising complications. In this regard, there is some evidence that patients afflicted with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), havean adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutation and a higher incidence of myopia. To clarify this possible association, we determined whether the changes in pertinent biometric and biochemical parameters underlying postnatal refractive error development in APCMin mice are relevant for gaining insight into the pathogenesis of this disease in humans. The refraction and biometrics in APCMin mice and age-matched wild-type (WT) littermates between postnatal days P28 and P84 were examined with eccentric infrared photorefraction (EIR) and customized optical coherence tomography (OCT). Compared with WT littermates, the APCMin mutated mice developed myopia (average -4.64 D) on P84 which was associated with increased vitreous chamber depth (VCD). Furthermore, retinal and scleral changes appear in these mice along with: 1) axial length shortening; 2) increased retinal cell proliferation; 3) and decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, the rate-limiting enzyme of DA synthesis. Scleral collagen fibril diameters became heterogeneous and irregularly organized in the APCMin mice. Western blot analysis showed that scleral alpha-1 type I collagen (col1α1) expression also decreased whereas MMP2 and MMP9 mRNA expression was invariant. These results indicate that defective APC gene function promotes refractive error development. By characterizing in APCMin mice ocular developmental changes, this approach provides novel insight into underlying pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to human myopia development. PMID:26495845

  4. The Arising of Results

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Some Buddhist scholars have periodized the expected lifetime of the Buddha's teachings. According to them, these periods of 500 years each have different characteristics. The first is called 'the period of the results'. Therefore some scholars have claimed that only in the first 500 years after the...... Buddha results can arise. Kyobpa Jigten Sumgön has argued that results arise through practise as long as Dharma and Sangha exist....

  5. Thymic hyperplasia in Graves′ disease

    Narendra Kotwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graves′ disease is an autoimmune thyroid condition characterized by the production of autoantibodies against the thyrotropin receptor. It is known to be associated with autoimmune conditions such as myasthenia gravis, Addison′s disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and vitiligo. We present a case of rare autoimmune association of Graves′ disease with thymic hyperplasia which regressed after treatment with antithyroid drugs. Exact pathophysiology of thymic hyperplasia in Graves′ is not well understood; it is likely to be the result of rather than the cause of Graves′ disease.

  6. Adenomatous Polyps Of The Gallbladder” Adenomas oF the Gallbladder

    Attilio Maria Farinon; Antonio Pacella; Francesco Cetta; Mario Sianesi

    1991-01-01

    The finding of adenomatous polyps of the gallbladder is a rare occurrence and an unusual clinical problem. Among 2,145 patients who underwent cholecystectomy for gallbladder disease only 9 (0.4 per cent) presented with adenomatous polyps. There were 6 women and 3 men, aged 17 to 70 years. Preoperative ultrasonographic diagnosis was made in only 1 of 7 patients with gallstones, in contrast polypoid lesions within a gallbladder without stones were easily confirmed by both ultrasonography and or...

  7. Inflammatory Hyperplasia of the Oral Cavity

    Sudarshan, Ramachandran; Vijayabala, G. Sree; Kumar, KS Prem

    2012-01-01

    Oral inflammatory hyperplasias' are the most common oral abnormalities. It manifests as diverse signs and symptoms. It may occur in any part of the oral cavity. They occur mainly due to reactive stimulus hence these lesions are called reactive hyperplasia. Distinguishing these entities and removal of etiological factors are essential. This review illustrates the various hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Anahtar Kelimeler:

  8. Age and manifestation related symptoms in familial adenomatous polyposis

    Hohenberger Werner

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify early symptoms of familial adenomatous polyposis with a view to improve early diagnosis and treatment. Diagnosis on the basis of genetic testing is usually limited to where there is a known family history, so FAP is more usually diagnosed on clinical grounds. Except for those identified via FAP registers, the majority of patients are symptomatic at the time of diagnosis. Methods We undertook a retrospective study of 143 FAP patients treated at the Department of Surgery, University of Erlangen between 1971 and 2000. We identified patterns of symptoms, endoscopic findings and extracolonic manifestations in three age groups. Results FAP was diagnosed clinically on the basis of symptoms in 84% (120/143 of these patients. Most presented with intestinal symptoms such as colonic bleeding (68% and diarrhea (42%. All but one of the patients between 20 and 40 years old had rectal polyps (98.7%, 75/76, whereas in those over 40 years old the prevalence was 76% (35/46. Non-specific symptoms such as abdominal pain, fatigue and bloating were less frequent and were mainly reported by patients older than 40. Conclusion The commonest presenting features of FAP are alteration of bowel habit and rectal bleeding, but both are found in many other conditions. Patients with these findings need immediate endoscopy to allow prompt diagnosis and prophylactic surgery.

  9. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with follicular mucinosis

    Joshi Rajiv

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular mucinosis occurring along with angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophils (ALHE has been described in a 54-year-old female. The patient presented with pruritic erythematous papules on the left frontoparietal scalp. Histopathological examination showed prominent blood vessels in the dermis lined by plump histiocytoid endothelial cells that were surrounded by a dense lymphoid infiltrate with numerous eosinophils; these findings are typical of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophils. Features of follicular mucinosis were observed in the same section with several hyperplastic follicular infundibula containing pools of mucin in the infundibular epithelium. The concurrent occurrence of these two distinct histopathological patterns in the same biopsy specimen has been described in only three cases to date.

  10. BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA: UPDATED REVIEW

    Praveen.R

    2013-01-01

    Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the commonest medical conditions affecting the geriatric male population. The enlargement of prostate can lead to various clinical symptoms like difficulty in voiding, urinary retention etc. The symptoms are varied depending on the size of enlargement. The International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS) is the gold standard and first step in understanding and diagnosing the disease clinically, but in the recent past there are various other newer tools...

  11. Prostatic Stromal Hyperplasia with Atypia

    Hutchinson, Ryan C.; Wu, Kevin J.; Cheville, John C.; Thiel, David D

    2013-01-01

    Prostatic stromal hyperplasia with atypia (PSHA) is a rare histologic finding diagnosed incidentally on prostate biopsies, transurethral resection specimens, and radical prostatectomy specimens. PSHA has a bizarre histologic appearance and these lesions often raise concern for sarcoma; however, their clinical course is indolent and does not include extraprostatic progression. We discuss a case of PHSA discovered on prostate biopsy performed for an abnormal digital rectal examination and revie...

  12. Prostatic Stromal Hyperplasia with Atypia

    Ryan C. Hutchinson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostatic stromal hyperplasia with atypia (PSHA is a rare histologic finding diagnosed incidentally on prostate biopsies, transurethral resection specimens, and radical prostatectomy specimens. PSHA has a bizarre histologic appearance and these lesions often raise concern for sarcoma; however, their clinical course is indolent and does not include extraprostatic progression. We discuss a case of PHSA discovered on prostate biopsy performed for an abnormal digital rectal examination and review the literature on this rare pathologic finding.

  13. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia: an overview.

    Virk, Renu K; Khan, Ashraf

    2010-07-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast is a benign, proliferative mesenchymal lesion with possible hormonal etiology. It typically affects women in the reproductive age group. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia is frequently an incidental histologic finding in breast biopsies performed for other benign or malignant lesions. Rarely, it can present as a firm, painless breast mass, which has been referred to as nodular or tumorous PASH. Grossly, tumorous PASH is a well-circumscribed, firm, rubbery mass with solid, homogenous, gray-white cut surface. On histologic examination, it is characterized by the presence of open slitlike spaces in dense collagenous stroma. The spaces are lined by a discontinuous layer of flat, spindle-shaped myofibroblasts with bland nuclei. The spindle cells express progesterone receptors and are positive for vimentin, actin, and CD34. The most important differential diagnosis on histopathology is angiosarcoma. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia discovered incidentally does not require any additional specific treatment. Tumorous PASH is treated by local surgical excision with clear margins and the prognosis is excellent, with minimal risk of recurrence after adequate surgical excision. PMID:20586640

  14. Evolving Techniques for Surgical Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Andrea Tubaro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The management of lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH is one of the most topical areas in urology. Although most patients are adequately managed conservatively, many still require surgery to reduce bladder outlet obstruction or relieve symptoms by removing the inflamed adenomatous tissue. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP remains the gold standard treatment in all national and international guidelines, with open prostatectomy and laser enucleation reserved for patients with a prostate >80 ml. The current trend in the surgical management of BPH is threefold: replacing open prostatectomy with transurethral enucleation of the adenoma, managing high-risk patients by photoselective vaporisation of the prostate thus minimising blood loss, and moving BPH surgery to ambulatory day surgery and one-day surgery units in selected patients. Laser enucleation has been pioneered using the Holmium laser, although the GreenLightTM laser has been recently proposed as an alternative approach. The absence of any bleeding in photovaporisation of the prostate allows surgery to be performed in a growing population of patients on anti-aggregant and anticoagulant medications. Randomised trials of the GreenLight XPSTM laser with the MoXy™ fibre versus TURP proved the effectiveness of photovaporisation in the surgical management of BPH and suggested that 50% of patients could be discharged within 24 hours. The demand for BPH surgery remains high and urologists have rapidly adapted to the increasing demand for minimally invasive surgery. Prostate surgery evolved from a heroic procedure that remained in the memories of the entire patient family for life into a day-case procedure, and the future hopefully holds ejaculation-sparing surgery.

  15. [Adenomatous polyposis of the gallbladder and Gardner's syndrome. A rare association].

    Brevet, Marie; Brehant, Olivier; Dumont, Frédéric; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc; Dupas, Jean-Louis; Chatelain, Denis

    2007-04-01

    We report one case of adenomatous polyposis of the gallbladder in a 57 year-old woman with Gardner's syndrome presenting with cholangitis. On gross examination the gallbladder contained two calculi and numerous flat or polypoid adenomas less than 1 cm in size. On microscopic examination, the adenomas showed low and high grade intraepithelial neoplasia. Only 10 cases of gallbladder adenomas have been reported in the literature in patients presenting with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Cholecystectomy is usually performed for cholecystitis or cholangitis. These adenomatous gallbladder lesions are discovered late, often when the patient is older than 40. Pathogenesis of gallbladder adenomas is still unclear. It is difficult to assess the risk of malignancy: only 6 cases of gallbladder adenocarcinomas have been reported in patients with FAP. PMID:17483782

  16. Inflammatory Hyperplasia of the Oral Cavity

    Ramachandran Sudarshan; G. Sree Vijayabala; KS Prem Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Oral inflammatory hyperplasias’ are the most common oral abnormalities. It manifests as diverse signs and symptoms. It may occur in any part of the oral cavity. They occur mainly due to reactive stimulus hence these lesions are called reactive hyperplasia. Distinguishing these entities and removal of etiological factors are essential. This review illustrates the various hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Anahtar Kelimeler: [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(4.000): 299-307

  17. Lipomatosis: a diverse form of hemifacial hyperplasia

    Arora, Preeti Chawla; Umarji, Hemant R. [Dept. of Oral Medicine, Diagnosis and Radiology, Government Dental College and Hospital, Mumbai (India); Arora, Aman [Dept. of Prosthodontics, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Amritsar (India); Ramaswami, Easwaran [Oral Medicine, Diagnosis and Radiology, Dr. D.Y. Patil Dental College and Hospital, Navi Mumbai (India)

    2012-09-15

    A case of hemifacial hyperplasia that presented with muscular, skeletal, and dental hyperplasia along with lipomatous infiltration was described. Advanced imaging was useful in identifying the lipomatous infiltration present in the lesion, which raises the possibility of lipomatosis having a diverse presentation in hemifacial hyperplasia. As there was a scarcity of related literature in the field of dentomaxillofacial radiology, this report would make us familiar with its computed tomographic and magnetic resonance image findings.

  18. A case of unilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia.

    Maki,Yoshio

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of unilateral hyperplasia of the adrenal medulla. The patient showed clinical features suggestive of pheochromocytoma. Removal of the hyperplastic adrenal gland resulted in complete disappearance of all prior symptoms, decrease of the plasma and urinary catecolamine levels and no high uptake in [133I] metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy. A histological study revealed diffuse hyperplasia of the adrenal medulla. Up to now, there are relatively few reports of adrenal medullary hyperplasia in English literatures.

  19. Unilateral Condylar Hyperplasia of the Mandible

    Malachovsky I

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Condylar hyperplasia (CH of the mandible is a rare pathology that occurs at the head of the condyle and can lead to facial asymmetry affecting occlusion and possible association with pain and dysfunction. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia is an uncommon condition of unknown aetiology, proper diagnosis of which has to be established, as the patients may look for surgical help. A rare case of unilateral condylar hyperplasia of the mandible is reported here.

  20. Multi-focal lobular carcinoma in situ arising in benign phylodes tumor: A case report

    Lee, Taeg Ki; Choi, Chang Hwan; Kim, Youn Jeong; Kim, Mi Young; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu [Inha University Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Coexistent breast malignancy arising in phyllodes tumor is extremely rare, and most of them are incidental reports after surgical excision. Coexistent malignancy in phyllodes tumor can vary from in-situ to invasive carcinoma. Lobular neoplasia is separated into atypical lobular hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). LCIS is known to have a higher risk of developing invasive cancer. We reported imaging findings of multifocal LCIS arising in benign phyllodes tumor.

  1. Attenuated Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (AFAP) Results from an international collaborative study

    Knudsen, A L; Bülow, S; Tomlinson, I; Möslein, G; Heinimann, K; Christensen, I J

    Abstract Aim. The study aimed to describe genetical and clinical features of Attenuated Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (AFAP) and to propose clinical criteria and guidelines for treatment and surveillance. Method. A questionnaire study was carried out of polyposis registries with data on patients...

  2. Variation of a variation: Case report of attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis

    Bhatnagar, P; Tetzlaff, H.; Izatt, L; Devlin, J; Heaton, N. D.

    2006-01-01

    Background. First described in 1988, attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis (AFAP) is a rare autosomal dominant precancerous condition of the gastrointestinal tract. Few reports have described adenocarcinomatous change in the gastroduodenal region thus far. Case outlineWe report a case of AFAP presenting with extensive gastric polyposis and ampullary adenocarcinoma in absence of a positive family history of gastrointestinal cancer and a novel mutation.

  3. Culture of primary epithelial adenoma cells from familial adenomatous polyposis patients

    Fostira, F.; Apessos, A.; Oikonomou, E.; Kouklis, P.; Baratsis, S.; Manifikos, G.; Anděra, Ladislav; Yannoukakos, D.; Pintzas, A.; Nasioulas, G.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 28, 2A (2008), s. 843-846. ISSN 0250-7005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : colorectal neoplasia * adenomatous polyposis coli * epithelial cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.390, year: 2008

  4. Prevalence of colorectal adenomatous polyps in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Chun EM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eun Mi Chun, Seo Woo Kim, So Yeon Lim Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Colorectal adenomatous polyps are precancerous lesions of colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of colorectal adenomatous polyps in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients and determine whether COPD is associated with colorectal malignant potential.Methods: Subjects who had undergone post-bronchodilator spirometry and colonoscopy and were 40 years or older were selected from the hospital database. COPD was defined as a spirometry in which the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC is <0.7 in post-bronchodilator spirometry. The non-COPD group was matched for both age and sex, and were defined as having an FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC ≥0.7 in spirometry. Finally, 333 patients were retrospectively reviewed; of this group, 82 patients had COPD.Results: Among the subjects, 201 patients (60% were nonsmokers, while 78 (23% were current smokers. The prevalence of colorectal adenomatous polyps was 39% (98/251 in the non-COPD group and 66% (54/82 in the COPD group. Among 54 patients with adenomatous polyps in the COPD group, 47 had tubular adenoma and seven had villous adenoma. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that only COPD patients whom matched to the criteria of COPD by pulmonary function test (odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.1–3.8; P=0.019 were independently associated with colorectal malignant potential.Conclusion: The risk of colorectal malignant potential in the COPD group was higher than in the non-COPD group. We may suggest that COPD patients should consider regular colonoscopic evaluation to screen for premalignant colon polyps regardless of smoking. Keywords: COPD, colorectal adenomatous polyp, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary

  5. Sulfate-reducing bacteria colonize pouches formed for ulcerative colitis but not for familial adenomatous polyposis.

    Duffy, M

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis remains the "gold standard" in surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis. Pouchitis occurs mainly in patients with a background of ulcerative colitis, although the reasons for this are unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize differences in pouch bacterial populations between ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous pouches. METHODS: After ethical approval was obtained, fresh stool samples were collected from patients with ulcerative colitis pouches (n = 10), familial adenomatous polyposis (n = 7) pouches, and ulcerative colitis ileostomies (n = 8). Quantitative measurements of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were performed. RESULTS: Sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from 80 percent (n = 8) of ulcerative colitis pouches. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were absent from familial adenomatous polyposis pouches and also from ulcerative colitis ileostomy effluent. Pouch Lactobacilli, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides sp, and Clostridium perfringens counts were increased relative to ileostomy counts in patients with ulcerative colitis. Total pouch enterococci and coliform counts were also increased relative to ileostomy levels. There were no significant quantitative or qualitative differences between pouch types when these bacteria were evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: Sulfate-reducing bacteria are exclusive to patients with a background of ulcerative colitis. Not all ulcerative colitis pouches harbor sulfate-reducing bacteria because two ulcerative colitis pouches in this study were free of the latter. They are not present in familial adenomatous polyposis pouches or in ileostomy effluent collected from patients with ulcerative colitis. Total bacterial counts increase in ulcerative colitis pouches after stoma closure. Levels of Lactobacilli, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides sp, Clostridium perfringens, enterococci, and coliforms were similar in both pouch groups. Because sulfate-reducing bacteria are

  6. Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Kim, Eric H; Larson, Jeffrey A; Andriole, Gerald L

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) commonly affect older men. Age-related changes associated with metabolic disturbances, changes in hormone balance, and chronic inflammation may cause BPH development. The diagnosis of BPH hinges on a thorough medical history and focused physical examination, with attention to other conditions that may be causing LUTS. Digital rectal examination and urinalysis should be performed. Other testing may be considered depending on presentation of symptoms, including prostate-specific antigen, serum creatinine, urine cytology, imaging, cystourethroscopy, post-void residual, and pressure-flow studies. Many medical and surgical treatment options exist. Surgery should be reserved for patients who either have failed medical management or have complications from BPH, such as recurrent urinary tract infections, refractory urinary retention, bladder stones, or renal insufficiency as a result of obstructive uropathy. PMID:26331999

  7. Oxidative stress in prostate hyperplasia and carcinogenesis.

    Udensi, Udensi K; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    Prostatic hyperplasia (PH) is a common urologic disease that affects mostly elderly men. PH can be classified as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or prostate cancer (PCa) based on its severity. Oxidative stress (OS) is known to influence the activities of inflammatory mediators and other cellular processes involved in the initiation, promotion and progression of human neoplasms including prostate cancer. Scientific evidence also suggests that micronutrient supplementation may restore the antioxidant status and hence improve the clinical outcomes for patients with BPH and PCa. This review highlights the recent studies on prostate hyperplasia and carcinogenesis, and examines the role of OS on the molecular pathology of prostate cancer progression and treatment. PMID:27609145

  8. Pigmented mesenteric lymphadenopathy in familial adenomatous polyposis - an unusual cause of intraoperative abandonment of ileo-anal pouch.

    Pranesh, N; Haboubi, N Y; O'Dwyer, S T

    2005-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant condition with near complete penetrance, characterised by the presence of numerous adenomatous polyps of the colon and rectum. Melanosis coli describes the brownish-black discolouration of the colon resulting from the accumulation of a granular pigment in the phagosomes of macrophages in the colonic lamina propria. The presence of melanosis pigment in pericolonic lymph nodes has been reported in patients with coincidental melanosis...

  9. Isotretinoin as monotherapy for sebaceous hyperplasia.

    Yu, Clara; Shahsavari, Maryam; Stevens, Gloria; Liskanich, Ronald; Horowitz, David

    2010-06-01

    Sebaceous hyperplasia is a common benign lesion composed of sebaceous glands. It is characterized as yellow or flesh-toned papules with central umbilication. The authors report the case of a 57-year-old Caucasian female with a longstanding history of sebaceous hyperplasia refractory to treatment on her face. Isotretionoin was used as an alternative therapy and was found to be effective. PMID:20645535

  10. Management of adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Merke, Deborah P.; Poppas, Dix P.

    2013-01-01

    The management of congenital adrenal hyperplasia involves suppression of adrenal androgen production, in addition to treatment of adrenal insufficiency. Management of adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia is especially challenging because changes in the hormonal milieu during puberty can lead to inadequate suppression of adrenal androgens, psychosocial issues often affect adherence to medical therapy, and sexual function plays a major part in adolescence and young adulthood. For the...

  11. Controversies in the surgery of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and Lynch syndrome.

    Church, James M

    2016-07-01

    Dominantly inherited syndromes of colorectal cancer predisposition are characterized by multifocal neoplasia with an early age of onset. The risk of colorectal cancer is high in affected patients and care of the patients is based on the aims of cancer prevention and cancer cure. At the same time, quality of life should be disturbed as little as possible. Because patients are generally young, the stakes are high. Injudicious decision-making can have unfortunate effects on patients and families. In this article the controversial aspects of surgery in familial adenomatous polyposis and Lynch syndrome are discussed. Specifically the controversies in familial adenomatous polyposis include the timing and the type of surgery while for Lynch syndrome discussion revolves about prophylactic surgery, primary, secondary and tertiary. PMID:26869170

  12. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Case report.

    Jaime Avaria E.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH is an autosomal recessive disease whose main cause is the deficiency of 21-hydroxylase, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of cortisol and aldosterone. There are two forms of CAH, a classical and nonclassical form, being the first objective of analysis in the clinical case. Its clinical manifestations vary in severity, depending on the level of hormone deficiency. Within the classic is described the salt-wasting form, whose consequences are androgen excess and insufficiency of cortisol and mineralocorticoids. So this may manifest as a sex differentiation disorder (virilization of the external genitalia if the fetus is female and adrenal insufficiency. For diagnosis are considered the family history, clinical manifestations, measuring 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels and detection of genetic alteration. CASE REPORT: Patient with a family history of a brother with HSC brother, born with a disorder of sexual differentiation and is discharged with legal male sex. After three months develops adrenal insufficiency and was diagnosed with classical HSC salt-wasting form and determined female karyotype. DISCUSSION: The Pillars of the HSC are handling genetic counseling in families at risk, prenatal treatment with dexamethasone, postnatal glucocorticoid therapy and surgical treatment of disorders of the external genitalia, along with new research based therapy gene and the use of stem cells, requiring this way an integral view of HSC.

  13. Nocturia and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Laketić Darko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Nocturia often occurs in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH. The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency of nocturia in patients with BPH. Nocturia and other factors associated with it were also investigated. Methods. Forty patients with the confirmed diagnosis of BPH were studied. Transurethral and transvesical prostatectomy were performed in all the patients. Symptoms were evaluated with the International Prostate Symptom Score before, as well as three and six months after the surgery. All the results were compared with the control group. Results. There was no statistically significant difference between the patients before and after the surgery regarding nocturia. There was, however, a statistically significant difference between the operated patients and the control group regarding nocturia, as well as a statistically significant correlation between noctruia and the age of the patients in both the investigated and the control group. A correlation also existed between nocturia and the prostatic size. Conclusion. There was no statistically significant improvement in symptoms of nocturia after the surgery. It is necessary to be very careful in decision making in patients with nonabsolute indiction for surgery and isolated bothersome symptom of nocturia. Age of a patient should also be considered in the evaluation of favorable result of the surgery because of a significant correlation between noctura and the age of a patient.

  14. Characterization of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein Dynamics and Localization at the Centrosome

    Christina Lui; Myth T. S. Mok; Henderson, Beric R.

    2016-01-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor is a multifunctional regulator of Wnt signaling and acts as a mobile scaffold at different cellular sites. APC was recently found to stimulate microtubule (MT) growth at the interphase centrosome; however, little is known about its dynamics and localization at this site. To address this, we analysed APC dynamics in fixed and live cells by fluorescence microscopy. In detergent-extracted cells, we discovered that APC was only weakly retained...

  15. A novel function of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) in regulating DNA repair

    Jaiswal, Aruna S.; Narayan, Satya

    2008-01-01

    Prevailing literature suggests diversified cellular functions for the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. Among them a recently discovered unique role of APC is in DNA repair. The APC gene can modulate the base excision repair (BER) pathway through an interaction with DNA polymerase β (Pol-β) and flap endonuclease 1 (Fen-1). Taken together with the transcriptional activation of APC gene by alkylating agents and modulation of BER activity, APC may play an important role in carcinogenesis an...

  16. Subsequent Adenomas of Ileal Pouch and Anorectal Segment after Prophylactic Surgery for Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    M'Koma, A.E.; Herline, A.J.; Adunyah, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomally dominant disease characterized by the early development of colorectal adenomas and carcinoma in untreated patients. Patients with FAP may develop rectal cancer at their initial presentation (primary) or after prophylactic surgery (secondary). Controversies exist regarding which surgical procedure represents the best first-line treatment. The options for FAP are ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) or a restorative proctocolectomy (RPC) with eithe...

  17. Effects of vitamin antioxidant supplementation on cell kinetics of patients with adenomatous polyps.

    Cahill, R J; O'Sullivan, K R; Mathias, P M; Beattie, S.; Hamilton, H; O'Morain, C

    1993-01-01

    Colonic crypt cell proliferation is used as an indicator of risk of colorectal carcinoma. Subjects with adenomatous polyps and cancer have an increased cell proliferation and a shift of the proliferative zone towards the apex of the crypt. Epidemiological and in vitro studies have confirmed a link between vitamins A, E, C, beta-carotene, and colorectal cancer. In vitro bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemical technique was used to assess the effect of daily oral supplementation with vitamin E (1...

  18. Colorectal adenomatous polyposis syndromes: Genetic determinism, clinical presentation and recommendations for care.

    Buecher, Bruno

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal adenomatous polyposis constitutes a diverse group of disorders with different modes of inheritance. Molecular diagnosis of this condition has become more complex. In fact, somatic mosaicism for APC mutations now appears to be more frequent than previously thought and rare germline alterations of this gene may be implicated in patients tested negative for "classical" APC mutations (point mutations and large genomic rearrangements). Moreover, the knowledge concerning several aspects of the MUTYH-associated polyposis has improved since its first description in 2002 and germline mutations in new genes have recently been implicated in some cases of unexplained adenomatous polyposis. Genetic testing in probands and their relatives should be conducted in the context of pre- and post-test genetic counseling. The recent advent of New Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques affords the opportunity to rapidly screen patients for a comprehensive panel of colorectal cancer susceptibility genes in a cost-effective fashion. This type of approach will probably replace the classical sequential approach based on clinical presumptive diagnoses in the near future. The risk of colorectal cancer is very high in affected patients in the absence of appropriate care. Clinical management is complex and should be provided in centers with special expertise in these diseases. This review focuses on the various colorectal adenomatous polyposis syndromes with special attention to more innovative and important aspects. PMID:26805944

  19. The genetic basis of familial adenomatous polyposis and its implications for clinical practice and risk management

    Leoz ML

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Maria Liz Leoz, Sabela Carballal, Leticia Moreira, Teresa Ocaña, Francesc Balaguer Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital Clínic, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain Abstract: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP is an inherited disorder that represents the most common gastrointestinal polyposis syndrome. Germline mutations in the APC gene were initially identified as responsible for FAP, and later, several studies have also implicated the MUTYH gene as responsible for this disease, usually referred to as MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP. FAP and MAP are characterized by the early onset of multiple adenomatous colorectal polyps, a high lifetime risk of colorectal cancer (CRC, and in some patients the development of extracolonic manifestations. The goal of colorectal management in these patients is to prevent CRC mortality through endoscopic and surgical approaches. Individuals with FAP and their relatives should receive appropriate genetic counseling and join surveillance programs when indicated. This review is focused on the description of the main clinical and genetic aspects of FAP associated with germline APC mutations and MAP. Keywords: colorectal cancer, familial adenomatous polyposis, MAP, APC, MUTYH

  20. Sulphomucin expression in ileal pouches: emerging differences between ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis pouches.

    Bambury, Niamh

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: We characterized the expression of sialomucin and sulphomucin in pouches fashioned for familial adenomatous polyposis and ulcerative colitis. We correlated sulphomucin expression with bacterial colonization and mucosal inflammation. METHODS: Ethical approval and informed consent were obtained. Mucosal biopsies from 9 patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and 12 with ulcerative colitis were obtained. Sulphomucin levels were assessed by using the high iron-diamine stain. Mucous gel layer composition was correlated with villous height, crypt depth, and total mucosal thickness. Mucous gel layer composition was correlated with acute and chronic inflammatory infiltrates. Colonization by a panel of seven bacterial species (including sulphate reducing bacteria) was established and correlated with sulphomucin levels. RESULTS: High-iron-diamine positivity (i.e., sulphomucin expression) was greater in ulcerative colitis pouch mucous gel (2.083 +\\/- 0.5 vs. 0.556 +\\/- 0.4, P = 0.003). Sulphomucin expression correlated with reduced crypt depth, villous height, and total mucosal thickness. In the ulcerative colitis group, chronic inflammatory infiltrate scores were significantly greater for high-iron-diamine-positive patients. Colonization by sulphate reducing bacteria was increased in high-iron-diamine-positive patients. CONCLUSIONS: Sulphomucin expression is increased in the mucous gel layer of the ulcerative colitis pouch compared with that of the familial adenomatous polyposis pouch. Sulphomucin expression is associated with colonization by sulphate-reducing bacteria and increased chronic inflammation.

  1. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia developing within a port wine stain.

    Manton, Robert N; Itinteang, Tinte; de Jong, Sophie; Brasch, Helen D; Tan, Swee T

    2016-01-01

    A 19-year-old male with a port wine stain on the base of his neck presented with a 5-month history of gradual thickening of the involved skin which interfered with clothing and caused repeated bleeding. The lesion was excised and histopathologic examination revealed angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) arising from the pre-existing port wine stain - a rare finding with only one previously reported case. Additionally the lesion was associated with elevated serum renin levels which virtually normalized following excision of the lesion. We further demonstrated the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme and angiotensin II receptors 1 and 2 by the lesion and discuss the possible role of the renin-angiotensin system in this condition. PMID:26010041

  2. Brunner′s gland hyperplasia at the ampulla of Vater

    Janes SE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Brunner′s gland hyperplasia (BGH is a diagnostic challenge where in the pathophysiology and natural history remain poorly understood. This Case Report describes BGH arising at the ampulla of Vater, causing abdominal pain and vomiting in a 46-year-old man. Owing to the inconclusive nature of imaging studies and suspicious intraoperative findings, a Whipple resection was performed without any complications. Histological analysis showed that the obstructing lesion was BGH, with no evidence of malignancy. This is only the second such case of its kind at the ampulla of Vater to be reported. In addition, we present the previously unreported endoscopic ultrasound findings. The subsequent literature review focuses on the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of BGH.

  3. Primary hyperparathyroidism: adenoma or hyperplasia

    Betancourt-Piñeres Aiken Felipe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: primary hyperparathyroidism (PH is a symptomatic or asymptomaticclinical entity, characterized by the autonomous production of parathyroid hormone (PTH. Its classical presentation exhibits an increase of the serum calcium andparathyroid hormone levels. Parathyroid scintigrafy, among other imaging modalities,is frequently used to detect the hyperfunctioning glands.Clinical case: number 1. Female, 69 years old, asymptomatic, hypertension of recentonset, osteopenia, increased intact PTHi level and serum calcium concentration, andlow phosphate level, multinodular goiter (ultrasound, and focal increased uptake inthe inferolateral aspect of thyroid right lobe (parathyroid scintigraphy consistent withparathyroid adenoma, confirmed by surgery and histopathology examination. Number2. Female, 69 years old, with history of chronic hypertension, nephrolithiasis andpartial thyroidectomy, actually with chronic diarrhea and headaches, erosive chronicduodenitis (endoscopy, increase of PTHi and serum calcium levels, changes in contrastneck CT scan and US consistent with thyroidectomy, and parathyroid scintigraphy withthree areas of focal increased isonitrile uptake consistent with parathyroid hyperplasia,confirmed by surgery and histopathologic findings.Conclusion: the parathyroid Scintigraphy (planar and Spect, double phase and doubletracer done in combination, have good sensibility, specificity and diagnostic accuracyof parathyroid adenomas and hyperplasia, improving surgical procedures, with minimalincision or invasion, ad quality of life of hyperparathyroidism patients. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2012;3(2:350-354RESUMEN:Introducción: el hiperparatiroidismo primario (HP es una entidad clínica sintomáticao asintomática, caracterizada por la producción autónoma de parathormona (PTH.Se presenta elevación del calcio sérico y de la parathormona (PTH, aunque estaúltima puede permanecer dentro en los rangos normales altos. La gammagraf

  4. Liver atypical adenomatoid hyperplasia nodules of the application value of MRI%肝脏不典型腺瘤样增生结节的MRI应用价值

    任守君; 王晓虹; 王文甲

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨肝脏不典型腺瘤样增生结节的MRI应用价值。方法选取该院2003年1月—2014年5月肝脏不典型腺瘤样增生结节的病人50例,常规T1 T2WI序列及正反相位序列,LAVA序列动态增强扫描。结果50例病人60个病灶,所有病灶均表现为T1WI高或稍高信号,T1WI脂肪抑制序列病灶为高信号或稍高信号,反相位序列病灶仍为高信号或稍高信号,T2WI加强病灶为低或稍低信号,该组60个病灶,其中55个病灶动态增强扫描动脉期门静脉期及延迟期病灶无强化,5个病灶呈轻中度强化。结论肝脏不典型腺瘤样增生结节的MRI表现具有一定特征性,MRI可以很好显示肝脏不典型腺瘤样增生结节病灶,是诊断肝脏不典型腺瘤样增生结节首选的影像方法,具有重要的临床应用价值。%Objective Investigate atypical adenomatous hyperplasia of the liver nodules MRI application. Methods Select atypical adenomatous hyperplasia of liver nodules of 50 patients from January 2003 to May 2014, conventional T1 T2WI sequence and re-verse phase sequence, LAVA sequence of dynamic contrast-enhanced scans. Results 50 cases of patients with 60 lesions, all le-sions are manifested as high or slightly higher signal T1WI,T1WI fat suppression sequences or slightly hyperintense lesions signal, reverse phase sequence or slightly hyperintense lesions still signal,T2WI enhancing lesions signal is low or lower in this group 60 lesions, including 55 lesions in the arterial phase dynamic contrast-enhanced scans portal venous phase and delayed no enhance-ment of the lesion, 5 lesions were mild to moderate enhancement. Conclusion Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia of liver nodules with a certain characteristic MRI findings, MRI can be a good display atypical adenomatous hyperplasia of liver nodules, the diag-nosis of hepatic atypical adenomatous hyperplasia nodules best imaging method has important clinical value.

  5. Intracranial organizing hematoma with papillary endothelial hyperplasia features after resection and involved field radiotherapy for cerebellar juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma.

    Ginat, Daniel Thomas; Walcott, Brian P; Mordes, Daniel; Schaefer, Pamela W; Nahed, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a case of organizing hematoma with features of papillary endothelial hyperplasia arising at the site of a right cerebellar juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma previously treated with surgery and involved-field radiation therapy. CTA demonstrated a mass with abnormal vascularity in the treatment bed. MRI demonstrated the evolution of the lesion from a cystic mass with a heterogeneously enhancing nodule with blood products into a nearly solid-enhancing mass with abundant areas of susceptibility effect and surrounding vasogenic edema. These imaging features warrant considering papillary endothelial hyperplasia in the differential diagnosis for a mass that develops after radiotherapy. PMID:24456989

  6. Benign Prostatic Hyperstatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Beyond the Basics)

    ... names for benign prostatic hyperplasia include benign prostatic hypertrophy, an enlarged prostate, and BPH. BPH occurs only ... prostatic hyperplasia" .) Alpha blockers — These medications relax the muscle of the prostate and bladder neck, which allows ...

  7. Tablets or scalpel: Pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism

    Ahmed Imran Siddiqi, MBBS, MRCP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism. Pituitary hyperplasia and pituitary masses cannot be reliably differentiated on imaging alone, despite significant improvement in imaging quality in recent years.

  8. Neoplasia versus hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium

    Heegaard, Steffen; Larsen, J.N.B.; Fledelius, Hans C.;

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography......ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography...

  9. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia

    2015-01-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as “lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia” or “hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction.” Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  10. [Therapeutic problem. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia].

    Bunse, T; Kuhn, A; Groth, W; Mahrle, G

    1993-04-01

    A 35-year-old female patient suffered from angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia for 9 years, with multiple, exophytic tumours on her left pinna and the surrounding skin. Systemic treatment with gamma interferon and glucocorticoids, intralesional injections of glucocorticoids and argon laser therapy had no effect. After the tumours had been pared away by electrocautery the patient was free of symptoms for 1 year and then developed a small local recurrence. Recurrences are common in angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia. Malignant transformation has not been observed. We therefore regard non-radical surgery as the therapy of choice. PMID:8482602

  11. Thymic hyperplasia - clinical course and imaging diagnostic

    The real thymic hyperplasia is benign disease sometimes simulating malignant tumours. The aim of this study is to analyse the clinical symptoms of real thymic hyperplasia and the results from imaging diagnostic based on our clinical material. Clinical material include 27 children, aged from two months to 15 years, admitted in department of thoracic surgery, for a period of 20 years (1985 - 2004). We retrospectively analyze the clinical signs and results from X-ray investigation, CT (Siemens Somatom DRG and Philips Secura) and echocardiography (Acuson TX, 5 and 7 MHz). We discuss the diagnostic value of different methods as well as typical and atypical findings. (authors)

  12. Deep vein thrombosis in a patient of adenomatous polyposis coli treated successfully with aspirin: A case report

    Agrawal, Neha; Santra, Tuhin; Kar, Arnab; Guha, Pradipta; Bar, Mita; Adhikary, Apu; Datta, Sumana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Deep vein thrombosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. However, its association with adenomatous polyposis coli is extremely rare. Here we present an interesting case of deep vein thrombosis associated with adenomatous polyposis coli. Case Presentation: A 15 year old female who was having fever and diarrhea for 5 months developed bilateral asymmetric painful swelling of lower limbs for 1 month. Doppler ultrasound of lower limbs revealed presence of thrombosis from inferior vena cava up to popliteal vein. Colonoscopy and biopsy were suggestive of adenomatous polyposis coli. However, she could not tolerate anticoagulant therapy and was put on aspirin therapy for 6 months to which she responded well with the resolution of thrombus. Conclusion: Role of aspirin therapy may be considered whenever a patient of venous thrombosis cannot tolerate anticoagulant therapy. PMID:27386068

  13. [Familial adenomatous polyposis: establishing a registry and genetic and molecular analysis].

    Shomrat, R; Bruchim, R; Galanty, Y; Samuel, Z; Legum, C; Rabau, M; Rozen, P

    1997-01-15

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), a dominantly inherited disease, is caused by a mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene in chromosome 5q21. The gene has 15 exons, a physical length of 10 Kb and an open reading frame of 8.5 Kb. Exon 15 codes 66% of the mRNA and has a mutation cluster region which accounts for over 50% of mutations. The disease usually leads to the appearance of hundreds of adenomatous polyps in the transverse and descending colon between puberty and age 20 years and to colon cancer before the age of 40. Early detection is essential to prevent the development of metastasizing cancer. Since 1994 we have recruited 23 families for genetic counseling. DNA was obtained from 19 unrelated FAP patients and 219 high risk relatives in 19 unrelated families following confirmation of the diagnosis. In addition to linkage studies, direct mutational analysis was performed using the protein truncation test for most of exon 15 and single strand conformation polymorphism analysis for the other exons. These exons account for most of the mutations identified to date. Of 19 unrelated probands, 14 had detectable mutations. Exon 15 accounted for 6 families, exons 5, 7 and 14 for 1 each, exon 9 for 3, and exon 8 for 2. Combined mutational and linkage analysis identified 18 presymptomatic carriers who received genetic and clinical counseling. Our FAP patients did not differ significantly from those of larger studies in other countries with regard to the distribution of the mutations, gender and genotype-phenotype correlation, or ethnic distribution. PMID:9119305

  14. Exome Sequencing Identifies Biallelic MSH3 Germline Mutations as a Recessive Subtype of Colorectal Adenomatous Polyposis.

    Adam, Ronja; Spier, Isabel; Zhao, Bixiao; Kloth, Michael; Marquez, Jonathan; Hinrichsen, Inga; Kirfel, Jutta; Tafazzoli, Aylar; Horpaopan, Sukanya; Uhlhaas, Siegfried; Stienen, Dietlinde; Friedrichs, Nicolaus; Altmüller, Janine; Laner, Andreas; Holzapfel, Stefanie; Peters, Sophia; Kayser, Katrin; Thiele, Holger; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Marra, Giancarlo; Kristiansen, Glen; Nöthen, Markus M; Büttner, Reinhard; Möslein, Gabriela; Betz, Regina C; Brieger, Angela; Lifton, Richard P; Aretz, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    In ∼30% of families affected by colorectal adenomatous polyposis, no germline mutations have been identified in the previously implicated genes APC, MUTYH, POLE, POLD1, and NTHL1, although a hereditary etiology is likely. To uncover further genes with high-penetrance causative mutations, we performed exome sequencing of leukocyte DNA from 102 unrelated individuals with unexplained adenomatous polyposis. We identified two unrelated individuals with differing compound-heterozygous loss-of-function (LoF) germline mutations in the mismatch-repair gene MSH3. The impact of the MSH3 mutations (c.1148delA, c.2319-1G>A, c.2760delC, and c.3001-2A>C) was indicated at the RNA and protein levels. Analysis of the diseased individuals' tumor tissue demonstrated high microsatellite instability of di- and tetranucleotides (EMAST), and immunohistochemical staining illustrated a complete loss of nuclear MSH3 in normal and tumor tissue, confirming the LoF effect and causal relevance of the mutations. The pedigrees, genotypes, and frequency of MSH3 mutations in the general population are consistent with an autosomal-recessive mode of inheritance. Both index persons have an affected sibling carrying the same mutations. The tumor spectrum in these four persons comprised colorectal and duodenal adenomas, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, and an early-onset astrocytoma. Additionally, we detected one unrelated individual with biallelic PMS2 germline mutations, representing constitutional mismatch-repair deficiency. Potentially causative variants in 14 more candidate genes identified in 26 other individuals require further workup. In the present study, we identified biallelic germline MSH3 mutations in individuals with a suspected hereditary tumor syndrome. Our data suggest that MSH3 mutations represent an additional recessive subtype of colorectal adenomatous polyposis. PMID:27476653

  15. Puberty and fertility in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Otten, B.J.; Stikkelbroeck, M.M.L.; Claahsen-van der Grinten, H.L.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a disorder of adrenal steroid synthesis. The symptoms and signs of CAH depend on the degree of enzyme deficiency; severe salt-wasting (SW) form, less severe simple virilizing (SV) form and mild nonclassic (NC) form. In this paper, puberty and fertility in CAH

  16. Genetics Home Reference: primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia

    ... hormone-producing glands located on top of each kidney. These nodules, which usually are found in both adrenal glands (bilateral) and vary in size, cause adrenal gland enlargement (hyperplasia) and result in the production of higher-than-normal levels of the hormone cortisol. Cortisol is an ...

  17. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia: Relevance in Oral Pathology

    Sarangarajan, R; Vedam, V K Vaishnavi; Sivadas, G; Krishnaraj, R.; Sarangarajan, Anuradha; Shanmugam, K. T.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia (PEH), a neglected entity by oral pathologist possesses utmost importance in the field of research. Of all the investigative challenges, PEH, a reactive epithelial proliferation is seen secondary to lesions with infectious, inflammatory, reactive, and degenerative origin. Small sized samples, incomplete excision, improper orientation, and dense inflammatory changes render diagnostic confront to the oral pathologist in exclusion of frankly invasive malignant l...

  18. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH): a brief review.

    Jaunoo, S S; Thrush, S; Dunn, P

    2011-01-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a benign entity of the breast and typically found incidentally. It warrants thorough investigation in order to exclude more sinister pathology masquerading as this form of benign breast disease and can often be managed expectantly without the need for surgical intervention. We provide a brief review of the literature on PASH, discussing its clinicopathological features and management. PMID:20887819

  19. Genetic basis of hereditary colorectal cancers: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer and Familial adenomatous polyposis

    Renkonen, Elise

    2006-01-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) are characterized by a high risk and early onset of colorectal cancer (CRC). HNPCC is due to a germline mutation in one of the following MMR genes: MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. A majority of FAP and attenuated FAP (AFAP) cases are due to germline mutations of APC, causing the development of multiple colorectal polyps. To date, over 450 MMR gene mutations and over 800 APC mutations have been identified. Mo...

  20. Adenosarcoma arising in hepatic endometriosis

    We report a case of adenosarcoma arising in hepatic endometriosis. Both CT and MR scans demontrated a huge heterogeneous mass containing septated, thick-walled cystic lesions. After enlarged right hepatectomy, the patient was asymptomatic with no abnormalities at liver and abdominal CT scan at 2-year follow-up. (orig.)

  1. Adenosarcoma arising in hepatic endometriosis

    N' Senda, P.; Dahan, H.; Tubiana, J.M.; Arrive, L. [Service de Radiologie, Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France); Wendum, D. [Service d' Anatomie Pathologie, Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France); Balladur, P. [Service de Chirurgie Digestive et Generale, Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-08-01

    We report a case of adenosarcoma arising in hepatic endometriosis. Both CT and MR scans demontrated a huge heterogeneous mass containing septated, thick-walled cystic lesions. After enlarged right hepatectomy, the patient was asymptomatic with no abnormalities at liver and abdominal CT scan at 2-year follow-up. (orig.)

  2. Natural history of benign prostate hyperplasia

    WU Shi-liang; LI Ning-chen; XIAO Yun-xiang; JIN Jie; QIU Shao-peng; YE Zhang-qun; KONG Chui-ze; SUN Guang; NA Yan-qun

    2006-01-01

    Background Benign prostate hyperplasia is one of the most common diseases affecting the health of the aging males. Watchful waiting is an acceptable management strategy for benign prostate hyperplasia in which the patient is monitored by the physician but receives no active intervention. The epidemiological data on this are lacking in China. Our study was designed to evaluate the changes of signs and symptoms of patients with benign prostate hyperplasia during management by watchful waiting in China.Methods One hundred and forty-five patients with benign prostate hyperplasia aged > 50 years were enrolled in management by watchful waiting. All the patients were visited every 6 months and were given an International Prostate Symptom Score and Quality of Life questionnaire to complete. They also had uroflowmetry and were assessed using ultrasonography to get the volume of prostate, transition zone and amount of residual urine. The Student's t test, the Chi-square test, and variance analysis were used in the statistical analysis.Results All patients were visited after 6 months, the mean volume of transitional zone was found to haveincreased by 1.6 ml (P<0.01), International Prostate Symptom Score was increased by 0.8 (P<0.01) and Quality of Life was increased by 0.2 (P<0.01), and there was no statistical change in other data. Among these patients,17.9% (26/145) visited again after 12 months when the data failed to show a statistically significant difference among the three groups (0, 6, and 12 months).Conclusions After one year's follow-up, the progression of benign prostate hyperplasia was slow and the clinical data did not undergo much change.

  3. Pharmacological treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common disease in over 50 years-old men consisting in uncontrolled and benign growth of prostatic gland that leads to lower urinary tract symptoms. The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia is multifactoral involving the increased conversion of testosterone in dihydrotestosterone by the prostatic 5α-reductase action, which brought about events that encourage the prostate growth (static component) and the increase of the bladder and prostate smooth muscle tone (dynamic component) regulated by the aα1 -adrenoceptors (ADR). The pharmacological treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia includes the prostatic 5aα-reductase inhibitors, the aα1-adrenoreceptor blockers, their combined therapy and the phytotherapy. This paper was aimed at presenting the most relevant aspects of the pharmacology of drugs used for treating the benign prostatic hyperplasia, and providing elements to analyze their efficacy, safety and tolerability. To this end, a review was made of the different drugs for the treatment of this pathology and they were grouped according to their mechanism of action. Natural products were included as lipid extracts from Serenoa repens and Pygeum africanum as well as D-004, a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, with proved beneficial effects on the main etiological factors of benign prostatic hyperplasia. D-004 is a prostatic 5a-reductase inhibitor, an aα1-adrenoceptor antagonist, aα 5-lipooxygenase inhibitor and has antioxidant action, all of which reveals a multifactoral mechanism. The results achieved till now indicate that D-004 is a safe and well-tolerated product

  4. Rare mutations predisposing to familial adenomatous polyposis in Greek FAP patients

    Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) is caused by germline mutations in the APC (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli) gene. The vast majority of APC mutations are point mutations or small insertions / deletions which lead to truncated protein products. Splicing mutations or gross genomic rearrangements are less common inactivating events of the APC gene. In the current study genomic DNA or RNA from ten unrelated FAP suspected patients was examined for germline mutations in the APC gene. Family history and phenotype were used in order to select the patients. Methods used for testing were dHPLC (denaturing High Performance Liquid Chromatography), sequencing, MLPA (Multiplex Ligation – dependent Probe Amplification), Karyotyping, FISH (Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization) and RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription – Polymerase Chain Reaction). A 250 Kbp deletion in the APC gene starting from intron 5 and extending beyond exon 15 was identified in one patient. A substitution of the +5 conserved nucleotide at the splice donor site of intron 9 in the APC gene was shown to produce frameshift and inefficient exon skipping in a second patient. Four frameshift mutations (1577insT, 1973delAG, 3180delAAAA, 3212delA) and a nonsense mutation (C1690T) were identified in the rest of the patients. Screening for APC mutations in FAP patients should include testing for splicing defects and gross genomic alterations

  5. Colorectal cancer risk variants on 11q23 and 15q13 are associated with unexplained adenomatous polyposis

    Hes, F.J.; Ruano, D.; Nieuwenhuis, M.; Tops, C.M.; Schrumpf, M.; Nielsen, M.; Huijts, P.E.; Wijnen, J.T.; Wagner, A.; Garcia, E.B.; Sijmons, R.H.; Menko, F.H.; Letteboer, T.G.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Harryvan, J.; Kampman, E.; Morreau, H.; Vasen, H.F.; Wezel, T. van

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal adenomatous polyposis is associated with a high risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and is frequently caused by germline mutations in APC or MUTYH. However, in about 20-30% of patients no underlying gene defect can be identified. In this study, we tested if recently identified CRC

  6. Colorectal cancer risk variants on 11q23 and 15q13 are associated with unexplained adenomatous polyposis

    Hes, Frederik J.; Ruano, Dina; Nieuwenhuis, Marry; Tops, Carli M.; Schrumpf, Melanie; Nielsen, Maartje; Huijts, Petra E. A.; Wijnen, Juul T.; Wagner, Anja; Gomez Garcia, Encarna B.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Menko, Fred H.; Letteboer, Tom G. W.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Harryvan, Jan; Kampman, Ellen; Morreau, Hans; Vasen, Hans F. A.; van Wezel, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Background Colorectal adenomatous polyposis is associated with a high risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and is frequently caused by germline mutations in APC or MUTYH. However, in about 20-30% of patients no underlying gene defect can be identified. In this study, we tested if recently identified CRC

  7. A case of congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia

    Mahin Hashemipour; Mahmoud Ghasemi; Silva Hovsepian

    2012-01-01

    Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH), a rare disorder of steroid biosynthesis, is the most severe form of CAH. In this disorder the synthesis of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and sex steroids is impaired which result in adrenal failure, severe salt wasting crisis and hyperpigmentation in phenotypical female infants irrespective of genetic sex. In this report, we presented a 28-day-old phenotypic female infant, which referred with lethargy, failure to thrive and electrolyte...

