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Sample records for adductor policis muscle

  1. A Rare Case of Adductor Longus Muscle Rupture

    R. J. L. L. van de Kimmenade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An adductor longus muscle rupture is a rare injury. This case report describes a 32-year-old patient with an adductor longus rupture. The trauma mechanism was a hyperabduction movement during a soccer game. Nonoperative treatment was initiated. After a follow-up of 4 years, the patient was without pain but a small swelling was still visible. This report describes the anatomy, pathophysiology, and evidence-based treatment of adductor longus rupture.

  2. The origin and innervation of the adductor pollicis muscle.

    Chang, L.; Blair, W. F.

    1985-01-01

    A gross dissection of twenty human adductor pollicis muscles indicated an extensive origin of both the transverse and oblique heads. The origins included the second, third, and fourth metacarpal bones and the capitate, trapezoid, and trapezium bones. Soft tissue origins included intermetacarpal ligaments and the anterior fascia of palmar interosseous muscles. An interfascicular dissection of the deep branch of the ulnar nerve within the substance of the adductor pollicis muscle revealed three...

  3. Adductor pollicis muscle: potential anthropometric parameter in hospitalized individuals

    Teresa Cristina Abranches Rosa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the measurement of adductor pollicis muscle thickness as a parameter for the assessment of nutritional status in patients admitted to a University Hospital in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul State. This is a prospective cross-sectional study with 64 adults and elderly patients. We evaluated the percentage of weight loss based on the usual weight, arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, arm muscle circumference, laboratory parameters and measurement of adductor pollicis muscle thickness. The measurements were performed only once, in the first 72 hours of hospitalization. Data were analyzed using statistical software BioEstat 5.0, with a significance level of 0.05. The average thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle was 17.5 + 5.3 mm. We found a significant negative association of muscle with age. There was a significant association between the measure of muscle and parameters such as body mass index, arm circumference, arm muscle circumference, albumin and nutritional status assessed by physical examination. The adductor pollicis muscle allows easy measurement, direct assessment, fast results, low cost and good correlation with anthropometric parameters. However, further studies should be conducted to validate this new method.

  4. Scaling and Accommodation of Jaw Adductor Muscles in Canidae.

    Penrose, Fay; Kemp, Graham J; Jeffery, Nathan

    2016-07-01

    The masticatory apparatus amongst closely related carnivoran species raises intriguing questions about the interplay between allometry, function, and phylogeny in defining interspecific variations of cranial morphology. Here we describe the gross structure of the jaw adductor muscles of several species of canid, and then examine how the muscles are scaled across the range of body sizes, phylogenies, and trophic groups. We also consider how the muscles are accommodated on the skull, and how this is influenced by differences of endocranial size. Data were collected for a suite of morphological metrics, including body mass, endocranial volume, and muscle masses and we used geometric morphometric shape analysis to reveal associated form changes. We find that all jaw adductor muscles scale isometrically against body mass, regardless of phylogeny or trophic group, but that endocranial volume scales with negative allometry against body mass. These findings suggest that head shape is partly influenced by the need to house isometrically scaling muscles on a neurocranium scaling with negative allometry. Principal component analysis suggests that skull shape changes, such as the relatively wide zygomatic arches and large sagittal crests seen in species with higher body masses, allow the skull to accommodate a relative enlargement of the jaw adductors compared with the endocranium. Anat Rec, 299:951-966, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27103346

  5. Obturator neurolysis using 65% alcohol for adductor muscle spasticity

    Anju Ghai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spasticity is motor alteration characterized by muscle hypertonia and hyperreflexia. It is an important complication of spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy, and multiple sclerosis. If uncorrected, fibrosis and eventually bony deformity lock the joint into a fixed contracture. Chemical neurolysis using various agents is one of the therapeutic possibilities to alleviate spasticity. We are, hereby, reporting 3 patients in whom 65% alcohol was used as neurolytic agent for the treatment of hip adductor spasticity, and the effect lasted for a variable period.

  6. The Isolated Effect of Adductor Canal Block on Quadriceps Femoris Muscle Strength After Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Sørensen, Johan Kløvgaard; Jæger, Pia; Dahl, Jørgen Berg;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Using peripheral nerve block after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), without impeding mobility, is challenging. We hypothesized that the analgesic effect of adductor canal block (ACB) could increase the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the quadriceps femoris muscle after...

  7. Relationship between adductor pollicis muscle thickness and subjective global assessment in a cardiac intensive care unit

    Karst, Fernanda Pickrodt; Vieira, Renata Monteiro; Barbiero, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective To verify the relationship between the adductor pollicis muscle thickness test and the subjective global assessment and to correlate it with other anthropometric methods. Methods This observational cross-sectional study was conducted in the intensive care unit of a cardiology hospital in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The hospitalized patients underwent subjective global assessment and adductor pollicis muscle thickness tests on both hands, along with measurement of the rig...

  8. Surgical management of a completely avulsed adductor longus muscle in a professional equestrian rider.

    Quah, Conal; Cottam, Andrew; Hutchinson, James

    2014-01-01

    Avulsion injuries of the adductor longus muscle tendon are rare and a challenge to manage especially in athletes. There has been little published literature on the outcome of conservative and operative treatment for these injuries. We report the first case of an acute adductor longus avulsion injury which was surgically repaired in a professional equestrian rider. Return to full preinjury function was achieved at 3 months with surgical repair using 3 suture anchors. PMID:24711943

  9. Surgical Management of a Completely Avulsed Adductor Longus Muscle in a Professional Equestrian Rider

    Conal Quah; Andrew Cottam; James Hutchinson

    2014-01-01

    Avulsion injuries of the adductor longus muscle tendon are rare and a challenge to manage especially in athletes. There has been little published literature on the outcome of conservative and operative treatment for these injuries. We report the first case of an acute adductor longus avulsion injury which was surgically repaired in a professional equestrian rider. Return to full preinjury function was achieved at 3 months with surgical repair using 3 suture anchors.

  10. Extraction and Identification of the Pigment in the Adductor Muscle Scar of Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Shixin Hao

    Full Text Available In this study, UV (ultraviolet and IR (infrared radiation spectral analysis were integrated to identify the pigment in the adductor muscle scar of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The pigment was extracted from the adductor muscle scars of cleaned oyster shells that were pulverized, hydrolyzed in hot hydrochloric acid, purified with diethyl ether, and dissolved in 0.01 mL/L NaOH. The maximum absorption of the pigment in the UV absorption spectrum within the range of 190-500 nm was observed between 210-220 nm. The UV absorbance decreased with increasing wavelength which was consistent with the UV spectral absorption characteristics of melanin. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy scanning revealed characteristic absorption peaks that emerged near 3440 cm-1 and 1630 cm-1, which was consistent with infrared scanning features of eumelanin (a type of melanin. This study has demonstrated for the first time that the pigment in the adductor muscle scar of the Pacific oyster is melanin, hinting that the adductor muscle could be another organ pigmenting the mollusc shell with melanin other than mantle.

  11. Symphysis Pubis Osteomyelitis with Bilateral Adductor Muscles Abscess

    Saad M. Alqahtani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis of the pubis symphysis is a rare condition. There have been various reports in the literature of inflammation and osteomyelitis as well as septic arthritis of pubic symphysis. However, due to the fact that these conditions are rare and that the usual presenting symptoms are very nonspecific, osteomyelitis of the pubic symphysis is often misdiagnosed, thus delaying definitive treatment. We present a case that to our knowledge is the first case in literature of osteomyelitis of the pubic symphysis in a 17-year-old boy with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA, which was initially misdiagnosed and progressed to bilateral adductor abscesses. A high suspicion of such condition should be considered in a JIA patient who presents with symphysis or thigh pain.

  12. Recurrent Myonecrosis Involving Adductor Muscle Group Bilaterally: A Rare Complication of Diabetes Mellitus

    Manzoor Bhat

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic myonecrosis is a rare and underdiagnosed complication of long-standing, uncontrolled diabetes. It usually occurs in patients with long-standing diabetes in the presence of microvascular complications. Thigh muscles are more commonly affected and the usual presentation is thigh swelling with or without pain, systemic features being rare. Magnetic resonance imaging is the gold standard for diagnosis. Most patients recover spontaneously with bed rest, adequate analgesia and good glycemic control. We present a case of recurrent myonecrosis of adductor muscles of the thigh in a patient with long standing type 2 diabetes mellitus who recovered with conservative management.

  13. The study of the adductor muscle-shell interface structure in three Mollusc species

    ZHU Yaoyao; SUN Chengjun; SONG Yingfei; JIANG Fenghua; YIN Xiaofei; TANG Min; DING Haibing

    2016-01-01

    The adductor muscle scar (AMS) is the fixation point of adductor muscle to the shell. It is an important organic-inorganic interface and stress distribution area. Despite recent advances, our understanding of the structure and composition of the AMS remain limited. Here, we report study on the AMS of three bivalves:Mytilus coruscus, Chlamys farreri andRuditapes philippinarum. Results showed that there were significant differences among their AMS structures. BothM. coruscus andC. farreri were found to have a columnar layer above the nacreous platelet shell structure at the AMS and this layer was more organized inM. coruscus. There was no distinguishable two-layer structure inR. philippinarum. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) results showed that the AMS was much smoother than the nacreous inner shell in all the three species and the AMS had minor different compositions from the nacreous shell layer. SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electophoresis) study of the proteins isolated from the interface indicated that there was a 70 kDa protein which seemed to be specifically located to the highly organized columnar AMS structure inMytilus coruscus. Further analysis of this protein showed it contained high level of Asx (Asp+Asn), Glx (Glu+Gln) and Gly. The special structure and composition of the AMS might play important roles in the stability, adhesion and function at this stress distribution site.

  14. Surgical treatment of the adductor longus muscle's distal tendon total rupture in a soccer player.

    Masionis, P; Popov, K; Kurtinaitis, J; Uvarovas, V; Porvaneckas, N

    2016-09-01

    Only a few cases of adductor longus tendon ruptures have been reported in the literature and - there are no clear criteria for conservative or surgical treatment. A case of traumatic rupture of the right distal adductor longus tendon is presented in an elite soccer player, which was surgically repaired. The condition was managed conservatively primarily. However, after 2 months, a palpable mass remained on the medial side of the thigh, and the patient had pain after moderate everyday load and insufficient strength of the right leg during physical exercise. It was decided to explore ruptured tendon surgically and reattach to the femur. Full function of the right leg was achieved at 3 months after surgical repair. At 6 months postoperatively, the patient had returned to soccer at the same level. PMID:27132783

  15. NMR-Based Metabolomic Investigations on the Differential Responses in Adductor Muscles from Two Pedigrees of Manila Clam Ruditapes philippinarum to Cadmium and Zinc

    Junbao Yu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the most important economic species in shellfishery in China due to its wide geographic distribution and high tolerance to environmental changes (e.g., salinity, temperature. In addition, Manila clam is a good biomonitor/bioindicator in “Mussel Watch Programs” and marine environmental toxicology. However, there are several pedigrees of R. philippinarum distributed in the marine environment in China. No attention has been paid to the biological differences between various pedigrees of Manila clams, which may introduce undesirable biological variation in toxicology studies. In this study, we applied NMR-based metabolomics to detect the biological differences in two main pedigrees (White and Zebra of R. philippinarum and their differential responses to heavy metal exposures (Cadmium and Zinc using adductor muscle as a target tissue to define one sensitive pedigree of R. philippinarum as biomonitor for heavy metals. Our results indicated that there were significant metabolic differences in adductor muscle tissues between White and Zebra clams, including higher levels of alanine, glutamine, hypotaurine, phosphocholine and homarine in White clam muscles and higher levels of branched chain amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine, succinate and 4-aminobutyrate in Zebra clam muscles, respectively. Differential metabolic responses to heavy metals between White and Zebra clams were also found. Overall, we concluded that White pedigree of clam could be a preferable bioindicator/biomonitor in marine toxicology studies and for marine heavy metals based on the relatively high sensitivity to heavy metals.

  16. Differential proteomic responses in hepatopancreas and adductor muscles of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis to stresses induced by cadmium and hydrogen peroxide

    This study aimed to reveal the proteomic responses in the hepatopancreas and adductor muscle of a common biomonitor, Perna viridis after 14-day exposure to two model chemicals, cadmium (Cd; a toxic metal) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; a pro-oxidant), using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with multivariate statistical analyses. Unique sets of tissue-specific protein expression signatures were revealed corresponding to the two treatment groups. In the hepatopancreas, 15 and 2 spots responded to Cd and H2O2 treatments respectively. 6 and 7 spots were differentially expressed in the adductor muscle for Cd and H2O2 treatments, respectively. 15 differentially expressed spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis. These proteins are involved in glycolysis, amino acid metabolism, energy homeostasis, oxidative stress response, redox homeostasis and protein folding, heat-shock response, and muscle contraction modulation. This is the first time, to have demonstrated that Cd exposure not only leads to substantial oxidative stress but also results in endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatopancreas of the mussel. Such notable stress responses may be attributable to high Cd accumulation in this tissue. Our results suggested that investigations on these stress-associated protein changes could be used as a new and complementary approach in pollution monitoring by this popular biomonitor species.

  17. The spread of injectate during saphenous nerve block at the adductor canal

    Andersen, H L; Andersen, S L; Tranum-Jensen, J

    2015-01-01

    comparative dissections of the same limbs. RESULTS: The spread of the injectates was determined by the fascial limits and the muscles surrounding the adductor canal. The anteromedial limit of the adductor canal (the roof) was found to be a continuous fascia, with a thin proximal part and a thicker distal part...

  18. Adductor canal block versus femoral nerve block for analgesia after total knee arthroplasty

    Jaeger, Pia; Zaric, Dusanka; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Hilsted, Karen Lisa; Bjerregaard, Jens; Gyrn, Jens; Mathiesen, Ole; Larsen, Tommy; Dahl, J�rgen Berg

    2013-01-01

    Femoral nerve block (FNB), a commonly used postoperative pain treatment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), reduces quadriceps muscle strength essential for mobilization. In contrast, adductor canal block (ACB) is predominately a sensory nerve block. We hypothesized that ACB preserves quadriceps...... muscle strength as compared with FNB (primary end point) in patients after TKA. Secondary end points were effects on morphine consumption, pain, adductor muscle strength, morphine-related complications, and mobilization ability....

  19. Clinical recovery of two hip adductor longus ruptures

    Thorborg, Kristian; Petersen, Jesper; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann;

    2013-01-01

    was evaluated using hip-strength assessments, self-report and ultrasonography until complete muscle-strength recovery of the hip adductors had occurred. The player was able to participate in a full soccer training session without experiencing pain 15 weeks after the first rupture, and 12 weeks after...

  20. Adductor muscle pyo-myositis simulating appendicitis: CT and MR imaging findings; Pyomyosite des mulcles adducteurs mimant une appendicite aigue: aspects tomodensitometriques et IRM

    Coumbaras, M.; Le Hir, P.; Jomaah, N.; Arrive, L.; Tubiana, J.M. [Hopital Saint Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-04-01

    Pyo-myositis is a primary bacterial infection of skeletal muscle. This infection tends to occur in the large muscles of the lower extremity. Pyo-myositis of the proximal muscles of the thigh can simulate acute abdominal disease. Early diagnosis improves the outcome. Delayed diagnosis may lead to septicemia and shock. We report the CT and MRI findings in a patient with pyo-myositis of the proximal muscles of the thigh. (authors)

  1. Effects of spaceflight in the adductor longus muscle of rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. A study employing neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and conventional morphological techniques (light and electron microscopy)

    D'Amelio, F.; Daunton, N. G.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight upon the "slow" muscle adductor longus were examined in rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. The techniques employed included standard methods for light microscopy, neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Light microscopic observations revealed myofiber atrophy and segmental necrosis accompanied by cellular infiltrates composed of macrophages, leukocytes and mononuclear cells. Neural cell adhesion molecule immunoreactivity (N-CAM-IR) was seen on the myofiber surface and in regenerating myofibers. Ultrastructural alterations included Z band streaming, disorganization of myofibrillar architecture, sarcoplasmic degradation, extensive segmental necrosis with apparent preservation of the basement membrane, degenerative phenomena of the capillary endothelium and cellular invasion of necrotic areas. Regenerating myofibers were identified by the presence of increased amounts of ribosomal aggregates and chains of polyribosomes associated with myofilaments. The principal electron microscopic changes of the neuromuscular junctions showed axon terminals with a decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles replaced by microtubules and neurofilaments, degeneration of axon terminals, vacant axonal spaces and changes suggestive of axonal sprouting. The present observations suggest that alterations such as myofibrillar disruption and necrosis, muscle regeneration and denervation and synaptic remodeling at the level of the neuromuscular junction may take place during spaceflight.

  2. Hip adductor activations during run-to-cut maneuvers in compression shorts: Implications for return to sport after groin injury

    CHAUDHARI, AJIT M. W.; JAMISON, STEVEN T.; McNally, Michael P.; Pan, Xueliang; SCHMITT, LAURA C.

    2014-01-01

    Athletes at high risk of groin strains in sports such as hockey and soccer often choose to wear shorts with directional compression to aid in prevention or recovery from hip adductor strains. Large eccentric contractions are known to result in or exacerbate strain injuries, but it is unknown if these shorts have a beneficial effect on hip adductor muscle activity. In this study, surface electromyography of the adductor longus and ground reaction force (GRF) data were obtained simultaneously o...

  3. MR imaging of ulnar nerve entrapment secondary to an anomalous wrist muscle

    MR imaging of an anomalous hypothenar adductor muscle causing isolated deep ulnar nerve branch compression and producing a purely motor neuropathy is presented. The muscle appears to represent a type 1 variant of the intrinsic anomalous hypothenar adductor muscle. (orig.)

  4. Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis in athletes: a review

    Valent, Alessandro; Frizziero, Antonio; Bressan, Stefano; Zanella, Elena; Giannotti, Erika; Masiero, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis is common in male athletes, especially in soccer players. It may be worsened by physical activity and it usually limits sport performance. The management goal in the acute phase consists of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs and physical rehabilitation. In the early stages of rehabilitation, strengthening exercises of adductors and abdominal muscles, such as postural exercises, have been suggested. In the sub-acute phase, muscu...

  5. 马氏珠母贝红色闭壳肌 F1代的家系选育及家系评定%Recearch on Family Selection and Evaluation of Pinctada martensi with Red Adductor Muscle

    彭张明; 陶后全; 刘锦上; 刘冠; 刘志刚

    2015-01-01

    从马氏珠母贝 F6代选育系中挑选红色闭壳肌雌雄亲本,构建了12个全同胞家系,利用 Kung 育种值与综合评定值 Pi 对家系进行了评定。结果表明,幼虫期阶段 R2和 R6家系的累积存活率显著高于其他家系(P<0.05), R2和 R6是壳长、壳高生长速率最快的两支家系。养成期阶段,各家系4个生长性状的生长速率差异显著(P<0.05), R6、R2是生长性状最优的两支家系;R2、R6家系累积存活率显著大于对照组以及其余家系。红色闭壳肌 F1代家系闭壳肌颜色表型率为 R2、R6家系最高,分别为51%、50%。R2、R6家系的综合评定值 Pi 为最大,为两支性状优良家系。%To select red adductor muscle families of excellent comprehensive characters,12 full sibs families were constructed, which based on selection strain(F6). Furthermore,we evaluated the families with the Kung breeding value and overall comprehensive value Pi.The results indicated that, in the larval stage, the R2 and R6 families of cumulative survival rate were significantly higher than others (P<0.05)and with the largest growth rate of shell length and shell height. In the breeding stage, the growth rate of four growth traits were significantly differences (P<0.05) and the R2,R6 families were with the largest growth rate of economic traits. The cumulative survival rate of the R2 and R6 families were significantly greater than the control group, the control group was significantly greater than the rest of the families. The adductor muscle phenotype rate of the R2 and R6 families were the highest, and the dates respectively were 51% , 50%. The overall comprehensive value Pi of the R2 and R6 families were the best, indicated the two families with excellent traits.

  6. Ultrasonographic features of an adductor longus tear: case report

    Muscle strain of the lower extremities is among the most common injuries in sports. Excessive force, rather than direct trauma, causes disruption of the muscle-tendon unit, usually at the myotendinous junction, and improper rest and rehabilitation of a minor strain can often lead to a far more disabling injury. High-resolution ultrasonography is useful for direct imaging of muscle injuries. We present a case where ultrasonography was used to detect, treat and follow-up an adductor longus tear in a soccer player. (author)

  7. Espessura do músculo adutor do polegar: um método rápido e confiável na avaliação nutricional de pacientes cirúrgicos Adductor pollicis muscle thickness: a fast and reliable method for nutritional assessment in surgical patients

    Rosalia Bragagnolo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar se a medida da espessura do músculo adutor do polegar é confiável para avaliação nutricional de pacientes cirúrgicos e se correlaciona bem com outros parâmetros antropométricos, bioquímicos e clínicos. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal, com avaliação de 87 pacientes candidatos à procedimento cirúrgico de grande porte no trato gastrointestinal. Eles foram submetidos à avaliação nutricional através da avaliação subjetiva global, antropometria (circunferência do braço, prega cutânea triciptal, e circunferência muscular do braço, albumina sérica, linfocitometria e pela medida da espessura do músculo adutor do polegar em ambas as mãos. RESULTADOS: A média da espessura da mão dominante (direita foi de 12,64 ± 3,19 mm e da mão não dominante 12,23 ± 2,9 mm. Para desnutrição, a sensibilidade da espessura do músculo adutor do polegar direita foi de 72,37% e da esquerda de 77,33% para os pontos de cortes encontrados com a curva Receiver Operating Characteristic (13,4 e 13,1 mm respectivamente. Para ambas as mãos a especificidade foi de 100%. Encontrou-se correlação significativa (pOBJECTIVE: Investigate whether the right adductor pollicis muscle thickness is a reliable method to evaluate the nutritional status of surgical patients and whether it correlates or not correlate to other anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical parameters. METHODS: Cross-sectional study evaluating 87 patients candidates to major operations of the gastrointestinal tract. All were submitted to global subjective evaluation, traditional anthropometry (arm circumpherence ; triceps skin fold; and arm muscle circumpherence, serum albumin, lymphocytes and measurement of in both hands. RESULTS: The mean right adductor pollicis muscle thickness in dominant hand was 12,64 ± 3,19 mm and in non-dominant hand (EMAPND 12,23 ± 2,9 mm. Sensitivity was 72,37% for left adductor pollicis muscle and 77,33% for left adductor pollicis

  8. Imaging of adductor-related groin pain.

    Pesquer, L; Reboul, G; Silvestre, A; Poussange, N; Meyer, P; Dallaudière, B

    2015-09-01

    Groin pain is a common condition in athletes and results from various causes. Osteitis pubis, adductor dysfunction, inguinal hernia, or a combination of all three entities, generally explains the onset of symptoms. Adductor longus tendinopathy is the main cause of adductor-related groin pain. It leads to a significant reduction of sports participation and can require surgical management. Diagnosis is based on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Asymptomatic findings (tendinosis, calcifications, cortical erosions) are common in athletes and care should be taken when assessing groin pain. The most specific sign of tendinopathy is an intratendinous tear of the adductor longus. PMID:25823982

  9. Eccentric strengthening effect of hip-adductor training with elastic bands in soccer players

    Jensen, Jesper; Hölmich, Per; Bandholm, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soccer players with weak hip-adductor muscles are at increased risk of sustaining groin injuries. Therefore, a simple hip-adductor strengthening programme for prevention of groin injuries is needed. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effect of an 8-week hip-adductor strengthening...... programme, including one hip-adduction exercise, on eccentric and isometric hip-adduction strength, using elastic bands as external load. METHODS: Thirty-four healthy, sub-elite soccer players, mean (±SD) age of 22.1 (±3.3) years, were randomised to either training or control. During the mid-season break...... IHAD, IHAB or the IHAD/IHAB ratio existed (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: 8 weeks of hip-adduction strength training, using elastic bands, induce a relevant increase in eccentric hip-adduction strength in soccer players, and thus may have implications as a promising approach towards prevention of groin injuries...

  10. Impacto na qualidade vocal da miectomia parcial e neurectomia endoscópica do músculo tireoaritenóideo em paciente com disfonia espasmódica de adução Impact in vocal quality in partial myectomy and neurectomy endoscopic of thyroarytenoid muscle in patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia

    Domingos Hiroshi Tsuji

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A disfonia espasmódica de adução é um distúrbio vocal grave, caracterizado por espasmos dos músculos laríngeos durante a fonação, produzindo voz quebrada, tensa, forçada e estrangulada. Seus sintomas decorrem da contração intermitente e involuntária dos músculos tireoaritenóideos durante a fonação, o que resulta em pregas vocais tensas, pressionadas uma contra a outra, e no aumento da resistência glótica. OBJETIVO: Apresentar os resultados preliminares do impacto na qualidade vocal da cirurgia de Neurectomia do ramo tireoaritenóideo do laríngeo inferior, via endoscópica, associada à miectomia parcial do músculo tireoaritenóideo com laser de CO2. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A cirurgia foi realizada em 7 pacientes (6 mulheres e 1 homem, com idades variando entre 22 e 75 anos, com diagnóstico de disfonia espasmódica de adução. Os pacientes foram submetidos ao VHI (Voice Handicap Index no pré e pós-operatório. RESULTEDOS E CONCLUSÃO: A melhora vocal foi conseguida em todos os pacientes estudados não ocorrendo deterioração da qualidade vocal ao longo do período pós-operatório. Houve uma diferença evidente no VHI antes e após a cirurgia. Essa técnica cirúrgica mostrou-se eficaz e inovadora no tratamento da disfonia espasmódica de adução.Impact in vocal quality in partial myectomy and neurectomy endoscopic of thyroarytenoid muscle in patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia the adductor spasmodic dysphonia is a severe vocal disorder characterized by muscle laryngeal spasms during speech, producing phonatory breaks, forced, strained and strangled voice. Its symptoms come from involuntary and intermittent contractions of thyroarytenoid muscle during speech, which causes vocal fold strain, pressed one against another and increased glottic resistance. AIM: report the results in the impact in vocal quality in neurectomy of the thyroarytenoid branch of the inferior laryngeal nerve by endoscopic route associated with

  11. [Spasm of the adductor muscles, pre-dislocations and dislocations of the hip joints in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Clinical observations on aetiology, pathogenesis, therapy and rehabilitation. Part II. The importance of the iliopsoas tendon, its tenotomy, of the coxa valga antetorta, and correction through osteotomy turning the hip into varus (author's transl)].

    Fettweis, E

    1979-02-01

    The following factors besides spasm and contraction of the adductor muscles contribute to the occurrence of dislocations of the hip in spastic paralysis: Spasm and contraction of the iliopsoas muscle and enhanced valgus position and antetorsion. The author holds the opinion that in case of malformation of the proximal end of the femur, it is not only the indirect action of the spastic musculature via the proximal femur-epiphyseal cartilage which is responsible for this phenomen in accordance with the law on functional adaption through longitudinal growth (Pauwels), but also the direct traction of the iliopsoas tendon. A clue in this direction is the often very pronounced elongation or enlargement of the trochanter minor. The author demonstrates the pathogenetic importance of iliopsoas contracture and malpositioning of the neck of the femur by means of analyses of the course in two patients. The following principles of treatment are postulated for spastic dislocation of the hip: Elimination of the pathogenetic factors through myotenotomy of the adductor muscles and complete resection of the obturator nerve, with observation of strict aftertreatment criteria, tenotomy of the iliopsoas, repositioning and osteotomy with turning into varus. Osteotomy without previous elimination of the pathogenetically acting muscular forces does not appear useful. Likewise, permanent re-positioning by means of muscle-relaxing operation cannot be sufficiently safe-guarded without additional osteotomy once the dislocation has taken place. In twelve patients with spastic dislocation of the hip, treated in accordance with these guidelines (two without osteotomy) aged 6 6/12 and 19 5/12 years, a roentgenologically good result was obtained in half of the cases, whereas the functional result was satisfactory not only with these patients but also with part of the other patients. If surgical treatment is instituted early enough, and if the experiences described here are taken into consideration

  12. Speech Intelligibility in Severe Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia

    Bender, Brenda K.; Cannito, Michael P.; Murry, Thomas; Woodson, Gayle E.

    2004-01-01

    This study compared speech intelligibility in nondisabled speakers and speakers with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) before and after botulinum toxin (Botox) injection. Standard speech samples were obtained from 10 speakers diagnosed with severe ADSD prior to and 1 month following Botox injection, as well as from 10 age- and gender-matched…

  13. Experiment K-7-18: Effects of Spaceflight in the Muscle Adductor Longus of Rats Flown in the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Part 1; A Study Employing Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules (N-CAM) Immunocytochemistry and Conventional Morphological Techniques (Light and Electron Microscopy)

    Daunton, N. G.; DAmelio, F.; Wu, L.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.; Krasnov, I. B.; Hyde, T. M.; Sigworth, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight upon the 'slow' muscle adductor longus was examined in rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. Three groups - synchronous, vivarium and basal served as controls. The techniques employed included standard methods for light microscopy, N-CAM immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Light microscopic observations revealed myofiber atrophy, contraction bands and segmental necrosis accompanied by cellular infiltrates composed of macrophages, leucocytes and mononuclear cells. N-CAM immunoreactivity was seen (N-CAM-IR) on the myofiber surface, satellite cells and in regenerating myofibers reminiscent of myotubes. Ultrastructural alterations included Z band streaming, disorganization of myofibrillar architecture, sarcoplasmic degradation, extensive segmental necrosis with preservation of the basement membrane, degenerative phenomena of the capillary endothelium and cellular invasion of necrotic areas. Regenerating myofibers were identified by the presence of increased amounts of ribosomal aggregates and chains of polyribosomes associated with myofilaments that displayed varied distributive patterns. The principal electron microscopic changes of the neuromuscular junctions consisted of a decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles, degeneration of axon terminals, increased number of microtubules, vacant axonal spaces and axonal sprouting. The present observations indicate that major alterations such as myofibrillar disruption and necrosis, muscle regeneration and denervation and synaptic remodeling at the level of the neuromuscular junction may take place during spaceflight.

  14. The adductor part of the adductor magnus is innervated by both obturator and sciatic nerves.

    Takizawa, Megumi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Ito, Hajime; Fujimiya, Mineko; Uchiyama, Eiichi

    2014-07-01

    The hip adductor group, innervated predominantly by the obturator nerve, occupies a large volume of the lower limb. However, case reports of patients with obturator nerve palsy or denervation have described no more than minimal gait disturbance. Those facts are surprising, given the architectural characteristics of the hip adductors. Our aim was to investigate which regions of the adductor magnus are innervated by the obturator nerve and by which sciatic nerve and to consider the clinical implications. Twenty-one lower limbs were examined from 21 formalin-fixed cadavers, 18 males and 3 females. The adductor magnus was dissected and was divided into four parts (AM1-AM4) based on the locations of the perforating arteries and the adductor hiatus. AM1 was supplied solely by the obturator nerve. AM2, AM3, and AM4 received innervation from both the posterior branch of the obturator nerve and the tibial nerve portion of the sciatic nerve in 2 (9.5%), 20 (95.2%), and 6 (28.6%) of the cadavers, respectively. The double innervation in more than 90% of the AM3s is especially noteworthy. Generally, AM1-AM3 corresponds to the adductor part, traditionally characterized as innervated by the obturator nerve, and AM4 corresponds to the hamstrings part, innervated by the sciatic nerve. Here, we showed that the sciatic nerve supplies not only the hamstrings part but also the adductor part. These two nerves spread more widely than has generally been believed, which could have practical implications for the assessment and treatment of motor disability. PMID:23813615

  15. Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis in athletes: a review.

    Valent, Alessandro; Frizziero, Antonio; Bressan, Stefano; Zanella, Elena; Giannotti, Erika; Masiero, Stefano

    2012-04-01

    Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis is common in male athletes, especially in soccer players. It may be worsened by physical activity and it usually limits sport performance. The management goal in the acute phase consists of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs and physical rehabilitation. In the early stages of rehabilitation, strengthening exercises of adductors and abdominal muscles, such as postural exercises, have been suggested. In the sub-acute phase, muscular strength is targeted by overload training in the gym or aquatherapy; core stability exercises seem to be useful in this phase. Finally, specific sport actions are introduced by increasingly complex exercises along with a preventive program to limit pain recurrences. PMID:23738289

  16. MR imaging of ulnar nerve entrapment secondary to an anomalous wrist muscle

    Ruocco, M.J. [Department of Radiology, Moncrief Army Community Hospital, Ft. Jackson, Columbia, SC 29207 (United States)]|[Department of Radiology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Walsh, J.J.; Jackson, J.P. [Department of Orthopedics, Moncrief Army Community Hospital, Ft. Jackson, Columbia, SC 29207 (United States)

    1998-04-01

    MR imaging of an anomalous hypothenar adductor muscle causing isolated deep ulnar nerve branch compression and producing a purely motor neuropathy is presented. The muscle appears to represent a type 1 variant of the intrinsic anomalous hypothenar adductor muscle. (orig.) With 4 figs., 19 refs.

  17. Ultrasound-guided continuous adductor canal block for analgesia after total knee replacement

    Zhang Wei; Hu Yan; Tao Yan; Liu Xuebing; Wang Geng

    2014-01-01

    Background There are several methods for postoperative analgesia for knee surgery.The commonly utilized method is multimodal analgesia based on continuous femoral nerve block.The aim of this study was to investigate the application of continuous adductor canal block for analgesia after total knee replacement and compare this method with continuous femoral nerve block.Methods Sixty patients scheduled for total knee replacement from June 2013 to March 2014 were randomly divided into a femoral group and an adductor group.Catheters were placed under the guidance of nerve stimulation in the femoral group and under the guidance of ultrasound in the adductor group.Operations were performed under combined spinal and epidural anesthesia.After the operations,0.2% ropivacaine was given at a speed of 5 ml/h through catheters in all patients.Visual analogue scale (VAS) pain scores at rest and while moving were noted at 4,24,and 48 hours after the operation,and quadriceps strength was also assessed at these time-points.Secondary parameters such as doses of complementary analgesics and side effects were also recorded.Results There were no significant differences between the groups in VAS pain scores at rest or while moving,at 4,24,or 48 hours after the operation (P >0.05).At these time-points,mean quadriceps strengths in the adductor group were 3.0 (2.75-3.0),3.0 (3.0-4.0),and 4.0 (3.0-4.0),respectively,all of which were significantly stronger than the corresponding means in the femoral group,which were 2.0 (2.0-3.0),2.0 (2.0-3.0),and 3.0 (2.0-4.0),respectively (P <0.05).There were no significant differences between the groups in doses of complementary analgesics or side effects (P >0.05).X-ray images of some patients showed that local anesthetic administered into the adductor canal could diffuse upward and reach the femoral triangle.Conclusions Continuous adductor canal block with 0.2% ropivacaine could be used effectively for analgesia after total knee replacement

  18. Vocal aging and adductor spasmodic dysphonia: Response to botulinum toxin injection

    Michael P Cannito

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael P Cannito, Joel C Kahane, Lesya ChornaSchool of Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, The University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USAAbstract: Aging of the larynx is characterized by involutional changes which alter its biomechanical and neural properties and create a biological environment that is different from younger counterparts. Illustrative anatomical examples are presented. This natural, non-disease process appears to set conditions which may influence the effectiveness of botulinum toxin injection and our expectations for its success. Adductor spasmodic dysphonia, a type of laryngeal dystonia, is typically treated using botulinum toxin injections of the vocal folds in order to suppress adductory muscle spasms which are disruptive to production of speech and voice. A few studies have suggested diminished response to treatment in older patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. This retrospective study provides a reanalysis of existing pre-to-post treatment data as function of age. Perceptual judgments of speech produced by 42 patients with ADSD were made by two panels of professional listeners with expertise in voice or fluency of speech. Results demonstrate a markedly reduced positive response to botulinum toxin treatment in the older patients. Perceptual findings are further elucidated by means of acoustic spectrography. Literature on vocal aging is reviewed to provide a specific set of biological mechanisms that best account for the observed interaction of botulinum toxin treatment with advancing age.Keywords: vocal aging, adductor spasmodic dysphonia, botulinum toxin, voice quality, speech fluency

  19. RESULTS OF ADDUCTORS MUSCLE TENOTOMY IN SPASTIC CEREBRAL PALSY

    Guglielmetti, Luiz Gabriel Betoni; Santos, Ruy Mesquita Maranhao; Mendonça, Rodrigo Góes Medea de; Yamada, Helder Henzo; Assumpçao, Rodrigo Montezuma César de; Fucs, Patricia Maria de Moraes Barros

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Radiographic evaluation of the evolution of hips that underwent soft-tissue release. Methods: This was a retrospective evaluation on 101 spastic cerebral palsy patients who underwent soft-tissue release between 1991 and 2006. Forty-four patients met the inclusion criteria: 23 boys and 21 girls; 34 diparetic and 10 quadriparetic. Functionally, 29 were non-walkers, five were able to walk at home and 10 were able to walk within the community. Reimers' index (RI) and the acetabular ind...