  8. A Case of Congenital Lipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Hashemipour, Mahin; Ghasemi, Mahmoud; Hovsepian, Silva

    2012-01-01

    Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH), a rare disorder of steroid biosynthesis, is the most severe form of CAH. In this disorder the synthesis of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and sex steroids is impaired which result in adrenal failure, severe salt wasting crisis and hyperpigmentation in phenotypical female infants irrespective of genetic sex. In this report, we presented a 28-day-old phenotypic female infant, which referred with lethargy, failure to thrive and electrolyte...

  9. Fibro-epithelial hyperplasia mimicking mucocele.

    Jain, K; Singh, B D; Dubey, A; Avinash, A

    2014-01-01

    The effects of chronic local irritation have been seen commonly in the form of fibroma or mucocele in children. We report a ten year old girl with the chief complaint of swelling in the lower right region of labial mucosa which was diagnosed clinically as mucocele and histologically as fibro-epithelial hyperplasia. Surgical excision was done under local anesthesia with no post-operative complication. PMID:25552222

  10. Development of intimal hyperplasia in transplant arteriosclerosis

    Religa, Piotr

    2003-01-01

    Vascular disease is the main cause of disability and mortality in the western world and the major limiting factor for long- term survival of transplanted organs. Occlusive vascular lesions lead to ischemia and structural changes in organs and in transplant arteriosclerosis and restenosis after endovascular procedures, narrowing of the vessel lumen is partly due to intimal hyperplasia caused by smooth muscle cells (SMCs). In this thesis, I have examined the mechanisms involve...

  11. FOCAL EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA: HECK’S DISEASE

    Brzeziński Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Heck's disease (focal epithelial hyperplasia) (FEH) is clinically characterized by multiple circumscribed, soft elevated nodules of the oral mucosa. Papules and plaques are usually the color of normal mucosa, but may be pale or, rarely, white. Disease may persist for years, producing a significant reduction in quality of life. Lessions may be located in the area of mucous membranes of the lips, cheeks and tongue. It is believed that the two virus types are responsible for the FEH, are: HPV 1...

  12. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia: a case report.

    Masannat, Yazan A; Whitehead, Stephen; Hawley, Ian; Apthorp, Lesley; Shah, Elizabeth F

    2010-01-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a rare benign proliferating breast condition. It was first reported in 1986 when Vuitch, Rosen, and Erlandson described nine cases of benign well-circumscribed, breast masses that simulated vascular lesions consisting of mammary stromal proliferations (Vuitch et al. (1986)). Since then there have been few reported cases of PASH in the literature (Taira et al. (2005)). We describe a large PASH, mimicking inflammatory carcinoma in a young lady that was excised with excellent cosmetic results. PMID:21318179

  13. Dust arising during steelmaking processes

    P. Popielska-Ostrowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper describes the dust arising during steelmaking processes.Design/methodology/approach: Steelmaking dusts may be a viable alternative for obtaining valuable and widely used metal which is zinc. On the other hand, heavy metals, it was as dangerous to the environment, and this in turn means that development of steelmaking dusts in the best possible way.Findings: The analysis of the formation of steelmaking dust.Research limitations/implications: Understanding the mechanism of steelmaking dusts will help to increase the participation of zinc recycling from wastes.Practical implications: Contained zinc in the dust can be recovered from the positive economic effect, and neutralization of hazardous waste to the desired environmental effect.Originality/value: Description of the mechanism of steelmaking dust, with particular emphasis on the distribution of zinc. The information is very important in the development of metal recovery technology from waste.

  14. Surveillance and management of upper gastrointestinal disease in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    Gallagher, Michelle C; Phillips, Robin K S; Bülow, Steffen

    2006-01-01

    develop colorectal cancer, but the lifetime risk of upper gastrointestinal cancer is lower, estimated at approximately 5%. Management of the upper gastrointestinal cancer risk is one of the greatest challenges facing clinicians involved in the care of Polyposis families, and with improved survival......Almost all patients affected by Familial Adenomatous polyposis (FAP) will develop foregut as well as hindgut polyps, and following prophylactic colectomy duodenal cancer constitutes one of the leading causes of death in screened populations. Without prophylactic colectomy, FAP patients predictably...... following prophylactic colectomy, the burden of foregut disease (particularly duodenal adenomatosis) will increase. Until recently, the value of upper gastrointestinal surveillance in FAP populations has been contentious, but with improved understanding of the natural history coupled with developments in...

  15. Pituicytoma Coexisting With Corticotroph Hyperplasia: Literature Review With One Case Report.

    Guo, Xiaopeng; Fu, Hanhui; Kong, Xiangyi; Gao, Lu; Wang, Wenze; Ma, Wenbin; Yao, Yong; Wang, Renzhi; Xing, Bing

    2016-03-01

    Pituicytoma is a rare, low-grade glial neoplasm that arises in the neurohypophysis or infundibulum and usually presents as pituitary gland enlargement. They are often misdiagnosed as pituitary adenomas. Causes have varied for high serum adrenocorticotropic hormone level reported in a few patients with pituicytoma.We report a rare case of pituicytoma accompanied by corticotroph hyperplasia-a challenging diagnosis guided by clinical presentations, radiological signs, and biopsy.We present a case of pituicytoma with corticotroph hyperplasia in a 46-year-old woman with typical Cushing syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lesion in the sellar area with equal T1 and T2 signals and marked homogeneous enhancement. We present detailed analysis of the patient's disease course and review pertinent literature. Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor of this journal. Because of this, there is no need to conduct special ethic review and the ethical approval is not necessary.The patient underwent a surgical exploration and tumor resection through a trans-sphenoidal approach. Pathologic results revealed pituicytoma and corticotroph hyperplasia. As adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels did not decrease to normal, the patient received radiotherapy and recovered uneventfully. No recurrence was found over 8 years of follow-up.Pituicytoma is a rare type of sellar tumor. Pituicytomas in patients with Cushing syndrome are rarer still. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Cushing syndrome caused by corticotroph hyperplasia in a pituicytoma patient. PMID:26962837

  16. NonClassic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Azziz Ricardo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH due to P450c21 (21-hydroxylase deficiency is a common autosomal recessive disorder. This disorder is due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene which is located at chromosome 6p21. The clinical features predominantly reflect androgen excess rather than adrenal insufficiency leading to an ascertainment bias favoring diagnosis in females. Treatment goals include normal linear growth velocity and "on-time" puberty in affected children. For adolescent and adult women, treatment goals include regularization of menses, prevention of progression of hirsutism, and fertility. This paper will review key aspects regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of NCAH.

  17. OTC tamsulosin for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    2010-10-01

    Earlier this year, tamsulosin, an alpha blocker previously only available on prescription, became available for sale by pharmacists as a treatment for functional symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in men aged 45-75 years (Flomax Relief MR - Boehringer Ingelheim). A television advert for the over-the-counter (OTC) product claims that it is a "simple and effective" treatment that can relieve symptoms within 1 week, allowing the user to "take control of your annoying pee problems".¹ Here we review the evidence on tamsulosin and assess whether its availability as an OTC product confers worthwhile advantages. PMID:20926447

  18. FOCAL EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA: HECK’S DISEASE

    Brzeziński Piotr

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Heck's disease (focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH is clinically characterized by multiple circumscribed, soft elevated nodules of the oral mucosa. Papules and plaques are usually the color of normal mucosa, but may be pale or, rarely, white. Disease may persist for years, producing a significant reduction in quality of life. Lessions may be located in the area of mucous membranes of the lips, cheeks and tongue. It is believed that the two virus types are responsible for the FEH, are: HPV 13 and HPV 32. Different therapeutic procedures have been reported: surgical excision, laser ablation, cryotherapy, electrocauterization, interferon, retinoic acid, 5% immiquimod.

  19. Thermal coagulation-induced changes of the optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro in the spectral range 400-1100 nm

    Ao Huilan; Xing Da; Wei Huajiang; Gu Huaimin [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, ina Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Wu Guoyong; Lu Jianjun [Department of Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China)], E-mail: xingda@scnu.edu.cn

    2008-04-21

    The absorption coefficients, the reduced scattering coefficients and the optical penetration depths for native and coagulated human normal and adenomatous colon tissues in vitro were determined over the range of 400-1100 nm using a spectrophotometer with an internal integrating sphere system, and the inverse adding-doubling method was applied to calculate the tissue optical properties from diffuse reflectance and total transmittance measurements. The experimental results showed that in the range of 400-1100 nm there were larger absorption coefficients (P < 0.01) and smaller reduced scattering coefficients (P < 0.01) for adenomatous colon tissues than for normal colon tissues, and there were smaller optical penetration depths for adenomatous colon tissues than for normal colon tissues, especially in the near-infrared wavelength. Thermal coagulation induced significant increase of the absorption coefficients and reduced scattering coefficients for the normal and adenomatous colon tissues, and significantly reduced decrease of the optical penetration depths for the normal and adenomatous colon tissues. The smaller optical penetration depth for coagulated adenomatous colon tissues is a disadvantage for laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT). It is necessary to adjust the application parameters of lasers to achieve optimal therapy.

  20. A case report of giant retroperitoneal lymph node hyperplasia

    Park, Hae Won [Korea General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-08-15

    Giant lymph node hyperplasias are an uncommon entity. They are difficult to image on plain film. The CT appearance of this condition has been described in recent radiologic literature. In this case report, combination of ultrasonogram and CT permitted differentiated of other space occupying lesions from giant retroperitoneal lymph node hyperplasia.

  1. A case report of giant retroperitoneal lymph node hyperplasia

    Giant lymph node hyperplasias are an uncommon entity. They are difficult to image on plain film. The CT appearance of this condition has been described in recent radiologic literature. In this case report, combination of ultrasonogram and CT permitted differentiated of other space occupying lesions from giant retroperitoneal lymph node hyperplasia

  2. Laparoscopic Partial Hepatectomy of Focal Nodular Hyperplasia

    Mayu Sakata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Focal nodular hyperplasia is a benign liver lesion incidentally discovered with increasing frequency because of the proliferation of imaging studies. Radiographic characterization can diagnose this pathologic lesion and nonoperative therapy is the standard of care. However, surgical resection may be required for diagnostic reasons or symptomatic patients. Depending on the anatomic location of the lesion, biopsy and/or resection can be performed laparoscopically. We herein report the case of a 26-year-old Japanese woman with a hepatic tumor who required a medical examination. Her medical history was negative for alcohol abuse, oral contraceptive administration and trauma. Clinical examination showed no significant symptoms. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass located in the left lateral segment of the liver with a diameter of about 40 mm. It was difficult to diagnose the tumor definitively from these imaging studies, so we performed laparoscopic partial hepatectomy with successive firing of endoscopic staplers. The histopathological diagnosis was focal nodular hyperplasia. Surgical procedures and postoperative course were uneventful and the patient was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 5.

  3. Adenomatous polyposis coli is required for early events in the normal growth and differentiation of the developing cerebral cortex

    Price David J; Mason John O; Chen Yijing; Ivaniutsin Uladzislau; Pratt Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) is a large multifunctional protein known to be important for Wnt/β-catenin signalling, cytoskeletal dynamics, and cell polarity. In the developing cerebral cortex, Apc is expressed in proliferating cells and its expression increases as cells migrate to the cortical plate. We examined the consequences of loss of Apc function for the early development of the cerebral cortex. Results We used Emx1Cre to inactivate Apc specifically in proliferat...

  4. Adenomatous polyposis coli is required for early events in the normal growth and differentiation of the developing cerebral cortex

    Ivaniutsin, Uladzislau; CHEN, Yijing; John O. MASON; Price, David; Pratt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background: Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) is a large multifunctional protein known to be important for Wnt/beta-catenin signalling, cytoskeletal dynamics, and cell polarity. In the developing cerebral cortex, Apc is expressed in proliferating cells and its expression increases as cells migrate to the cortical plate. We examined the consequences of loss of Apc function for the early development of the cerebral cortex.Results: We used Emx1(Cre) to inactivate Apc specifically in proliferating...

  5. Different Roles for the Axin Interactions with the SAMP versus the Second Twenty Amino Acid Repeat of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli

    Schneikert, Jean; Ruppert, Jan Gustav; Behrens, Jürgen; Wenzel, Eva Maria

    2014-01-01

    Wnt signalling is prevented by the proteosomal degradation of β-catenin, which occurs in a destruction complex containing adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), APC-like (APCL), Axin and Axin2. Truncating mutations of the APC gene result in the constitutive stabilisation of β-catenin and the initiation of colon cancer, although tumour cells tolerate the expression of wild-type APCL. Using the colocalisation of overexpressed Axin, APC and APCL constructs as a readout of interaction, we found that A...

  6. The Adenomatous polyposis coli tumour suppressor is essential for Axin complex assembly and function and opposes Axin's interaction with Dishevelled

    Mendoza-Topaz, Carolina; Mieszczanek, Juliusz; Bienz, Mariann

    2011-01-01

    Most cases of colorectal cancer are linked to mutational inactivation of the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor. APC downregulates Wnt signalling by enabling Axin to promote the degradation of the Wnt signalling effector β-catenin (Armadillo in flies). This depends on Axin's DIX domain whose polymerization allows it to form dynamic protein assemblies (‘degradasomes’). Axin is inactivated upon Wnt signalling, by heteropolymerization with the DIX domain of Dishevelled, which rec...

  7. Dietary Putrescine Reduces the Anticarcinogenic Intestinal Activity of Sulindac in a Murine Model of Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    Ignatenko, Natalia A.; Besselsen, David G; Basu Roy, Upal K.; Stringer, David E.; Blohm-Mangone, Karen A.; Padilla-Torres, Jose L.; Guillen-R, Jose M.; Gerner, Eugene W.

    2006-01-01

    The nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug sulindac displays chemopreventive activity in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Sulindac metabolites induce apoptosis in colon tumor cells, in part, by a polyamine-dependent mechanism that can be suppressed with exogenous putrescine. To determine the relevance of this mechanism in animals, we treated ApcMin/+ mice, a model of human FAP, with sulindac alone or in combination with dietary putrescine. Sulindac increased steady-state RNA le...

  8. Colonic Crypt Changes during Adenoma Development in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis : Immunohistochemical Evidence for Expansion of the Crypt Base Cell Population

    Boman, Bruce M; Walters, Rhonda; Fields, Jeremy Z.; Kovatich, Albert J.; Zhang, Tao; Isenberg, Gerald A.; Goldstein, Scott D.; Palazzo, Juan P.

    2004-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis patients, who have a germline APC mutation, develop adenomas in normal-appearing colonic mucosa, and in the process usually acquire a mutation in the other APC allele as well. Nonetheless, the cellular mechanisms that link these initiating genetic changes with the earliest tissue changes (upward shift in the labeling index) in colon tumorigenesis are unclear. Based on the tenet that colorectal cancer originates from crypt stem cells (SCs) and on our kinetic mode...

  9. p53 Nuclear Accumulation and Bcl-2 Expression in Contiguous Adenomatous Components of Colorectal Adenocarcinomas Predict Aggressive Tumor Behavior

    Shanmugam, Chandrakumar; Katkoori, Venkat R.; Jhala, Nirag C.; Grizzle, William E.; Gene P Siegal; Manne, Upender

    2008-01-01

    For subsets of colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC) patients, nuclear accumulation of p53 (p53nac) and Bcl-2 expression are prognostic indicators. To understand their role in the progression of CRC we evaluated 90 CRCs and their contiguous adenomatous components (CAdCs) for immunohistochemical expression of these markers. In general, p53nac and Bcl-2 expression was significantly increased when comparing normal colonic epithelia to CAdCs and CRCs. Thirteen (14%) CAdCs that demonstrated p53nac conti...

  10. Adenomatous polyposis coli mutants dominantly activate Hsf1-dependent cell stress pathways through inhibition of microtubule dynamics

    Davies, Alexander E.; Kortright, Kaitlyn; Kaplan, Kenneth B.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells up-regulate cell stress pathways, including the protein chaperone Hsp90. Increases in Hsp90 are believed “buffer” mutant protein activities necessary for cancer phenotypes. Activation of the cell stress pathway also alters the transcriptional landscape of cells in ways that are critical for cancer progression. However, it is unclear when and how the cell stress pathway is de-regulated during cancer progression. Here we report that mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) fou...

  11. Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome: an unusual finding of gastro-intestinal adenomatous polyps in a syndrome characterized by hamartomatous polyps

    Flannery, Christopher M.; Lunn, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Cronkhite-Canada syndrome is a rare, hamartomatous polyposis syndrome of unknown etiology. Hamartomatous gastro-intestinal polyps, alopecia, onychodystrophy, cutaneous hyperpigmentation, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and complications of weight loss are typical of the syndrome. In this report, we describe a pathological finding of colonic adenomatous polyposis as opposed to hamartomatous polyposis. We also describe our treatment, long-term therapeutic plan, and the need for further research.

  12. Two cases of 5q deletions in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis: possible link with Caroli's disease.

    Hodgson, S V; Coonar, A S; P. J. Hanson; Cottrell, S; Scriven, P N; Jones, T; Hawley, P R; Wilkinson, M L

    1993-01-01

    Two cases are reported of patients with deletions of chromosome 5q. Both have familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and mild mental retardation. In both, macroscopic polyposis was confined to the proximal colon in adult life (in their thirties) although microscopic adenomatosis was shown in the more distal colon with occasional single polyps. Both subjects had dermoid cysts, and congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE) was seen in case 2. Case 1 has gastroduodenal polyp...

  13. Aberrant methylation of the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) gene promoter is associated with the inflammatory breast cancer phenotype

    Van der Auwera, I; Laere, S.J.; Van den Bosch, S M; Van den Eynden, G. G.; Trinh, B X; van Dam, P A; Colpaert, C G; van Engeland, M; Van Marck, E A; Vermeulen, P B; Dirix, L Y

    2008-01-01

    Aberrant methylation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene promoter occurs in about 40% of breast tumours and has been correlated with reduced APC protein levels. To what extent epigenetic alterations of the APC gene may differ according to specific breast cancer phenotypes, remains to be elucidated. Our aim was to explore the role of APC methylation in the inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) phenotype. The status of APC gene promoter hypermethylation was investigated in DNA from normal b...

  14. Aspirin augments the expression of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein by suppression of IKKβ

    Ashida, Noboru, E-mail: nashida@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kishihata, Masako [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Tien, Dat Nguyen [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kamei, Kaeko [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kimura, Takeshi [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Yokode, Masayuki [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • Clinical studies revealed aspirin inhibits cancer, but the mechanism is not known. • Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) is a well-known tumor-suppressing gene. • We found aspirin up-regulates the protein of APC. • Aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, an essential kinase in NFκB activation. • The deletion of IKKβ significantly increases the expression of APC protein. - Abstract: Aspirin has been widely used as analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory medicine for long. In addition to these traditional effects, clinical studies suggest that aspirin can protect against cancer, but its mechanism has not been explored. To unveil it, we identified the proteins up- or down-regulated after incubation with aspirin by using proteomics analysis with Nano-flow LC/MALDI-TOF system. Interestingly, the analysis identified the protein of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) as one of the most up-regulated protein. APC regulates cell proliferation or angiogenesis, and is widely known as a tumor-suppressing gene which can cause colorectal cancer when it is mutated. Western blots confirmed this result, and real-time PCR indicated it is transcriptionally regulated. We further tried to elucidate the molecular mechanism with focusing on IKKβ. IKKβ is the essential kinase in activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), major transcriptional factors that regulate genes responsible for inflammation or immune response. Previous reports indicated that aspirin specifically inhibits IKKβ activity, and constitutively active form of IKKβ accelerates APC loss. We found that aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, and the deletion of IKKβ by siRNA increases the expression of APC in HEK294 cells. Finally, we observed similar effects of aspirin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Taken together, these results reveal that aspirin up-regulates the expression of APC via the suppression of IKKβ. This can be a mechanism how aspirin prevents cancer at

  15. Management of benign prostatic hyperplasia with silodosin

    Tomonori Yamanishi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Tomonori Yamanishi1, Tomoya Mizuno1, Takao Kamai1, Ken-ichiro Yoshida1, Ryuji Sakakibara2, Tomoyuki Uchiyama31Department of Urology, Dokkyo Medical University, Tochigi, Japan; 2Department of Neurology, Sakura Hospital, Toho University, Toho, Japan; 3Department of Neurology, Chiba University, Chiba, JapanAbstract: It has been reported that blockade of α1A-adrenoceptor (AR relieves bladder outlet obstruction, while blockade of α1D-AR is believed to alleviate storage symptoms due to detrusor overactivity. Silodosin, (--1-(3-hydroxypropyl-5-[(2R-2-({2-[2-(2,2,2trifluoroethoxy phenoxy]ethyl}aminopropyl]-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole-7- carboxamide, is a new α1A-AR selective antagonist. Silodosin is highly selective for the α1A-AR subtype, showing an affinity for the α1A-AR that is 583- and 55.5-fold higher than its affinity for the α1B- and α1D-ARs, respectively. In randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III studies performed in Japan and the United States, silodosin has been shown to be effective for both storage and voiding symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Early effects of silodosin (after 2–6 hours or day 1 on lower urinary tract symptoms have also been reported. In urodynamic studies, detrusor overactivity disappeared in 40% and improved in 35% of patients after administration. In pressure flow studies, the grade of obstruction on the International Continence Society nomogram showed improvement in 56% of patients. The rate of adverse events in the silodosin, tamsulosin and placebo groups was 88.6%, 82.3%, and 71.6%, respectively. The most common adverse event was (mostly mild abnormal ejaculation (28.1%. However, few patients (2.8% discontinued silodosin because of abnormal ejaculation. Orthostatic hypotension showed a similar incidence in the silodosin (2.6% and placebo (1.5% groups. In conclusion, silodosin improves detrusor overactivity and obstruction and thus may be effective for both storage and voiding

  16. Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia. A Case Report

    Rafael Pila Pérez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Focal epithelial hyperplasia, also known as Heck's disease, is relatively rare, occurring mostly in children and adolescents. A case of a 20 year-old female patient treated at the Manuel Ascunce Domenech University Hospital in Camagüey due to papular lesions, which had evolved for ten months, is presented. Other viral diseases were ruled out; however based on histological studies, it was concluded that she suffered from Heck disease, which is frequently treated by dentists, but little known among pediatricians, internists and dermatologists. Because of its etiology, many cases are related to human papilloma virus infection. When the disease evolves, treatment can involve excision, laser surgery or cryotherapy. The latter method was used in this patient with satisfactory results, as she is completely asymptomatic.

  17. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Treatment and outcomes

    Mahdi Kamoun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH describes a group of autosomal recessive disorders where there is impairment of cortisol biosynthesis. CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency accounts for 95% of cases and shows a wide range of clinical severity. Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement therapies are the mainstays of treatment of CAH. The optimal treatment for adults with CAH continues to be a challenge. Important long-term health issues for adults with CAH affect both men and women. These issues may either be due to the disease or to steroid treatment and may affect final height, fertility, cardiometabolic risk, bone metabolism, neuro-cognitive development and the quality-of-life. Patients with CAH should be regularly followed-up from childhood to adulthood by multidisciplinary teams who have knowledge of CAH. Optimal replacement therapy, close clinical and laboratory monitoring, early life-style interventions, early and regular fertility assessment and continuous psychological management are needed to improve outcome.

  18. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia causing massive breast enlargement.

    Bourke, Anita Geraldine; Tiang, Stephen; Harvey, Nathan; McClure, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast is a benign mesenchymal proliferative process, initially described by Vuitch et al. We report an unusual case of a 46-year-old woman who presented with a 6-week history of bilateral massive, asymmetrical, painful enlargement of her breasts, without a history of trauma. On clinical examination, both breasts were markedly enlarged and oedematous, but there were no discrete palpable masses. Preoperative image-guided core biopsies and surgery showed PASH. PASH is increasingly recognised as an incidental finding on image-guided core biopsy performed for screen detected lesions. There are a few reported cases of PASH presenting as rapid breast enlargement. In our case, the patient presented with painful, asymmetrical, massive breast enlargement. Awareness needs to be raised of this entity as a differential diagnosis in massive, painful breast enlargement. PMID:26475873

  19. Characterization of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein Dynamics and Localization at the Centrosome.

    Lui, Christina; Mok, Myth T S; Henderson, Beric R

    2016-01-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor is a multifunctional regulator of Wnt signaling and acts as a mobile scaffold at different cellular sites. APC was recently found to stimulate microtubule (MT) growth at the interphase centrosome; however, little is known about its dynamics and localization at this site. To address this, we analysed APC dynamics in fixed and live cells by fluorescence microscopy. In detergent-extracted cells, we discovered that APC was only weakly retained at the centrosome during interphase suggesting a rapid rate of exchange. This was confirmed in living cells by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), which identified two pools of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-APC: a major rapidly exchanging pool (~86%) and minor retained pool (~14%). The dynamic exchange rate of APC was unaffected by C-terminal truncations implicating a targeting role for the N-terminus. Indeed, we mapped centrosome localization to N-terminal armadillo repeat (ARM) domain amino acids 334-625. Interestingly, the rate of APC movement to the centrosome was stimulated by intact MTs, and APC dynamics slowed when MTs were disrupted by nocodazole treatment or knockdown of γ-tubulin. Thus, the rate of APC recycling at the centrosome is enhanced by MT growth, suggesting a positive feedback to stimulate its role in MT growth. PMID:27144584

  20. Characterization of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein Dynamics and Localization at the Centrosome

    Christina Lui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC tumor suppressor is a multifunctional regulator of Wnt signaling and acts as a mobile scaffold at different cellular sites. APC was recently found to stimulate microtubule (MT growth at the interphase centrosome; however, little is known about its dynamics and localization at this site. To address this, we analysed APC dynamics in fixed and live cells by fluorescence microscopy. In detergent-extracted cells, we discovered that APC was only weakly retained at the centrosome during interphase suggesting a rapid rate of exchange. This was confirmed in living cells by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP, which identified two pools of green fluorescent protein (GFP-APC: a major rapidly exchanging pool (~86% and minor retained pool (~14%. The dynamic exchange rate of APC was unaffected by C-terminal truncations implicating a targeting role for the N-terminus. Indeed, we mapped centrosome localization to N-terminal armadillo repeat (ARM domain amino acids 334–625. Interestingly, the rate of APC movement to the centrosome was stimulated by intact MTs, and APC dynamics slowed when MTs were disrupted by nocodazole treatment or knockdown of γ-tubulin. Thus, the rate of APC recycling at the centrosome is enhanced by MT growth, suggesting a positive feedback to stimulate its role in MT growth.

  1. Neighborhood analysis of low magnification structures (glands) in healthy, adenomatous, and carcinomatous colon mucosa.

    Kayser, K; Shaver, M; Modlinger, F; Postl, K; Moyers, J J

    1986-05-01

    A new algorithm analyzing neighborhood conditions of adenomatous tissue is is introduced. Using O'Callaghan's definition of neighborhoods, a graph theory approach for measuring histomorphological structures can be created as follows: glands are defined as vertices and the coherence of neighboring glands as edges. The procedure leads to an unoriented, well-defined graph which contains information usually not measurable by conventional morphometric analysis. Measurements on healthy mucosa, tubulo-villous adenoma and highly to moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of colon revealed statistically significant differences (p less than or equal to 0.05) for the following parameters: number of vertices, number of edges, frequency distribution of n-stars and of n-closed paths. Correct separation and reclassification of 83% of cases could be carried out using discriminant analysis. 11/15 cases (73%) could be classified correctly in a prospective group based upon the learning set. The significance of these findings for automatic pattern recognition in histopathology is discussed. PMID:3737471

  2. Familial Adenomatous Polyposis in Three Generations of a Single Family: A Case Study

    Jure Murgic

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP is an autosomal dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by the development of numerous polyps in the colon and rectum. If left untreated, the affected patients inevitably develop colon cancer by the age of 40 years. A resection of the colon (colectomy or of the colon and rectum (proctocolectomy is needed to minimize the risk of cancer. Case Presentation: We report a case of FAP through three generations of a single family, in which the grandmother and granddaughter underwent total colectomy with ileoanal anastomosis and did not develop colon cancer, while the son underwent subtotal colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis and developed recurrent rectal cancer. Data regarding timely surgery, surveillance, and chemoprevention are discussed. Conclusion: The FAP phenotype determines the type of treatment. In severe polyposis, proctocolectomy with ileoanal anastomosis seems to be the optimal method for minimizing the risk of cancer development. This case report advocates complete rectal removal, especially in cases of poor patient compliance with colonoscopic surveillance.

  3. Adenoma development in familial adenomatous polyposis and MUTYH-associated polyposis: somatic landscape and driver genes.

    Rashid, Mamunur; Fischer, Andrej; Wilson, Cathy H; Tiffen, Jessamy; Rust, Alistair G; Stevens, Philip; Idziaszczyk, Shelley; Maynard, Julie; Williams, Geraint T; Mustonen, Ville; Sampson, Julian R; Adams, David J

    2016-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) are inherited disorders associated with multiple colorectal adenomas that lead to a very high risk of colorectal cancer. The somatic mutations that drive adenoma development in these conditions have not been investigated comprehensively. In this study we performed analysis of paired colorectal adenoma and normal tissue DNA from individuals with FAP or MAP, sequencing 14 adenoma whole exomes (eight MAP, six FAP), 55 adenoma targeted exomes (33 MAP, 22 FAP) and germline DNA from each patient, and a further 63 adenomas by capillary sequencing (41 FAP, 22 MAP). With these data we examined the profile of mutated genes, the mutational signatures and the somatic mutation rates, observing significant diversity in the constellations of mutated driver genes in different adenomas, and loss-of-function mutations in WTX (9%; p < 9.99e-06), a gene implicated in regulation of the WNT pathway and p53 acetylation. These data extend our understanding of the early events in colorectal tumourigenesis in the polyposis syndromes. PMID:26414517

  4. Structural basis for the recognition of Asef by adenomatous polyposis coli

    Zhenyi Zhang; Ping Xu; Jian Zhang; Geng Wu; Leyi Chen; Lei Gao; Kui Lin; Liang Zhu; Yang Lu; Xiaoshan Shi; Yuan Gao; Jing Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) regulates cell-cell adhesion and cell migration through activating the APC-stimulated guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF; Aset),which is usually autoinhibited through the binding between its Src homology 3 (SH3) and Dbl homology (DH) domains.The APC-activated Asef stimulates the small GTPase Cdc42,which leads to decreased cell-cell adherence and enhanced cell migration.In colorectal cancers,truncated APC constitutively activates Asef and promotes cancer cell migration and angiogenesis.Here,we report crystal structures of the human APC/Asef complex.We find that the armadillo repeat domain of APC uses a highly conserved surface groove to recognize the APC-binding region (ABR) of Asef,conformation of which changes dramatically upon binding to APC.Key residues on APC and Asef for the complex formation were mutated and their importance was demonstrated by binding and activity assays.Structural superimposition of the APC/Asef complex with autoinhibited Asef suggests that the binding between APC and Asef might create a steric clash between AsefDH domain and APC,which possibly leads to a conformational change in Asef that stimulates its GEF activity.Our structures thus elucidate the molecular mechanism of Asef recognition by APC,as well as provide a potential target for pharmaceutical intervention against cancers.

  5. Desmoid Tumor Associated With Familial Adenomatous Polyposis: Evaluation With 64-Detector CT Enterography

    Desmoid tumors (DTs) are benign tumors which are not seen very often, and most of the radiologists and clinicians do not know the characteristics of them very well. Correct and early diagnosis of DTs is important for decreasing mortality and morbidity. Computed tomography enterography (CTE) is a new modality for small bowel imaging which combines the improved spatial and temporal resolution of multidetector computed tomography (CT) with large volumes of ingested enteric contrast material to permit evaluation of the small bowel wall and lumen and also the entire abdomen. We report a familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patient with localized mesentery and abdominal wall DTs. We showed the exact location of the DTs and their relation with the small bowel by CTE. In conclusion, CTE is a useful technique for DT localization, the degree of extension and invasion to local structures, presence of partial and complete small bowel obstruction, and the relationship of the tumors with vasculature and whether ischemia has occurred as a result or not

  6. Desmoid Tumor Associated With Familial Adenomatous Polyposis: Evaluation With 64-Detector CT Enterography

    Oktay Algin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Desmoid tumors (DTs are benign tumors which are not seen very often, and most of the radiologists and clinicians do not know the characteristics of them very well. Correct and early diagnosis of DTs is important for decreasing mortality and morbidity. Computed tomography enterography (CTE is a new modality for small bowel imaging which combines the improved spatial and temporal resolution of multidetector computed tomography (CT with large volumes of ingested enteric contrast material to permit evaluation of the small bowel wall and lumen and also the entire abdomen. We report a familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP patient with localized mesentery and abdominal wall DTs. We showed the exact location of the DTs and their relation with the small bowel by CTE. In conclusion, CTE is a useful technique for DT localization, the degree of extension and invasion to local structures, presence of partial and complete small bowel obstruction, and the relationship of the tumors with vasculature and whether ischemia ha s occurred as a result or not.

  7. The challenge of developmentally appropriate care: predictive genetic testing in young people for familial adenomatous polyposis.

    Duncan, Rony E; Gillam, Lynn; Savulescu, Julian; Williamson, Robert; Rogers, John G; Delatycki, Martin B

    2010-03-01

    Predictive genetic tests for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) are routinely offered to young people during early adolescence. While this is not controversial, due to the medical benefit conferred by the test, it is nonetheless challenging as a consequence of the stage of life of the young people, and the simultaneous involvement of multiple family members. Despite these challenges, it is possible to ensure that the test is offered in such a way that it actively acknowledges and facilitates young people's developing autonomy and psychosocial well-being. In this paper we present findings from ten in-depth interviews with young people who have undergone predictive genetic testing for FAP (four male, six female; five gene-positive, five gene-negative; aged 10-17 years at the time of their predictive test; aged 12-25 years at the time of their research interview). We present five themes that emerged from the interviews which highlight key ethical challenges associated with such testing. These are: (1) the significance of the test; (2) young people's lack of involvement in the decision to be tested; (3) young people's limited understanding; (4) provision of the blood test at the first visit; and (5) group testing of family members. We draw on these themes to make eight recommendations for future practice. Together, these recommendations highlight the importance of providing developmentally appropriate care to young people undergoing predictive genetic testing for FAP. PMID:19760114

  8. Maxillary sinus marrow hyperplasia in sickle cell anemia

    Marrow hyperplasia is a sequela of sickle cell anemia (SCA) and may be seen in the skull in children after 5 years of age. The facial bones, except for the mandible and orbits, are usually not involved. We report an unusual case of a 28-month-old black boy with SCA who presented with extensive marrow hyperplasia of the maxillary sinuses in addition to severe calvarial and mandibular changes. The imaging characteristics on CT (similar to other sites of marrow hyperplasia) and MR (low signal on both T1 and T2 sequences) should aid in making the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  9. Maxillary sinus marrow hyperplasia in sickle cell anemia

    Fernandez, M. [Dept. of Imaging, Children`s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI (United States); Slovis, T.L. [Dept. of Imaging, Children`s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI (United States); Whitten-Shurney, W. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Children`s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Marrow hyperplasia is a sequela of sickle cell anemia (SCA) and may be seen in the skull in children after 5 years of age. The facial bones, except for the mandible and orbits, are usually not involved. We report an unusual case of a 28-month-old black boy with SCA who presented with extensive marrow hyperplasia of the maxillary sinuses in addition to severe calvarial and mandibular changes. The imaging characteristics on CT (similar to other sites of marrow hyperplasia) and MR (low signal on both T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} sequences) should aid in making the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  10. MRI evaluation of pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism

    Objective: To analyze the MRI manifestations of the pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism and to improve the differential diagnosis of secondary pituitary hyperplasia and pituitary tumors. Methods: The MRI findings of pituitary hyperplasia in 10 documented primary hypothyroidism patients (male 3, female 7; age range: 9-15 years) were reviewed. The pulse sequences using a 1.0T MR scanner included coronal and sagittal T1W, coronal T2W and coronal contrast-enhanced T1W in all patients. Results: The pituitary gland was markedly enlarged with mean height of 15.5 mm (11-23 mm). Central bulging of pituitary gland was seen in all 10 patients with mild displacement of the infundibulum in 3 and sellar enlargement in 5. All glands had homogeneous MR signal intensities and contrast enhancement. Conclusion: Pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism has characteristic MR features of central bulging with homogeneous signal intensities and contrast enhancement. (authors)

  11. New Developments in Our Understanding of Neointimal Hyperplasia.

    Lee, Timmy; Ul Haq, Naveed

    2015-11-01

    The vascular access remains the lifeline for the hemodialysis patient. The most common etiology of vascular access dysfunction is venous stenosis at the vein-artery anastomosis in arteriovenous fistula and at the vein-graft anastomosis in arteriovenous grafts (AVG). This stenotic lesion is typically characterized on histology as aggressive venous neointimal hyperplasia in both arteriovenous fistula and AVG. In recent years, we have advanced our knowledge and understanding of neointimal hyperplasia in vascular access and begun testing several novel therapies. This article will (1) review recent developments in our understanding of the pathophysiology of neointimal hyperplasia development in AVG and fistula failure, (2) discuss atypical factors leading to neointimal hyperplasia development, (3) highlight key novel therapies that have been evaluated in clinical trials, and (4) discuss future opportunities and challenges to improve our understanding of vascular access dysfunction and translate this knowledge into novel and innovative therapies. PMID:26524947

  12. Paediatric cyclical Cushing's disease due to corticotroph cell hyperplasia.

    Noctor, E

    2015-06-01

    Cushing\\'s disease is very rare in the paediatric population. Although uncommon, corticotroph hyperplasia causing Cushing\\'s syndrome has been described in the adult population, but appears to be extremely rare in children. Likewise, cyclical cortisol hypersecretion, while accounting for 15 % of adult cases of Cushing\\'s disease, has only rarely been described in the paediatric population. Here, we describe a very rare case of a 13-year old boy with cyclical cortisol hypersecretion secondary to corticotroph cell hyperplasia.

  13. Proteus syndrome: MRI characteristics of plantar cerebriform hyperplasia

    Proteus syndrome is a rare congenital hamartomatous syndrome with a variety of abnormalities. It shares many features with other congenital hamartomatous disorders, but cerebriform hyperplasia of the soles and the palms is known as a quite distinctive characteristic in the dermatologic literature. The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate the MRI features of plantar cerebriform hyperplasia in a 9-year-old boy with known Proteus syndrome. (orig.)

  14. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: clinical treatment can complicate cataract surgery

    Fernando Facio; Renata Kashiwabuschi; Yutaro Nishi; Ricardo Leao; Peter Mcdonnell; Arthur Burnett

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonists for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) regarding potential risks of complications in the setting of cataract surgery. AIM: To address recommendations, optimal control therapy, voiding symptoms and safety within the setting of cataract surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was performed using MEDLINE with MeSH terms and keywords "benign prostatic hyperplasia", "intraopera...

  15. Determination of optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro using integrating sphere techniques

    Hua-Jiang Wei; Da Xing; Jian-Jun Lu; Huai-Min Gu; Guo-Yong Wu; Ying Jin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of the present study is to compare the optical properties of normal human colon mucosa/submucosa and muscle layer/chorion, and adenomatous human colon mucosa/submucosa and muscle layer/chorion in vitro at 476.5, 488, 496.5, 514.5 and 532 nm. We believe these differences in optical properties should help differential diagnosis of human colon tissues by using optical methods.METHODS: In vitro optical properties were investigated for four kinds of tissues: normal human colon mucosa/submucosa and muscle layer/chorion, and adenomatous human colon mucosa/submucosa and muscle layer/chorion. Tissue samples were taken from 13 human colons (13 adenomatous, 13 normal). From the normal human colons a total of 26 tissue samples, with a mean thickness of 0.40 mm, were used (13 from mucosa/submucosa and 13 from muscle layer/chorion), and from the adenomatous human bladders a total of 26 tissue samples, with a mean thickness of 0.40 mm, were used (13 from mucosa/submucosa and 13 from muscle layer/chorion). The measurements were performed using a double-integratingsphere setup and the optical properties were assessed from these measurements using the adding-doubling method that was considered reliable.RESULTS: The results of measurement showed that there were significant differences in the absorption coefficients and scattering coefficients between normal and adenomatous human colon mucosa/submucosa at the same wavelength,and there were also significant differences in the two optical parameters between both colon muscle layer/chorion at the same wavelength. And there were large differences in the anisotropy factors between both colon mucosa/submucosa at the same wavelength, there were also large differences in the anisotropy factors between both colon muscle layer/chorion at the same wavelength.There were large differences in the value ranges of the absorption coefficients, scattering coefficients and anisotropy factors between both colon mucosa/submucosa,and there

  16. Primary extradural meningioma arising from the calvarium

    N Ravi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Meningiomas are the most common intracranial tumours. Meningiomas arising at other locations are termed primary extradural meningiomas (EDM and are rare. Here we report a case of EDM arising from the calvarium – a primary calvarial meningioma (PCM.

  17. Transurethral microwave thermotherapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Rubeinstein Jonathan N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP remains the gold standard for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. In general, while this procedure is safe, patients require a spinal, epidural, or general anesthesia and often several days of hospital stay; the potential morbidity and mortality limits the use of TURP in high-risk patients. Pharmacotherapy has been recommended as a first-line therapy for all patients with mild to moderate symptoms. Patients are oftentimes enthusiastic if they are offered a one-time method to treat lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to BPH, provided that the method offers reduced risk and allows an efficacy equal to that of medical therapy. One such method is transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT. TUMT involves the insertion of a specially designed urinary catheter with a microwave antenna, which heats the prostate and destroys hyperplastic prostate tissue. TUMT allows the avoidance of general or regional anesthesia, and results in minimal blood loss and fluid absorption. In this review, the authors discussed the current indications and outcome of TUMT, including the history of the procedure, the mechanism of action, the indications for TUMT, the pre-operative considerations, the patient selection, the results in terms of efficacy, by comparing TUMT vs. Sham, TUMT vs. Alpha-blocker and TUMT vs. TURP. Finally, the complications are presented, as well as other uses and future directions of the procedure. The authors concluded that TUMT is a safe and effective minimally invasive alternative to treatment of symptomatic BPH.

  18. [Pharmacological treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    Oelke, M; Martinelli, E

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacological treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is indicated when men suffer from lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) but there are no absolute indications for prostate surgery or severe bladder outlet obstruction. Phytotherapy can be used in men with mild to moderate LUTS and alpha-blockers can quickly and effectively decrease the LUTS and symptomatic disease progression. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-I) are an alternative to alpha-blockers when men experience bothersome side effects from alpha-blockers or erectile dysfunction. If patients predominantly have bladder storage symptoms and a small prostate, muscarinic receptor antagonists are a viable treatment option. The combination of alpha-blocker plus muscarinic receptor antagonist is more efficacious in reducing LUTS than the single drugs alone. The 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARI) can significantly decrease LUTS and disease progression (e.g. acute urinary retention and need for prostate surgery) in men with larger prostates (> 30-40 ml). The combination of 5ARI plus alpha-blocker can reduce LUTS and disease progression more effectively than drug monotherapy. Combination therapy with PDE5-I (tadalafil) plus 5ARI (finasteride) reduces LUTS more substantially than 5ARI alone and, additionally, PDE5-Is reduce the sexual side effects during 5ARI treatment. PMID:26676726

  19. Visual laser coagulation for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    A total of 28 patients with symptomatic bladder outlet obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia were treated by visual laser coagulation (VLAP) performed with the Myriadlase side-firing neodymium: YAG laser fibre at 40 watts power. The treatment was performed as an outpatient procedure using intraurethral gel anaesthesia and light intravenous sedation and analgesia. Prostatic volume was 32 g and 650 joule per gram prostatic tissue was administered. The patients were evaluated at mean 9.2 weeks. The mean operative time was 34 minutes. The procedure was very gentle, all patients tolerated it well and there was no bleeding. Most patients experienced some dysuria for three to four weeks after the procedure, two had severe symptoms. Two patients remained in retention and required transurethral resection. The rest expressed subjective satisfaction with the results. Peak urinary flow increased from mean 9.0 ml/sec preoperatively to 15.4 ml/sec; a mean increase of 78%. One patients developed clinical urinary tract infection. There were no other complications of clinical significance. 19 refs., 1 fig

  20. Tumoral pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast.

    Wieman, Stephanie M; Landercasper, Jeffrey; Johnson, Jeanne M; Ellis, Richard L; Wester, Susan M; Lambert, Pamela J; Ross, Lauren A

    2008-12-01

    Tumoral pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a rare benign proliferative disease of the breast. The majority of the literature reports of PASH have not contained detailed descriptions of the imaging characteristics of PASH. A 10-year retrospective study of patients with tumoral PASH and a 20-year Ovid MEDLINE search were performed to determine whether specific imaging and needle biopsy results could characterize PASH preoperatively. We identified 22 patients with tumoral PASH. Seventeen (77%) of 22 women had a palpable lump and 14 (72%) of 21 had a density on mammography. Ultrasound (US) findings included mixed or hypoechoic echogenicity in 83 per cent and ill-defined borders in 62 per cent. Eight (36%) patients had lesions with a Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification of 4 or 5. The sensitivity of preoperative core needle biopsy (CNB) to identify PASH was 83 per cent. A review of the literature revealed that 90 per cent of patients with PASH had some malignant imaging characteristics and 95 per cent had a mass on mammography. The imaging characteristics of PASH exhibited marked variability. Excision of PASH after CNB may be considered for patients with symptoms, enlarging lesions, or lesions classified as BI-RADS 4 or 5. PASH diagnosed by CNB allows selected patients to avoid excision. PMID:19097540

  1. Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for the Complete Resection of the Rectal Remnant Mucosa in a Patient With Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    Akiyama, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Koyu; Fujita, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    A 47-year-old woman underwent prophylactic subtotal colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) 18 years ago. She underwent 5 transanal endoscopic microsurgeries for rectal remnant polyps, and was referred for the treatment of rectal remnant polyp recurrence. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) was performed to remove multiple polypoid lesions that circumferentially extended throughout the rectal remnant with lesions spreading onto the anastomotic site. The rectal remnant mucosa was resected in 2 pieces without complication. Specimens showed high-grade adenoma but no malignancy. Follow-up colonoscopy showed no recurrence. PMID:27144195

  2. A rare case of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia in the submental region

    Priya Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia is a rare reactive, angio-proliferative lesion which is usually found in the subcutaneous tissue of the head and neck. The lesion rarely arises from a native blood vessel. It is of unknown etiology but may be related to some benign, localized form of vasculitis. While preauricular location is the most frequent site of occurrence as reported in literature, a lesion in submental region seems to be a first reported site of occurrence. We report such an occurrence in an individual with history of trauma twice in his lifetime at the affected site. Spontaneous regression is common, but persistent or recurrent lesions may require treatment. Several treatments have been reported but surgery is considered to be the most efficient one.

  3. Focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenoma

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) are liver lesions of hepatocellular origin. The FNH is a commonly occurring hepatic lesion whereas HCA is very rare. Non-invasive differentiation between HCA subtypes and atypical FNH may pose a diagnostic challenge as both entities predominantly occur in middle-aged female patients. The conventional imaging modalities include ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Distinguishing FNH from HCA is of great importance clinically as FNH is considered to be a benign lesion and needs no further management. In contrast HCA is considered to be a borderline tumor due to the risk of hemorrhage, growth and even malignant transformation and requires individualized management. The abovementioned radiological procedures usually enable an accurate and certain diagnosis of a typical FNH to be achieved. In cases of atypical FNH, particularly in patients with a clinical history of malignancy, these imaging modalities are insufficient to establish a clear diagnosis. In this scenario, the use of modern hepatobiliary contrast-enhanced MRI will enable a differentiation between FNH and metastasis with a high sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, it allows a differentiation of FNH from 90 % of adenoma subtypes. This article describes the histopathological and radiological features of these lesions and explains the advantages and limitations of various imaging modalities used for the diagnosis and differentiation of these entities. The new classification of HCAs according to phenotype and genotype and their imaging features, as well as different enhancement patterns, are described. The correlation between HCA subtypes and their individual management are also discussed. (orig.)

  4. [Interstitial laser coagulation of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    Muschter, R; Hessel, S; Hofstetter, A; Keiditsch, E; Rothenberger, K H; Schneede, P; Frank, F

    1993-07-01

    We report on the new method of interstitial laser coagulation for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The procedure is based on the interstitial application of Nd:YAG laser irradiation, delivered through a new light guide system. Such light applicators coagulate constant tissue volumes in a homogeneous manner, as proven by in vitro studies in different tissues, including surgically removed prostate adenoma. The extent of the coagulation is determined by laser power and irradiation time. At 5 W, for example, and during a 10-min period, this zone reached a diameter of up to 20 mm. Temperatures generated in the process were over 100 degrees C, as measured by time/space resolution. These results were confirmed by in vivo studies in canine prostates. In the course of 7 weeks, the coagulated areas formed scars with degeneration and fibrosis, accompanied by marked shrinking. Neighbouring organs were not affected. The method was successfully transferred to clinical practice. The application of the light guides to the lateral lobes was performed percutaneously from the perineum under transrectal ultrasound guidance. The median lobe was punctured transurethrally under direct vision. Twenty-seven patients with an average age of 67.7 years were treated between July 1991 and March 1992. At the time of evaluation 15 patients had a follow-up of more than 2 months. They experienced a mean increase of peak flow rate from 6.6 to 15.2 ml/s and a mean decrease of residual volume from 206 to 38 ml. This was accompanied by a marked lessening of symptoms. The average prostate weight decreased from 63 to 44 g. Sexually active patients did not experience retrograde ejaculation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7690498

  5. Familial adenomatous polyposis in pediatrics: natural history, emerging surveillance and management protocols, chemopreventive strategies, and areas of ongoing debate.

    Septer, Seth; Lawson, Caitlin E; Anant, Shrikant; Attard, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a hereditary condition with a near 100 % lifetime risk of colorectal cancer without prophylactic colectomy. Most patients with FAP have a mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene on chromosome 5q22. This condition frequently presents in children with polyps developing most frequently in the second decade of life and surveillance colonoscopy is required starting at age ten. Polyps are found not only in the colon, but in the stomach and duodenum. Knowledge of the natural history of FAP is important as there are several extra-colonic sequelae which also require surveillance. In infants and toddlers, there is an increased risk of hepatoblastoma, while in teenagers and adults duodenal carcinomas, desmoid tumors, thyroid cancer and medulloblastoma are more common in FAP than in the general population. Current chemopreventive strategies include several medications and natural products, although to this point there is no consensus on the most efficacious and safe agent. Genetic counseling is an important part of the diagnostic process for FAP. Appropriate use and interpretation of genetic testing is best accomplished with genetic counselor involvement as many families also have concerns regarding future insurability or discrimination when faced with genetic testing. PMID:27056662

  6. Ability of FDG-PET to detect all cancers in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, and impact on clinical management

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is characterised by colonic and duodenal adenomatous polyps that carry a risk of malignant transformation. Malignant degeneration of duodenal adenomas is difficult to detect. We speculated that 2-(18F)-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) might be able to detect early duodenal cancer in FAP. Accordingly, we investigated the role of FDG-PET in the management of FAP patients. FDG-PET was performed in 24 FAP patients. Eight had advanced duodenal adenomas (Spigelman IV), including two patients with duodenal cancer. Scans were defined as positive on the basis of focal FDG accumulation. Pathological FDG accumulation was absent in 19 of 24 patients. All six patients with Spigelman IV duodenal adenomas (without cancer) were negative; two of these underwent a duodenectomy and pathological examination did not reveal duodenal cancer. In five patients, FDG-PET revealed significant uptake, in the duodenum (2), lower abdomen (1), lung (1) and multiple sites in the abdomen (1). These hot spots correlated with duodenal cancer (2), abdominal metastasis (1) and sclerosing haemangioma of the lung (1). We failed to make a histopathological diagnosis in the single patient with multiple intra-abdominal sites of FDG uptake. None of the patients from the FDG-PET-negative group developed cancer during follow-up (mean 2.8 years). (orig.)

  7. CT findings of lymphofollicular thymic hyperplasia in adult myasthenia gravis

    Objective: To evaluate the CT findings of lymphofollicular thymic hyperplasia in adult myasthenia gravis (MG). Methods: The CT findings of thymus area of 134 adult patients with lymphofollicular thymic hyperplasia in MG were reviewed, all of them with surgically and histologically proven diagnosis, and compared with the CT findings of 165 normal subjects. Results: In the group of patient, CT showed enlargement of thymus in 31 patients, 5 patients had nodule or mass (3 cm) and 9 patients (6.7%) had normal size thymus with soft-tissue density, it can considered with thymic hyperplasia. The spotty or streak shadow showed in other patients, though it could not be certain diagnosed as thymic hyperplasia, but could not be except it. The thymus area tissue complete replacement by fatty density were not found in patient group. The CT findings of patients had marked difference when compared with group of normal subjects (P<0.01), except the spotty or streak shadows. Conclusion: CT scan is an important method in diagnosing thymic lymphofollicular hyperplasia of MG in adult. (authors)

  8. Colonic and duodenal flat adenomas in children with classical familial adenomatous polyposis.

    Cohen, Marta; Thomson, Mike; Taylor, Chris; Donatone, Jorge; Quijano, Graciela; Drut, Ricardo

    2006-04-01

    Flat adenomas of the colon and duodenum have been described as associating with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), its attenuated variant, and the so-called hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. There seem to be no report on the occurrence of flat adenomas in pediatric patients with family history of FAP. We are reporting 4 children from 2 cancer-prone families in whom colonic and duodenal moderately dysplastic flat adenomas were found. Gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsies were performed in 3 female siblings (7, 9, and 11 years old) and 1 male (9 years old) when referred for screening owing to familial history of bowel cancer (family 1) or evidence of bilateral congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE), which is known to be associated with FAP (family 2). Endoscopic visualization of the mucosa was improved by use of 0.2% indigo carmine solution spray. Biopsies were routinely processed for H&E and immunohistochemistry staining. Present patients were asymptomatic, with the exception of 2 weeks rectal bleeding in 1 of them. The colonic videoendoscopy showed in 2/3 siblings hundreds of flat or slightly raised plaques less than 1 cm in diameter as well as some classic polyps throughout the colon. The other sibling showed 40 flat-topped lesions with minimal elevation and central umbilication in the cecum. Upper endoscopy demonstrated a few flat lesions in the nonperiampullary area of the duodenum in 2/4 patients. The colonic videoendoscopy performed on the 9-year-old boy revealed multiple small sessile polyps. Microscopic study demonstrated tubular adenomas with a few neoplastic crypts, slight disarray of the overall architecture, and moderate (low-grade) dysplasia of the epithelium. These features were more obvious at the center and superficial areas of the adenomas. The 4 children had multiple flat adenomas of the colon and duodenum (2/4) matching with those described in adult patients. Flat adenomas in the context of FAP probably

  9. Mass Forming Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia of the Breast: Sonographic Features

    Kim, Jin Hee; Hwang, Mi Soo; Lee, Jae Kye; Bae, Young Kyung [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    The object of this study was to describe the sonographic findings of mass-forming pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. A retrospective review of ten patients with breast sonography and five patients with mammography who had pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia presenting as a breast mass. All cases were confirmed by surgical biopsy. The mean age of the 10 patients was 41 years old (21-51) and the mean mass size was 4.7 cm (2.5-10). On sonography, all lesions were oval shaped and well circumscribed, hypoechoic masses. Nine of the ten lesions presented with homogeneous internal echogenicity and one lesion with a complex heterogeneous pattern with a small internal cyst. A mammogram was performed in five patients and all lesions were oval, well circumscribed, high density masses. Sonographic findings of mass-forming pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast were similar with those of other benign breast masses, so biopsy should be performed for diagnosis

  10. The two SAMP repeats and their phosphorylation state in Drosophila Adenomatous polyposis coli-2 play mechanistically distinct roles in negatively regulating Wnt signaling

    Kunttas-Tatli, Ezgi; Von Kleeck, Ryan A.; Greaves, Bradford D.; Vinson, David; Roberts, David M.; McCartney, Brooke M.

    2015-01-01

    The colon cancer tumor suppressor Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) negatively regulates Wnt signaling destruction complex by binding to β-catenin and facilitating its phosphorylation and degradation. The two SAMP repeats and their phosphorylation state in Drosophila APC2 play distinct roles in negatively regulating Wnt signaling.

  11. Broad phenotypic spectrum in familial adenomatous polyposis; from early onset and severe phenotypes to late onset of attenuated polyposis with the first manifestation at age 72

    Nilbert, Mef; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Ericsson, Mats; Johannsson, Oskar; Rambech, Eva; Mangell, Peter

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Background Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is typically characterized by multiple colonic polyps and frequent extracolonic features. Whereas the number of colonic polyps has been linked to the APC gene mutation, possible genotype-phenotype correlations largely remain to be defined ...

  12. Expectant management of focal nodular hyperplasia during pregnancy. A case report.

    Kivnick, S; Greenspoon, J S; Kanter, M H; Gee, C; Fullman, H J

    1992-04-01

    A patient with unresectable focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver completed an uncomplicated pregnancy. Although there is a risk of hepatic rupture during pregnancy, expectant management may be an option for some cases of focal nodular hyperplasia. PMID:1593563

  13. Steroid hormone receptors in prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma.

    Khalid, B A; Nurshireen, A; Rashidah, M; Zainal, B Y; Roslan, B A; Mahamooth, Z

    1990-06-01

    One hundred and six prostatic tissue samples obtained from transurethral resection were analysed for androgen and estrogen receptors. In 62 of these, progesterone and glucocorticoid receptors were also assayed. Steroid receptors were assayed using single saturation dose 3H-labelled ligand assays. Ninety percent of the 97 prostatic hyperplasia tissues and six of the nine prostatic carcinoma tissues were positive for androgen receptors. Estrogen receptors were only present in 19% and 33% respectively. Progesterone receptors were present in 70% of the tissues, but glucocorticoid receptors were present in only 16% of prostatic hyperplasia and none in prostatic carcinoma. PMID:1725553

  14. Thymic Hyperplasia after Lung Transplantation Imitating Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder

    Christina Maria Steger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymic hyperplasia is usually associated with the treatment of malignant tumours and is sometimes linked with endocrine diseases. For the first time, we report a case of thymic hyperplasia in a patient 2 years after bilateral lung transplantation. Contrast-enhanced chest CT scan was highly suspicious for a posttransplant lymphoma or thymoma. Therefore, the patient received total thymectomy. Excised specimens were sent to the Department of Pathology. Unexpectedly, the histological examination revealed hyperplastic thymic tissue without evidence for a posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder or malignancy.

  15. ARISE: American renaissance in science education

    NONE

    1998-09-14

    The national standards and state derivatives must be reinforced by models of curricular reform. In this paper, ARISE presents one model based on a set of principles--coherence, integration of the sciences, movement from concrete ideas to abstract ones, inquiry, connection and application, sequencing that is responsive to how people learn.

  16. Early Hormonal Influences on Cognitive Functioning in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Resnick, Susan M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of cognitive test performance and early childhood activities in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with elevated prenatal adrenal androgen levels, demonstrating the effects of early exposure to excess androgenizing hormones on sexually dimorphic cognitive functioning.…

  17. What Are the Treatments for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)?

    ... for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Treatments for CAH ... medically stable, Parents are fully informed of the risks and benefits, ... find a psychologist, social worker, or other mental health professional to support ...

  18. Giant Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in a Pakistani Patient *

    Zafaruddin Khan; Muzamil Tahir; H. Shahzad Ashraf; FazaluRehman Khan Niazi; Munazza Khan; Sadaf Mustafa; Naseruddin Höti

    2014-01-01

    “Giant hyperplasia” of the prostate is a rare pathology of the prostate gland. We report one such case, in which a successful retropubic prostatectomy was performed on an elderly male patient in Pakistan. The weight of the resected prostate was 700 g, which is the eighth largest prostate with benign prostatic hyperplasia reported.

  19. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast: intraductal appearance.

    Gur, Akif Serhat; Unal, Bulent; Edington, Howard; Kanbour-Shakir, Amal; Soran, Atilla

    2009-08-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a benign proliferative lesion of breast stroma. The diagnosis of PASH can be made using imaging techniques such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance or mammography. Ductoscopy is a relatively new technique which is used for imaging the intraductal surface. We report a patient with PASH in whom ductoscopy was performed successfully. PMID:19751351

  20. Rapidly Growing Bilateral Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia of the Breast

    A tumoral pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) that causes huge breast enlargement is very rare. Only two cases of huge tumoral PASHs have been reported in the English medical literature. We report here on a surgically confirmed case of bilateral huge tumoral PASH in a 47-year-old woman, and we present the imaging and histopathology findings. We also review the relevant medical literature

  1. Rapidly Growing Bilateral Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia of the Breast

    Ryu, Eun Mi; Whang, In Yong; Chang, Eun Deok [Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    A tumoral pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) that causes huge breast enlargement is very rare. Only two cases of huge tumoral PASHs have been reported in the English medical literature. We report here on a surgically confirmed case of bilateral huge tumoral PASH in a 47-year-old woman, and we present the imaging and histopathology findings. We also review the relevant medical literature.

  2. Mistaken gender identity in non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Kukreti, Prerna; Kandpal, Manish; Jiloha, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Gender identity is the sense of belonging that one feels for a particular sex psychologically and socially, independent of one's biological sex. There is much less systematic data on gender identity in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We report a case of non-classical CAH presenting as a case of gender identity disorder.

  3. Colorectal cancer risk variants on 11q23 and 15q13 are associated with unexplained adenomatous polyposis

    Hes, Frederik J; Ruano, Dina; Nieuwenhuis, Marry; Tops, Carli M; Schrumpf, Melanie; Nielsen, Maartje; Huijts, Petra E A; Wijnen, Juul T; Wagner, Anja; Gómez García, Encarna B; Sijmons, Rolf H; Menko, Fred H; Letteboer, Tom G W; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Harryvan, Jan; Kampman, Ellen; Morreau, Hans; Vasen, Hans F A; van Wezel, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal adenomatous polyposis is associated with a high risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and is frequently caused by germline mutations in APC or MUTYH. However, in about 20–30% of patients no underlying gene defect can be identified. In this study, we tested if recently identified CRC risk variants play a role in patients with >10 adenomas. Methods We analysed a total of 16 SNPs with a reported association with CRC in a cohort of 252 genetically unexplained index patients with >10 colorectal adenomas and 745 controls. In addition, we collected detailed clinical information from index patients and their first-degree relatives (FDRs). Results We found a statistically significant association with two of the variants tested: rs3802842 (at chromosome 11q23, OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.0) and rs4779584 (at chromosome 15q13, OR=1.50, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.9). The majority of index patients (84%) had between 10 and 100 adenomas and 15% had >100 adenomas. Only two index patients (1%), both with >100 adenomas, had FDRs with polyposis. Forty-one per cent of the index patients had one or more FDRs with CRC. Conclusions These SNPs are the first common, low-penetrant variants reported to be associated with adenomatous polyposis not caused by a defect in the APC, MUTYH, POLD1 and POLE genes. Even though familial occurrence of polyposis was very rare, CRC was over-represented in FDRs of polyposis patients and, if confirmed, these relatives will therefore benefit from surveillance. PMID:24253443

  4. Ameloblastic Fibrosarcoma Arising in the Maxilla

    Pillay, Rachael R.; Bilski, Arthur; Batstone, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (AFS) is a rare odontogenic neoplasm of the jaw that usually arises de novo or through a malignant change in the mesenchymal component of a preexisting or recurrent benign fibroma. The majority of AFS cases reported in the literature arise in the mandible. Case Report: A 35-year-old male presented with an asymptomatic left maxillary mass that on imaging was found to be effacing most of his maxillary sinus. He underwent a left maxillectomy with free-flap reconstruction and adjuvant radiotherapy to the tumor bed. Conclusion: Wide local excision remains the treatment of choice for AFS, given the poor survival rates of patients with recurrent disease. However, long-term studies and follow-up are needed to elucidate the role of adjuvant therapies in the primary treatment of AFS. PMID:27303223

  5. Parametrial and rectovaginal adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis.

    Ulrich, U; Rhiem, K; Kaminski, M; Wardelmann, E; Trog, D; Valter, M; Richter, O N

    2005-01-01

    Malignant extragonadal tumors arising from endometriosis are rare. We report on two cases. A 41-year-old gravida 1, para 1 (G1P1), with adenocarcinoma of the right parametrium arising from endometriosis and a 51-year-old G1P1 with endometriosis-associated rectovaginal adenocarcinoma were treated. Treatment included radical surgery plus radiation therapy. While the former patient was doing well 2 years after the primary diagnosis, the latter suffered a local pelvic recurrence 2 years later. Although there are no randomized controlled studies, radical surgery followed by radiation therapy seems generally to be the treatment of choice. The analysis of PTEN in various forms of endometriosis and its malignant transformation may help in understanding the early steps of tumorigenesis. PMID:16343215

  6. An organism arises from every nucleus.

    Nurullah Keklikoglu

    2009-01-01

    The fact that, cloning using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) method has been performed, opened new horizons for cloning, and changed the way of our understanding and approach to cell and nucleus. The progress in cloning technology, brought the anticipation of the ability to clone an organism from each somatic cell nucleus. Therefore, the 'Cell Theory' is about to take the additional statement as "An organism arises from every nucleus". The development of gene targeting procedures which c...

  7. Angiomyolipoma arising in the gluteal region

    Emmanouil Pikoulis; Constantine Bramis; Othon Mich; George Liapis; Evangelos Felekourasx; Vassiliki Kyriakou; John Griniatsos

    2007-01-01

    @@ Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a tumour of uncertain histogenesis originally believed to be a hamartomatous lesion, but recently recognized as a usually benign clonal mesenchymal neoplasm.1 Along with lymphagiomyomatosis (LAM), clear cell "sugar"tumour (CCST) and clear cell myelomelanocytic tumour (CCMMT), AML was classified in the so called perivascular epithelioid cell (PEComa) neoplasm family.1 Kidney constitutes the principal site of its development.Extrarenal AMLs are rare and to the best of our knowledge, only two cases of AML development in the soft tissues have been reported so far.2,3 We presented a 23 years old female patient with an AML arising in the left gluteal region.

  8. Apical Membrane Localization of the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Tumor Suppressor Protein and Subcellular Distribution of the β-Catenin Destruction Complex in Polarized Epithelial Cells

    Reinacher-Schick, Anke; Gumbiner, Barry M.

    2001-01-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein is implicated in the majority of hereditary and sporadic colon cancers. APC is known to function as a tumor suppressor through downregulation of β-catenin as part of a high molecular weight complex known as the β-catenin destruction complex. The molecular composition of the intact complex and its site of action in the cell are still not well understood. Reports on the subcellular localization of APC in various cell systems have differed significant...

  9. Salt Losing Variety of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia - A Case Report.

    Nahar, N; Dey, A C; Khan, K A; Dey, S K; Mannan, M A; Shahidullah, M

    2016-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a genetic endocrinologic disorder. The severe classic form occurs in one in 15,000 births worldwide. Twenty-one-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) is the most common cause in this autosomal recessive disease. It can cause virilization, ambiguous genitalia at birth and severe life threatening condition due to salt wasting. In this report we describe the clinical course of a male neonate presenting with lethargy, failure to thrive (FTT), genital pigmentation, electrolytes imbalance and high serum 17-hydroxy-progesterone (17-OHP) level and subsequently diagnosed as Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia. After the initial crises management, the child was continued on replacement therapy. During the follow up, he was found to grow appropriately and achieving normal milestones for age. PMID:26931272

  10. Prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia: risks outweigh benefits.

    Miller, Walter L; Witchel, Selma Feldman

    2013-05-01

    Prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia by administering dexamethasone to a woman presumed to be carrying an at-risk fetus has been described as safe and effective in several reports. A review of data from animal experimentation and human trials indicates that first-trimester dexamethasone decreases birthweight; affects renal, pancreatic beta cell, and brain development; increases anxiety; and predisposes to adult hypertension and hyperglycemia. In human studies, first-trimester dexamethasone is associated with orofacial clefts, decreased birthweight, poorer verbal working memory, and poorer self-perception of scholastic and social competence. Numerous medical societies have cautioned that prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia with dexamethasone should only be done in prospective clinical research settings with institutional review board approval, and therefore is not appropriate for routine community practice. PMID:23123167

  11. Pictures of focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenomas

    Christine; Sempoux; Charles; Balabaud; Paulette; Bioulac-Sage

    2014-01-01

    This practical atlas aims to help liver and non liver pa-thologists to recognize benign hepatocellular nodules on resected specimen. Macroscopic and microscopic views together with immunohistochemical stains illustrate typical and atypical aspects of focal nodular hyperplasia and of hepatocellular adenoma, including hepatocel-lular adenomas subtypes with references to clinical and imaging data. Each step is important to make a correct diagnosis. The specimen including the nodule and the non-tumoral liver should be sliced, photographed and all different looking areas adequately sampled for par-affin inclusion. Routine histology includes HE, trichrome and cytokeratin 7. Immunohistochemistry includes glu-tamine synthase and according to the above results ad-ditional markers such as liver fatty acid binding protein, C reactive protein and beta catenin may be realized to differentiate focal nodular hyperplasia from hepatocel-lular adenoma subtypes. Clues for differential diagnosis and pitfalls are explained and illustrated.

  12. Two cases of giant lymph node hyperplasia (Castleman's lymphoma)

    Giant lymph node hyperplasia (Castleman's lymphoma) is a rare disease. Only 86 cases habe been reported in Japan. Among these 86 cases, only four have included the results of scintigrams taken using 67Ga-citrate. In the present study, our experience of two cases showing positively integrated images on scintigrams using 67Ga-citrate is reported. Case 1 was a 61-year-old man who visited our hospital with a complaint of a tumor in the left groin, and Case 2 was a 60-year-old woman who visited our hospital with a complaint of a left cervical tumor. In these two cases, positively integrated images on scintigrams using 67Ga-citrate were recognized and giant lymph node hyperplasia was diagnosed upon histopathological examination. (author)

  13. Pituitary hyperplasia: a complication of the pseudomalabsorption of thyroxine

    Doyle MA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mary-Anne Doyle, Heather A Lochnan Division of Endocrinology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada Objective: “The pseudomalabsorption of thyroxine” has been used to describe patients with hypothyroidism who fail to comply with their treatment. We describe a unique case of a 32-year-old with hypothyroidism who developed pituitary hyperplasia and hyperprolactinemia secondary to the pseudomalabsorption of thyroxine. Investigations and treatment: After baseline thyroid-function tests were performed, the patient was administered levothyroxine 0.5 mg under the supervision of a registered nurse. Thyroid function testing was repeated at 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes. Arrangements were made for further daily supervised loading of levothyroxine 0.1 mg. Results: With the administration of 0.5 mg levothyroxine, free thyroxine levels increased by 120 minutes, and with daily supervised dosing of 0.1 mg there was normalization of the thyroid hormone levels and a reduction of thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Maintenance of thyroid-stimulating hormone < 15 mU/L for 2 weeks led to a reduction in prolactin levels and regression in the size of the pituitary on magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusion: If left untreated, these patients face significant morbidity and are at risk of developing pituitary hyperplasia, complications from an increase in pituitary size, hyperprolactinemia, and potentially myxedema coma. Recognizing pituitary hyperplasia and hyperprolactinemia as a complication from the pseudomalabsorption of levothyroxine may prevent the potential of a misdiagnosis of a prolactinoma leading to unnecessary investigations and inappropriate treatment. Patient awareness of this serious complication and the rapid, demonstrable resolution with adequate thyroid hormone replacement may provide motivation to comply with supervised dosing of levothyroxine. It has also been suggested that supervised treatment enables the individual to maintain their patient

  14. Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia misdiagnosed as Turner syndrome

    Mishra, Vineet V; Kumari Pritti; Rohina Aggarwal; Sumesh Choudhary

    2015-01-01

    We present a patient with nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) misdiagnosed as mosaic Turner syndrome. She presented with complaints of primary infertility. Short stature, the presence of facial hair and hoarse voice was also noted. She had primary amenorrhea and was advised for karyotype at 16 years of age, which was reported as 45, X[20]/46, XX[80], stating her as a case of mosaic Turner syndrome. Clitoroplasty was done at 21 years of age for clitoromegaly, which was noticed dur...

  15. AB016. Which laser works best for benign prostatic hyperplasia?

    Kim, Sae Woong

    2015-01-01

    For decades, transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P) has been considered the “gold standard” surgical procedure for men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The GreenLight (GL) laser has a wavelength of 532 nm the range of visible green light. The emitted energy is mostly absorbed by hemoglobin, thus heating the intracellular fluid in the well vascularized prostatic tissue which leads to vaporization. Since about half of men over th...

  16. Clinical, chromosomal and endocrine studies for congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Severe forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia are potentially fatal if unrecognized and untreated. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical presentation together with the chromosomal and laboratory associations in this syndrome. Twenty four patients diagnosed as congenital adrenal hyperplasia were referred from Children's Hospital, Cairo University, Egypt, for hormonal and chromosomal workup. The age ranged from eight months to 19 years with mean age of 3.18 years. Twenty two patients were diagnosed as classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) syndrome. Severe salt wasting form was present in ten patients whereas simple virilisation was the presenting manifestation in twelve patients. Two patients presented as late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LOCAH). The sex of rearing was female in 18 cases and male in six cases. Genitography and sonography confirmed the presence of female internal organs in all cases. Advanced bone age was evident by radiographic studies. Although the karyotyping was 46,XX in all cases, the diagnosed correct sex was delayed in six cases. Serum concentrations of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17.OH.P), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), delta, 4-androstenedione (D4A), testosterone (T) and 11-deoxycortisol were all elevated as compared to controls. It was found that the adrenal androgens DHEAS, D4A and T were more elevated in salt losers when compared to simple virilising patients. However, this difference was statistically non-significant. The present study demonstrates that the clinical examination and laboratory investigations are necessary for the early detection and treatment of these cases to avoid major medical and psychological problems for the patients and their parents

  17. Clinical, Chromosomal and Endocrine Studies for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Several forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia are potentially fatal if unrecognized and untreated. The aim of this study is to throw light on the clinical presentation together with chromosomal and laboratory associations in this syndrome. Twenty four patients diagnosed as congenital adrenal hyperplasia were referred from the Diabetic Endocrine Metabolic Pediatric Unit [DEMPU], Children's Hospital, Cairo University for hormonal and chromosomal workup. Twenty two patients were diagnosed as classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) syndrome. Sever salt wasting form was present in ten patients whereas simple virilization was the presenting manifestation in twelve patients. Two patients presented as late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LOCAH). The mean age was 3.18 years, ranging from eight months to 19 years. The sex of rearing was Female in 18 cases and male in six cases. Genitography and sonography confirmed the presence of female internal organs in all cases. Advanced bone age was evident by radiographic studies. Although the karyotyping was (46,XX) in all cases, the correct sex diagnosis was delayed in 6 cases. Serum concentrations of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17.OH.P); Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS); Delta,4-androstenedione (D 4 A); Testosterone and 11-deoxycortisol were all elevated in relation to controls. We found that the adrenal androgens DHEAS, delta 4A, and T were more elevated in salt losers when compared to simple virilizing patients. However, this difference was not of statistical significance. The present study demonstrates that clinical examination and laboratory investigations are necessary for early detection and treatment of hese cases to avoid major medical and psychological problems for the patients and their parents.

  18. Suppression of benign prostate hyperplasia by Kaempferia parviflora rhizome

    Kazuya Murata; Hirotaka Hayashi; Shinichi Matsumura; Hideaki Matsuda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Kaempferia parviflora rhizome is used as a folk medicine in Thailand for the treatment of various symptoms. In the present study, the inhibitory activities of extract from K. parviflora rhizome against 5a-reductase (5aR) were subjected. Furthermore, the effects of the extract from K. parviflorar hizome in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) were studied using the model mice. Materials and Methods: Preparations of extracts from the rhizomes of K. parviflora, Curcuma zedoaria and Zing...

  19. Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia of the mandibular lingual mucosa

    Benay Tokman; (S)ebnem (S)im(s)ek; Erkan Erkmen; Tülin Oygur

    2004-01-01

    @@ In 1923, Masson1 described an unusual papillary endothelial proliferation that he named as "hemangioendotheliome vegetant intravasculaire". In 1976, Clearkin and Enzinger2 coined the term intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH) that is now in use. This term refers to the presence of endothelium lined papillary projections within a vascular space. Characteristically, the papillary structures are composed of a single layer of swollen or plump endothelial cells without cellular pleomorphism, mitotic activity or necrosis.

  20. Treatment of focal epithelial hyperplasia with trichloroacetic acid

    J Harris Ricardo; M. Carmona Lorduy; A. Díaz Caballero

    2012-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a benign disease which has a chronic course that manifests as characteristic multiple small papules or nodules. They are predominantly found in the oral mucosa, gingiva and tongue. The surface of the lesions is smooth and it varies in size. It is an asymptomatic disease caused by human papillomavirus, affecting mainly children and adolescents. In this report, we describe four cases referred to the Stomatology and Oral Surgery Department of the Faculty of Dentis...

  1. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, CYP21 deficiency, screening and clinical aspects

    Nordenström, Anna

    2001-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of recessively inherited disorders. More than 90% of all cases of CAB are caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency. This enzyme deficiency results in reduced ability to synthesize cortisol and aldosterone and at the same time increased secretion of androgens. There is a wide spectrum of severity of the disease. The most severe forms of CAH are life-threatening, with the risk of a salt crisis in the neonatal period. CAH has special i...

  2. [Erectile disfunction and benign prostatic hyperplasia - causal relation or coincidence?].

    Gasser, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    There is increasing evidence of causal relation between benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and erectile dysfunction (ED). BPH appears to have a negative impact on sexual function. Drugs commonly used for the treatment of BPH (i.e. alphablockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors) may cause retrograde ejaculation, ED and reduced libido. Physicians should be aware of these adverse events and inform their patients accordingly. Conversely, phosphodiestease-5-inhibitors may have a beneficial effect on BPH symptoms. PMID:20235043

  3. Primary hypothyroidism presenting as pituitary hyperplasia with hyperprolactinemia

    Xiao-ling YAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the histological characteristics, immunohistochemical phenotypes, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of one case of primary hypothyroidism presenting as pituitary hyperplasia concurrent with hyperprolactinemia.  Methods and Results A 29-year-old female presented menoxenia for one year, galactorrhea for 3 months, and headache for one week. Head MRI demonstrated a sellar space-occcupying lesion and a pituitary adenoma was suspected. Therefore, the patient underwent an exploratory surgery via transnasal-sphenoidal approach under general anesthesia. During the surgery the lesion was located in the right side of sella turcica. It was hard, tough and gray with poor blood supply. Under optical microscopy, the acinar cells showed a diffuse hyperplasia, with focal nodular expansion. The boundary between hyperplastic and normal acinus was ill-defined. By using immunohistochemical staining, the hyperplastic cells were diffusely positive for synaptophysin (Syn and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, partially positive for prolactin (PRL, and negative for thyoid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1. Lymphocytes were scatteredly positive for leukocyte common antigen (LCA. Ki-67 labeling index was less than 1%. Pathological diagnosis was pituitary hyperplasia. The final clinical diagnosis was hypothyroidism. The patient took levothyroxine sodium (Euthyrox 100 μg/d continously, and was well during the 13-month follow-up.  Conclusions Preopertive diagnosis of pituitary hyperplasia is difficult.Definite diagnosis could be made by clinical history, typical histopathological characteristics and immunohistochemical phenotypes. Differential diagnosis from pituitary adenoma, especially microadenoma, should be paid attention. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.04.009

  4. Recent advances in treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    van Rij, Simon; Gilling, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), often identified as a worsening ability of a male to pass urine, is a significant problem for men in our society. In 2015, the use of personalised medicine is tailoring treatment to individual patient needs and to genetic characteristics. Technological advances in surgical treatment are changing the way BPH is treated and are resulting in less morbidity. The future of BPH treatments is exciting, and a number of novel techniques are currently under ...

  5. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver : radiologic findings

    Nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) of the liver is not common, and no MR imaging of this condition has been reported. We describe a case of NRH with findings of US, CT, MR and angiography. US showed hypoechoic nodules;spiral CT showed enhancing nodules during the arterial phase;MR showed no detectable masses on T1 and T2-weighted images, and angiography showed hypervascular masses during arterial phases

  6. Serenoa repens extract in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Geavlete, Petrisor; Multescu, Razvan; Geavlete, Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    We are experiencing a revival of interest in phytotherapeutic agents, both in Europe and North America, especially as a consequence of patients’ dissatisfaction with the adverse effects of the medical alternatives. One of the most frequently prescribed and studied such agents is Serenoa repens extract, derived from the berry of the dwarf palm tree. We aimed to review the most important published data regarding this type of treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia. A review of the existing a...

  7. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Classification of Studies Employing Psychological Endpoints

    Stout, Stephanie A.; Margarita Litvak; Robbins, Natashia M.; Sandberg, David E

    2010-01-01

    Psychological outcomes in persons with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) have received substantial attention. The objectives of this paper were to (1) catalog psychological endpoints assessed in CAH outcome studies and (2) classify the conceptual/theoretical model shaping the research design and interpretation of CAH-related psychological effects. A total of 98 original research studies, published between 1955 and 2009, were categorized based on psychological endpoints examined as well as ...

  8. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Classification of Studies Employing Psychological Endpoints

    Sandberg DavidE; Robbins NatashiaM; Litvak Margarita; Stout StephanieA

    2010-01-01

    Psychological outcomes in persons with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) have received substantial attention. The objectives of this paper were to (1) catalog psychological endpoints assessed in CAH outcome studies and (2) classify the conceptual/theoretical model shaping the research design and interpretation of CAH-related psychological effects. A total of 98 original research studies, published between 1955 and 2009, were categorized based on psychological endpoints examined as well as...

  9. Rapidly growing bilateral pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast.

    Ryu, Eun Mi; Whang, In Yong; Chang, Eun Deok

    2010-01-01

    A tumoral pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) that causes huge breast enlargement is very rare. Only two cases of huge tumoral PASHs have been reported in the English medical literature. We report here on a surgically confirmed case of bilateral huge tumoral PASH in a 47-year-old woman, and we present the imaging and histopathology findings. We also review the relevant medical literature. PMID:20461190

  10. Malignant Insulinoma Arising from Intrasplenic Heterotopic Pancreas

    Ismael Domínguez

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Heterotopic pancreas is defined as ectopic pancreatic tissue without vascular or anatomic continuity with the normal pancreas. The spleen is a rare site of origin. This case report describes a patient with a malignant insulinoma which originated from an intrasplenic heterotopic pancreas. Case report A 46-year-old man with three previous episodes of neuroglucopenic and adrenergic symptoms was referred to our hospital. A fasting test was performed and discontinued due to hypoglycemic symptoms. Preoperative studies failed to demonstrate any pancreatic lesions. However, a heterogeneous encapsulated tumor in the spleen was found on MRI. During surgery, only the splenic tumor was found, with neither vascular nor anatomical connections to the normal pancreas. Pathology reported a malignant insulinoma. Insulin and proinsulin were documented by immunohistochemistry. After one year of follow up, the patient is free of symptoms and no recurrent disease has been documented. Discussion Only seven cases of splenic heterotopic pancreas have been reported, six with cystic mucinous neoplasms. In addition, only one case of a malignant insulinoma arising from heterotopic pancreas has previously been described. This is the second case reported of an insulinoma arising from heterotopic pancreas and the first to originate from intrasplenic heterotopia.

  11. Reactive thymic hyperplasia following treatment of ACTH-producing tumors

    Surgical or conservative treatment of ACTH-producing tumors results in acute drop of the previously excessively high cortisol levels. The following associated pathophysiological changes also occur in the organism's recovery from stress, such as trauma, operation or chemotherapy of tumors. Both cases result in a regeneration of the immune system, which might even be exalted. The corresponding radiographic feature is the 'rebound' enlargement of the thymus occuring about six months after remission of hypercortisolism. Histological examination reveals benign thymus hyperplasia. Especially in cases of still unkown primary tumor the apperance of this anterior mediastinal mass can lead to misdiagnosis. We present the cases of two patients with diffuse thymic hyperplasia following surgical and medical correction of hypercortisolism. One patient suffered from classic Cushing's disease responding to transsphenoidal resection of an ACTH-secreting pituitary microadenoma. Six monsths later CT of the chest incidentally demonstrated an anterior mediastinal mass known as thymic hyperplasia. The second patient presented with an ectopic, still unknown source of ACTH-production. (orig./AJ)

  12. Optimization problems arising in robust stability theory

    Polyak, B.

    1994-12-31

    Robustness is one of the main topics in modern control theory. We consider one aspect of the theme - robust stability analysis under parametric uncertainty. It deals with stability problems for linear time-invariant differential or difference equations with uncertainties in their coefficients. Various optimization problems concerning {open_quotes}the largest{close_quotes} admissible uncertainty naturally arise. Examples: (1) Find the largest cube inscribed in stability domain; (2) Find the box with the largest volume preserving stability; (3) Describe a boundary of a two-dimensional image of a box under linear or nonlinear transformation; (4) Find a sum or a project of sets on a complex plane, e.g., find a product of n discs. These problems require new duality results and new necessary conditions of optimality.

  13. Radioisotopes: problems of responsibility arising from medicine

    Radioisotopes have brought about great progress in the battle against illnesses of mainly tumoral origin, whether in diagnosis (nuclear medicine) or in treatment (medical radiotherapy). They are important enough therefore to warrant investigation. Such a study is attempted here, with special emphasis, at a time when medical responsibility proceedings are being taken more and more often on the medicolegal problems arising from their medical use. It is hoped that this study on medical responsibility in the use of radioisotopes will have shown: that the use of radioisotopes for either diagnosis or therapy constitutes a major banch of medicine; that this importance implies an awareness by the practitioner of a vast responsibility, especially in law where legislation to ensure protection as strict as in the field of ionizing radiations is lacking. The civil responsibility of doctors who use radioisotopes remains to be defined, since for want of adequate jurisprudence we are reduced to hypotheses based on general principles

  14. Degenerate Diffusion Operators Arising in Population Biology

    Epstein, Charles L

    2011-01-01

    We analyze a class of partial differential equations that arise as "backwards Kolmogorov operators" in infinite population limits of the Wright-Fisher models in population genetics and in mathematical finance. These are degenerate elliptic operators defined on manifolds with corners. The classical example is the Kimura diffusion operator, which acts on functions defined on the simplex in R^n. We introduce anisotropic Holder spaces, and prove existence, uniqueness and regularity results for the heat and resolvent equations defined by this class of operators. This suffices to prove that the C^0-graph closure generates a strongly continuous semigroup, and that the associated Martingale problem has a unique solution. We give a detailed description of the nullspace of the forward Kolmogorov operator.

  15. Electric current arising from unpolarized polyvinyl formal

    P K Khare; P L Jain; R K Pandey

    2000-10-01

    An appreciable electric current is observed in a system consisting of a polyvinyl formal (PVF) film in a sandwich configuration, in the temperature range 30–110°C. The maximum value of the current during first heating is found to be of the order of 10–10 A and its thermograms exhibit one transition (i.e. current peak) at around 60°C. The position of the current peak in thermal spectrum shifts with the heating rate. A temperature dependence of the open circuit voltage is also observed. The activation energy of the process responsible for the current is determined. The magnitude of the current is more in the case of dissimilar electrode systems. It is proposed that the electric current arising from unpolarized metal–polymer–metal system is a water activated phenomenon, which is influenced by the transitional changes of the polymer.

  16. Juxtacortical chondromyxoid fibroma arising in an apophysis

    Park, Seong Ho; Kong, Keun Young; Chung, Hye Won; Kang, Heung Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea); Kim, Chong Jai [Dept. of Pathology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Sang Hoon [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-08-01

    We present a rare case of juxtacortical chondromyxoid fibroma arising in the lesser trochanter of the right femur which corresponds to an apophysis. Radiography showed a well-defined expansive lesion with a sclerotic margin measuring 5 x 3.5 cm in diameter in the lesser trochanter. On spin echo T1-weighted images, the lesion revealed low signal intensity similar to muscle. On spin echo T2-weighted images, the lesion revealed high heterogeneous signal intensity, which after gadolinium injection showed heterogeneous enhancement. The inner margin of the cortex was intact and adjacent bone marrow was of normal signal intensity. The outer margin of the lesion was also clearly defined and extension into adjacent soft tissue beyond the exophytic cortical outgrowth was not evident. (orig.)

  17. Periorbital nodular fasciitis arising during pregnancy

    Brandon N Phillips

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nodular fasciitis (NF is a benign proliferation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts that rarely occurs in the periorbital region. We report what we believe to be the first case of periorbital NF associated with pregnancy. A case of intravascular fasciitis, a NF variant, has been reported during pregnancy, but it was not located in the periorbital region. A weak presence of estrogen receptors has been reported in NF. This may make it more susceptible to the hormone-related changes during pregnancy and contribute to the development of the lesion by stimulating fibroblasts and smooth muscle cell types. Although rare, NF should be considered in the differential diagnosis of periorbital soft-tissue masses arising during pregnancy.

  18. Comparison of proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis to colectomy and ileorectal anastomosis in familial adenomatous polyposis.

    Koskenvuo, L; Mustonen, H; Renkonen-Sinisalo, L; Järvinen, H J; Lepistö, A

    2015-06-01

    Prophylactic surgical options for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) are either colectomy and ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) or proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). The aim of this study was to analyse the short-term and long-term outcomes of these two operative techniques. All patients with FAP in Finland have been prospectively recorded in a database since 1963 were retrospectively reviewed in this analysis. Altogether 140 (61%) colectomies with IRA and 88 (39%) proctocolectomies with IPAA have been performed. Complications occurred in 28 (21%) patients after IRA and in 26 (30%) patients after IPAA. There were 15 (11%) severe complications for IRA and 5 (6%) for IPAA. Twenty-one (15%) patients of the IRA group ended up in conventional ileostomy whereas 3 (3.4%) patients of the IPAA group had their ileal reservoir converted to an ileostomy (p = 0.01). Cumulative survival for IRA was lower than for the IPAA (p = 0.03), but if accounting only for operations made after the IPAA era had commenced, there was no significant difference. IPAA was associated with improved long-term survival without an increase in postoperative complications. The risk of death after colectomy and IRA seemed to be predominantly related to the remaining risk of rectal cancer. Therefore, we favour proctocolectomy with IPAA as the prophylactic surgical procedure for FAP with intermediate or severe polyposis. PMID:25504366

  19. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) regulates multiple signaling pathways by enhancing glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) activity.

    Valvezan, Alexander J; Zhang, Fang; Diehl, J Alan; Klein, Peter S

    2012-02-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is essential for many signaling pathways and cellular processes. As Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) functions in many of the same processes, we investigated a role for APC in the regulation of GSK-3-dependent signaling. We find that APC directly enhances GSK-3 activity. Furthermore, knockdown of APC mimics inhibition of GSK-3 by reducing phosphorylation of glycogen synthase and by activating mTOR, revealing novel roles for APC in the regulation of these enzymes. Wnt signaling inhibits GSK-3 through an unknown mechanism, and this results in both stabilization of β-catenin and activation of mTOR. We therefore hypothesized that Wnts may regulate GSK-3 by disrupting the interaction between APC and the Axin-GSK-3 complex. We find that Wnts rapidly induce APC dissociation from Axin, correlating with β-catenin stabilization. Furthermore, Axin interaction with the Wnt co-receptor LRP6 causes APC dissociation from Axin. We propose that APC regulates multiple signaling pathways by enhancing GSK-3 activity, and that Wnts induce APC dissociation from Axin to reduce GSK-3 activity and activate downstream signaling. APC regulation of GSK-3 also provides a novel mechanism for Wnt regulation of multiple downstream effectors, including β-catenin and mTOR. PMID:22184111

  20. The Adenomatous polyposis coli tumour suppressor is essential for Axin complex assembly and function and opposes Axin's interaction with Dishevelled.

    Mendoza-Topaz, Carolina; Mieszczanek, Juliusz; Bienz, Mariann

    2011-11-01

    Most cases of colorectal cancer are linked to mutational inactivation of the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor. APC downregulates Wnt signalling by enabling Axin to promote the degradation of the Wnt signalling effector β-catenin (Armadillo in flies). This depends on Axin's DIX domain whose polymerization allows it to form dynamic protein assemblies ('degradasomes'). Axin is inactivated upon Wnt signalling, by heteropolymerization with the DIX domain of Dishevelled, which recruits it into membrane-associated 'signalosomes'. How APC promotes Axin's function is unclear, especially as it has been reported that APC's function can be bypassed by overexpression of Axin. Examining apc null mutant Drosophila tissues, we discovered that APC is required for Axin degradasome assembly, itself essential for Armadillo downregulation. Degradasome assembly is also attenuated in APC mutant cancer cells. Notably, Axin becomes prone to Dishevelled-dependent plasma membrane recruitment in the absence of APC, indicating a crucial role of APC in opposing the interaction of Axin with Dishevelled. Indeed, co-expression experiments reveal that APC displaces Dishevelled from Axin assemblies, promoting degradasome over signalosome formation in the absence of Wnts. APC thus empowers Axin to function in two ways-by enabling its DIX-dependent self-assembly, and by opposing its DIX-dependent copolymerization with Dishevelled and consequent inactivation. PMID:22645652

  1. Stability of colon stem cell methylation after neo-adjuvant therapy in a patient with attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis

    Shibata Darryl

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylation at certain human CpG rich sequences increases with age. The mechanisms underlying such age-related changes are unclear, but methylation may accumulate slowly in a clock-like manner from birth and record lifetime numbers of stem cell divisions. Alternatively, methylation may fluctuate in response to environmental stimuli. The relative stability of methylation patterns may be inferred through serial observations of the same colon. Case presentation A 22 year-old male with attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation prior to surgery for rectal adenocarcinoma. Colon crypt methylation patterns before and after neo-adjuvant therapy (62 days apart were essentially identical with respect to percent methylation and diversity. Consistent with previous studies, methylation patterns recorded no evidence for enhanced colon crypt stem cell survival with a germline mutation (codon 215 proximal to the mutation cluster region of APC. Conclusion The inability of neo-adjuvant therapy to significantly alter crypt methylation patterns suggests stem cells are relatively protected from transient environmental changes. Age-related methylation appears to primarily reflect epigenetic errors in stem cells that slowly accumulate in a clock-like manner from birth. Therefore, life-long human stem cell histories are potentially written within and may be read from somatic cell epigenomes.

  2. Importance of X-ray examination and endoscopy in the diagnosis of hyperplasia of Brunner's glands

    A rare and interesting alteration - hyperplasia of Brunner's glands - is reported. In 18 cases hyperplasia of Brunner's glands were verified by endoscopy and histology as well. Frequency of occurence, clinical characteristics, X-ray symptoms of the hyperplasia of the Brunner's glands and the radiological methods of its diagnosis are described. Importance of the aimed X-ray film, carried out by Spot-filmcamera and of graded compression is emphasized. Differential diagnosis between polypoid hypertrophic duodenitis and hyperplasia of Brunner's glands are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  3. Sonic hedgehog-induced histone deacetylase activation is required for cerebellar granule precursor hyperplasia in medulloblastoma.

    Seung Joon Lee

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma, the most common pediatric brain tumor, is thought to arise from deregulated proliferation of cerebellar granule precursor (CGP cells. Sonic hedgehog (Shh is the primary mitogen that regulates proliferation of CGP cells during the early stages of postnatal cerebellum development. Aberrant activation of Shh signaling during this time has been associated with hyperplasia of CGP cells and eventually may lead to the development of medulloblastoma. The molecular targets of Shh signaling involved in medulloblastoma formation are still not well-understood. Here, we show that Shh regulates sustained activation of histone deacetylases (HDACs and that this activity is required for continued proliferation of CGP cells. Suppression of HDAC activity not only blocked the Shh-induced CGP proliferation in primary cell cultures, but also ameliorated aberrant CGP proliferation at the external germinal layer (EGL in a medulloblastoma mouse model. Increased levels of mRNA and protein of several HDAC family members were found in medulloblastoma compared to wild type cerebellum suggesting that HDAC activity is required for the survival/progression of tumor cells. The identification of a role of HDACs in the early steps of medulloblastoma formation suggests there may be a therapeutic potential for HDAC inhibitors in this disease.

  4. Chemodectomas arising in temporal bone structures

    Dickens, W.J.; Million, R.R.; Cassisi, N.J.; Singleton, G.T.

    1982-02-01

    Eighteen patients with chemodectomas arising in temporal bone structures were evaluated and treated at the University of Florida. Seventeen patients have each been followed a minimum of 3 years. Patients were retrospectively staged as having ''local'' or ''advanced'' disease, depending on the presence or absence of bone destruction and/or cranial nerve involvement. Fourteen of the patients received radiation therapy as all or part of their therapy; 6 patients were treated with radiation therapy alone, 3 patients were irradiated immediately postoperatively for residual disease, and 5 patients had radiation therapy for recurrence after operation. They were treated with cobalt-60 radiation with doses ranging from 3760 to 5640 rad. All irradiated patients demonstrated evidence of tumor regression, and none have had tumor recurrence with followup of 3-12 years. Of the 8 patients with cranial nerve paralysis prior to therapy, 5 had return of function of 1 or more cranial nerves. One of 6 patients treated initially with radiation therapy had a complication, while 6 of 8 patients irradiated postoperatively had complications. None of the complications were fatal. Three patients treated by operation for early disease limited to the hypotympanum had the disease controlled for 11-12 years. Guidelines for the selection of initial therapy are discussed.

  5. An organism arises from every nucleus.

    Nurullah Keklikoglu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The fact that, cloning using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT method has been performed, opened new horizons for cloning, and changed the way of our understanding and approach to cell and nucleus. The progress in cloning technology, brought the anticipation of the ability to clone an organism from each somatic cell nucleus. Therefore, the 'Cell Theory' is about to take the additional statement as "An organism arises from every nucleus". The development of gene targeting procedures which can be applied with SCNT, showed us that it may be possible to obtain different versions of the original genetic constitution of a cell. Because of this opportunity which is provided by SCNT, in reproductive cloning, it would be possible to clone enhanced organisms which can adapt to different environmental conditions and survive. Furthermore, regaining the genetic characteristics of ancestors or reverse herediter variations would be possible. On the other hand, in therapeutic cloning, more precise and easily obtainable alternatives for cell replacement therapy could be presented. However, while producing healthier or different organisms from a nucleus, it is hard to foresee the side effects influencing natural processes in long term is rather difficult.