  20. The precision and torque production of common hip adductor squeeze tests used in elite football

    Light, N; Thorborg, K

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Decreased hip adductor strength is a known risk factor for groin injury in footballers, with clinicians testing adductor strength in various positions and using different protocols. Understanding how reliable and how much torque different adductor squeeze tests produce will facilitate...

  1. Measurement of the thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle as a predictor of outcome in critically ill patients La medición del espesor del músculo aductor del pulgar como un predictor de resultados en pacientes críticamente enfermos

    F. S. Caporossi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Malnutrition is associated with complications and prolonged hospital stay in critically ill patients. We assessed whether the measurement of the thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle (TAPM, a new tool to assess malnutrition is a valuable prognostic indicator in critically ill patients. Methods: Open cohort study including 248 patients admitted for either medical or surgical intensive care treatment in a tertiary hospital. Two were discharged for having age below 18 years-old and therefore 246 subjects of both sexes completed the entire analysis. Subjective global assessment and APACHE II scores were used to score the patients. TAPM of both hands was measured at admission with a caliper and correlated with mortality, days of mechanical ventilation, and length of hospital stay (LOS. Results: There was a significant correlation (R = 0.84, p Objetivo: La desnutrición se asocia con complicaciones y estancia hospitalaria prolongada en pacientes críticamente enfermos. Se evaluó si la medición del espesor del músculo aductor del pulgar (TAPM, una nueva herramienta para evaluar la desnutrición es valioso como indicador pronóstico en los pacientes críticamente enfermos. Métodos: Estudio abierto de cohorte que incluyó 248 pacientes ingresados para tratamiento de atención médica o quirúrgica intensiva en un hospital de tercer nivel. Dos de ellos fueron excluidos por tener menos de 18 años de edad y por lo tanto 246 sujetos de ambos sexos completaron todo el análisis. La valoración subjetiva global y puntuaciones de APACHE II se utilizaron en los pacientes. El TAPM de ambas manos se midió al ingreso con una pinza y se correlacionó con la mortalidad, los días de ventilación mecánica, y la duración de la estancia hospitalaria (LOS. Resultados: Se encontró una correlación significativa (r = 0,84, p < 0,001 entre TAPM de la mano derecha y la mano izquierda. Los pacientes con desnutrición severa mostraron TAPM tanto de la

  2. Unilateral versus bilateral thyroarytenoid Botulinum toxin injections in adductor spasmodic dysphonia: a prospective study

    Abiola Jesuloba

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives In this preliminary prospective study, we compared unilateral and bilateral thyroarytenoid muscle injections of Botulinum toxin (Dysport in 31 patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia, who had undergone more than 5 consecutive Dysport injections (either unilateral or bilateral and had completed 5 concomitant self-rated efficacy and complication scores questionnaires related to the previous injections. We also developed a Neurophysiological Scoring (NPS system which has utility in the treatment administration. Method and materials Data were gathered prospectively on voice improvement (self-rated 6 point scale, length of response and duration of complications (breathiness, cough, dysphagia and total voice loss. Injections were performed under electromyography (EMG guidance. NPS scale was used to describe the EMG response. Dose and unilateral/bilateral injections were determined by clinical judgment based on previous response. Time intervals between injections were patient driven. Results Low dose unilateral Dysport injection was associated with no significant difference in the patient's outcome in terms of duration of action, voice score (VS and complication rate when compared to bilateral injections. Unilateral injections were not associated with any post treatment total voice loss unlike the bilateral injections. Conclusion Unilateral low dose Dysport injections are recommended in the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

  3. Optimal volume of local anaesthetic for the adductor canal block

    Jæger, P.; Jenstrup, M. T.; Lund, J.;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Theoretically, the ideal volume of local anaesthetic for adductor canal block (ACB) would ensure sufficient filling ofthe canal and avoid proximal spread to the femoral triangle. In this dose-finding study, we aimed to investigate the minimaleffective volume for an ACB needed to fill...... the adductor canal distally in at least 95% of patients (ED95). Methods: We performed a blinded trial, enrolling 40 healthy men. All subjects received an ACB with lidocaine 1%. Volumes wereassigned sequentially to the subjects using the continual reassessment method followed by Bayesian analysis to...... baseline) and sensory block. Results: The ED95 was 20 ml, with an estimated probability of sufficiently filling the canal of 95.1% (95% credibility interval: 0.91–0.98). Proximal spread to the femoral triangle was seen in 0/4 (0%), 7/12 (58%), 4/8 (50%), and 8/16 (50%) subjects with the 5, 10, 15,and 20 ml...

  4. Neurophysiology and Clinical Implications of the Laryngeal Adductor Reflex

    Domer, Amanda S.; Kuhn, Maggie A.; Belafsky, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    The laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR) is an involuntary protective response to stimuli in the larynx. The superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) acts as the afferent limb and the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) as the efferent limb of this reflex, which is modulated by the central nervous system. Perhaps the most clinically significant application of the LAR is its use in laryngopharyngeal (LP) sensory discrimination testing. Importantly, aberrations in the LAR may predict dysphagia or portend clinical...

  5. Effect of Adductor Canal Block Versus Femoral Nerve Block on Quadriceps Strength, Mobilization, and Pain After Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Grevstad, Jens Ulrik; Mathiesen, Ole; Valentiner, Laura Risted Staun;

    2015-01-01

    strength. METHODS: We included 50 TKA patients with severe movement-related pain; defined as having visual analog scale pain score of greater than 60 mm during active flexion of the knee. The ACB group received an ACB with ropivacaine 0.2% 30 mL and a femoral nerve block (FNB) with 30 mL saline. The FNB......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is often associated with severe pain. Different regional anesthetic techniques exist, all with varying degrees of motor blockade. We hypothesized that pain relief provided by the adductor canal block (ACB) could increase functional muscle...... ambulate and changes in pain scores (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01922596). RESULTS: After block, the quadriceps maximum voluntary isometric contraction increased to 193% (95% confidence interval [CI], 143-288) of the baseline value in the ACB group and decreased to 16% (95% CI, 3-33) in the FNB group...

  6. Adductor tendinopathy in a hockey player with persistent groin pain: a case report

    Avrahami, Daniel; Choudur, Hema N.

    2010-01-01

    Groin pain may stem from a variety of different causes. Adductor tendinopathy is a common but infrequently recognised cause of chronic groin pain especially in athletes. This case report describes a case of clinically suspected adductor tendinopathy in an amateur athlete confirmed by MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). Relevant literature on musculotendinous injuries of the groin along with differential diagnosis for groin pain is discussed. There are several differential diagnoses for athletes...

  7. Current concepts of inguinal-related and adductor-related groin pain.

    Dimitrakopoulou, Alexandra; Schilders, Ernest

    2016-05-14

    Groin pain encompasses a number of conditions from the lower abdomen, inguinal region, proximal adductors, hip joint, upper anterior thigh and perineum. The complexity of the anatomy, the heterogeneous terminology and the overlapping symptoms of different conditions that may co-exist epitomise the challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Inguinal-related and adductor-related pain is the most common cause of groin pain and will be discussed in this article. PMID:27174069

  8. Arthroscopic pubic symphysis debridement and adductor enthesis repair in athletes with athletic pubalgia: technical note and video illustration.

    Hopp, Sascha; Tumin, Masjudin; Wilhelm, Peter; Pohlemann, Tim; Kelm, Jens

    2014-11-01

    We elaborately describe our novel arthroscopic technique of the symphysis pubis in athletes with osteitis pubis and concomitant adductor enthesopathy who fail to conservative treatment modalities. The symphysis pubis is debrided arthroscopically and the degenerated origin of adductor tendon (enthesis) is excised and reattached. With our surgical procedure the stability of the symphysis pubis is successfully preserved and the adductor longus enthesopathy simultaneously addressed in the same setting. PMID:25055756

  9. Abnormal motor cortex excitability during linguistic tasks in adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia.

    Suppa, A; Marsili, L; Giovannelli, F; Di Stasio, F; Rocchi, L; Upadhyay, N; Ruoppolo, G; Cincotta, M; Berardelli, A

    2015-08-01

    In healthy subjects (HS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied during 'linguistic' tasks discloses excitability changes in the dominant hemisphere primary motor cortex (M1). We investigated 'linguistic' task-related cortical excitability modulation in patients with adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia (ASD), a speech-related focal dystonia. We studied 10 ASD patients and 10 HS. Speech examination included voice cepstral analysis. We investigated the dominant/non-dominant M1 excitability at baseline, during 'linguistic' (reading aloud/silent reading/producing simple phonation) and 'non-linguistic' tasks (looking at non-letter strings/producing oral movements). Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the contralateral hand muscles. We measured the cortical silent period (CSP) length and tested MEPs in HS and patients performing the 'linguistic' tasks with different voice intensities. We also examined MEPs in HS and ASD during hand-related 'action-verb' observation. Patients were studied under and not-under botulinum neurotoxin-type A (BoNT-A). In HS, TMS over the dominant M1 elicited larger MEPs during 'reading aloud' than during the other 'linguistic'/'non-linguistic' tasks. Conversely, in ASD, TMS over the dominant M1 elicited increased-amplitude MEPs during 'reading aloud' and 'syllabic phonation' tasks. CSP length was shorter in ASD than in HS and remained unchanged in both groups performing 'linguistic'/'non-linguistic' tasks. In HS and ASD, 'linguistic' task-related excitability changes were present regardless of the different voice intensities. During hand-related 'action-verb' observation, MEPs decreased in HS, whereas in ASD they increased. In ASD, BoNT-A improved speech, as demonstrated by cepstral analysis and restored the TMS abnormalities. ASD reflects dominant hemisphere excitability changes related to 'linguistic' tasks; BoNT-A returns these excitability changes to normal. PMID:26061279

  10. Agreement between visual and goniometric assessments of adductor and popliteal angles in infants

    Thejus T Jayakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Amiel-Tison method is a commonly used technique for assessing tone and neurological status of infants. There is a paucity of data on the reliability of visual assessment of angles, a component of this method. Subjects and Methods: We compared the visual and the goniometric assessment of adductor and popliteal angles in infants with hypertonia and neurologically normal controls. A total of 16 infants with hypertonia and 15 normal infants underwent blinded assessment of the adductor and popliteal angles. Statistical Analysis: The mean and standard deviation for the difference between visual and goniometric measurements were calculated for popliteal and adductor angles. Results: The mean differences between visual and goniometric measurements for the popliteal angle were 4.94 (SD3.40 and 8.73 (SD6.10 degrees for the cases and controls respectively. Similarly, the values for adductor angle measurements were 8.94 (SD8.23 and 14.47 (SD8.47 degrees respectively. Conclusion: The deviation of visual assessment from goniometric measurement was found to be less for popliteal angle measurement as compared to adductor angle measurements. It was note-worthy that the difference was less for the measurements of children with spasticity.

  11. Does bony hip morphology affect the outcome of treatment for patients with adductor-related groin pain?

    Hölmich, Per; Thorborg, Kristian; Nyvold, Per;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adductor-related groin pain and bony morphology such as femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) or hip dysplasia can coexist clinically. A previous randomised controlled trial in which athletes with adductor-related groin pain underwent either passive treatment (PT) or active treatment (AT...

  12. Effectiveness of active physical training as treatment for long-standing adductor-related groin pain in athletes

    Hölmich, P; Uhrskou, P; Ulnits, L;

    1999-01-01

    Groin pain is common among athletes. A major cause of long-standing problems is adductor-related groin pain. The purpose of this randomised clinical trial was to compare an active training programme (AT) with a physiotherapy treatment without active training (PT) in the treatment of adductor-rela...

  13. Direct measurement of skeletal muscle fatigue in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Buller, N. P.; Jones, D.; Poole-Wilson, P A

    1991-01-01

    Skeletal muscle function was measured as force production and fatigue in both the quadriceps (a large locomotive muscle) and adductor pollicis (a small intrinsic hand muscle) in five healthy volunteers, five patients with mild chronic heart failure, and five patients with severe chronic heart failure. The quadriceps of patients with chronic heart failure had a reduced muscle cross sectional area, a reduced maximum isometric force production, and an increased tendency to fatigue. Isometric for...

  14. Timing of tracheal intubation: monitoring the orbicularis oculi, the adductor pollicis or use a stopwatch?

    Koscielniak-Nielsen, Z J; Horn, A; Sztuk, F; Eriksen, K; Skovgaard, L T; Viby-Mogensen, J

    1996-01-01

    response of the adductor pollicis to ulnar nerve stimulation (group 2; n = 30), or after waiting 3 min (group 3; n = 30), or 4 min (group 4; n = 30). There were no significant differences in intubation scores between the four groups of patients. Loss of response to train-of-four stimulation occurred...

  15. Effects of adductor-canal-blockade on pain and ambulation after total knee arthroplasty

    Jenstrup, M T; Jæger, P; Lund, J; Fomsgaard, J S; Bache, S; Mathiesen, O; Larsen, T K; Dahl, J B

    2012-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with intense post-operative pain. Besides providing optimal analgesia, reduction in side effects and enhanced mobilization are important in this elderly population. The adductor-canal-blockade is theoretically an almost pure sensory blockade. We...

  16. Adductor spasmodic dysphonia and botulinum toxin treatment : The effect on well-being

    Langeveld, TPM; Luteijn, F; van Rossum, M; Drost, HA; De Jong, RJB

    2001-01-01

    Adductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD) is a controversial and enigmatic voice disorder. It is generally accepted that it has a neurologic, although undetermined, cause, and it is accompanied by much psychological and physical distress. In this prospective study, standardized psychometric tests were use

  17. Acoustic Variations in Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia as a Function of Speech Task.

    Sapienza, Christine M.; Walton, Suzanne; Murry, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic phonatory events were identified in 14 women diagnosed with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD), a focal laryngeal dystonia that disturbs phonatory function, and compared with those of 14 age-matched women with no vocal dysfunction. Findings indicated ADSD subjects produced more aberrant acoustic events than controls during tasks of…

  18. Radiological findings in symphyseal and adductor-related groin pain in athletes

    Branci, Sonia; Thorborg, Kristian; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann;

    2013-01-01

    Long-standing symphyseal and adductor-related groin pain is a common problem for many athletes, and requires a multidisciplinary approach. Radiological evaluation of symptomatic individuals is a cornerstone in the diagnostic workup, and should be based on precise and reliable diagnostic terms and...... terminology is confusing, and the interpretation of radiological findings would benefit from imaging studies using a more systematic approach....

  19. Skeletal muscle CT of lower extremities in myotonic dystrophy

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Imai, Terukuni; Sadashima, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Kusaka, Hirofumi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi; Tanabe, Masaya

    1988-02-01

    We evaluated the leg and thigh muscles of 4 control subjects and 10 patients with myotonic dystrophy using computed tomography. Taking previous reports about the skeletal muscle CT of myotonic dystrophy into account, we concluded that the following 5 features are characteristic of myotonic dystrophy: 1. The main change is the appearance of low-density areas in muscles; these areas reflect fat tissue. In addition, the muscle mass decreases in size. 2. The leg is more severely affected than the thigh. 3. In the thigh, although the m. quadriceps femoris, especially the vastus muscles, tends to be affected, the m. adductor longus and magnus tend to be preserved. 4. In the leg, although the m. tibialis anterior and m. triceps surae tend to be affected, the m. peroneus longus, brevis, and m. tibialis posterior tend to be preserved. 5. Compensatory hypertrophy is often observed in the m. rectus femoris, m. adductor longus, m. adductor magnus, m. peroneus longus, and m. peroneus brevis, accompanied by the involvement of their agonist muscles.

  20. Skeletal muscle CT of lower extremities in myotonic dystrophy

    We evaluated the leg and thigh muscles of 4 control subjects and 10 patients with myotonic dystrophy using computed tomography. Taking previous reports about the skeletal muscle CT of myotonic dystrophy into account, we concluded that the following 5 features are characteristic of myotonic dystrophy: 1. The main change is the appearance of low-density areas in muscles; these areas reflect fat tissue. In addition, the muscle mass decreases in size. 2. The leg is more severely affected than the thigh. 3. In the thigh, although the m. quadriceps femoris, especially the vastus muscles, tends to be affected, the m. adductor longus and magnus tend to be preserved. 4. In the leg, although the m. tibialis anterior and m. triceps surae tend to be affected, the m. peroneus longus, brevis, and m. tibialis posterior tend to be preserved. 5. Compensatory hypertrophy is often observed in the m. rectus femoris, m. adductor longus, m. adductor magnus, m. peroneus longus, and m. peroneus brevis, accompanied by the involvement of their agonist muscles. (author)

  1. Adductor canal block for postoperative pain treatment after revision knee arthroplasty

    Jæger, Pia; Koscielniak-Nielsen, Zbigniew J; Schrøder, Henrik M;

    2014-01-01

    arthroplasty in general anesthesia into this blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Patients were allocated to an adductor canal block via a catheter with either ropivacaine or placebo; bolus of 0.75% ropivacaine/saline, followed by infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine/saline. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT......BACKGROUND: Revision knee arthroplasty is assumed to be even more painful than primary knee arthroplasty and predominantly performed in chronic pain patients, which challenges postoperative pain treatment. We hypothesized that the adductor canal block, effective for pain relief after primary total...... difference found between groups was in the primary endpoint: pain during knee flexion at 4 h. However, due to a larger than anticipated dropout rate and heterogeneous study population, the study was underpowered. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01191593....

  2. Adductor insertion avulsion syndrome with stress fracture of femoral shaft: MRI findings

    Full text: Chronic vague hip pain may be caused by stress-related injury in the proximal or mid-femoral diaphysis. This has been described as an entity called adductor insertion avulsion syndrome, or thigh splints. In the appropriate clinical setting, the radiologist interpreting the magnetic resonance imaging must be aware of this condition as its imaging findings are subtle. The diagnosis will help the clinician plan the appropriate management. Magnetic resonance imaging can also depict the complications such as stress fracture

  3. Effect of hindlimb suspension and clenbuterol treatment on polyamine levels in skeletal muscle

    Abukhalaf, Imad K.; von Deutsch, Daniel A.; Wineski, Lawrence E.; Silvestrov, Natalia A.; Abera, Saare A.; Sahlu, Sinafikish W.; Potter, David E.; Thierry-Palmer, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Polyamines are unbiquitous, naturally occurring small aliphatic, polycationic, endogenous compounds. They are involved in many cellular processes and may serve as secondary or tertiary messengers to hormonal regulation. The relationship of polyamines and skeletal muscle mass of adductor longus, extensor digitorum longus, and gastrocnemius under unloading (hindlimb suspension) conditions was investigated. Unloading significantly affected skeletal muscle polyamine levels in a fiber-type-specific fashion. Under loading conditions, clenbuterol treatment increased all polyamine levels, whereas under unloading conditions, only the spermidine levels were consistently increased. Unloading attenuated the anabolic effects of clenbuterol in predominately slow-twitch muscles (adductor longus), but had little impact on clenbuterol's action as a countermeasure in fast- twitch muscles such as the extensor digitorum longus. Spermidine appeared to be the primary polyamine involved in skeletal muscle atrophy/hypertrophy. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Adductor-related groin pain in athletes: correlation of MR imaging with clinical findings

    To evaluate gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging in athletes with chronic groin pain and correlate with the clinical features. MR examinations performed in 52 athletes (51 male, 1 female; median age 26 years) with chronic groin pain and 6 asymptomatic control athletes (6 male; median age 29 years) were independently reviewed by two radiologists masked to the clinical details. Symptom duration (median 6 months) and clinical side of severity were recorded. Anatomical areas in the pelvis were scored for abnormality (as normal, mildly abnormal or abnormal) and an overall assessment for side distribution of abnormality was recorded, initially without post-gadolinium sequences and then, 3 weeks later (median 29 days), the post-gadolinium sequences only. Correlation between radiological and clinical abnormality was calculated by Spearman's correlation. Abnormal anterior pubis and enthesis enhancement significantly correlated with clinical side for both radiologists (both P=0.008). Abnormal anterior pubis and adductor longus enthesis oedema was significant for one radiologist (P=0.009). All other features showed no significant correlation (P>0.05). In the control cases there was no soft tissue abnormality but symphyseal irregularity was present (n=2). For both radiologists assessment of imaging side severity significantly correlated with clinical side for post-gadolinium (P=0.048 and P=0.023) but not non-gadolinium sequences (P>0.05). The extent and side of anterior pubis and adductor longus enthesis abnormality on MR imaging significantly and reproducibly correlates with the athletes' current symptoms in chronic adductor-related groin pain. (orig.)

  5. CONTROL OF EROSION PROCESSES RESULTING FROM DISRUPTION OF ADDUCTOR IN THE SERRA DA MANTIQUEIRA, SP, BRAZIL

    Admilson Clayton Barbosa; Helio Nobile Diniz

    2010-01-01

    In the southern escarpment of the Serra da Mantiqueira, northeast geographic divider between the State of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, there was an environmental accident caused by the disruption of an adductor whose purpose is to lead the water from a reservoir located at an altitude of 1820 m to the machine house where there is an electric generator located at 750 m.  This accident resulted in the formation of a scar on the hillside forest, with removal of soil and vegetation. To reverse the...

  6. Effect of adductor canal block on pain in patients with severe pain after total knee arthroplasty

    Grevstad, Jens Ulrik; Mathiesen, Ole; Lind, T;

    2014-01-01

    category compared with placebo. METHODS: Fifty patients with severe pain, defined as having a visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score of >60 during active flexion of the knee on the first or the second postoperative day after TKA, were included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. All......BACKGROUND: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with varying degrees of pain. A considerable proportion (25-40%) of patients experience severe pain, despite a comprehensive multimodal analgesic regimen. We hypothesized that adductor canal block (ACB) would reduce pain in this patient...... moderate, movement-related pain. Clinical trial registration www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01549704....

  7. Interactions between jaw-muscle recruitment and jaw-joint forces in Canis familiaris.

    Dessem, D

    1989-01-01

    Electromyographic activity from the jaw-adductor muscles was recorded during mastication and bone crushing in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). During mastication, balancing-side temporalis electromyographic activity was much less than that of the working side while masseter muscle electromyographic activities were of similar amplitude. Despite the large bite forces that were produced during bone crushing, balancing-side masseter and temporalis electromyographic activities were always smaller...

  8. Morphological and functional relationships with ultrasound measured muscle thickness of the lower extremity: a brief review.

    Abe, Takashi; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Thiebaud, Robert S

    2015-08-01

    Ultrasound is a potential method for assessing muscle size of the extremity and trunk. In a large muscle, however, a single image from portable ultrasound measures only muscle thickness (MT), not anatomical muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) or muscle volume (MV). Thus, it is important to know whether MT is related to anatomical CSA and MV in an individual muscle of the extremity and trunk. In this review, we summarize previously published articles in the lower extremity demonstrating the relationships between ultrasound MT and muscle CSA or MV as measured by magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans. The relationship between MT and isometric and isokinetic joint performance is also reviewed. A linear relationship is observed between MT and muscle CSA or MV in the quadriceps, adductor, tibialis anterior, and triceps surae muscles. Intrarater correlation coefficients range from 0.90 to 0.99, except for one study. It would appear that anterior upper-thigh MT, mid-thigh MT and posterior thigh MT are the best predictors for evaluating adductor, quadriceps, and hamstrings muscle size, respectively. Despite a limited number of studies, anterior as well as posterior lower leg MT appear to reflect muscle CSA and MV of the lower leg muscles. Based on previous studies, ultrasound measured anterior thigh MT may be a valuable predictor of knee extension strength. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to clarify the relationship between lower extremity function and MT. PMID:27433253

  9. Computed tomography of muscles in neuromuscular disease

    137 patients with neuromuscular diseases were studied by CT scan. Four levels were chosen: mid-calf, mid-thigh, pelvic girdle, and spinal muscles. The scans were compared with normal control scans taken from the same sites. The patients were divided into those with myogenic diseases and those with neurogenic diseases. Of the 102 patients with myogenic changes, 17 had X-linked dystrophy, 13 had facio-scapulo-humeral dystrophy, 22 had limb girdle dystrophy, 19 had myotonic dystrophy, 14 had inflammatory muscle diseases, and 17 had miscellaneous muscular diseases. Of the 35 patients with neurogenic changes, 8 had amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 16 had chronic spinal amyotrophies, 9 had peripheral neuropathies, and 2 had Friedreich's disease. The analysis of muscles changes (volume, outline, density) was established on the following muscles: tibialis anterior, peroneus, soleus, gastrocnemius mediale, gastrocnemius laterale, quadriceps, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, sartorius, adductor, gracilis, gluteus, spine extensors, and psoas

  10. Distribution of skeletal muscle involvement in autosomal recessive distal muscular dystrophy

    Distribution of skeletal muscle involvement in 5 cases with autosomal recessive distal muscular dystrophy was studied clinically and by computed tomography (CT). Manual muscle test showed muscle involvement with a predilection for flexors in the lower leg and adductors in the thigh. Flexion and extension of the thigh and the lower leg was impaired to similar degree. In progressed cases, neck flexors and trunk muscles were also affected mildly. CT disclosed more clearly the preferential involvement of flexors in the lower leg, and involvement of both hamstrings · adductors group and extensors group of the thigh to similar degree. However, m. popliteus was curiously well preserved. In addition, there was a stage showing high density and hypertrophy of m. sartorius, m. gracilis, m. adductor, m. biceps femoris, m. semimenbranosus, m. semitendinosus or m. rectus femoris, which in thought to be compensatory hypertrophy. M. gluteus minimus in the pelvic girdle and m. dorsi proprii in the trunk were also liable to be affected. The CT findings are regarded as characteristic features noted clearly before muscle weakness and atrophy become apparent clinically. CT is very useful for distinguishing distal muscular dystrophy from rimmed vacuolar distal myopathy in which m. quadriceps femoris and flexors of the lower leg are usually well preserved without compensatory hypertrophy on CT. (author)

  11. MRI findings in soccer players with long-standing adductor-related groin pain and asymptomatic controls

    Branci, Sonia; Thorborg, Kristian; Bech, Birthe Højlund;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soccer players are commonly affected by long-standing adductor-related groin pain (ARGP), but the clinical significance of MRI findings in these athletes is largely unknown. Our aims were (1) to evaluate whether MRI findings are associated with long-standing ARGP in soccer players, (2......) to assess MRI findings in asymptomatic soccer players and non-soccer playing controls. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 28 male soccer players with long-standing ARGP, 17 male asymptomatic soccer players and 20 male asymptomatic non-soccer playing athletes of matching age and athletic exposure...... soccer players displayed different positive MRI findings, and asymptomatic soccer players had significantly higher odds (OR ranging from 6.3 to 13.3) for BMO, adductor tendinopathy and degenerative changes than non-soccer players. CONCLUSIONS: ARGP in soccer players was associated with central disc...

  12. Muscle sarcomere lesions and thrombosis after spaceflight and suspension unloading

    Riley, D.A.; Ellis, S.; Giometti, C.S.; Hoh, J.F.Y.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E.I.; Oganov, V.S.; Slocum, G.R.; Bain, J.L.W.; Sedlak, F.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1992-08-01

    Extended exposure of humans to spaceflight produces a progressive loss of skeletal muscle strength. This process must be understood to design effective countermeasures. The present investigation examined hindlimb muscles from flight rats killed as close to landing as possible. Spaceflight and tail suspension-hindlimb unloading (unloaded) produced significant decreases in fiber cross-sectional areas of the adductor longus (AL), a slow-twitch antigravity muscle. However, the mean wet weight of the flight AL muscles was near normal, whereas that of the suspension unloaded AL muscles was significantly reduced. Interstitial edema within the flight AL, but not in the unloaded AL, appeared to account for this apparent disagreement.In both conditions, the slow-twitch oxidative fibers atrophied more than the fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic fibers. Microcirculation was also compromised by spaceflight, such that there was increased formation of thrombi in the postcapillary venules and capillaries.

  13. Effect of unloading on muscle volume with and without resistance training

    Akima, Hiroshi; Ushiyama, Jun-ichi; Kubo, Junjiro; Fukuoka, Hideoki; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2007-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of resistance training on the volume of four muscle groups and/or 17 individual muscles of the human lower limb during 20 days of 6∘ head-down tilt bed rest. Twelve healthy men were divided into two groups: the resistance training group: BR-Tr (n=6) and the control group: BR-Cont (n=6). The volumes of the knee extensor, knee flexor, adductor, plantar flexor, and dorsiflexor muscle groups and their individual muscles were calculated. After the bed rest, the BR-Tr subjects showed no significant change in the volume in almost all tested muscles; in contrast, the volumes of the four muscle groups significantly decreased in the BR-Cont group ( -12% to -8%). These results suggest that resistance training during bed rest can prevent the deteriorating of thigh muscles and calf muscles.

  14. Adductor canal blockade for moderate to severe pain after arthroscopic knee surgery

    Espelund, M; Grevstad, U; Jaeger, P;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The analgesic effect of the adductor canal block (ACB) after knee surgery has been evaluated in a number of trials. We hypothesized that the ACB would provide substantial pain relief to patients responding with moderate to severe pain after arthroscopic knee surgery. METHODS: Fifty...... opposite study medication, according to randomization. Primary outcome was pain during 45 degrees active flexion of the knee at 45 min after the first block, assessed on a 0-100 mm visual analogue scale. Secondary outcome measures were: pain at rest and during flexion of the knee, worst pain experienced...... subjects with moderate to severe pain after arthroscopic knee surgery were enrolled in this placebo-controlled, blinded trial. All subjects received two ACBs; an initial ACB with either 30 ml ropivacaine 7.5 mg/ml (n = 25) (R group) or saline (n = 25) (C group) and after 45 min a second ACB with the...

  15. Supersonic shear imaging provides a reliable measurement of resting muscle shear elastic modulus

    The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of shear elastic modulus measurements performed using supersonic shear imaging (SSI) in nine resting muscles (i.e. gastrocnemius medialis, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, brachioradialis, adductor pollicis obliquus and abductor digiti minimi) of different architectures and typologies. Thirty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to the intra-session reliability (n = 20), inter-day reliability (n = 21) and the inter-observer reliability (n = 16) experiments. Muscle shear elastic modulus ranged from 2.99 (gastrocnemius medialis) to 4.50 kPa (adductor digiti minimi and tibialis anterior). On the whole, very good reliability was observed, with a coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 4.6% to 8%, except for the inter-operator reliability of adductor pollicis obliquus (CV = 11.5%). The intraclass correlation coefficients were good (0.871 ± 0.045 for the intra-session reliability, 0.815 ± 0.065 for the inter-day reliability and 0.709 ± 0.141 for the inter-observer reliability). Both the reliability and the ease of use of SSI make it a potentially interesting technique that would be of benefit to fundamental, applied and clinical research projects that need an accurate assessment of muscle mechanical properties. (note)

  16. CONTROL OF EROSION PROCESSES RESULTING FROM DISRUPTION OF ADDUCTOR IN THE SERRA DA MANTIQUEIRA, SP, BRAZIL

    Admilson Clayton Barbosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the southern escarpment of the Serra da Mantiqueira, northeast geographic divider between the State of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, there was an environmental accident caused by the disruption of an adductor whose purpose is to lead the water from a reservoir located at an altitude of 1820 m to the machine house where there is an electric generator located at 750 m.  This accident resulted in the formation of a scar on the hillside forest, with removal of soil and vegetation. To reverse the erosion processes, a methodology was developed consisting of the use of four barriers (numbered I to IV formed by seedlings of Bambusa mutiplex (Lour., whose purpose was to divert the water runoff in order to provide the regeneration of native vegetation. Stalks of bamboo intercropped with Bambusa multiplex were used to contain debris in two gullies formed by erosion. The development of vegetation was monitored for 18 months and evaluated by the application of a Leopold Matrix composed of 5 points, which are: erosion, regeneration of vegetation, success of bamboo planting, installed conservation structures and functionality. The purpose of the matrix was to demonstrate the effectiveness of interventions using bamboo. The result of the classification matrix enabled the quantitative and qualitative classification of the interventions, resulting in five levels, where the barriers I, II and IV were considered to be of very high efficiency, and barrier III was considered to be of high efficiency. The contention of the gully was considered to be of medium to very high efficiency.

  17. The adductor magnus ''mini-hamstring'': MRI appearance and potential pitfalls

    Broski, Stephen M.; Murthy, Naveen S.; Collins, Mark S. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Krych, Aaron J. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Obey, Mitchel R. [Mayo School of Graduate Medical Education, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2016-02-15

    To examine the anatomic MRI characteristics of the adductor magnus mini hamstring (AMMH) and explore its involvement in cases of hamstring avulsion. An IRB-approved retrospective review of patients undergoing ''hamstring protocol'' MRI between March 2009 and June 2014 was performed. Two musculoskeletal radiologists recorded multiple AMMH anatomic characteristics and involvement in cases of hamstring avulsion. Seventy-six AMMHs were analyzed in 66 patients [35 females and 31 males, mean age 49.3 ± 15.2 years (range 17-81)]. Eleven percent of AMMHs were poorly visualized, 51 % visualized, and 37 % well visualized. Seven percent demonstrated round, 73 % ovoid, and 21 % flat/lenticular tendon morphologies. Most (88 %) demonstrated typical origins. Average cross-sectional area (CSA) was 22.4 ± 10.6 mm{sup 2} (range 6-56), diameter was 7.2 ± 2.5 mm (range 2.9-15), medial distance from the semimembranosus tendon was 7.5 ± 2.5 mm (range 3-14), and tendon length was 6.8 ± 3.3 cm (range 1.2-14.1). There was no gender difference in AMMH anatomic measurements or correlation between age and CSA or diameter. Of 17 complete hamstring avulsion cases, the AMMH was intact in 13, partially torn in 3, and completely torn in 1. The AMMH is a constant finding with variable anatomic characteristics. It is visualized or well visualized by MRI in 88 % of cases and is a sizable tendon located in close proximity to the semimembranosus tendon. Because it is uncommonly completely torn (6 %) in cases of complete hamstring avulsion, radiologists should be aware of its presence and appearance to avoid diagnostic confusion. (orig.)