  6. Chemodectomas arising in temporal bone structures

    Eighteen patients with chemodectomas arising in temporal bone structures were evaluated and treated at the University of Florida. Seventeen patients have each been followed a minimum of 3 years. Patients were retrospectively staged as having ''local'' or ''advanced'' disease, depending on the presence or absence of bone destruction and/or cranial nerve involvement. Fourteen of the patients received radiation therapy as all or part of their therapy; 6 patients were treated with radiation therapy alone, 3 patients were irradiated immediately postoperatively for residual disease, and 5 patients had radiation therapy for recurrence after operation. They were treated with cobalt-60 radiation with doses ranging from 3760 to 5640 rad. All irradiated patients demonstrated evidence of tumor regression, and none have had tumor recurrence with followup of 3-12 years. Of the 8 patients with cranial nerve paralysis prior to therapy, 5 had return of function of 1 or more cranial nerves. One of 6 patients treated initially with radiation therapy had a complication, while 6 of 8 patients irradiated postoperatively had complications. None of the complications were fatal. Three patients treated by operation for early disease limited to the hypotympanum had the disease controlled for 11-12 years. Guidelines for the selection of initial therapy are discussed

  7. Radiological emergencies arising from accidents in Italy

    The Nuclear Safety and Health Protection Directorate (DISP) of ENEA has organized a structure of officers and technicians on call whenever an accident related to the activity of ENEA-DISP should occur. The most frequent events arise from natural misfortunes, crime, and deficiencies in public services. As regards technical operations such as measurements, removals, decontaminations and transport, DISP requests utilization of the different structures and equipment available to ENEA research centres and, in particular and most frequently, of the Safety and Radioprotection Division of the main ENEA centre: the Casaccia Research Centre. The technicians of this division are always available via telephone or radio, with the firm duty to be present within one hour from the call. The co-operation between these two structures enables timely and efficient intervention in many circumstances so that population and environmental risks can be avoided. Typical accidental situations are earthquakes, adverse atmospheric events, landslides, collapses, railway and road accidents, lost sources discovery, and seizure of illegally detained sources by judicial power. The paper briefly describes some of the situations which have occurred, and the actions carried out to recover sources and to re-establish safe environmental conditions. (author)

  8. Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction

    Daria Pakulska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extremely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction. Med Pr 2015;66(1:99–117

  9. Orally administered nicotine induces urothelial hyperplasia in rats and mice

    Highlights: • Rats and mice orally administered with nicotine tartrate for total of 4 weeks. • No treatment-related death or whole body toxicity observed in any of the groups. • Urothelium showed simple hyperplasia in treated rats and mice. • No significant change in BrdU labeling index or SEM classification of urothelium. - Abstract: Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for multiple human cancers including urinary bladder carcinoma. Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture containing chemicals that are known carcinogens in humans and/or animals. Aromatic amines a major class of DNA-reactive carcinogens in cigarette smoke, are not present at sufficiently high levels to fully explain the incidence of bladder cancer in cigarette smokers. Other agents in tobacco smoke could be excreted in urine and enhance the carcinogenic process by increasing urothelial cell proliferation. Nicotine is one such major component, as it has been shown to induce cell proliferation in multiple cell types in vitro. However, in vivo evidence specifically for the urothelium is lacking. We previously showed that cigarette smoke induces increased urothelial cell proliferation in mice. In the present study, urothelial proliferative and cytotoxic effects were examined after nicotine treatment in mice and rats. Nicotine hydrogen tartrate was administered in drinking water to rats (52 ppm nicotine) and mice (514 ppm nicotine) for 4 weeks and urothelial changes were evaluated. Histopathologically, 7/10 rats and 4/10 mice showed simple hyperplasia following nicotine treatment compared to none in the controls. Rats had an increased mean BrdU labeling index compared to controls, although it was not statistically significantly elevated in either species. Scanning electron microscopic visualization of the urothelium did not reveal significant cytotoxicity. These findings suggest that oral nicotine administration induced urothelial hyperplasia (increased cell proliferation), possibly due to a

  10. T-cell-predominant lymphoid hyperplasia in a tattoo*

    Souza, Erica Sales; Rocha, Bruno de Oliveira; Batista, Everton da Silva; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Ferreira; Farre, Lourdes; Bittencourt, Achilea Lisboa

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia (CLH) can be idiopathic or secondary to external stimuli, and is considered rare in tattoos. The infiltrate can be predominantly of B or T-cells, the latter being seldom reported in tattoos. We present a case of a predominantly T CLH, secondary to the black pigment of tattooing in a 35-year-old patient, with a dense infiltrate of small, medium and scarce large T-cells. Analysis of the rearrangement of T-cells receptor revealed a polyclonal proliferation. Since t...

  11. The next 150 years of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Turcu, Adina F; Auchus, Richard J

    2015-09-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasias (CAH) are a group of autosomal recessive defects in cortisol biosynthesis. Substantial progress has been made since the description of the first report, 150 years ago. This article reviews some of the recent advances in the genetics, diagnosis and treatment of CAH. In addition, we underline the aspects where further progress is required, including, among others, better diagnostic modalities for the mild phenotype and for some of the rare forms of disease, elucidation of epigenetic factors that lead to different phenotypes in patients with identical genotype and expending on treatment options for controlling the adrenal androgen excess. PMID:26047556

  12. RIGHT SUPERIOR POLAR ARTERY ARISING FROM AORTA

    Sreekanth

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The renal vasculature was always a subject of varia tions both in the number and pattern of portal of entry into kidney and Perihilar placement of the artery, vein and pelvis. Good anatomical insight is an essential prerequisite besides the surgical expertise. The cadaveric dissection at Shadan Institute of Medical Sciences, Teaching Hospital and Research Centre, revealed superior / upper polar artery arising from the lateral aspect of the aorta just proximal to the origin of Main Renal Artery (MRA. T he main renal artery and the accessory renal artery had almost a common point of origin. Th e peri-hilar segmentation of the main renal artery was a fork like pattern. One of the segmental arteries was long and had its portal of entry into the kidney by perforating the capsule of the ant erior substance of the kidney. The remaining segmental branches had their portal of ent ry through the hilum. The lower two segmental branches were placed anterior to the main renal vein causing altered hilar anatomy. A thorough knowledge of the frequently to the rarel y occurring wide range of variations of renal vasculature has significance in exploration and trea tment of renal trauma, renal transplantation, renal artery embolization, surgery for abdominal ao rtic aneurysm and conservative or radical renal surgery. Such a rare variation including the combination of extra renal peri-hilar segmentation of MRA with superior polar artery is wor thy of concern to the urologists harvesting kidneys from the live donors for performi ng transplantation procedures, partial nephrectomies for the hilar tumors and for Radiologi sts during interpretation of the angiograms

  13. ARISE - Advanced Radio Interferometry Between Space and Earth

    Ulvestad, J. S.; Linfield, R. P.; Wannier, P. G.; Preston, R. A.; Hirabayashi, H.; Zensus, J. A.; Veal, G. R.

    1995-01-01

    A mission is described called ARISE, Advanced Radio Interferometry between Space and Earth. ARISE will will provide affordable very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) using second- generation VLBI and one or more inflatable space radio telescopes.

  14. Sporadic diffuse segmental interstitial cell of Cajal hyperplasia harbouring two gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST mimicking hereditary GIST syndromes

    Mafalda Costa Neves

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: We describe a diffuse form of sporadic ICC hyperplasia harbouring multifocal GISTs, mimicking diffuse ICC hyperplasia in hereditary GIST syndromes. Detection of somatic c-KIT exon 11 mutation ruled out a hereditary disorder.

  15. Intravascular Papillary Endothelial Hyperplasia(Masson's Tumor) of the Chest Wall: A Case Report

    Kim, Ga Ram [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Seung Ho; Kie, Jeong Hae; Hong, Ki Pyo; Shim, Joo Eun [NHIC Ilsan Hospital, Ilsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia is a rare tumor-like lesion caused by hyperplastic proliferation of endothlial cells that is usually an incidental findings within thrombosed dilated blood vessels or vascular tumor. We report the sonographic appearance and pathological correlation of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia that presented as an intramuscular solitary mass in chest wall

  16. The prevalence of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome or hyperandrogenism

    Holm, Nina Sofie Lillegaard; Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne Skovsager;

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome may be associated with an increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer, but substantial evidence for this remains to be established. We investigated the prevalence of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer in a well characterized group of wome...... with polycystic ovary syndrome and/or clinical/biochemical hyperandrogenism....

  17. Successful treatment for adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia with laparoscopic adrenalectomy: a case series

    Ito Toshiki; Kurita Yutaka; Shinbo Hitoshi; Otsuka Atsushi; Furuse Hiroshi; Mugiya Soichi; Ushiyama Tomomi; Ozono Seiichiro; Oki Yutaka; Suzuki Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia, characterized by bilateral macronodular adrenal hypertrophy and autonomous cortisol production, is a rare cause of Cushing’s syndrome. Bilateral adrenalectomy is considered the standard treatment for adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia but obliges the patient to receive lifetime steroid replacement therapy subsequently, and may increase the patient’s risk of adr...

  18. Maternal Obesity, Cage Density, and Age Contribute to Prostate Hyperplasia in Mice.

    Benesh, Emily C; Gill, Jeff; Lamb, Laura E; Moley, Kelle H

    2016-02-01

    Identification of modifiable risk factors is gravely needed to prevent adverse prostate health outcomes. We previously developed a murine precancer model in which exposure to maternal obesity stimulated prostate hyperplasia in offspring. Here, we used generalized linear modeling to evaluate the influence of additional environmental covariates on prostate hyperplasia. As expected from our previous work, the model revealed that aging and maternal diet-induced obesity (DIO) each correlated with prostate hyperplasia. However, prostate hyperplasia was not correlated with the length of maternal DIO. Cage density positively associated with both prostate hyperplasia and offspring body weight. Expression of the glucocorticoid receptor in prostates also positively correlated with cage density and negatively correlated with age of the animal. Together, these findings suggest that prostate tissue was adversely patterned during early life by maternal overnutrition and was susceptible to alteration by environmental factors such as cage density. Additionally, prostate hyperplasia may be acutely influenced by exposure to DIO, rather than occurring as a response to worsening obesity and comorbidities experienced by the mother. Finally, cage density correlated with both corticosteroid receptor abundance and prostate hyperplasia, suggesting that overcrowding influenced offspring prostate hyperplasia. These results emphasize the need for multivariate regression models to evaluate the influence of coordinated variables in complicated animal systems. PMID:26243546

  19. Periostin contributes to epidermal hyperplasia in psoriasis common to atopic dermatitis

    Kazuhiko Arima

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Periostin plays an important role during epidermal hyperplasia in IMQ-induced skin inflammation, independently of the IL-23–IL-17/IL-22 axis. Periostin appears to be a mediator for epidermal hyperplasia that is common to AD and psoriasis.

  20. Altered catecholamine receptor affinity in rabbit aortic intimal hyperplasia

    Intimal thickening is a universal response to endothelial denudation and is also thought to be a precursor of atherosclerosis. The authors have demonstrated selective supersensitivity in arterial intimal hyperplasia to norepinephrine and they now report a possible mechanism for this. Binding studies in rabbit aorta with the selective alpha 1-adrenergic radioligand 125I-HEAT demonstrated that there was no change in receptor density (20 ± 4 fmole/10(6) cells) in intact vascular smooth muscle cells at either 5 or 14 days after denudation. However, competition studies showed a 2.6-fold increase in alpha 1-adrenergic receptor affinity for norepinephrine in intimal hyperplastic tissue (P less than 0.05). This increased affinity for norepinephrine was associated with a greater increase in 32P-labeled phosphatidylinositol (148% intimal thickening versus 76% control) and phosphatidic acid (151% intimal thickening versus 56% control) following norepinephrine stimulation of free floating rings of intimal hyperplastic aorta. These data suggest that the catecholamine supersensitivity in rabbit aortic intimal hyperplasia is receptor mediated and may be linked to the phosphatidylinositol cycle

  1. Altered catecholamine receptor affinity in rabbit aortic intimal hyperplasia

    O' Malley, M.K.; Cotecchia, S.; Hagen, P.O. (Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA))

    1991-08-01

    Intimal thickening is a universal response to endothelial denudation and is also thought to be a precursor of atherosclerosis. The authors have demonstrated selective supersensitivity in arterial intimal hyperplasia to norepinephrine and they now report a possible mechanism for this. Binding studies in rabbit aorta with the selective alpha 1-adrenergic radioligand 125I-HEAT demonstrated that there was no change in receptor density (20 {plus minus} 4 fmole/10(6) cells) in intact vascular smooth muscle cells at either 5 or 14 days after denudation. However, competition studies showed a 2.6-fold increase in alpha 1-adrenergic receptor affinity for norepinephrine in intimal hyperplastic tissue (P less than 0.05). This increased affinity for norepinephrine was associated with a greater increase in 32P-labeled phosphatidylinositol (148% intimal thickening versus 76% control) and phosphatidic acid (151% intimal thickening versus 56% control) following norepinephrine stimulation of free floating rings of intimal hyperplastic aorta. These data suggest that the catecholamine supersensitivity in rabbit aortic intimal hyperplasia is receptor mediated and may be linked to the phosphatidylinositol cycle.

  2. Expression of Abelson interactor 1 (Abi1 correlates with inflammation, KRAS mutation and adenomatous change during colonic carcinogenesis.

    Konrad Steinestel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abelson interactor 1 (Abi1 is an important regulator of actin dynamics during cytoskeletal reorganization. In this study, our aim was to investigate the expression of Abi1 in colonic mucosa with and without inflammation, colonic polyps, colorectal carcinomas (CRC and metastases as well as in CRC cell lines with respect to BRAF/KRAS mutation status and to find out whether introduction of KRAS mutation or stimulation with TNFalpha enhances Abi1 protein expression in CRC cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We immunohistochemically analyzed Abi1 protein expression in 126 tissue specimens from 95 patients and in 5 colorectal carcinoma cell lines with different mutation status by western immunoblotting. We found that Abi1 expression correlated positively with KRAS, but not BRAF mutation status in the examined tissue samples. Furthermore, Abi1 is overexpressed in inflammatory mucosa, sessile serrated polyps and adenomas, tubular adenomas, invasive CRC and CRC metastasis when compared to healthy mucosa and BRAF-mutated as well as KRAS wild-type hyperplastic polyps. Abi1 expression in carcinoma was independent of microsatellite stability of the tumor. Abi1 protein expression correlated with KRAS mutation in the analyzed CRC cell lines, and upregulation of Abi1 could be induced by TNFalpha treatment as well as transfection of wild-type CRC cells with mutant KRAS. The overexpression of Abi1 could be abolished by treatment with the PI3K-inhibitor Wortmannin after KRAS transfection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support a role for Abi1 as a downstream target of inflammatory response and adenomatous change as well as oncogenic KRAS mutation via PI3K, but not BRAF activation. Furthermore, they highlight a possible role for Abi1 as a marker for early KRAS mutation in hyperplastic polyps. Since the protein is a key player in actin dynamics, our data encourages further studies concerning the exact role of Abi1 in actin reorganization upon

  3. Can supplementation of phytoestrogens/insoluble fibers help the management of duodenal polyps in familial adenomatous polyposis?

    Calabrese, Carlo; Rizzello, Fernando; Gionchetti, Paolo; Calafiore, Andrea; Pagano, Nico; De Fazio, Luigia; Valerii, Maria Chiara; Cavazza, Elena; Strillacci, Antonio; Comelli, Maria Cristina; Poggioli, Gilberto; Campieri, Massimo; Spisni, Enzo

    2016-06-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder, and prophylactic colectomy has been shown to decrease the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC). Duodenal cancer and desmoids are now the leading causes of death in FAP. We evaluate whether 3 months of oral supplementation with a patented blend of phytoestrogens and indigestible insoluble fibers (ADI) help the management of FAP patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). In a prospective open label study, we enrolled 15 FAP patients with IPAA and duodenal polyps who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at baseline and after 3 months of treatment. The primary endpoint was the change in gene expression in polyp mucosa, whereas the secondary endpoint was the reduction in polyp number and size. After 3 months of ADI treatment, all patients showed a reduction in the number and size of duodenal polyps (P = 0.021). Analysis of the expression of CRC promoting/inhibiting genes in duodenal polyps biopsies demonstrated that different CRC-promoting genes (PCNA, MUC1 and COX-2) were significantly downregulated, whereas CRC-inhibiting genes (ER-β and MUC2) were significantly upregulated after ADI treatment. In conclusion, ADI proved to be safe and effective, and its long-term effects on FAP patients need further investigation. Judging from the results we observed on COX-2 and miR-101 expression, the short-term effects of ADI treatment could be comparable with those obtained using COX-2 inhibitors, with the advantage of being much more tolerable in chronic therapies and void of adverse events. PMID:27207660

  4. different Roles for the axin interactions with the SAMP versus the second twenty amino acid repeat of adenomatous polyposis coli.

    Schneikert, Jean; Ruppert, Jan Gustav; Behrens, Jürgen; Wenzel, Eva Maria

    2014-01-01

    Wnt signalling is prevented by the proteosomal degradation of β-catenin, which occurs in a destruction complex containing adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), APC-like (APCL), Axin and Axin2. Truncating mutations of the APC gene result in the constitutive stabilisation of β-catenin and the initiation of colon cancer, although tumour cells tolerate the expression of wild-type APCL. Using the colocalisation of overexpressed Axin, APC and APCL constructs as a readout of interaction, we found that Axin interacted with the second twenty amino acid repeat (20R2) of APC and APCL. This interaction involved a domain adjacent to the C-terminal DIX domain of Axin. We identified serine residues within the 20R2 of APCL that were involved in Axin colocalisation, the phosphorylation of truncated APCL and the down-regulation of β-catenin. Our results indicated that Axin, but not Axin2, displaced APC, but not APCL, from the cytoskeleton and stimulated its incorporation into bright cytoplasmic dots that others have recognised as β-catenin destruction complexes. The SAMP repeats in APC interact with the N-terminal RGS domain of Axin. Our data showed that a short domain containing the first SAMP repeat in truncated APC was required to stimulate Axin oligomerisation. This was independent of Axin colocalisation with 20R2. Our data also suggested that the RGS domain exerted an internal inhibitory constraint on Axin oligomerisation. Considering our data and those from others, we discuss a working model whereby β-catenin phosphorylation involves Axin and the 20R2 of APC or APCL and further processing of phospho-β-catenin occurs upon the oligomerisation of Axin that is induced by binding the SAMP repeats in APC. PMID:24722208

  5. Adenomatous polyposis coli is required for early events in the normal growth and differentiation of the developing cerebral cortex

    Price David J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc is a large multifunctional protein known to be important for Wnt/β-catenin signalling, cytoskeletal dynamics, and cell polarity. In the developing cerebral cortex, Apc is expressed in proliferating cells and its expression increases as cells migrate to the cortical plate. We examined the consequences of loss of Apc function for the early development of the cerebral cortex. Results We used Emx1Cre to inactivate Apc specifically in proliferating cerebral cortical cells and their descendents starting from embryonic day 9.5. We observed reduction in the size of the mutant cerebral cortex, disruption to its organisation, and changes in the molecular identity of its cells. Loss of Apc leads to a decrease in the size of the proliferative pool, disrupted interkinetic nuclear migration, and increased apoptosis. β-Catenin, pericentrin, and N-cadherin proteins no longer adopt their normal high concentration at the apical surface of the cerebral cortical ventricular zone, indicating that cell polarity is disrupted. Consistent with enhanced Wnt/β-catenin signalling resulting from loss of Apc we found increased levels of TCF/LEF-dependent transcription and expression of endogenous Wnt/β-catenin target genes (Axin2 (conductin, Lef1, and c-myc in the mutant cerebral cortex. In the Apc mutant cerebral cortex the expression of transcription factors Foxg1, Pax6, Tbr1, and Tbr2 is drastically reduced compared to normal and many cells ectopically express Pax3, Wnt1, and Wt1 (but not Wnt2b, Wnt8b, Ptc, Gli1, Mash1, Olig2, or Islet1. This indicates that loss of Apc function causes cerebral cortical cells to lose their normal identity and redirect to fates normally found in more posterior-dorsal regions of the central nervous system. Conclusion Apc is required for multiple aspects of early cerebral cortical development, including the regulation of cell number, interkinetic nuclear migration, cell polarity, and

  6. Deficiency of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein in sporadic colorectal adenomas and its associations with clinical phenotype and histology

    Martin Bortlík; Ivana Vítková; Martina Pape(z)ová; Milada Kohoutová; Ale(s) Novotn(y); Stanislav Adamec; Petra Chalupná; Milan Luká(s)

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the frequency of the loss of the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) protein and to compare the APC status with the characteristics of colorectal adenomas.METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis of the APC protein was performed on 118 adenomas and the results were compared with parameters of malignant potential,location of adenomas, macroscopic appearance and age of the patients.RESULTS: A complete loss of the APC protein was found in 28 (24%) adenomas, while 90 (76%) were APC positive. The mean size of adenomas was 13.5 ± 14.2 mm (95% CI 10.5-16.5) in APC-positive, and 13.8 ± 15.5mm (95% CI 7.8-19.8) in APC-negative adenomas (P = 0.364). Statistical analysis revealed no difference between APC-positive and negative adenomas as to the histological type (P = 0.327) and grade of dysplasia (P =0.494). We found that even advanced adenomas did not differ in their APC status from the non-advanced tumors (P = 0.414). Finally, no difference was found when the location (P = 0.157), macroscopic appearance (P =0.571) and age of patients (P = 0.438) were analysed and compared between both APC positive and negative adenomas.CONCLUSION: Most adenomas expressed full-length APC protein, suggesting that protein expression is not a reliable marker for assessment of APC gene mutation.Complete loss of APC protein did not influence morphology, location, or appearance of adenomas, nor was it affected by the patient's age.

  7. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in an odontogenic cyst

    Yu, Jae Jung; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeong Hee [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Squamous cell carcinoma arising in an odontogenic cyst is uncommon. The diagnosis of carcinoma arising in a cyst requires that there must be an area of microscopic transition from the benign epithelial cyst lining to the invasive squamous cell carcinoma. We report a histopathologically proven case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in a residual mandibular cyst in a 54-year-old woman.

  8. Comparison between Capsule Endoscopy and Magnetic Resonance Enterography for the Detection of Polyps of the Small Intestine in Patients with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    Akin, E.; Demirezer Bolat, A.; Buyukasik, S.; Algin, O.; Selvi, E; Ersoy, O.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) compared with capsule endoscopy (CE) for the detection of small-bowel polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Methods. Patients underwent MRE and CE. The polyps were classified according to size of polyp: 10 mm (large size). The location (jejunum or ileum) and the number of polyps (1–5, 6–20, >20) detected by CE were also assessed. MRE findings were compared with the...

  9. Multidisciplinary treatment of peripheral osteoma arising from mandibular condyle in patient presenting with facial asymmetry.

    Nojima, Kunihiko; Niizuma-Kosaka, Fumiko; Nishii, Yasushi; Sueishi, Kenji; Yamakura, Daiki; Ikumoto, Hideyuki; Ohata, Hitoshi; Inoue, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    While osteomas often occur in the orofacial area, it is relatively rare for one to occur in the temporomandibular joint area. Here, we report a patient who underwent multidisciplinary treatment including high condylectomy for peripheral osteoma arising in the left mandibular condyle. The patient was a 46-year-old woman with the chief complaint of facial asymmetry. Cephalometric analysis revealed skeletal anterior crossbite due to anterior deviation of the mandible, with chin deviation of 10 mm to the right. A computed tomography scan revealed bone hyperplasia in the mesiodistal and inner areas of the left mandibular condyle, which exhibited outward anterior displacement. Bone scintigraphy showed a circular area of strong radioisotope accumulation with indistinct boundaries, consistent with the lesion in the left mandibular condyle. The above findings led to a diagnosis of skeletal mandibular prognathism with facial asymmetry due to peripheral osteoma originating in the left mandibular condyle. After orthodontic treatment and surgical resection of the tumor and mandibular condyle, preservation and prosthetic treatment were undertaken. A well-balanced facial appearance and good occlusion were achieved. PMID:24717929

  10. Congenital Blaschkoid Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia With Eosinophilia of the Anogenital Region.

    Su, Hai-Hui; Shan, Shi-Jun; Elston, Dirk M; Guo, Ying; Men, Jian-Long

    2016-04-01

    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is an uncommon, idiopathic vascular disorder. It manifests as dermal or subcutaneous red to brown papules or nodules, most commonly on the head and neck; other less common sites include the trunk, extremities, genitalia, lips, and oral mucosa. Although ALHE is a benign disease, lesions are often persistent and difficult to eradicate. ALHE occurs more frequently in Asian young and middle-aged women. Histologically, it is characterized by a florid vascular proliferation with hobnail epithelioid endothelial cells surrounding by lymphocytic and eosinophilic infiltrate. Here, we reported congenital ALHE in a 2-year-old girl. Unilateral lesions had a blaschkoid segmental distribution in the anogenital region and were successfully treated with the Nd:YAG laser. PMID:26863062

  11. The role of imaging in congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Teixeira, Sara Reis; Andrade, Marco Tulio Soares; Melo, Andrea Farias; Elias Junior, Jorge, E-mail: jejunior@fmrp.usp.br [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Radiology, Clinical Hospital, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo (FMRP-USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Elias, Paula Condé Lamparelli [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Clinical Hospital, FMRP-USP, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autossomic recessive disorder caused by impaired steroidogenesis. Patients with CAH may present adrenal insufficiency with or without salt-wasting, as well as various degrees of virilization and fertility impairment, carrying a high incidence of testicular adrenal rest tumors and increased incidence of adrenal tumors. The diagnosis of CAH is made based on the adrenocortical profile hormonal evaluation and genotyping, in selected cases. Follow-up is mainly based on hormonal and clinical evaluation. Utility of imaging in this clinical setting may be helpful for the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of the patients, although recommendations according to most guidelines are weak when present. Thus, the authors aimed to conduct a narrative synthesis of how imaging can help in the management of patients with CAH, especially focused on genitography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  12. The link between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    Ørsted, David Dynnes; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer are among the most common diseases of the prostate gland and represent significant burdens for patients and health-care systems in many countries. The two diseases share traits such as hormone-dependent growth and response to antiandrogen...... therapy. Furthermore, risk factors such as prostate inflammation and metabolic disruption have key roles in the development of both diseases. Despite these commonalities, BPH and prostate cancer exhibit important differences in terms of histology and localization. Although large-scale epidemiological...... studies have shown that men with BPH have an increased risk of prostate cancer and prostate-cancer-related mortality, it remains unclear whether this association reflects a causal link, shared risk factors or pathophysiological mechanisms, or detection bias upon statistical analysis. Establishing BPH as a...

  13. [Benign prostate hyperplasia: success and limitations of pharmacological therapy].

    Madersbacher, S; Marszalek, M

    2007-10-01

    A profound knowledge of pathogenesis and natural history enables a differentiated therapy for elderly men with lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The role of phytotherapy is still controversially discussed and, therefore, not clearly recommended by any BPH-guideline. alpha(1)-blockers are the therapy of choice for symptomatic patients at a low risk of disease progression (prostate volume 5ARI) reduce the prostate volume by 20-25% and the risk for acute urinary retention/surgery by more than 50% compared to placebo. Combination therapy (alpha(1)-blocker plus 5ARI) is superior to either monotherapy, though this advantage is only demonstrable after a prolonged treatment period (>12 months). PMID:17426942

  14. Risk stratification for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treatment.

    Emberton, Mark; Fitzpatrick, John M; Rees, Jon

    2011-03-01

    • Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common cause of bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms. In the past, the aim of drug treatment was to relieve symptoms until surgery became necessary, predominantly using an α-blocker or a 5α-reductase inhibitor (5ARI) as monotherapy. • Together with improving knowledge about the pathogenesis of BPH, there is now strong evidence from large randomized trials that risk stratification and appropriate treatment with combined α-blocker/5ARI therapy can significantly reduce the risk of disease progression and avoid long-term complications such as acute urinary retention and surgery. • BPH will increasingly be managed in primary care in the future and, if new management strategies based on this evidence are to be implemented cost effectively, there is a need to introduce shared care between the primary and secondary care sectors to optimise use of resources and expertise. PMID:21265993

  15. The link between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

    Ørsted, David D; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer are among the most common diseases of the prostate gland and represent significant burdens for patients and health-care systems in many countries. The two diseases share traits such as hormone-dependent growth and response to antiandrogen therapy. Furthermore, risk factors such as prostate inflammation and metabolic disruption have key roles in the development of both diseases. Despite these commonalities, BPH and prostate cancer exhibit important differences in terms of histology and localization. Although large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that men with BPH have an increased risk of prostate cancer and prostate-cancer-related mortality, it remains unclear whether this association reflects a causal link, shared risk factors or pathophysiological mechanisms, or detection bias upon statistical analysis. Establishing BPH as a causal factor for prostate cancer development could improve the accuracy of prognostication and expedite intervention, potentially reducing the number of men who die from prostate cancer. PMID:23165396

  16. Economic issues and the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Holtgrewe, H L

    1995-09-01

    Enormous financial resources are expended worldwide on the treatment of the urologic complications and symptoms induced by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Even for its surgical management, where the best data exist, current international accounting of these expenditures remains very poorly documented. On February 8, 1994, the Department of Health and Human Services of the US government released clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of BPH. Imaging of the upper urinary tract as a routine diagnostic procedure is not recommended in these guidelines unless a comorbidity indicating its need exists. Diagnostic cystoscopy to assist in the decision of the need to treat is not recommended. Adherence to these two principles along with adherence to the strategies of management presented in the guidelines and discussed herein has the potential of achieving profound financial savings without impairing quality of care worldwide. PMID:7544513

  17. Connexin43 Inhibition Prevents Human Vein Grafts Intimal Hyperplasia.

    Alban Longchamp

    Full Text Available Venous bypass grafts often fail following arterial implantation due to excessive smooth muscle cells (VSMC proliferation and consequent intimal hyperplasia (IH. Intercellular communication mediated by Connexins (Cx regulates differentiation, growth and proliferation in various cell types. Microarray analysis of vein grafts in a model of bilateral rabbit jugular vein graft revealed Cx43 as an early upregulated gene. Additional experiments conducted using an ex-vivo human saphenous veins perfusion system (EVPS confirmed that Cx43 was rapidly increased in human veins subjected ex-vivo to arterial hemodynamics. Cx43 knock-down by RNA interference, or adenoviral-mediated overexpression, respectively inhibited or stimulated the proliferation of primary human VSMC in vitro. Furthermore, Cx blockade with carbenoxolone or the specific Cx43 inhibitory peptide 43gap26 prevented the burst in myointimal proliferation and IH formation in human saphenous veins. Our data demonstrated that Cx43 controls proliferation and the formation of IH after arterial engraftment.

  18. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21 hydroxylase deficiency: Case report

    Vlaški Jovan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A girl with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21 hydroxylase (CYP 21, p450c2l deficiency is the reviewed case. The clinical features (virilisation, clitoromegaly, rapid somatic growth, accelerated skeletal maturation and laboratory find­ings (high levels of plasma 17hydroxyprogesterone, corticotrophin - ACTH, testosterone and dehydroepiandrostenedione -DHEA, low level of plasma cortisol, high level of urine 17- ketosteroids, synacthen and luteinising hormone releasing hor­mone - LHRH test and the response to hydrocortisone therapy pointed at heterosexual gonadotrophin independent puberty due to irregular production of cortisol caused by 21 hydroxylase deficiency that leads to elevated ACTH and 17-hydroxy progesterone secretion and makes congenital adrenal hyper­plasia as entity. The six-month therapy resulted in the clinical and laboratory findings improvement, such as the decreased annual growth of body height and the stagnation in the devel­opment of the secondary sexual features.

  19. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia: Atypical appeareance in an older patient

    Karabudak Ozlem

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 76-year-old man presenting with a chronic, non-healing ulcer of six-year duration on his left zygomatic area. The skin biopsy specimen taken from the lesion, showed increased vascular proliferation, edematous endothelial cells in the dermal blood vessels and perivascular eosinophilic/lymphocytic infiltration. The routine and specific blood tests were unremarkable. On the basis of these features, the patient was diagnosed as having angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE. We present the case because of its rarity in older people, atypical clinical appearance; and stress the consideration of ALHE in the differential diagnosis of chronic non-healing superficial ulcers confined to face and neck.

  20. Sodium ferulate inhibits neointimal hyperplasia in rat balloon injury model.

    Jing Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: Neointimal formation after vessel injury is a complex process involving multiple cellular and molecular processes. Inhibition of intimal hyperplasia plays an important role in preventing proliferative vascular diseases, such as restenosis. In this study, we intended to identify whether sodium ferulate could inhibit neointimal formation and further explore potential mechanisms involved. METHODS: Cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs isolated from rat thoracic aorta were pre-treated with 200 µmol/L sodium ferulate for 1 hour and then stimulated with 1 µmol/L angiotensin II (Ang II for 1 hour or 10% serum for 48 hours. Male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to balloon catheter insertion were administrated with 200 mg/kg sodium ferulate (or saline for 7 days before sacrificed. RESULTS: In presence of sodium ferulate, VSMCs exhibited decreased proliferation and migration, suppressed intracellular reactive oxidative species production and NADPH oxidase activity, increased SOD activation and down-regulated p38 phosphorylation compared to Ang II-stimulated alone. Meanwhile, VSMCs treated with sodium ferulate showed significantly increased protein expression of smooth muscle α-actin and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain protein. The components of Notch pathway, including nuclear Notch-1 protein, Jagged-1, Hey-1 and Hey-2 mRNA, as well as total β-catenin protein and Cyclin D1 mRNA of Wnt signaling, were all significantly decreased by sodium ferulate in cells under serum stimulation. The levels of serum 8-iso-PGF2α and arterial collagen formation in vessel wall were decreased, while the expression of contractile markers was increased in sodium ferulate treated rats. A decline of neointimal area, as well as lower ratio of intimal to medial area was observed in sodium ferulate group. CONCLUSION: Sodium ferulate attenuated neointimal hyperplasia through suppressing oxidative stress and phenotypic switching of VSMCs.

  1. Polipose gastroduodenal em doentes com polipose adenomatosa familiar Pós-Retocolectomia Gastroduodenal polyposis in patients with familiar adenomatous polyposis after rectocolectomy

    Raquel Franco Leal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: As manifestações extracólicas, como os pólipos gastroduodenais e o tumor do duodeno, são fatores que influenciam a morbimortalidade dos doentes com polipose adenomatosa familiar no seguimento pós-retocolectomia total. OBJETIVO: Investigar a freqüência destas alterações em doentes com polipose adenomatosa familiar e verificar a eficácia do rastreamento endoscópico. MÉTODO:No período de 1984 a 2005, 62 doentes com polipose adenomatosa familiar pós-retocolectomia foram estudados retrospectivamente pelo Grupo de Coloproctologia da Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP. O tempo de seguimento médio pós-operatório foi de 81,9 meses, sendo que em 53 (85,5% foi possível analisar a ocorrência de pólipos gastroduodenais. RESULTADOS: Dos 53 doentes em seguimento, 27 (50,9% apresentavam pólipos gastroduodenais. Em 8 (15,4% os pólipos adenomatosos eram gástricos, 14 (27% pólipos duodenais e 5 (9,6% pólipos gástricos e duodenais. Dois doentes (3,8% desenvolveram adenoma duodenal com displasia de alto grau. E outro (1,9%, adenocarcinoma em papila duodenal. CONCLUSÃO: O rastreamento endoscópico, desta forma, é de grande importância e o objetivo é detectar, o mais precocemente possível, os casos de adenocarcinoma duodenal e pólipos gastroduodenais com displasia de alto grau.BACKGROUND: The extra colonic manifestations, like upper gastrointestinal tract polyps and duodenal cancer are disorders that affect long-term morbidity and mortality of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, after rectocolectomy. AIM: To describe the frequency of those disorders in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and to review efficacy of upper gastrointestinal endoscopic surveillance. METHODS: Between 1984 and 2005, 62 patients with familial adenomatous polyposis after rectocolectomy, were studied retrospectively, by Coloproctology Group, Medical Sciences Faculty, State University of Campinas

  2. Male genitoplasty for 46 XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients presenting late and reared as males

    Shilpa Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the clinical profile and management of 46 XX Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH patients presenting with severe virilization and assigned a male gender. Materials and Methods: Of 173 children diagnosed with CAH at the Pediatric Intersex Clinic since 1980, seven children with CAH presented late with severe virilization and were reared as males. All of them were assigned the male sex with removal of the female adnexa. Six were treated with male genitoplasty. Appropriate hormonal supplementation was offered after puberty. Results: The mean age at presentation was 14.2 years (7 - 21. Six patients had presented after puberty, only one at seven years of age. Staged male genitoplasty comprising of chordee correction, male urethroplasty, and bilateral testicular prosthesis was performed. The female adnexa (uterus, ovaries, most of the upper vagina, and the fallopian tubes were removed. The mental makeup was masculine in six and bigender in one. Bilateral mastectomy was performed at puberty in all. Hormonal treatment comprised of glucocorticoids and testosterone. Six patients were comfortable with the outcome of the masculinizing genitoplasty. One had a short-sized phallus. One had repeated attacks of urinary tract infection arising from the retained lower vaginal pouch. Social adjustments were good in all, except in one who had a bigender mental makeup. Conclusion: CAH patients with severe virilization presenting late and reared as males are extremely rare. However, the assigned gender can be retained adequately as males, meeting the socioeconomic compulsions of the society. The results are satisfactory following appropriate surgical procedures and hormonal supplementation.

  3. Intimal hyperplasia within biliary Wallstents: failure of recanalisation by insertion of a second endoprosthesis

    We report two patients with benign biliary strictures in whom we attempted recanalisation of metallic biliary endoprostheses, occluded by intimal hyperplasia, by the insertion of further endoprostheses within the occluded stents. Initial technical success was achieved in deploying the stents and restoring patency with elimination of mural filling defects. However, we found the intimal hyperplasia to be restrained for less than 48 h. From our initial results it appears that biliary metallic stent occlusion by intimal hyperplasia is not effectively treated by insertion of a second endoprosthesis. (orig.)

  4. MR imaging of pituitary hyperplasia in a child with growth arrest and primary hypothyroidism

    Magnetic resonance imaging of pituitary hyperplasia has been rarely described in children with primary hypothyroidism. We report a case of pituitary hyperplasia in a child presented with significant growth arrest and laboratory evidence of hypothyroidism. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed symmetrical pituitary enlargement simulating macroadenoma. After thyroid hormone replacement therapy, the child's height increased and pituitary enlargement regressed to normal. Awareness of MRI appearance of pituitary hyperplasia in children with laboratory evidence of hypothyroidism might avoid misdiagnosis for pituitary tumor, which may also manifest as growth disorder, obviating unnecessary surgery. (orig.)

  5. Adenocarcinoma arising from the tailgut cyst: a case report

    Jung, Kyung Jae; Lee, Young Rae [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-15

    Tailgut cyst is a rare congenital anomaly arising in the retrorectal space. Malignancy arising from the tailgut cyst is very rare. We experienced a case of adenocarcinoma arising from the tailgut cyst. The findings of this rare tumor are bony destruction of the sacrum on plain radiograph, a cystic mass on ultrasound, a low attenuation mass with calcification and enhancement on CT, and a multiseptated cystic mass containing solid component on MRI.

  6. Wilms tumor arising in extracoelomic paravertebral soft tissues.

    Mulligan, Linda

    2012-02-01

    Extrarenal Wilms tumor (ERWT) is a well-established entity which most commonly arises within the genitourinary tract, including intracoelomic paranephric soft tissue. Rarely, ERWT arises within teratoma, and it tends to occur predominantly in distinct settings, such as females with spinal defects and males with testicular teratomas. We report a unique ERWT arising within an extracoelomic teratoma of the paraspinal musculature, thereby expanding the range of reported locations for this unusual tumor.

  7. Transformation and mass hyperplasia technique of the garden plant (lily) by radiation and so forth. Mass hyperplasia of the lily using tissue culture

    For an aim of more uniform child bulb production and good quality kind conservation using tissue culture of the lily, some hyperplasia from organs over ground of the lily were tried. In particular, optimum culture media with higher hyperplasia rate of the child bulb, redifferentiation due to difference among kinds of the lilies, and difference of hyperplasia of the child bulbs were investigated. As a result, it was found that pollution due to various germs attached to used materials often occurs, that efficiency obtainable for initial child bulb by redifferentiation from the organs was low at 20%, and that pollution due to various germs was often found at 25degC of cultivation temperature, which was inferior to that at 20degC. And, when conducting mass hyperplasia of the lily using tissue culture, an optimum culture medium of formation and hyperplasia of child bulb could be obtained for its each kind. As a result of conducting some investigations on configuration of the lily nourished from its child bulb and flowered by the tissue culture, it was also found that cultured bulb had the same character as its parent bulb had. (G.K.)

  8. Anterior mediastinal mass in children following chemotherapy for malignant disease: thymic hyperplasia vs recurrence

    Anterior mediastinal masses in children following chemotherapy for malignant disease often cause diagnostic problems. Differential diagnosis of thymic hyperplasia from recurrence frequently poses a challenge both for the radiologist and the physician. Thymic hyperplasia was seen in five patients, three with Hodgkin's disease, one with Burkitt's lymphoma and one with Wilms' tumour, after chemotherapy. In one patient, thymic hyperplasia was proven by biopsy and the other four were followed. None of the masses in the anterior mediastinum showed difference in size or shape during follow-up. We recommend that such patients should be evaluated cautiously before planning an invasive procedure. In patients who did not have an anterior mediastinal mass prior to chemotherapy, diagnosis of thymic hyperplasia should be stressed

  9. Anterior mediastinal mass in children following chemotherapy for malignant disease: thymic hyperplasia vs recurrence

    Aribal, M.E. E-mail: earibal@marmara.edu.tr; Canpolat, C.; Berrak, S.G.; Berik, P

    2003-05-01

    Anterior mediastinal masses in children following chemotherapy for malignant disease often cause diagnostic problems. Differential diagnosis of thymic hyperplasia from recurrence frequently poses a challenge both for the radiologist and the physician. Thymic hyperplasia was seen in five patients, three with Hodgkin's disease, one with Burkitt's lymphoma and one with Wilms' tumour, after chemotherapy. In one patient, thymic hyperplasia was proven by biopsy and the other four were followed. None of the masses in the anterior mediastinum showed difference in size or shape during follow-up. We recommend that such patients should be evaluated cautiously before planning an invasive procedure. In patients who did not have an anterior mediastinal mass prior to chemotherapy, diagnosis of thymic hyperplasia should be stressed.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    ... Intersex Society of North America MalaCards: adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency March of Dimes: Genital and Urinary Tract Defects Merck Manual Consumer Version: The Body's Control ...

  11. Genotype-Phenotype Analysis in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency

    Krone, Nils; Reisch, Nicole; Idkowiak, Jan; Dhir, Vivek; Ivison, Hannah E.; Hughes, Beverly A.; Rose, Ian T.; O'Neil, Donna M.; Vijzelaar, Raymon; Smith, Matthew J.; MacDonald, Fiona; Cole, Trevor R.; Adolphs, Nicolai; Barton, John S.; Blair, Edward M.; Braddock, Stephen R.; Collins, Felicity; Cragun, Deborah L.; Dattani, Mehul T.; Day, Ruth; Dougan, Shelley; Feist, Miriam; Gottschalk, Michael E.; Gregory, John W.; Haim, Michaela; Harrison, Rachel; Olney, Ann Haskins; Hauffa, Berthold P.; Hindmarsh, Peter C.; Hopkin, Robert J.; Jira, Petr E.; Kempers, Marlies; Kerstens, Michiel N.; Khalifa, Mohamed M.; Koehler, Birgit; Maiter, Dominique; Nielsen, Shelly; O'Riordan, Stephen M.; Roth, Christian L.; Shane, Kate P.; Silink, Martin; Stikkelbroeck, Nike M. M. L.; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Szarras-Czapnik, Maria; Waterson, John R.; Williamson, Lori; Hartmann, Michaela F.; Taylor, Norman F.; Wudy, Stefan A.; Malunowicz, Ewa M.; Shackleton, Cedric H. L.; Arlt, Wiebke; Smith, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Context: P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a unique congenital adrenal hyperplasia variant that manifests with glucocorticoid deficiency, disordered sex development (DSD), and skeletal malformations. No comprehensive data on genotype-phenotype correlations in Caucasian patients are available.

  12. Patients with atypical hyperplasia of the endometrium should be treated in oncological centers

    Antonsen, Sofie Leisby; Ulrich, Lian; Høgdall, Claus

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of undiagnosed endometrial carcinoma (EC) among women with a preoperative diagnosis of atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) in correlation to age, BMI and menopause. METHODS: Data extracted from the Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) covering women...

  13. Biomarkers for the diagnosis of prostatic inflammation in benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Robert, G.Y.M.; Smit, F.; Hessels, D.; Jannink, S.A.; Karthaus, H.F.M.; Aalders, T.; Jansen, K.; Taille, A. De La; Mulders, P.F.A.; Schalken, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic prostatic inflammation could be a central mechanism in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) progression. Currently, the histological examination of prostate biopsies remains the only way to diagnose prostatic inflammation. Our objective was to find new noninvasive biomarkers for th

  14. Reversible pituitary hyperplasia at birth in a macrosomic full-term baby boy

    Pituitary hyperplasia is generally associated with end-organ failure such as primary hypothyroidism, physiological changes such as puberty and pregnancy, or neoplasms secreting releasing factors. We present a full-term infant with an enlarged pituitary height of 8 mm at age 3 days despite a normal endocrinological evaluation. Repeat imaging at 5 months of age revealed a normal-size pituitary gland. To our knowledge, pituitary hyperplasia has not been described in a neonate with normal pituitary function. (orig.)

  15. Complex Genital Malformation in a Female with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Evaluation with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Klessen, C.; Asbach, P.; Hein, P. A.; Beyersdorff, D.; Hamm, B.; Taupitz, M. [Humboldt-Univ. of Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2005-12-01

    This is a case of complex genital malformation in a young patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings included ostium of the vagina into the urethra (common urogenital opening), prostate-like tissue surrounding the urethra, and hyperplasia of the left adrenal gland. The report provides information on the clinical findings, the MRI examination, including the applied sequences and the MR findings, and gives an overview of the disease pattern and its frequency of occurrence.

  16. Diffuse Neuroendocrine Hyperplasia with Obliterative Bronchiolitis and Usual Interstitial Pneumonia: An Unusual "Headcheese Pattern" with Nodules.

    Pietrangeli, V; Piciucchi, S; Tomassetti, S; Ravaglia, C; Gurioli, C; Gurioli, Ch; Cavazza, A; Dubini, A; Poletti, V

    2015-12-01

    A 74-year-old non-smoker female presented to our attention with a history of dyspnea and cough. CT scan revealed multiple areas of patchy ground glass attenuation associated to a diffuse mosaic oligoemia. Scattered bilateral subcentimetric pulmonary nodules were also present. Patient underwent a surgical lung biopsy. Specimens showed features of diffuse neuroendocrine hyperplasia, microhoneycombing, fibroblast foci. A final diagnosis of diffuse neuroendocrine hyperplasia with obliterative bronchiolitis and UIP was rendered. PMID:26446675

  17. Small intestinal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia in patients with giardiasis and normal serum immunoglobulins.

    Ward, H; Jalan, K. N.; Maitra, T. K.; Agarwal, S. K.; Mahalanabis, D

    1983-01-01

    Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the upper small intestine was demonstrated in 25 patients with giardiasis. All had normal serum immunoglobulin levels and seven patients initially presented with clinical findings suggestive of an abdominal lymphoma. In only two, however, was the diagnosis of primary jejunal lymphoma confirmed. It is possible that an aetiological relationship exists between recurrent parasitic infestation and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the upper small intestine.

  18. Reversible pituitary hyperplasia at birth in a macrosomic full-term baby boy

    Osipoff, Jennifer; Wilson, Thomas A. [State University of New York, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Peyster, Robert [Stony Brook University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Pituitary hyperplasia is generally associated with end-organ failure such as primary hypothyroidism, physiological changes such as puberty and pregnancy, or neoplasms secreting releasing factors. We present a full-term infant with an enlarged pituitary height of 8 mm at age 3 days despite a normal endocrinological evaluation. Repeat imaging at 5 months of age revealed a normal-size pituitary gland. To our knowledge, pituitary hyperplasia has not been described in a neonate with normal pituitary function. (orig.)

  19. The role of inflammatory mediators in the development of prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    Elkahwaji JE

    2012-01-01

    Johny E Elkahwaji1–31Section of Urologic Surgery, 2Section of Medical Oncology and Hematology, 3Genitourinary Oncology Research Laboratory, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USAAbstract: Benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer remain the most prevalent urologic health concerns affecting elderly men in their lifetime. Only 20% of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer cases coexist in the same zone of the prostate and require a long time for initiat...

  20. Long segmental hyperplasia of interstitial cells of Cajal with giant diverticulum formation

    Xue, Liyan; Qiu, Tian; Song, Ying; Shan, Ling; Liu, Xiuyun; Guo, Lei; Ying, Jianming; Zou, Shuangmei; Shi, Susheng; Polydorides, Alexandros D.; Zhao, Xinming; Lu, Ning; Lin, Dongmei

    2013-01-01

    Sporadic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) usually form a well-circumscribed mass. In contrast, diffuse interstitial cell of Cajal (ICC) hyperplasia along the Auerbach plexus without a discrete mass may occur in patients with germline mutations in the NF1, c-KIT or PDGFRA genes. However, sporadic, diffuse ICC hyperplasia without c-KIT or PDGFRA mutations has not been reported. We describe herein one such case, forming a giant diverticulum. A 63-year-old woman with no features of Neurofi...

  1. Laparoscopic-assisted treatment of pyometra associated with mammary fibroadenomatous hyperplasia in a cat

    Lucas Marques Colomé

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a case of laparoscopic-assisted ovariohysterectomy in a female cat presenting pyometra and mammary fibroadenomatous hyperplasia. Using four portals, mesovarium were ligated by titanium ligature clips whereas the uterine vessels were occluded by video-assisted conventional ligatures. There were no postoperative complications. Video-assisted technique can be an alternative method for treatment of pyometra and cystic endometrial hyperplasia in female cats.

  2. Poor Response to Substitution Therapy with Cortisone Acetate in Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Inada, Hiroshi; Imamura, Takuji; Nakajima, Ryoichi; Yamano, Tsunekazu

    2004-01-01

    Although cortisone acetate is approved worldwide as corticosteroid substitution therapy in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (21-hydroxylase deficiency), its effectiveness is uncertain since its biologic activity depends on activation by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD). We sought to compare the effect of cortisone acetate with that of hydrocortisone. In 10 patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, cortisone acetate was replaced with hydrocortisone in substitution therapy. During t...

  3. Complex Genital Malformation in a Female with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Evaluation with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    This is a case of complex genital malformation in a young patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings included ostium of the vagina into the urethra (common urogenital opening), prostate-like tissue surrounding the urethra, and hyperplasia of the left adrenal gland. The report provides information on the clinical findings, the MRI examination, including the applied sequences and the MR findings, and gives an overview of the disease pattern and its frequency of occurrence

  4. Protective Effect of Naringin on Testosterone Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Rats

    Naresh KN; Aparna B; Dr. Veeresh B

    2013-01-01

    Major components of plants being flavonoids containing polyphenolic derivatives which possesantioxidant property have shown to improve uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland and urinary tractsymptoms, which are associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Our study investigated whetherNaringin prevents testosterone induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats by virtue of its antioxidant property.In vitro studies were carried out to assess the protective effect of prostate tumor cell lines. BPH ...

  5. Outcomes and quality of life issues in the pharmacological management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

    Cambio, Angelo J; Evans, Christopher P.

    2007-01-01

    Background Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease of the aging male population. BPH treatment includes a variety of pharmacological and surgical interventions. The goal of this paper is to review the natural history of BPH, outcomes of pharmacological management, effects on quality of life (QoL), future pharmacotherapies, and associated patient-focused perspectives. Materials and methods Medline searches for the keywords benign prostatic hyperplasia, BPH, alpha blockers, 5 alp...

  6. Laparoscopic-assisted treatment of pyometra associated with mammary fibroadenomatous hyperplasia in a cat

    Lucas Marques Colomé; Hiran Castagnino Kunert Filho; João Pedro Scussel Feranti; Fabiane Reginatto dos Santos; Luana Walendorff Sartori; Maurício Veloso Brun

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a case of laparoscopic-assisted ovariohysterectomy in a female cat presenting pyometra and mammary fibroadenomatous hyperplasia. Using four portals, mesovarium were ligated by titanium ligature clips whereas the uterine vessels were occluded by video-assisted conventional ligatures. There were no postoperative complications. Video-assisted technique can be an alternative method for treatment of pyometra and cystic endometrial hyperplasia in female cats.

  7. The role of combination medical therapy in benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Greco, K A; McVary, K T

    2008-12-01

    To review key trials of monotherapy and combination therapy of alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonists (alpha(1)-ARAs), 5alpha-reductase inhibitors (5alphaRIs) and anti-muscarinic agents in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). To assess the safety and efficacy of combination therapies for LUTS associated with BPH, a search of the MEDLINE and Cochrane databases (1976-2008) was conducted for relevant trials and reviews using the terms benign prostatic hyperplasia, lower urinary tract symptoms, alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonists, 5alpha-reductase inhibitors, anti-muscarinics, anticholinergics, combination therapy, alfuzosin, doxazosin, tamsulosin, terazosin, dutasteride, finasteride, tolterodine, flavoxate, propiverine, oxybutynin, erectile dysfunction, sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil. Data from the Medical Therapy of Prostatic Symptoms (MTOPS) study indicated a role for long-term use of alpha(1)-ARAs and 5alphaRIs in combination. In the MTOPS study, combination therapy with the alpha(1)-ARA doxazosin and the 5alphaRI finasteride was significantly more effective than either component alone in reducing symptoms (P=0.006 vs doxazosin monotherapy; Pfinasteride monotherapy) and in lowering the rate of clinical progression (Pdutasteride resulted in a significantly greater decrease in International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) when compared with either monotherapy. Several recent trials have studied the efficacy of combining alpha(1)-ARAs and anti-muscarinic agents in the treatment of BPH. These studies have found this combination to result in statistically significant benefits in quality of life scores, patient satisfaction, urinary frequency, storage symptoms and IPSS scores. Studies have not shown an increased risk of urinary retention associated with the use of anti-muscarinics in a highly select cohort of men with BPH. The available data suggest that combination therapy can be beneficial

  8. Breast carcinogenesis: Transition from hyperplasia to invasive lesions

    To examine the balance loss between proliferation and apoptosis that play a role in breast cancer development, and to explore the places of various genes and molecules within this process in this supposed multistep process. We obtained the specimens from 40 patients between 2002 and 2004 at the Department of Pathology, Medical Faculty, Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey. We categorized the lesions ductal hyperplasia (DH), atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), in situ ductal carcinoma (DCIS), and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). We determined the tumor size, histological grade and lymph node status of invasive cases and we used nottingham prognostic index (NPI). We applied ER, PR, c-erbB2, p53, Ki-67, bcl-2, dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), breast cancer gene-1, matrix metalloproteinases-1 and tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinases-1 stains to each lesion using the immunohistochemical method. We observed that ER and PR decreased in ADH when compared with DH (p=0.0001 and p=0.019). However, we determined that in DCIS as c-erbB2 (p=0,005) and Ki-67 (p=0.004) increase, TUNEL (p=0.04) and bcl-2 (p=0.005) decrease, when compared with ADH. When compared with DCIS lesions, we observed the existence of a higher c-erbB2 (p=0,003) and a lower TUNEL (p=0,012) in invasive tumors. Furthermore, we found that there is a higher MMP-1 (p=0,04) in invasive lesions, when compared with non-invasive lesions. We detected higher PR (p=0,049), lower TUNEL and c-erbB2 (p=0,017) in low grade group of NPI, when compared with high grade group of NPI. As a result, it has been shown that together with increase in proliferation, decrease in apoptosis, too, contributes to the proliferation/apoptosis imbalance that occurs in breast carcinogenesis. Increase in proliferation and decrease in apoptosis are parallel with the progression of lesions. We also showed that the changes, beginning with loss of ER and PR in ADH step, can cause malign transformation, which is especially notable both in

  9. Attenuated Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    ... procedure done in conjunction with in-vitro fertilization (IVF). It allows people who carry a specific known ... AFAP is suspected when a person has a history of more than 20, but fewer than 100, ...

  10. Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    ... the inside of a person’s colon form a mass on the inside of the intestinal tract. The ... that does not metastasize; papillary thyroid cancer ; pancreatic , adrenal , and bile duct tumors; and a type of ...

  11. FAMILIAL ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS

    XU Ning; DING Yan-qing; XU Li

    1999-01-01

    @@ Clinical History A 41-year-old female was admitted into Nan Fang Hospital for severe abdominal pain with bloody-mucoid stool for a month. The symptoms started a year ago without obvious causes and she did not have any systemic treatment.The patient felt fatigue and loss of weight for the last three months and increased frequency of bloody-mucoid discharge from 2-4 times/day to 10 times/day for the last month. Two weeks ago the patient had a proctoscope with biopsy in Pan Yu people's Hospital. The pathological diagnosis was rectal villous adenoma with focal malignant changes. Rectal examination in this hospital found a rectal mass, 4 cm from the anus, longitudinal growing and occupying a quarter of the circumference. Further colonofiberscope diagnosis was familial polyposis of colon.Family history showed that her father died of lung cancer,her mother died of colonic cancer and her brother and sister were healthy. A total colo-rectectomy with ileostomy was performed.

  12. Tuberous sclerosis diagnosed by incidental computed tomography findings of multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia: a case report

    Ishii Makoto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The majority of multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia associated with tuberous sclerosis complex is diagnosed with the classical clinical triad of seizures, mental retardation, and skin lesions. We report a rare case of tuberous sclerosis complex with no classical clinical findings, which was diagnosed through incidental computed tomography findings of multiple nodular lesions of multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia. Case presentation A chest computed tomography scan of a 51-year-old Japanese woman showed multiple nodular ground-glass opacities that were not seen on chest X-ray. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was performed. A histological examination demonstrated type II pneumocyte hyperplasia with thickened fibrotic alveolar septa, which was consistent with multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging displayed multiple cortical tubers, and abdominal computed tomography showed bilateral renal angiomyolipoma. Our patient was finally diagnosed as having tuberous sclerosis complex with multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia, although she had no episodes of epilepsy, no skin lesions, and no family history. Conclusions Multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia with latent tuberous sclerosis complex should be considered in the differential diagnosis of multiple ground-glass opacities.

  13. MSCT diagnosis and differential diagnosis of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia

    Objective: To evaluate the MSCT findings of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) of the liver, and to improve the diagnostic standard. Methods: The MSCT findings were analyzed retrospectively in 25 patients pathologically approved with FNH. All patients underwent 16 detector row spiral CT scanning with and without contrast enhancement. Results: 28 lesions were discovered by CT, with single lesion showed in 22 cases, 2 lesions showed in 3 cases. All lesions showed a solitary nodules or lobulated mass in the liver. On plain CT, FNH showed equal or slightly low density. In the arterial phase, 27 lesions were vigorously and homogeneously enhanced, except the central scars with CT value of 99∼149HU and the mean CT-number of 124 HU. 1 lesion ws enhanced inter-homogeneously. Tortuous and enlarged arteries were seen at the center or periphery in 8 of the 28 lesions. In the portal venous phase, 16 lesions remained slightly hyperdense, 8 lesions turned to isodense, and 1 lesion turned to slightly hypodense. The typical central scar was showed in 8 lesions and 2 lesions showed delayed enhancement. 21 cases were correctly diagnosed by MSCT, with the diagnostic accuracy of 84.0%. Conclusion: MSCT scanning can fully show the pathologic and the blood supplying characteristics of FNH. The typical FNH can be easily diagnosed by CT, while the atypical cases should be differentiated from hepatocellular carcinoma, hemangioma of liver, liver cell adenoma and fibrolamellar hepatocarcinoma. (authors)

  14. DSA and MRI diagnosis of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia

    Objective: To evaluate DSA and MRI in diagnosing focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) of the liver. Methods: DSA and MRI findings in seven patients with pathologically-proved FNH were retrospectively analyzed. Selective hepatic arteriography with DSA, and both plain and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR scans were performed in all patients. The imaging findings were retrospectively evaluated and analyzed. Results: On DSA examination, all FNH lesions were hyper-vascular, which were characterized by thickened and tortuous feeding arteries. And the feeding arteries,after entering the lesions, branched off peripherally in a radiation pattern and the lesions were evenly dyed with sharp borders. In venous phase, hepatic vein drainage was demonstrated in 6 cases. On dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, marked enhancement of the lesions was observed, which lasted until to delayed phase when the lesions still showed hyper-intensity or iso-intensity signals. Scar signal in the lesion's center was seen in three cases, which started to enhance at portal vein phase and maintained to delayed phase. Conclusion: On DSA imaging, FNH lesions are characterized by thickened and tortuous feeding arteries that branch off peripherally in a radiation pattern after entering the lesions. And the hepatic vein drainage is also a common finding in venous phase. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI can well display the abnormal signal of the central scar of FNH. The combination use of DSA and MRI can effectively improve the diagnostic accuracy for FNH. (authors)

  15. Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia misdiagnosed as Turner syndrome

    Vineet V Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a patient with nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH misdiagnosed as mosaic Turner syndrome. She presented with complaints of primary infertility. Short stature, the presence of facial hair and hoarse voice was also noted. She had primary amenorrhea and was advised for karyotype at 16 years of age, which was reported as 45, X[20]/46, XX[80], stating her as a case of mosaic Turner syndrome. Clitoroplasty was done at 21 years of age for clitoromegaly, which was noticed during puberty. The diagnosis of mosaic Turner could not explain the virilization. Therefore, we repeated the karyotype, which revealed 46, XX in more than 100 metaphases and was sufficient to exclude mosaicism. Furthermore, the endocrinological evaluation revealed high testosterone level with a normal 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP. The presence of pubertal onset virilization with a karyotype of 46, XX and raised testosterone level with normal 17-OHP level, raised the suspicion of NCAH for which adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test was done which confirmed the diagnosis of NCAH.

  16. Suppression of benign prostate hyperplasia by Kaempferia parviflora rhizome

    Kazuya Murata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kaempferia parviflora rhizome is used as a folk medicine in Thailand for the treatment of various symptoms. In the present study, the inhibitory activities of extract from K. parviflora rhizome against 5a-reductase (5aR were subjected. Furthermore, the effects of the extract from K. parviflorar hizome in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH were studied using the model mice. Materials and Methods: Preparations of extracts from the rhizomes of K. parviflora, Curcuma zedoaria and Zingiber officinale, and methoxyflavones isolated from K. parviflora was used for 5aR inhibition assay. The effects of K. parviflora extract on growth suppression for the prostates and seminal vesicles were performed based on the Hershberger′s method. The K. parviflora extract was administered to castrated mice for 14 days. Results: K. parviflora extract showed more potent inhibitory activity on 5aR than C. zedoaria and Z. officinale extracts. The active principles were identified as 3,5,7,3′,4′-pentamethoxyflavone and 5,7,3′,4′-tetramethoxyflavone by activity guided fractionation. Furthermore, K. parviflora extract suppressed the weights of prostates and seminal vesicles in BPH model rats by daily administration for 14 days. Conclusion: These results indicate that K. parviflora extract can be a promising agent for the treatment of BPH.

  17. Tadalafil: a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Cantrell, Matthew A; Baye, Jordan; Vouri, Scott Martin

    2013-06-01

    Tadalafil is a phosphodiesterase (PDE)-5 inhibitor recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for lower urinary tracts symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The mechanism for improved LUTS is thought to be related to three principal theories: alterations in nitric oxide levels, Rho-associated protein kinase deactivation, and reductions in pelvic atherosclerosis. The efficacy of PDE-5 inhibitors for the treatment of LUTS associated with BPH has been demonstrated in several randomized placebo-controlled trials. Tadalafil is thought to be superior based on an extended half-life; however, other PDE-5 inhibitors have positive results in BPH and have not been proved to be inferior to tadalafil. Before administration, concomitant use of medications such as nonselective α-adrenergic antagonists, nitrates, and cytochrome P450 inhibitors should be assessed for possible drug interactions. Potential adverse drug events seen in Food and Drug Administration-approved tadalafil include back pain, dyspepsia, headache, and dizziness. Given the efficacy and safety data currently available, the PDE-5 inhibitor tadalafil represents a reasonable alternative for selected male patients with LUTS associated with BPH, especially with concomitant erectile dysfunction. PMID:23529917

  18. TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION VERSUS TRANSVESICAL APPROACH FOR BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA

    Karbhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH is a common disease in elderly people. Different surgical treatment options were available in which transvesical and transurethral resection of prostate are commonly employed for BPH in our set up. AIM : To compare the immediate complications, hospital stay, days of immobilization, duration of indwelling catheter, mortality and morbidity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comparative study was conducted between August 2012 to August 2014, which involved patients underwent TURP and transvesical prostatectomy. Patients having associated complications and post - op morbidities were compared. RESULTS: Commonest affected age group was 50 - 90 yrs. (M ean age 69.6 yrs. . 14 patients developed immediate significant postoperative complications in both, the procedures. 11patients developed significant delayed post - operative complications in transvesical procedure. In TURP no delayed complications. In transvesical procedure average postop erative hospital stay was 16.08 days. In TURP it was 6.24 days. Compared to transvesical procedure days of immobilization (6.48 days and indwelling catheterization (6.12 days is significantly lower in TURP 3.12 days and 2.60 days respectively. Morbidities were more in transvesical prostatectomy and none in TURP. There was no mortality in this study. CONCLUSION: TURP has definite advantage over the transvesical suprapubic prostectomy, because of shorter period of hospitalization, postoperative complications are less frequent, shorter duration and less severe. It has got lowest mortality and morbidity rates.

  19. Evaluation for Madigan's prostatectomy in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Li-Min LIAO; Bing-Yi SHI; Chun-Quan LIANG; Werner SCH(..)AFER

    2001-01-01

    To comparatively evaluate the efficacy and post-operative complications of the Madigan's prostatectomy (MPC) and suprapubic prostatectomy (SPPC). Methods: A total of 43 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia were divided into two groups: 21 underwent MPC and 22, SPPC. In all the patients, the international prostate symptom score (IPSS) and urinary pressure-flow studies were assessed before and 6 months after operation. The International Continence Society (ICS) nomogram, Abrams-Griffiths (AG) number and linear passive urethral resistance relation analysis (L-PURR) were used to diagnose and grade bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). The IPSS and the urodynamic parameters before and after operation, as well as the advantages and post-operative complications were recorded and compared. Results: Patients of both the MPC and SPPC groups had a significant improvement in IPSS and urodynamic parameters. Obstruction was relieved in 81.0% of MPC and 86.4 % of SPPC patients. MPC has the advantages of the absence of postoperative hematuria and post-catheter stricture, a shorter period of hospitalization, and lower incidence of retrograde ejaculation and erectile dysfunction. Conclusion: Both MPC and SPPC can effectively relieve BOO. MPC has certain advantages and a lower incidence of complications as compared with SPPC.

  20. Micro and bulk analysis of prostate tissues classified as hyperplasia

    Kwiatek, W. M.; Banaś, A.; Banaś, K.; Cinque, G.; Dyduch, G.; Falkenberg, G.; Kisiel, A.; Marcelli, A.; Podgórczyk, M.

    2007-07-01

    BPH (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia) is the most common benign neoplasm (non cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland), whose prevalence increases with age. The gland, when increased in size, exerts pressure on the urethra, causing obstruction to urine flow. The latter may result in severe urinary tract and kidney conditions. In this work prostate samples from patients diagnosed with BPH were analyzed using synchrotron radiation. Micro-analysis of the hyperplastic samples was carried out on the L-beam line at HASYLAB, DESY (Germany), while bulk analysis on selected samples was performed at the DRX2 beamline at LNF, Frascati (Italy). Microanalysis with a mono-energetic beam 15 μm in diameter confirmed that concentrations of certain elements, such as S, Mn, Cu, Fe and Zn, are good indicators of pathological disorders in prostate tissue that may be considered effective tracers of developing compliant. The concentrations of Mn, Cu, Fe and Zn are higher in hyperplastic tissues, as compared to normal ones, while for sulphur the opposite is observed. Additionally, Fe and S K-edge XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) spectroscopy experiments were carried out in order to determine the chemical speciation of these elements in our samples.

  1. The role of nuclear medicine in managing mandibular condylar hyperplasia

    Objectives: Although it occurs infrequently, mandibular condylar hyperplasia (HCM) is one of the main causes of facial asymmetry. It is usually treated with surgery and clinical diagnostic radiology, but nuclear medicine can help to indicate the time and type of intervention. This article aims to present our experience and to analyze the development of bone scintigraphy in an effort to define its true role in the management of HCM diagnosis. Method: The effects of HCM on 17 patients were studied in an exploratory manner using planar and tomographic scintigraphy. Both explorations were interpreted qualitatively and a semi-quantification formula was applied to the SPECT images so that both condyles could be compared directly. The qualitative results were compared between the planar and the tomographic images. The quantitative results were compared with those from the control group and with the qualitative interpretation. Results: The quantification in the control group confirms the data from other series and allows a difference between both condyles of over 10% to be considered as pathological. The comparison of the qualitative results reveals a divergence of 50% and the quantitative analysis of these cases shows a greater sensitivity to the SPECT. Conclusions: Scintigraphy gives value to the condylar metabolic activity, aided by the quantification of the SPECT, in order to prevent future deformities. The introduction of the quantification will allow a threshold value to be found that could support the surgical treatment

  2. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia and entrapment of the ulnar nerve

    Di Vitantonio, Hambra; De Paulis, Danilo; Ricci, Alessandro; Raysi, Soheila Dehcordi; Marzi, Sara; Del Maestro, Mattia; Galzio, Renato Juan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is a sporadic vasoproliferative lesion of uncertain etiology involving the skin and the subcutaneous tissue. Occasionally, it involves also the large arteries compressing the near nerves. ALHE is commonly confused with Kimura's disease because of their clinical and histological similarities. Case Description: We report a case of a 52-year-old female suffering from a 6-month pain and paresthesias in the fourth and fifth finger of the right hand. The angiography showed a pseudoaneurysm in the proximal third of the right ulnar artery. A complete surgical excision of the vascular lesion was undertaken. The lesion forced the right ulnar nerve. The histopathological diagnosis deposed for ALHE. Conclusion: Up to now, literature has described 8 cases of ALHE involving the arteries, and only one case originating from the ulnar nerve. The authors report a case of a female with ALHE involving the ulnar artery that compressed the ulnar nerve. Clinical aspects, radiological features, surgical treatment, and operative findings are discussed reviewing the pertinent literature. PMID:27069750

  3. c-Kit signaling determines neointimal hyperplasia in arteriovenous fistulae

    Skartsis, Nikolaos; Martinez, Laisel; Duque, Juan Camilo; Tabbara, Marwan; Velazquez, Omaida C.; Asif, Arif; Andreopoulos, Fotios; Salman, Loay H.

    2014-01-01

    Stenosis of arteriovenous (A-V) fistulae secondary to neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) compromises dialysis delivery, which worsens patients' quality of life and increases medical costs associated with the maintenance of vascular accesses. In the present study, we evaluated the role of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit in A-V fistula neointima formation. Initially, c-Kit was found in the neointima and adventitia of human brachiobasilic fistulae, whereas it was barely detectable in control veins harvested at the time of access creation. Using the rat A-V fistula model to study venous vascular remodeling, we analyzed the spatial and temporal pattern of c-Kit expression in the fistula wall. Interestingly, c-Kit immunoreactivity increased with time after anastomosis, which concurred with the accumulation of cells in the venous intima. In addition, c-Kit expression in A-V fistulae was positively altered by chronic kidney failure conditions. Both blockade of c-Kit with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) and inhibition of stem cell factor production with a specific short hairpin RNA prevented NIH in the outflow vein of experimental fistulae. In agreement with these data, impaired c-Kit activity compromised the development of NIH in A-V fistulae created in c-KitW/Wv mutant mice. These results suggest that targeting of the c-Kit signaling pathway may be an effective approach to prevent postoperative NIH in A-V fistulae. PMID:25186298

  4. Single session transurethral microwave thermotherapy for benign postatic hyperplasia

    The authors have used transurethral microwave thermotherapy in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia since October 1991. Irreversible cell damage occurs when the microwaves heat the periurethral prostatic tissue. The urethra is simultaneously cooled and is not destroyed during treatment. The patients are not hospitalized. Transurethral microwave thermotherapy is performed under local anaesthesia, no other form of analgesia has been found necessary. Included were patients with symptomatic prostatic obstruction who would otherwise have received operative or pharmacologic treatment. Patients with high residual urine, large middle lobe, urethral stricture, prostatic cancer, decreased renal function, urinary infection or metal implants were excluded. It was observed a marked improvement in the Madsen symptom score after transurethral microwave thermotherapy. The score decreased from 12 before treatment to five after six weeks and 4.6 after six moths. Flow increased from 8.9 to 9.7 ml/s. There was a significant reduction in the residual urine from 102 ml preoperatively to 69 ml after six months. The volume of the prostate was only slightly reduced after transurethral microwave thermotherapy. Postoperative edema caused urinary retention in 13% of the patients. Two patients required transurethral resection of the prostata. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  5. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: a 3-dimensional quantification of asymmetry.

    Tim J Verhoeven

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Objective quantifications of facial asymmetry in patients with Unilateral Condylar Hyperplasia (UCH have not yet been described in literature. The aim of this study was to objectively quantify soft-tissue asymmetry in patients with UCH and to compare the findings with a control group using a new method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty 3D photographs of patients diagnosed with UCH were compared with 30 3D photographs of healthy controls. As UCH presents particularly in the mandible, a new method was used to isolate the lower part of the face to evaluate asymmetry of this part separately. The new method was validated by two observers using 3D photographs of five patients and five controls. RESULTS: A significant difference (0.79 mm between patients and controls whole face asymmetry was found. Intra- and inter-observer differences of 0.011 mm (-0.034-0.011 and 0.017 mm (-0.007-0.042 respectively were found. These differences are irrelevant in clinical practice. CONCLUSION: After objective quantification, a significant difference was identified in soft-tissue asymmetry between patients with UCH and controls. The method used to isolate mandibular asymmetry was found to be valid and a suitable tool to evaluate facial asymmetry.

  6. Protective effect of Prostane in experimental prostatic hyperplasia in rats

    S.K.Mitra; R.Sundaram; A.R.Mohan; S.Gopumadhavan; M.V.Venkataranganna; UdupaVenkatesha; S.J.Seshadri; S.D.Anmrlikar

    1999-01-01

    Aim: Prostane, a polyherbal formulation, was evaluated for its efficacy on ,5a-reductase inhibition, a-adrenergie anta-gonistic activity and testosterone-induced prostatic hypeqllasia. Methods: 5a-reductase inhibition was evaluated usingrat prostate hornogeante as an enzyme source. Adrenergic antagonistic" activity was evaluated using isolated rat vas def-erens. Experimental prostatic hyperplasia was induced in rats by" giving testosterone 3 mg/kg sc for 21 days. Re-suits: Prostane dose-dependently inhibited 5a-reductase aetivity and exhibited a-adrenergic antagonistic activity. Treat-ment with Prostane at 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body wt, po for 21 days significantly reduced the prostatic weight, theepithelial height and the stroinal proliferation in experimental prostatic hypertrophy. Conclusion: Prostane is effectivein the treatment of experimental prostatic hypertrophy in rats and may be passed on to clinical trials on benign prostatichypertrophy after necessary toxicological evaluations. ( Asian J Androl 1999 Dec ; l : 175 - t79 )

  7. Combination pharmacological therapies for the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Cohen, Seth A; Parsons, J Kellogg

    2012-04-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a highly prevalent condition of older men caused by unregulated growth of the prostate gland. Clinical trials of medical therapy for BPH have consistently demonstrated that combined therapy with an α(1)-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist and a 5α-reductase inhibitor is superior to either agent alone. The addition of anticholinergic therapy to a treatment regimen could effectively improve symptoms in men with persistent storage lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) who have not seen a benefit with an α(1)-AR antagonist or 5α-reductase inhibitor. Among α(1)-AR antagonists, doxazosin, terazosin, tamsulosin, and alfuzosin, although with slight differences in adverse event profiles, are equivalent in effectiveness and efficacy. No data in the form of direct comparator trials exist to suggest a difference in clinical efficacy of finasteride and dutasteride, the two 5α-reductase inhibitors currently available. Current American Urological Association guidelines do not recommend phytotherapy or dietary supplements in any combination for the medical management of BPH. The current literature supports the safety and efficacy of the combination of an α(1)-AR antagonist and a 5α-reductase inhibitor in the treatment of symptomatic BPH and, in select patients, the use of an α(1)-AR antagonist and anticholinergic medication in the treatment of LUTS suggestive of BPH. PMID:22428659

  8. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) management in the primary care setting.

    Kapoor, Anil

    2012-10-01

    Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) occurs in up to 50% of men by age 50, and the incidence increases with age. This common clinical problem is diagnosed by history, including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire, and physical examination by digital rectal examination (DRE). Initial management for BPH includes lifestyle modification, and smooth muscle relaxant alpha blocker therapy. Alpha blockers usually take effect quickly within 3-5 days, and have minimal side effects. Current commonly used alpha blockers include the selective alpha blockers tamsulosin (Flomax), alfusosin (Xatral), and silodosin (Rapaflo). For patients with larger prostates, the 5-alpha reductase inhibitor class (finasteride (Proscar) and dutasteride (Avodart)) work effectively to shrink prostate stroma resulting in improved voiding. The 5-ARI class of drugs, in addition to reducing prostate size, also reduce the need for future BPH-related surgery, and reduce the risk of future urinary retention. Drugs from the phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor class may now be considered for treating BPH. Once daily 5 mg tadalafil has been shown to improve BPH-related symptoms and is currently approved to treat patients with BPH. Referral to a urologist can be considered for patients with a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA), especially while on 5-ARI, failure of urinary symptom control despite maximal medical therapy, suspicion of prostate cancer, hematuria, recurrent urinary infections, urinary retention, or renal failure. Currently the primary care physician is armed with multiple treatment options to effectively treat men with symptomatic BPH. PMID:23089343

  9. HectD1 E3 ligase modifies adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) with polyubiquitin to promote the APC-axin interaction.

    Tran, Hoanh; Bustos, Daisy; Yeh, Ronald; Rubinfeld, Bonnee; Lam, Cynthia; Shriver, Stephanie; Zilberleyb, Inna; Lee, Michelle W; Phu, Lilian; Sarkar, Anjali A; Zohn, Irene E; Wertz, Ingrid E; Kirkpatrick, Donald S; Polakis, Paul

    2013-02-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein functions as a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway. In this capacity, APC forms a "destruction complex" with Axin, CK1α, and GSK3β to foster phosphorylation of the Wnt effector β-catenin earmarking it for Lys-48-linked polyubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. APC is conjugated with Lys-63-linked ubiquitin chains when it is bound to Axin, but it is unclear whether this modification promotes the APC-Axin interaction or confers upon APC an alternative function in the destruction complex. Here we identify HectD1 as a candidate E3 ubiquitin ligase that modifies APC with Lys-63 polyubiquitin. Knockdown of HectD1 diminished APC ubiquitylation, disrupted the APC-Axin interaction, and augmented Wnt3a-induced β-catenin stabilization and signaling. These results indicate that HectD1 promotes the APC-Axin interaction to negatively regulate Wnt signaling. PMID:23277359

  10. A rare case of asymptomatic radioiodine-avid renal and brain metastases 20 years after hemi-thyroidectomy for adenomatous goiter

    Santhosh, Sampath; Bhattacharya, Anish; Verma, Roshan Kumar; Lal, Anupam; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2016-01-01

    A 65-year-old patient, with a history of left hemi-thyroidectomy for adenomatous goiter 20 years previously, was found to have pulmonary lesions on chest X-ray, a brain lesion on computerized tomography (CT), and elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg). While completion thyroidectomy revealed that no pathological evidence of thyroid malignancy, radioiodine-avid pulmonary, brain, and renal and bone lesions were identified on diagnostic as well as posttherapy whole body planar scintigraphy and single photon emission computed tomography-CT. Subsequent ultrasonography-guided biopsy of a renal nodule showed thyroid follicular cells. This case suggests that metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma should be suspected in asymptomatic patients with incidentally detected lesions, raised serum Tg, and history of thyroid lesions. PMID:26917894

  11. Targeted therapy for hereditary cancer syndromes: hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, and Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

    Agarwal, Rishi; Liebe, Sarah; Turski, Michelle L; Vidwans, Smruti J; Janku, Filip; Garrido-Laguna, Ignacio; Munoz, Javier; Schwab, Richard; Rodon, Jordi; Kurzrock, Razelle; Subbiah, Vivek

    2014-12-01

    Cancer genetics has rapidly evolved in the last two decades. Understanding and exploring the several genetic pathways in the cancer cell is the foundation of targeted therapy. Several genomic aberrations have been identified and their role in carcinogenesis is being explored. In contrast to most cancers where these mutations are acquired, patients with hereditary cancer syndromes have inherited genomic aberrations. The understanding of the molecular pathobiology in hereditary cancer syndromes has advanced dramatically. In addition, many molecularly targeted therapies have been developed that could have potential roles in the treatment of patients with hereditary cancer syndromes. In this review, we outline the presentation, molecular biology, and possible targeted therapies for two of the most widely recognized hereditary cancer syndromes -- hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer syndrome (Lynch syndrome). We will also discuss other syndromes such as familial adenomatous polyposis and Li-Fraumeni syndrome (TP53). PMID:25549704

  12. A randomized placebo-controlled prevention trial of aspirin and/or resistant starch in young people with familial adenomatous polyposis

    Burn, John; Bishop, D Timothy; Chapman, Pamela D;

    2011-01-01

    significantly reduced polyp count in the rectum and sigmoid colon: aspirin relative risk = 0.77 (95% CI, 0.54-1.10; versus nonaspirin arms); RS relative risk = 1.05 (95% CI, 0.73-1.49; versus non-RS arms). There was a trend toward a smaller size of largest polyp in patients treated with aspirin versus......Evidence supporting aspirin and resistant starch (RS) for colorectal cancer prevention comes from epidemiologic and laboratory studies (aspirin and RS) and randomized controlled clinical trials (aspirin). Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) strikes young people and, untreated, confers virtually a...... 100% risk of colorectal cancer and early death. We conducted an international, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of aspirin (600 mg/d) and/or RS (30 g/d) for from 1 to 12 years to prevent disease progression in FAP patients from 10 to 21 years of age. In a 2 × 2 factorial design...

  13. Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy.

    Bergholt, Mads Sylvest; Lin, Kan; Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Xu, Hongzhi; Huang, Qingwen; Ren, Jian-Lin; Ho, Khek Yu; Teh, Ming; Srivastava, Supriya; Wong, Benjamin; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-04-01

    Colorectal cancer can be prevented if detected early (e.g., precancerous polyps-adenoma). Endoscopic differential diagnosis of hyperplastic polyps (that have little or no risk of malignant transformation) and adenomas (that have prominent malignant latency) remains an unambiguous clinical challenge. Raman spectroscopy is an optical vibrational technique capable of probing biomolecular changes of tissue associated with neoplastic transformation. This work aims to apply a fiber-optic simultaneous fingerprint (FP) and high wavenumber (HW) Raman spectroscopy technique for real-time in vivo assessment of adenomatous polyps during clinical colonoscopy. We have developed a fiber-optic Raman endoscopic technique capable of simultaneously acquiring both the FP (i.e., 800-1800 cm(-1) ) and HW (i.e., 2800-3600 cm(-1) ) Raman spectra from colorectal tissue subsurface (<200 µm) for real-time assessment of colorectal carcinogenesis. In vivo FP/HW Raman spectra were acquired from 50 patients with 17 colorectal polyps during clinical colonoscopy. Prominent Raman spectral differences (p < 0.001) were found between hyperplastic (n = 118 spectra), adenoma (n = 184 spectra) that could be attributed to changes in inter- and intra-cellular proteins, lipids, DNA and water structures and conformations. Simultaneous FP/HW Raman endoscopy provides a diagnostic sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 83.3% for differentiating adenoma from hyperplastic polyps, which is superior to either the FP or HW Raman technique alone. This study shows that simultaneous FP/HW Raman spectroscopy technique has the potential to be a clinically powerful tool for improving early diagnosis of adenomatous polyps in vivo during colonoscopic examination. PMID:25850576

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in mature cystic teratoma of ovary

    Ranu Patni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary is a rare condition and usually arises in mature cystic teratoma (MCT or dermoid cyst of the ovary. The reported incidence of malignant transformation in MCT is approximately 2%. A case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in a dermoid cyst of the ovary presenting at an early stage is presented here. A 53-year-old postmenopausal lady, presented with the complaint of pain in right lower abdomen since one month and a large complex abdomino-pelvic mass on examination and investigations. Final histopathology was reported as squamous cell carcinoma of left ovary arising from dermoid cyst and a benign dermoid cyst in the right ovary. The patient was assigned to squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary arising in a mature cystic teratoma, surgical stage Ic2. In view of the poor prognosis, adjuvant chemotherapy was started.

  15. Localised fibrous mesothelioma arising in an intralobar pulmonary sequestration.

    Paksoy, N.; Demircan, A.; Altiner, M; Artvinli, M

    1992-01-01

    A localised fibrous mesothelioma arising from an intralobar lung sequestration occurred in a 64 year old Turkish woman. This appears to be the first report of a mesothelioma occurring within a pulmonary sequestration.

  16. Malignant melanoma arising in mature cystic teratoma of the ovary

    Heidi E Godoy; Kesterson, Joshua P.; Kasznica, John M.; Lele, Shashikant

    2011-01-01

    ► Teratomas are composed of elements of all three germ layers, all potentially capable of undergoing malignant transformation. ► A case of malignant melanoma arising in a mature teratoma is presented.

  17. Identities involving Bessel polynomials arising from linear differential equations

    Kim, Taekyun; Kim, Dae San

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study linear di?erential equations arising from Bessel polynomials and their applications. From these linear differential equations, we give some new and explicit identities for Bessel polynomials.

  18. The importance of the radiological examination and endoscopy in the diagnosis of the hyperplasia of Brunner's glands

    Attention is called to a rare and interesting alteration of the duodenum: the hyperplasia of Brunner's gland. In half of the cases the hyperplasia of Brunner's gland could be verified by means of endoscopy and histological examination. The characteristic X-ray symptoms and radiological methods are resumed. The differentiation of the polypoid form of hypertrophic duodenitis and the hyperplasia of Brunner's gland is emphasized. (author)

  19. Secondary osteosarcoma arising after treatment for childhood hematologic malignancies

    Okada, Atsushi; Hatori, Masahito; Hosaka, Masami; Watanuki, Munenori; Itoi, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    Secondary osteosarcoma arising after the treatment of hematologic malignancies other than Hodgkin's lymphoma is rare. We report two cases of secondary osteosarcoma arising after treatment for childhood hematologic malignancies (non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and lymphoblastic leukemia). A 10-year-old boy, at the age of 3, was diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. He received chemotherapy, radiation, and bone-marrow transplantation and then was in complete remission. At 6 years, he complained of incr...

  20. MYC Amplification in Angiosarcoma Arising from an Arteriovenous Graft Site

    Kristen M. Paral

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiosarcoma arising in association with an arteriovenous graft (AVG or fistula is a unique clinicopathologic scenario that appears to be gaining recognition in the literature. Among reported cases, none has described high-level MYC gene amplification, a genetic aberration that is increasingly unifying the various clinicopathologic subdivisions of angiosarcoma. We therefore report the MYC gene status in a case of angiosarcoma arising at an AVG site.

  1. Number theory arising from finite fields analytic and probabilistic theory

    Knopfmacher, John

    2001-01-01

    ""Number Theory Arising from Finite Fields: Analytic and Probabilistic Theory"" offers a discussion of the advances and developments in the field of number theory arising from finite fields. It emphasizes mean-value theorems of multiplicative functions, the theory of additive formulations, and the normal distribution of values from additive functions. The work explores calculations from classical stages to emerging discoveries in alternative abstract prime number theorems.

  2. Multiple Ectopic Hepatocellular Carcinomas Arising in the Abdominal Cavity

    Miyake, Toru; Hoshino, Seiichiro; Yoshida, Yoichiro; AISU, NAOYA; Tanimura, Syu; Hisano, Satoshi; Kuno, Nobuaki; Sohda, Tetsuro; Sakisaka, Shotaro; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a very rare clinical entity that is defined as HCC arising from extrahepatic liver tissue. This report presents a case of ectopic multiple HCC arising in the abdominal cavity. A 42-year-old otherwise healthy male presented with liver dysfunction at a general health checkup. Both HCV antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen were negative. Laboratory examination showed elevations in serum alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II. Ultrasonography and computed tomo...

  3. FDG PET/CT findings of rebound thymic hyperplasia in oncologic patients with chemotherapy

    Benign thymic hyperplasia in adult unlike children is a rare condition, however, it could occur, mainly associated with concurrent malignancies or chemotherapy. Rebound thymic hyperplasia in cancer patients could be a cause of great concern for cancer involvement to the thymus. In this study, we characterized the rebound thymic hyperplasia in oncologic patients who received chemotherapy on FDG PET/CT. We reviewed the 1030 PET/CT scans obtained from cancer patients for follow up purpose in Seoul National University Hospital between 2004 and 2006. 21 PET/CT scans of them (2%) revealed thymic enlargement. The scans were obtained from 11 patients (age range: 16-55 yrs) who received chemotherapy for various malignancies (4 breast cancers, 3 lymphomas, and one of each osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma). Six cases had more than one follow-up PET/CT, and rebound thymic hyperplasia without malignancy was finally confirmed by clinical observation for follow-up period ranged from 17 to 45 months. The uptake pattern, maximum standardized uptake values (mSUVs), uptake ratio to the liver, and CT findings of thymic hyperplasia on PET/CT were analyzed. In all cases except one, enlarged thymus showed diffuse and relatively homogenous increased FDG uptake. In only one case, nodular increased FDG uptake with mSUV of 2.7 was found. Mean mSUV in the thymus was measured as 1.580.53, and the uptake ratio to the liver was 0.750.26. Decreased thymic metabolism was depicted on follow up PET images, while, resolved thymic enlarged was demonstrated on follow up CT in three of six. Rebound thymic hyperplasia in cancer patients should be distinguished from thymic malignancy. The finding of diffuse and moderate hypermetabolism lesser than liver in the enlarged thymus on follow-up PET/CT in cancer patients may suggest rebound thymic hyperplasia rather than malignancy, especially in condition of the presence of preceding chemotherapy

  4. Importance of X-ray examination and endoscopy in the diagnosis of hyperplasia of Brunner's glands

    Patko, A.; Farkas, I.; Kovacs, L.

    1980-08-01

    A rare and interesting alteration - hyperplasia of Brunner's glands - is reported. In 18 cases hyperplasia of Brunner's glands were verified by endoscopy and histology as well. Frequency of occurence, clinical characteristics, X-ray symptoms of the hyperplasia of the Brunner's glands and the radiological methods of its diagnosis are described. Importance of the aimed X-ray film, carried out by Spot-filmcamera and of graded compression is emphasized. Differential diagnosis between polypoid hypertrophic duodenitis and hyperplasia of Brunner's glands are discussed in detail.

  5. THE EXPRESSION OF APOPTOSIS RELATED GENES IN THE PROCESS OF CANCERATION OF ATYPICAL HYPERPLASIA OF MAMMARY DUCT

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of apoptosis related genes p53 and bcl-2 in atypical hyperplasia of mammary duct and the relationship between the gene expression and oncogenesis of breast. Methods: mRNA of apoptosis related gene p53 and bcl-2 were detected by in situ hybridization in 44 cases of atypical ductal hyperplasia. p53 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry. The data were compared with those of 6 cases of benign hyperplasia and 26 cases of breast carcinoma. Results: The expression of p53 mRNA was 66.7% in benign hyperplasia, 40% in atypical ductal hyperplasia (55.6% in mild, 41.7% in medium, 26.1% in severe) and 19.2% in carcinoma (of which 21.4% were intraductal carcinoma and 16.7% were invasive). The expression of p53 protein was negative in benign hyperplasia, 24% in atypical hyperplasia (mild 11.1%, medium 25%, severe 34.8%), 38.5% in carcinoma (intraductal carcinoma 35.7%, invasive ductal carcinoma 41.7%). The expression of bcl-2 was negative in benign hyperplasia, 78.6% in intraductal carcinoma, 83.3% in invasive ductal carcinoma. Conclusion: Loss and mutation of p53 gene and excessive expression bcl-2 mRNA were detected in severe atypical ductal hyperplasia.

  6. Pituitary hyperplasia: an uncommon presentation of a common disease

    Massolt, E T; Peeters, R P; Neggers, S J; de Herder, W W

    2015-01-01

    Summary A 21-year-old woman presented with amenorrhea, bilateral galactorrhea and fatigue. Visual acuity and visual fields were normal. Laboratory examination demonstrated hyperprolactinemia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary showed a 19×17×12-mm sellar mass with supra- and parasellar extension, causing compression of the pituitary stalk and optic chiasm. Further examinations confirmed mild hyperprolactinemia, strongly elevated TSH (>500 mU/l), low free thyroxine (FT4), hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and secondary adrenal insufficiency. Hydrocortisone and l-T4 replacement therapy was started. Three months later, the galactorrhea had disappeared, thyroid function was normalized and MRI revealed regression of the pituitary enlargement, confirming the diagnosis of pituitary hyperplasia (PH) due to primary hypothyroidism. Subsequently, the menstrual cycle returned and the hypocortisolism normalized. This case demonstrates that severe primary hypothyroidism may have an unusual presentation and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pituitary enlargement associated with moderate hyperprolactinemia. Learning points One should always try to find one etiology as the common cause of all the clinical findings in a pathologic process.Amenorrhea, galactorrhea and fatigue may be the only presenting clinical manifestations of primary hypothyroidism.Not every patient with galactorrhea, hyperprolactinemia and a pituitary mass has a prolactinoma.Primary hypothyroidism should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of hyperprolactinemia associated with pituitary enlargement and pituitary hormone(s) deficiency(ies).When PH due to primary hypothyroidism is suspected, thyroid hormone replacement should be started and only regression of pituitary enlargement on MRI follow-up can confirm the diagnosis.Examination of thyroid function in patients with a pituitary mass may avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:26279852

  7. Radiological and clinical observation on benign prostatic hyperplasia

    A radiological and clinical observation was made on 77 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia admitted to the department of Urology, Cho-Sun University Hospital during the period from January 1972 to December 1979 and following results were obtained. 1. Incidence of PBH was 8.1% to 953 total inpatients, 11.3% to 679 male inpatients, and 34.5% to male inpatients of 50 years more. 2. Majority of cases was found in 7th and 8th decades (80.5%) with mean age of 69.4 years old. 3. A gradual tendency of annual increase of the cases was observed and the mean interval elapsed from initial symptoms to visit was 29.9 months. Common symptoms were dysuria in 72 cases (93.5%), hematuria in 53 cases (68.8%), frequency in 51 cases (66.2%) and 12 cases (15.6%) were acute urinary retention. 4. I. V. P. findings of BPH were elevation of the bladder base in 71 cases (92.2%), trabeculation of the bladder wall in 58 cases (75.3%), hypertrophy of the bladder in 24 cases (31.2%) and the complications-hydronephrosis and hydroureter 16 cases (20.8%), bladder diverticula 9 cases (11.7%) and bladder stone were 5 cases (6.5%). 5. Cystourethrographic findings of the posterior urethra with 33 cases of PBH were smooth, gentle sloping in 28 cases 84.8%), widening in sagittal plane in 23 cases (69.7%), elongation and narrowing of the urethra in 26 cases (78.8%)

  8. Newborn screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia in New York State

    Melissa Pearce

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available From 2007 to 2014 the New York State (NYS Newborn Screening (NBS program screened 2 million newborns for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH. The data was analyzed to determine factors that affect 17α-hydroxyprogesterone levels and assist in developing algorithm changes that would improve the positive predictive value of the methodology being used. The concentration of 17-OHP in dried blood spots was measured using the AutoDELFIA Neonatal 17-OHP kit (Perkin Elmer, Turku, Finland. During the 8 year period of this study 2476 babies were referred, 105 babies were diagnosed with CAH (90 with the salt-wasting (SW, 8 with simple virilizing (SV, 5 with non-classical CAH, and 2 with another enzyme deficiency and, 14 with possible CAH. Three false negative cases with SV-CAH were reported to the program. Of the total 108 known cases, 74 (69% infants were detected by newborn screening in the absence of clinical information, or, known family history. The incidence of CAH in NYS is 1 in 18,170 with a ratio of SW to SV of 8.2:1. The incidence of CAH is lower in Black infants than in White, Hispanic and Asian infants. Despite a lower mean birth weight, female infants have a lower mean 17-OHP value than male infants and are under-represented in the referred category. As per other NBS programs the false positive rate is exacerbated by prematurity/low birth weight and by over-early specimen collection.