  18. Quantifying the aging response and nutrient composition for muscles of the beef round.

    Dixon, C L; Woerner, D R; Tokach, R J; Chapman, P L; Engle, T E; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimal postmortem aging period and nutrient composition for Beef Value Cuts of the round. Forty USDA Select and 40 Premium USDA Choice beef carcasses were selected from a commercial beef packing plant in Colorado over a 12-wk period. The bottom and inside rounds were collected from both sides of each carcass for further fabrication into the following muscles: adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor. Each pair of muscles was cut into 7 steaks and randomly assigned to 1 of the following aging periods: 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d, and placed in refrigerated storage (2°C, never frozen). Upon completion of the designated aging period, steaks were removed from storage, cooked to a peak internal temperature of 72°C, and evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). A 2-way interaction was detected (P digital flexor decreased with increased time of postmortem aging. Quality grade did not affect (P > 0.05) WBSF values for the adductor, gastrocnemius, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor muscles. Exponential decay models were used to predict the change in WBSF from 2 to 28 d postmortem (aging response). The adductor, gastrocnemius, Select gracilis, Premium Choice gracilis, and pectineus required 21, 14, 23, 23, and 25 d, respectively, to complete the majority of the aging response. To determine the nutrient composition of the adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor, bottom and inside rounds were collected from 10 USDA Select and 10 Premium USDA Choice carcasses and fabricated into the respective muscles, cut into 2.54-cm cubes, frozen (-20°C), and then homogenized. The adductor, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor were analyzed for DM, moisture, CP, and ash percentages. All muscles were evaluated for total lipid, fatty acid, and cholesterol composition. When quality grades were combined

  19. New insights into muscle function during pivot feeding in seahorses.

    Sam Van Wassenbergh

    Full Text Available Seahorses, pipefish and their syngnathiform relatives are considered unique amongst fishes in using elastic recoil of post-cranial tendons to pivot the head extremely quickly towards small crustacean prey. It is known that pipefish activate the epaxial muscles for a considerable time before striking, at which rotations of the head and the hyoid are temporarily prevented to allow energy storage in the epaxial tendons. Here, we studied the motor control of this system in seahorses using electromyographic recordings of the epaxial muscles and the sternohyoideus-hypaxial muscles with simultaneous high-speed video recordings of prey capture. In addition we present the results from a stimulation experiment including the muscle hypothesised to be responsible for the locking and triggering of pivot feeding in seahorses (m. adductor arcus palatini. Our data confirmed that the epaxial pre-activation pattern observed previously for pipefish also occurs in seahorses. Similar to the epaxials, the sternohyoideus-hypaxial muscle complex shows prolonged anticipatory activity. Although a considerable variation in displacements of the mouth via head rotation could be observed, it could not be demonstrated that seahorses have control over strike distance. In addition, we could not identify the source of the kinematic variability in the activation patterns of the associated muscles. Finally, the stimulation experiment supported the previously hypothesized role of the m. adductor arcus palatini as the trigger in this elastic recoil system. Our results show that pre-stressing of both the head elevators and the hyoid retractors is taking place. As pre-activation of the main muscles involved in pivot feeding has now been demonstrated for both seahorses and pipefish, this is probably a generalized trait of Syngnathidae.

  20. Treatment Efficacy of Electromyography versus Fiberscopy-Guided Botulinum Toxin Injection in Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia Patients: A Prospective Comparative Study

    Jae Wook Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study prospectively evaluates and compares the treatment efficacy of botulinum toxin injection under electromyography guidance (EMG group and percutaneous botulinum toxin injection under flexible fiberscopic guidance (fiberscopy group. Methods. Thirty patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD, who had never received treatment, were randomly allocated into EMG- or fiberscopy-guided botulinum toxin injections between March 2008 and February 2010. We assessed acoustic and aerodynamic voice parameters, and the voice handicap index (VHI before injection and at 1, 3, and 6 months after injection. Results. The mean total dosage of botulinum toxin was similar for both groups: 1.7 ± 0.5 U for the EMG group and 1.8 ± 0.4 U for the fiberscopy group (P>0.05. There were no significant differences in outcomes between the two groups in either the duration of effectiveness or complications such as breathy voice and aspiration. Conclusion. Botulinum toxin injection under fiberscopic guidance is a viable alternative to EMG-guided botulinum toxin injection for the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia when EMG equipment is unavailable.

  1. Comparison of catheter tip migration using flexible and stimulating catheters inserted into the adductor canal in a cadaver model.

    Webb, Christopher A J; Kim, T Edward; Funck, Natasha; Howard, Steven K; Harrison, T Kyle; Ganaway, Toni; Keng, Heidi; Mariano, Edward R

    2015-06-01

    Use of adductor canal blocks and catheters for perioperative pain management following total knee arthroplasty is becoming increasingly common. However, the optimal equipment, timing of catheter insertion, and catheter dislodgement rate remain unknown. A previous study has suggested, but not proven, that non-tunneled stimulating catheters may be at increased risk for catheter migration and dislodgement after knee manipulation. We designed this follow-up study to directly compare tip migration of two catheter types after knee range of motion exercises. In a male unembalmed human cadaver, 30 catheter insertion trials were randomly assigned to one of two catheter types: flexible or stimulating. All catheters were inserted using an ultrasound-guided short-axis in-plane technique. Intraoperative knee manipulation similar to that performed during surgery was simulated by five sequential range of motion exercises. A blinded regional anesthesiologist performed caliper measurements on the ultrasound images before and after exercise. Changes in catheter tip to nerve distance (p = 0.547) and catheter length within the adductor canal (p = 0.498) were not different between groups. Therefore, catheter type may not affect the risk of catheter tip migration when placed prior to knee arthroplasty. PMID:25510467

  2. 3D configuration of mandibles and controlling muscles in rove beetles based on micro-CT technique

    Li, Dee [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of the Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Beijing (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhang, Kai [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhu, Peiping [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Wu, Ziyu [University of Science and Technology of China, National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Hefei (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Zhou, Hongzhang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of the Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Beijing (China)

    2011-08-15

    X-ray micro-CT is a powerful tool to visualize without damage details of the inner structures of beetles, the largest order of insects with a hard external skeleton. This contribution shows the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the head morphology of three rove beetle species (Insecta, Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) - Noddia sp., Creophilus maxillosus, and Hesperosoma sp. - using X-ray microtomography at a spatial resolution of 6 {mu}m. The details of skeletal muscle fiber insertions are described, giving a comprehensive overview of mandible mobility and organization. With the support of 3D rendering, we discuss the relationship among the mandible forms, the development of the muscles controlling the movement, and the head morphology. The well-developed posterior part of the head capsule is always accompanied by a well-developed mandible, a large adductor muscle, and a large apodeme for the wide areas of the muscle fiber attachment. In Noddia sp., muscles connected to the posterolateral angle of the head capsule are mainly short muscles, whereas in Creophilus maxillosus, the latter are mainly long muscles, and in Hesperosoma sp. no mandible adductor muscle fibers are present on the posterolateral angle of the head capsule. These results offer new invaluable information regarding the biting functions of beetle mandibles and the trend of their morphological change during their long-term evolution. (orig.)

  3. 3D configuration of mandibles and controlling muscles in rove beetles based on micro-CT technique

    X-ray micro-CT is a powerful tool to visualize without damage details of the inner structures of beetles, the largest order of insects with a hard external skeleton. This contribution shows the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the head morphology of three rove beetle species (Insecta, Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) - Noddia sp., Creophilus maxillosus, and Hesperosoma sp. - using X-ray microtomography at a spatial resolution of 6 μm. The details of skeletal muscle fiber insertions are described, giving a comprehensive overview of mandible mobility and organization. With the support of 3D rendering, we discuss the relationship among the mandible forms, the development of the muscles controlling the movement, and the head morphology. The well-developed posterior part of the head capsule is always accompanied by a well-developed mandible, a large adductor muscle, and a large apodeme for the wide areas of the muscle fiber attachment. In Noddia sp., muscles connected to the posterolateral angle of the head capsule are mainly short muscles, whereas in Creophilus maxillosus, the latter are mainly long muscles, and in Hesperosoma sp. no mandible adductor muscle fibers are present on the posterolateral angle of the head capsule. These results offer new invaluable information regarding the biting functions of beetle mandibles and the trend of their morphological change during their long-term evolution. (orig.)

  4. Muscle Cramps

    Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur after exercise or at night, ... to several minutes. It is a very common muscle problem. Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves ...

  5. Muscle Disorders

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  6. Muscle atrophy

    Muscle wasting; Wasting; Atrophy of the muscles ... There are two types of muscle atrophy. Disuse atrophy occurs from a lack of physical activity. In most people, muscle atrophy is caused by not using the ...

  7. Electromyographic analysis of thigh muscles during track cycling on a velodrome.

    Watanabe, Kohei; Sato, Takayuki; Mukaimoto, Takahiro; Takashima, Wataru; Yamagishi, Michio; Nishiyama, Tetsunari

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate neuromuscular activation of thigh muscles during track cycling at various speeds. Eight male competitive cyclists volunteered to participate in this study. Surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and adductor magnus muscles of the bilateral legs was recorded during track cycling on velodromes with a 250-m track. The participants were instructed to maintain three different lap times: 20, 18 and 16 s. The average rectified value (ARV) was calculated from the sampled surface electromyography. Significantly higher ARVs were observed in the right compared to left leg for the biceps femoris muscle during both straight and curved sections at 18- and 16-s lap times (P  0.05). From our findings, it was suggested that during track cycling on a velodrome the laterality of the biceps femoris muscle activity is a key strategy to regulate the speed, and fixed neuromuscular strategies are adopted between straight and curved sections for thigh muscles. PMID:26571039

  8. Adductor Canal Block With 10 mL Versus 30 mL Local Anesthetics and Quadriceps Strength

    Jæger, Pia; Koscielniak-Nielsen, Zbigniew J; Hilsted, Karen Lisa;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adductor canal block (ACB) is predominantly a sensory nerve block, but excess volume may spread to the femoral triangle and reduce quadriceps strength. We hypothesized that reducing the local anesthetic volume from 30 to 10 mL may lead to fewer subjects with quadriceps...... weakness. METHODS: We performed a paired, blinded, randomized trial including healthy men. All subjects received bilateral ACBs with ropivacaine 0.1%; 10 mL in 1 leg and 30 mL in the other leg. The primary outcome was the difference in number of subjects with quadriceps strength reduced by more than 25...... and 30 mL did not have a statistically significant or clinically relevant impact on quadriceps strength....

  9. Isokinetic imbalance of hip muscles in soccer players with osteitis pubis.

    Mohammad, Walaa Sayed; Abdelraouf, Osama Ragaa; Elhafez, Salam Mohamed; Abdel-Aziem, Amr Almaz; Nassif, Nagui Sobhi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared the isokinetic torques of hip flexors/extensors and abductors/adductors in soccer players suffering from osteitis pubis (OP), with normal soccer players. Twenty soccer male athletes with OP and 20 normal soccer athletes were included in this study. Peak torque/body weight (PT/BW) was recorded from hip flexor/extensor and abductor/adductor muscles during isokinetic concentric contraction modes at angular velocity of 2.1 rad · s(-1), for both groups. The results showed a significant difference between the normal and OP groups for hip flexors (P 0.05). Regarding the hip adductor/abductor PT ratio, there was no significant difference between the normal and OP groups of athletes (P > 0.05). The OP group displayed increase in hip flexor strength that disturbed the hip flexor/extensor torque ratio of OP. Therefore, increasing the hip extensor strength should be part of rehabilitation programmes of patients with OP. PMID:24499182

  10. Adductor laryngeal breathing dystonia in NBIA treated with botulinum toxin-A

    Vinod Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA presented with episodic inspiratory stridor. A 10-year-old boy presented with 3-year history of gradually progressive spastic gait and generalized dystonia (involving all four limbs, neck, jaw, and speech. MRI brain showed "Eye of Tiger" sign. He recently developed severe inspiratory stridor associated with almost gasping respiration. Direct video laryngoscopy showed paradoxical vocal cord closure during inspiration. He was treated with EMG-guided botulinum toxin-A injection given into bilateral thyroarytenoid muscles, resulting in dramatic response with complete disappearance of the stridor within a week. The effect lasted 18 months.

  11. Distribution of skeletal muscle involvement in distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles

    Distribution of skeletal muscle involvement was studied clinically and by computed tomography (CT) in 6 cases (including 5 sporadic cases) with rimmed vacuolar distal myopathy. Although a predilection for the extensors in the lower leg was noted as stressed so far, there were certain cases without this selectivity. The thigh disclosed a selectivity that the flexors and adductors were severely affected while the m. quadriceps femoris was well preserved. The selectivity in the thigh was still found in the cases without selectivity in the lower leg. The neck flexors were also liable to be involved. In addition, CT revealed no compensatory hypertrophy of the specific muscles which was clearly shown in the thigh of distal muscular dystrophy (Miyoshi). The pattern of skeletal muscle involvement was thought to be a characteristic feature of distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles. It was visualized very clearly and easily by CT of skeletal muscles although it could be noted to a certain degree by physical examination. (author)

  12. Isometric hip muscle strength in posttraumatic below-knee amputees

    Jandrić Slavica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Traumas and war injuries, next to chronic occlusive artery disease and diabetes mellitus-derived complications, are the most frequent cause of the lower limbs amputation. They affect mostly younger population that need a higher level of activities as compared with the elderly. Medical rehabilitation is very significant for the muscle performance improvement in this population providing their social reintegration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of below-knee amputation on the hip isometric muscle strength and effect of rehabilitation on improvement of hip muscle strength in below-knee amputees, secondary to war wounding. Methods. Forty below-knee amputees (after war wounding, average age 35.6±10.6 years, that were included in primary rehabilitation program with prosthetics, were examined. Objective parameters were used to evaluate therapeutical effects. Isometric muscle strength of hip flexors, extensors, abductors and adductors was measured by dynamometer and expressed in Newton (N at admission, control and discharge for each patient. Average length of the treatment was 51 ± 34.1 days. Results. For isometric hip flexors (t = - 1.99346, p < 0.05, extensors (t = -4.629073, p < 0.001, abductors (t = -4.9408, p < 0.001 and adductors (t = -2.00228, p < 0.05, muscle strength was significantly less on the amputated than on nonamputated side. The highest differences in muscle strength between amputated and nonamputated limbs were noted for hip abductors (26.6% and extensors (23.3%. There was significant improvement of mean values of strength for all examined hip muscles after rehabilitation and prosthetics for both legs in comparison to beginning of the therapy. The hip abductor on the amputated side was for 19.4% weaker after rehabilitation in comparison to the nonamputated limb. Conclusion. Decreases of isometric muscle strength in all examined hip muscles were observed, more in the amputated limb. Rehabilitation

  13. X-rays computed tomographic scans of lower limb and trunk muscles in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    X-rays computed tomographic (CT) scans of muscles of the lower limbs and the trunk in 14 patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSH) were studied. The CT scans showed that the affected muscles were decreased in density and size. The laterality of muscular involvement was sometimes observed. The muscular lesions in the lower limbs showed proximal distribution. In the thigh, the hamstrings were affected first, the adductor muscles second, and then the muscular involvement progressed to the quadriceps femoris muscle. In the lower leg, the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were relatively spared as compared with the tibialis anterior muscle. In the lumbar girdle, the abdominal muscles were involved first, the gluteal muscles second, the back muscles third, and the psoas major muscle were relatively spared. The muscular weakness of this distribution exacerbated lumbar lordosis. The neck muscles were less affected than those of the lumbar girdle. The CT scans in FSH demonstrated the characteristic pattern of muscular involvement, which differed from the inherited muscular diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy, and others. (author)

  14. X-rays computed tomographic scans of lower limb and trunk muscles in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    Horikawa, Hirosei; Mano, Yukio; Takayanagi, Tetsuya (Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)); Takahashi, Keiichi; Nishio, Hisahide

    1992-10-01

    X-rays computed tomographic (CT) scans of muscles of the lower limbs and the trunk in 14 patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSH) were studied. The CT scans showed that the affected muscles were decreased in density and size. The laterality of muscular involvement was sometimes observed. The muscular lesions in the lower limbs showed proximal distribution. In the thigh, the hamstrings were affected first, the adductor muscles second, and then the muscular involvement progressed to the quadriceps femoris muscle. In the lower leg, the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were relatively spared as compared with the tibialis anterior muscle. In the lumbar girdle, the abdominal muscles were involved first, the gluteal muscles second, the back muscles third, and the psoas major muscle were relatively spared. The muscular weakness of this distribution exacerbated lumbar lordosis. The neck muscles were less affected than those of the lumbar girdle. The CT scans in FSH demonstrated the characteristic pattern of muscular involvement, which differed from the inherited muscular diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy, and others. (author).

  15. Computed tomographic findings of leg muscles in the hemiplegics due to cerebrovascular accidents

    The computed tomography (CT) scan was performed in 52 hemiplegics due to cerebrovascular accidents and 12 normal controls on the mid-portion of the thigh and the largest-diameter section of the calf. Muscle size and average CT density of the muscle were measured. The salient feature was hypertrophic gracilis muscle of the hemiplegic side. Other muscles were more atrophied with lower CT density compared with those of the contralateral side. The size of the quadriceps muscle was especially small. The ratio of the quadriceps to all the thigh muscles in cross section was significantly smaller in affected side of hemiplegics than that of normal controls. This was observed even in normal side of the hemiplegics but the ratios of adductor and flexor muscles of the thigh showed no difference. Hypertrophy of gracilis muscle with high CT density was observed only on hemiplegic side. Muscle atrophies were marked in non-ambulatory patients. The ratios of quadriceps and saltorius muscles of thigh in non-ambulatory patients were significantly smaller than those of ambulatory patients. It could not be detected that there is relationship of the sevirity of the muscle atrophy and parietal lobe dysfunction. This atrophy considered to be the result of disuse of the paralyzed leg and pyramidal tract dysfunction. (author)

  16. Real-time ultrasound-guided comparison of adductor canal block and psoas compartment block combined with sciatic nerve block in laparoscopic knee surgeries

    Messeha, Medhat M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lumbar plexus block, combined with a sciatic nerve block, is an effective locoregional anesthetic technique for analgesia and anesthesia of the lower extremity. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical results outcome of the adductor canal block versus the psoas compartment block combined with sciatic nerve block using real time ultrasound guidance in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic knee surgeries. Patients and Methods: Ninety patients who were undergoing electi...

  17. Cross-innervation of the thyroarytenoid muscle by a branch from the external division of the superior laryngeal nerve.

    Nasri, S; Beizai, P; Ye, M; Sercarz, J A; Kim, Y M; Berke, G S

    1997-07-01

    The neuroanatomy of the larynx was explored in seven dogs to assess whether there is motor innervation to the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle from the external division of the superior laryngeal nerve (ExSLN). In 3 animals, such innervation was identified. Electrical stimulation of microelectrodes applied to the ExSLN resulted in contraction of the TA muscle, indicating that this nerve is motor in function. This was confirmed by electromyographic recordings from the TA muscle. Videolaryngostroboscopy revealed improvement in vocal fold vibration following stimulation of the ExSLN compared to without it. Previously, the TA muscle was thought to be innervated solely by the recurrent laryngeal nerve. This additional pathway from the ExSLN to the TA muscle may have important clinical implications in the treatment of neurologic laryngeal disorders such as adductor spasmodic dysphonia. PMID:9228862

  18. Skeletal muscle fiber, nerve, and blood vessel breakdown in space-flown rats

    Riley, D. A.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.; Ellis, S.; Bain, J. L.; Slocum, G. R.; Sedlak, F. R.

    1990-01-01

    Histochemical and ultrastructural analyses were performed postflight on hind limb skeletal muscles of rats orbited for 12.5 days aboard the unmanned Cosmos 1887 biosatellite and returned to Earth 2 days before sacrifice. The antigravity adductor longus (AL), soleus, and plantaris muscles atrophied more than the non-weight-bearing extensor digitorum longus, and slow muscle fibers were more atrophic than fast fibers. Muscle fiber segmental necrosis occurred selectively in the AL and soleus muscles; primarily, macrophages and neutrophils infiltrated and phagocytosed cellular debris. Granule-rich mast cells were diminished in flight AL muscles compared with controls, indicating the mast cell secretion contributed to interstitial tissue edema. Increased ubiquitination of disrupted myofibrils implicated ubiquitin in myofilament degradation. Mitochondrial content and succinic dehydrogenase activity were normal, except for subsarcolemmal decreases. Myofibrillar ATPase activity of flight AL muscle fibers shifted toward the fast type. Absence of capillaries and extravasation of red blood cells indicated failed microcirculation. Muscle fiber regeneration from activated satellite cells was detected. About 17% of the flight AL end plates exhibited total or partial denervation. Thus, skeletal muscle weakness associated with spaceflight can result from muscle fiber atrophy and segmental necrosis, partial motor denervation, and disruption of the microcirculation.

  19. Clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging of skeletal muscles in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies of adults

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of skeletal muscles in Japanese patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). MRI was performed in 23 adult patients with IIM, including 10 with polymyositis, 12 with dermatomyositis, and 1 with focal myositis. Seven (73%) of 11 patients with active IIM and 2 (17%) of 12 patients with inactive IIM showed hyperintensity of T2-weighted images and normal intensity of T1-weighted images, indicating 'edema-like abnormalities' (MRI findings for active myositis). Muscle lipomatosis and fibrosis were demonstrated in four patients and 1 patient, respectively. Considerable selectivity of muscles in developing inflammatory disorders was found. In quadriceps muscles, for example, vastus muscles seemed to be more often affected in DM patients, whereas adductors were more often affected in PM patients. Serial examination of muscle MRIs was carried out in 4 patients and the findings paralleled the disease activities. The muscle MRI findings did not necessarily correlate with other findings, such as the presence of muscle weakness, elevated serum creatine kinase levels, myogenic electromyogram, or muscle biopsy findings. The muscle MRI was considered to be an additional useful tool for the diagnosis, evaluation of disease activity, and planning treatment of IIM. (author)

  20. Muscle adaptations to plyometric vs. resistance training in untrained young men

    Vissing, Kristian; Brink, Mads; Lønbro, Simon;

    2008-01-01

    plyometric training (PT, n = 7). Tests before and after training included one-repetition maximum (1 RM) incline leg press, 3 RM knee extension, and 1 RM knee flexion, countermovement jumping (CMJ), and ballistic incline leg press. Also, before and after training, magnetic resonance imaging scanning was......%) and maximal power (Pmax; 9%) during CMJ (p < 0.01) and Pmax in ballistic leg press (17%) (p < 0.001). This was far greater than for CRT (p < 0.01), which only increased Pmax during the ballistic leg press (4%) (p < 0.05). Quadriceps, hamstring, and adductor whole-muscle cross-sectional area (CSA...

  1. Muscle activation patterns when passively stretching spastic lower limb muscles of children with cerebral palsy.

    Lynn Bar-On

    Full Text Available The definition of spasticity as a velocity-dependent activation of the tonic stretch reflex during a stretch to a passive muscle is the most widely accepted. However, other mechanisms are also thought to contribute to pathological muscle activity and, in patients post-stroke and spinal cord injury can result in different activation patterns. In the lower-limbs of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP these distinct activation patterns have not yet been thoroughly explored. The aim of the study was to apply an instrumented assessment to quantify different muscle activation patterns in four lower-limb muscles of children with CP. Fifty-four children with CP were included (males/females n = 35/19; 10.8 ± 3.8 yrs; bilateral/unilateral involvement n =  32/22; Gross Motor Functional Classification Score I-IV of whom ten were retested to evaluate intra-rater reliability. With the subject relaxed, single-joint, sagittal-plane movements of the hip, knee, and ankle were performed to stretch the lower-limb muscles at three increasing velocities. Muscle activity and joint motion were synchronously recorded using inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG from the adductors, medial hamstrings, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius. Muscles were visually categorised into activation patterns using average, normalized root mean square EMG (RMS-EMG compared across increasing position zones and velocities. Based on the visual categorisation, quantitative parameters were defined using stretch-reflex thresholds and normalized RMS-EMG. These parameters were compared between muscles with different activation patterns. All patterns were dominated by high velocity-dependent muscle activation, but in more than half, low velocity-dependent activation was also observed. Muscle activation patterns were found to be both muscle- and subject-specific (p<0.01. The intra-rater reliability of all quantitative parameters was moderate to good. Comparing RMS-EMG between

  2. Effects of static bicycle training on gross motor function, muscle strength and spasticity of adolescents with spastic cerebral palsy

    CHRISTOS TSIGKANOS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of an 8- week lower limb strengthening program on gross motor function, muscle strength and spasticity levels of both the quadriceps and hip adductors of adolescents 14 to 19 years of age with spastic cerebral palsy using a specific static bicycle (Thera-Vital exerciser. Eight students were assigned to the experimental group and another 8 to the control group. The strengthening program took place 3 times a week (6 sets of 10 to 15 full cycling circles. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM (dimensions D and E, an isometric hand-held dynamometer and Asworth scale were the measurement instruments used in the study. A multivariance analysis of variance (MANOVA was applied for identifying the statistical importance of the results of the intervention protocol. A statistically significant improvement in both gross motor function (p = 0.016 and muscle strength (p = 0.039 was found without a statistically significant alteration of the muscle tone of the quadriceps and hip adductors of the participants (p = 0.13 and p = 0.33. The results of the present study indicate that static bicycle is a safe and effective means of exercise since it improves the gross motor function of adolescents with cerebral palsy without increasing the muscle tone of the lower limb.

  3. Profile of biochemical traits influencing tenderness of muscles from the beef round.

    Anderson, M J; Lonergan, S M; Fedler, C A; Prusa, K J; Binning, J M; Huff-Lonergan, E

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to define the biochemical differences that govern tenderness and palatability of economically important muscles from the beef round using cuts with known tenderness differences. At 24h postmortem, the longissimus dorsi (LD), gracillus (GR), adductor (AD), semimembranosus (SM), sartorius (SAR), vastus lateralis (VL), and vastus intermedius (VI) muscles were removed from ten market weight beef cattle. Sensory and biochemical characteristics were determined in each cut and compared with the LD. The GR, SAR and VI had sensory traits similar to the LD while the SM, AD and VL differed. The GR, SAR, AD, and SM all had multiple biochemical characteristics similar to the LD, while the VI and AD had numerous biochemical differences. While no one biochemical characteristic can be used to predict tenderness across all muscles, analysis of the biochemical characteristics revealed that in most beef round cuts postmortem proteolysis provided a good indication of the tenderization occurring during aging. PMID:22386323

  4. Functionally complex muscles of the cat hindlimb. IV. Intramuscular distribution of movement command signals and cutaneous reflexes in broad, bifunctional thigh muscles.

    Pratt, C A; Chanaud, C M; Loeb, G E

    1991-01-01

    Similarities between the muscle synergies associated with the flexion reflex and locomotion in reduced preparations have suggested that spinal circuits subserving these two motor tasks might share common interneurons. To test this hypothesis in functionally complex muscles, we studied the interaction between low-threshold cutaneous afferents and the locomotor central pattern generator (CPG) during treadmill locomotion in awake, intact cats. Electrical stimuli were delivered via implanted nerve cuff electrodes at all phases of locomotion, and EMGs were recorded from fourteen intramuscular subregions in eight bifunctional thigh muscles (adductor femoris, biceps femoris, caudofemoralis, gracilis, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, tensor fasciae latae, and tenuissimus). In addition, the EMG patterns recorded during locomotion were compared with those recorded during two other centrally driven rhythmical behaviors, scratching and paw shaking, to determine whether the functional relationships among these intramuscular subregions were fixed or task dependent. Four of the five broad, bifunctional muscles studied (biceps femoris, gracilis, semimembranosus, and tensor fasciae latae) had functional subunits that could be differentially activated in one or more of the three movements studied; adductor femoris was consistently uniformly activated despite its distributed skeletal attachments. The pattern of recruitment of the intramuscular functional subunits was movement-specific. The locomotor CPG and cutaneous reflex pathways both similarly subdivided some bifunctional muscles, but not others, into intramuscular subregions. The results of the present study confirm that some combinations of muscle subregions and cutaneous nerves constitute simple reciprocal categories of flexors and extensors, as described originally by Sherrington (1910). "Typical" low threshold excitatory or inhibitory reflex responses were produced in muscles or muscle subregions that were recruited as "net

  5. Muscle fiber type specific induction of slow myosin heavy chain 2 gene expression by electrical stimulation

    Crew, Jennifer R.; Falzari, Kanakeshwari [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064 (United States); DiMario, Joseph X., E-mail: joseph.dimario@rosalindfranklin.edu [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064 (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Vertebrate skeletal muscle fiber types are defined by a broad array of differentially expressed contractile and metabolic protein genes. The mechanisms that establish and maintain these different fiber types vary throughout development and with changing functional demand. Chicken skeletal muscle fibers can be generally categorized as fast and fast/slow based on expression of the slow myosin heavy chain 2 (MyHC2) gene in fast/slow muscle fibers. To investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control fiber type formation in secondary or fetal muscle fibers, myoblasts from the fast pectoralis major (PM) and fast/slow medial adductor (MA) muscles were isolated, allowed to differentiate in vitro, and electrically stimulated. MA muscle fibers were induced to express the slow MyHC2 gene by electrical stimulation, whereas PM muscle fibers did not express the slow MyHC2 gene under identical stimulation conditions. However, PM muscle fibers did express the slow MyHC2 gene when electrical stimulation was combined with inhibition of inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R) activity. Electrical stimulation was sufficient to increase nuclear localization of expressed nuclear-factor-of-activated-T-cells (NFAT), NFAT-mediated transcription, and slow MyHC2 promoter activity in MA muscle fibers. In contrast, both electrical stimulation and inhibitors of IP3R activity were required for these effects in PM muscle fibers. Electrical stimulation also increased levels of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} co-activator-1 (PGC-1{alpha}) protein in PM and MA muscle fibers. These results indicate that MA muscle fibers can be induced by electrical stimulation to express the slow MyHC2 gene and that fast PM muscle fibers are refractory to stimulation-induced slow MyHC2 gene expression due to fast PM muscle fiber specific cellular mechanisms involving IP3R activity.

  6. Muscle fiber type specific induction of slow myosin heavy chain 2 gene expression by electrical stimulation

    Vertebrate skeletal muscle fiber types are defined by a broad array of differentially expressed contractile and metabolic protein genes. The mechanisms that establish and maintain these different fiber types vary throughout development and with changing functional demand. Chicken skeletal muscle fibers can be generally categorized as fast and fast/slow based on expression of the slow myosin heavy chain 2 (MyHC2) gene in fast/slow muscle fibers. To investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control fiber type formation in secondary or fetal muscle fibers, myoblasts from the fast pectoralis major (PM) and fast/slow medial adductor (MA) muscles were isolated, allowed to differentiate in vitro, and electrically stimulated. MA muscle fibers were induced to express the slow MyHC2 gene by electrical stimulation, whereas PM muscle fibers did not express the slow MyHC2 gene under identical stimulation conditions. However, PM muscle fibers did express the slow MyHC2 gene when electrical stimulation was combined with inhibition of inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R) activity. Electrical stimulation was sufficient to increase nuclear localization of expressed nuclear-factor-of-activated-T-cells (NFAT), NFAT-mediated transcription, and slow MyHC2 promoter activity in MA muscle fibers. In contrast, both electrical stimulation and inhibitors of IP3R activity were required for these effects in PM muscle fibers. Electrical stimulation also increased levels of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator-1 (PGC-1α) protein in PM and MA muscle fibers. These results indicate that MA muscle fibers can be induced by electrical stimulation to express the slow MyHC2 gene and that fast PM muscle fibers are refractory to stimulation-induced slow MyHC2 gene expression due to fast PM muscle fiber specific cellular mechanisms involving IP3R activity.

  7. Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.

  8. Interactive effects of growth hormone and exercise on muscle mass in suspended rats

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Roy, Roland R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Grossman, Elena J.; Mukku, Venkat R.; Jiang, Bian; Pierotti, David J.; Rudolph, Ingrid

    1994-01-01

    Measures to attenuate muscle atrophy in rats in response to simulated microgravity (hindlimb suspension (HS)) have been only partially successful. In the present study, hypophysectomized rats were in HS for 7 days, and the effects of recombinant human growth hormone (GH), exercise (Ex), or GH+Ex on the weights, protein concentrations, and fiber cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of hindlimb muscles were determined. The weights of four extensor muscles, i.e., the soleus (Sol), medial (MG) and lateral (LG) gastrocnemius, and plantaris (Plt), and one adductor, i.e., the adductor longus (AL), were decreased by 10-22% after HS. Fiber CSAs were decreased by 34% in the Sol and by 1 17% in the MG after HS. In contrast, two flexors, i.e., the tibialis anterior (TA) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), did not atrophy. In HS rats, GH treatment alone maintained the weights of the fast extensors (MG, LG, Plt) and flexors (TA, EDL) at or above those of control rats. This effect was not observed in the slow extensor (Sol) or AL. Exercise had no significant effect on the weight of any muscle in HS rats. A combination of GH and Ex treatments yielded a significant increase in the weights of the fast extensors and in the CSA of both fast and slow fibers of the MG and significantly increased Sol weight and CSA of the slow fibers of the Sol. The AL was not responsive to either GH or Ex treatments. Protein concentrations of the Sol and MG were higher only in the Sol of Ex and GH+Ex rats. These results suggest that while GH treatment or intermittent high intensity exercise alone have a minimal effect in maintaining the mass of unloaded muscle, there is a strong interactive effect of these two treatments.

  9. Comparison of Adductor Canal Block and Femoral Nerve Block for Postoperative Pain in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Dong, Cui-Cui; Dong, Shu-Ling; He, Fu-Cheng

    2016-03-01

    A total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has always been associated with moderate-to-severe pain. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pain control of adductor canal block (ACB) and femoral nerve block (FNB) after TKA.Relevant literatures about the ACB and FNB after TKA for reducing pain were searched from Medline (1996-January, 2015), Embase (1980-January, 2015), PubMed (1980-January, 2015), Web of Science (1980-January, 2015), and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. High-quality RCTs and non-RCTs were picked to evaluate the visual analogue scale (VAS) and other outcome. This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed according to the PRISMA statement criteria. The software RevMan 5.30 was used for the meta-analysis.Eight literatures fitted into the inclusion criteria. There were no significant differences in VAS score with rest or mobilization at 4, 24, and 48 h between ACB group and FNB group. There were also no significant differences in the strength of quadriceps and adductor, the length of hospital stay, and complications of vomiting and nausea.Present meta-analysis indicated that ACB shows no superiority than FNB group. Both of them can reduce the pain score after TKA. As referred to which method to adopt, it is determined by the preference of the surgeons and anesthesiologists. PMID:27015172

  10. Rehabilitation and Return to Sport Following Surgical Repair of the Rectus Abdominis and Adductor Longus in a Professional Basketball Player: A Case Report.