  9. Newborn screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia in New York State.

    Pearce, Melissa; DeMartino, Lenore; McMahon, Rebecca; Hamel, Rhonda; Maloney, Breanne; Stansfield, Daniele-Marisa; McGrath, Emily C; Occhionero, Amanda; Gearhart, Adam; Caggana, Michele; Tavakoli, Norma P

    2016-06-01

    From 2007 to 2014 the New York State (NYS) Newborn Screening (NBS) program screened 2 million newborns for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). The data was analyzed to determine factors that affect 17α-hydroxyprogesterone levels and assist in developing algorithm changes that would improve the positive predictive value of the methodology being used. The concentration of 17-OHP in dried blood spots was measured using the AutoDELFIA Neonatal 17-OHP kit (Perkin Elmer, Turku, Finland). During the 8 year period of this study 2476 babies were referred, 105 babies were diagnosed with CAH (90 with the salt-wasting (SW), 8 with simple virilizing (SV), 5 with non-classical CAH, and 2 with another enzyme deficiency) and, 14 with possible CAH. Three false negative cases with SV-CAH were reported to the program. Of the total 108 known cases, 74 (69%) infants were detected by newborn screening in the absence of clinical information, or, known family history. The incidence of CAH in NYS is 1 in 18,170 with a ratio of SW to SV of 8.2:1. The incidence of CAH is lower in Black infants than in White, Hispanic and Asian infants. Despite a lower mean birth weight, female infants have a lower mean 17-OHP value than male infants and are under-represented in the referred category. As per other NBS programs the false positive rate is exacerbated by prematurity/low birth weight and by over-early specimen collection. PMID:27331001

  10. Benign prostatic hyperplasia - progress in pathophysiology and management.

    Dobrek, Łukasz; Thor, Piotr Jan

    2015-11-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease of the aging male population, in affected individuals often accompanied by metabolic syndrome. BPH is manifested by a complex range of symptoms originating from the lower urinary tract (LUTS - lower urinary tract symptoms), including disturbances resulting from impaired bladder compliance and bladder overactivity (e.g. frequency, nocturia, urinary incontinence, dysuria) and symptoms associated with the bladder outlet obstruction (e.g. the difficulty in voiding initiating, intermittency, involuntary interruption of voiding, weak urinary stream, straining to void). Despite numerous studies, the pathogenesis of BPH remains not completely understood, and the condition awaits a comprehensive description. The current pathophysiological view emphasizes the role of hormonal dysregulation, locally released in the prostate growth factors action and a complex inflammatory, BPH-associated process with the release of a number of pro-proliferative mediators. The current BPH pharmacotherapy involves administration of α-1-blockers, 5-α-reductase inhibitors, antimuscarinic drugs (cholinolytics) and phosphodiesterase- 5-inhibitors. Progress in the BPH pathophysiology allows the disclosure of additional, potential targets of pharmacological intervention, such as β-3 adrenoreceptor or CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonists, P2X1 purinergic or ETA endothelin receptors antagonists, RhoA/Rho kinase system inhibitors, nitric oxide donors, drugs indirectly (luteinizing hormone - releasing hormone antagonists) or directly (antiandrogens) abolishing the effect of testosterone and its derivatives or agents blocking the action of proinflammatory cytokines. The article briefly discusses the pathophysiology of the aforementioned issues and the current BPH management along with the future, potential opportunities for pharmacotherapy of the. PMID:26637089

  11. Hepatic adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia: differential diagnosis and treatment.

    Herman, P; Pugliese, V; Machado, M A; Montagnini, A L; Salem, M Z; Bacchella, T; D'Albuquerque, L A; Saad, W A; Machado, M C; Pinotti, H W

    2000-03-01

    The diagnosis of benign hepatic tumors as hepatic adenoma (HA) and focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) remains a challenge for clinicians and surgeons. The importance of differentiating between these lesions is based on the fact that HA must be surgically resected and FNH can be only observed. A series of 23 female patients with benign liver tumors (13 FNH, 10 HA) were evaluated, and a radiologic diagnostic algorithm was employed with the aim of establishing preoperative criteria for the differential diagnosis. All patients were submitted to surgical biopsy or hepatic resection to confirm the diagnosis. Based only on clinical and laboratory data, distinction was not possible. According to the investigative algorithm, the diagnosis was correct in 82.6% of the cases; but even with the development of imaging methods, which were used in combination, the differentiation was not possible in four patients. For FNH cases scintigraphy presented a sensitivity of 38.4% and specificity of 100%, whereas for HA the sensitivity reached 60% and specificity 85.7%. Magnetic resonance imaging, employed when scintigraphic findings were not typical, presented sensitivities of 71.4% and 80% and specificities of 100% and 100% for FNH and HA, respectively. Preoperative diagnosis of FNH was possible in 10 of 13 (76.9%) patients and was confirmed by histology in all of them. In one case, FNH was misdiagnosed as HA. The diagnosis of HA was possible in 9 of 10 (90%) adenoma cases. Surgical biopsy remains the best method for the differential diagnosis between HA and FNH and must be performed in all doubtful cases. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for all patients with adenoma and can be performed safely. With the evolution of imaging methods it seems that the preoperative diagnosis of FNH may be considered reliable, thereby avoiding unnecessary surgical resection. PMID:10658075

  12. Various treatment options for benign prostatic hyperplasia: A current update.

    Shrivastava, Alankar; Gupta, Vipin B

    2012-01-01

    In benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) there will be a sudden impact on overall quality of life of patient. This disease occurs normally at the age of 40 or above and also is associated with sexual dysfunction. Thus, there is a need of update on current medications of this disease. The presented review provides information on medications available for BPH. Phytotherapies with some improvements in BPH are also included. Relevant articles were identified through a search of the English-language literature indexed on MEDLINE, PUBMED, Sciencedirect and the proceedings of scientific meetings. The search terms were BPH, medications for BPH, drugs for BPH, combination therapies for BPH, Phytotherapies for BPH, Ayurveda and BPH, BPH treatments in Ayurveda. Medications including watchful waitings, Alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, combination therapies including tamsulosin-dutasteride, doxazosin-finasteride, terazosin-finasteride, tolterodine-tamsulosin and rofecoxib-finasteride were found. Herbal remedies such as Cernilton, Saxifraga stolonifera, Zi-Shen Pill (ZSP), Orbignya speciosa, Phellodendron amurense, Ganoderma lucidum, Serenoa Repens, pumpkin extract and Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca) have some improvements on BPH are included. Other than these discussions on Ayurvedic medications, TURP and minimally invasive therapies (MITs) are also included. Recent advancements in terms of newly synthesized molecules are also discussed. Specific alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers such as tamsulosin and alfuzosin will remain preferred choice of urologists for symptom relief. Medications with combination therapies are still needs more investigation to establish as preference in initial stage for fast symptom relief reduced prostate growth and obviously reduce need for BPH-related surgery. Due to lack of proper evidence Phytotherapies are not gaining much advantage. MITs and TURP are expensive and are rarely supported by healthcare systems. PMID:22923974

  13. Outcome of Transurethral Plasmakinetic Vaporization for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Magdy El-Tabey

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To assess the outcome of transurethral plasmakinetic vaporization (PKVP in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Patients and methods From August 2010 to May 2012, 60 patients with obstructive LUTS due to BPH were included in the study. All patients were evaluated by International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS, general examination, digital rectal examination, PSA, routine laboratory examinations, pelvi-abdominal ultrasound, trans-rectal ultrasound, and uroflowmetry. Patients with Qmax of 8 and a prostate volume of >40 mL underwent transurethral PKVP. Results Mean age of the patients was 66.8±4.5 years. The mean times of the operation, post-operative bladder irrigation, and post-operative catheterization were 63.8±13.9 minutes, 15.2±5.7 hours, and 23.9±5.2 hours, respectively. At 3 months of follow-up, there were significant reductions in the mean IPSS from 23.4±3.5 to 9.2±3.7 (P=0.4, mean PSA from 3.03±2.2 ng/mL to 1.2±1.04 ng/mL (P value=0.02, mean post voiding residual urine from 149.8±59.5 mL to 46.9±24.1 mL (P value <0.01, and mean prostate volume from 72.8±10.3 mL to 22.7±6.1 mL (P value <0.01. Also, there was a statistically significant increase in the mean Q max. from 8.7±2.4 mL/s to 19.5±3.5 mL/s (P value <0.01. Conclusion PKVP is an effective and safe treatment option in the management of symptomatic BPH.

  14. Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver in 86 patients

    Ying-Hao Shen; Hui-Chuan Sun; Xiao-Wu Huang; Zhao-You Tang; Jia Fan; Zhi-Quan Wu; Zeng-Chen Ma; Xin-Da Zhou; Jian Zhou; Shuang-Jian Qiu; Lun-Xiu Qin; Qin-Hai Ye

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), the second most common benign hepatic tumor after hemangioma, is characterized by a stellate central scar and hyperplastic nodules. Although some large FNH may be associated with signiifcant symptoms, more frequently they are discovered incidentally on physical examination or the work-up of unrelated symptoms. Since its nature and pathogenesis are still controversial, accurate diagnosis of FNH based on clinical presentation and radiographic studies is dififcult. The purpose of this study was to explore the diagnosis and treatment of FNH. METHODS:Eighty-six FNH patients conifrmed patholo-gically were treated at the Liver Cancer Institute in our hospital from 1996 to 2006. Their clinical manifestions, imaging presentation, pathological ifndings, and surgical results were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Of the 86 patients with 99 foci, 54 were male and 32 female, with a mean age of 37 years. Eighty patients had a single solitary focus and 6 had multiple foci. Tumor diameter was less than 5 cm in 69 patients, 5-10 cm in 15, and more than 10 cm in 2. The overall rate of correct preoperative diagnosis was 59.3% (51/86) including 32.9% (26/79) by color Doppler lfow imaging (CDFI), 60.3%(35/58) by CT, and 77.4%(24/31) by MRI. All the 86 patients underwent resection with good curative effect. CONCLUSIONS: CT and MRI are important diagnostic methods for FNH but it is dififcult to make a deifnite preoperative diagnosis for partial classical and all non-classical FNH patients. We suggest that patients with clinical symptoms or with indeifnite diagnosis should accept surgical removal.

  15. Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia: magnetic resonance imaging of finger lesions

    Sung, Jinkyeong; Kim, Jee-Young [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Changyoung [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Hospital Pathology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH), to identify findings differentiating IPEH of the finger from that of other locations, and to correlate these with pathology. Nineteen patients with 20 I.E. masses of the finger (n = 13) and other locations (n = 7) were evaluated. All patients underwent MRI, and the results were correlated with pathology. Seventeen IPEHs, including all IPEHs of the finger, were located in the subcutis, the three other lesions in the muscle layer. On T1WI, all masses were isointense or slightly hyperintense. IPEHs of the finger (n = 13) revealed focal hyperintense nodules (n = 2) or central hypointensity (n = 2) on T1WI, hypointensity with a hyperintense rim (n = 7), hyperintensity with hypointense nodules (n = 5), or isointensity with a hypointense rim (n = 1) on T2WI, and rim enhancement (n = 5), heterogeneous enhancement with nodular nonenhanced areas (n = 6), peripheral nodular enhancement (n = 1), or no enhancement (n = 1) on gadolinium-enhanced T1WI. IPEHs of other locations (n = 7) demonstrated focal hyperintense nodules (n = 5) on T1WI, hyperintensity with hypointense nodules (n = 5) or heterogeneous signal intensity (n = 2) on T2WI, and rim or rim and septal enhancement (n = 6) or peripheral nodular enhancement (n = 1). Microscopically, IPEHs were composed of thrombi that were hypointense on T2WI and papillary endothelial proliferations that showed T2 hyperintensity and enhancement. MRI of finger IPEH reveals well-demarcated subcutaneous masses with hypointensity or hypointense nodules with peripheral hyperintensity on T2WI, as well as peripheral enhancement. T1 hyperintense nodules, internal heterogeneity on T2WI, and septal enhancement are more common in IPEH of other locations. (orig.)

  16. Long segmental hyperplasia of interstitial cells of Cajal with giant diverticulum formation.

    Xue, Liyan; Qiu, Tian; Song, Ying; Shan, Ling; Liu, Xiuyun; Guo, Lei; Ying, Jianming; Zou, Shuangmei; Shi, Susheng; Polydorides, Alexandros D; Zhao, Xinming; Lu, Ning; Lin, Dongmei

    2013-01-01

    Sporadic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) usually form a well-circumscribed mass. In contrast, diffuse interstitial cell of Cajal (ICC) hyperplasia along the Auerbach plexus without a discrete mass may occur in patients with germline mutations in the NF1, c-KIT or PDGFRA genes. However, sporadic, diffuse ICC hyperplasia without c-KIT or PDGFRA mutations has not been reported. We describe herein one such case, forming a giant diverticulum. A 63-year-old woman with no features of Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) presented with increasing abdominal pain for more than 30 years. A large, diverticulum-like mass in the ileum was resected. Microscopically, a diffuse proliferation of bland spindle cells was seen extending for 12 cm, replacing the muscularis propria and lined by intact mucosa. The spindle cells were CD117+/CD34+/DOG1+/SMA+/Desmin-/S100-. Mutation analyses did not reveal any mutations in c-KIT or PDGFRA. The lesion had two silent mutations in the NF1 gene. It is rare of the diffuse form of sporadic ICC hyperplasia showing diffuse longitudinal microscopic growth completely replacing the muscularis propria, mimicking diffuse ICC hyperplasia in hereditary GIST syndromes, but without solid components and no c-KIT or PDGFRA gene mutations. This peculiar form of sporadic ICC hyperplasia may be related to intestinal dysmotility in this ileal segment and giant diverticulum formation. PMID:24294389

  17. Adrenal Cortical and Medullar Hyperplasia-A Retrospective Analysis of 6 Cases

    陈敏; 鲁功成; 张齐均

    2002-01-01

    Summary: The features of the symptoms, laboratory tests and pathological characteristics of a-drenal cortical and medullary hyperplasia were studied. In 6 cases of hypercatecholaminenia, plas-ma norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), catecholamine (CA) and 24-h urinary vanillylmandelicacid (VMA), 17-hydroxycorticosteroid (OHCS) and 17-ketosteroid (KS) were determined. A-drenal glands were examined by CT scan and 131I-MIBG imaging. Pathological examination wasperformed after operation. The results showed that in 6 cases of hypercatecholaminenia (3 menand 3 women) aged from 34-50 years, the clinical features were just like "pheochromocytoma",for example, episodic headache, perspiration, palpitation, pallor, apprehension, nausea, tremor,anxiety and so on. Plasma levels of CA, NE and E were elevated in all 6 cases. 24-h urinary sam-ples obtained at the onset revealed elevated VMA in 1 case. 24-h urinary cortisol was obviously el-evated in all 6 cases. 24-h urinary 17-OHCS, 17-KS was normal. B-type ultrasound, CT, MRIand 13I-MIBG revealed 9 lateral adrenal gland diffuse or nodular enlargement in 6 cases. Patholog-ic examination showed adrenal cortical and medullary hyperplasia. Clinically, adrenal cortical andmedullary hyperplasia resembled "pheochromocytoma". The most significant feature of this dis-ease was both elevated plasma CA and 24-h urinary cortisol obviously. Pathologic examinationshowed adrenal cortex nodular hyperplasia and medullar diffuse or limit hyperplasia. Whether it isan independent disease or symptoms of the other disease has not final conclusion up till now

  18. Imaging findings of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia presenting in extremities: correlation with pathological findings

    Lee, Sun Joo; Choo, Hye Jung; Park, Ji Sung; Park, Yeong-Mi; Eun, Choong Ki [Pusan Paik Hospital, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Inje University, Pusan (Korea); Hong, Sung Hwan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Hwang, Ji Young [Ewha Womans University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Lee, In Sook [Pusan National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Pusan (Korea); Lee, Jongmin [Kyungpook National University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea); Jung, Soo-Jin [Pusan Paik Hospital, Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Inje University, Pusan (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) findings of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH) arising in extremities. Six patients with IPEH confirmed by surgical resection were reviewed retrospectively. Before resection, 3 patients underwent both MRI and US and 3 patients underwent only MRI. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed MR/US imaging results and correlated them with pathological features. The 6 IPEHs were diagnosed as 4 mixed forms and 2 pure forms. The pre-existing pathology of four mixed forms was intramuscular or intermuscular hemangioma. By MRI, the mixed form of IPEH (n = 4) revealed iso- to slightly high signal intensity containing nodule-like foci of high signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and high signal intensity-containing nodule-like foci of low signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI). The pure form of IPEH (n = 2) showed homogeneous iso- signal intensity on T1WI and high and low signal intensity containing nodule-like foci of low signal intensity on T2WI. On gadolinium-enhanced fat-suppressed T1WI, 50% of cases (n = 3: mixed forms) revealed peripheral, septal, and central enhancement. The other IPEHs (n = 3: 1 mixed and 2 pure forms) showed peripheral and septal enhancement or only peripheral enhancement. By US, two mixed forms of IPEH showed well-defined hypoechoic masses containing hyperechoic septa and central portion with vascularities. One pure form of IPEH was a homogeneous hypoechoic mass with septal and peripheral vascularities on color Doppler imaging. The foci of high signal intensity on T1WI, foci of low signal intensity on T2WI, and non-enhancing portions on MRI and the hypoechoic portion on US were histopathologically correlated with thrombi and the peripheral/septal or central enhancing areas on MRI, hyperechoic septa and the central portion on US, and septal/central or peripheral vascularities on color Doppler imaging corresponded to hypertrophic papillary epithelium and

  19. Imaging findings of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia presenting in extremities: correlation with pathological findings

    To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) findings of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH) arising in extremities. Six patients with IPEH confirmed by surgical resection were reviewed retrospectively. Before resection, 3 patients underwent both MRI and US and 3 patients underwent only MRI. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed MR/US imaging results and correlated them with pathological features. The 6 IPEHs were diagnosed as 4 mixed forms and 2 pure forms. The pre-existing pathology of four mixed forms was intramuscular or intermuscular hemangioma. By MRI, the mixed form of IPEH (n = 4) revealed iso- to slightly high signal intensity containing nodule-like foci of high signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and high signal intensity-containing nodule-like foci of low signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI). The pure form of IPEH (n = 2) showed homogeneous iso- signal intensity on T1WI and high and low signal intensity containing nodule-like foci of low signal intensity on T2WI. On gadolinium-enhanced fat-suppressed T1WI, 50% of cases (n = 3: mixed forms) revealed peripheral, septal, and central enhancement. The other IPEHs (n = 3: 1 mixed and 2 pure forms) showed peripheral and septal enhancement or only peripheral enhancement. By US, two mixed forms of IPEH showed well-defined hypoechoic masses containing hyperechoic septa and central portion with vascularities. One pure form of IPEH was a homogeneous hypoechoic mass with septal and peripheral vascularities on color Doppler imaging. The foci of high signal intensity on T1WI, foci of low signal intensity on T2WI, and non-enhancing portions on MRI and the hypoechoic portion on US were histopathologically correlated with thrombi and the peripheral/septal or central enhancing areas on MRI, hyperechoic septa and the central portion on US, and septal/central or peripheral vascularities on color Doppler imaging corresponded to hypertrophic papillary epithelium and

  20. Characterization of an APC Promoter 1B deletion in a Patient Diagnosed with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis via Whole Genome Shotgun Sequencing [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5i1

    Ted Kalbfleisch

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, deletions have been identified and published as causal for Familial Adenomatous Polyposis in the 1B promoter region of the APC gene.  Those deletions were measured using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.  Here, we present and characterize an ~11kb deletion identified by whole genome shotgun sequencing.  The deletion occurred in a patient diagnosed with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis, and was located on chr5, between bases 112,034,824 and 112,045,845, fully encompassing the 1B promoter region of the APC gene.   Results are presented here that include the sequence evidence supporting the presence of the deletion as well as base level characterization of the deletion site.  These results demonstrate the capacity of whole genome sequencing for the detection of large structural variants in single individuals.

  1. Diagnostic Reference Level Arising from Dental Panoramic Radiography

    The present work describes a study in which, based on patient dose measurements, thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to obtain the diagnostic reference level arising from panoramic radiography. Ten panoramic units and a sample of 15 patients per X-ray unit were studied. Two thermoluminescent dosimeter chips were placed on the skin surface of selected organs. Mean value of two ESDs was taken as the measured representation dose at the point of interest. Mean ESD on parotid glands derived from panoramic radiography was equal to 369.2 μGy. Individual patients' dose value varied from 180.1 to 470.3 μGy. Third quartile of mean absorbed dose distribution arising from a particular examination has been adopted as diagnostic reference level. Based on this definition, local diagnostic reference level arising from panoramic radiography of the greater Khorasan province is equal to 400 μG.

  2. Four Different Tumors Arising in a Nevus Sebaceous

    Namiki, Takeshi; Miura, Keiko; Ueno, Makiko; Arima, Yumi; Nishizawa, Aya; Yokozeki, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    Nevus sebaceous is known by its association with one or more secondary tumors, but more than three multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous is extremely rare. A 67-year-old female presented with a light brown plaque on the back of her head that contained a dome-shaped black node and an erosive lesion. Histopathological examination showed atypical basaloid cells in the black node. At the periphery of that node, structures resembling follicular germs extruded from interlacing cords in the upper portion and tumor nests with sebocytes were in the lower portion. In the erosive lesion, papillated structures with an apocrine epithelium were observed. In the light brown plaque, enlargement of sebaceous lobules was noted. From those histopathological features, a diagnosis of syringocystadenoma papilliferum, sebaceoma, trichoblastoma and basal cell carcinoma arising from a nevus sebaceous was made. We discuss the rarity of multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous. PMID:27194974

  3. Four Different Tumors Arising in a Nevus Sebaceous

    Takeshi Namiki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nevus sebaceous is known by its association with one or more secondary tumors, but more than three multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous is extremely rare. A 67-year-old female presented with a light brown plaque on the back of her head that contained a dome-shaped black node and an erosive lesion. Histopathological examination showed atypical basaloid cells in the black node. At the periphery of that node, structures resembling follicular germs extruded from interlacing cords in the upper portion and tumor nests with sebocytes were in the lower portion. In the erosive lesion, papillated structures with an apocrine epithelium were observed. In the light brown plaque, enlargement of sebaceous lobules was noted. From those histopathological features, a diagnosis of syringocystadenoma papilliferum, sebaceoma, trichoblastoma and basal cell carcinoma arising from a nevus sebaceous was made. We discuss the rarity of multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous.

  4. Four Different Tumors Arising in a Nevus Sebaceous.

    Namiki, Takeshi; Miura, Keiko; Ueno, Makiko; Arima, Yumi; Nishizawa, Aya; Yokozeki, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    Nevus sebaceous is known by its association with one or more secondary tumors, but more than three multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous is extremely rare. A 67-year-old female presented with a light brown plaque on the back of her head that contained a dome-shaped black node and an erosive lesion. Histopathological examination showed atypical basaloid cells in the black node. At the periphery of that node, structures resembling follicular germs extruded from interlacing cords in the upper portion and tumor nests with sebocytes were in the lower portion. In the erosive lesion, papillated structures with an apocrine epithelium were observed. In the light brown plaque, enlargement of sebaceous lobules was noted. From those histopathological features, a diagnosis of syringocystadenoma papilliferum, sebaceoma, trichoblastoma and basal cell carcinoma arising from a nevus sebaceous was made. We discuss the rarity of multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous. PMID:27194974

  5. Multiple osteoblastomas in a child with Cushing syndrome due to bilateral adrenal micronodular hyperplasias.

    Yu, Hyeoh Won; Cho, Won Im; Chung, Hye Rim; Choi, Keun Hee; Yun, Sumi; Cho, Hwan Seong; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2016-03-01

    Adrenocorticotropin-independent adrenal hyperplasias are rare diseases, which are classified into macronodular (>1 cm) and micronodular (≤1 cm) hyperplasia. Micronodular adrenal hyperplasia is subdivided into primary pigmented adrenocortical disease and a limited or nonpigmented form 'micronodular adrenocortical disease (MAD)', although considerable morphological and genetic overlap is observed between the 2 groups. We present an unusual case of a 44-month-old girl who was diagnosed with Cushing syndrome due to MAD. She had presented with spotty pigmentation on her oral mucosa, lips and conjunctivae and was diagnosed with multiple bone tumors in her femur, pelvis and skull base at the age of 8 years. Her bone tumor biopsies were compatible with osteoblastoma. This case highlights the importance of verifying the clinicopathologic correlation in Cushing syndrome and careful follow-up and screening for associated diseases. PMID:27104180

  6. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: an unreported association

    Verónica Ciria-Bru

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver -a type of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension- is a rare condition of unknown etiopathogenesis that has been associated with multiple disorders, including diverse types of hematologic disease. We report the case of a 36-year-old female patient diagnosed with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma of the mycosis fungoides variety, staged as T2N0M0B0, where a transjugular liver biopsy demonstrated the presence of nodular regenerative hyperplasia with a hepatic venous pressure gradient of 15 mm Hg. The study was triggered by the incidental radiologic finding of hepatomegaly with indirect evidence of portal hypertension. We are not aware of any previous reports on the association of nodular regenerative hyperplasia with mycosis fungoides in the medical literature.

  7. Estimated costs of treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia in Brazil

    Haylton J. Suaid

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH presents 2 options: medical or surgical, and there are doubts about what is the best treatment since 80% of patients who undergo surgery become asymptomatic and 10 to 40% of those under medical regimen undergo surgery within a 5 years period. It is difficult to assess the actual costs of treating BPH in Brazil due to several factors, among them regional particularities and the scarcity of current statistical data. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Recently, in the Ribeirão Preto area, São Paulo, Brazil, the IPSS (International Prostatic Symptoms Score and quality of life were verified in 934 volunteers. It was determined the percentage of individuals with ages ranging from 40 to 79 years with moderate symptoms (score 8-19 and with severe symptoms (score 20-35, values for which are indicated medical and surgical treatment, respectively, according to the Brazilian Society of Urology consensus on BPH. Data on Brazilian population in that age range were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics referent to the year of 2000. It was determined the number of patients, according to the criteria above, subjected to either one of the treatments mentioned. Surgical costs of prostate transurethral resection were researched according to Unified Health System - SUS tables (US$ 173 and of Brazilian Medical Society - AMB with a mean cost in 3 hospitals of US$ 933. Drug costs were calculated by the annual mean price (US$ 355 of 4 alpha-blockers (tamsulosin, alfuzosin, doxazosin and terazosin. RESULTS: The estimated population for medical treatment was 5,397,321 individuals, with a cost corresponding to US$ 1,916,489,055.00. The estimated population for surgical treatment was 2,040,299 men, what would represent a cost of US$ 353,291,204.00 based on the SUS table and of US$ 1,904,279,066.00 based on AMB with hospital expenses included. CONCLUSION: All theses facts induce us to predict

  8. Atypical ductal hyperplasia of the breast: radiologic and histopathologic correlation

    To evaluate the clinical and radiologic findings of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) using mammography and ultrasonography, and to correlate the radiologic and histopathologic findings. Sixty-four pathologically proven lesions in 64 patients who were examined between March 2000 and March 2003 were the subject of this study. Mammography was performed in all 64 cases, and ultrasonography in 30. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated the radiologic findings, classifying them as one of four types: mass, microcalcification, other finding, and no detected lesion. At mammography, masses were classified according to their shape, margin, and density and microcalcifications according to their shape and distribution. At ultrasonography, masses were evaluated in terms of their shape, margin, internal and posterior echotexture, ductal extension, and parallelism to skin. Geographic correlation between the radiologic and histopathologic findings was classified as direct, near direct, or remote correlation. Mammography demonstrated 37 cases of microcalcification (57.8%), 14 in which masses were present (21.9%), two in which there were other findings (3.1%), and 11 in which lesions were not detected (17.2%). The 'other finding' was ductectasia. Microcalcifications were round in 19 cases, pleomorphic heterogeneous in 16, and branching linear in one. The most common distribution of microcalcification was clustered (29 cases; 78.4%). Masses were oval or round in nine cases and irregular in three, and in seven cases their margin was ill-defined. In 13 cases, the density of the masses was equal to that of breast tissue. Ultrasonography showed that the masses were round or oval in 15 cases and irregular in 14, and that the margin was ill-defined in 16 cases and circumscribed in ten. In 19 cases, the echotexture of the masses was low, and in 20 cases, heterogeneous. Parallel orientation was seen in 25 cases, and ductal extension in 22. Category 4 was the most common final assessed BI

  9. Laparoscopic resection of a retroperitoneal hemangioma arising from ovarian vessels.

    Choi, Youn Seok; Oh, Hoon Kyu

    2009-01-01

    Hemangiomas are known to be common benign tumors. However, hemangiomas of female genital organs are very rare. Furthermore, a retroperitoneal hemangioma arising from ovarian vessels has never been reported. Here we report a case of a 29-year-old woman with a retroperitoneal cavernous hemangioma arising from the ovarian vessels of infundibulopelvic ligament, which was treated with laparoscopic resection. The operating time was 30 minutes, and resection was carried out with minimal blood loss. The postoperative period was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 3. Laparoscopic resection of this type of hemangioma is feasible. PMID:19896610

  10. Papillary Carcinoma Arising from the Pyramidal Lobe of the Thyroid

    The authors present a rare case of papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid in a 54-year-old woman, who presented with a right submental palpable mass. An ultrasound evaluation depicted a 3 cm mixed echoic mass from the thyroid cartilage level without a focal lesion in the thyroid gland. Surgical specimens obtained during bilateral thyroidectomy confirmed papillary carcinoma of the pyramidal lobe. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report to describe papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland

  11. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Arising From a Gastric Duplication Cyst.

    Fernandez, Diego Cabrera; Machicado, Jorge; Davogustto, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Gastric duplication cysts (GDC) are rarely diagnosed in adults, but previous cases have been associated with malignancy. We present a case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) arising from a GDC in a 71-year-old woman who presented with 3 years of early satiety, anorexia, abdominal distention, and weight loss. Abdominal CT showed a 9.3 x 5.2 x 9.5-cm well-circumscribed cystic mass arising 3 cm above the gastroduodenal junction. The cyst was resected, and histopathology was consistent with GDC. Future studies are needed to clarify the malignant potential of GDC and the molecular pathways for its development. PMID:27144196

  12. A Study of Using Massage Therapy Accompanied with Stretching Exercise for Rehabilitation of Mammary Gland Hyperplasia.

    Lv, Pin; Chong, Yuping; Zou, Huagang; Chen, Xiangxian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To apply massage therapy accompanied with stretching exercises for treatment of mammary gland hyperplasia, evaluate the clinical outcome in patients, and estimate the therapy as a novel treatment method for mammary hyperplasia. Methods. 28 adult female patients were selected and treated with massage therapy and stretching exercises focusing on skeleton muscles of chest, abdomen, and axilla. The mammary gland oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb) and deoxyhemoglobin (DeoxyHb) levels were detected before and after treatment after 15, 30, and 45 days. Results. In this cohort, pretreatment OxyHb (mean ± SD) is 1.32 ± 0.14 (medium-high), and DeoxyHb is 0.87 ± 0.13 (normal). All patients were clinically diagnosed with benign mammary gland hyperplasia and mastitis. The posttreatment OxyHb levels are 1.23 ± 0.09 (normal-medium, 15-day), 1.16 ± 0.08 (normal, 30-day), and 1.05 ± 0.04 (normal, 45-day), and DeoxyHb levels are 0.90 ± 0.11 (normal, 15-day), 0.94 ± 0.18 (normal, 30-day), and 0.98 ± 0.12 (normal, 45-day). Patients were diagnosed with decreased hyperplasia 15 and 30 days after treatment and with no symptom of hyperplasia in mammary gland 45 days after treatment. Conclusion. Mammary gland hyperplasia is closely correlated with pathological changes of skeletal muscles and could be significantly improved by massage therapy and stretching exercises targeting neighboring skeletal muscles. PMID:27022615

  13. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of leiomyoma and endometrial tissue in patients with uterine leiomyoma and endometrial hyperplasia

    Potapov V.A.; Donskaya Yu.V.; Medvedev M.V.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Uterine leiomyoma and endometrial hyperplasia are commonly found disorders because of quite similar pathogenic pathways associated with action of sex steroids such as estradiol and progesterone. The gold standard of treatment of combination of uterine leiomyoma and endometrial hyperplasia is myomectomy with further prescription of gestagens. Objective. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of leiomyoma and endometrial tissue in patients with uterine leiomyoma and endomet...

  14. Analysis of risk factors for benign prostatic hyperplasia and metabolic syndrome in the elderly undergoing health examination

    王蕾蕾

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalences of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and metabolic syndrome (MS) and to analyze the risk factors for benign prostatic hyperplasia and metabolic syndrome in the elderly.Methods A total of 490 elderly men undergoing health examination in our hospital from January 2010 to

  15. Benign Lymphoid Hyperplasia of the Tongue Base Causing Upper Airway Obstruction

    Noah B. Sands

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe benign lymphoid hyperplasia (LH is unusual in the head and neck region, but the diagnosis of LH is of clinical importance as it may be confused with malignant lymphoma, both on clinical examination and pathologically. While the etiology is poorly understood, a number of previous theories exist, which are included here in the context of a literature review. In this paper we present a case of severe pharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia causing airway obstruction and requiring tracheotomy and subsequent surgical debulking.

  16. Sporadic bilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia: apparent false positive MIBG scan and expected MRI findings

    Adrenal medullary hyperplasia is a rare cause of clinical symptoms and biochemical findings identical to pheochromocytoma occurring mostly in multiple endocrine neoplasia patients. The scenario of positive MIBG scan, but no focal lesion found on CT and MRI led to diagnostic and management difficulties. Like pheochromocytoma, surgical excision can lead to clinical and biochemical recovery. We report this unusual case of sporadic bilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia, with hypertension and biochemical abnormalities alleviated after surgical adrenalectomy. Based on T2 values reported in literature, high signal focal lesions may not appear on T2-weighted MRI images until development of frank pheochromocytoma. MIBG scan remains the most sensitive imaging modality for this condition

  17. Association between obesity and focal nodular hyperplasia telangiectasia. 24 cases re-evaluation

    Pérez Rojas, J.¹; Guarín Corredor, M. J.; Artes Martínez, M. J.¹; Vera Sempere, F. J.¹, ²; Brisa Estelles, C.¹; Huart Peris, M. C.¹; Hernández Girón, S.¹

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Focal nodular hyperplasia is not a true neoplasm. Itis a regenerative response of hepatocytes to a vascular abnormality.24 cases were re-evaluated and diagnosed at pathologic examination confirmed as focal nodular hyperplasia.Three of the 24 cases were reclassified as inflammatory telangiectatic adenomas with imnumorreactividadagainst amyloid A.The presence of vascular and sinusoidal dilatation,congestion, peliotic areas with signs of inflammationassociated with focal or diffuse immunoreactivity compared to Amyloid are histological signs that indicatethe presence of inflammatory telangiectatic hepatocellular adenomas, formerly classified as focal nodularhyperplasia, atypical.An increased reactivity to Amyloid and associationmetabolic syndrome characterizes inflammatory telangiectatic adenomas.

  18. The Medical Home Concept and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: A Comfortable Habitat!

    Selma Feldman Witchel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient-centered interdisciplinary health care for children with chronic medical disorders represents an evolution from the traditional “stop and go” treatment for acute illnesses. This model for health care delivery has been called the “medical home,” a concept that was originally developed in pediatrics for the care of children with special needs. Patient and family-centered, comprehensive, interdisciplinary, culturally effective, and readily accessible health care delivery is desirable for the care of children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. As children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH become adolescents and young adults, transfer of this health care delivery model to adult endocrinologists is appropriate.

  19. The Medical Home Concept and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: a Comfortable Habitat!

    Witchel SelmaFeldman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Patient-centered interdisciplinary health care for children with chronic medical disorders represents an evolution from the traditional "stop and go" treatment for acute illnesses. This model for health care delivery has been called the "medical home," a concept that was originally developed in pediatrics for the care of children with special needs. Patient and family-centered, comprehensive, interdisciplinary, culturally effective, and readily accessible health care delivery is desirable for the care of children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. As children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH become adolescents and young adults, transfer of this health care delivery model to adult endocrinologists is appropriate.

  20. Treatment of focal epithelial hyperplasia with topical imiquimod: report of three cases.

    Yasar, Sirin; Mansur, Ayse Tulin; Serdar, Zehra Asiran; Goktay, Fatih; Aslan, Canan

    2009-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease) is a rare disorder caused by specific types of HPV. It mainly involves oral mucosa and children are affected more frequently. It may persist for years, producing a significant reduction in quality of life. Several treatment modalities such as surgical excision, laser ablation, cryotherapy, electrocauterization, topical, intralesional, systemic interferon, and systemic retinoic acid have been used with inconsistent results and many side effects. Here we report three children of Turkish origin with focal epithelial hyperplasia successfully treated with imiquimod 5% cream. No serious side effects were observed and recurrence did not occur during the 1-year follow-up period. PMID:19689526

  1. Ecknomic benefits arising from the Canadian nuclear industry

    This document is a collection of surveys of the Canadian nuclear industry, with forecasts covering a number of possible scenarios. Topics covered include uranium mining and processing; economic benefits arising from the design, manufacture and construction of CANDU generating stations; employment and economic activity in the Canadian nqclear industry; and an overview of the remainder of the industry

  2. Synovial sarcoma arising in association with a popliteal cyst

    Synovial sarcoma is a relatively common soft tissue sarcoma particularly in the adolescent and young adult. We report an unusual case of a synovial sarcoma arising within a popliteal cyst in a 13-year-old female presenting with bilateral popliteal cysts. MR imaging demonstrated the cyst with evidence of subacute haemorrhage and a discrete nodule of tumour. (orig.)

  3. Synovial sarcoma arising in association with a popliteal cyst

    Ayoub, K.S.; Grimer, R.J. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Orthopaedic Oncology; Davies, A.M. [MRI Centre, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Mangham, D.C. [Dept. of Pathology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Twiston Davies, C.W. [Jersey General Hospital (United Kingdom). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery

    2000-12-01

    Synovial sarcoma is a relatively common soft tissue sarcoma particularly in the adolescent and young adult. We report an unusual case of a synovial sarcoma arising within a popliteal cyst in a 13-year-old female presenting with bilateral popliteal cysts. MR imaging demonstrated the cyst with evidence of subacute haemorrhage and a discrete nodule of tumour. (orig.)

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma

    Gupta Vishwanath

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC arising in a mature cystic teratoma (MCT are being discussed for their rarity and pattern of infiltration of tumor cells in the stroma (alpha mode, beta mode and gamma mode, which is a key factor in deciding the prognosis and patient survival.

  5. Dioxins: diagnostic and prognostic challenges arising from complex mechanisms

    Rysavy, Noel M.; Maaetoft-Udsen, Kristina; Turner, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Dioxins are ubiquitous environmental challenges to humans, with a pervasiveness that arises from 200?years of rapid industrialization and mechanization of Western societies and which is now extending into the developing world. In spite of their penetrance of the human biota, these compounds are p...

  6. Transcultural Knowledge and Skills Transfer: Issues Arising from Evaluation Processes

    Green, Anita J.; Holloway, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The transfer of knowledge, policy and practice between nations increasingly involves knowledge of the theory and practice of evaluation. This article examines issues arising from the transcultural evaluation of a drug and alcohol misuse knowledge and skills transfer programme for nurses, nurse teachers and medical staff in the narcology service in…

  7. Squamous Cell Carcinoma arising in a Cystic Teratoma

    Ruchi Khajuria, Madalsa Bargotra,Rubey Bhat, V.K.Dubey

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant transformation in a benign cystic teratoma occurs in 1-3% of cases. A rare case of squamouscell carcinoma arising in a benign cystic teratoma ofovary in a 37 year old f~male is reported. The patientpresented with increasing abdominal girth and pain abdomen and was cl inically diagnosed having a largeovarian cyst.

  8. Transitional cell carcinoma arising in a tailgut cyst.

    Sheikh, Adnan A; Rotimi, Olorundi; Jacob, Deepa; Hyland, Racheal; Sagar, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    Malignant transformation in tailgut cysts (TGCs) is extremely rare, with no reports of transitional cell carcinoma arising in them in the UK literature. Here, we discuss a case of a patient with a malignant TGC encapsulating the rectum. This case report highlights the pathological and diagnostic considerations and discusses its management. PMID:26217002

  9. Adenocarcinoma arising in a tailgut cyst: a case report.

    Rammeh, S; Ben Abdelkrim, S; Khalifa, M H Ben Hadj; Letaief, R; Mokni, M

    2013-12-01

    Tailgut cyst (TGC), also called retrorectal hamartoma, is a rare congenital lesion arising from persistent remnants of the postanal gut. Malignant transformation of TGC is exceedingly uncommon. We report herein the clinicopathologic features and the follow-up of a new case of a TGC with adenocarcinomatous transformation occurring in a 61 year-old woman. PMID:24730339

  10. Transitional cell carcinoma arising in a tailgut cyst

    Sheikh, Adnan A.; Rotimi, Olorundi; Jacob, Deepa; Hyland, Racheal; Sagar, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant transformation in tailgut cysts (TGCs) is extremely rare, with no reports of transitional cell carcinoma arising in them in the UK literature. Here, we discuss a case of a patient with a malignant TGC encapsulating the rectum. This case report highlights the pathological and diagnostic considerations and discusses its management.

  11. Lymphoid enhancer factor-1 blocks adenomatous polyposis coli-mediated nuclear export and degradation of beta-catenin. Regulation by histone deacetylase 1.

    Henderson, Beric R; Galea, Melanie; Schuechner, Stefan; Leung, Louie

    2002-07-01

    The oncogenic protein beta-catenin is overexpressed in many cancers, frequently accumulating in nuclei where it forms active complexes with lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (LEF-1)/T-cell transcription factors, inducing genes such as c-myc and cyclin D1. In normal cells, nuclear beta-catenin levels are controlled by the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein through nuclear export and cytoplasmic degradation. Transient expression of LEF-1 is known to increase nuclear beta-catenin levels by an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that APC and LEF-1 compete for nuclear beta-catenin with opposing consequences. APC can export nuclear beta-catenin to the cytoplasm for degradation. In contrast, LEF-1 anchors beta-catenin in the nucleus by blocking APC-mediated nuclear export. LEF-1 also prevented the APC/CRM1-independent nuclear export of beta-catenin as revealed by in vitro assays. Importantly, LEF-1-bound beta-catenin was protected from degradation by APC and axin in SW480 colon cancer cells. The ability of LEF-1 to trap beta-catenin in the nucleus was down-regulated by histone deacetylase 1, and this correlated with a decrease in LEF1 transcription activity. Our findings identify LEF-1 as key regulator of beta-catenin nuclear localization and stability and suggest that overexpression of LEF-1 in colon cancer and melanoma cells may contribute to the accumulation of oncogenic beta-catenin in the nucleus. PMID:11986304

  12. Reversible modification of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) with K63-linked polyubiquitin regulates the assembly and activity of the β-catenin destruction complex.

    Tran, Hoanh; Polakis, Paul

    2012-08-17

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor forms a complex with Axin and GSK3β to promote the phosphorylation and degradation of β-catenin, a key co-activator of Wnt-induced transcription. Here, we establish that APC is modified predominantly with K63-linked ubiquitin chains when it is bound to Axin in unstimulated HEK293 cells. Wnt3a stimulation induced a time-dependent loss of K63-polyubiquitin adducts from APC, an effect synchronous with the dissociation of Axin from APC and the stabilization of cytosolic β-catenin. RNAi-mediated depletion of Axin or β-catenin, which negated the association between APC and Axin, resulted in the absence of K63-adducts on APC. Overexpression of wild-type and phosphodegron-mutant β-catenin, combined with analysis of thirteen human cancer cell lines that harbor oncogenic mutations in APC, Axin, or β-catenin, support the hypothesis that a fully assembled APC-Axin-GSK3β-phospho-β-catenin complex is necessary for the K63-polyubiquitylation of APC. Intriguingly, the degree of this modification on APC appears to correlate inversely with the levels of β-catenin in cells. Together, our results indicate that K63-linked polyubiquitin adducts on APC regulate the assembly and/or efficiency of the β-catenin destruction complex. PMID:22761442

  13. The two SAMP repeats and their phosphorylation state in Drosophila Adenomatous polyposis coli-2 play mechanistically distinct roles in negatively regulating Wnt signaling.

    Kunttas-Tatli, Ezgi; Von Kleeck, Ryan A; Greaves, Bradford D; Vinson, David; Roberts, David M; McCartney, Brooke M

    2015-12-01

    The tumor suppressor Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) plays a key role in regulating the canonical Wnt signaling pathway as an essential component of the β-catenin destruction complex. C-terminal truncations of APC are strongly implicated in both sporadic and familial forms of colorectal cancer. However, many questions remain as to how these mutations interfere with APC's tumor suppressor activity. One set of motifs frequently lost in these cancer-associated truncations is the SAMP repeats that mediate interactions between APC and Axin. APC proteins in both vertebrates and Drosophila contain multiple SAMP repeats that lack high sequence conservation outside of the Axin-binding motif. In this study, we tested the functional redundancy between different SAMPs and how these domains are regulated, using Drosophila APC2 and its two SAMP repeats as our model. Consistent with sequence conservation-based predictions, we show that SAMP2 has stronger binding activity to Axin in vitro, but SAMP1 also plays an essential role in the Wnt destruction complex in vivo. In addition, we demonstrate that the phosphorylation of SAMP repeats is a potential mechanism to regulate their activity. Overall our findings support a model in which each SAMP repeat plays a mechanistically distinct role but they cooperate for maximal destruction complex function. PMID:26446838

  14. Adenomatous polyposis coli-mediated control of β-catenin is essential for both chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of skeletal precursors

    Löwik Clemens WGM

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During skeletogenesis, protein levels of β-catenin in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway determine lineage commitment of skeletal precursor cells to osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc is a key controller of β-catenin turnover by down-regulating intracellular levels of β-catenin. Results To investigate whether Apc is involved in lineage commitment of skeletal precursor cells, we generated conditional knockout mice lacking functional Apc in Col2a1-expressing cells. In contrast to other models in which an oncogenic variant of β-catenin was used, our approach resulted in the accumulation of wild type β-catenin protein due to functional loss of Apc. Conditional homozygous Apc mutant mice died perinatally showing greatly impaired skeletogenesis. All endochondral bones were misshaped and lacked structural integrity. Lack of functional Apc resulted in a pleiotropic skeletal cell phenotype. The majority of the precursor cells lacking Apc failed to differentiate into chondrocytes or osteoblasts. However, skeletal precursor cells in the proximal ribs were able to escape the noxious effect of functional loss of Apc resulting in formation of highly active osteoblasts. Inactivation of Apc in chondrocytes was associated with dedifferentiation of these cells. Conclusion Our data indicate that a tight Apc-mediated control of β-catenin levels is essential for differentiation of skeletal precursors as well as for the maintenance of a chondrocytic phenotype in a spatio-temporal regulated manner.

  15. Broad phenotypic spectrum in familial adenomatous polyposis; from early onset and severe phenotypes to late onset of attenuated polyposis with the first manifestation at age 72

    Johannsson Oskar

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP is typically characterized by multiple colonic polyps and frequent extracolonic features. Whereas the number of colonic polyps has been linked to the APC gene mutation, possible genotype-phenotype correlations largely remain to be defined for the extracolonic manifestations. Methods Full genomic sequencing combined with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was used to identify APC gene mutations, which were correlated to the clinical presentations. Results 10 novel APC gene mutations were identified in 11 families. A broad spectrum of extracolonic manifestations was identified in most of these individuals. Two sisters with an insertion in codon 528 (c.1582_1583insGC both showed severe phenotypes with classical polyposis, upper gastrointestinal polyps and thyroid cancer. A woman with a 3'APC mutation (c.5030_5031insAA developed colon cancer at age 72 as the first manifestation of attenuated FAP. Conclusion With an increasing number of FAP families diagnosed, a broad and variable tumor spectrum and a high frequency of extracolonic manifestations are gradually recognized. We report novel APC mutations and present two FAP cases that suggest familial aggregation of thyroid cancer and demonstrate the need to consider attenuated FAP also among elderly patients with colon cancer.

  16. Familial adenomatous patients with desmoid tumours show increased expression of miR-34a in serum and high levels in tumours

    Walton, Sarah-Jane; Lewis, Amy; Jeffery, Rosemary; Thompson, Hannah; Feakins, Roger; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Yau, Christopher; Lindsay, James O.; Clark, Susan K.; Silver, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is rare affecting 1 in 10,000 people and a subset (10%) are at risk of myofibroblastic desmoid tumours (DTs) after colectomy to prevent cancer. DTs are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The absence of markers to monitor progression and a lack of treatment options are significant limitations to clinical management. We investigated microRNAs (miRNA) levels in DTs and serum using expression array analysis on two independent cohorts of FAP patients (total, n=24). Each comprised equal numbers of patients who had formed DTs (cases) and those who had not (controls). All controls had absence of DTs confirmed by clinical and radiological assessment over at least three years post- colectomy. Technical qPCR validation was performed using an expanded cohort (29 FAP patients; 16 cases and 13 controls). The most significant elevated serum miRNA marker of DTs was miR-34a-5p and in-situ hybridisation (ISH) showed most DTs analysed (5/6) expressed miRNA-34a-5p. Exome sequencing of tumour and matched germline DNA did not detect mutations within the miR-34a-5p transcript sites or 3′-UTR of target genes that would alter functional miRNA activity. In conclusion, miR-34a-5p is a potential circulatory marker and therapy target. A large prospective world-wide multi-centre study is now warranted. PMID:27489864

  17. Comparison between Capsule Endoscopy and Magnetic Resonance Enterography for the Detection of Polyps of the Small Intestine in Patients with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    E. Akin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of magnetic resonance enterography (MRE compared with capsule endoscopy (CE for the detection of small-bowel polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP. Methods. Patients underwent MRE and CE. The polyps were classified according to size of polyp: 10 mm (large size. The location (jejunum or ileum and the number of polyps (1–5, 6–20, >20 detected by CE were also assessed. MRE findings were compared with the results of CE. Results. Small-bowel polyps, were detected by CE in 4 of the 6 (66% patients. Three patients had small-sized polyps and one patient had medium-sized polyps. CE detected polyps in four patients that, were not shown on MRE. Desmoid tumors were detected on anterior abdominal wall by MRE. Conclusion. In patients with FAP, CE can detect small-sized polyps in the small intestine not seen with MRE whereas MRE yields additional extraintestinal information.

  18. Combined mucopolysaccharidosis type VI and congenital adrenal hyperplasia in a child: Anesthetic considerations

    Abhishek Bansal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a child posted for magnetic resonance imaging of brain under general anesthesia with the rare combination of mucopolysachharidosis type VI and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The presence of both these disorders has important anesthetic implications. The pathophysiology of this rare combination of disease is reviewed with emphasis on the anesthesia management.

  19. Mandibular Movement Restoration in a Child with Bilateral Coronoid Hyperplasia: A Case Report

    Danica Popovik Monevska

    2016-04-01

    CONCLUSIONS: The article presents a clinical and surgical case of bilateral coronoidectomy in a 3-year-old girl, with retrognathic mandible. The diagnosis of bilateral coronoid process hyperplasia was confirmed, and the surgical treatment was under general anesthesia, with nasotracheal intubation guided by a nasofiber endoscope, using an intraoral approach.

  20. Ultrasound Findings of Lymphoid Hyperplasia of the Appendix in Children: Differentiation from Acute Appendicitis

    Kim, Bong Jae; Seo, Jung Wook; Lee, Byung Hoon [Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Koyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To evaluate the ultrasound (US) findings that can help differentiate lymphoid hyperplasia in the appendix from acute appendicitis. A total of 1230 patients (below 20 years old) suspected of having appendicitis received an appendectomy between November, 1999, and March, 2008, with US findings in 27 patients with pathologically proven lymphoid hyperplasia of the appendix. Of 167 patients that received an appendectomy from January, 2007, to December, 2007, 52 patients with acute appendicitis were retrospectively reviewed as a control group. Retrospective review of US images was performed by two radiologists who were blinded to the pathologic results. The review was based on 12 ultrasonographic criteria derived from reports on the diagnostic findings of the appendicitis. Compared with acute appendicitis, lymphoid hyperplasia in appendix had a smaller diameter (7.14{+-}1.22 mm vs 9.37{+-}1.80 mm, p < 0.001) and less wall thickening(1.38{+-}0.36 mm vs 1.74 {+-} 0.56 mm, p =0.001). Periappendicular inflammation (p < 0.001), intraluminal air (p = 0.006), round shape in transverse scan (p = 0.002),increased blood flow on color Doppler US (p = 0.03) were also different. US is a useful modality to differentiate lymphoid hyperplasia in the appendix from acute appendicitis

  1. Ultrasound Findings of Lymphoid Hyperplasia of the Appendix in Children: Differentiation from Acute Appendicitis

    To evaluate the ultrasound (US) findings that can help differentiate lymphoid hyperplasia in the appendix from acute appendicitis. A total of 1230 patients (below 20 years old) suspected of having appendicitis received an appendectomy between November, 1999, and March, 2008, with US findings in 27 patients with pathologically proven lymphoid hyperplasia of the appendix. Of 167 patients that received an appendectomy from January, 2007, to December, 2007, 52 patients with acute appendicitis were retrospectively reviewed as a control group. Retrospective review of US images was performed by two radiologists who were blinded to the pathologic results. The review was based on 12 ultrasonographic criteria derived from reports on the diagnostic findings of the appendicitis. Compared with acute appendicitis, lymphoid hyperplasia in appendix had a smaller diameter (7.14±1.22 mm vs 9.37±1.80 mm, p < 0.001) and less wall thickening(1.38±0.36 mm vs 1.74 ± 0.56 mm, p =0.001). Periappendicular inflammation (p < 0.001), intraluminal air (p = 0.006), round shape in transverse scan (p = 0.002),increased blood flow on color Doppler US (p = 0.03) were also different. US is a useful modality to differentiate lymphoid hyperplasia in the appendix from acute appendicitis

  2. Nonablative minimally invasive thermal therapies in the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Ancona, F.C.H. d'

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As all new treatment modalities nonablative thermal therapy for minimal invasive treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia should be critically analyzed. This review discusses the literature to identify the merits of these so-called minimally invasive treatments and the place they

  3. PTEN sequence analysis in endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma in Slovak women.

    Gbelcová, H; Bakeš, P; Priščáková, P; Šišovský, V; Hojsíková, I; Straka, Ľ; Konečný, M; Markus, J; D'Acunto, C W; Ruml, T; Böhmer, D; Danihel, Ľ; Repiská, V

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a protein that acts as a tumor suppressor by dephosphorylating the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. Loss of PTEN function has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of different tumors, particularly endometrial carcinoma (ECa). ECa is the most common neoplasia of the female genital tract. Our study evaluates an association between the morphological appearance of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma and the degree of PTEN alterations. A total of 45 endometrial biopsies from Slovak women were included in present study. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples with simple hyperplasia (3), complex hyperplasia (5), atypical complex hyperplasia (7), endometrioid carcinomas G1 (20) and G3 (5), and serous carcinoma (5) were evaluated for the presence of mutations in coding regions of PTEN gene, the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor gene in endometrial carcinoma. 75% of the detected mutations were clustered in exons 5 and 8. Out of the 39 mutations detected in 24 cases, 20 were frameshifts and 19 were nonsense, missense, or silent mutations. Some specimens harboured more than one mutation. The results of current study on Slovak women were compared to a previous study performed on Polish population. The two sets of results were similar. PMID:26114084

  4. [Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia. The spectrum from Kimura disease to atypical pyogenic granuloma].