    Short, Steven M; Anloague, Philip A; Strack, Donald S

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Case report. Background Acute traumatic avulsion of the rectus abdominis and adductor longus is rare. Chronic groin injuries, often falling under the athletic pubalgia spectrum, have been reported to be more common. There is limited evidence detailing the comprehensive rehabilitation and return to sport of an athlete following surgical or conservative treatment of avulsion injuries of the pubis or other sports-related groin pathologies. Case Description A 29-year-old National Basketball Association player sustained a contact injury during a professional basketball game. This case report describes a unique clinical situation specific to professional sport, in which a surgical repair of an avulsed rectus abdominis and adductor longus was combined with a multimodal impairment- and outcomes-based rehabilitation program. Outcomes The patient returned to in-season competition at 5 weeks postoperation. Objective measures were tracked throughout rehabilitation and compared to baseline assessments. Measures such as the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score and numeric pain-rating scale revealed progress beyond the minimal important difference. Discussion This case report details the clinical reasoning and evidence-informed interventions involved in the return to elite sport. Detailed programming and objective assessment may assist in achieving desired outcomes ahead of previously established timelines. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):697-706. Epub 3 Jul 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6352. PMID:27374014

  11. Functional electrical stimulation of laryngeal adductor muscle restores mobility of vocal fold and improves voice sounds in cats with unilateral laryngeal paralysis.

    片田, 彰博; Nonaka, S.; Adachi, M; Kunibe, I; Arakawa, T.; Imada, M; Hayashi, T.; Zealear, DL; Harabuchi, Y

    2004-01-01

    Elsevier, Katada, Akihiro ; Nonaka, Satoshi ; Adachi, Masaaki ; Kunibe, Isamu ; Arakawa, Takuya ; Imada, Masanobu ; Hayashi, Tatsuya ; Zealear, David L. ; Harabuchi, Yasuaki, Neuroscience Research, 50(2), 2004, 153-159.author

  12. Compositional analysis of muscle in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy using MR imaging

    Boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) present by age 5 years with weakness and, untreated, stop walking unaided by age 10 or 11 years. We used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to study age-related changes in the composition and distribution of diseased muscles. Eleven boys (mean 7.1±1.6 years) with DMD underwent clinical and MR examinations. Quantitative muscle strength and timed functional testing was performed. Thigh muscles were scanned at three levels (hip, mid-thigh, and knee) using T1-weighted spin echo and short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. Outcome measures included intramuscular fatty infiltration, intermuscle fat deposition, edema, and muscle size. Ten boys completed the study. Older boys demonstrated more prominent fatty infiltration of muscles. Fatty infiltration occurred in a characteristic pattern with the gluteus and adductor magnus muscles most commonly involved and the gracilis most commonly spared. Similarly, patchy increases in free water content suggested a pattern of intramuscular edema or inflammation. Atrophy occurred in muscles heavily infiltrated with fat, and true hypertrophy selectively occurred in those that were spared. While fibrofatty changes have been described in DMD, this study further defines differential involvement and additionally suggests widespread edema or inflammation. Improved imaging techniques to quantify the degree and distribution of these changes may provide a basis for exploring mechanisms of action of medications and perhaps another means for selecting treatment regimens and monitoring their effects. (orig.)

  13. Compositional analysis of muscle in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy using MR imaging

    Marden, Franklin A.; Siegel, Marilyn J.; Rubin, David A. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology at Washington University Medical Center, St. Louis (United States); Barnes-Jewish Hospital, Department of Radiology, St. Louis (United States); Connolly, Anne M. [St. Louis Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, St. Louis (United States); Barnes-Jewish Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, 660 S. Euclid, Box 8111, St. Louis (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) present by age 5 years with weakness and, untreated, stop walking unaided by age 10 or 11 years. We used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to study age-related changes in the composition and distribution of diseased muscles. Eleven boys (mean 7.1{+-}1.6 years) with DMD underwent clinical and MR examinations. Quantitative muscle strength and timed functional testing was performed. Thigh muscles were scanned at three levels (hip, mid-thigh, and knee) using T1-weighted spin echo and short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. Outcome measures included intramuscular fatty infiltration, intermuscle fat deposition, edema, and muscle size. Ten boys completed the study. Older boys demonstrated more prominent fatty infiltration of muscles. Fatty infiltration occurred in a characteristic pattern with the gluteus and adductor magnus muscles most commonly involved and the gracilis most commonly spared. Similarly, patchy increases in free water content suggested a pattern of intramuscular edema or inflammation. Atrophy occurred in muscles heavily infiltrated with fat, and true hypertrophy selectively occurred in those that were spared. While fibrofatty changes have been described in DMD, this study further defines differential involvement and additionally suggests widespread edema or inflammation. Improved imaging techniques to quantify the degree and distribution of these changes may provide a basis for exploring mechanisms of action of medications and perhaps another means for selecting treatment regimens and monitoring their effects. (orig.)

  14. Hoffmann's syndrome with unusually long duration: Report on clinical, laboratory and muscle imaging findings in two cases.

    Nalini, Atchayaram; Govindaraju, C; Kalra, Pramila; Kadukar, Prashanth

    2014-04-01

    Two adult men presented with the rare Hoffmann's syndrome (HS). Case 1: A 35-year-old male patient had progressive stiffness of lower limbs of 13 years and generalized muscle hypertrophy and myalgia of 3 years duration. Had periorbital edema, dry skin, generalized muscle hypertrophy and spastic dysarthria with hoarseness. Muscle power was normal. Jaw jerk and deep tendon reflexes were exaggerated. Case 2: A 24-year-old male patient presented with muscle hypertrophy from childhood, slowness in motor activities and hearing impairment. For 6 months, he had severe muscle pains, cramps and further increase in hypertrophy. He had yellow tinged, dry skin, hoarseness of voice, gross muscle hypertrophy and minimal weakness. Both had markedly elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) levels and high thyroid stimulating hormone, low free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine levels. Levothyroxine treatment demonstrated remarkable reduction in muscle bulk at 2 months in both and no symptoms at 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging of lower limbs in both cases revealed almost identical features with involvement of the muscles of posterior and adductor compartment of thighs and posterior and lateral compartments of the legs. Differential diagnosis of long duration muscle pseudohypertrophy and elevated CK levels should include HS. PMID:25024579

  15. Hoff Mann′s syndrome with unusually long duration: Report on clinical, laboratory and muscle imaging findings in two cases

    Atchayaram Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two adult men presented with the rare Hoffmann′s syndrome (HS. Case 1: A 35-year-old male patient had progressive stiffness of lower limbs of 13 years and generalized muscle hypertrophy and myalgia of 3 years duration. Had periorbital edema, dry skin, generalized muscle hypertrophy and spastic dysarthria with hoarseness. Muscle power was normal. Jaw jerk and deep tendon reflexes were exaggerated. Case 2: A 24-year-old male patient presented with muscle hypertrophy from childhood, slowness in motor activities and hearing impairment. For 6 months, he had severe muscle pains, cramps and further increase in hypertrophy. He had yellow tinged, dry skin, hoarseness of voice, gross muscle hypertrophy and minimal weakness. Both had markedly elevated serum creatine kinase (CK levels and high thyroid stimulating hormone, low free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine levels. Levothyroxine treatment demonstrated remarkable reduction in muscle bulk at 2 months in both and no symptoms at 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging of lower limbs in both cases revealed almost identical features with involvement of the muscles of posterior and adductor compartment of thighs and posterior and lateral compartments of the legs. Differential diagnosis of long duration muscle pseudohypertrophy and elevated CK levels should include HS.

  16. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter.

    Mori, Kent; Suzuki, Satoshi; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kimura, Junpei; Han, Sung-Yong; Endo, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids. PMID:25715875

  17. Getting Muscles

    ... Safe Health Problems Illnesses & Injuries Health Problems of Grown Ups People, Places & Things That Help Feelings Q&A ... This kind of exercise can improve muscle tone, meaning a kid's muscles will be leaner and stronger, but not really bigger. Push-ups, sit-ups, and chin-ups also help build ...

  18. Fibrosis, adipogenesis, and muscle atrophy in congenital muscular torticollis.

    Chen, Huan-Xiong; Tang, Sheng-Ping; Gao, Fu-Tang; Xu, Jiang-Long; Jiang, Xian-Ping; Cao, Juan; Fu, Gui-Bing; Sun, Ke; Liu, Shi-Zhe; Shi, Wei

    2014-11-01

    In the traditional view, muscle atrophy and interstitial fibrosis were regarded as the basic pathological features of congenital muscular torticollis (CMT). But in the ultrastructure study, the mesenchyme-like cells, myoblasts, myofibroblasts, and fibroblasts were found in the proliferation of interstitium of CMT. To investigate the characteristics of pathological features and the mechanisms of muscle atrophy in CMT, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 185 CMT patients from July 2009 to July 2011 in Shenzhen Children's Hospital in China and performed pathological studies. According to age, the 185 CMT patients were divided into 4 groups. All resected surgical specimens were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson trichromic staining. Sudan III staining was used for frozen sections, whereas immunohistochemical staining for S-100, calpain-1, ubiquitin, and 20S proteasome was carried out on 40 CMT specimens. Eight adductor muscle specimens from 8 patients with development dysplasia of the hip were taken as control group in the immunohistochemical staining. By Masson trichromic staining, the differences in the percent area of fibrous tissue in each CMT groups were significant. In Sudan III staining and immunostaining for S-100, adipocyte hyperplasia was the pathological feature of CMT. Moreover, compared with controls, most atrophic muscle fibers in CMT specimens were found to show strong immunoreactivity for calpain-1, ubiquitin, and 20S proteasome. With increasing age, fibrosis peaked at both sides and it was low in middle age group. Adipocytes increased with age. The characteristics of pathological features in CMT are changeable with age. The calpain and the ubiquitin-proteasome system may play a role in muscle atrophy of CMT. In the CMT, adipogenesis, fibrogenesis, and myogenesis may be the results of mesenchyme-like cells in SCM (sternocleidomastoid muscle). In conclusion, the present study furthermore supports maldevelopment of the

  19. The effects of hip muscle strengthening on knee load, pain, and function in people with knee osteoarthritis: a protocol for a randomised, single-blind controlled trial

    Hunter David J

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lower limb strengthening exercises are an important component of the treatment for knee osteoarthritis (OA. Strengthening the hip abductor and adductor muscles may influence joint loading and/or OA-related symptoms, but no study has evaluated these hypotheses directly. The aim of this randomised, single-blind controlled trial is to determine whether hip abductor and adductor muscle strengthening can reduce knee load and improve pain and physical function in people with medial compartment knee OA. Methods/Design 88 participants with painful, radiographically confirmed medial compartment knee OA and varus alignment will be recruited from the community and randomly allocated to a hip strengthening or control group using concealed allocation stratified by disease severity. The hip strengthening group will perform 6 exercises to strengthen the hip abductor and adductor muscles at home 5 times per week for 12 weeks. They will consult with a physiotherapist on 7 occasions to be taught the exercises and progress exercise resistance. The control group will be requested to continue with their usual care. Blinded follow up assessment will be conducted at 12 weeks after randomisation. The primary outcome measure is the change in the peak external knee adduction moment measured during walking. Questionnaires will assess changes in pain and physical function as well as overall perceived rating of change. An intention-to-treat analysis will be performed using linear regression modelling and adjusting for baseline outcome values and other demographic characteristics. Discussion Results from this trial will contribute to the evidence regarding the effect of hip strengthening on knee loads and symptoms in people with medial compartment knee OA. If shown to reduce the knee adduction moment, hip strengthening has the potential to slow disease progression. Trial Registration Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTR12607000001493

  20. The pectoral fin muscles of the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae: Functional and evolutionary implications for the fin-to-limb transition and subsequent evolution of tetrapods.

    Miyake, Tsutomu; Kumamoto, Minayori; Iwata, Masamitsu; Sato, Ryuichi; Okabe, Masataka; Koie, Hiroshi; Kumai, Nori; Fujii, Kenichi; Matsuzaki, Koji; Nakamura, Chiho; Yamauchi, Shinya; Yoshida, Kosuke; Yoshimura, Kohtaroh; Komoda, Akira; Uyeno, Teruya; Abe, Yoshitaka

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the morphology and evolutionary origin of muscles in vertebrate limbs, we conducted anatomical dissections, computed tomography and kinematic analyses on the pectoral fin of the African coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae. We discovered nine antagonistic pairs of pronators and supinators that are anatomically and functionally distinct from the abductor and adductor superficiales and profundi. In particular, the first pronator and supinator pair represents mono- and biarticular muscles; a portion of the muscle fibers is attached to ridges on the humerus and is separated into two monoarticular muscles, whereas, as a biarticular muscle, the main body is inserted into the radius by crossing two joints from the shoulder girdle. This pair, consisting of a pronator and supinator, constitutes a muscle arrangement equivalent to two human antagonistic pairs of monoarticular muscles and one antagonistic pair of biarticular muscles in the stylopod between the shoulder and elbow joints. Our recent kinesiological and biomechanical engineering studies on human limbs have demonstrated that two antagonistic pairs of monoarticular muscles and one antagonistic pair of biarticular muscles in the stylopod (1) coordinately control output force and force direction at the wrist and ankle and (2) achieve a contact task to carry out weight-bearing motion and maintain stable posture. Therefore, along with dissections of the pectoral fins in two lungfish species, Neoceratodus forsteri and Protopterus aethiopicus, we discuss the functional and evolutionary implications for the fin-to-limb transition and subsequent evolution of tetrapods. Anat Rec, 299:1203-1223, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27343022

  1. Repression of slow myosin heavy chain 2 gene expression in fast skeletal muscle fibers by muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and Gαq signaling

    Jordan, Theresa; Li, Jinyuan; Jiang, Hongbin; DiMario, Joseph X.

    2003-01-01

    Gene expression in skeletal muscle fibers is regulated by innervation and intrinsic fiber properties. To determine the mechanism of repression of slow MyHC2 expression in innervated fast pectoralis major (PM) fibers, we investigated the function of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAchR) and Gαq. Both mAchR and Gαq are abundant in medial adductor (MA) and PM fibers, and mAchR and Gαq interact in these fibers. Whereas innervation of PM fibers was insufficient to induce slow MyHC2 express...

  2. Muscle injury: current perspectives and trends in Brazil,

    Diego Costa Astur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To evaluate the management, procedures and perspectives of sports physicians and orthopedists in Brazil with regard to diagnosing and treating muscle injuries.Methods:A questionnaire containing 20 questions relating to the topic of muscle injury was applied to sports physicians and orthopedists during the Second Brazilian Congress of Arthroscopy and Sports Traumatology, in 2013.Results:Completely answered questionnaires were received from 168 sports physicians and orthopedists. Doctors from all regions of Brazil with a mean of 11 years of experience of treating muscle injuries were interviewed. Lower limbs were affected in 97% of the cases, particularly the quadriceps, adductor and sural triceps. The injury occurred during the eccentric phase in 62% of the interviews; 39% underwent ultrasound examination and 37% magnetic resonance imaging (MRI for the injury to be diagnosed. Medication, rest and cryotherapy during the acute phase (87.5% and medication, rest and physiotherapy during treatment of the injury (56% were the prevalent options. The criteria for returning to sports were very subjective and disparate among the options presented, and most of the interviewees had already used some therapy that was adjuvant to traditional methods.Conclusion:The number of muscle injuries treated per year was greater than 30, independent of whether in the public or private sector. These injuries occurred mainly at the muscle–tendon junction, in the lower limbs and during the eccentric phase of muscle contraction. Ultrasound was the examination most performed, while MRI was considered ideal. For most of the interviewees, the preferred treatment involved rest, medication and physiotherapy. In addition, 52% believed that platelet-rich plasma was an efficient treatment and 42% said that they had already used it.

  3. Test-retest reliability of innovated strength tests for hip muscles.

    Meyer, Christophe; Corten, Kristoff; Wesseling, Mariska; Peers, Koen; Simon, Jean-Pierre; Jonkers, Ilse; Desloovere, Kaat

    2013-01-01

    The burden of hip muscles weakness and its relation to other impairments has been well documented. It is therefore a pre-requisite to have a reliable method for clinical assessment of hip muscles function allowing the design and implementation of a proper strengthening program. Motor-driven dynamometry has been widely accepted as the gold-standard for lower limb muscle strength assessment but is mainly related to the knee joint. Studies focusing on the hip joint are less exhaustive and somewhat discrepant with regard to optimal participants position, consequently influencing outcome measures. Thus, we aimed to develop a standardized test setup for the assessment of hip muscles strength, i.e. flexors/extensors and abductors/adductors, with improved participant stability and to define its psychometric characteristics. Eighteen participants performed unilateral isokinetic and isometric contractions of the hip muscles in the sagittal and coronal plane at two separate occasions. Peak torque and normalized peak torque were measured for each contraction. Relative and absolute measures of reliability were calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient and standard error of measurement, respectively. Results from this study revealed higher levels of between-day reliability of isokinetic/isometric hip abduction/flexion peak torque compared to existing literature. The least reliable measures were found for hip extension and adduction, which could be explained by a less efficient stabilization technique. Our study additionally provided a first set of reference normalized data which can be used in future research. PMID:24260550

  4. Test-retest reliability of innovated strength tests for hip muscles.

    Christophe Meyer

    Full Text Available The burden of hip muscles weakness and its relation to other impairments has been well documented. It is therefore a pre-requisite to have a reliable method for clinical assessment of hip muscles function allowing the design and implementation of a proper strengthening program. Motor-driven dynamometry has been widely accepted as the gold-standard for lower limb muscle strength assessment but is mainly related to the knee joint. Studies focusing on the hip joint are less exhaustive and somewhat discrepant with regard to optimal participants position, consequently influencing outcome measures. Thus, we aimed to develop a standardized test setup for the assessment of hip muscles strength, i.e. flexors/extensors and abductors/adductors, with improved participant stability and to define its psychometric characteristics. Eighteen participants performed unilateral isokinetic and isometric contractions of the hip muscles in the sagittal and coronal plane at two separate occasions. Peak torque and normalized peak torque were measured for each contraction. Relative and absolute measures of reliability were calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient and standard error of measurement, respectively. Results from this study revealed higher levels of between-day reliability of isokinetic/isometric hip abduction/flexion peak torque compared to existing literature. The least reliable measures were found for hip extension and adduction, which could be explained by a less efficient stabilization technique. Our study additionally provided a first set of reference normalized data which can be used in future research.

  5. Muscle strain (image)

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  6. Muscle size and arterial stiffness after blood flow-restricted low-intensity resistance training in older adults.

    Yasuda, T; Fukumura, K; Fukuda, T; Uchida, Y; Iida, H; Meguro, M; Sato, Y; Yamasoba, T; Nakajima, T

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that blood flow-restricted low-intensity resistance training (BFR-RT) causes muscle hypertrophy while maintaining arterial function in young adults. We examined the effects of BFR-RT on muscle size and arterial stiffness in older adults. Healthy subjects (ages 61-84 years) were divided into BFR-RT (n = 9) or non-training control (CON; n = 10) groups. The BFR-RT group performed 20% and 30%, respectively, of one-repetition maximal (1-RM) knee extension and leg press exercises, 2 days/wk for 12 weeks. The BFR-RT group wore elastic cuffs (120-270 mmHg) on both legs during training. Magnetic resonance imaging-measured muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), 1-RM strength, chair stand (CS) test, and cardio-ankle vascular index testing (CAVI), an index of arterial stiffness, were measured before and 3-5 days after the final training session. Muscle CSA of the quadriceps (8.0%), adductors (6.5%), and gluteus maximus (4.4%), leg extension and leg press 1-RM strength (26.1% and 33.4%), and CS performance (18.3%) improved (P testing, there were no changes in both two groups. In conclusion, BFR-RT improves muscle CSA as well as maximal muscle strength, but does not negatively affect arterial stiffness or humeral coagulation factors in older adults. PMID:23730848

  7. The Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Athletic Pubalgia and Core Muscle Injury.

    Coker, Dana J; Zoga, Adam C

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the standard of care imaging modality for a difficult, often misunderstood spectrum of musculoskeletal injury termed athletic pubalgia or core muscle injury. Armed with a dedicated noncontrast athletic pubalgia protocol and a late model phased array receiver coil, the musculoskeletal imager can play a great role in effective diagnosis and treatment planning for lesions, including osteitis pubis, midline pubic plate lesions, and rectus abdominis/adductor aponeurosis injury. Beyond these established patterns of MRI findings, there are many confounders and contributing pathologies about the pelvis in patients with activity related groin pain, including internal and periarticular derangements of the hip. The MRI is ideally suited to delineate the extent of expected injury and to identify the unexpected visceral and musculoskeletal lesions. PMID:26244616

  8. Acoustic characteristics of adductor spasmodic dysphonia%内收型痉挛性发音障碍的语音特征

    杨扬; 王丽萍

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the acoustic characteristics of adductor spasmodic dysphonim Methods The acoustic characteristics,including acoustic signal of recorded voice,three-dimensional sonogranl patterns and subjective assessment of voice,between 10 patients(7 women,3 men)with adductor spasmodic dysphonia and 10 healthy volunteers(5 women,5 men),were compared.Results The main clinical manifestation of adductor spasmodic dysphonia included the disorders of sound quality,rhyme and fluency.It demonstrated the tension dysphonia when reading,acoustic jitter,momentary fluctuation of frequency and volume,voice squeezing,interruption,voice prolongation,and losing normal chime.Among 10 patients,there were l mild dysphonia(abnormal syllable number<25%),6 moderate dysphonia (abnormal syllable number 25%-49%),1 severe dysphonia(abnormal syllable number 50%-74%) and 2 extremely severe dysphonia (abnormal syllable number≥75%).The average reading time in 10 patients Was 49 S,with reading time extension and aphasia area interruption in acoustic signals,whereasc the average reading time in health control group was 30 S,without voice interruption.The aphasia ratio averaged 42%.The respective symptom syllable in different patients demonstrated in the three-dimensional sonograrm There were voice onset time prolongation,irregular,interrupted and even absent vowel formants. The consonant of symptom syllables displayed absence or prolongation of friction murmur in the block-friction murmur occasionally.Conclusions The acoustic characteristics of adductor spasmodic dysphonia is the disorders of sound quality,rhyme and fluency.The three-dimensional sonogTam of the symptom syllables show distinctive changes of proportional vowels or consonant phonemes.%目的 探讨内收型痉挛性发音障碍的语音特征.方法 采用嗓音和语音的声信号和三维语图分析及主观评价的方法对1O例内收型痉挛性发音障碍患者(女7例,男3例)的语音特征与10

  9. Qualidade de Vida em Voz: estudo na doença de Parkinson idiopática e na disfonia espasmódica adutora Quality of life in voice: a study in Parkinson's disease and in adductor spasmodic dysphonia

    Bárbara Pereira Lopes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o impacto causado pela alteração vocal na qualidade de vida (QV dos pacientes com doença de Parkinson (DP idiopática e com disfonia espasmódica adutora (DEA. MÉTODO: o estudo foi realizado com 56 indivíduos do sexo feminino, dos quais 28 compunham o grupo controle; 14, o grupo de DEA, no período anterior ao tratamento com toxina botulínica; e 14, o grupo de DP idiopática. Os participantes preencheram o questionário de Qualidade de Vida em Voz (QVV validado para o português brasileiro. Para verificar a diferença entre as médias dos grupos foi utilizado o método de análise de variância por postos de Kruskal-Wallis e o teste de Tamhane para comparações múltiplas, com significância PURPOSE: to evaluate the impact of voice disorders on quality of life of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. METHOD: the study consisted of 56 females, 28 in the control group; 14, the adductor spasmodic dysphonia group in the period prior to treatment with botulinum toxin; and 14, the group of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The participants filled in the Voice-Related Quality of life (V-RQOL questionnaire validated for Brazilian Portuguese. To check the difference between averages of the groups it was used the method of analysis of variance by Kruskal-Wallis and Tamhane test for multiple comparisons, with significance <0.05. RESULTS: the average age of the groups were 66.18 for the control group, 67.21 for the Parkinson's disease group and 59.7 for the adductor spasmodic dysphonia group, with no statistical difference between the groups. In the V-RQOL protocol the mean domain social-emotional, physical functioning and total score were higher in the control group, followed by group of Parkinson's disease and, finally, the group of adductor spasmodic dysphonia with statistically significant difference between them. In addition, there was statistical difference for each pair of groups

  10. Qualidade de Vida em Voz: estudo na doença de Parkinson idiopática e na Disfonia Espasmódica Adutora Quality of life in voice: a study in Parkinson's disease and in adductor spasmodic dysphonia

    Bárbara Pereira Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o impacto causado pela alteração vocal na qualidade de vida (QV dos pacientes com doença de Parkinson (DP idiopática e com disfonia espasmódica adutora (DEA. MÉTODO: o estudo foi realizado com 56 indivíduos do sexo feminino, dos quais 28 compunham o grupo controle; 14, o grupo de DEA, no período anterior ao tratamento com toxina botulínica; e 14, o grupo de DP idiopática. Os participantes preencheram o questionário de Qualidade de Vida em Voz (QVV validado para o português brasileiro. Para verificar a diferença entre as médias dos grupos foi utilizado o método de análise de variância por postos de Kruskal-Wallis e o teste de Tamhane para comparações múltiplas, com significância PURPOSE: to evaluate the impact of voice disorders on quality of life of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. METHOD: the study consisted of 56 females, 28 in the control group; 14, the adductor spasmodic dysphonia group in the period prior to treatment with botulinum toxin; and 14, the group of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The participants filled in the Voice-Related Quality of life (V-RQOL questionnaire validated for Brazilian Portuguese. To check the difference between averages of the groups it was used the method of analysis of variance by Kruskal-Wallis and Tamhane test for multiple comparisons, with significance <0.05. RESULTS: the average age of the groups were 66.18 for the control group, 67.21 for the Parkinson's disease group and 59.7 for the adductor spasmodic dysphonia group, with no statistical difference between the groups. In the V-RQOL protocol the mean domain social-emotional, physical functioning and total score were higher in the control group, followed by group of Parkinson's disease and, finally, the group of adductor spasmodic dysphonia with statistically significant difference between them. In addition, there was statistical difference for each pair of groups

  11. Muscle Loss in Elderly

    Nikolić, Marina; Šoić Vranić, Tamara; Arbanas, Juraj; Cvijanović, Olga; Bajek, Snježana

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength and endurance. The aim of this study was to determinate age related changes in human muscles with different function and location in the body (vastus lateralis muscle and intercostal internus muscle). Our results suggest that age related muscle atrophy affect both human skeletal muscles. Also, the results showed the increase in percentage of muscle fibers with high oxidative activity during aging.

  12. Assessment of bioelectrical activity of synergistic muscles during pelvic floor muscles activation in postmenopausal women with and without stress urinary incontinence: a preliminary observational study

    Ptaszkowski K

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Kuba Ptaszkowski,1 Małgorzata Paprocka-Borowicz,2 Lucyna Słupska,2 Janusz Bartnicki,1,3 Robert Dymarek,4 Joanna Rosińczuk,4 Jerzy Heimrath,5 Janusz Dembowski,6 Romuald Zdrojowy6 1Department of Obstetrics, 2Department of Clinical Biomechanics and Physiotherapy in Motor System Disorders, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Health Center Bitterfeld/Wolfen gGmbH, Bitterfeld-Wolfen, Germany; 4Department of Nervous System Diseases, 5Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of Health Science, 6Department and Clinic of Urology, Faculty of Postgraduate Medical Training, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland Objective: Muscles such as adductor magnus (AM, gluteus maximus (GM, rectus abdominis (RA, and abdominal external and internal oblique muscles are considered to play an important role in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI, and the relationship between contraction of these muscles and pelvic floor muscles (PFM has been established in previous studies. Synergistic muscle activation intensifies a woman’s ability to contract the PFM. In some cases, even for continent women, it is not possible to fully contract their PFM without involving the synergistic muscles. The primary aim of this study was to assess the surface electromyographic activity of synergistic muscles to PFM (SPFM during resting and functional PFM activation in postmenopausal women with and without SUI.Materials and methods: This study was a preliminary, prospective, cross-sectional observational study and included volunteers and patients who visited the Department and Clinic of Urology, University Hospital in Wroclaw, Poland. Forty-two patients participated in the study and were screened for eligibility criteria. Thirty participants satisfied the criteria and were categorized into two groups: women with SUI (n=16 and continent women (n=14. The bioelectrical activity of PFM and SPFM (AM, RA, GM was

  13. Musculoskeletal Geometry, Muscle Architecture and Functional Specialisations of the Mouse Hindlimb

    Charles, James P.; Cappellari, Ornella; Spence, Andrew J.; Hutchinson, John R.; Wells, Dominic J.

    2016-01-01

    Mice are one of the most commonly used laboratory animals, with an extensive array of disease models in existence, including for many neuromuscular diseases. The hindlimb is of particular interest due to several close muscle analogues/homologues to humans and other species. A detailed anatomical study describing the adult morphology is lacking, however. This study describes in detail the musculoskeletal geometry and skeletal muscle architecture of the mouse hindlimb and pelvis, determining the extent to which the muscles are adapted for their function, as inferred from their architecture. Using I2KI enhanced microCT scanning and digital segmentation, it was possible to identify 39 distinct muscles of the hindlimb and pelvis belonging to nine functional groups. The architecture of each of these muscles was determined through microdissections, revealing strong architectural specialisations between the functional groups. The hip extensors and hip adductors showed significantly stronger adaptations towards high contraction velocities and joint control relative to the distal functional groups, which exhibited larger physiological cross sectional areas and longer tendons, adaptations for high force output and elastic energy savings. These results suggest that a proximo-distal gradient in muscle architecture exists in the mouse hindlimb. Such a gradient has been purported to function in aiding locomotor stability and efficiency. The data presented here will be especially valuable to any research with a focus on the architecture or gross anatomy of the mouse hindlimb and pelvis musculature, but also of use to anyone interested in the functional significance of muscle design in relation to quadrupedal locomotion. PMID:27115354

  14. Study on the findings of muscle CT in patients with Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD)

    Sumida, Sawako; Osawa, Makiko; Okada, Noriko and others

    1988-11-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the process of muscle involvement according to age in patients with FCMD (Brain Dev 1981 ; 3:1 - 29) by CT scans. Fourteen patients with FCMD I (age: 5 months-12 years) and two patients with FCMD III or IV (age: 3, 4 years) were studied. The midcalf, midthigh, L3 and shoulder girdle level were the sites chosen. Two types of change were found in FCMD I. One of them was the attenuation of the density in muscle and the other one was decreased area of muscle as a result of low density which started from periphery of the muscle. The latter was found in m. psoas major after age 9, whilst the former was found in other muscles to some degree. The severity of the changes was related to age. In the case which was examined twice, the changes extended even better motor function had been attained. The changes in midcalf preceded those in midthigh, L3, shoulder girdle. The attenuation of density was found early and severely in m. triceps surae, m. adductor magnus, paravertebral muscles and m. subscapularis, whilst those in m. tibialis anterior and posterior, m. gracilis, m. sartorius, m. quadratus lumborum appeared later and relatively mild. The relationship between the process of extension of low density in muscle and joint contractures were also discussed. The changes in CT scan in FCMD III or IV were milder than those of FCMD I and there was no tendency that the change in midcalf preceded those of other scanned level.

  15. Effects of pelvic suspension of beef carcasses on quality and physical traits of five muscles from four gender-age groups.

    Ahnström, Maria Lundesjö; Hunt, Melvin C; Lundström, Kerstin

    2012-03-01

    Pelvic and Achilles suspension methods for beef carcasses were compared for four gender-age groups (24month bulls, 34month bulls, heifers, and cows) and five muscles [M. longissimus dorsi (LD), M. semimembranosus (SM), M. adductor (AD), M. psoas major (PM), and M. gluteus medius (GM)]. Pelvic suspension increased muscle and sarcomere lengths in the SM, LD, GM, and AD muscles. The following effects were significant (pforce was reduced by pelvic suspension in the LD and GM of bulls-24 and bulls-34, but not heifers and cows. Furthermore, peak forces decreased for the SM after pelvic suspension in bulls-24, bulls-34, and heifers. For the AD, the only decrease in peak force was for bulls-34. Water-holding capacity increased and purge in vacuum bags decreased for pelvic suspension of all muscles except the PM. Although the effects of pelvic suspension varied somewhat between gender-age groups and muscles, this method of hanging carcasses merits industrial consideration because it improves muscle yields, tenderness, and reduces variation within muscles. PMID:22077997

  16. Structure of Skeletal Muscle

    ... and in some they are oblique. Each skeletal muscle fiber is a single cylindrical muscle cell. An individual ... made up of hundreds, or even thousands, of muscle fibers bundled together and wrapped in a connective tissue ...

  17. Extraocular muscle function testing

    Extraocular muscle function testing examines the function of the eye muscles. A health care provider observes the movement of ... evaluate weakness or other problem in the extraocular muscles. These problems may result in double vision or ...

  18. Muscle strain treatment

    Treatment - muscle strain ... Question: How do you treat a muscle strain ? Answer: Rest the strained muscle and apply ice for the first few days after the injury. Anti-inflammatory medicines or acetaminophen ( ...

  19. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  20. Skeletal muscle metastasis from transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: Clinicoradiological features

    Nabi, G. E-mail: nabeegholam@hotmail.com; Gupta, N.P.; Gandhi, D

    2003-11-01

    AIM: To define the clinicoradiological characteristics of skeletal muscle metastasis from transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients with skeletal muscle metastasis was undertaken between January 1999 to December 2001. Patients suspected of having a metastasis on radiological examinations, and subsequently proven to have metastatic disease on histological examination were included in study. The clinical presentation and radiological features of five patients with skeletal muscle metastasis from bladder tumours were reviewed from hospital records. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients had skeletal muscle metastasis from various primaries. Of these five patients had previous or concurrent primary tumours in the bladder. Patients were aged between 27-70 years (mean 52 years), and all had persistent, localized pain with or without accompanying swelling. The muscles involved were psoas in three patients, adductor muscles of thigh in one and rectus abdominis in one. Four patients had radical cystectomy with urinary diversion (two ileal conduit and two orthotopic sigmoid neobladder). One patient presented with bladder tumour and concomitant muscular metastasis. All patients underwent helical computed tomography (CT) before confirmation of diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) or biopsy. The typical appearance of low-density enhancing lesions on CT was mistaken for abscess in two patients and failure to respond to conservative treatment led to suspicion of metastasis. Diagnosis was proven histologically in all patients (FNA in three and biopsy in two). All patients had palliative chemotherapy (Mitomycin, Vincristine, Adriamycin and Cyclophosphamide). Two patients had local palliative 3500 rad radiotherapy for persistent pain. Mean survival was 8 months (range 6-12 months). CONCLUSION: Muscular metastasis from urothelial tumours typically presents with persistent localized pain with or without swelling. The

  1. Imaging of muscle injuries

    El-Khoury, G.Y. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Brandser, E.A. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Kathol, M.H. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Tearse, D.S. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery; Callaghan, J.J. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery

    1996-01-01

    Although skeletal muscle is the single largest tissue in the body, there is little written about it in the radiologic literature. Indirect muscle injuries, also called strains or tears, are common in athletics, and knowing the morphology and physiology of the muscle-tendon unit is the key to the understanding of these injuries. Eccentric muscle activation produces more tension within the muscle tan when it is activated concentrically, making it more susceptible to tearing. Injuries involving the muscle belly tend to occur near the myotendinous junction. In adolescents, the weakest link in the muscle-tendon-bone complex is the apophysis. Traditionally, plain radiography has been the main diagnostic modality for evaluation of these injuries; however, with the advent of MRI it has become much easier to diagnose injuries primarily affecting the soft tissues. This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of the muscle-tendon unit as they relate to indirect muscle injuries. Examples of common muscle injuries are illustrated. (orig.)