    Wustrow, A; Mahrle, G

    1987-04-15

    A patient showed the "atypical pyogenic granuloma" of the head in combination with atopic dermatitis and proceeding pyogenic granuloma of the back. The diagnostic aspects of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) including Kimura's disease, subcutaneous ALHE, and atypical pyogenic granuloma are discussed. PMID:3111112

  5. Reactive mesothelial hyperplasia associated with chronic peritonitis in a 20-year-old Quarter horse.

    Hoon-Hanks, Laura L; Rout, Emily D; Vap, Linda M; Aboellail, Tawfik A; Hassel, Diana M; Nout-Lomas, Yvette S

    2016-05-01

    A 20-year-old gelding was diagnosed with peritonitis and severe reactive mesothelial hyperplasia. Exploratory laparotomy findings were suggestive of a neoplastic etiology; however, additional diagnostics ruled this out and the horse made a full recovery. This report demonstrates the difficulty and value of differentiating between reactive and neoplastic mesothelial processes. PMID:27152035

  6. PTEN Sequence Analysis in Endometrial Hyperplasia and Endometrial Carcinoma in Slovak Women

    H. Gbelcová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN is a protein that acts as a tumor suppressor by dephosphorylating the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. Loss of PTEN function has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of different tumors, particularly endometrial carcinoma (ECa. ECa is the most common neoplasia of the female genital tract. Our study evaluates an association between the morphological appearance of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma and the degree of PTEN alterations. A total of 45 endometrial biopsies from Slovak women were included in present study. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples with simple hyperplasia (3, complex hyperplasia (5, atypical complex hyperplasia (7, endometrioid carcinomas G1 (20 and G3 (5, and serous carcinoma (5 were evaluated for the presence of mutations in coding regions of PTEN gene, the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor gene in endometrial carcinoma. 75% of the detected mutations were clustered in exons 5 and 8. Out of the 39 mutations detected in 24 cases, 20 were frameshifts and 19 were nonsense, missense, or silent mutations. Some specimens harboured more than one mutation. The results of current study on Slovak women were compared to a previous study performed on Polish population. The two sets of results were similar.

  7. Mandibular Movement Restoration in a Child with Bilateral Coronoid Hyperplasia: A Case Report

    Monevska, Danica Popovik; Benedetti, Alberto; Popovski, Vladimir; Naumovski, Slave; Grcev, Aleksandar; Bozovic, Suzana; Stamatoski, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronoid process hyperplasia is an uncommon finding, characterized by an enlargement of the coronoid process, causing a mechanical obstacle by its interposing in the posterior portion of the maxilla or zygomatic arch. CASE PRESENTATION: The article presents a case report of a bilateral coronoid process hyperplasia in a 3-year-old girl demonstrated with inability to open the mouth and restricted jaw movement. Panoramic x-ray and 3-dimensional computed tomographic reconstruction showed bilateral elongation of the coronoid processes associated with deformation of the mandibular condyle with no involvement of the articular space. A coronoid resection by intraoral approach was done, followed by an aggressive physiotherapy. A considerable improvement in mouth opening of 30 mm was achieved. We strongly suggest early surgical treatment of coronoid hyperplasia to recover morphology and function consequently to reduce skeletofacial deformities in young patients. CONCLUSIONS: The article presents a clinical and surgical case of bilateral coronoidectomy in a 3-year-old girl, with retrognathic mandible. The diagnosis of bilateral coronoid process hyperplasia was confirmed, and the surgical treatment was under general anesthesia, with nasotracheal intubation guided by a nasofiber endoscope, using an intraoral approach.

  8. Placebo effects in the pharmacological treatment of uncomplicated benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Hansen, BJ; Meyhoff, HH; Nordling, J; Mensink, HJA; Mogensen, P; Larsen, EH; Leenarts, JAF; Oosten, JK; vanSoest, FF; Dijkman, GA; Hoekstra, JW; vanBaasbank, NJW; Bijleveld, RT; Braam, PFCM; Schlatmann, TJM; Felderhof, J; Kapper, BJ; Dik, P; Schou, J; Poulsen, AL; Christoffersen, J; Geerdsen, JP; Hvidt, [No Value; Dahl, C; Luke, M; Lendorph, A; Jacobsen, B; Bilde, T; Mortensen, S; Walter, S

    1996-01-01

    In order to establish accurately the exact effect of any drug therapy for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) it is important to define the effect of placebo treatment. This effect was assessed by thoroughly analyzing the placebo arm, which included 101 patients, from a randomized, double

  9. The correlation between metabolic syndrome and benign prostatic hyperplasia and drug efficacy evaluation

    李欣

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between metabolic syndrome(MS)and benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH)and the drug treatment of BPH.Methods 300cases of BPH patients treated between May 2011 to June2012 in our hospital and Tonghai County hospitals of traditonal Chinese medicine were included.The patients were divided into observing group(n=100)and control

  10. Clinical effects of statins on benign prostatic hyperplasia complicating metabolic syndrome in elderly patients

    曾小芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of simvastatin and atorvastatin on clinical progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH)in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome(MS).Methods A total of 135 patients with BPH and MS aged 60 years and over were divided into three groups:simvastatin group(n=45,40 mg/d),atorvasta-

  11. Evaluation of benign prostatic hyperplasia treatments : How can we improve the outcome measures and success criteria?

    Mensink, H

    1997-01-01

    Treatment evaluation in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is complicated by a number of interdependent factors. The evaluation of the individual patient is influenced by the risk:benefit ratio and health related quality of life and this, in turn, is interrelated with the evaluation of therapeutic o

  12. Gastric hyperplasia in mice with targeted disruption of the carbonic anhydrase gene Car9

    Ortova-Gut, M.; Parkkila, S.; Vernerová, Z.; Rohde, E.; Závada, Jan; Hocker, M.; Pastorek, J.; Karttunen, T.; Gibadulinová, A.; Závadová, Zuzana; Knobeloch, K.-P.; Wiedernmann, B.; Svoboda, Jan; Horak, I.; Pastoreková, S.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 6 (2002), s. 1889-1903. ISSN 0016-5085 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV312/96/K205 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : mouse carbonic anhydrase Car9 * gastric hyperplasia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 13.440, year: 2002

  13. Efficacy of Kanchanara Guggulu and Matra Basti of Dhanyaka Gokshura Ghrita in Mootraghata (benign prostatic hyperplasia)

    Patel, Joyal Kumar K.; Dudhamal, Tukaram S.; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Mahanta, Vyasadeva

    2015-01-01

    Background: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a senile disorder affects male of and above 40 years characterized by retention, incomplete voiding, dribbling, hesitancy, and incontinence of urine. This condition is comparable with Mootraghata in Ayurveda. Surgical intervention has been accepted as standard management, but has acute cystitis, acute epididymitis, erectile dysfunction, retrograde ejaculation, etc. as complications. Conservative treatment with modern medicine is also associated ...

  14. Medical Treatment of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Suggestive of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    M. Michel; J. de la Rosette

    2009-01-01

    Context: Medical treatment is the primary option for most patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH; LUTS/BPH), but individual patients may have distinct treatment goals. Objective: To describe the specific effects of available treatment option

  15. Increased Antioxidant Quality Versus Lower Quantity Of High Density Lipoprotein In Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Aydin Ozgur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of every human disease. To understand its possible role in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, we measured the overall oxidative status of patients with BPH and the serum activity of the high density lipoprotein (HDL-related antioxidant enzymes paraoxonase 1 (PON1 and arylesterase (ARE.

  16. Hepatic adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia: clinical, pathologic, and radiologic features

    Based on strict predefined histologic criteria, we identified 23 patients with hepatic adenoma and 41 patients with focal nodular hyperplasia seen at this institution between 1961 and 1980. Patients with hepatic adenoma were young and 91% were female. When a reliable history was available, 89% had used oral contraceptives; 53% presented acutely or with pain. Eleven of 11 radionuclide scans were abnormal; 15 of 15 angiograms showed a hypervascular mass with 7 of 15 showing areas of hypovascularity. Eighteen resections were performed with one operative death. Two tumors contained areas of unequivocal hepatocellular carcinoma. Fifteen of 18 patients followed for 82 +/- 11 mo were living and well and had discontinued oral contraceptives. Focal nodular hyperplasia patients were older, 88% were female, and 58% had used oral contraceptives. Their lesions were discovered accidentally. Seven of 12 radionuclide scans demonstrated voids, while 13 of 13 angiograms showed hypervascular lesions with no areas of hypovascularity. Seventeen tumors were resected. Twenty-three of 24 patients followed for 45 +/- 7 mo were living and well. One died of nonhepatic causes. Based on the findings of this review, we believe that if the clinical suspicion of hepatic adenoma or focal nodular hyperplasia is strong, elective laparotomy for diagnosis is usually the best approach. Hepatic adenoma should be resected if technically feasible. Intraoperative wedge biopsy is appropriate for focal nodular hyperplasia

  17. Delta Cell Hyperplasia in Adult Goto-Kakizaki (GK/MolTac) Diabetic Rats

    Alán, Lukáš; Olejár, Tomáš; Cahová, M.; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Berková, Z.; Smětáková, M.; Saudek, F.; Matěj, R.; Ježek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, č. 2015 (2015), s. 385395. ISSN 2314-6745 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-06666S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Goto Kakizaki rats * diabetes * delta cell hyperplasia * somatostatin * pancreatic polypeptide deficiency Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.164, year: 2014

  18. Research on the Changes of Endocrine Hormones in Mammary Cancer and Hyperplasia of Mammary Glands

    CHEN Chengqi

    2002-01-01

    Objective Based on a comparison of endocrine hormones between patients of mammary cancer and those of hyperplasia of mammary glands, a preliminary analysis of the interaction between endocrine hormones and the immune system was oonducted. Methods The experiment involved 50 cases of mammary cancer and hyperplasia of mammary glands each.Blood samples were taken from pre - menopausal and menopausal patients; six kinds of hypophyseal hommones(PRL, GH, TSH,ACTH, FSH and LH) and three kinds of sex hormones ( E2,P and T) were subjected to RIA tests.Results Wilcoxon matchpaired assay and normal approximation of the experiment indicated that the FSH level before pre - menopause and the ACTH level during menopause in patients with mammary canoer were higher that those of patients suffering hyperplasia of mamary glands. Conclusion Statistics show the the normal rhythm between endocrine hormones and the immune system is disrupted in mammary cancer patients, the feedback mechanism of the hypothalamo- hypophyseal- adrenal system is maladjusted,resulting in inhibition of the immune function. Female hormones induce the gene mutation and the sensitivity of the cells is increased, resulting in a significant acceleration of the hyperplasia of cancer cells.

  19. Angiosarcoma Arising in an Ovarian Fibroma: A Case Report

    Eduardo Cambruzzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian angiosarcoma is a very rare gynaecological sarcoma, with poor prognosis. These tumors are though to arise from carcinosarcomas, teratomas, or the ovarian vasculature and occur at any age. There are only a few cases reported in the international literature, most commonly associated to surface epithelial-stromal or germ cell tumours. Herein, the authors report the clinicopathologic features of an angiosarcoma arising in an ovarian fibroma. A 65-year-old patient was admitted with a palpable mass in the hypogastrium. Grossly, the removed ovary was completely replaced by a solid tumor mass. On histological analysis, the lesion revealed the typical histological features of angiosarcoma with sinusoidal patterns and anaplastic cells, admixed with spindle-shaped cells arranged in fascicles or in a storiform pattern, compatible with a fibroma. The vascular component was strongly immunopositive for CD31 and CD34. The patient was submitted to chemotherapy, and she was alive for two months after surgical proceedings.

  20. Angiosarcoma arising in an ovarian fibroma: a case report.

    Cambruzzi, Eduardo; Pegas, Karla Lais; Milani, Daniel Marini; Cruz, Ricardo Pedrini; Guerra, Enilde Heloena; Ferrari, Márcio Balbinotti

    2010-01-01

    Primary ovarian angiosarcoma is a very rare gynaecological sarcoma, with poor prognosis. These tumors are though to arise from carcinosarcomas, teratomas, or the ovarian vasculature and occur at any age. There are only a few cases reported in the international literature, most commonly associated to surface epithelial-stromal or germ cell tumours. Herein, the authors report the clinicopathologic features of an angiosarcoma arising in an ovarian fibroma. A 65-year-old patient was admitted with a palpable mass in the hypogastrium. Grossly, the removed ovary was completely replaced by a solid tumor mass. On histological analysis, the lesion revealed the typical histological features of angiosarcoma with sinusoidal patterns and anaplastic cells, admixed with spindle-shaped cells arranged in fascicles or in a storiform pattern, compatible with a fibroma. The vascular component was strongly immunopositive for CD31 and CD34. The patient was submitted to chemotherapy, and she was alive for two months after surgical proceedings. PMID:21151524

  1. Invasive breast carcinoma arising in microglandular adenosis: two case reports.

    Choi, Jung Eun; Bae, Young Kyung

    2013-12-01

    Microglandular adenosis (MGA) is a rare benign disease that shows an infiltrative growth pattern of small glands, and it may progress to include atypia and carcinoma. Here we report two cases of breast carcinoma arising in MGA. Case 1 was a 44-year-old woman with a previous history of ductal carcinoma in situ in her right breast. During a follow-up, a 1.8 cm mass-like lesion was found in her left breast. An excisional biopsy suggested that the lesion was breast carcinoma. Case 2 was a 57-year-old woman with a 2.9 cm mass in her right breast. A core needle biopsy of the lesion suggested invasive carcinoma. Both patients underwent modified radical mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy. Both tumors lacked a myoepithelial cell layer and stained positively for S-100, lysozyme, and α1-antitrypsin, which is typical of MGA. Both cases showed invasive carcinoma arising in MGA. PMID:24454466

  2. [A solitary neurofibroma arising from the temporal fossa].

    Tian, Xiaoyan; Luo, Gui; Zhu, Xinhua

    2014-07-01

    Neurofibromas are benign nerve sheath tumors that arise from the nonmyelinating Schwann cells. Generally, neurofibromas can be categorized into dermal and plexiform subtypes. The former subtype is usually associated with a lone peripheral nerve in the integumentary system, while plexiform tumors are associated with many nerve bundles and can originate internally. Rarely, the plexiform tumors can undergo malignant transformation. Neurofibromas are usually found in individuals with neurofibromatosis, which is an autosomal dominant disease. On occasion, an isolated neurofibroma can transpire without being associated with neurofibromatosis. Mostly, these solitary tumors tend to occur in the gastrointestinal system, and neurofibromas of the head and neck are not uncommon, but very rarely they have been reported to occur in the temporal fossa. In this report, we describe a case of a solitary neurofibroma arising from the temporal fossa. PMID:25248275

  3. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Arising in CALR Mutated Essential Thrombocythemia

    Stephen E. Langabeer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in an existing myeloproliferative neoplasm is rare with historical cases unable to differentiate between concomitant malignancies or leukemic transformation. Molecular studies of coexisting JAK2 V617F-positive myeloproliferative neoplasms and mature B cell malignancies indicate distinct disease entities arising in myeloid and lymphoid committed hematopoietic progenitor cells, respectively. Mutations of CALR in essential thrombocythemia appear to be associated with a distinct phenotype and a lower risk of thrombosis yet their impact on disease progression is less well defined. The as yet undescribed scenario of pro-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia arising in CALR mutated essential thrombocythemia is presented. Intensive treatment for the leukemia allowed for expansion of the original CALR mutated clone. Whether CALR mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms predispose to the acquisition of additional malignancies, particularly lymphoproliferative disorders, is not yet known.

  4. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Tattooed Eyebrow

    Lee, Jong-Sun; Park, Jin; Kim, Seong-min; Yun, Seok-Kweon; Kim, Han-Uk

    2009-01-01

    Malignant skin tumors, including squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, have occurred in tattoos. Seven documented cases of basal cell carcinoma associated with tattoos have also been reported in the medical literature. We encountered a patient with basal cell carcinoma in a tattooed eyebrow. We report on this case as the eighth reported case of a patient with basal cell carcinoma arising in a tattooed area.

  5. Carcinosarcoma arising in a dermoid cyst of the ovary.

    Arora, D S; Haldane, S

    1996-01-01

    A case of carcinosarcoma arising within an otherwise benign cystic teratoma is reported. The patient, a 78 year old nulliparous woman, presented with right sided abdominal pain of short duration and subsequently underwent a bilateral salphingo-oophorectomy. Slicing of the left ovary revealed a unilocular cyst containing hair admixed with soft yellow material with a thin wall apart from a solid area at one pole. Extensive areas of necrosis and cystic degeneration were present within this mass....

  6. Serous adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid mesentery arising in cystic endosalpingiosis

    McCoubrey, A.; Houghton, O; McCallion, K; McCluggage, W G

    2005-01-01

    This case report describes a Mullerian serous adenocarcinoma arising within a multoloculated cyst lined by ciliated serous-type epithelium located in the sigmoid mesentery. Twenty years previously the patient underwent a hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and omentectomy. The ovaries contained bilateral serous cystadenofibromas, and multiple cysts lined by ciliated serous-type epithelium were present in the omentum. The resection specimen 20 years later contained a 14 cm multilocu...

  7. Sebaceous Carcinoma Arising in Mature Cystic Teratoma of Ovary

    An, Hyo Jeong; Jung, Yong Han; Yoon, Hye Kyoung; Jung, Soo Jin

    2013-01-01

    Roughly 1% of mature cystic teratomas undergo malignant transformation. In particular, cutaneous-type adnexal neoplasms may occur in mature cystic teratomas. Sebaceous carcinomas, which arise from mature cystic teratomas, have rarely been observed, with only seven cases previously reported. Here, we present a case of a 69-year-old female who had pelvic pain for two weeks and who subsequently underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and hysterectomy. Her left ovary showed a unilocular cyst, m...

  8. A Case of Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma Arising from Adenomyosis

    Shigeki Taga; Mari Sawada; Aya Nagai; Dan Yamamoto; Ryoji Hayase

    2014-01-01

    Malignant changes in endometriosis are often reported, but those in adenomyosis are rare. We report a case of endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from adenomyosis. Case Presentation. A 57-year-old woman presenting with vaginal bleeding was referred to our hospital. Cytological tests of endometrium revealed atypical glandular cells. Fractional endometrial curettage revealed normal endometrium without atypia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple myomas. The endometrium was slightl...

  9. Some Questions Arising from the Homogeneous Banach Space Problem

    Casazza, Peter G.

    1992-01-01

    We review the current state of the homogeneous Banach space problem. We then formulate several questions which arise naturally from this problem, some of which seem to be fundamental but new. We give many examples defining the bounds on the problem. We end with a simple construction showing that every infinite dimensional Banach space contains a subspace on which weak properties have become stable (under passing to further subspaces). Implications of this construction are considered.

  10. Thyroid gland metastasis arising from breast cancer: A case report

    Yang, Mei; WANG, WEI; ZHANG, CHENFANG

    2013-01-01

    The thyroid gland is an uncommon site for metastasis to develop and thus metastases arising from breast cancer are rarely observed. In the present study, we describe a case of a 45-year-old female with a three-year history of breast cancer who presented with a thyroid mass that was diagnosed as metastatic breast carcinoma by histopathological analysis of the subtotal thyroidectomy specimen. To ascertain the diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer, we evaluated two types of markers; those that p...

  11. Papillary carcinoma arising from a thyroglossal duct cyst

    This report describes a case of papillary carcinoma arising from a thyroglossal duct cyst (TDC) in a young woman. Imaging showed a heterogeneous cystic lesion at the level of the hyoid, with calcifications and enhancing septae. We compared the USG, CT scan, and MRI findings with those reported previously in literature and we conclude that the presence of a midline cystic lesion with calcification in a young adult should arouse suspicion of papillary carcinoma in a TDC

  12. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Arising in CALR Mutated Essential Thrombocythemia

    Langabeer, Stephen E.; Karl Haslam; David O’Brien; Johanna Kelly; Claire Andrews; Ciara Ryan; Richard Flavin; Hayden, Patrick J.; Bacon, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    The development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in an existing myeloproliferative neoplasm is rare with historical cases unable to differentiate between concomitant malignancies or leukemic transformation. Molecular studies of coexisting JAK2 V617F-positive myeloproliferative neoplasms and mature B cell malignancies indicate distinct disease entities arising in myeloid and lymphoid committed hematopoietic progenitor cells, respectively. Mutations of CALR in essential thrombocythemia appear to...

  13. Nephrogenic adenoma arising from the urinary bladder: a case report

    Chung, Sun Hee; Lee, Sun Wha; Han, Woon Seup [Ewha Womans Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-01

    Nephrogenic adenoma is a benign metaplastic lesion of the urinary tract occurring most frequently at the urinary bladder. It is very rare, especially in children. We describe the US, CT and MRI findings of nephrogenic adenoma arising from the urinary bladder in an 8-year-old girl who suffered rupture of the bladder, urethra and vagina after a traffic accident and whose condition was complicated by urethral stricture and vesicoureteral reflux.

  14. Unusual gestational choriocarcinoma arising in an interstitial pregnancy

    Sawsen Meddeb; Mohamed Salah Rhim; Wissal Zarrouk; Mohamed Bibi; Mohamed Tahar Yacoubi; Hedi Khairi

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Choriocarcinoma is a highly malignant trophoblastic neoplasm. Its association with ectopic pregnancy is very rare and usually with aggressive behavior. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a new case arising in an interstitial pregnancy occurring in a 46-year-old woman. The patient was admitted for severe pelvic pain and abundant metrorrhagia. One month ago, she had had a laparoscopic resection of an interstitial pregnancy subsequent to failure of chemotherapy by methotrexate. The...

  15. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of leiomyoma and endometrial tissue in patients with uterine leiomyoma and endometrial hyperplasia

    Potapov V.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Uterine leiomyoma and endometrial hyperplasia are commonly found disorders because of quite similar pathogenic pathways associated with action of sex steroids such as estradiol and progesterone. The gold standard of treatment of combination of uterine leiomyoma and endometrial hyperplasia is myomectomy with further prescription of gestagens. Objective. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of leiomyoma and endometrial tissue in patients with uterine leiomyoma and endometrial hyperplasia. Methods. In this study histological and immunohistochemical analysis of leiomyoma and endometrium samples were conducted in 30 patients with uterine leiomyoma and endometrial hyperplasia. Further evaluation with transvaginal ultrasound end endometrial biopsy was conducted in 6 and 12 months after surgery. Results. In women with combined endometrial hyperplasia and uterine leiomyoma there is an increased risk of myoma relapse (23.3% and treatment failure of endometrial hyperplasia (36.7% after traditional treatment with gestagens. Among 7 patients with leiomyoma recurrence there was persistence of endometrial hyperplasia what was associated with increased proliferation, angiogenesis and decreased apoptosis. Conclusion. During a comprehensive immunohistochemical study of endometrial biopsies and uterine leiomyoma in women with histologically verified uterine leiomyoma and endometrial hyperplasia common immunohistochemical features had been identified such as increased expression of ki-67 and VEGF and bcl-2. It was proposed that traditional scheme using derivatives of progesterone should be avoided in such patients. In order to optimize treatment outcomes in women with such findings proposed treatment of choice should be drugs with severe suppressive action on proliferation, angiogenesis with simultaneous stimulating action on apoptosis. Drug of choice in such case should be GnRH agonist what should be assessed in future research. Citation

  16. p53 nuclear accumulation and ERα expression in ductal hyperplasia of breast in a cohort of 215 Chinese women

    Mao Xiao-yun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Women with ductal hyperplasia including usual ductal hyperplasia (UDH and atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH have an increased risk of developing invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC of breast. The importance of several molecular markers in breast cancer has been of considerable interest during recent years such as p53 and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα. However, p53 nuclear accumulation and ERα expression have not been assessed in ductal hyperplasia co-existing with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS or IDC versus pure ductal hyperplasia without DCIS or IDC. Materials and methods We investigated p53 nuclear accumulation and ERα expression in breast ductal hyperplasia in a cohort of 215 Chinese women by immunohistochemistry (IHC, which included 129 cases of pure ductal hyperplasia, 86 cases of ductal hyperplasia co-existing with DCIS (41 cases or IDC (45 cases. Results Nuclear p53 accumulation was identified in 22.8% of ADH (31/136, 41.5% of DCIS (17/41 and 42.2% of IDC (19/45, and no case of UDH (0/79. No difference in nuclear p53 accumulation was observed between pure ADH and ADH co-existing with DCIS (ADH/DCIS or IDC (ADH/IDC (P > 0.05. The positive rate of ERα expression was lower in ADH (118/136, 86.8% than that in UDH (79/79, 100% (P P P P Conclusions Different pathological types of ductal hyperplasia of breast are accompanied by diversity in patterns of nuclear p53 accumulation and ERα expression. At least some pure ADH is molecularly distinct from ADH/CIS or ADH/IDC which indicated the two types of ADH are molecularly distinct entities although they have the same morphological appearance.

  17. Ovarian carcinoma in a 14-year-old with classical salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia and bilateral adrenalectomy.

    Pina, Christian; Khattab, Ahmed; Katzman, Philip; Bruckner, Lauren; Andolina, Jeffrey; New, Maria; Yau, Mabel

    2015-05-01

    A 14-year-old female with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia because of 21-hydroxylase deficiency underwent bilateral adrenalectomy at 6 years of age as a result of poor hormonal control. Because the patient was adrenalectomized, extra adrenal androgen production was suspected. Imaging studies including pelvic ultrasound and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were obtained to evaluate for adrenal rest tumors of the ovaries. Abdominal MRI was obtained to evaluate for residual adrenal tissue. A cystic lesion arising from her right ovary suspicious for ovarian neoplasm was noted on pelvic MRI. Right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed and histopathological examination revealed ovarian serous adenocarcinoma, low-grade, and well-differentiated. Tumor marker CA-125 was elevated and additional ovarian cancer staging workup confirmed stage IIIC due to one lymph node positive for carcinoma. The patient then developed a large left ovarian cyst, which led to a complete total abdominal hysterectomy and removal of the left ovary and fallopian tube. Pathology confirmed ovarian serous adenocarcinoma with microscopic focus of carcinoma in the left ovary. After numerous complications, the patient responded well to chemotherapy, CA-125 levels fell and no evidence of carcinoma was observed on subsequent imaging. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an ovarian serous adenocarcinoma in a patient with CAH. Although rare, we propose that the ovaries were the origin of androgen production and not residual adrenal tissue. The relationship between CAH and ovarian carcinomas has yet to be established, but further evaluation is needed given the poor survival rate of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. PMID:25427061

  18. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo: A Separate Entity or Hypertrophic Lichen Planus-like Reaction?

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia; Junkins-Hopkins, Jacqueline M

    2015-12-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as "lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia" or "hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction." Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  19. The CANDU-PHW generating system waste arisings

    In this report, the volume of material and level of contained radioactive nuclides are tabulated for wastes arising from four fuel cycles which might be operated in CANDU-PHW (CANada Deuterium Uranium - Pressurized Heavy Water) reactors. The data presented, based on Canadian experience and/or studies, cover the range of conditioned waste volumes which could be expected from steady-state (no growth), CANDU-PHW-powered electrical generating systems. The wastes arising from operation and decommissioning of facilities in each phase of each fuel cycle are estimated. Each fuel cycle is considered to operate in isolation with the data given in terms of quantities per gigawatt-year of electricity produced. Three of the fuel cycles for which data are presented, the natural uranium once-through cycle, the plutonium-enriched uranium cycle (plutonium recycle) and the low-burnup uranium-enriched thorium cycle (thorium and uranium recycle), were studied by INFCE WG.7 (the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation, Working Group 7) as fuel cycles 4, 5 and 6. The high-burnup uranium-enriched thorium cycle is included for comparison. INFCE WG.7 selected many common reference parameters which are applied uniformly to all seven INFCE WG.7 reference fuel cycles in determining waste arisings. Where these parameters differ from the data of Canadian origin given in the body of this report, the INFCE WG.7 data are given in an appendix. The waste management costs associated with operation of each INFCE WG.7 reference fuel cycle were calculated and compared by the working group. An arbitrary set of costing parameters and disposal technologies was selected by the working group for application to each of the reference fuel cycles. The waste management and disposal costs for the PHW reactor fuel cycles based on these arbitrary cost parameters are given in an appendix. (author)

  20. A functional equation arising from multiplication of quantum integers

    Nathanson, Melvyn B.

    2002-01-01

    For the quantum integer $[n]_q = 1+q+...+q^{n-1}$ there is a natural polynomial multiplication $*_q$ such that $[m]_q *_q [n]_q = [mn]_q$. This multiplication leads to the functional equation $f_{mn}(q) = f_m(q)f_n(q^m),$ defined on a given sequence $\\mathcal(F)=\\{f_n(q)\\}_{n=1}^{\\infty}$ of polynomials. This paper contains various results concerning the classification and construction of polynomial sequences that satisfy the functional equation, as well as a list of open problems that arise ...

  1. Renal cell carcinoma arising in ipsilateral duplex system.

    Mohan, Harsh; Kundu, Reetu; Dalal, Usha

    2014-09-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract are common and include a wide anatomic spectrum. Duplex systems are one of the more common renal anomalies, with the majority being asymptomatic. Little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of these anomalies; however, certain causative genes have been implicated. The finding of renal cell carcinoma arising in a kidney with the duplication of pelvicalyceal system and ureters, as in the present case, is uncommon. The association between a duplex system and renal cell carcinoma may be more than a coincidence, requiring a deeper insight and further elucidation. PMID:26328175

  2. Radiologic findings of malignant tumors arising from ovarian endometriosis

    Lee, Eun Ju; Joo, Hee Jae [Ajou Univ. College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bo Hyun [SungkyunKwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-11-01

    To determine the radiologic characteristics of malignant tumors arising from ovarian endometriosis. The radiologic findings of eleven patients with pelvic masses histologically confirmed as malignant ovarian tumors arising from endometriosis were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent MR, and six underwent ultrasonography. The findings were evaluated with regard to tumor size and shape, locularity, thickness and enhancement of the wall and septa, the presence of papillary nodule or solid portion, signal intensity of the locule, the presence of mass in contralateral ovary, ascites, local invasion, distant metastases, and the Pathologic diagnosis included clear cell carcinoma in six cases, endometrioid carcinoma in three, and mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of borderline malignancy and endometrial stromal sarcoma in one case each. Tumor size ranged from 8 to 20 (mean, 12.7)cm. The tumors were mixed in four cases, entirely cystic in three, predominantly cystic in three, and predominantly solid in one. Six cases were unilocular and five were multilocular. The wall and septa varied in thickness and regularity and were well enhanced in all but one case. In all cases papillary nodules or solid portions with similar enhancement to uterine myometrium were seen. On T1WI, the signal intensity of fluid was seen to be high in eight cases, low or intermediate in two, and of differing intensity in one. Ten cases showed high signal intensity on T2WI, whereas in one case in which high signal intensity was seen on T1WI, there was low signal intensity(shading). In three cases the contralateral ovary contained an endometrioma. Other features included ascites in seven cases and peritoneal seeding in one. Malignant ovarian tumors arising from endometriosis showed radiologic features of malignancy:they were larger than 10cm, there was enhancement of the wall and septa, and a papillary nodule or solid portion was present. However, the presence of hyperintense fluid, as seen on T1WI

  3. Radiologic findings of malignant tumors arising from ovarian endometriosis

    To determine the radiologic characteristics of malignant tumors arising from ovarian endometriosis. The radiologic findings of eleven patients with pelvic masses histologically confirmed as malignant ovarian tumors arising from endometriosis were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent MR, and six underwent ultrasonography. The findings were evaluated with regard to tumor size and shape, locularity, thickness and enhancement of the wall and septa, the presence of papillary nodule or solid portion, signal intensity of the locule, the presence of mass in contralateral ovary, ascites, local invasion, distant metastases, and the Pathologic diagnosis included clear cell carcinoma in six cases, endometrioid carcinoma in three, and mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of borderline malignancy and endometrial stromal sarcoma in one case each. Tumor size ranged from 8 to 20 (mean, 12.7)cm. The tumors were mixed in four cases, entirely cystic in three, predominantly cystic in three, and predominantly solid in one. Six cases were unilocular and five were multilocular. The wall and septa varied in thickness and regularity and were well enhanced in all but one case. In all cases papillary nodules or solid portions with similar enhancement to uterine myometrium were seen. On T1WI, the signal intensity of fluid was seen to be high in eight cases, low or intermediate in two, and of differing intensity in one. Ten cases showed high signal intensity on T2WI, whereas in one case in which high signal intensity was seen on T1WI, there was low signal intensity(shading). In three cases the contralateral ovary contained an endometrioma. Other features included ascites in seven cases and peritoneal seeding in one. Malignant ovarian tumors arising from endometriosis showed radiologic features of malignancy:they were larger than 10cm, there was enhancement of the wall and septa, and a papillary nodule or solid portion was present. However, the presence of hyperintense fluid, as seen on T1WI

  4. Knowledge Protection and Input Complexity Arising from Open Innovation

    Peeters, Thijs; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Controlling unique knowledge is of increasing importance to firms. Therefore, firms use knowledge protection mechanisms to prevent competitors from imitating their knowledge. We study the effects of the complexity of knowledge inputs that arises from open innovation on the importance of two widely...... used protection mechanisms: patents and trademarks. We argue that this complexity makes the threat of imitation less predictable, and thus makes knowledge protection more important. By analyzing survey data of 938 German firms, we find that patents are more important for firms in industries with higher...... knowledge input complexity. Furthermore, we show that the dynamics and not the level of knowledge input complexity positively affect the importance of trademarks....

  5. Review of radioactive gaseous and liquid effluent arisings in CAGR

    The sources of the active nuclides present in gaseous and liquid effluents arising during the normal operation of CAGR power stations are identified. The methods of calculation used to predict the activity of nuclides present in effluents discharged during normal station operation are outlined. The results of calculations based on these methods are compared with operating station measurements to obtain an indication of their accuracy. Reasonable consistency between prediction and measurement is obtained in general, but where appropriate the comparison is used to make corrections to input data and the calculational route. (author)

  6. Dealing with uncertainty arising out of probabilistic risk assessment

    In addressing the area of safety goal implementation, the question of uncertainty arises. This report suggests that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) should examine how other regulatory organizations have addressed the issue. Several examples are given from the chemical industry, and comparisons are made to nuclear power risks. Recommendations are made as to various considerations that the NRC should require in probabilistic risk assessments in order to properly treat uncertainties in the implementation of the safety goal policy. 40 references, 7 figures, 5 tables

  7. On the modular functions arising from the Theta constants

    Ugur S. Kirmaci

    2003-01-01

    Some modular functions arising from the theta constants $ \\vartheta_2(\\tau)$, $ \\vartheta_3(\\tau)$, $ \\vartheta_4(\\tau)$ are investigated. Let $n$ be an odd square-free positive integer as in [4,7]. It is obtained a necessary and sufficient condition that $ \\varphi_{\\delta,\\rho,3}(\\tau)=\\prod_{\\delta|n,\\rho|n}\\Big({\\vartheta_3(\\delta\\tau) \\over\\vartheta_3(\\rho\\tau)}\\Big)^{r_\\delta}$  is invariant with respect to transformations in $ \\theta(n)$. Also, It is deduced that $ \\varphi_{\\delta,\\rho,...

  8. The postsynaptic adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) multiprotein complex is required for localizing neuroligin and neurexin to neuronal nicotinic synapses in vivo.

    Rosenberg, Madelaine M; Yang, Fang; Mohn, Jesse L; Storer, Elizabeth K; Jacob, Michele H

    2010-08-18

    Synaptic efficacy requires that presynaptic and postsynaptic specializations align precisely and mature coordinately. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, however. We propose that adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC) is a key coordinator of presynaptic and postsynaptic maturation. APC organizes a multiprotein complex that directs nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) localization at postsynaptic sites in avian ciliary ganglion neurons in vivo. We hypothesize that the APC complex also provides retrograde signals that direct presynaptic active zones to develop in register with postsynaptic nAChR clusters. In our model, the APC complex provides retrograde signals via postsynaptic neuroligin that interacts extracellularly with presynaptic neurexin. S-SCAM (synaptic cell adhesion molecule) and PSD-93 (postsynaptic density-93) are scaffold proteins that bind to neuroligin. We identify S-SCAM as a novel component of neuronal nicotinic synapses. We show that S-SCAM, PSD-93, neuroligin and neurexin are enriched at alpha3*-nAChR synapses. PSD-93 and S-SCAM bind to APC and its binding partner beta-catenin, respectively. Blockade of selected APC and beta-catenin interactions, in vivo, leads to decreased postsynaptic accumulation of S-SCAM, but not PSD-93. Importantly, neuroligin synaptic clusters are also decreased. On the presynaptic side, there are decreases in neurexin and active zone proteins. Further, presynaptic terminals are less mature structurally and functionally. We define a novel neural role for APC by showing that the postsynaptic APC multiprotein complex is required for anchoring neuroligin and neurexin at neuronal synapses in vivo. APC human gene mutations correlate with autism spectrum disorders, providing strong support for the importance of the association, demonstrated here, between APC, neuroligin and neurexin. PMID:20720115

  9. Downregulation of adenomatous polyposis coli by microRNA-663 promotes odontogenic differentiation through activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling

    Highlights: • miR-663 is significantly up-regulated during MDPC-23 odontoblastic cell differentiation. • miR-663 accelerates mineralization in MDPC-23 odontoblastic cells without cell proliferation. • miR-663 promotes odontoblastic cell differentiation by targeting APC and activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling in MDPC-23 cells. - Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate cell differentiation by inhibiting mRNA translation or by inducing its degradation. However, the role of miRNAs in odontogenic differentiation is largely unknown. In this present study, we observed that the expression of miR-663 increased significantly during differentiation of MDPC-23 cells to odontoblasts. Furthermore, up-regulation of miR-663 expression promoted odontogenic differentiation and accelerated mineralization without proliferation in MDPC-23 cells. In addition, target gene prediction for miR-663 revealed that the mRNA of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, which is associated with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, has a miR-663 binding site in its 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR). Furthermore, APC expressional was suppressed significantly by miR-663, and this down-regulation of APC expression triggered activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling through accumulation of β-catenin in the nucleus. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-663 promotes differentiation of MDPC-23 cells to odontoblasts by targeting APC-mediated activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Therefore, miR-663 can be considered a critical regulator of odontoblast differentiation and can be utilized for developing miRNA-based therapeutic agents

  10. Celecoxib and tauro-ursodeoxycholic acid co-treatment inhibits cell growth in familial adenomatous polyposis derived LT97 colon adenoma cells

    Heumen, Bjorn W.H. van, E-mail: b.vanheumen@mdl.umcn.nl [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Roelofs, Hennie M.J.; Morsche, Rene H.M. te [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Marian, Brigitte [Institute of Cancer Research, Wien University, Vienna (Austria); Nagengast, Fokko M.; Peters, Wilbert H.M. [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    Chemoprevention would be a desirable strategy to avoid duodenectomy in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) suffering from duodenal adenomatosis. We investigated the in vitro effects on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and COX-2 expression of the potential chemopreventives celecoxib and tauro-ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). HT-29 colon cancer cells and LT97 colorectal micro-adenoma cells derived from a patient with FAP, were exposed to low dose celecoxib and UDCA alone or in combination with tauro-cholic acid (CA) and tauro-chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), mimicking bile of FAP patients treated with UDCA. In HT-29 cells, co-treatment with low dose celecoxib and UDCA resulted in a decreased cell growth (14-17%, p < 0.01). A more pronounced decrease (23-27%, p < 0.01) was observed in LT97 cells. Cell growth of HT-29 cells exposed to 'artificial bile' enriched with UDCA, was decreased (p < 0.001), either in the absence or presence of celecoxib. In LT97 cells incubated with 'artificial bile' enriched with UDCA, cell growth was decreased only in the presence of celecoxib (p < 0.05). No clear evidence was found for involvement of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, caspase-3, or COX-2 in the cellular processes leading to the observed changes in cell growth. In conclusion, co-treatment with low dose celecoxib and UDCA has growth inhibitory effects on colorectal adenoma cells derived from a patient with FAP, and further research on this combination as promising chemopreventive strategy is desired. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Celecoxib and UDCA acid co-treatment decreases cell growth in colon tumor cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UDCA enriched 'artificial bile' decreases LT-97 cell growth only in presence of celecoxib. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCNA, caspase-3, nor COX-2 seem to be involved in the observed changes in cell growth.

  11. Effect of differently sized nanoparticles’ accumulation on the optical properties of ex vivo normal and adenomatous human colon tissue with OCT imaging and diffuse reflectance spectra

    Using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and diffuse reflectance spectra, we investigated the dynamics of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles, of different sizes, when penetrating and accumulating in human normal colon tissue (NC) and adenomatous colon tissue (AC). The process of nanoparticle penetration and accumulation in biotissue is accompanied by changes in the optical properties of tissue. Continuous OCT monitoring showed that, after application of TiO2 nanoparticles, the OCT signal intensities of NC and ac both increase with time, and the larger nanoparticles tend to produce a greater signal enhancement in the same type of tissue. The average attenuation coefficient decreased from 4.03 ± 0.36 to 2.68 ± 0.24 mm−1 at approximately 127 min for NC with 60 nm TiO2, from 4.14 ± 0.38 to 2.91 ± 0.27 mm−1 at about 148 min for NC with 100 nm TiO2, from 8.49 ± 0.77 to 3.54 ± 0.34 mm−1 at about 110 min for AC with 60 nm TiO2, and from 8.61 ± 0.79 to 3.89 ± 0.41 mm−1 at about 128 min for AC with 100 nm TiO2, respectively. Spectral measurements confirm that the nanoparticles penetrate and accumulate in NC and AC. The results suggest that the penetration and accumulation of TiO2 nanoparticles have significant effects on the optical properties of NC and AC. (letter)

  12. Point Mutations in Exon 1B of APC Reveal Gastric Adenocarcinoma and Proximal Polyposis of the Stomach as a Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Variant.

    Li, Jun; Woods, Susan L; Healey, Sue; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Lee, Jason S; Sivakumaran, Haran; Wayte, Nicci; Nones, Katia; Waterfall, Joshua J; Pearson, John; Patch, Anne-Marie; Senz, Janine; Ferreira, Manuel A; Kaurah, Pardeep; Mackenzie, Robertson; Heravi-Moussavi, Alireza; Hansford, Samantha; Lannagan, Tamsin R M; Spurdle, Amanda B; Simpson, Peter T; da Silva, Leonard; Lakhani, Sunil R; Clouston, Andrew D; Bettington, Mark; Grimpen, Florian; Busuttil, Rita A; Di Costanzo, Natasha; Boussioutas, Alex; Jeanjean, Marie; Chong, George; Fabre, Aurélie; Olschwang, Sylviane; Faulkner, Geoffrey J; Bellos, Evangelos; Coin, Lachlan; Rioux, Kevin; Bathe, Oliver F; Wen, Xiaogang; Martin, Hilary C; Neklason, Deborah W; Davis, Sean R; Walker, Robert L; Calzone, Kathleen A; Avital, Itzhak; Heller, Theo; Koh, Christopher; Pineda, Marbin; Rudloff, Udo; Quezado, Martha; Pichurin, Pavel N; Hulick, Peter J; Weissman, Scott M; Newlin, Anna; Rubinstein, Wendy S; Sampson, Jone E; Hamman, Kelly; Goldgar, David; Poplawski, Nicola; Phillips, Kerry; Schofield, Lyn; Armstrong, Jacqueline; Kiraly-Borri, Cathy; Suthers, Graeme K; Huntsman, David G; Foulkes, William D; Carneiro, Fatima; Lindor, Noralane M; Edwards, Stacey L; French, Juliet D; Waddell, Nicola; Meltzer, Paul S; Worthley, Daniel L; Schrader, Kasmintan A; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2016-05-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach (GAPPS) is an autosomal-dominant cancer-predisposition syndrome with a significant risk of gastric, but not colorectal, adenocarcinoma. We mapped the gene to 5q22 and found loss of the wild-type allele on 5q in fundic gland polyps from affected individuals. Whole-exome and -genome sequencing failed to find causal mutations but, through Sanger sequencing, we identified point mutations in APC promoter 1B that co-segregated with disease in all six families. The mutations reduced binding of the YY1 transcription factor and impaired activity of the APC promoter 1B in luciferase assays. Analysis of blood and saliva from carriers showed allelic imbalance of APC, suggesting that these mutations lead to decreased allele-specific expression in vivo. Similar mutations in APC promoter 1B occur in rare families with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Promoter 1A is methylated in GAPPS and sporadic FGPs and in normal stomach, which suggests that 1B transcripts are more important than 1A in gastric mucosa. This might explain why all known GAPPS-affected families carry promoter 1B point mutations but only rare FAP-affected families carry similar mutations, the colonic cells usually being protected by the expression of the 1A isoform. Gastric polyposis and cancer have been previously described in some FAP-affected individuals with large deletions around promoter 1B. Our finding that GAPPS is caused by point mutations in the same promoter suggests that families with mutations affecting the promoter 1B are at risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, regardless of whether or not colorectal polyps are present. PMID:27087319

  13. Downregulation of adenomatous polyposis coli by microRNA-663 promotes odontogenic differentiation through activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling

    Kim, Jae-Sung; Park, Min-Gyeong; Lee, Seul Ah; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Heung-Joong; Yu, Sun-Kyoung; Kim, Chun Sung; Kim, Su-Gwan; Oh, Ji-Su; You, Jae-Seek; Kim, Jin-Soo; Seo, Yo-Seob [Oral Biology Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Hong Sung [Department of Biomedical Science, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joo-Cheol [Department of Oral Histology-Developmental Biology, School of Dentistry and Dental Research Institute, BK 21, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Kyung, E-mail: kdk@chosun.ac.kr [Oral Biology Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • miR-663 is significantly up-regulated during MDPC-23 odontoblastic cell differentiation. • miR-663 accelerates mineralization in MDPC-23 odontoblastic cells without cell proliferation. • miR-663 promotes odontoblastic cell differentiation by targeting APC and activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling in MDPC-23 cells. - Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate cell differentiation by inhibiting mRNA translation or by inducing its degradation. However, the role of miRNAs in odontogenic differentiation is largely unknown. In this present study, we observed that the expression of miR-663 increased significantly during differentiation of MDPC-23 cells to odontoblasts. Furthermore, up-regulation of miR-663 expression promoted odontogenic differentiation and accelerated mineralization without proliferation in MDPC-23 cells. In addition, target gene prediction for miR-663 revealed that the mRNA of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, which is associated with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, has a miR-663 binding site in its 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR). Furthermore, APC expressional was suppressed significantly by miR-663, and this down-regulation of APC expression triggered activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling through accumulation of β-catenin in the nucleus. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-663 promotes differentiation of MDPC-23 cells to odontoblasts by targeting APC-mediated activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Therefore, miR-663 can be considered a critical regulator of odontoblast differentiation and can be utilized for developing miRNA-based therapeutic agents.

  14. Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in Tattooed Skin

    Deba P. Sarma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tattoos have increasingly become accepted by mainstream Western society. As a result, the incidence of tattoo-associated dermatoses is on the rise. The presence of a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in an old tattooed skin is of interest as it has not been previously documented. Case Presentation. A 79-year-old white homeless man of European descent presented to the dermatology clinic with a painless raised nodule on his left forearm arising in a tattooed area. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating into a tattoo. The lesion was completely excised and the patient remains disease-free one year later. Conclusion. All previous reports of squamous cell carcinomas arising in tattoos have been well-differentiated low-grade type or keratoacanthoma-type and are considered to be coincidental rather than related to any carcinogenic effect of the tattoo pigments. Tattoo-associated poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma appears to be extremely rare.

  15. Sebaceous carcinoma arising in mature cystic teratoma of ovary.

    An, Hyo Jeong; Jung, Yong Han; Yoon, Hye Kyoung; Jung, Soo Jin

    2013-08-01

    Roughly 1% of mature cystic teratomas undergo malignant transformation. In particular, cutaneous-type adnexal neoplasms may occur in mature cystic teratomas. Sebaceous carcinomas, which arise from mature cystic teratomas, have rarely been observed, with only seven cases previously reported. Here, we present a case of a 69-year-old female who had pelvic pain for two weeks and who subsequently underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and hysterectomy. Her left ovary showed a unilocular cyst, measuring 22.0 cm in diameter, filled with sebaceous material and a few hairs. A luminally-protruding solid mass measuring 4.0 cm in diameter was also noted. Microscopic findings revealed lobular or diffusely arranged basophilic, atypical sebaceous cells connected to a typical mature cystic teratoma. Tumor cells demonstrated positive immunoreactivity for high molecular weight cytokeratin, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 19, epithelial membrane antigen, and carcinoembryonic antigen. Here, we present a case of sebaceous carcinoma arising from a mature cystic teratoma along with a review of previously published reports. PMID:24009635

  16. Multiple Ectopic Hepatocellular Carcinomas Arising in the Abdominal Cavity

    Toru Miyake

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a very rare clinical entity that is defined as HCC arising from extrahepatic liver tissue. This report presents a case of ectopic multiple HCC arising in the abdominal cavity. A 42-year-old otherwise healthy male presented with liver dysfunction at a general health checkup. Both HCV antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen were negative. Laboratory examination showed elevations in serum alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed multiple nodular lesions in the abdominal cavity with ascites without a possible primary tumor. Exploratory laparoscopy was performed, which revealed bloody ascites and multiple brown nodular tumors measuring approximately 10 mm in size that were disseminated on the perineum and mesentery. A postoperative PET-CT scan was performed but it did not reveal any evidence of a tumor in the liver. The tumors resected from the peritoneum were diagnosed as HCC. The present case of HCC was thought to have possibly developed from ectopic liver on the peritoneum or mesentery.