  2. Imaging of muscle injuries

    Although skeletal muscle is the single largest tissue in the body, there is little written about it in the radiologic literature. Indirect muscle injuries, also called strains or tears, are common in athletics, and knowing the morphology and physiology of the muscle-tendon unit is the key to the understanding of these injuries. Eccentric muscle activation produces more tension within the muscle tan when it is activated concentrically, making it more susceptible to tearing. Injuries involving the muscle belly tend to occur near the myotendinous junction. In adolescents, the weakest link in the muscle-tendon-bone complex is the apophysis. Traditionally, plain radiography has been the main diagnostic modality for evaluation of these injuries; however, with the advent of MRI it has become much easier to diagnose injuries primarily affecting the soft tissues. This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of the muscle-tendon unit as they relate to indirect muscle injuries. Examples of common muscle injuries are illustrated. (orig.)

  3. [Muscle fiber atrophy].

    Nonaka, Ikuya

    2012-01-01

    Muscle fibers have been classified into two major forms of red (slow twitch) and white (fast twitch) muscles. The red muscle utilizes lipid as energy source through mitochondrial metabolism and function to sustain the position against gravity (sometimes called as antigravity muscle). Under microgravity the red muscle is selectively involved. In our unloading study by hindlimb suspension experiment on rats, the one of the representative red muscle of soleus muscle underwent rapid atrophy; they reduced their weights about 50% after 2 week-unloading. In addition, myofibrils were occasionally markedly disorganized with selective thin filament loss. Mitochondria in the degenerated area were decreased in number. The white muscle fibers in the soleus muscle had mostly transformed to the red ones. It took about 1 month to recover morphologically. The satellite cell playing a major role in muscle regeneration was not activated. There still remained unsolved what are the mechanosensors to keep muscle function under normal gravity. Dr Nikawa's group proposed that one of ubiquitin ligases, Cbl-b is activated under microgravity and induces muscle fiber degeneration. There might be many factors to induce muscle atrophy and degeneration under microgravity. Further study is necessary to explore the pathomechanism of muscle atrophy in disused and under immobility conditions. PMID:23196603

  4. Congruence between muscle activity and kinematics in a convergently derived prey-processing behavior.

    Konow, Nicolai; Camp, Ariel L; Sanford, Christopher P J

    2008-08-01

    Quantification of anatomical and physiological characteristics of the function of a musculoskeletal system may yield a detailed understanding of how the organizational levels of morphology, biomechanics, kinematics, and muscle activity patterns (MAPs) influence behavioral diversity. Using separate analyses of these organizational levels in representative study taxa, we sought patterns of congruence in how organizational levels drive behavioral modulation in a novel raking prey-processing behavior found in teleosts belonging to two evolutionarily distinct lineages. Biomechanically divergent prey (elusive, robust goldfish and sedentary, malleable earthworms) were fed to knifefish, Chitala ornata (Osteoglossomorpha) and brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Salmoniformes). Electromyography recorded MAPs from the hyoid protractor, jaw adductor, sternohyoideus, epaxialis, and hypaxialis musculature, while sonomicrometry sampled deep basihyal kinesis and contractile length dynamics in the basihyal protractor and retractor muscles. Syntheses of our results with recent analyses of cranial morphology and raking kinematics showed that raking in Salvelinus relies on an elongated cranial out lever, extensive cranial elevation and a curved cleithrobranchial ligament (CBL), and that both raking MAPs and kinematics remain entirely unmodulated-a highly unusual trait, particularly among feeding generalists. Chitala had a shorter CBL and a raking power stroke involving increased retraction of the elongated pectoral girdle during raking on goldfish. The raking MAP was also modulated in Chitala, involving an extensive overlap between muscle activity of the preparatory and power stroke phases, driven by shifts in hypaxial timing and recruitment of the hyoid protractor muscle. Sonomicrometry revealed that the protractor hyoideus muscle stored energy from retraction of the pectoral girdle for ca. 5-20 ms after onset of the power stroke and then hyper-extended. This mechanism of elastic

  5. Sustantial Observation on Foot Taeyang Meridian Muscle in Human Lower Limb from a Anatomical Viewpoint

    Kyoung-Sik Park

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was carried to identify the anatomical component of FTMM(Foot Taeyang Meridian Muscle in human lower limb, and further to help the accurate application to real acupuncture. Methods : FTM at the surface of the lower limb was labelled with latex. And cadaver was stripped off to demonstrate muscles, nerves and the others and to display the internal structures of FTMM, being divided into outer, middle, and inner layer. Results : FTMM in human lower limb is composed of muscles, nerves, ligaments etc. The internal composition of the FTMM in human lower limb are as follows : 1 Muscle : Gluteus maximus. biceps femoris, semitendinosus, gastrocnemius, triceps calf, fibularis brevis tendon, superior peroneal retinacula, calcaneofibular ligament, inferior extensor retinaculum, abductor digiti minimi, sheath of flexor tendon at outer layer, biceps femoris, semimembranosus, plantaris, soleus, posterior tibialis, fibularis brevis, extensor digitorum brevis, flexor digiti minimi at middle layer, and for the last time semimembranosus, adductor magnus, plantaris, popliteus, posterior tibialis, flexor hallucis longus, dorsal calcaneocuboidal ligament at inner layer. 2 Nerve : Inferior cluneal nerve, posterior femoral cutaneous n., sural cutaneous n., proper plantar branch of lateral plantar n. at outer layer, sciatic nerve, common peroneal n., medial sural cutaneous n., tibial n. at middle layer, and for the last time tibial nerve, flexor hallucis longus branch of tibial n. at inner layer. Conclusions : This study proves comparative differences from already established studies from the viewpoint of constituent elements of FTMM in the lower limb, and also in the aspect of substantial assay method. We can guess that there are conceptional differences between terms (that is, nerves which control muscles of FTMM and those which pass near by FTMM in human anatomy.

  6. Rectus abdominis muscle injuries in elite handball players: management and rehabilitation

    Balius R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ramon Balius1, Carles Pedret2, Laura Pacheco1, Josep Antoni Gutierrez3, Joan Vives4, Jaume Escoda11Consell Català de l’Esport, Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona; 2Centro Mapfre de Medicina del Tenis, Barcelona; 3Spanish National Handball Team, Spain; 4Granollers Handball Club, Granollers, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Muscle injuries generally occur in two-joint muscles with a high percentage of type II fibers during the performance of eccentric activity. Some muscle injuries, such as those located in the adductor longus, a monoarticular muscle, as well as rectus abdominis do not fully comply with these requirements. This study examines five cases of elite handball players with ruptured rectus abdominals. Sonographically, lesions in rectus abdominis are shown as a disruption of the fibrillar pattern with a hematic suffusion that invades the entire lesion. In some of the cases, the ultrasound study was complemented with a MRI. A unified rehabilitation protocol was applied and the return to play time of each handball player ranged between 16 and 22 days, with an average of 18.2 days. Follow-up at 15 months showed no evidence of re-injury or residual discomfort and all of them are playing at their highest level. The aim of this study was to illustrate a feature of handball injury that, as in tennis and volleyball, is uncommon and so far has not been specifically reported. The phenomenon of contralateral abdominal hypertrophy in handball appears in the dominant arm as in tennis and volleyball.Keywords: rectus abdominis, muscle injury, sonography, MRI, handball 

  7. A study on the findings of muscle CT in patients with Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD)

    This study was carried out to investigate the process of muscle involvement according to age in patients with FCMD (Brain Dev 1981 ; 3:1 - 29) by CT scans. Fourteen patients with FCMD I (age: 5 months-12 years) and two patients with FCMD III or IV (age: 3, 4 years) were studied. The midcalf, midthigh, L3 and shoulder girdle level were the sites chosen. Two types of change were found in FCMD I. One of them was the attenuation of the density in muscle and the other one was decreased area of muscle as a result of low density which started from periphery of the muscle. The latter was found in m. psoas major after age 9, whilst the former was found in other muscles to some degree. The severity of the changes was related to age. In the case which was examined twice, the changes extended even better motor function had been attained. The changes in midcalf preceded those in midthigh, L3, shoulder girdle. The attenuation of density was found early and severely in m. triceps surae, m. adductor magnus, paravertebral muscles and m. subscapularis, whilst those in m. tibialis anterior and posterior, m. gracilis, m. sartorius, m. quadratus lumborum appeared later and relatively mild. The relationship between the process of extension of low density in muscle and joint contractures were also discussed. The changes in CT scan in FCMD III or IV were milder than those of FCMD I and there was no tendency that the change in midcalf preceded those of other scanned level. (author)

  8. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    Randolph, Matthew E.; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2015-01-01

    The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicate...

  9. The Effects of Carcass Conditioning on Shear Force Values and Water Holding Capacity of Different Skeletal Muscles of Malaysian Indigenous (MALIN Sheep and the Changes in Their pH and Glycogen Contents

    Panandam Jothi Malar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of carcass conditioning on shear force values and water holding capacity of various major skeletal muscles (Infraspinatus, Supraspinatus, Triceps brachii, Longissimus dorsi, Rectus femoris, Vastus lateralis, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus and Adductor femoris obtained from a total of 18, 1 year old Malaysian Indigenous rams. It also studied the effect of conditioning on changes in their pH and glycogen contents. Sequel to the conditioning, muscle samples were analysed for shear force values and water holding capacity. The postmortem conditioning resulted in significant decline (p>0.05 in muscle pH, glycogen, shear force values and drip loss while the cooking loss remained unaffected. Statistically, there was no interaction (p>0.05 between the conditioning period and muscle type and this indicates that the effects of conditioning on muscle pH, shear force values, drip loss and cooking loss were independent of the muscle type. Meanwhile, its effect on glycogen was influenced by the muscle type.

  10. Human Muscle Fiber

    2003-01-01

    The stimulus of gravity affects RNA production, which helps maintain the strength of human muscles on Earth (top), as seen in this section of muscle fiber taken from an astronaut before spaceflight. Astronauts in orbit and patients on Earth fighting muscle-wasting diseases need countermeasures to prevent muscle atrophy, indicated here with white lipid droplets (bottom) in the muscle sample taken from the same astronaut after spaceflight. Kerneth Baldwin of the University of California, Irvine, is conducting research on how reducing the stimulus of gravity affects production of the RNA that the body uses as a blueprint for making muscle proteins. Muscle proteins are what give muscles their strength, so when the RNA blueprints aren't available for producing new proteins to replace old ones -- a situation that occurs in microgravity -- the muscles atrophy. When the skeletal muscle system is exposed to microgravity during spaceflight, the muscles undergo a reduced mass that translates to a reduction in strength. When this happens, muscle endurance decreases and the muscles are more prone to injury, so individuals could have problems in performing extravehicular activity [space walks] or emergency egress because their bodies are functionally compromised.

  11. Muscles of the Trunk

    ... four muscle pairs, arranged in layers, and the fascia that envelops them. The abdominal wall muscles are ... formed by two muscular sheets and their associated fascia. « Previous (Head and Neck) Next (Upper Extremity) » Contact ...

  12. Healthy Muscles Matter

    ... body? These muscles help you move, lift things, pump blood through your body, and even help you breathe. ... is a specialized type of involuntary muscle. It pumps blood through your body, changing its speed to keep ...

  13. Oxidative metabolism in muscle.

    Ferrari, M; Binzoni, T.; Quaresima, V.

    1997-01-01

    Oxidative metabolism is the dominant source of energy for skeletal muscle. Near-infrared spectroscopy allows the non-invasive measurement of local oxygenation, blood flow and oxygen consumption. Although several muscle studies have been made using various near-infrared optical techniques, it is still difficult to interpret the local muscle metabolism properly. The main findings of near-infrared spectroscopy muscle studies in human physiology and clinical medicine are summarized. The advantage...

  14. Muscle Session Summary

    Baldwin, Kenneth; Feeback, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Presentations from the assembled group of investigators involved in specific research projeects related to skeletal muscle in space flight can categorized in thematic subtopics: regulation of contractile protein phenotypes, muscle growth and atrophy, muscle structure: injury, recovery,and regeneration, metabolism and fatigue, and motor control and loading factors.

  15. “Target” and “Sandwich” Signs in Thigh Muscles have High Diagnostic Values for Collagen VI-related Myopathies

    Fu, Jun; Zheng, Yi-Ming; Jin, Su-Qin; Yi, Jun-Fei; Liu, Xiu-Juan; Lyn, He; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Jiang-Xi; Yuan, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Collagen VI-related myopathies are autosomal dominant and recessive hereditary myopathies, mainly including Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) and Bethlem myopathy (BM). Muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used to diagnosis muscular disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of thigh muscles MRI for collagen VI-related myopathies. Methods: Eleven patients with collagen VI gene mutation-related myopathies were enrolled in this study. MRI of the thigh muscles was performed in all patients with collagen VI gene mutation-related myopathies and in 361 patients with other neuromuscular disorders (disease controls). T1-weighted images were used to assess fatty infiltration of the muscles using a modified Mercuri's scale. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the MRI features of collagen VI-related myopathies. The relationship between fatty infiltration of muscles and specific collagen VI gene mutations was also investigated. Results: Eleven patients with collagen VI gene mutation-related myopathies included six UCMD patients and five BM patients. There was no significant difference between UCMD and BM patients in the fatty infiltration of each thigh muscle except sartorius (P = 0.033); therefore, we combined the UCMD and BM data. Mean fatty infiltration scores were 3.1 and 3.0 in adductor magnus and gluteus maximus, while the scores were 1.3, 1.3, and 1.5 in gracilis, adductor longus, and sartorius, respectively. A “target” sign in rectus femoris (RF) was present in seven cases, and a “sandwich” sign in vastus lateralis (VL) was present in ten cases. The “target” and “sandwich” signs had sensitivities of 63.6% and 90.9% and specificities of 97.3% and 96.9% for the diagnosis of collagen VI-related myopathies, respectively. Fatty infiltration scores were 2.0–3.0 in seven patients with mutations in the triple-helical domain, and 1.0–1.5 in three of four patients with

  16. Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia Treated by Injecting of Botulinum Toxin A into Vocal Cords%A型肉毒毒素声带注射 治疗内收型痉挛性发声障碍

    刘波; 屈季宁; 李再香; 袁琨

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of botulinum toxin A(BTA) injected into vocal cords for the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia (SD) by direct lanyngoscopy.Methods 11 patients with adductor SD were treated by injection on both vocal cords each with 2.5U of BTA by direct laryngoscopy.Results All patient's phonation improved within the first 24 hours,with sustained improvement from 12 to 21 weeks with an average of 16.2 weeks.The local side effect included breathy voice in all cases and mild choking sensation when drinking fluids in 5 cases,dysphagia in 3 cases.No systemic adverse reactions were noted.Conclusion The injection of BTA on both vocal cords by direct laryngoscopy is an effective,safe and simple method for the treatment of adductor SD.%目的探讨双侧声带注射A型肉毒毒素治疗内收性痉挛性发声障碍疗效。方法在直接喉镜下于双侧声带近外侧甲杓肌处注射A型肉毒毒素各2.5U治疗内收性痉挛性发声障碍11例。结果均在注射后24h即显效,发声改善平均持续时间16.2wk,不良反应有暂时过度呼吸音11例、饮水呛咳5例,吞咽困难3例,未发现A型肉毒毒素全身毒副作用。结论直接喉镜下A型肉毒毒素双侧声带注射是治疗内收性痉挛性发声障碍有效、安全、简便的方法。

  17. Policy Matters

    UNICEF's Division of Policy and Practice

    2011-01-01

    A report by UNICEF’s Division of Policy and Practice, creates a platform for showcasing results of its upstream policy analysis and advocacy and highlighting new thinking on social policy areas. This first edition features eight cases that are illustrative of the wide-ranging impact of UNICEF’s child-focused social and economic policy work.

  18. Late-onset myopathy of the posterior calf muscles mimicking Miyoshi myopathy unrelated to dysferlin mutation: a case report

    Neusch Clemens

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Miyoshi myopathy, a type of distal myopathy with predominant involvement of the posterior calf muscles, has been assigned to mutations in the dysferlin gene. However, many of the late-onset limb-girdle and distal myopathies that resemble dysferlinopathy or Miyoshi myopathy remain unclassified, even after extensive immunohistological and genetic analysis. Case presentation We report the case of a 59-year-old Caucasian man with distal myopathy and exercise-induced myalgia, preferentially of the leg muscles, closely resembling the Miyoshi phenotype. Magnetic resonance imaging of his calf muscles showed typical fatty replacement of the medial heads of the gastrocnemius muscles and soleus muscles, with progression to the adductor longus muscles over a time course of two years. However, genetic analysis revealed that the phenotype of our patient was not related to a mutation in the dysferlin gene but to a novel homozygous splice mutation in the anoctamin 5 gene. Mutations in the anoctamin 5 gene have so far been identified only in some cases of limb-girdle and distal myopathy. Mutations in the anoctamin 5 gene have been assigned to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2L, while distal Miyoshi-like phenotypes have been classified as Miyoshi myopathy type 3. Conclusion The case presented in this report further strengthens the underlying genetic heterogeneity in Miyoshi myopathy-like phenotypes and adds another family to non-dysferlin, Miyoshi myopathy type 3 of late-onset. Furthermore, our case supports the recent observation that anoctamin 5 mutations are a primary cause of distal non-dysferlin myopathies. Therefore, given the increasing number of anoctamin 5 mutations in Miyoshi-like phenotypes, genetic analysis should include an anoctamin 5 screen in late-onset limb-girdle and distal myopathies.

  19. Fiber-type susceptibility to eccentric contraction-induced damage of hindlimb-unloaded rat AL muscles

    Vijayan, K.; Thompson, J. L.; Norenberg, K. M.; Fitts, R. H.; Riley, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    Slow oxidative (SO) fibers of the adductor longus (AL) were predominantly damaged during voluntary reloading of hindlimb unloaded (HU) rats and appeared explainable by preferential SO fiber recruitment. The present study assessed damage after eliminating the variable of voluntary recruitment by tetanically activating all fibers in situ through the motor nerve while applying eccentric (lengthening) or isometric contractions. Muscles were aldehyde fixed and resin embedded, and semithin sections were cut. Sarcomere lesions were quantified in toluidine blue-stained sections. Fibers were typed in serial sections immunostained with antifast myosin and antitotal myosin (which highlights slow fibers). Both isometric and eccentric paradigms caused fatigue. Lesions occurred only in eccentrically contracted control and HU muscles. Fatigue did not cause lesions. HU increased damage because lesioned- fiber percentages within fiber types and lesion sizes were greater than control. Fast oxidative glycolytic (FOG) fibers were predominantly damaged. In no case did damaged SO fibers predominate. Thus, when FOG, SO, and hybrid fibers are actively lengthened in chronically unloaded muscle, FOG fibers are intrinsically more susceptible to damage than SO fibers. Damaged hybrid-fiber proportions ranged between these extremes.

  20. Effects of microgravity on muscle and cerebral cortex: a suggested interaction

    D'Amelio, F.; Fox, R. A.; Wu, L. C.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.

    The ``slow'' antigravity muscle adductor longus was studied in rats after 14 days of spaceflight (SF). The techniques employed included standard methods for light microscopy, neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Light and electron microscopy revealed myofiber atrophy, segmental necrosis and regenerative myofibers. Regenerative myofibers were N-CAM immunoreactive (N-CAM-IR). The neuromuscular junctions showed axon terminals with a decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles, degenerative changes, vacant axonal spaces and changes suggestive of axonal sprouting. No alterations of muscle spindles was seen either by light or electron microscopy. These observations suggest that muscle regeneration and denervation and synaptic remodeling at the level of the neuromuscular junction may take place during spaceflight. In a separate study, GABA immunoreactivity (GABA-IR) was evaluated at the level of the hindlimb representation of the rat somatosensory cortex after 14 days of hindlimb unloading by tail suspension (``simulated'' microgravity). A reduction in number of GABA-immunoreactive cells with respect to the control animals was observed in layer Va and Vb. GABA-IR terminals were also reduced in the same layers, particularly those terminals surrounding the soma and apical dendrites of pyramidal cells in layer Vb. On the basis of previous morphological and behavioral studies of the neuromuscular system after spaceflight and hindlimb suspension it is suggested that after limb unloading there are alterations of afferent signaling and feedback information from intramuscular receptors to the cerebral cortex due to modifications in the reflex organization of hindlimb muscle groups. We propose that the changes observed in GABA immunoreactivity of cells and terminals is an expression of changes in their modulatory activity to compensate for the alterations in the afferent information.

  1. Femoral strain during walking predicted with muscle forces from static and dynamic optimization.

    Edwards, W Brent; Miller, Ross H; Derrick, Timothy R

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical strain plays an important role in skeletal health, and the ability to accurately and noninvasively quantify bone strain in vivo may be used to develop preventive measures that improve bone quality and decrease fracture risk. A non-invasive estimation of bone strain requires combined musculoskeletal - finite element modeling, for which the applied muscle forces are usually obtained from static optimization (SO) methods. In this study, we compared finite element predicted femoral strains in walking using muscle forces obtained from SO to those obtained from forward dynamics (FD) simulation. The general trends in strain distributions were similar between FD and SO derived conditions and both agreed well with previously reported in vivo strain gage measurements. On the other hand, differences in peak maximum (εmax) and minimum (εmin) principal strain magnitudes were as high as 32% between FD (εmax/εmin=945/-1271με) and SO (εmax/εmin=752/-859με). These large differences in strain magnitudes were observed during the first half of stance, where SO predicted lower gluteal muscle forces and virtually no co-contraction of the hip adductors compared to FD. The importance of these results will likely depend on the purpose/application of the modeling procedure. If the goal is to obtain a generalized strain distribution for adaptive bone remodeling algorithms, then traditional SO is likely sufficient. In cases were strain magnitudes are critical, as is the case with fracture risk assessment, bone strain estimation may benefit by including muscle activation and contractile dynamics in SO, or by using FD when practical. PMID:26994784

  2. Treatment of Progressive First Metatarsophalangeal Hallux Valgus Deformity: A Biomechanically Based Muscle-Strengthening Approach.

    Glasoe, Ward M

    2016-07-01

    Synopsis Hallux valgus is a progressive deformity of the first metatarsophalangeal joint that changes the anatomy and biomechanics of the foot. To date, surgery is the only treatment to correct this deformity, though the recurrence rate is as high as 15%. This clinical commentary provides instruction in a strengthening approach for treatment of hallux valgus deformity, by addressing the moment actions of 5 muscles identified as having the ability to counter the hallux valgus process. Unlike surgery, muscle strengthening does not correct the deformity, but, instead, reduces the pain and associated gait impairments that affect the mobility of people who live with the disorder. This review is organized in 4 parts. Part 1 defines the terms of foot motion and posture. Part 2 details the anatomy and biomechanics, and describes how the foot is changed with deformity. Part 3 details the muscles targeted for strengthening; the intrinsics being the abductor hallucis, adductor hallucis, and the flexor hallucis brevis; the extrinsics being the tibialis posterior and fibularis longus. Part 4 instructs the exercise and reviews the related literature. Instructions are given for the short-foot, the toe-spread-out, and the heel-raise exercises. The routine may be performed by almost anyone at home and may be adopted into physical therapist practice, with intent to strengthen the foot muscles as an adjunct to almost any protocol of care, but especially for the treatment of hallux valgus deformity. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(7):596-605. Epub 6 Jun 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6704. PMID:27266887

  3. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    Matthew Emerson Randolph

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies, such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some muscular dystrophies. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on their embryologic origins and the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease.

  4. Right sternalis muscle

    Jetti R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge regarding the muscular variations of the chest and their identification for the proper dissection planes through radiological examination is important. Sternalis is an occasional muscle, which lies along the side of the sternum. It may be confused as a tumor. The existence of sternalis muscle, its location, orientation and early identification are necessary in breast surgeries. Presence of sternalis muscle adjacent to the breast is of clinical importance.

  5. Transport policy

    1980-01-01

    Transport is a fundamental component of all modern economies. Transport Policy presents a wide ranging collection of previously published articles which aim to provide the reader with an understanding of the main elements of transport policy.

  6. Trade Policy

    Murray Gibbs

    2014-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science Policy.” The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the agreements administered by the World Trade Organization, particularly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), were adopted to promote international trade and i...

  7. Policy Myopia

    Toke S. Aidt; Dutta, J.; Loukoianova, Elena

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a theory of policy myopia. Policy myopia arises when rational voters set performance standards that allow elected politicians to distort the portfolio of public investments towards short-term investments. We show that the fact that voters cannot observe immediately how much politicians invested in certain types of public goods is not in itself sufficient to generate policy myopia. Policy myopia, then, arises in societies where electoral control is imperfect or in societ...

  8. Muscle Volume Increases Following 16 Weeks of Resistive Exercise Training with the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and Free Weights

    Nash, R. E.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. L.; Evans, H.; Smith, S. A.; Hagan, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight-induced muscle atrophy, particularly in the postural and locomotorymuscles, may impair task performance during long-duration space missions and planetary exploration. High intensity free weight (FW) resistive exercise training has been shown to prevent atrophy during bed rest, a space flight analog. NASA developed the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to simulate the characteristics of FW exercise (i.e. constant mass, inertial force) and to be used as a countermeasure during International Space Station (ISS) missions. PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of ARED and FW training to induce hypertrophy in specific muscle groups in ambulatory subjects prior to deploying ARED on the ISS. METHODS: Twenty untrained subjects were assigned to either the ARED (8 males, 3 females) or FW (6 males, 3 females) group and participated in a periodizedtraining protocol consisting of squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift(DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR, and DL muscle strength (1RM) was measured before, after 8 wks, and after 16 wks of training to prescribe exercise and measure strength changes. Muscle volume of the vastigroup (V), hamstring group (H), hip adductor group (ADD), medial gastrocnemius(MG), lateral gastrocnemius(LG), and deep posterior muscles including soleus(DP) was measured using MRI pre-and post-training. Consecutive cross-sectional images (8 mm slices with a 2 mm gap) were analyzed and summed. Anatomical references insured that the same muscle sections were analyzed pre-and post-training. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (pmuscle strength and volume between training devices. RESULTS: SQ, HR, and DL 1RM increased in both FW (SQ: 49+/-6%, HR: 12+/-2%, DL: 23+/-4%) and ARED (SQ: 31+/-4%, HR: 18+/-2%, DL: 23+/-3%) groups. Both groups increased muscle volume in the V (FW: 13+/-2%, ARED: 10+/-2%), H (FW: 3+/-1%, ARED: 3+/-1 %), ADD (FW: 15=/-2%, ARED: 10+/-1%), LG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 4+/-1%), MG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 5+/-2%), and DP (FW: 2

  9. Policy Problematization

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  10. DIMINISHED FATIGUE AT REDUCED MUSCLE LENGTH IN HUMAN SKELETAL MUSCLE

    Lee, Samuel C. K.; Braim, Anthony; Becker, Cara N.; Prosser, Laura A.; Tokay, Ann M.; Binder-Macleod, Stuart A.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding muscle fatigue properties at different muscle lengths is essential to improve electrical stimulation applications in which impaired muscle is activated to produce function or to serve as an orthotic assist. This study examined the effects of muscle length on fatigue in human quadriceps muscle. Twelve healthy subjects were tested at short and long muscle lengths (15° and 90° of knee flexion, respectively) before and after a fatigue-producing protocol using low-, high-, and variab...

  11. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  12. Muscle contraction and force

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Risbo, Jens; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.;

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction studies often focus solely on myofibres and the proteins known to be involved in the processes of sarcomere shortening and cross-bridge cycling, but skeletal muscle also comprises a very elaborate ancillary network of capillaries, which not only play a vital role in terms of...

  13. SMOOTH MUSCLE STEM CELLS

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) originate from multiple types of progenitor cells. In the embryo, the most well-studied SMC progenitor is the cardiac neural crest stem cell. Smooth muscle differentiation in the neural crest lineage is controlled by a combination of cell intrinsic factors, includ...

  14. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency

    Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Echaniz-Laguna, A; Laforet, P; Lonsdorfer-Wolf, E; Doutreleau, S; Geny, B; Akman, H O; Dimauro, S; Vissing, J

    2012-01-01

    To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD).......To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)....

  15. Turning Marrow into Muscle

    2000-01-01

    @@ In unexpected testimony2 to the versatility3 of the body's cells,researchers have found they can make bone marrow cells turn into muscle, causing mice with muscular dystrophy4 to produce correctly working muscle cells. The experiment suggests that a form of bone marrow transplant- - a well established surgical procedure5- - could in principle treat patients with a variety of diseases.

  16. Muscle activity and hydrodynamic function of pelvic fins in trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Standen, E M

    2010-03-01

    Contrary to the previous premise that pelvic fins lacked obvious function, recent work on three-dimensional fin motions suggests that pelvic fins actively control stability and speed in slowly swimming trout. This study used electromyography to measure pelvic fin muscle activity and particle imaging velocimetry to quantify flow along the ventral body region to test this hypothesis. Fish swam at slow speeds (0.13-1.36 BL s(-1)) while being filmed with three high speed cameras. Three-dimensional kinematics were captured for all trials. During EMG trials pelvic fin muscle activity was synchronized to kinematic motion, during particle imaging velocimetry trials, a laser light-sheet was used to visualize the flow surrounding the ventral aspect of the fish. Four main conclusions are reached: first, pelvic fins are actively oscillated during slow-speed swimming; antagonistic abductor and adductor muscles contracted simultaneously, their collective action producing a unique contralateral oscillating behaviour in the fins. Second, pelvic fins slow the flow along the ventral side affecting pitch and yaw instabilities; flow upstream of the pelvic fins is slowed by 0.02 m s(-1) and flow downstream of the pelvic fins is slowed by 0.034 m s(-1) compared with free stream flow. Third, pelvic fin wake influences anal fin angle of attack; flow angle in the wake of the pelvic fin was 33.84+/-2.4 deg. (max) and -11.83+/-11.2 deg. (min) compared with the free stream flow angle of 1.27+/-0.1 deg. Fourth, pelvic fins appear to actively damp body oscillation during slow-speed swimming, providing drag to help control speed and stabilize the body position during slow-speed swimming. PMID:20154199

  17. Muscle Adaptations Following Short-Duration Bed Rest with Integrated Resistance, Interval, and Aerobic Exercise

    Hackney, Kyle J.; Scott, Jessica M.; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd-Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, J. Brent; Everett, Meghan E.; Wickwire, Jason; Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Unloading of the musculoskeletal system during space flight results in deconditioning that may impair mission-related task performance in astronauts. Exercise countermeasures have been frequently tested during bed rest (BR) and limb suspension; however, high-intensity, short-duration exercise prescriptions have not been fully explored. PURPOSE: To determine if a high intensity resistance, interval, and aerobic exercise program could protect against muscle atrophy and dysfunction when performed during short duration BR. METHODS: Nine subjects (1 female, 8 male) performed a combination of supine exercises during 2 weeks of horizontal BR. Resistance exercise (3 d / wk) consisted of squat, leg press, hamstring curl, and heel raise exercises (3 sets, 12 repetitions). Aerobic (6 d / wk) sessions alternated continuous (75% VO2 peak) and interval exercise (30 s, 2 min, and 4 min) and were completed on a supine cycle ergometer and vertical treadmill, respectively. Muscle volumes of the upper leg were calculated pre, mid, and post-BR using magnetic resonance imaging. Maximal isometric force (MIF), rate of force development (RFD), and peak power of the lower body extensors were measured twice before BR (averaged to represent pre) and once post BR. ANOVA with repeated measures and a priori planned contrasts were used to test for differences. RESULTS: There were no changes to quadriceps, hamstring, and adductor muscle volumes at mid and post BR time points compared to pre BR (Table 1). Peak power increased significantly from 1614 +/- 372 W to 1739 +/- 359 W post BR (+7.7%, p = 0.035). Neither MIF (pre: 1676 +/- 320 N vs. post: 1711 +/- 250 N, +2.1%, p = 0.333) nor RFD (pre: 7534 +/- 1265 N/ms vs. post: 6951 +/- 1241 N/ms, -7.7%, p = 0.136) were significantly impaired post BR.

  18. Enzymes and muscle diseases

    M. Plebani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle disorders may result in release of muscle enzymes into the circulation and give increased serum enzyme activity. A variety of enzymes routinely determined in the clinical laboratory may be elevated, but creatine kinase is the enzyme present in the highest concentration in muscle, and in every variety of muscle disease is the serum enzyme which shows the greatest incidence and degree of elevation. Aspartate aminotransferase is the enzyme associated most significantly with inflammation. A diagnostic algorithm based on the combined measurement of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase and aldolase has been found to discriminate muscular distrophies from polymyositis and other myopathies. This combination of laboratory tests has diagnostic application and thus allows the clinician to better select patients who need to have a skeletal muscle biopsy as a diagnostic procedure.

  19. Transfected muscle and non-muscle actins are differentially sorted by cultured smooth muscle and non-muscle cells

    Mounier, N.; Perriard, J. C.; Gabbiani, Giulio; Chaponnier, Christine

    1997-01-01

    We have analyzed by immunolabeling the fate of exogenous epitope-tagged actin isoforms introduced into cultured smooth muscle and non-muscle (i.e. endothelial and epithelial) cells by transfecting the corresponding cDNAs in transient expression assays. Exogenous muscle actins did not produce obvious shape changes in transfected cells. In smooth muscle cells, transfected striated and smooth muscle actins were preferentially recruited into stress fibers. In non-muscle cells, exogenous striated ...

  20. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  1. Slipped and lost extraocular muscles.

    Lenart, T D; Lambert, S R

    2001-09-01

    A slipped or lost muscle should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with a marked limitation of duction and inability to rotate the eye beyond the midline. Loss of a rectus muscle can occur after strabismus surgery, trauma, paranasal sinus surgery, orbital surgery, or retinal detachment surgery. The extraocular rectus muscle most frequently slipped or lost is the medial rectus muscle. Forced ductions, active force generation, saccadic velocity studies, differential intraocular pressure measurements, and orbital imaging studies may aid in identifying a slipped or lost muscle. However, no single diagnostic test provides absolute reliability for determining a lost muscle. Slipped muscles develop when the muscular capsule is imbricated without including the muscle or muscle tendon during strabismus surgery. When the capsule is reattached to the sclera, the tendon and muscle are then free to slip posteriorally from the site of attachment. Slipped muscles are retrieved by following the thin avascular muscle capsule posteriorally until the muscle is identified. A lost muscle can be found using a traditional conjunctival approach, by an external orbitotomy, or by an endoscopic transnasal approach. Although many diagnostic maneuvers are useful in identifying a lost rectus muscle, the oculocardiac reflex is the most important. Once the lost muscle is identified, the muscle should be imbricated with a nonabsorbable synthetic suture and securely reattached to the globe. PMID:11705143

  2. Legitimizing policies

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    2012-01-01

    , upholding and promoting humanitarian aspects of migration management. Legitimizing policies therefore become extremely important as governments have to appease national voters to remain in power and have to respect European regulations and international conventions. Doing so raises questions of social...... looks at how policy problematizations and constructions of target populations guide and legitimize particular policy approaches and may end up marginalizing and excluding groups in society and ultimately become a challenge for democracy....

  3. Polymer artificial muscles

    Tissaphern Mirfakhrai

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The various types of natural muscle are incredible material systems that enable the production of large deformations by repetitive molecular motions. Polymer artificial muscle technologies are being developed that produce similar strains and higher stresses using electrostatic forces, electrostriction, ion insertion, and molecular conformational changes. Materials used include elastomers, conducting polymers, ionically conducting polymers, and carbon nanotubes. The mechanisms, performance, and remaining challenges associated with these technologies are described. Initial applications are being developed, but further work by the materials community should help make these technologies applicable in a wide range of devices where muscle-like motion is desirable.

  4. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

      The connective tissue content of skeletal muscle is believed to be the major factor responsible for defining the eating quality of different meat cuts, although attempts to correlate quantifications based on traditional histological methods have not as yet been able to prove this relation...... systems of muscle have been visualized in their full complexity, including the ‘neglected' lymphatic capillaries at the level of the endomysium. These findings serve to remind us that muscle contraction is not only about force generation and transmission, but also about nutrient supply and waste removal...

  5. Monetary Policy and Economic Policy

    Iordachioaia Adelina-Geanina

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available There is widespread agreement that monetary policy matters,but there is disagreement about how it should be conducted. Behind this disagreement lie differences in theoretical understandings. The paper contrasts the New Classical, Neo-Keynesian, and Post-Keynesian frameworks, there by surfacing the differences. The New Classical model has policy only affecting long run inflation. The Neo-Keynesian has policy impacting inflation, unemployment, and real wages. The Post-Keynesian model also impacts growth, so policy implicitly picks a quadruple. Inflation targeting is a sub-optimal policy frame because it biases decisions toward low inflation by obscuring the fact that policy also affects unemployment, real wages, and growth.

  6. Muscle Fiber Types and Training.

    Karp, Jason R.

    2001-01-01

    The specific types of fibers that make up individual muscles greatly influence how people will adapt to their training programs. This paper explains the complexities of skeletal muscles, focusing on types of muscle fibers (slow-twitch and fast-twitch), recruitment of muscle fibers to perform a motor task, and determining fiber type. Implications…

  7. Muscle glycogenolysis during exercise

    Richter, Erik; Ruderman, N B; Gavras, H;

    1982-01-01

    muscle glycogenolysis during exercise: contractions principally stimulate glycogenolysis early in exercise, and a direct effect of epinephrine on muscle is needed for continued glycogenolysis. In addition, epinephrine increased oxygen consumption and glucose uptake in both resting and electrically......The interaction of epinephrine and contractions on muscle metabolism was studied in the isolated perfused rat hindquarter. Subtetanic contractions (180/min) through 20 min elicited glycogenolysis and increased phosphorylase a activity. In the soleus, a slow-twitch red muscle, these effects were...... transient, but when epinephrine at a physiological concentration (2.4 X 10(-8) M) was added to the perfusate, glycogenolysis and phosphorylase activity were sustained throughout contractions. At this high frequency of contractions, the effect of epinephrine was much smaller in the fast-twitch red fibers and...

  8. Neurogenic muscle cramps.

    Katzberg, Hans D

    2015-08-01

    Muscle cramps are sustained, painful contractions of muscle and are prevalent in patients with and without medical conditions. The objective of this review is to present updates on the mechanism, investigation and treatment of neurogenic muscle cramps. PubMed and Embase databases were queried between January 1980 and July 2014 for English-language human studies. The American Academy of Neurology classification of studies (classes I-IV) was used to assess levels of evidence. Mechanical disruption, ephaptic transmission, disruption of sensory afferents and persistent inward currents have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurogenic cramps. Investigations are directed toward identifying physiological triggers or medical conditions predisposing to cramps. Although cramps can be self-limiting, disabling or sustained muscle cramps should prompt investigation for underlying medical conditions. Lifestyle modifications, treatment of underlying conditions, stretching, B-complex vitamins, diltiezam, mexiletine, carbamazepine, tetrahydrocannabinoid, leveteracitam and quinine sulfate have shown evidence for treatment. PMID:25673127

  9. Muscle biopsy (image)

    A muscle biopsy involves removal of a plug of tissue usually by a needle to be later used for examination. Sometimes ... there is a patchy condition expected an open biopsy may be used. Open biopsy involves a small ...

  10. Muscles, exercise and obesity

    Pedersen, Bente K; Febbraio, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    . The finding that the muscle secretome consists of several hundred secreted peptides provides a conceptual basis and a whole new paradigm for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs, such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, bones and brain. However, some myokines exert their effects within...... L cells and pancreatic islets. Other myokines include the osteogenic factors IGF-1 and FGF-2; FSTL-1, which improves the endothelial function of the vascular system; and the PGC-1a-dependent myokine irisin, which drives brown-fat-like development. Studies in the past few years suggest the existence...... of yet unidentified factors, secreted from muscle cells, which may influence cancer cell growth and pancreas function. Many proteins produced by skeletal muscle are dependent upon contraction; therefore, physical inactivity probably leads to an altered myokine response, which could provide a potential...

  11. Muscles and their myokines

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2011-01-01

    that a physically active life plays an independent role in the protection against type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, dementia and even depression. For most of the last century, researchers sought a link between muscle contraction and humoral changes in the form of an 'exercise factor......, which work in a hormone-like fashion, exerting specific endocrine effects on other organs. Other myokines work via paracrine mechanisms, exerting local effects on signalling pathways involved in muscle metabolism. It has been suggested that myokines may contribute to exercise-induced protection against......', which could be released from skeletal muscle during contraction and mediate some of the exercise-induced metabolic changes in other organs such as the liver and the adipose tissue. We have suggested that cytokines or other peptides that are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibres and exert...

  12. Monetary Policy and Economic Policy

    Iordachioaia Adelina-Geanina

    2011-01-01

    There is widespread agreement that monetary policy matters,but there is disagreement about how it should be conducted. Behind this disagreement lie differences in theoretical understandings. The paper contrasts the New Classical, Neo-Keynesian, and Post-Keynesian frameworks, there by surfacing the differences. The New Classical model has policy only affecting long run inflation. The Neo-Keynesian has policy impacting inflation, unemployment, and real wages. The Post-Keynesian model also impac...

  13. Loss of muscle performance in seniors: changes to the dynamic muscle structure and muscle gearing

    Randhawa, Avleen

    2012-01-01

    Muscle structure changes with ageing in a manner that can alter its contractile mechanics, resulting in a reduction in strength and mobility. Fascicles within a muscle can shorten at slower velocities than the muscle belly, in a process known as belly gearing. Belly gearing allows the fascicles to produce a greater force when they contract. However, it may be compromised when we age. The gastrocnemii muscles in the calf were imaged in young adults and seniors using ultrasound. Their muscle st...

  14. PDH regulation in skeletal muscle

    Kiilerich, Kristian

    state is determined by the overall content / activity of the regulatory proteins PDH kinase (PDK), of which there are 4 isoforms, and PDH phosphatase (PDP), of which there are 2 isoforms. The overall aim of the PhD project was to elucidate 4 issues. 1: Role of muscle type in resting and exercise......-induced PDH regulation in human skeletal muscle. 2: Effect of muscle glycogen on PDH regulation in human skeletal muscle at rest and during exercise. 3: The impact of physical inactivity on PDH regulation in human skeletal muscle at rest and during exercise. 4: Elucidating the importance of PGC-1? in PDH...... regulation in mouse skeletal muscle at rest and in response to fasting and during recovery from exercise. The studies indicate that the content of PDH-E1? in human muscle follows the metabolic profile of the muscle, rather than the myosin heavy chain fiber distribution of the muscle. The larger lactate...

  15. Muscle as a secretory organ

    Pedersen, Bente K

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. Skeletal muscles are primarily characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing, which depends on muscle fiber contractions. However, skeletal muscle is not just a component in our locomotor system. Recent...... evidence has identified skeletal muscle as a secretory organ. We have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed, and released by muscle fibers and exert either autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine effects should be classified as "myokines." The muscle secretome consists of...... several hundred secreted peptides. This finding provides a conceptual basis and a whole new paradigm for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, bones, and brain. In addition, several myokines exert their effects within the muscle itself. Many...

  16. Privacy Policy

    ... Home → NLM Privacy Policy URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/privacy.html NLM ... out of cookies in the most popular browsers, http://www.usa.gov/optout_instructions.shtml. Please note ...

  17. Payout Policy

    Joan Farre-Mensa; Roni Michaely; Martin Schmalz

    2014-01-01

    We survey the literature on payout policy, with a particular emphasis on developments in the past two decades. The cross-sectional empirical evidence for the traditional motivations behind firms paying out (agency, signaling, and taxes) is most persuasive with regard to agency considerations. Studies centered on the May 2003 dividend tax cut confirm that differences in the taxation of dividends and capital gains have only a second-order impact on setting payout policy. None of the three tradi...

  18. Language Policy

    Simmonds, Michael; Kjeldergaard, Nadja; Hagstrøm, Jeppe; Møller, Tina; Nielsen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the methods and effects of a monolingual language policy stipulated at the International Bachelor Study Programme in Social Science at Roskilde University. The report is centered around the data collected through recordings of group meetings with two project groups from the aforementioned study, as well as two qualitative interviews with one member of each group. The analytical theoretical framework utilised in the study consists of Bernard Spolsky’s Language Policy th...

  19. The 6-minute walk test, motor function measure and quantitative thigh muscle MRI in Becker muscular dystrophy: A cross-sectional study.

    Fischer, Dirk; Hafner, Patricia; Rubino, Daniela; Schmid, Maurice; Neuhaus, Cornelia; Jung, Hans; Bieri, Oliver; Haas, Tanja; Gloor, Monika; Fischmann, Arne; Bonati, Ulrike

    2016-07-01

    Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) has an incidence of 1 in 16 000 male births. This cross-sectional study investigated the relation between validated functional scores and quantitative MRI (qMRI) of thigh muscles in 20 ambulatory BMD patients, aged 18.3-60 years (mean 31.2; SD 11.1). Clinical assessments included the motor function measure (MFM) and its subscales, as well as timed function tests such as the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and the timed 10-m run/walk test. Quantitative MRI of the thigh muscles included the mean fat fraction (MFF) using a 2-point Dixon (2-PD) technique, and transverse relaxation time (T2) measurements. The mean MFM value was 80.4%, SD 9.44 and the D1 subscore 54.5%, SD 19.9. The median 6MWT was 195m, IQR 160-330.2. The median 10-m run/walk test was 7.4 seconds, IQR 6.1-9.3. The mean fat fraction of the thigh muscles was 55.6%, SD 17.4%, mean T2 relaxation times of all muscles: 69.9 ms, SD 14.4. The flexors had the highest MFF and T2 relaxation times, followed by the extensors and the adductors. MFF and global T2 relaxation times were highly negatively correlated with the MFM total, D1-subscore and 6MWT, and positively correlated with the 10 m run/walk test time (p < 0.01). Age was not correlated with MFF, global T2 relaxation time or clinical assessments. Both MFF and T2 measures in the thigh muscle were well correlated with clinical function in BMD and may serve as a surrogate outcome measure in clinical trials. PMID:27209345

  20. Rectus abdominis muscle endometriosis

    Endometriosis is characterized by an abnormal existence of functional endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, typically occuring within the pelvis of women in reproductive age. We report two cases with endometriosis of the abdominal wall; the first one in the rectus abdominis muscle and the second one in the surgical scar of previous caesarean incision along with the rectus abdominis muscle. Pre-operative evaluation included magnetic resonance imaging. The masses were dissected free from the surrounding tissue and excised with clear margins. Diagnosis of the excised lesions were verified by histopathology. (author)

  1. [Muscle-skeletal pain].

    Vygonskaya, M V; Filatova, E G

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the most complicated aspects of low back pain. The differences between specific and nonspecific low back pain using the "red flags" system is highlighted. The authors consider the causes of pain chronification (the "yellow flags" system) and the necessity of using a biopsychosocial model. Main pathogenetic mechanisms of chronic muscle/skeletal pain are considered and the possible involvement of several mechanism in the pathogenesis of chronic pain as well as the use of complex therapy is discussed. The high efficacy and safety of ketorolac in treatment of nonspecific muscle/skeletal pain is demonstrated. PMID:27042717

  2. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    Borras, Susana

    During the past two decades Europe has experienced important changes and transformations in the way in which governments approach the issue of science, technology and innovation, and their relation to economic growth and competitiveness. This has to do with the European Union level as well...... as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  3. Absence of scalenus anterior muscle.

    Murakami S

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A rare anomaly of the scalenus muscles is described. In this case, the right scalenus anterior muscle was absent. As a substitute for this muscle, some aberrant muscle slips arose from the lower vertebrae and descended in front of the ventral rami of the lower cervical nerves. These aberrant slips then ran between the ventral rami of the the eighth cervical and first thoracic nerves, and were fused with the right scalenus medius muscle. Thus, the subclavian artery and vein ran in front of the aberrant slips, together with the ventral ramus of the first thoracic nerve. The aberrant muscle slips issued 2 accessory bundles. One bundle ran between the ventral rami of the fourth and fifth cervical nerves and was fused with the scalenus medius muscle; the other bundle ran between the ventral rami of the fifth and sixth cervical nerves and was fused with the scalenus medius muscle.

  4. Eye muscle repair - series (image)

    ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ... The extraocular muscles of the eye (external to the eyeball) control the positioning of the eyes. They coordinate of the eye ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: rippling muscle disease

    ... sudden impact on the muscle causes it to bunch up (percussion-induced muscle mounding) or exhibit repetitive ... potentials in the tubular system of skeletal muscle fibers. Muscle Nerve. 2005 May;31(5):652-8. ...

  6. Muscle function loss

    ... nerve injury, or brain damage ( stroke or other brain injury) The loss of muscle function after these types of events can be severe. Often it will not completely return, even with treatment. Paralysis can be temporary or permanent. It can affect ...

  7. Policy stories

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard

    This article uses Arctic Winter 2016 as an exploration site of values and futures in Greenland. By taking a valuation approach where the creation and interpretation of event values are seen as an ongoing and taxing accomplishment, we firstly expand the understanding of events beyond their actual...... present three central policy stories from the field. The stories tell of how the event was first interested, then activated and finally evaluated. Besides adding a new understanding to policy-driven events as a locus of value creation, we also argue that the AWG 2016 offer speculative bets for new...... planning and execution and of event outcomes beyond the narrow confines of bed nights and legacies. Second, we introduce policies as an entry point to unlock discussions and manifestations of value and futures which connect to AWG. In order to exemplify the workings of the AWG event in these domains, we...

  8. Skeletal muscle regulatory factors with alterations in muscle mass

    Litt Miller, Jennifer Michele

    2007-01-01

    Given that maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is essential for overall health, functionality and quality of life, it is critical to elucidate the fundamental mechanisms underlying the maintenance of muscle mass which likely vary as a function of muscle status (i.e. healthy or diseased). This thesis examined key skeletal muscle regulatory factors (smRF’s) that are known to affect skeletal muscle mass, including components of the PI3K/Akt and MAPK(ERK) pathways, calcineurin, the myogenic regul...

  9. The cleidosternohyoid: a fifth infrahyoid muscle?

    Wu B; Bluth BE; Stark ME; Wisco JJ

    2010-01-01

    We describe a cleidosternohyoid muscle found bilaterally during routine dissection of a cadaver (92 year-old male of Irish descent). On the right side, the muscle originated from the clavicle with a cleidohyoid muscle. On the left side, the muscle originated from the clavicle and accompanied the inferior belly of an omohyoid muscle. On both sides the muscle inserted into the sternohyoid muscle. Since the muscle variant courses with a cleidohyoid on the right and the inferior belly of an omohy...

  10. Stem cells for skeletal muscle repair

    Shadrach, Jennifer L.; Wagers, Amy J.

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a highly specialized tissue composed of non-dividing, multi-nucleated muscle fibres that contract to generate force in a controlled and directed manner. Skeletal muscle is formed during embryogenesis from a subset of muscle precursor cells, which generate both differentiated muscle fibres and specialized muscle-forming stem cells known as satellite cells. Satellite cells remain associated with muscle fibres after birth and are responsible for muscle growth and repair throug...

  11. Population policy.

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  12. Dividend Policy

    Arpita Maheshkumar Patel

    2013-01-01

    Dividend policy is concerned with financial policies regarding paying cash dividend in the present or paying an increased dividend at a later stage. Whether to issue dividends, and what amount, is determined mainly on the basis of the company's unappropriated profit (excess cash) and influenced by the company's long-term earning power. When cash surplus exists and is not needed by the firm, then management is expected to pay out some or all of those surplus earnings in the form of cash divide...

  13. CEP energy policy : Policy 917

    Some of the environmental challenges facing the world in the twenty-first century are energy and global warming. Vital human needs such as warmth, light and transportation require energy, which is also required in the production of goods. Absent from the debate concerning the energy industry and its efforts to stop climate change is the voice of energy workers. Previous policies from the Communications, Energy and Paperworkers Union of Canada (CEP) were replaced by this policy document. After providing a brief introduction, the document tackled global challenge: climate change. The following section dealt with global challenge: corporate rule. Canada's energy industries were examined from the workers' perspective, and the state of Canada's energy reserves was discussed. From national policies to national betrayal was the title of the following section of the document. Energy de-regulation and privatization was discussed, and an argument was made for a Canadian energy policy. The industrial policy was explored, as was the environment. A transition to sustainability was examined. refs

  14. Telecommunication Policy

    Khajeheian, Datis

    2016-01-01

    emphasis on “Policy” instead of “Regulation” is preferred. While in regulation we need to be precise in details, policy, with scenario planning, can help to set norms such as around competition, infrastructure, content, privacy, security and governance. Such approach keeps the door open for innovation and...

  15. Absence of scalenus anterior muscle.

    Murakami S; Horiuchi K; Yamamoto C; Ohtsuka A; Murakami T.

    2003-01-01

    A rare anomaly of the scalenus muscles is described. In this case, the right scalenus anterior muscle was absent. As a substitute for this muscle, some aberrant muscle slips arose from the lower vertebrae and descended in front of the ventral rami of the lower cervical nerves. These aberrant slips then ran between the ventral rami of the the eighth cervical and first thoracic nerves, and were fused with the right scalenus medius muscle. Thus, the subclavian artery and vein ran in front of the...

  16. Skeletal muscle adaptations and muscle genomics of performance horses.

    Rivero, José-Luis L; Hill, Emmeline W

    2016-03-01

    Skeletal muscles in horses are characterised by specific adaptations, which are the result of the natural evolution of the horse as a grazing animal, centuries of selective breeding and the adaptability of this tissue in response to training. These adaptations include an increased muscle mass relative to body weight, a great locomotor efficiency based upon an admirable muscle-tendon architectural design and an adaptable fibre-type composition with intrinsic shortening velocities greater than would be predicted from an animal of comparable body size. Furthermore, equine skeletal muscles have a high mitochondrial volume that permits a higher whole animal aerobic capacity, as well as large intramuscular stores of energy substrates (glycogen in particular). Finally, high buffer and lactate transport capacities preserve muscles against fatigue during anaerobic exercise. Many of these adaptations can improve with training. The publication of the equine genome sequence in 2009 has provided a major advance towards an improved understanding of equine muscle physiology. Equine muscle genomics studies have revealed a number of genes associated with elite physical performance and have also identified changes in structural and metabolic genes following exercise and training. Genes involved in muscle growth, muscle contraction and specific metabolic pathways have been found to be functionally relevant for the early performance evaluation of elite athletic horses. The candidate genes discussed in this review are important for a healthy individual to improve performance. However, muscle performance limiting conditions are widespread in horses and many of these conditions are also genetically influenced. PMID:26831154

  17. Effects of low-level laser therapy on performance, inflammatory markers, and muscle damage in young water polo athletes: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; de Paula Ramos, Solange; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; de Lira, Fábio Santos; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Álvaro Brandão; de Paiva Carvalho, Rodrigo Leal

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of 5 days of 810-nm low-level laser therapy (LLLT) intervention on inflammatory and muscle damage markers and performance in young water polo players. Twenty young male water polo players participated in the study, which was designed as a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Active LLLT or an identical placebo LLLT were delivered to eight points on the adductor muscle region immediately after each training day. Performance was measured by a 200-m maximal swimming (P200) and a 30-s crossbar jump test (30CJ) which was performed every day before training, and blood samples were drawn pre and post the final LLLT intervention to measure interleukins (IL) and muscle damage markers. There was no significant change in the P200 exercise in the LLLT group compared with the placebo group but there was a moderate improvement in the 30CJ (8.7 ± 2.6 %). IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-alpha presented increased (P LLLT intervention compared to pre, 0, and 24 h, but did not differ between groups. IL-10 increased over time in the placebo group and reached a moderate effect compared to the LLLT group. The creatine kinase decreased significantly (P = 0.049) over the time within the LLLT treatment group, but there was no significant change in lactate dehydrogenase (P = 0.150). In conclusion, LLLT resulted in a non-significant, but small to moderate effect on inflammatory and muscle damage markers and a moderate effect on performance in water polo players. In addition, the lack of positive results could be due to the small area covered by irradiation and this should be considered in future studies. PMID:26873498

  18. Mentalis muscle related reflexes.

    Gündüz, Ayşegül; Uyanık, Özlem; Ertürk, Özdem; Sohtaoğlu, Melis; Kızıltan, Meral Erdemir

    2016-05-01

    The mentalis muscle (MM) arises from the incisive fossa of the mandible, raises and protrudes the lower lip. Here, we aim to characterize responses obtained from MM by supraorbital and median electrical as well as auditory stimuli in a group of 16 healthy volunteers who did not have clinical palmomental reflex. Reflex activities were recorded from the MM and orbicularis oculi (O.oc) after supraorbital and median electrical as well as auditory stimuli. Response rates over MM were consistent after each stimulus, however, mean latencies of MM response were longer than O.oc responses by all stimulation modalities. Shapes and amplitudes of responses from O.oc and MM were similar. Based on our findings, we may say that MM motoneurons have connections with trigeminal, vestibulocochlear and lemniscal pathways similar to other facial muscles and electrophysiological recording of MM responses after electrical and auditory stimulation is possible in healthy subjects. PMID:26721248

  19. Muscle Motion Solenoid Actuator

    Obata, Shuji

    It is one of our dreams to mechanically recover the lost body for damaged humans. Realistic humanoid robots composed of such machines require muscle motion actuators controlled by all pulling actions. Particularly, antagonistic pairs of bi-articular muscles are very important in animal's motions. A system of actuators is proposed using the electromagnetic force of the solenoids with the abilities of the stroke length over 10 cm and the strength about 20 N, which are needed to move the real human arm. The devised actuators are based on developments of recent modern electro-magnetic materials, where old time materials can not give such possibility. Composite actuators are controlled by a high ability computer and software making genuine motions.

  20. Dismorfia muscular Muscle dysmorphia

    Sheila Seleri Marques Assunção

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Preocupações mórbidas com a imagem corporal eram tidas até recentemente como problemas eminentemente femininos. Atualmente estas preocupações também têm sido encontradas no sexo masculino. A dismorfia muscular é um subtipo do transtorno dismórfico corporal que ocorre principalmente em homens que, apesar da grande hipertrofia muscular, consideram-se pequenos e fracos. Além de estar associada a prejuízos sociais, ocupacionais, recreativos e em outras áreas do funcionamento do indivíduo, a dismorfia muscular é também um fator de risco para o abuso de esteróides anabolizantes. Este artigo aborda aspectos epidemiológicos, etiológicos e padrões clínicos da dismorfia muscular, além de tecer comentários sobre estratégias de tratamento para este transtorno.Morbid concern over body image was considered, until recently, a female issue. Nowadays, it has been viewed as a common male disorder. Muscle dysmorphia, a subtype of a body dysmorphic disorder, affects men who, despite having clear muscular hypertroph,y see themselves as frail and small. Besides being associated to major social, leisure and occupational dysfunction, muscle dysmorphia is also a risk factor for the abuse of steroids. This article describes epidemiological, etiological and clinical characteristics of muscle dysmorphia and comments on its treatment strategy.

  1. Influência da pedalada com os joelhos tangenciando o quadro da bicicleta sobre a ativação dos músculos do membro inferior Effects of cycling with the knees close to the bicycle frame on the lower limb muscle activation

    Rodrigo Rico Bini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A mudança da posição do corpo sobre a bicicleta tem sido relacionada a alterações na ativação dos músculos do membro inferior. Desta forma, o objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar a ativação dos músculos "Tibialis Anterior", "Gastrocnemius Medialis", "Biceps Femoris", "Rectus Femoris", "Vastus Lateralis", "Adductor Longus" e "Gluteus Maximus" nas seguintes situações: 1 posição de referência (posição preferida; 2 posição de adução (joelhos tangenciando o quadro da bicicleta; 3 posição de abdução (joelhos afastados do quadro da bicicleta. Seis atletas com experiência competitiva em ciclismo foram avaliados por meio da eletromiografia de superfície (EMG. Todos pedalaram em suas próprias bicicletas montadas em um ciclosimulador, com carga de trabalho normalizada pelo VO2 de forma que a taxa de troca respiratória se mantivesse entre 0,8 e 1,0. A ativação muscular foi analisada por meio da comparação da média do envelope RMS e do período de ativação para cada um dos músculos, nas três posições avaliadas. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas para a média do envelope RMS e para o período de ativação dos músculos nas três posições avaliadas, à exceção do "Adductor Longus". Observou-se maior ativação (36 ± 6% deste músculo na posição de adução comparado a posição de abdução (25 ± 11% para um valor de significância de p = 0,02, sem diferenças em relação a posição de referência (27 ± 7%. Estes resultados sugerem que não ocorrem alterações substanciais na ativação dos principais músculos do membro inferior quando a posição dos joelhos no plano frontal é alterada e a carga de trabalho é mantida, à exceção do aumento da participação do "Adductor Longus".Cyclist's body position on the bike has been related to changes in muscle activation. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the activation of Tibialis Anterior, Gastrocnemius Medialis, Biceps

  2. Language Policy

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues that...... instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts.......Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues that...

  3. Energy policy

    Gasoline consumption by passenger cars and light trucks is a major source of air pollution. It also adds to the economy's dependence on petroleum and vulnerability to oil price shocks. Despite these environmental and other costs, called external cost, the price of gasoline, adjusted for inflation, has generally been declining since 1985, encouraging increased consumption. This paper reports that with these concerns in mind, the Chairman, Subcommittee on Environment, House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, requested that GAO assess policy options for addressing the external costs of gasoline consumption. To do this, GAO identified six major policy options and evaluated whether they addressed several relevant objectives, including economic growth, environmental quality, equity, petroleum conservation, visibility of costs, energy security, traffic congestion, competitiveness, and administrative feasibility

  4. Advertisement Policy

    Chief Editor

    2014-01-01

    Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH), the official publication of Indian Association of Preventive and Social Medicine (IAPSM) published from Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, India is an indexed journal published quarterly. The open access policy of the journals ensure good visibility of the online content of the journals. The journal with high circulation and visibility, thus offer excellent media for promotion of your products, services or conferences through advertisement. The journal h...

  5. Internet Policy

    Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

    The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

  6. Sildenafil increases muscle protein synthesis and reduces muscle fatigue

    SHEFFIELD-MOORE, M.; Wiktorowicz, J E; Soman, K V; Danesi, C.P.; Kinsky, M.P.; Dillon, E.L.; Randolph, K.M.; Casperson, S.L.; Gore, D.C.; Horstman, A.M.; Lynch, J. P.; Doucet, B.M.; Mettler, J.; Ryder, J W; Ploutz-Snyder, L.L.

    2013-01-01

    Reductions in skeletal muscle function occur during the course of healthy aging as well as with bedrest or diverse diseases such as cancer, muscular dystrophy, and heart failure. However, there are no accepted pharmacologic therapies to improve impaired skeletal muscle function. Nitric oxide may influence skeletal muscle function through effects on excitation-contraction coupling, myofibrillar function, perfusion, and metabolism. Here we show that augmentation of nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine...

  7. Reduced Muscle Glycogen Differentially Affects Exercise Performance and Muscle Fatigue

    Simon Lees; Williams, Jay H; Batts, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the effects of reduced muscle glycogen on exercise performance and muscle fatigue. Male rats were assigned to a low glycogen group (LG) that participated in a protocol of exercise and fasting, a high glycogen group (HG) that exercised but were allowed free access to food, or control group (CON) that did not exercise but were allowed free access to food. Following the protocol, muscle glycogen content of the LG animals was reduced by 45%. The LG animals also perform...

  8. Painful Unilateral Temporalis Muscle Enlargement: Reactive Masticatory Muscle Hypertrophy

    Katsetos, Christos D.; Bianchi, Michael A.; Jaffery, Fizza; Koutzaki, Sirma; Zarella, Mark; Slater, Robert

    2013-01-01

    An instance of isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy (reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy with fiber type 1 predominance) confirmed by muscle biopsy with histochemical fiber typing and image analysis in a 62 year-old man is reported. The patient presented with bruxism and a painful swelling of the temple. Absence of asymmetry or other abnormalities of the craniofacial skeleton was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and cephalometric analyses. The patient achieved symptoma...

  9. Muscle-specific microRNAs in skeletal muscle development.

    Horak, Martin; Novak, Jan; Bienertova-Vasku, Julie

    2016-02-01

    Proper muscle function constitutes a precondition for good heath and an active lifestyle during an individual's lifespan and any deviations from normal skeletal muscle development and its functions may lead to numerous health conditions including e.g. myopathies and increased mortality. It is thus not surprising that there is an increasing need for understanding skeletal muscle developmental processes and the associated molecular pathways, especially as such information could find further uses in therapy. The understanding of complex skeletal muscle developmental networks was broadened with the discovery of microRNA (miRNA) molecules. MicroRNAs are evolutionary conserved small non-coding RNAs capable of negatively regulating gene expression on a post-transcriptional level by means of miRNA-mRNA interaction. Several miRNAs expressed exclusively in muscle have been labeled myomiRs. MyomiRs represent an integral part of skeletal muscle development, i.e. playing a significant role during skeletal muscle proliferation, differentiation and regeneration. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of current knowledge regarding the involvement of myomiRs in the individual phases of myogenesis and other aspects of skeletal muscle biology, along with an up-to-date list of myomiR target genes and their functions in skeletal muscle and miRNA-related therapeutic approaches and future prospects. PMID:26708096

  10. Muscle strength in myasthenia gravis

    Cejvanovic, S; Vissing, J

    2014-01-01

    related to disease duration or gender. The aim of this study was to quantify the strength of patients with MG and investigate whether it is related to disease duration. METHODS: Eight muscle groups were tested by manual muscle testing and with a hand-held dynamometer in 38 patients with generalized MG and...... 37 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. The disease duration was recorded and compared with strength measures. RESULTS: On average, muscle strength was decreased by 28% compared with controls (P<0.01). Repeated strength measures in individual patients did not differ, suggesting that the muscle...... force reported was not subject to fatigue, but reflected fixed weakness. The male patients showed a greater reduction in muscle force in all eight muscle groups than women with MG (60% vs 77% of normal, P<0.05). In both men and women with MG, strength in shoulder abductors was most affected (51% vs 62...

  11. Industrial policy for growth

    Farla, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    This study distinguishes between industrial policy that stimulates incumbent industry development, `pro-business policy', and industrial policy that promotes the development of free markets, `pro-market policy'. We find that there is a positive relation between the level of countries' implementation of these policies. However, we find opposite effects of pro-business and pro-market policies when estimating the policy effect on growth and income level. Pro-business policy has a positive effect...

  12. : AMPK and skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    Mounier, Rémi; Lantier, Louise; Leclerc, Jocelyne; Sotiropoulos, Athanassia; Pende, Mario; Daegelen, Dominique; Sakamoto, Kei; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit

    2009-01-01

    10 pages; 6 figures; 49 références bibliographiques International audience Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibits protein synthesis through the suppression of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a critical regulator of muscle growth. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the role of the AMPKalpha1 catalytic subunit on muscle cell size control and adaptation to muscle hypertrophy. We found that AMPKalpha1(-/-) primary cultured myotubes a...

  13. Smooth muscle strips for intestinal tissue engineering.

    Christopher M Walthers

    Full Text Available Functionally contracting smooth muscle is an essential part of the engineered intestine that has not been replicated in vitro. The purpose of this study is to produce contracting smooth muscle in culture by maintaining the native smooth muscle organization. We employed intact smooth muscle strips and compared them to dissociated smooth muscle cells in culture for 14 days. Cells isolated by enzymatic digestion quickly lost maturity markers for smooth muscle cells and contained few enteric neural and glial cells. Cultured smooth muscle strips exhibited periodic contraction and maintained neural and glial markers. Smooth muscle strips cultured for 14 days also exhibited regular fluctuation of intracellular calcium, whereas cultured smooth muscle cells did not. After implantation in omentum for 14 days on polycaprolactone scaffolds, smooth muscle strip constructs expressed high levels of smooth muscle maturity markers as well as enteric neural and glial cells. Intact smooth muscle strips may be a useful component for engineered intestinal smooth muscle.

  14. Hyperammonemia results in reduced muscle function independent of muscle mass.

    McDaniel, John; Davuluri, Gangarao; Hill, Elizabeth Ann; Moyer, Michelle; Runkana, Ashok; Prayson, Richard; van Lunteren, Erik; Dasarathy, Srinivasan

    2016-02-01

    The mechanism of the nearly universal decreased muscle strength in cirrhosis is not known. We evaluated whether hyperammonemia in cirrhosis causes contractile dysfunction independent of reduced skeletal muscle mass. Maximum grip strength and muscle fatigue response were determined in cirrhotic patients and controls. Blood and muscle ammonia concentrations and grip strength normalized to lean body mass were measured in the portacaval anastomosis (PCA) and sham-operated pair-fed control rats (n = 5 each). Ex vivo contractile studies in the soleus muscle from a separate group of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 7) were performed. Skeletal muscle force of contraction, rate of force development, and rate of relaxation were measured. Muscles were also subjected to a series of pulse trains at a range of stimulation frequencies from 20 to 110 Hz. Cirrhotic patients had lower maximum grip strength and greater muscle fatigue than control subjects. PCA rats had a 52.7 ± 13% lower normalized grip strength compared with control rats, and grip strength correlated with the blood and muscle ammonia concentrations (r(2) = 0.82). In ex vivo muscle preparations following a single pulse, the maximal force, rate of force development, and rate of relaxation were 12.1 ± 3.5 g vs. 6.2 ± 2.1 g; 398.2 ± 100.4 g/s vs. 163.8 ± 97.4 g/s; -101.2 ± 22.2 g/s vs. -33.6 ± 22.3 g/s in ammonia-treated compared with control muscle preparation, respectively (P therapeutic target in cirrhotic patients. PMID:26635319

  15. Muscle regeneration in mitochondrial myopathies

    Krag, T O; Hauerslev, S; Jeppesen, T D;

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial myopathies cover a diverse group of disorders in which ragged red and COX-negative fibers are common findings on muscle morphology. In contrast, muscle degeneration and regeneration, typically found in muscular dystrophies, are not considered characteristic features of mitochondrial...... myopathies. We investigated regeneration in muscle biopsies from 61 genetically well-defined patients affected by mitochondrial myopathy. Our results show that the perturbed energy metabolism in mitochondrial myopathies causes ongoing muscle regeneration in a majority of patients, and some were even affected...