  17. Nipple adenoma arising from axillary accessory breast: a case report

    Shioi Yoshihiro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nipple adenoma is a relatively rare benign breast neoplasm, and cases of the disease arising from the axillary accessory breast have very seldom been reported in the English literature. We report a case of nipple adenoma arising from axillary accessory breast including clinical and pathological findings. An 82-year-old woman presented with the complaint of a small painful mass in the right axilla. Physical examination confirmed a well-defined eczematous crusted mass that was 8 mm in size. The diagnosis of nipple adenoma was made from an excisional specimen on the basis of characteristic histological findings. Microscopic structural features included a compact proliferation of small tubules lined by epithelial and myoepithelial cells, and the merging of glandular epithelial cells of the adenoma into squamous epithelial cells in the superficial epidermal layer. Because clinically nipple adenoma may resemble Paget’s disease and pathologically can be misinterpreted as tubular carcinoma, the correct identification of nipple adenoma is an important factor in the differential diagnosis for axillary tumor neoplasms. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1186821489769063

  18. Diffuse Muscular Pain, Skin Tightening, and Nodular Regenerative Hyperplasia Revealing Paraneoplastic Amyopathic Dermatomyositis due to Testicular Cancer

    Sarah Norrenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic dermatomyositis (DM associated with testicular cancer is extremely rare. We report the case of a patient with skin tightening, polymyalgia, hypereosinophilia, and nodular regenerative hyperplasia revealing seminoma and associated paraneoplastic DM.

  19. Evaluación económica de la prueba genética de la poliposis adenomatosa familiar An economic assessment of genetic testing for familial adenomatous polyposis

    A. Olry de Labry Lima; L. Sordo del Castillo; L. García Mochón; Epstein, D; C. Bermúdez Tamayo; R. Villegas Portero

    2008-01-01

    Objetivo: analizar el coste-utilidad de la prueba genética a familiares de primer grado de pacientes con cáncer de colon para determinar mutaciones del gen APC (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli). Metodología: los análisis se realizaron desde el punto de vista del sistema sanitario. Se utilizó un modelo de Markov. Realización de la prueba genética para el gen APC, causante de la poliposis adenomatosa familiar (PAF), que produce cáncer de colon frente a la no realización de la misma. La medida de efe...

  20. Effects of pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil in Korean men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Hong, Heeok; Kim, Chun-Soo; Maeng, Sungho

    2009-01-01

    This study was to investigate the role of complementary and alternative medicine in the prevention and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. For this purpose, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed over 12 months on 47 benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with average age of 53.3 years and international prostate symptom score over 8. Subjects received either sweet potato starch (group A, placebo, 320 mg/day), pumpkin seed oil (group B, 320 mg/day), saw palmet...

  1. Alopecia universalis, hypothyroidism and pituitary hyperplasia: polyglandular autoimmune syndrome III in a patient in remission from treated Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Quintyne, K I

    2010-10-01

    We herein report a case of a 33-year-old man in remission from Hodgkin lymphoma, who presented with reduced potency and hair loss. Initial endocrine tests revealed autoimmune hypothyroidism. An MRI of his pituitary gland at onset revealed hyperplasia. He tolerated replacement endocrine therapy with good response, but with no improvement in his alopecia universalis. A repeat MRI, 6 months after his initial endocrine manipulation, showed resolution of his pituitary hyperplasia.

  2. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (Mirena) in compare to medroxyprogesterone acetate as a therapy for endometrial hyperplasia

    Fariba Behnamfar; Attaollah Ghahiri; Marzieh Tavakoli

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to evaluate the comparison of insertion of levonorgestrel (LNG)-releasing intrauterine system versus oral medroxyprogesterone acetate on endometrial hyperplasia in a randomized controlled trial. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 women with the initial histopathological diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia in two groups received LNG or medroxyprogesterone (10 mg/d orally) for 12 days a month for 3 months). Endometrial biopsy was obtained for all patients ...

  3. Association of canine splenic hemangiosarcomas and hematomas with nodular lymphoid hyperplasia or siderotic nodules.

    Cole, Patricia Ann

    2012-07-01

    Hemorrhagic splenic masses diagnosed as hemangioma or hemangiosarcoma were reviewed. Lymphoid hyperplasia was present in none of the hemangiosarcoma cases and in 27% of the hematoma cases. Siderotic nodules in the capsule or trabeculae were present in 25% of hemangiosarcoma cases and in 36% of hematoma cases. Hemoabdomen was noted in the clinical history of 54% of hemangiosarcoma cases and in 22% of hematoma cases. The average age (10.3 and 9.6 years, respectively), sex ratios (slightly more males), and most common breeds (Labrador Retriever, Golden Retriever, and German Shepherd Dog) were similar for the hemangiosarcoma and hematoma cases. Since lymphoid hyperplasia is much more common in cases of hematoma, the presence of this feature lends support to a diagnosis of hematoma rather than hemangiosarcoma. Signalment, history of hemoabdomen, and presence of siderotic nodules do not point to one diagnosis over the other. PMID:22621950

  4. Unilateral hyperplasia of the left posterior arch and associated vertebral schisis at C6 level

    We report on a 5-year-old girl with unilateral hyperplasia of the left posterior arch of C6 associated with spina bifida occulta at the same level. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the cervical spine showed hypertrophy of the left lamina as well as overgrowth and elongation of the left spinous process of the sixth cervical vertebra. Computed tomography (CT) examination better depicted this congenital variant and clearly showed the associated schisis of the posterior arch at the same level. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examination ruled out other spinal anomalies. The neck pain, the young age of the patient and the local aesthetic abnormality contributed to the surgical indication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case in the English literature of unilateral hyperplasia of a posterior cervical arch. Only one previous study has reported a similar congenital anomaly, but it was limited to the left side of the spinous process. (orig.)

  5. Unilateral hyperplasia of the left posterior arch and associated vertebral schisis at C6 level

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Bonis, Pasquale de; Tamburrini, Gianpiero; Massimi, Luca; Rocco, Concezio di [Catholic University, School of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Rome (Italy); Byvaltsev, Vadim [Irkutsk Railway Clinical Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Leone, Antonio [Catholic University, School of Medicine, Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We report on a 5-year-old girl with unilateral hyperplasia of the left posterior arch of C6 associated with spina bifida occulta at the same level. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the cervical spine showed hypertrophy of the left lamina as well as overgrowth and elongation of the left spinous process of the sixth cervical vertebra. Computed tomography (CT) examination better depicted this congenital variant and clearly showed the associated schisis of the posterior arch at the same level. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examination ruled out other spinal anomalies. The neck pain, the young age of the patient and the local aesthetic abnormality contributed to the surgical indication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case in the English literature of unilateral hyperplasia of a posterior cervical arch. Only one previous study has reported a similar congenital anomaly, but it was limited to the left side of the spinous process. (orig.)

  6. Ultrasound follow up of testicular adrenal rest tumors with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Report of three cases

    While testicular adrenal rest tumor is generally a rare intratesticular tumor, it is frequent in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The tumors are diagnosed and followed up by ultrasound examination because these tumors are non-palpable and symptomless in most cases and always benign. Ultrasound imaging features change depending on how congenital adrenal hyperplasia is controlled. We herein report three cases of testicular adrenal rest tumors with different usual and unusual imaging findings and follow-up imaging. Patient 1 was a 14-year-old boy who presented with poor compliance to medication. Patient 2 and 3 were a 10-year-old and 13-year-old boy who presented with precocious puberty and short stature, respectively. Ultrasound examinations demonstrated oval hypoechoic masses and irregular speculated hyperechoic masses in the testes and different serial imaging findings

  7. Fetal endocrine therapy for congenital adrenal hyperplasia should not be done.

    Miller, Walter L

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia by administering dexamethasone to a woman presumed to be carrying an at-risk fetus remains a controversial experimental treatment. Review of data from animal experimentation and human trials indicates that dexamethasone cannot be considered safe for the fetus. In animals, prenatal dexamethasone decreases birth weight, affects renal, pancreatic beta cell and brain development, increases anxiety and predisposes to adult hypertension and hyperglycemia. In human studies, prenatal dexamethasone is associated with orofacial clefts, decreased birth weight, poorer verbal working memory, and poorer self-perception of scholastic and social competence. Numerous medical societies have cautioned that prenatal treatment of adrenal hyperplasia with dexamethasone is not appropriate for routine clinical practice and should only be done in Institutional Review Board approved, prospective clinical research settings with written informed consent. The data indicate that this treatment is inconsistent with the classic medical ethical maxim to 'first do no harm'. PMID:26051303

  8. Reversible thyrotroph hyperplasia with hyperprolactinemia: A rare presenting manifestation of primary hypothyroidism

    Rajesh Rajput

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary thyrotroph hyperplasia with hyperprolactinemia has been described as a rare presentation of primary hypothyroidism. Premenopausal females with this disorder can present with features of hypothyroidism, menstrual disturbances, galactorrhea, and visual field defects because of enlarged pituitary. Here we describe a 32-year-old female presenting to her gynecologist primarily with galactorrhea and secondary amenorrhea. She was found to have raised serum prolactin, and MRI brain showed enlarged pituitary. She was referred for pituitary surgery when she came to us. Clinical examination and biochemistry were suggestive of primary hypothyroidism. She was prescribed levothyroxine replacement. At 6 weeks follow-up, serum prolactin came down to normal, galactorrhea subsided, and spontaneous menstrual cycles resumed. In 12 weeks, pituitary enlargement completely regressed and in another month after that, she conceived. Hence, primary hypothyroidism can present with thyrotroph hyperplasia, where correct diagnosis and levothyroxine therapy can prevent unnecessary pituitary surgery. Hyperprolactinemia in this setting is of no clinical significance.

  9. Investigation of ejaculatory disorder by silodosin in the treatment of prostatic hyperplasia

    Sakata Koichi; Morita Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background To assess the ejaculatory disorder caused by silodosin in the prostatic hyperplasia patients who carry out sexual actions (sexual intercourse, masturbation). Method The subjects of this study were 91 patients who had been clinically diagnosed to have LUTS/BPH at this hospital, who were administered silodosin at 4 mg twice a day, and who gave response to a questionnaire survey related to ejaculatory disorder. Sexual intercourse and masturbation were regarded as sexual actio...

  10. Effects of Tamsulosin on Premature Ejaculation in Men with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Choi, Jae Hwi; Hwa, Jung Seog; Kam, Sung Chul; Jeh, Seong Uk; Hyun, Jae Seog

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies have revealed that tamsulosin is effective in improving lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and erectile functioning but has some inhibitory effects on ejaculation, including decreased ejaculatory volume. However, these inhibitory effects on ejaculation can be beneficial to patients with premature ejaculation (PE). Therefore, this study was conducted to understand the effect of tamsulosin on PE in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Materials and Methods Twenty-nin...

  11. Insulin-like growth factor 1 in relation to prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Mantzoros, C S; Tzonou, A.; Signorello, L B; Stampfer, M.; Trichopoulos, D; Adami, H. O.

    1997-01-01

    Blood samples were collected from 52 incident cases of histologically confirmed prostate cancer, an equal number of cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and an equal number of apparently healthy control subjects. The three groups were matched for age and town of residence in the greater Athens area. Steroid hormones, sex hormone-binding globulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured in duplicate by radioimmunoassay in a specialized US centre. Statistical analyses were...

  12. Is there a relationship between androgenic alopecia and benign prostatic hyperplasia?

    Ladan Dastgheib; Mehdi Shirazi; Iman Moezzi; Saber Dehghan; Maryam-Sadat Sadati

    2015-01-01

    Androgenic alopecia as a physiologic process and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) as a pathologic process in the older population are androgen-dependent processes influenced by 5-alpha reductase enzyme which converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. This cross sectional study was done to evaluate the relationship between androgenic alopecia and BPH. 150 men older than 50 years old, who presented to the free prostate screening clinic, were included. They were asked about urinary symptoms...

  13. Diagnosis of adrenal adenoma and hyperplasia by CT and adrenal scintigraphy

    The evaluation of X-CT and adrenal scintigraphy in diagnosis of Cushing syndrome and primary aldosteronism was studied in 18 patients. In Cushing syndrome, CT appearance of adenoma is commonly larger than that of primary aldosteronism and cleary deliniated by surrounding fat. So, in Cushing syndrome, diagnosis of adenoma on CT is much easier than that of primary aldosteronism, and absence of adenoma on CT suggests adrenal hyperplasia. In primary aldosteronism both of CT and scintigraphy must be performed. (author)

  14. AB079. Phenotype variation in untreated 46,XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Faradz, Sultana MH; Utari, Agustini; Ediati, Annastasia; Ariani, Mahayu Dewi; Juniarto, Achmad Zulfa

    2015-01-01

    Simple virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by 21 hydroxylase deficiency leading to excessive androgen production. In infants with 46,XX karyotype, prenatal exposure of androgen overproduction leads to a gradual virilization of the external genital. Consequently, babies are born with an ambiguous genital which complicates sex assignment. Genital virilization will be progressive if these babies remain untreated. In country where newbo...

  15. Pituitary hyperplasia: case series and literature review of an under-recognised and heterogeneous condition

    De Sousa, Sunita M C; Earls, Peter; McCormack, Ann I

    2015-01-01

    Summary Pituitary hyperplasia (PH) occurs in heterogeneous settings and remains under-recognised. Increased awareness of this condition and its natural history should circumvent unnecessary trans-sphenoidal surgery. We performed an observational case series of patients referred to a single endocrinologist over a 3-year period. Four young women were identified with PH manifesting as diffuse, symmetrical pituitary enlargement near or touching the optic apparatus on MRI. The first woman presente...

  16. Right thyroid hemiagenesis with adenoma and hyperplasia of parathyroid glands -case report

    Oruci Merima; Ito Yasuhiro; Buta Marko; Radisavljevic Ziv; Pupic Gordana; Djurisic Igor; Dzodic Radan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare anomaly, more commonly seen on the left side (ratio 4:1) and in females (ratio 3:1). The first to describe this anomaly was Handfield Jones in 1852. Case presentation We present a 66 year old female patient with right thyroid hemiagenesis, parathyroid adenoma on the side of hemiagenesis and parathyroid hyperplasia on the contralateral side. The patient had neck pain and was diagnosed as Hashimto thyroiditis with hyperparathyroidism. Parathyro...

  17. Prospective Factor Analysis of Alpha Blocker Monotherapy Failure in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Hong, Kyoung Pyo; Byun, Young Joon; Yoon, Hana; Park, Young Yo; Chung, Woo Sik

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to determine the treatment of choice criteria for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) by analyzing the factors causing alpha-adrenergic receptor blocker (α-blocker) monotherapy failure. Materials and Methods This retrospective study enrolled 129 patients with BPH who were prescribed an α-blocker. Patients were allocated to a transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) group (after having at least a 6-month duration of medication) and an α-blocker group. We compared the differen...

  18. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia – An economic assessment of fixed combination therapy based on a literature review

    Roberto Messina; Vincenzo Mirone

    2015-01-01

    FederAnziani Senior Italia and SIU – Italian Society of Urology – have decided to work together to draft a document focussing on Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH), and to stress the importance of adherence with pharmacological treatment in this setting, from both a scientific and a patient standpoint. Starting from a literature search, the two associations analysed to what extent an increase in treatment adherence amongst these patients influences hospital savings and to what extent therapy ...

  19. Clinical Effects of Discontinuing 5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitor in Patients With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Kim, Won; Jung, Jae Hung; Kang, Tae Wook; Song, Jae Mann; Chung, Hyun Chul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess changes in lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), prostate volume, and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) after discontinuation of 5-alpha reductase inhibitor (5ARI) combination therapy in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Materials and Methods From December 2003 to December 2012, data were collected retrospectively from 81 men more than 40 years of age with moderate to severe BPH symptoms (International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS]≥8). The men were classif...

  20. Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to STAR mutations in a Caucasian patient

    Kaur, Jasmeet; Casas, Luis:; Bose, Himangshu S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH), the most severe form of CAH, is most commonly caused by mutations in steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), which is required for the movement of cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membranes to synthesize pregnenolone. This study was performed to evaluate whether the salt-losing crisis and the adrenal inactivity experienced by a Scandinavian infant is due to a de novo STAR mutation. The study was conducted ...

  1. Human SolCD39 Inhibits Injury-induced Development of Neointimal Hyperplasia

    Drosopoulos, Joan H. F.; Kraemer, Rosemary; Shen, Hao; Rita K. Upmacis; Marcus, Aaron J; Musi, Elgilda

    2009-01-01

    Blood platelets provide the initial response to vascular endothelial injury, becoming activated as they adhere to the injured site. Activated platelets recruit leukocytes, and initiate proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) within the injured vessel wall, leading to development of neointimal hyperplasia. Endothelial CD39/NTPDase1 and recombinant solCD39 rapidly metabolize nucleotides, including stimulatory ADP released from activated platelets, thereby suppressing a...

  2. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver, CREST syndrome and primary biliary cirrhosis: an overlap syndrome?

    McMahon, R F; Babbs, C.; Warnes, T W

    1989-01-01

    Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver (NRHL) has been found in association with collagen vascular diseases, after drug therapy, with autoimmune disease, and with a variety of haematological disorders. The association of NRHL with the syndrome of Calcinosis cutis, Raynaud's phenomenon, oesophageal dysfunction, sclerodactyly and telangiectasia (CREST syndrome) has only been reported on two previous occasions. The liver disease usually associated with CREST syndrome is primary biliary ci...

  3. Spectrum of lymphoid hyperplasia: colonic manifestations of sarcoidosis, infectious mononucleosis, and Crohn's disease

    Ell, S.R.; Frank, P.H.

    1981-10-15

    The radiographic pattern of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia, perhaps better called the lymphoid follicular pattern, has variously been described as an indication of disease and as a normal variant in the adult, with current opinion favoring the latter. We report 3 cases wherein this pattern resulted from definite pathologic processes: sarcoidosis, infectious mononucleosis, and Crohn's disease. Although usually of no pathological significance, the benign follicular pattern may reflect a variety of diseases.

  4. Spectrum of lymphoid hyperplasia: Colonic manifestations of sarcoidosis, infectious mononucleosis, and Crohn's disease

    The radiographic pattern of nodular lmyphoid hyperplasia, perhaps better called the lymphoid follicular pattern, has variously been described as an indication of disease and as a normal variant in the adult, with current opinion favoring the latter. We report 3 cases wherein this pattern resulted from definite pathologic processes: sarcoidosis, infectious mononucleosis, and Crohn's disease. Although usually of no pathological significance, the benign follicular pattern may reflect a variety of diseases. (orig.)

  5. Leptin-enhanced neointimal hyperplasia is reduced by mTOR and PI3K inhibitors

    Shan, Jian; Nguyen, Thomas B.; Totary-Jain, Hana; Dansky, Hayes; Marx, Steven O.; Marks, Andrew R.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the use of the sirolimus (rapamycin) drug-eluting coronary stent, diabetics are at increased risk of developing in-stent restenosis for unclear reasons. Hyperleptinemia, which often coexists with diabetes and metabolic syndrome, is an independent risk factor for progression of coronary artery disease. It has not been determined whether elevated circulating leptin decreases the efficacy of the sirolimus drug-eluting stent in inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia, the process underlying res...

  6. Minimally invasive devices for treating lower urinary tract symptoms in benign prostate hyperplasia: technology update

    Aoun F; Marcelis Q; Roumeguère T

    2015-01-01

    Fouad Aoun1, Quentin Marcelis,1,2 Thierry Roumeguère,2 1Department of Urology, Jules Bordet Institute, 2Department of Urology, Erasme Hospital, University Clinics of Brussels, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium Abstract: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) represents a spectrum of related lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The cost of currently recommended medications and the discontinuation rate due to side effects are significant drawbacks limiting thei...

  7. [S2e guideline of the German urologists : Conservative and pharmacologic treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    Höfner, K; Bach, T; Berges, R; Dreikorn, K; Gratzke, C; Madersbacher, S; Michel, M-S; Muschter, R; Oelke, M; Reich, O; Tschuschke, C; Bschleipfer, T

    2016-02-01

    This report summarizes the relevant aspects of the S2e guideline of the German Urologists for the conservative and pharmacological treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Recommendations are given regarding watchful waiting, behavioral therapy, phytotherapy and pharmacological mono- and combination therapy. The influence of the different therapeutic options on bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) is described in detail. PMID:26518303

  8. MicroRNA in epithelial-mesenchymal transition of benign prostate hyperplasia cells

    Lincová, Eva; Staršíchová, Andrea; Pernicová, Zuzana; Kozubík, Alois; Souček, Karel

    Shanghai, 2009. s. 130. [21st IUBMB and 12th FAOBMB International Congress of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology . 02.08.2009-07.08.2009, Shanghai] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/07/0834; GA ČR(CZ) GA310/07/0961 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : microRNA * epithelial-mesenchymal transition * benign prostate hyperplasia Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  9. Inhibitory effect of Coffea arabica bean in testosterone induced prostatic hyperplasia in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Kristian Alfonso G. Cueto; Jenn Andrea C. Macalincag; Rhoneelet B. Aseremo; Joanne Florence B. Gutierrez; Sarah Jane R. Mabiog; Carina R. Magbojos; Oliver Shane R. Dumaoal

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has been described as the uncontrolled prostate gland growth which leads to difficulty in urination. One of the treatment of BPH is saw palmetto lipid extracts which has been shown to inhibit prostate 5 α-reductase and some of its components (lauric acid, myristic acid and oleic acid) also inhibit the enzyme. Coffee was also rich in fatty acids namely linoleic acid, oleic acid and palmitic acid. The aim of this research is to investigate whether ...

  10. Motor development in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Strength, targeting, and fine motor skill

    Collaer, Marcia L.; Brook, Charles; Conway, Gerard S.; Peter C. Hindmarsh; Hines, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated early androgen influence on the development of human motor and visuomotor characteristics. Participants, ages 12 to 45 years, were individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), a disorder causing increased adrenal androgen production before birth (40 females, 29 males) and their unaffected relatives (29 females, 30 males). We investigated grip strength and visuomotor targeting tasks on which males generally outperform females, and fine motor pegboard tasks on ...

  11. Managing benign prostatic hyperplasia in primary care. Patient-centred approach.

    McSherry, J; Weiss, R.

    2000-01-01

    PROBLEM ADDRESSED: Management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is changing from a surgical approach to a medical approach, and the role of primary care physicians is expanding. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: To introduce a patient-centred approach to managing BPH in primary care through a continuing medical education (CME) program. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: A practice-based, small group, peer-led CME program focused on application of the International Prostate Symptom Score and Quality of Life ...

  12. Myofiber branching rather than myofiber hyperplasia contributes to muscle hypertrophy in mdx mice

    Faber, Rachel M; Hall, John K; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.; Banks, Glen B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Muscle hypertrophy in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) can partially compensate for the loss of dystrophin by maintaining peak force production. Histopathology examination of the hypertrophic muscles suggests the hypertrophy primarily results from the addition of myofibers, and is accompanied by motor axon branching. However, it is unclear whether an increased number of innervated myofibers (myofiber hyperplasia) contribute to muscle hypertrophy in the mdx m...

  13. Reversible thyrotroph hyperplasia with hyperprolactinemia: A rare presenting manifestation of primary hypothyroidism

    Rajesh Rajput; Ashish Sehgal; Deepak Gahlan

    2012-01-01

    Pituitary thyrotroph hyperplasia with hyperprolactinemia has been described as a rare presentation of primary hypothyroidism. Premenopausal females with this disorder can present with features of hypothyroidism, menstrual disturbances, galactorrhea, and visual field defects because of enlarged pituitary. Here we describe a 32-year-old female presenting to her gynecologist primarily with galactorrhea and secondary amenorrhea. She was found to have raised serum prolactin, and MRI brain showed e...

  14. Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia (PASH) of the Breast: A Series of 24 Patients

    Bowman, Erin; Oprea, Gabriela; Okoli, Joel; Gundry, Kathleen; Rizzo, Monica; Gabram-Mendola, Sheryl; Manne, Upender; Smith, Geoffrey; Pambuccian, Stefan; Bumpers, Harvey L.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a benign mesenchymal proliferative lesion of the breast. In 2005, only 109 cases had been reported since its initial description in 1986 by Vuitch et al. Our 24 cases represent one of the largest series to be reported from a single institution. We retrospectively reviewed data from 2004 to 2010 of patients diagnosed with PASH by surgical excision or image-guided biopsy. All pathological specimens were reviewed by a single pathologist. The sample...

  15. Transurethral enucleation of large benign prostatic hyperplasia in sodium chloride solution

    I. N. Shvarev; Andreev, S. S.; V. V. Savich

    2016-01-01

    Background. Transurethral resection is a generally recognized treatment for small to medium-sized benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Numerous original tools are proposed for surgery of large BPH. These include laser (holmium laser enucleation of the prostate) and transurethral (transurethral enucleation with bipolar (TUEB)) enucleation in 0.9 % NaCl solution, which are accompanied by removal of the maximum adenoma tissue volume, short-term recovery, and a substantially fewer early and late c...

  16. Adenomyomatous hyperplasia of the ampulla of Vater presenting as acute pancreatitis

    Rafiullah,; Tanimu, Sabo

    2014-01-01

    We report an interesting and rare case of a man with adenomyomatous hyperplasia of the ampulla of Vater presenting as acute pancreatitis, which to our knowledge, is only the second reported case in the English literature. The patient presented with an acute onset of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, without fever, chills or rigours. CT of the abdomen revealed changes of acute pancreatitis with a peripancreatic adenopathy, and abdominal ultrasound revealed a slightly hyperechoic and oedemat...

  17. Brain White Matter Abnormality in a Newborn Infant with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Kaga, Akimune; Saito-hakoda, Akiko; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Kamimura, Miki; Kanno, Junko; Kure, Shigeo; Fujiwara, Ikuma

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have described brain white matter abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children and adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), while the brain MRI findings of newborn infants with CAH have not been clarified. We report a newborn boy with CAH who presented brain white matter abnormality on MRI. He was diagnosed as having salt-wasting CAH with a high 17-OHP level at neonatal screening and was initially treated with hydrocortisone at 8 days of age. On day 1...

  18. Lectin binding patterns in normal canine endometrium and in bitches with pyometra and cystic endometrial hyperplasia

    Leitner, M; Aurich, J.E.; Galabova, G.; Aurich, C.; Walter, I.

    2003-01-01

    Cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) and pyometra in the bitch are dioestral syndromes, supposed to be caused by hormonal disturbances and changes in endometrial steroid hormone receptor levels. Histologically, the endometria show cystic dilated glands and, if bacteria succeed in invading the uterus, pyometra may develop in the following metoestrus. In this study, lectin histochemistry was performed on paraffin sections to compare carbohydrate expression of ute...

  19. Impact of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Pharmacological Treatment on Transrectal Prostate Biopsy Adverse Effects

    Marina Zamuner; Ciro Eduardo Falcone; Arnaldo Amstalden Neto; Tomás Bernardo Costa Moretti; Luis Alberto Magna; Fernandes Denardi; Leonardo Oliveira Reis

    2014-01-01

    Background. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) pharmacological treatment may promote a decrease in prostate vascularization and bladder neck relaxation with theoretical improvement in prostate biopsy morbidity, though never explored in the literature. Methods. Among 242 consecutive unselected patients who underwent prostate biopsy, after excluding those with history of prostate biopsy/surgery or using medications not for BPH, we studied 190 patients. On the 15th day after procedure patients w...

  20. Alfuzosin. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic potential in benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Wilde, M I; Fitton, A; McTavish, D

    1993-03-01

    Alfuzosin, a new quinazoline derivative, acts as a selective and competitive antagonist of alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated contraction of prostatic, prostatic capsule, bladder base and proximal urethral smooth muscle, thereby reducing the tone of these structures. Consequently, urethral pressure and resistance, bladder outlet resistance, bladder instability and symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia are reduced. A limited range of clinical studies have shown oral alfuzosin to be more effective than placebo (in studies of sustained effects on long term administration (advantage over other alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists, including prazosin, as the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia may be reduced by alfuzosin at doses that have minimal vasodilatory effects, thereby minimising postural hypotension and syncope. However, vasodilatory-related adverse effects are the most common adverse effects that occur with alfuzosin, and dose and first-dose hypotensive relationships, especially in the elderly, cannot be excluded at this stage in the clinical use of alfuzosin. The full potential of alfuzosin in the symptomatic treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia will be clarified by further long term comparative studies (with large patient numbers) against placebo and other alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists. Nevertheless, oral alfuzosin 7.5 to 10 mg/day in divided doses appears to be a promising first-line agent for symptomatic treatment of noncomplicated mild to moderate benign prostatic hyperplasia in patients with a high dynamic component to their obstruction. In addition, alfuzosin offers an alternative to prostatectomy (the current 'gold standard') in patients who require surgery but are unfit for this treatment, and in patients requiring symptomatic relief while awaiting surgery. PMID:7682910

  1. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia, portal vein thrombosis, and avascular hip necrosis due to hyperhomocysteinaemia

    Buchel, O; Roskams, T.; Van Damme, B; Nevens, F; Pirenne, J.; Fevery, J.

    2005-01-01

    A male patient with portal hypertension, portal vein thrombosis, spontaneous splenorenal shunt formation, and encephalopathy, thought to have post-hepatitis B cirrhosis, is described. His condition deteriorated and necessitated liver transplantation. In the explant liver, nodular regenerative hyperplasia with pronounced vascular lesions both in portal venules and in arterioles was found instead of classical cirrhosis. Two years post-transplant he developed bilateral ischaemic femur head necro...

  2. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) tumour at the surgical scar site in a patient of carcinoma breast.

    Abrari, Andleeb

    2011-01-01

    A patient on follow-up post surgery for carcinoma breast, presented with a nodule under the surgical scar. The sinister eventuality of recurrent carcinoma was clinically considered first. The lesion was biopsied and the histopathology was diagnostic of pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia tumour. The nodule was excised and the patient's clinical denouement has been uneventful in the 4 months which have elapsed after this event. PMID:22688488

  3. AUA SYMPTOM SCORE - A SIMPLE TOOL FOR ASSESSMENT OF BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA IN A RURAL SETTING

    SP Patel; VK Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Background: Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common disease in ageing men and can be associated with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) that affect quality of life by interfering with normal daily activities. The American Urological Association Symptoms Index (AUA-SI) is recommended as symptom scoring instrument to be used in initial assessment of each patient presenting with symptoms of prostatism. Objective: To assess the severity of symptoms in Benign Prostatic Hy...

  4. Hepatic Focal Nodular Hyperplasia: A Benign Incidentaloma or a Marker of Serious Hepatic Disease?

    G. Muguti; Tait, N; Richardson, A; Little, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Amongst 17 patients with hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) encountered at Westmead Hospital between 1981 and 1990, FNH was found in association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in three (3/ 17), one male and two females, one of whom also had peliosis and an hepatic adenoma. FNH was also found in association with other conditions which may affect hepatic function, structure or circulation, including chronic obstructive airways disease (2), congestive cardiomyopathy (1), ch...

  5. Lymphoid hyperplasia of the stomach manifesting as umbilicated polypoid lesions: Report of two cases

    Two cases of benign lymphoid hyperplasia of the stomach manifested by 'multiple, small, umbilicated polypoid lesions' were reported. The difference in radiologic manifestation of this condition in the stomach from doudenum, colon and rectum was shortly commented with stress on the possible role of gastric acidity. Presenting symptoms were sour erutation, indigestion, anorexia, weight loss and probably bleeding. The lesions did not respond to conventional ulcer regimen

  6. Comparative study between conventional surgery and CO2 laser surgery in gingival hyperplasia

    Nicola, Ester M. D.; de Abreu, Ennes M.; Gusmao, Reinaldo J.; Coutinho, Adriana A.

    1994-09-01

    In this study we present the results of two techniques in a group of 50 patients with gingival hyperplasia that were treated in the department of buco-maxillary surgery and laser unit. The majority of those patients had no teeth and had an incorrect adaptation of dental prosthesis. The first group (30 patients, 40 to 55 years) were submitted to conventional surgery with local anesthesia. The second group (20 patients, 40 to 55 years) were submitted to CO2 laser surgery with local anesthesia. We were able to verify that the group treated with CO2 laser had much less bleeding during laser procedure, had a better tolerance, and required less anesthesia. The immediate post-operative was smoother with almost no complaint of pain since edematous and inflammatory reaction were reduced. Concerning the late post-operative, the group submitted to conventional surgery presented a high degree of recidivous hyperplasia (60%) allowing a poor or no prosthesis readaptation. In the group treated with CO2 laser the recidivous hyperplasia occurred in only 35% allowing a much better rehabilitation. This comparative study demonstrated more benefits and effective results of CO2 laser surgery over conventional techniques.

  7. Mediastinal seminoma with florid follicular lymphoid hyperplasia: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of six cases.

    Weissferdt, Annikka; Moran, Cesar A

    2015-02-01

    Seminomas are unusual primary tumors of the anterior mediastinum. Morphologically, they are indistinguishable from their testicular counterparts; however, in the mediastinum, the occurrence of secondary changes such as cyst formation is not uncommon. We now describe six cases associated with florid follicular hyperplasia. The patients were male with an age range from 24 to 31 years. Clinically, symptoms included cough, dyspnea, and chest pain. Anterior mediastinal masses were detected on imaging and all patients underwent thymectomy. Macroscopically, all tumors had a fleshy, lobulated cut surface. Histologically, the tumors were composed of round to polygonal cells with indistinct cell borders, clear cytoplasm, and prominent nucleoli. Striking follicular hyperplasia was evident in all cases to a degree whereby the tumor component was nearly obscured. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that the germinal centers were largely composed of B lymphocytes, and T cells were the predominant component of the interfollicular areas. Scattered Langerhans cells were noted in between tumor cells, and dendritic cells were seen in the mantle zones. All cases failed to show light chain restriction. Follow-up showed that five patients were alive and well 1-5 years after diagnosis, while one was lost to follow-up. Thymic seminomas can be associated with striking lymphoid follicular hyperplasia, likely as a response to specific tumor antigens. Familiarity with this variant of thymic seminoma is important in order not to misdiagnose these cases for reactive conditions or other tumors such as lymphoproliferative neoplasms which may require a different treatment approach. PMID:25425477

  8. A Rare Coexistence of Retroperitoneal Pararenal Castleman's Disease with Focal Nodular Hyperplasia

    Theodosios Theodosopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Castleman's disease is a distinct form of lymph node hyperplasia divided into a solitary and a multicentric type. The solitary type occurs most commonly in the mediastinum and is usually asymptomatic. We present a patient with Castleman's disease of the hyaline-vascular solitary type located in the retroperitoneum. The patient was a 38-year-old male, who presented to our hospital with fever. The imaging workup revealed a retroperitoneal mass, measuring 4 × 6 cm, located lateral to the aorta, inferior to the left renal artery and vein, and posterior to the left testicular vein. At workup, a solid hepatic lesion, 3 cm in diameter, located in the left lobe of the liver, segment IV, was also identified. Both lesions were surgically excised. The retroperitoneal tumor had the features of angiofollicular hyperplasia (Castleman's disease, hyaline-vascular type, whereas a diagnosis of focal nodular hyperplasia was made for the hepatic lesion. The patient is well at fourty months followup postoperatively. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for unifocal Castleman's disease.

  9. Diabetic fetopathy associated with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia and ambiguous genitalia: a case report

    Tantbirojn Patou

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Many fetal malformations can occur because of maternal diabetes. However, ambiguous genital organs have never been reported as an associated finding in the literature. This is the first report of associated ambiguous genital organ and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia in a case of diabetic fetopathy. Case presentation A 19-year-old Thai primigravida with familial history of diabetes mellitus (DM was diagnosed as having gestational DM type 2, based on 100 g oral glucose tolerance test, and was poorly controlled with insulin injections. Delayed targeted ultrasonography at 28 weeks gestation revealed multiple fetal anomalies. The woman underwent low transverse cesarean section at 30 weeks gestation due to preterm labor and transverse lie. The newborn with ambiguous genitalia was delivered but expired after birth. Autopsy findings revealed alobar holoprosencephaly, a prominent forehead, hypotelorism, an absent nose, absent bilateral ears, median cleft lip and palate, preaxial polydactyly of the right hand, accessory spleens, single umbilical artery, markedly enlarged adrenal glands and ambiguous external genitalia The subsequent fetal chromosomal study revealed 46,XX. Conclusion We describe a case of diabetic fetopathy with classic facial malformation and preaxial hallucal polydactyly which has been proposed as a marker of diabetic embryopathy. Bilateral adrenal hyperplasia with ambiguous genitalia, an uncommon associated anomaly, was also identified. It is controversial whether adrenal hyperplasia can be a novel feature of diabetic fetopathy or just a coincidental finding. Further observation and adequate investigation are needed in such cases.

  10. Inhibitory effect of Coffea arabica bean in testosterone induced prostatic hyperplasia in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Kristian Alfonso G. Cueto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH has been described as the uncontrolled prostate gland growth which leads to difficulty in urination. One of the treatment of BPH is saw palmetto lipid extracts which has been shown to inhibit prostate 5 α-reductase and some of its components (lauric acid, myristic acid and oleic acid also inhibit the enzyme. Coffee was also rich in fatty acids namely linoleic acid, oleic acid and palmitic acid. The aim of this research is to investigate whether coffee is effective in preventing testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats using testosterone propionate and estradiol valerate. After and before the induction, the rats were tested for prostate specific antigen (PSA . The condition of the prostate gland of the test animals were correlated with the results of the said test and in the histopathologic results. After 14 days of experimentation, animals in the test group significantly decreased their PSA levels as compared to the BPH group. The histomorphology showed that Coffea arabica bean oil inhibited testosterone propionate while estradiol valerate induced prostatic hyperplasia. These findings indicate that Coffee arabica bean oil effectively inhibited the development of BPH. With the proven safety of coffee oil, these findings strongly support the feasibility of using Coffea arabica bean oil therapeutically in treating BPH.

  11. Primary aldosteronism caused by unilateral adrenal hyperplasia: rethinking the accuracy of imaging studies.

    Chen, Su-Yu; Shen, Sjen-Jung; Chou, Chien-Wen; Yang, Chwen-Yi; Cheng, Hon-Mei

    2006-03-01

    A rare type of aldosteronism, known as unilateral adrenal hyperplasia (UAH), is difficult to diagnose, not only because it fails to conform to the typical common subtypes, but also because imaging results are unreliable. We report 2 Taiwanese patients with UAH. Case 1 was a 44-year-old man with 2 episodes of hypokalemic paralysis. Hypertension and suppressed plasma renin activity (PRA) with elevated plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) were observed. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a right adrenal mass, but adrenal scintigraphy revealed no definite laterality. The patient underwent a laparoscopic right adrenalectomy. Adrenal cortical hyperplasia was discovered from results of the histologic analysis. Case 2 was a 33-year-old woman referred for hypokalemia, hypertension, and a left adrenal mass found on a CT scan. However, MRI revealed normal adrenal glands. The adrenal vein sampling for PAC showed overproduction of PAC from the left adrenal gland. A laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was done. Pathology results revealed micronodular cortical hyperplasia with central hemorrhage. Blood pressure, plasma potassium, aldosterone, and renin activity levels returned to normal after operation in both cases. Both patients have been well for 3 years and 16 months, respectively, after surgery. We review the literature and discuss the limitations of imaging studies. PMID:16599018

  12. Pharmacological and nutritive support of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and chronic prostatitis

    A. B. Bat'ko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The articles presents a view of the pharmacological and nutritive therapy of the most frequent diseases of males, which are benign prostatic hyperplasia and chronic prostatitis. A modern man is in constant deficiency of various biologically active substances, with the lack of them in food and without generating of sufficient quantity of coenzymes and enzymes. In the author,s opinion, complex drugs that contain highquality biological extracts may provide the substances required for prevention and slowing down the progress of benign prostatic hyperplasia and chronic prostatitis to the male organism. Study of biological activity of food supplement Andro-PRO (Russia that contain the elements required for normalization of the functional state of the prostate was performed. Application of the drug favors positive dynamics of clinical symptoms of the studied nosological entities and has restorative effect on the function of the glandular tissue of the prostate. Analysis of modern references, primary results of clinical studies show the necessity of pharmacological and nutritive support of patients with asymptomatic progress of benign prostatic hyperplasia and chronic prostatitis with the drug. Application of drug studied is efficient and safe, which is confirmed with improvement of indicators and life quality assessment, positive clinical dynamics, and absence of side effects. 

  13. Iliac artery myointimal hyperplasia in rabbits submitted to angioplasty and treated with Moringa oleifera

    Jânio Cipriano Rolim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess post-angioplasty myointimal hyperplasia in iliac artery of rabbits treated with extract of Moringa oleifera leaves. Methods : we conducted a randomized trial in laboratory animals for five weeks of follow-up, developed in the Vivarium of Pharmaceutical Technology Laboratory of the Universidade Federal da Paraíba. We used rabbits from the New Zealand breed, subjected to a hypercholesterolemic diet and angioplasty of the external iliac artery, randomized into two groups: M200 Group (n=10 - rabbits treated with 200mg/kg/day of Moringa oleifera leaves extract orally; SF group (n=10 - rabbits treated with 0.9% saline orally. After five weeks, the animals were euthanized and the iliac arteries prepared for histology. Histological sections were analyzed by digital morphometry. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student's t test. The significance level was 0.05. Results : there was no significant difference in myointimal hyperplasia between M200 and SF groups when comparing the iliac arteries submitted to angioplasty. Conclusion : there was no difference of myointimal hyperplasia between groups treated with saline and Moringa oleifera after angioplasty.

  14. The Role of gsp Mutations on the Development of Adrenocortical Tumors and Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Villares Fragoso, Maria Candida Barisson; Wanichi, Ingrid Quevedo; Cavalcante, Isadora Pontes; Mariani, Beatriz Marinho de Paula

    2016-01-01

    Somatic GNAS point mutations, commonly known as gsp mutations, are involved in the pathogenesis of McCune–Albright syndrome (MAS) and have also been described in autonomous hormone-producing tumors, such as somatotropinoma, corticotrophoma, thyroid cancer, ovarian and testicular Leydig cell tumors, and primary macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia (PMAH) (1–3). The involvement of gsp mutations in adrenal tumors was first described by Lyons et al. Since then, several studies have detected the presence of gsp mutations in adrenal tumors, but none of them could explain its presence along or the mechanism that leads to tumor formation and hormone hypersecretion. As a result, the molecular pathogenesis of the majority of sporadic adrenocortical tumors remains unclear (3). PMAH has also been reported with gsp somatic mutations in a few cases. Fragoso et al. identified two distinct gsp somatic mutations affecting arginine residues on codon 201 of GNAS in a few patients with PMAH who lacked any features or manifestations of MAS. Followed by this discovery, other studies have continued looking for gsp mutations based on strong prior evidence demonstrating that increased cAMP signaling is sufficient for cell proliferation and cortisol production (2, 4). With consideration for the previously reported findings, we conjecture that although somatic activating mutations in GNAS are a rare molecular event, these mutations could probably be sufficient to induce the development of macronodule hyperplasia and variable cortisol secretion. In this manuscript, we revised the presence of gsp mutations associated with adrenal cortical tumors and hyperplasia. PMID:27512387

  15. Protective Effect of Naringin on Testosterone Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Rats

    Naresh KN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Major components of plants being flavonoids containing polyphenolic derivatives which possesantioxidant property have shown to improve uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland and urinary tractsymptoms, which are associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Our study investigated whetherNaringin prevents testosterone induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats by virtue of its antioxidant property.In vitro studies were carried out to assess the protective effect of prostate tumor cell lines. BPH wasinduced in experimental groups by intramuscular injection of Testosterone Enanthate on day 1, 7 and 14.Naringin was administered daily by oral gavage for a period of 21 days. On 22nd day, rats weresacrificed, prostate tissue weighed and histopathological studies were carried out. Prostate zinc,oxidative parameters were measured. Treatment with Naringin showed significant inhibition of prostateenlargement and restored the histoarchitecture when compared with positive control group. Inconclusion, the present study showed that Naringin reduced the elevated levels of both prostate weightand prostate weight to body weight ratio, markers of testosterone induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

  16. Current approaches to the treatment of endometrial hyperplasia in women with uterine leiomyoma

    Potapov V.A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study involved 155 women, of which 30 healthy women were in the control group. 125 women with uterine leiomyomas and endometrial hyperplasia constituted the main groups. In all women with uterine leiomyoma myomectomy was performed. Further treatment included randomized study of a new regimen of GnRH agonists together with COCs after myomectomy using comparison techniques: monotherapy with a-GnRH, progestins (dydrogesterone or COCs. The treatment using different medication regimens of endometrial hyperplasia after myomectomy convincingly demonstrated significantly greater efficacy of GnRH-a and COCs com¬bination in reducing frequency of symptoms of these diseases, volume of menstrual blood loss and improvement quality of life through the entire observation period. Greater efficacy of COCs and a-GnRH combination, to our opinion, is associated with a greater degree of suppression of cell proliferation and angiogenesis as a result of local (COCs, and systemic effects (a-GnRH.Thus, the proposed method of adjuvant therapy after myomectomy for women with associated endometrial hyperplasia has significant clinical benefits with minimal impact on bone mineral density and other menopausal signs caused by a-GnRH monotherapy.

  17. Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia in the gastrointestinal tract in adult patients: A review

    Andreia; Albuquerque

    2014-01-01

    Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the gastrointestinal tract is characterized by the presence of multiple small nodules, normally between between 2 and 10 mm in diameter, distributed along the small intestine(more often), stomach, large intestine, or rectum. The patho-genesis is largely unknown. It can occur in all age groups, but primarily in children and can affect adults with or without immunodeficiency. Some patients have an associated disease, namely, common variable immu-nodeficiency, selective IgA deficiency, Giardia infection, or, more rarely, human immunodeficiency virus infec-tion, celiac disease, or Helicobacter pylori infection. Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia generally presents as an asymptomatic disease, but it may cause gastrointes-tinal symptoms like abdominal pain, chronic diarrhea, bleeding or intestinal obstruction. A diagnosis is made at endoscopy or contrast barium studies and should be confirmed by histology. Its histological characteristics include markedly hyperplasic, mitotically active germi-nal centers and well-defined lymphocyte mantles found in the lamina propria and/or in the superficial submu-cosa, distributed in a diffuse or focal form. Treatment is directed towards associated conditions because the disorder itself generally requires no intervention. Nodu-lar lymphoid hyperplasia is a risk factor for both intes-tinal and, very rarely, extraintestinal lymphoma. Someauthors recommend surveillance, however, the duration and intervals are undefined.

  18. Optimal control of switched systems arising in fermentation processes

    Liu, Chongyang

    2014-01-01

    The book presents, in a systematic manner, the optimal controls under different mathematical models in fermentation processes. Variant mathematical models – i.e., those for multistage systems; switched autonomous systems; time-dependent and state-dependent switched systems; multistage time-delay systems and switched time-delay systems – for fed-batch fermentation processes are proposed and the theories and algorithms of their optimal control problems are studied and discussed. By putting forward novel methods and innovative tools, the book provides a state-of-the-art and comprehensive systematic treatment of optimal control problems arising in fermentation processes. It not only develops nonlinear dynamical system, optimal control theory and optimization algorithms, but can also help to increase productivity and provide valuable reference material on commercial fermentation processes.

  19. Carcinosarcoma arising from uterine adenomyosis: A case report.

    Kiuchi, Kaori; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kanamori, Anriko; Machida, Hiromi; Kojima, Masaru; Fukasawa, Ichio

    2016-03-01

    Carcinosarcoma arising from uterine adenomyosis is extremely rare. We encountered such a patient and herein provide a review of the literature. A 56-year-old woman was referred for a huge pelvic tumor, suspected to be an advanced uterine leiomyosarcoma. Intraoperative inspection revealed a mass, mainly located in the uterine myometrium, invading the uterine serosa. The tumor had previously spontaneously ruptured and disseminated to the pelvic cavity. Pathological and immunohistochemical examination revealed an infiltrative pattern of biphasic tumor cells composed of endometrioid adenocarcinoma and a nonepithelial component with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation. Benign endometrial glands with stromal cells were found adjacent to the area of the carcinosarcoma. The endometrium and both ovaries and fallopian tubes were microscopically free of tumor cells. The final diagnosis was heterologous type carcinosarcoma with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation, originating from uterine adenomyosis. PMID:26663238

  20. Irregular activity arises as a natural consequence of synaptic inhibition

    Terman, D., E-mail: terman@math.ohio-state.edu [Department of Mathematics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Rubin, J. E., E-mail: jonrubin@pitt.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Diekman, C. O., E-mail: diekman@njit.edu [Department of Mathematical Sciences, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Irregular neuronal activity is observed in a variety of brain regions and states. This work illustrates a novel mechanism by which irregular activity naturally emerges in two-cell neuronal networks featuring coupling by synaptic inhibition. We introduce a one-dimensional map that captures the irregular activity occurring in our simulations of conductance-based differential equations and mathematically analyze the instability of fixed points corresponding to synchronous and antiphase spiking for this map. We find that the irregular solutions that arise exhibit expansion, contraction, and folding in phase space, as expected in chaotic dynamics. Our analysis shows that these features are produced from the interplay of synaptic inhibition with sodium, potassium, and leak currents in a conductance-based framework and provides precise conditions on parameters that ensure that irregular activity will occur. In particular, the temporal details of spiking dynamics must be present for a model to exhibit this irregularity mechanism and must be considered analytically to capture these effects.