  16. Lipoxygenase in chicken muscle

    The presence of lipoxygenase-type enzymes was demonstrated in chick muscles. Examination of the oxidation products of [14C]arachidonic acid revealed the presence of 15-lipoxygenase. The enzyme was partially purified by affinity chromatography on linoleoyl-aminoethyl-Sepharose. The enzyme was stable on frozen storage, and activity was almost completely preserved after 12-month storage at -20 degree C. During this period the content of cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene fatty acids decreased slightly. It is suggested that lipoxygenase may be responsible for some of the oxidative changes occurring in fatty acids on frozen storage of chicken meat

  17. Telecommunication Policy

    Khajeheian, Datis

    2016-01-01

    This article is a response to the call of the Energy and Commerce Committee for Communications Act Update, and implies that setting a regulation which may prevent the free movement of market players for proposition of new value. As It is almost impossible to understand the future requirements of...... the market, therefore the emphasis on “Policy” instead of “Regulation” is preferred. While in regulation we need to be precise in details, policy, with scenario planning, can help to set norms such as around competition, infrastructure, content, privacy, security and governance. Such approach keeps...

  18. Advertisement Policy

    Chief Editor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH, the official publication of Indian Association of Preventive and Social Medicine (IAPSM published from Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, India is an indexed journal published quarterly. The open access policy of the journals ensure good visibility of the online content of the journals. The journal with high circulation and visibility, thus offer excellent media for promotion of your products, services or conferences through advertisement. The journal has the potential to deliver the message to the targeted audience regularly with each issue. The cost of investment per view is substantially low for our print as well as electronic journals.

  19. Modelling functional effects of muscle geometry

    Linden, van der B.J.J.J.; Koopman, H.F.J.M.; Grootenboer, H.J.; Huijing, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    Muscle architecture is an important aspect of muscle functioning. Hence, geometry and material properties of muscle have great influence on the force–length characteristics of muscle. We compared experimental results for the gastrocnemius medialis muscle (GM) of the rat to model results of simple ge

  20. Myogenin Regulates Denervation-Dependent Muscle Atrophy in Mouse Soleus Muscle

    Macpherson, Peter C. D.; Wang, Xun; Goldman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Muscle inactivity due to injury or disease results in muscle atrophy. The molecular mechanisms contributing to muscle atrophy are poorly understood. However, it is clear that expression of atrophy-related genes, like Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, are intimately tied to loss of muscle mass. When these atrophy-related genes are knocked out, inactive muscles retain mass. Muscle denervation stimulates muscle atrophy and Myogenin (Myog) is a muscle-specific transcription factor that is highly induced foll...

  1. The interscutularis muscle connectome.

    Ju Lu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The complete connectional map (connectome of a neural circuit is essential for understanding its structure and function. Such maps have only been obtained in Caenorhabditis elegans. As an attempt at solving mammalian circuits, we reconstructed the connectomes of six interscutularis muscles from adult transgenic mice expressing fluorescent proteins in all motor axons. The reconstruction revealed several organizational principles of the neuromuscular circuit. First, the connectomes demonstrate the anatomical basis of the graded tensions in the size principle. Second, they reveal a robust quantitative relationship between axonal caliber, length, and synapse number. Third, they permit a direct comparison of the same neuron on the left and right sides of the same vertebrate animal, and reveal significant structural variations among such neurons, which contrast with the stereotypy of identified neurons in invertebrates. Finally, the wiring length of axons is often longer than necessary, contrary to the widely held view that neural wiring length should be minimized. These results show that mammalian muscle function is implemented with a variety of wiring diagrams that share certain global features but differ substantially in anatomical form. This variability may arise from the dominant role of synaptic competition in establishing the final circuit.

  2. Dividend Policy

    Arpita Maheshkumar Patel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dividend policy is concerned with financial policies regarding paying cash dividend in the present or paying an increased dividend at a later stage. Whether to issue dividends, and what amount, is determined mainly on the basis of the company's unappropriated profit (excess cash and influenced by the company's long-term earning power. When cash surplus exists and is not needed by the firm, then management is expected to pay out some or all of those surplus earnings in the form of cash dividends or to repurchase the company's stock through a share buyback program.If there are no NPV positive opportunities, i.e. projects where returns exceed the hurdle rate, and excess cash surplus is not needed, then – finance theory suggests – management should return some or all of the excess cash to shareholders as dividends. This is the general case, however there are exceptions. For example, shareholders of a "growth stock", expect that the company will, almost by definition, retain most of the excess earnings so as to fund future growth internally. By withholding current dividend payments to shareholders, managers of growth companies are hoping that dividend payments will be increased proportionality higher in the future, to offset the retainment of current earnings and the internal financing of present investment projects.Management must also choose the form of the dividend distribution, generally as cash dividends or via a share buyback. Various factors may be taken into consideration: where shareholders must pay tax on dividends, firms may elect to retain earnings or to perform a stock buyback, in both cases increasing the value of shares outstanding. Alternatively, some companies will pay "dividends" from stock rather than in cash; see Corporate action. Financial theory suggests that the dividend policy should be set based upon the type of company and what management determines is the best use of those dividend resources for the firm to its

  3. Muscle GLUT4 in cirrhosis

    Holland-Fischer, Peter; Andersen, Per Heden; Lund, Sten; Pedersen, Steen Bønnelykke; Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Nielsen, Michael F; Kaal, Andreas; Dall, Rolf; Schmitz, Ole; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2007-01-01

    test and later a muscle biopsy. Levels of GLUT4 total protein and mRNA content were determined in muscle biopsies by polyclonal antibody labelling and RT-PCR, respectively. RESULTS: GLUT4 protein content in the cirrhosis group was not different from that of the controls, but at variance with the...

  4. Policy implications

    The forces at the disposal of the superpowers make it highly improbable that either would wittingly embark on a course that leads to nuclear war with the other. It is much more likely that they would find themselves on such a path because of a miscalculated attempt to manipulate the fear of nuclear war, or as the upshot of an altercation that did not appear to run such a risk on that might not have even involved them the outset. The authors have depicted the phalanx of factors that might conspire to produce such a catastrophic chain of events. That synthesis has led us to conclusions regarding these risk, and to recommend measures some to be taken by the United States independently, others in cooperation with the Soviet Union that would reduce the likelihood of crisis and of ensuing escalation. This paper summarizes these findings and policy recommendations

  5. The Basis of Muscle Regeneration

    Antonio Musarò

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle regeneration recapitulates many aspects of embryonic myogenesis and is an important homeostatic process of the adult skeletal muscle, which, after development, retains the capacity to regenerate in response to appropriate stimuli, activating the muscle compartment of stem cells, namely, satellite cells, as well as other precursor cells. Moreover, significant evidence suggests that while stem cells represent an important determinant for tissue regeneration, a “qualified” environment is necessary to guarantee and achieve functional results. It is therefore plausible that the loss of control over these cell fate decisions could lead to a pathological transdifferentiation, leading to pathologic defects in the regenerative process. This review provides an overview about the general aspects of muscle development and discusses the cellular and molecular aspects that characterize the five interrelated and time-dependent phases of muscle regeneration, namely, degeneration, inflammation, regeneration, remodeling, and maturation/functional repair.

  6. Bio-inspired Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Muscles

    Tae Hyeob Kim; Cheong Hoon Kwon; Changsun Lee; Jieun An; Tam Thi Thanh Phuong; Sun Hwa Park; Lima, Márcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Tong Mook Kang; Seon Jeong Kim

    2016-01-01

    There has been continuous progress in the development for biomedical engineering systems of hybrid muscle generated by combining skeletal muscle and artificial structure. The main factor affecting the actuation performance of hybrid muscle relies on the compatibility between living cells and their muscle scaffolds during cell culture. Here, we developed a hybrid muscle powered by C2C12 skeletal muscle cells based on the functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) sheets coated with p...

  7. Stochastic modelling of muscle recruitment during activity

    Martelli, S.; Calvetti, D.; Somersalo, E.; Viceconti, M.

    2015-01-01

    Muscle forces can be selected from a space of muscle recruitment strategies that produce stable motion and variable muscle and joint forces. However, current optimization methods provide only a single muscle recruitment strategy. We modelled the spectrum of muscle recruitment strategies while walking. The equilibrium equations at the joints, muscle constraints, static optimization solutions and 15-channel electromyography (EMG) recordings for seven walking cycles were taken from earlier studi...

  8. Intermuscular pressure between synergistic muscles correlates with muscle force.

    Reinhardt, Lars; Siebert, Tobias; Leichsenring, Kay; Blickhan, Reinhard; Böl, Markus

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between muscle force generated during isometric contractions (i.e. at a constant muscle-tendon unit length) and the intermuscular (between adjacent muscles) pressure in synergistic muscles. Therefore, the pressure at the contact area of the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscle was measured synchronously to the force of the whole calf musculature in the rabbit species Oryctolagus cuniculus Similar results were obtained when using a conductive pressure sensor, or a fibre-optic pressure transducer connected to a water-filled balloon. Both methods revealed a strong linear relationship between force and pressure in the ascending limb of the force-length relationship. The shape of the measured force-time and pressure-time traces was almost identical for each contraction (r=0.97). Intermuscular pressure ranged between 100 and 700 mbar (70,000 Pa) for forces up to 287 N. These pressures are similar to previous (intramuscular) recordings within skeletal muscles of different vertebrate species. Furthermore, our results suggest that the rise in intermuscular pressure during contraction may reduce the force production in muscle packages (compartments). PMID:27489217

  9. Muscling out malaria

    Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2006-01-01

    ) [2] highlighted the back-to-back articles in Science 3 and 4 that demonstrated the potential biocontrol of malaria by targeting mosquitoes with entomopathogenic fungi (Metarhizium and Beauveria spp.). The wide impact of the original articles and the need to find alternatives to pesticidal control are...... where malaria is endemic, humanity cannot afford shortcuts, because any failures owing to poor management or premature implementation will reduce local governmental support rather than enhance it (Andrew Read, pers. commun.). Therefore, if we are to ‘muscle out malaria', well...... key importance, and the new focus on fungal biocontrol of malaria should therefore act as a catalyst for further research on the basic biology of fungal pathogens. Understanding morphological, biochemical or immune system-based resistance to insect pathogenic fungi will be easier if we know their...

  10. Bulk muscles, loose cables.

    Liyanage, Chamari R D G; Kodali, Venkata

    2014-01-01

    The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine; the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequential detrimental impact on health. PMID:25326558

  11. Aplicação da técnica de emissão em tempo máximo de fonação em paciente com disfonia espasmódica adutora: relato de caso Applying the technique of sustained maximum phonation time in a female patient with adductor spasmodic dysphonia: case report

    Luiz Alberto Alves Mota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A Disfonia Espasmódica Adutora é uma desordem neurológica do processamento motor central, caracterizada por contrações involuntárias e inapropriadas da musculatura fonatória, produzindo uma hiperadução das pregas vocais, o que promove uma voz trêmula, entrecortada e tensa-estrangulada. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever os parâmetros vocais, acústicos e laríngeos pré e pós-tratamento fonoaudiológico realizado por meio da aplicação da Técnica de Emissão em Tempo Máximo de Fonação (TETMF em paciente com Disfonia Espasmódica de Adução. Esta técnica tem como objetivo promover o aumento da resistência glótica, melhorar a estabilidade fonatória e adequar a coaptação glótica. Participou deste estudo de caso uma paciente de 66 anos de idade, gênero feminino, com Disfonia Espasmódica Adutora. A paciente foi submetida à avaliação otorrinolaringológica e fonoaudiológica pré e pós-aplicação da TETMF. Foi verificada modificação de parâmetros vocais, acústicos e laríngeos, tais como a classificação da disfonia de G3R1B1A0S3I3 para G2R1B1A0S2I2, pitch de grave a adequado, traçado espectrográfico instável para mais estável e expressivo aumento da frequência fundamental média e da intensidade vocal média, além da melhora da eficiência glótica com o fechamento da fenda glótica anteroposterior. A terapia fonoaudiológica com a aplicação da TETMF foi considerada uma adequada opção de tratamento para o caso, tendo em vista os resultados alcançados, com destaque para a qualidade vocal e estabilidade fonatória. Ressalta-se a importância de novos estudos para comprovação da eficácia da técnica no tratamento da Disfonia Espasmódica Adutora.Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia (ASD is a neurological disorder of central motor processing, characterized by involuntary and inappropriate contractions of the phonatory muscles, producing hyperadduction of the vocal folds, which causes a tremulous, faltering

  12. Muscle channelopathies and electrophysiological approach

    Cherian Ajith

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Myotonic syndromes and periodic paralyses are rare disorders of skeletal muscle characterized mainly by muscle stiffness or episodic attacks of weakness. Familial forms are caused by mutation in genes coding for skeletal muscle voltage ionic channels. Familial periodic paralysis and nondystrophic myotonias are disorders of skeletal muscle excitability caused by mutations in genes coding for voltage-gated ion channels. These diseases are characterized by episodic failure of motor activity due to muscle weakness (paralysis or stiffness (myotonia. Clinical studies have identified two forms of periodic paralyses: hypokalemic periodic paralysis (hypoKPP and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (hyperKPP, based on changes in serum potassium levels during the attacks, and three distinct forms of myotonias: paramyotonia congenita (PC, potassium-aggravated myotonia (PAM, and myotonia congenita (MC. PC and PAM have been linked to missense mutations in the SCN4A gene, which encodes α subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channel, whereas MC is caused by mutations in the chloride channel gene (CLCN1. Exercise is known to trigger, aggravate, or relieve symptoms. Therefore, exercise can be used as a functional test in electromyography to improve the diagnosis of these muscle disorders. Abnormal changes in the compound muscle action potential can be disclosed using different exercise tests. Five electromyographic (EMG patterns (I-V that may be used in clinical practice as guides for molecular diagnosis are discussed.

  13. Policy options

    The obstacles to bringing about consumer response to environmental dangers are particularly challenging for global problems like ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect. In this situation, there is the danger of what is commonly termed the tragedy of the commons, the ecological destruction that can occur from uncontrolled use of shared resources like the atmosphere. There is probably no country for which reductions in global warming provide an adequate economic incentive to reduce greenhouse gas emissions unilaterally, even though such action could yield substantial global benefits. From any one country's viewpoint, the costs of controlling emissions may exceed the benefits since, without international agreement, reductions achieved by one nation may be offset by another. Therefore, even though the entire world may be better off as a result of efforts to lower emissions, new economic incentives are necessary to lead the market to a socially efficient outcome. This paper describes the range of domestic and international policies that could be adopted to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, and also discusses the results of modeling analyses of government actions that could reduce or increase such emissions

  14. 发音中断分析用于内收性痉挛性发音障碍和肌紧张性发音障碍的鉴别诊断%Differential diagnosis of adductor spasmodic dysphonia and musde tension dysphonia using phonatory break analys

    Roy N; 郭颖

    2011-01-01

    @@ 内收性痉挛性发声障碍(adductor spasmodic dysphonia,ADSD)是一种神经源性的、活动引起的喉局部肌张力失调,患者在说话时会感受到声带不自主地过度内收,从而导致无力的发音中断和言语挤卡、发抖.当前,内收性痉挛性发声障碍的诊断几乎完全依靠其听觉特征,发音中断常被认为是诊断ADSD的绝对必要条件.

  15. Food policy an ethics

    Coff, Christian Eyde; Kemp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This entry gives an overview of food policy and major ethical principles that in the last decades have been proposed and advocated for in debates on food policy. Food policies touch upon a vast area of interrelated policies (like health, transport, environment, poverty, animal welfare etc.) which...... makes of food policy a highly complex and diverse area. The entry opens with at description of the concept of policy and food policy and how it relates to ethical principles and values. The fourth section discusses some influental definitions of food policy. The final section contains a description of...

  16. Policy Feedback System (PFS)

    Social Security Administration — The Policy Feedback System (PFS) is a web application developed by the Office of Disability Policy Management Information (ODPMI) team that gathers empirical data...

  17. Cardiac, Skeletal, and smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration

    Park, Song-Young; Gifford, Jayson R; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Hyngstrom, John R; Garten, Ryan S; Diakos, Nikolaos A; Ives, Stephen J; Dela, Flemming; Larsen, Steen; Drakos, Stavros; Richardson, Russell S

    2014-01-01

    Unlike cardiac and skeletal muscle, little is known about vascular smooth muscle mitochondrial function. Therefore, this study examined mitochondrial respiratory rates in the smooth muscle of healthy human feed arteries and compared with that of healthy cardiac and skeletal muscle. Cardiac, skele...

  18. Compensatory Hypertrophy of Skeletal Muscle: Contractile Characteristics

    Ianuzzo, C. D.; Chen, V.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using rats that demonstrates contractile characteristics of normal and hypertrophied muscle. Compensatory hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle is induced by surgical removal of the synergistic gastrocnemium muscle. Includes methods for determination of contractile properties of normal and hypertrophied muscle and…

  19. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss.

  20. Muscle glycogen stores and fatigue

    Ørtenblad, Niels; Westerblad, Håkan; Nielsen, Joachim

    2013-01-01

      Studies performed at the beginning of the last century revealed the importance of carbohydrate as a fuel during exercise, and the importance of muscle glycogen on performance has subsequently been confirmed in numerous studies. However, the link between glycogen depletion and impaired muscle...... function during fatigue is not well understood and a direct cause-and-effect relationship between glycogen and muscle function remains to be established. The use of electron microscopy has revealed that glycogen is not homogeneously distributed in skeletal muscle fibres, but rather localized in distinct...... pools. Furthermore, each glycogen granule has its own metabolic machinery with glycolytic enzymes and regulating proteins. One pool of such glycogenolytic complexes is localized within the myofibrils in close contact with key proteins involved in the excitation-contraction coupling and Ca2+ release from...

  1. Muscle dysfunction in cancer patients

    Christensen, Jesper Frank; Jones, L W; Andersen, J L;

    2014-01-01

    dysfunction is evident across all stages of the cancer trajectory. The causes of cancer-related muscle dysfunction are complex, but may involve a wide range of tumor-, therapy- and/or lifestyle-related factors, depending on the clinical setting of the individual patient. The main importance of muscle...... dysfunction in cancer patients lies in the correlation to vital clinical end points such as cancer-specific and all-cause mortality, therapy complications and quality of life (QoL). Such associations strongly emphasize the need for effective therapeutic countermeasures to be developed and implemented in...... powered to evaluate clinical outcomes associated with improvements in muscle function, or be promoted in advanced stage settings, aiming to reverse cancer-related muscle dysfunction, and thus potentially improve time-to-progression, treatment toxicity and survival....

  2. Regulation of skeletal muscle proteolysis

    Slee, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Proteolysis is a component of protein turnover, controlled by multiple proteolytic systems. Alterations in system components within skeletal muscle has been associated with hypertrophy, remodelling, atrophy, apoptosis and metabolic dysregulation. Key components may have novel regulatory roles, e. g. calpain-3 and cathepsin-L. Experiments described within this thesis investigated the hypothesis that the gene expression of specific proteolytic system components within skeletal muscle may be co-...

  3. Simvastatin effects on skeletal muscle

    Larsen, Steen; Stride, Nis; Hey-Mogensen, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle coenzyme Q(10) (Q(10)) content, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity were measured in simvastatin-treated patients (n = 10) and in well-matched control subjects (n = 9).......Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle coenzyme Q(10) (Q(10)) content, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity were measured in simvastatin-treated patients (n = 10) and in well-matched control subjects (n = 9)....

  4. Putting muscle in DNA methylation

    James P Reddington; Richard R Meehan

    2011-01-01

    Over 25 years ago seminal experiments from the labs of Peter Jones and Harold Weintraub demonstrated that alteration in the DNA modification state underlie the myogenic conversion of fibroblast cell lines [1,2].This paved the way for the identification of myogenic helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins in muscle differentiation,but the mechanism by which DNA methylation regulates muscle differentiation has remained elusive [3].

  5. Modified muscle sparing posterolateral thoracotomy.

    Ashour, M

    1990-01-01

    A modified posterolateral thoracotomy is described that combines the advantages of complete muscle sparing through a thoracolumbar fascial slide with excellent exposure. The technique is easy to perform. The procedure was associated with relatively little postoperative pain, coughing was effective, and early ambulation was achieved. Experience with this approach in the first 49 patients suggests that it offers an attractive alternative to the standard muscle cutting posterolateral thoracotomy...

  6. Muscle histochemistry in chronic alcoholism

    M. L. Ferraz

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two chronic acoholic patients were assessed by neurologic examination and muscle biopsy. The patients manifested proximal muscular weakness to a variable extent. One case presented as an acute bout of myopathy, according to the Manual Muscle Test, MMT. The most prominent histologic feature observed was muscle atrophy (95.3% better evidenced through the ATPase stain with the predominance of type II A fibers (71.4%. Lack of the mosaic pattern (type grouping seen in 76% of the cases and an important mitochondrial proliferation with intrasarcoplasmatic lipid accumulation in 63% of the patients. In case of acute presentation of muscle weakness the. pathological substrate is quite different, i.e. presence of myositis mainly interstitial characterized by lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate and several spots of necrosis like Zencker degeneration. Based on histologic criteria, our data suggest that: the main determinant of muscle weakness seen in chronic alcoholic patients is neurogenic in origin (alcoholic polineuropathy; the direct toxic action of ethanol under the skeletal muscle is closely related to the mitochondrial metabolism; the so-called acute alcoholic myopathy has probably viral etiology.

  7. Ribosome biogenesis during skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    von Walden, Ferdinand

    2014-01-01

    Muscle adaptation to chronic resistance exercise (RE) is the result of a cumulative effect on gene expression and protein content. Following a bout of RE, muscle protein synthesis increases and, if followed by consecutive bouts (training), protein accretion and muscle hypertrophy develops. The protein synthetic capacity of the muscle is dictated by ribosome content. Therefore, the general aim of this thesis is to investigate the regulation of ribosome biogenesis during skeletal muscle hypertr...

  8. Effect of acupuncture depth on muscle pain

    Kitakoji Hiroshi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While evidence supports efficacy of acupuncture and/or dry needling in treating musculoskeletal pain, it is unclear which needling method is most effective. This study aims to determine the effects of depth of needle penetration on muscle pain. Methods A total of 22 healthy volunteers performed repeated eccentric contractions to induce muscle soreness in their extensor digital muscle. Subjects were assigned randomly to four groups, namely control group, skin group (depth of 3 mm: the extensor digital muscle, muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle and non-segmental group (depth of 10 mm: the anterior tibial muscle. Pressure pain threshold and electrical pain threshold of the skin, fascia and muscle were measured at a point 20 mm distal to the maximum tender point on the second day after the exercise. Results Pressure pain thresholds of skin group (depth of 3 mm: the extensor digital muscle and muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle were significantly higher than the control group, whereas the electrical pain threshold at fascia of muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle was a significantly higher than control group; however, there was no significant difference between the control and other groups. Conclusion The present study shows that acupuncture stimulation of muscle increases the PPT and EPT of fascia. The depth of needle penetration is important for the relief of muscle pain.

  9. School Parent Involvement Policy

    Center for Law and Education (NJ3), 2005

    2005-01-01

    This school parent involvement policy is divided into three sections: (1) Development and Adoption of the Parent Involvement Policy; (2) Contents of the Parent Involvement Policy; and (3) Distributing and Revising the School's Parent Involvement Policy. This paper presents the provision of the Section 1118 of Title I of the No Child Left Behind…

  10. The Swiss Heroin Policy

    Dominik Egli

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss heroin policy is compared to a theoretically derived rational drug policy. It is argued that, although being one of the most liberal policies worldwide, the Swiss policy still is too repressive. A further legalization of heroin would most probably be welfare enhancing.

  11. Operations Policy Manual, 2012

    Teacher Education Accreditation Council, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Teacher Education Accreditation Council's (TEAC's) "Operations Policy Manual" outlines all of TEAC's current policies and procedures related to TEAC members, TEAC administration, and the public, and includes the Bylaws of the Teacher Education Accreditation Council. Contents include: (1) Policies Related to TEAC Members; (2) Policies Related…

  12. Skeletal muscle fiber type: using insights from muscle developmental biology to dissect targets for susceptibility and resistance to muscle disease.

    Talbot, Jared; Maves, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    Skeletal muscle fibers are classified into fiber types, in particular, slow twitch versus fast twitch. Muscle fiber types are generally defined by the particular myosin heavy chain isoforms that they express, but many other components contribute to a fiber's physiological characteristics. Skeletal muscle fiber type can have a profound impact on muscle diseases, including certain muscular dystrophies and sarcopenia, the aging-induced loss of muscle mass and strength. These findings suggest that some muscle diseases may be treated by shifting fiber type characteristics either from slow to fast, or fast to slow phenotypes, depending on the disease. Recent studies have begun to address which components of muscle fiber types mediate their susceptibility or resistance to muscle disease. However, for many diseases it remains largely unclear why certain fiber types are affected. A substantial body of work has revealed molecular pathways that regulate muscle fiber type plasticity and early developmental muscle fiber identity. For instance, recent studies have revealed many factors that regulate muscle fiber type through modulating the activity of the muscle regulatory transcription factor MYOD1. Future studies of muscle fiber type development in animal models will continue to enhance our understanding of factors and pathways that may provide therapeutic targets to treat muscle diseases. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:518-534. doi: 10.1002/wdev.230 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27199166

  13. Environmental education policy research

    Læssøe, Jeppe; Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Blum, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    in the areas of Environmental Education (EE), Education for Sustainable Development and Climate Change Education. It especially makes a case for two kinds of research on EE policy: (1) a multi-sited approach to empirical documentation and theory development which explores the relationships between......This essay examines the relationship between research and policy and, more specifically, how researchers might relate to policy work. Given the current international policy focus on climate change, green growth and sustainability in general, it argues for strengthening and widening policy research...... international policy agreements and local practice, and (2) an interactive policy-engaged approach to research....

  14. Environmental policy in Japan

    Tsuru, Shigeto; Weidner, H. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    This book deals in English with the most important features of Japanese environmental policy in a number of individual articles by different authors. The various sections report on: 1. History and organization of environmental policy; 2. The role of non-governmental actors in environmental policy (large industries); 3. Special features of environmental policies and problems; 4. Classical pollution control areas: Regulations and effects; 5. Environmental problems in a broader perspective (nature conservation); 6. Policy areas with influence on environmental quality; 7. Environmental monitoring and reporting; 8. Japanese environmental policy in an international perspective (preventive policies, developing countries). (HSCH).

  15. Environmental policy performance revisited

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2012-01-01

    Studies of environmental policy performance tend to concentrate on the impact of particular policy institutions or of single policy instruments. However, environmental policies most often consist of a package of policy instruments. Further, these studies pay no or very little attention to policy......-country variation in organic food consumption is explained by differences in the packages of policy instruments applied, controlling for numerous systemic and individual-level alternative explanations. The analysis suggests that for environmental and political reasons, governments should apply more demand...

  16. Analyzing Tenant Assignment Policies

    Kaplan, Edward H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses two popular policies used by housing authorities to assign applicants to housing projects: first available unit and priority assignment policies. The policies are compared according to their abilities to integrate housing projects, applicant assignment probabilities, and mean waiting times. Our results show that priority policies can successfully integrate public housing projects while first available unit policies can exacerbate segregation. These results support the rep...

  17. Competitive Policy Development

    Hirsch, Alexander V.; Shotts, Kenneth W.

    2015-01-01

    We present a model of policy development in which competing factions have different ideologies, yet agree on certain common objectives. Policy developers can appeal to a decision maker by making productive investments to improve the quality of their proposals. These investments are specific to a given proposal, which means that policy developers can potentially obtain informal agenda power. Competition undermines this agenda power, forcing policy developers to craft policies that are better f...

  18. Accounting and Accounting Policy

    Demidenko Leonid P.

    2013-01-01

    The article considers essence and contents of accounting policy. Its provides information with respect to main aspects of formation and application of accounting policy in Ukraine. It studies the structure of regulations on accounting policy that were developed in a company. It specifies correlation of accounting policy and organisation of accounting. It explains the determining role of the top manager and chief accountant in formation of accounting policy of a company. It identifies regulati...

  19. Effects of Massage on Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness, Swelling, and Recovery of Muscle Function

    Zainuddin, Zainal; Newton, Mike; Sacco, Paul; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2005-01-01

    Context: Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) describes muscle pain and tenderness that typically develop several hours postexercise and consist of predominantly eccentric muscle actions, especially if the exercise is unfamiliar. Although DOMS is likely a symptom of eccentric-exercise–induced muscle damage, it does not necessarily reflect muscle damage. Some prophylactic or therapeutic modalities may be effective only for alleviating DOMS, whereas others may enhance recovery of muscle functio...

  20. The effect of muscle fatigue on the behavior of single muscle fibre

    Číhalová L.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to integrate the effect of muscle fatigue into skeletal muscle fibre model. The base of the skeletal muscle model previously developed in our laboratory is the sliding cross bridge theory of contraction. The calcium activation, which is the base stone for the contraction, is integrated. The muscle fatigue is often described as a decline in the muscle ability to generate force. It is the result of the sustained contraction of long duration. Generally, muscle fatigue is...

  1. Muscle synergy space: learning model to create an optimal muscle synergy

    Alnajjar, Fady; Wojtara, Tytus; Kimura, Hidenori; Shimoda, Shingo

    2013-01-01

    Muscle redundancy allows the central nervous system (CNS) to choose a suitable combination of muscles from a number of options. This flexibility in muscle combinations allows for efficient behaviors to be generated in daily life. The computational mechanism of choosing muscle combinations, however, remains a long-standing challenge. One effective method of choosing muscle combinations is to create a set containing the muscle combinations of only efficient behaviors, and then to choose combina...

  2. Regulation of skeletal muscle perfusion during exercise

    Delp, M. D.; Laughlin, M. H.

    1998-01-01

    For exercise to be sustained, it is essential that adequate blood flow be provided to skeletal muscle. The local vascular control mechanisms involved in regulating muscle perfusion during exercise include metabolic control, endothelium-mediated control, propagated responses, myogenic control, and the muscle pump. The primary determinant of muscle perfusion during sustained exercise is the metabolic rate of the muscle. Metabolites from contracting muscle diffuse to resistance arterioles and act directly to induce vasodilation, or indirectly to inhibit noradrenaline release from sympathetic nerve endings and oppose alpha-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasoconstriction. The vascular endothelium also releases vasodilator substances (e.g., prostacyclin and nitric oxide) that are prominent in establishing basal vascular tone, but these substances do not appear to contribute to the exercise hyperemia in muscle. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells may also be involved in propagating vasodilator signals along arterioles to parent and daughter vessels. Myogenic autoregulation does not appear to be involved in the exercise hyperemia in muscle, but the rhythmic propulsion of blood from skeletal muscle veins facilitates venous return to the heart and muscle perfusion. It appears that the primary determinants of sustained exercise hyperemia in skeletal muscle are metabolic vasodilation and increased vascular conductance via the muscle pump. Additionally, sympathetic neural control is important in regulating muscle blood flow during exercise.

  3. Choosing a skeletal muscle relaxant.

    See, Sharon; Ginzburg, Regina

    2008-08-01

    Skeletal muscle relaxants are widely used in treating musculoskeletal conditions. However, evidence of their effectiveness consists mainly of studies with poor methodologic design. In addition, these drugs have not been proven to be superior to acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses support using skeletal muscle relaxants for short-term relief of acute low back pain when nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetaminophen are not effective or tolerated. Comparison studies have not shown one skeletal muscle relaxant to be superior to another. Cyclobenzaprine is the most heavily studied and has been shown to be effective for various musculoskeletal conditions. The sedative properties of tizanidine and cyclobenzaprine may benefit patients with insomnia caused by severe muscle spasms. Methocarbamol and metaxalone are less sedating, although effectiveness evidence is limited. Adverse effects, particularly dizziness and drowsiness, are consistently reported with all skeletal muscle relaxants. The potential adverse effects should be communicated clearly to the patient. Because of limited comparable effectiveness data, choice of agent should be based on side-effect profile, patient preference, abuse potential, and possible drug interactions. PMID:18711953

  4. Policy Evaluation and Economic Policy Advice

    Christoph M. Schmidt

    2007-01-01

    Arguably, one of the most important developments in the field of applied economics during the last decades has been the emergence of systematic policy evaluation, with its distinct focus on the establishment of causality. By contrast to the natural sciences, the objects of our scientific interest typically exert some influence on their treatment status under the policy to be evaluated and on their economic outcomes. Thus, economic policy advice can only be successful, if it is based on an app...

  5. Structure–function relationship of skeletal muscle provides inspiration for design of new artificial muscle

    A variety of actuator technologies have been developed to mimic biological skeletal muscle that generates force in a controlled manner. Force generation process of skeletal muscle involves complicated biophysical and biochemical mechanisms; therefore, it is impossible to replace biological muscle. In biological skeletal muscle tissue, the force generation of a muscle depends not only on the force generation capacity of the muscle fiber, but also on many other important factors, including muscle fiber type, motor unit recruitment, architecture, structure and morphology of skeletal muscle, all of which have significant impact on the force generation of the whole muscle or force transmission from muscle fibers to the tendon. Such factors have often been overlooked, but can be incorporated in artificial muscle design, especially with the discovery of new smart materials and the development of innovative fabrication and manufacturing technologies. A better understanding of the physiology and structure–function relationship of skeletal muscle will therefore benefit the artificial muscle design. In this paper, factors that affect muscle force generation are reviewed. Mathematical models used to model the structure–function relationship of skeletal muscle are reviewed and discussed. We hope the review will provide inspiration for the design of a new generation of artificial muscle by incorporating the structure–function relationship of skeletal muscle into the design of artificial muscle. (topical review)

  6. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN MUSCLE MASS, MUSCLE STRENGTH, PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE, AND MUSCLE FATIGUE RESISTANCE IN COMMUNITY-DWELLING ELDERLY SUBJECTS

    Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the correlations between muscle mass, muscle strength, physical performance, and muscle fatigue resistance in community-dwelling elderly people in order to elucidate factors which contribute to elderly’s performance of daily activities. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on community-dwelling elderly in Bandung from September to December 2014. One hundred and thirty elderly, 60 years old or above, were evaluated using bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure muscle mass; grip strength to measure muscle strength and muscle fatigue resistance; habitual gait speed to measure physical performance; and Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ to assess physical activity. Results: There were significant positive correlations between muscle mass (r=0,27, p=0,0019, muscle strength (r=0,26, p=0,0024, and physical performance (r=0,32, p=0,0002 with muscle fatigue resistance. Physical performance has the highest correlation based on multiple regression test (p=0,0025. In association with muscle mass, the physical activity showed a significant positive correlation (r=0,42, p=0,0000. Sarcopenia was identified in 19 (14.61% of 130 subjects. Conclusions: It is suggested that muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance influence muscle fatigue resistance.

  7. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle.

    Cartee, Gregory D; Hepple, Russell T; Bamman, Marcas M; Zierath, Juleen R

    2016-06-14

    Primary aging is the progressive and inevitable process of bodily deterioration during adulthood. In skeletal muscle, primary aging causes defective mitochondrial energetics and reduced muscle mass. Secondary aging refers to additional deleterious structural and functional age-related changes caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes "healthy aging" by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle. PMID:27304505

  8. Partial muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A deficiency

    Ross, N.S.; Hoppel, C.L.

    1987-01-02

    After initiation of ibuprofen therapy, a 45-year-old woman developed muscle weakness and tenderness with rhabdomyolysis, culminating in respiratory failure. A muscle biopsy specimen showed a vacuolar myopathy, and markedly decreased muscle carnitine content and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity. Following recovery, muscle carnitine content was normal but carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity was still abnormally low. The ratio of palmitoyl-coenzyme A plus carnitine to palmitoylcarnitine oxidation by muscle mitochondria isolated from the patient was markedly decreased. The authors conclude that transiently decreased muscle carnitine content interacted with partial deficiency of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A to produce rhabdomyolysis and respiratory failure and that ibuprofen may have precipitated the clinical event.

  9. Partial muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A deficiency

    After initiation of ibuprofen therapy, a 45-year-old woman developed muscle weakness and tenderness with rhabdomyolysis, culminating in respiratory failure. A muscle biopsy specimen showed a vacuolar myopathy, and markedly decreased muscle carnitine content and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity. Following recovery, muscle carnitine content was normal but carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity was still abnormally low. The ratio of palmitoyl-coenzyme A plus carnitine to palmitoylcarnitine oxidation by muscle mitochondria isolated from the patient was markedly decreased. The authors conclude that transiently decreased muscle carnitine content interacted with partial deficiency of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A to produce rhabdomyolysis and respiratory failure and that ibuprofen may have precipitated the clinical event

  10. Cricopharyngeal muscle hypertrophy: radiologic-anatomic correlation.

    Torres, W E; Clements, J L; Austin, G E; Knight, K

    1984-05-01

    There is a divergence of opinion concerning the cricopharyngeal muscle defect commonly seen in the pharyngoesophageal area on barium esophagram. Some observers believe this defect is the result of neuromuscular dysfunction with the demonstration of the unrelaxed muscle bundle; however, others believe it is the result of actual hypertrophy of the cricopharyngeal muscle. Radiologic and pathologic study of 24 unselected autopsy cases revealed cricopharyngeal hypertrophy in 13 cases by radiologic criteria. Histologic examination revealed that the cricopharyngeal muscle thickness was uniformly greater in these cases than in the radiographically normal cases. The cricopharyngeal muscle defect is associated with actual hypertrophy of the cricopharyngeal muscle in many cases. PMID:6609574

  11. [Myalgia of the masticatory muscles].

    Schindler, H J; Türp, J C

    2009-06-01

    Masticatory muscle pain can be regarded as a regional manifestation of musculoskeletal disorders similar to those observed in other body regions. Along with temporomandibular joint pain and some painless disturbances related to mandibular mobility they are subsumed under the term temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Masticatory muscle pain is assumed to be associated with a variety of biophysiological risk factors. Valid diagnostic instruments make it possible to differentiate between the various TMD subgroups. In most cases, masticatory muscle pain can be treated/managed successfully. In a considerable number of patients, however, the pain persists over a long period of time despite therapeutic interventions. Understanding of the underlying neurobiological background of acute and chronic pain may help in therapeutic decision-making and evaluation of the therapeutic effects. PMID:19551421

  12. Corporate Language Policies

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs to...... consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  13. Corporate Language Policies

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs to...... consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  14. Spontaneous waves in muscle fibres

    Mechanical oscillations are important for many cellular processes, e.g. the beating of cilia and flagella or the sensation of sound by hair cells. These dynamic states originate from spontaneous oscillations of molecular motors. A particularly clear example of such oscillations has been observed in muscle fibers under non-physiological conditions. In that case, motor oscillations lead to contraction waves along the fiber. By a macroscopic analysis of muscle fiber dynamics we find that the spontaneous waves involve non-hydrodynamic modes. A simple microscopic model of sarcomere dynamics highlights mechanical aspects of the motor dynamics and fits with the experimental observations

  15. Leaky channels make weak muscles

    George, Alfred L.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the skeletal muscle voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV1.1) have been associated with hypokalemic periodic paralysis, but how the pathogenesis of this disorder relates to the functional consequences of mutations was unclear. In this issue of the JCI, Wu and colleagues recapitulate the disease by generating a novel knock-in CaV1.1 mutant mouse and use this model to investigate the cellular and molecular features of pathogenesis. They demonstrated an aberrant muscle cell current con...

  16. Spontaneous waves in muscle fibres

    Gunther, Stefan; 10.1088/1367-2630/9/11/417

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical oscillations are important for many cellular processes, e.g. the beating of cilia and flagella or the sensation of sound by hair cells. These dynamic states originate from spontaneous oscillations of molecular motors. A particularly clear example of such oscillations has been observed in muscle fibers under non-physiological conditions. In that case, motor oscillations lead to contraction waves along the fiber. By a macroscopic analysis of muscle fiber dynamics we find that the spontaneous waves involve non-hydrodynamic modes. A simple microscopic model of sarcomere dynamics highlights mechanical aspects of the motor dynamics and fits with the experimental observations.

  17. Therapeutic approaches for muscle wasting disorders.

    Lynch, Gordon S; Schertzer, Jonathan D; Ryall, James G

    2007-03-01

    Muscle wasting and weakness are common in many disease states and conditions including aging, cancer cachexia, sepsis, denervation, disuse, inactivity, burns, HIV-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), chronic kidney or heart failure, unloading/microgravity, and muscular dystrophies. Although the maintenance of muscle mass is generally regarded as a simple balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation, these mechanisms are not strictly independent, but in fact they are coordinated by a number of different and sometimes complementary signaling pathways. Clearer details are now emerging about these different molecular pathways and the extent to which these pathways contribute to the etiology of various muscle wasting disorders. Therapeutic strategies for attenuating muscle wasting and improving muscle function vary in efficacy. Exercise and nutritional interventions have merit for slowing the rate of muscle atrophy in some muscle wasting conditions, but in most cases they cannot halt or reverse the wasting process. Hormonal and/or other drug strategies that can target key steps in the molecular pathways that regulate protein synthesis and protein degradation are needed. This review describes the signaling pathways that maintain muscle mass and provides an overview of some of the major conditions where muscle wasting and weakness are indicated. The review provides details on some therapeutic strategies that could potentially attenuate muscle atrophy, promote muscle growth, and ultimately improve muscle function. The emphasis is on therapies that can increase muscle mass and improve functional outcomes that will ultimately lead to improvement in the quality of life for affected patients. PMID:17258813

  18. Single Policy Study

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James

    Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses the...... relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...

  19. Lack of CFTR in Skeletal Muscle Predisposes to Muscle Wasting and Diaphragm Muscle Pump Failure in Cystic Fibrosis Mice

    Maziar Divangahi; Haouaria Balghi; Gawiyou Danialou; Comtois, Alain S.; Alexandre Demoule; Sheila Ernest; Christina Haston; Renaud Robert; Hanrahan, John W.; Danuta Radzioch; Petrof, Basil J

    2009-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients often have reduced mass and strength of skeletal muscles, including the diaphragm, the primary muscle of respiration. Here we show that lack of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) plays an intrinsic role in skeletal muscle atrophy and dysfunction. In normal murine and human skeletal muscle, CFTR is expressed and co-localized with sarcoplasmic reticulum-associated proteins. CFTR-deficient myotubes exhibit augmented levels of intracellular calcium aft...

  20. A Case Report of the Angiosarcoma Involving Epicranial Muscle and Fascia : Is the Occipitofrontalis Muscle Composed of Two Different Muscles?

    Kim, Ho Kyun; Lee, Hui Joong

    2016-01-01

    The occipitofrontalis muscle is generally regarded as one muscle composed of two muscle bellies joined through the galea aponeurotica. However, two muscle bellies have different embryological origin, anatomical function and innervations. We report a case of angiosarcoma of the scalp in a 63-year-old man whose MR showed that the superficial fascia overlying the occipital belly becomes the temporoparietal fascia and ends at the superior end of the frontal belly. Beneath the superficial fascia, ...

  1. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization enhances insulin sensitivity

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Laub, Lasse; Vedel, Kenneth;

    2014-01-01

    Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, a possible causal relationship has not previously been identified. We therefore investigated whether increased skeletal muscle capillarization increases insulin sensitivity. S...

  2. Bones, Muscles, and Joints: The Musculoskeletal System

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Bones, Muscles, and Joints KidsHealth > For Parents > Bones, Muscles, ... able to stand, walk, run, or even sit. Bones and What They Do From our head to ...

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of facial muscles

    Farrugia, M.E. [Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.e.farrugia@doctors.org.uk; Bydder, G.M. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, CA 92103-8226 (United States); Francis, J.M.; Robson, M.D. [OCMR, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    Facial and tongue muscles are commonly involved in patients with neuromuscular disorders. However, these muscles are not as easily accessible for biopsy and pathological examination as limb muscles. We have previously investigated myasthenia gravis patients with MuSK antibodies for facial and tongue muscle atrophy using different magnetic resonance imaging sequences, including ultrashort echo time techniques and image analysis tools that allowed us to obtain quantitative assessments of facial muscles. This imaging study had shown that facial muscle measurement is possible and that useful information can be obtained using a quantitative approach. In this paper we aim to review in detail the methods that we applied to our study, to enable clinicians to study these muscles within the domain of neuromuscular disease, oncological or head and neck specialties. Quantitative assessment of the facial musculature may be of value in improving the understanding of pathological processes occurring within facial muscles in certain neuromuscular disorders.

  4. STRUCTURAL ALTERATIONS OF SKELETAL MUSCLE IN COPD

    Sunita eMathur

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a respiratory disease associated with a systemic inflammatory response. Peripheral muscle dysfunction has been well characterized in individuals with COPD and results from a complex interaction between systemic and local factors. Objective: In this narrative review, we will describe muscle wasting in people with COPD, the associated structural changes, muscle regenerative capacity and possible mechanisms for muscle wasting. We will also discuss how structural changes relate to impaired muscle function and mobility in people with COPD. Key Observations: Approximately 30-40% of individuals with COPD experience muscle mass depletion. Furthermore, muscle atrophy is a predictor of physical function and mortality in this population. Associated structural changes include a decreased proportion and size of type-I fibers, reduced oxidative capacity and mitochondrial density mainly in the quadriceps. Observations related to impaired muscle regenerative capacity in individuals with COPD include a lower proportion of central nuclei in the presence or absence of muscle atrophy and decreased maximal telomere length, which has been correlated with reduced muscle cross-sectional area. Potential mechanisms for muscle wasting in COPD may include excessive production of reactive oxygen species, altered amino acid metabolism and lower expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-gamma-coactivator 1-alpha mRNA. Despite a moderate relationship between muscle atrophy and function, impairments in oxidative metabolism only seems weakly related to muscle function. Conclusion: This review article demonstrates the cellular modifications in the peripheral muscle of people with COPD and describes the evidence of its relationship to muscle function. Future research will focus on rehabilitation strategies to improve muscle wasting and maximize function.

  5. Asymmetric deformation of contracting human gastrocnemius muscle

    Kinugasa, Ryuta; Hodgson, John A.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Sinha, Shantanu

    2011-01-01

    Muscle fiber deformation is related to its cellular structure, as well as its architectural arrangement within the musculoskeletal system. While playing an important role in aponeurosis displacement, and efficiency of force transmission to the tendon, such deformation also provides important clues about the underlying mechanical structure of the muscle. We hypothesized that muscle fiber cross section would deform asymmetrically to satisfy the observed constant volume of muscle during a contra...

  6. Hydrostatic compression in glycerinated rabbit muscle fibers.

    Ranatunga, K.W.; Fortune, N S; Geeves, M A

    1990-01-01

    Glycerinated muscle fibers isolated from rabbit psoas muscle, and a number of other nonmuscle elastic fibers including glass, rubber, and collagen, were exposed to hydrostatic pressures of up to 10 MPa (100 Atm) to determine the pressure sensitivity of their isometric tension. The isometric tension of muscle fibers in the relaxed state (passive tension) was insensitive to increased pressure, whereas the muscle fiber tension in rigor state increased linearly with pressure. The tension of all o...

  7. Collagen quantification across human skeletal muscles

    Lin, Evie Ya Hui

    2011-01-01

    Intramuscular connective tissue provides structural stability and facilitates force transmission in skeletal muscle. Additionally, it contains extracellular matrix that is crucial for muscle development and regeneration¹. Alterations of collagen content within intramuscular connective tissue have been associated with aging or diseased muscle ²,³. Data of baseline collagen content among different muscles, to provide deeper understanding of normal muscular functions, does not exist. Hence the a...

  8. Finger Muscle Control in Children with Dystonia

    Young, Scott J.; Van Doornik, Johan; Terence D Sanger

    2011-01-01

    Childhood dystonia is a disorder that involves inappropriate muscle activation during attempts at voluntary movement. Few studies have investigated the muscle activity associated with dystonia in children, and none have done so in the hands. In this study, we measured surface electromyographic activity in four intrinsic hand muscles while participants attempted to perform an isometric tracking task using one of the muscles. Children with dystonia had greater tracking error with the task-relat...

  9. Common muscle synergies for balance and walking

    Chvatal, Stacie A.; Ting, Lena H.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the integration of neural mechanisms for balance and locomotion. Muscle synergies have been studied independently in standing balance and walking, but not compared. Here, we hypothesized that reactive balance and walking are mediated by a common set of lower-limb muscle synergies. In humans, we examined muscle activity during multidirectional support-surface perturbations during standing and walking, as well as unperturbed walking at two speeds. We show that most muscle ...

  10. IT Policy Archive

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CIO defines IT processes and policies. The CIO defines the development processes, milestones, review gates, and the overall policies for all capital planning,...

  11. National Environmental Policy Act

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first major environmental law in the United States and established national environmental policies for the...

  12. Nordic cultural policies

    Duelund, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity......A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity...

  13. Muscle after spinal cord injury

    Biering-Sørensen, Bo; Kristensen, Ida Bruun; Kjaer, Michael;

    2009-01-01

    The morphological and contractile changes of muscles below the level of the lesion after spinal cord injury (SCI) are dramatic. In humans with SCI, a fiber-type transformation away from type I begins 4-7 months post-SCI and reaches a new steady state with predominantly fast glycolytic IIX fibers...

  14. Skeletal muscle involvement in cardiomyopathies.

    Limongelli, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Raffaella; Maddaloni, Valeria; Rea, Alessandra; Sarkozy, Anna; McKenna, William J

    2013-12-01

    The link between heart and skeletal muscle disorders is based on similar molecular, anatomical and clinical features, which are shared by the 'primary' cardiomyopathies and 'primary' neuromuscular disorders. There are, however, some peculiarities that are typical of cardiac and skeletal muscle disorders. Skeletal muscle weakness presenting at any age may indicate a primary neuromuscular disorder (associated with creatine kinase elevation as in dystrophinopathies), a mitochondrial disease (particularly if encephalopathy, ocular myopathy, retinitis, neurosensorineural deafness, lactic acidosis are present), a storage disorder (progressive exercise intolerance, cognitive impairment and retinitis pigmentosa, as in Danon disease), or metabolic disorders (hypoglycaemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperammonaemia or other specific biochemical abnormalities). In such patients, skeletal muscle weakness usually precedes the cardiomyopathy and dominates the clinical picture. Nevertheless, skeletal involvement may be subtle, and the first clinical manifestation of a neuromuscular disorder may be the occurrence of heart failure, conduction disorders or ventricular arrhythmias due to cardiomyopathy. ECG and echocardiogram, and eventually, a more detailed cardiovascular evaluation may be required to identify early cardiac involvement. Paediatric and adult cardiologists should be proactive in screening for neuromuscular and related disorders to enable diagnosis in probands and evaluation of families with a focus on the identification of those at risk of cardiac arrhythmia and emboli who may require specific prophylactic treatments, for example, pacemaker, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and anticoagulation. PMID:24149064

  15. Novel Analog For Muscle Deconditioning

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Ryder, Jeff; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd. Elizabeth; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa; Hackney, Kyle; Fiedler, James; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Existing models (such as bed rest) of muscle deconditioning are cumbersome and expensive. We propose a new model utilizing a weighted suit to manipulate strength, power, or endurance (function) relative to body weight (BW). Methods: 20 subjects performed 7 occupational astronaut tasks while wearing a suit weighted with 0-120% of BW. Models of the full relationship between muscle function/BW and task completion time were developed using fractional polynomial regression and verified by the addition of pre-and postflightastronaut performance data for the same tasks. Splineregression was used to identify muscle function thresholds below which task performance was impaired. Results: Thresholds of performance decline were identified for each task. Seated egress & walk (most difficult task) showed thresholds of leg press (LP) isometric peak force/BW of 18 N/kg, LP power/BW of 18 W/kg, LP work/BW of 79 J/kg, isokineticknee extension (KE)/BW of 6 Nm/kg, and KE torque/BW of 1.9 Nm/kg.Conclusions: Laboratory manipulation of relative strength has promise as an appropriate analog for spaceflight-induced loss of muscle function, for predicting occupational task performance and establishing operationally relevant strength thresholds.

  16. Metabolic Adaptation to Muscle Ischemia

    Cabrera, Marco E.; Coon, Jennifer E.; Kalhan, Satish C.; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Saidel, Gerald M.; Stanley, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Although all tissues in the body can adapt to varying physiological/pathological conditions, muscle is the most adaptable. To understand the significance of cellular events and their role in controlling metabolic adaptations in complex physiological systems, it is necessary to link cellular and system levels by means of mechanistic computational models. The main objective of this work is to improve understanding of the regulation of energy metabolism during skeletal/cardiac muscle ischemia by combining in vivo experiments and quantitative models of metabolism. Our main focus is to investigate factors affecting lactate metabolism (e.g., NADH/NAD) and the inter-regulation between carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during a reduction in regional blood flow. A mechanistic mathematical model of energy metabolism has been developed to link cellular metabolic processes and their control mechanisms to tissue (skeletal muscle) and organ (heart) physiological responses. We applied this model to simulate the relationship between tissue oxygenation, redox state, and lactate metabolism in skeletal muscle. The model was validated using human data from published occlusion studies. Currently, we are investigating the difference in the responses to sudden vs. gradual onset ischemia in swine by combining in vivo experimental studies with computational models of myocardial energy metabolism during normal and ischemic conditions.

  17. Comparison of clinical characteristics of patients with adductor laryngeal dystonia in the focal and segmental types Comparação entre características clínicas de pacientes com distonia laríngea de adução nas formas focal e segmentar

    Gustavo Polacow Korn

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Dystonia is a central motor processing neurological disorder characterized by abnormal, often action-induced, involuntary movements or uncontrolled spasms. AIM: To compare patients with the diagnoses of focal and segmental adductor laryngeal dystonia at the Neurolarynx Outpatient Clinic of the Federal University of São Paulo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A clinical retrospective study of data collected from patient registries from 2003 to 2009. RESULTS: Of 34 patients, 25 presented focal dystonia and 9 presented segmental dystonia. There were 30 females (88. 2% and 4 males (11. 8%. A relation with a traumatic event was reported in 11 cases (32. 4%. Vocal tremor was observed in 21 patients (61. 8%. The mean age at onset, the age at diagnosis, and time between the onset and the diagnosis were respectively 55, 61. 3 and 6. 3 years. There was no statistical difference between patients with focal laryngeal adductor dystonia and segmental dystonia in the study data. CONCLUSIONS: There were no statistical differences among patients with focal adductor laryngeal dystonia and segmental dystonia relating to age of onset, age of diagnosis, gender, time between onset and diagnosis, presence of associated tremor, and relation to traumaA distonia é um transtorno neurológico do processamento motor central caracterizado por movimentos involuntários ou espasmos incontroláveis, induzidos por atividade. OBJETIVO: Comparar pacientes com o diagnóstico de distonia laríngea nas formas focal e distonia segmentar do Ambulatório de Neurolaringe. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo clínico retrospectivo a partir de levantamento dos prontuários entre 2003 e 2009. RESULTADOS: Dos 34 pacientes, 25 apresentaram distonia focal e 9 apresentaram distonia segmentar. Do total da amostra, 30 (88,2% eram do sexo feminino e 4 (11,8% do sexo masculino. A relação com situação traumática estava presente em 11 (32,4%. O tremor associado esteve presente em 21 pacientes (61,8%. A média da

  18. 小切口第一跖骨远端截骨术联合拇收肌切断治疗重度拇外翻%Correction of severe hallux valgus by distal osteotomy of the first metatarsal through mini-incision with cutting thumb adductor

    姬东硕; 赵延勇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of correcting severe hallux valgus by distal osteotomy of the first metatarsal through mini-incision with cutting the conjoint tendon of adductor pollicis. Methods Distal osteotomy of the first metatarsal through mini-incision with cutting the conjoint tendon of adductor pollicis was performed on 19 cases with hallux varus (37 feet) , the therapeutic effects were analyzed and evaluated through AOFAS score and the imaging results using matching t test for statistical analysis before and after surgery. Results All patients were followed up for 6 to 24 ( average 16) months of , Thumb valgus angle (HVA) was corrected from 47. 5 ±3.8 to 12. 0 ± 3. 3 ( t = 62. 5 , P < 0. 01) , the intermetatasal angle was corrected from 22. 1 ±3.2 to 9.7 ±1.2 ( t = 27.6, P<0.01) , AOFAS score was enhanced from 34. 1 ±5.2 to 89. 1 ±2.4 ( t = 57. 9, P < 0. 01) . One foot appeared thumb varus deformity, another one appeared slightly metastatic pain of under the second metatarsal bone. Conclusion Correction of severe hallux valgus by distal osteotomy of the first metatarsal through mini-incision with cutting the conjoint tendon of adductor pollicis is reliable and stable, it has clinical application value.%目的 探讨小切口第一跖骨远端截骨术联合拇收肌联合腱切断矫正重度拇外翻畸形的疗效.方法 对19例拇外翻患者(37足)行小切口第一跖骨远端截骨加拇收肌联合腱切断矫正术,通过对手术前后AOFAS前足评分及影像学检查结果采用配对t检验进行统计学分析,进而评估手术治疗效果.结果 对所有患者随访6~24(平均16)个月,拇外翻角(HVA)由术前47.5±3.8矫正到12.0±3.3(t =62.5,P <0.01),第一二跖间角(IMA)由术前22.1±3.2 矫正到9.7±1.2(t =27.6,P <0.01).AOFAS 评分由术前34.1±5.2 提高到89.1±2.4(t =57.9,P <0.01).1足出现拇内翻畸形,1足出现轻度转移性第二跖骨头下疼痛.结论 小切口第一跖骨远端截骨术联合

  19. Integrated expression analysis of muscle hypertrophy identifies Asb2 as a negative regulator of muscle mass

    Davey, Jonathan R.; Watt, Kevin I.; Parker, Benjamin L.; Chaudhuri, Rima; Ryall, James G.; Cunningham, Louise; Qian, Hongwei; Sartorelli, Vittorio; Sandri, Marco; Chamberlain, Jeffrey; James, David E.; Gregorevic, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling network is a critical regulator of skeletal muscle mass and function and, thus, is an attractive therapeutic target for combating muscle disease, but the underlying mechanisms of action remain undetermined. We report that follistatin-based interventions (which modulate TGF-β network activity) can promote muscle hypertrophy that ameliorates aging-associated muscle wasting. However, the muscles of old sarcopenic mice demonstrate reduced response to follistatin compared with healthy young-adult musculature. Quantitative proteomic and transcriptomic analyses of young-adult muscles identified a transcription/translation signature elicited by follistatin exposure, which included repression of ankyrin repeat and SOCS box protein 2 (Asb2). Increasing expression of ASB2 reduced muscle mass, thereby demonstrating that Asb2 is a TGF-β network–responsive negative regulator of muscle mass. In contrast to young-adult muscles, sarcopenic muscles do not exhibit reduced ASB2 abundance with follistatin exposure. Moreover, preventing repression of ASB2 in young-adult muscles diminished follistatin-induced muscle hypertrophy. These findings provide insight into the program of transcription and translation events governing follistatin-mediated adaptation of skeletal muscle attributes and identify Asb2 as a regulator of muscle mass implicated in the potential mechanistic dysfunction between follistatin-mediated muscle growth in young and old muscles.

  20. Impaired muscle glycogen resynthesis after a marathon is not caused by decreased muscle GLUT-4 content

    Asp, S; Rohde, T; Richter, Erik

    1997-01-01

    Our purpose was to investigate whether the slow rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis after a competitive marathon is associated with a decrease in the total muscle content of the muscle glucose transporter (GLUT-4). Seven well-trained marathon runners participated in the study, and muscle biopsies...

  1. Muscle fatigue in fibromyalgia is in the brain, not in the muscles

    Bandak, Elisabeth; Amris, Kirstine; Bliddal, Henning;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate relationships between perceived and objectively measured muscle fatigue during exhausting muscle contractions in women with fibromyalgia (FM) compared with healthy controls (HC).......To investigate relationships between perceived and objectively measured muscle fatigue during exhausting muscle contractions in women with fibromyalgia (FM) compared with healthy controls (HC)....

  2. Coordination and Policy Traps

    Angeletos, George-Marios; Hellwig, Christian; Pavan, Alessandro

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the ability of a policy maker to control equilibrium outcomes in an environment where market participants play a coordination game with information heterogeneity. We consider defense policies against speculative currency attacks in a model where speculators observe the fundamentals with idiosyncratic noise. The policy maker is willing to take a costly policy action only for moderate fundamentals. Market participants can use this information to coordinate on di.erent respon...

  3. Macroeconomic Policies and Growth

    Palle Andersen; David Gruen

    1995-01-01

    While economic theory is largely mute on the question of whether macroeconomic policies affect long-run growth, an examination of the experience of different countries over various periods and the policies they pursued, lends strong support to the idea that macro policies do play a role in the growth process. A macroeconomic policy framework conducive to growth can be characterised by five features: a low and predictable inflation rate; an appropriate real interest rate; a stable and sustaina...

  4. Procompetitive Trade Policies

    Gonzales, José Luis Moraga; Viaene, Jean-Marie

    2001-01-01

    We study the procompetitive effects of trade policies against a foreign oligopoly in a model of vertical product differentiation. We show that a uniform tariff policy like the Most Favored Nation (MFN) clause is always welfare superior to free trade because of a pure rent-extraction effect. However, a nonuniform tariff policy is, in addition, procompetitive and thus yields a higher level of social welfare. The first best policy typically consists of giving a subsidy to the country producing l...

  5. Disability employment policy

    Mont, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series aimed at analyzing disability employment policy, and developing recommendations for policy reform in middle income countries. As the first paper in this series, this study provides a general overview of the relationship between disability and employment, focusing primarily on disability employment policies in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. It discusses how well these policies address the dual functions of integration...

  6. Interdisciplinary Science and Policy

    Levien, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    I am a mathematician by education and a manager of interdisciplinary policy research by experience. In this paper, I want to use the style of my discipline to express the lessons of my profession. Through a series of propositions, corollaries, and theorems I will try to demonstrate my thesis of relationship between interdisciplinary science and policy: interdisciplinary science is a necessary aid to policy, and special policies are needed, in turn, to achieve useful interdisciplinary science....

  7. The monetary policy model

    William Poole

    2006-01-01

    Most monetary economists today conduct their analysis within some version of a rational expectations model. A well-defined equilibrium in such a model requires that the private sector understand policy goals and the policymakers' model of the economy. An austere version of the model, with no information asymmetries, is valid only to a first approximation but nevertheless provides core insights to short- and long-run monetary policy. In this model, effective policy requires clarity of policy g...

  8. Innovation policies for tourism

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette

    2012-01-01

    The nature, extent, and implications of innovation in tourism are increasingly investigated in academic research, but the policies that affect these transformations in the industry and at tourism destinations are not equally well conceptualised theoretically or analysed empirically. The purpose of...... systematic framework of policy instruments for innovation in tourism. New generations of policies instigate a mainstreaming of the innovation agenda in ways that proceed beyond the traditional policy concepts....

  9. The policies; Les politiques

    Laruelle, Ph.; Snegaroff, Th.; Moreau, S.; Tellenne, C.; Brunel, S

    2005-07-01

    Fourth chapter of the book on the geo-policy of the sustainable development, this chapter deal with the different and international policies concerned by the problem. The authors analyze the american energy attitude and policy, the economical equilibrium facing the environmental equilibrium for the european policy, the sanctified and sacrificed nature and the japanese attitude, India and China, the great fear of the 21 century and the sustainable development in Africa. (A.L.B.)

  10. Brazil Agriculture Policy Review

    Quiroga, Jose; Brooks, Jonathan; Melyukhina, Olga

    2005-01-01

    In June 2005, OECD members met with senior government officials from Brazil to discuss Brazilian agricultural policies and future directions, as a part of a comprehensive agricultural policy review. Ongoing dialogue with Brazil on policy issues is important to fostering a better understanding of global challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. Results of the review will be published by the OECD in 2005. This policy note provides a preview of key findings.

  11. Enabling policies, disabling practices

    Zubeida Desai

    2008-01-01

    We often receive positive comment from overseas on the new South African language pol~Icy which acknowledges eleven official national languages. This article critically explores the effect of this policy within the confines of education. Three areas are investigated: importJnt shifts in language policy since 1994; language medium practice in a grade 4 class inl a primary school in a predominantly black Western Cape urban area; the discrepancy betwe,en the intentions of the policy makers and (...

  12. Hybrid Security Policies

    Radu CONSTANTINESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy is defined as the rules and regulations set by the organization. They are laid down by management in compliance with industry regulations, law and internal decisions. Policies are mandatory. Security policies rules how the information is protected against security vulnerabilities and they are the basis for security awareness, training and vital for security audits. Policies are focused on desired results. The means of achieving the goals are defined on controls, standards and procedures.

  13. Distribution of veterinary drug residues among muscles

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration sets tolerances for veterinary drug residues in muscle, but does not specify which muscle should be sampled for analysis. The goal of this research was to determine if antibiotic residue levels are dependent on muscle type. In this study, penicillin G (Pen G) d...

  14. Muscle MRI findings in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is characterized by extremely variable degrees of facial, scapular and lower limb muscle involvement. Clinical and genetic determination can be difficult, as molecular analysis is not always definitive, and other similar muscle disorders may have overlapping clinical manifestations. Whole-body muscle MRI examination for fat infiltration, atrophy and oedema was performed to identify specific patterns of muscle involvement in FSHD patients (30 subjects), and compared to a group of control patients (23) affected by other myopathies (NFSHD). In FSHD patients, we detected a specific pattern of muscle fatty replacement and atrophy, particularly in upper girdle muscles. The most frequently affected muscles, including paucisymptomatic and severely affected FSHD patients, were trapezius, teres major and serratus anterior. Moreover, asymmetric muscle involvement was significantly higher in FSHD as compared to NFSHD patients. In conclusion, muscle MRI is very sensitive for identifying a specific pattern of involvement in FSHD patients and in detecting selective muscle involvement of non-clinically testable muscles. Muscle MRI constitutes a reliable tool for differentiating FSHD from other muscular dystrophies to direct diagnostic molecular analysis, as well as to investigate FSHD natural history and follow-up of the disease. (orig.)

  15. Mechanical modeling of skeletal muscle functioning.

    Linden, van der Bart Jochem Julius Joost

    1998-01-01

    For movement of body or body segments is combined effort needed of the central nervous system and the muscular-skeletal system. This thesis deals with the mechanical functioning of skeletal muscle. That muscles come in a large variety of geometries, suggest the existence of a relation between muscle

  16. Immunity to Trichinella spiralis muscle infection

    Fabre, M.V.; Beiting, D.P.; Bliss, S.K.; Appleton, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Trichinella spiralis larvae establish chronic infections in skeletal muscles of immunocompetent hosts. Muscle infection is crucial to transmission and survival of the parasite in nature. Chronic infections by this highly immunogenic parasite are associated with modulation or escape from potentially destructive immune responses. This review summarizes our current knowledge of immunity to muscle infection with T. spiralis.

  17. Calcium dynamics in vascular smooth muscle

    Amberg, Gregory C.; Navedo, Manuel F.

    2013-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells are ultimately responsible for determining vascular luminal diameter and blood flow. Dynamic changes in intracellular calcium are a critical mechanism regulating vascular smooth muscle contractility. Processes influencing intracellular calcium are therefore important regulators of vascular function with physiological and pathophysiological consequences. In this review we discuss the major dynamic calcium signals identified and characterized in vascular smooth muscle cells....

  18. Intramuscular variation in fresh ham muscle color

    This experiment was conducted to characterize a defect involving pale muscle tissue in the superficial, ventral portion of ham muscles, resulting in two-toned appearance of cured ham products. Biceps femoris muscles (n = 200), representing 3 production systems, were obtained from the ham-boning lin...

  19. Muscle MRI findings in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    Gerevini, Simonetta; Caliendo, Giandomenico; Falini, Andrea [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Neuroradiology Unit, Head and Neck Department, Milan (Italy); Scarlato, Marina; Previtali, Stefano Carlo [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Neurology, INSPE and Division of Neuroscience, Milan (Italy); Maggi, Lorenzo; Pasanisi, Barbara; Morandi, Lucia [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico ' ' Carlo Besta' ' , Neuromuscular Diseases and Neuroimmunology Unit, Milan (Italy); Cava, Mariangela [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Radiology and Center for Experimental Imaging, Milan (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is characterized by extremely variable degrees of facial, scapular and lower limb muscle involvement. Clinical and genetic determination can be difficult, as molecular analysis is not always definitive, and other similar muscle disorders may have overlapping clinical manifestations. Whole-body muscle MRI examination for fat infiltration, atrophy and oedema was performed to identify specific patterns of muscle involvement in FSHD patients (30 subjects), and compared to a group of control patients (23) affected by other myopathies (NFSHD). In FSHD patients, we detected a specific pattern of muscle fatty replacement and atrophy, particularly in upper girdle muscles. The most frequently affected muscles, including paucisymptomatic and severely affected FSHD patients, were trapezius, teres major and serratus anterior. Moreover, asymmetric muscle involvement was significantly higher in FSHD as compared to NFSHD patients. In conclusion, muscle MRI is very sensitive for identifying a specific pattern of involvement in FSHD patients and in detecting selective muscle involvement of non-clinically testable muscles. Muscle MRI constitutes a reliable tool for differentiating FSHD from other muscular dystrophies to direct diagnostic molecular analysis, as well as to investigate FSHD natural history and follow-up of the disease. (orig.)

  20. Communication Policies in Yugoslavia.

    Lekovic, Zdravko; Bjelica, Mihalo

    This report on communication policies in Yugoslavia is part of a larger project, sponsored by UNESCO and intended to analyze communication policies as they exist at public, institutional, and professional levels in selected countries. Included in this report are: (1) the premise of Yugoslavian communication policy; (2) historical development of…

  1. Mexico Policy Notes

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This note presents an overview of Mexico's forthcoming reform agenda-from the World Bank's vantage point. It distills the main messages in the policy notes that make up this compendium. The purpose is not to provide definitive answers to the many policy questions likely to occupy the New Mexican administration, or to provide a comprehensive account of progress to date and policy recommenda...

  2. 38 CFR 4.56 - Evaluation of muscle disabilities.

    2010-07-01

    ... muscle tissue. Some loss of deep fascia or muscle substance or impairment of muscle tonus and loss of... palpation of loss of deep fascia, muscle substance, or normal firm resistance of muscles compared with sound... indicating wide damage to muscle groups in missile track. Palpation shows loss of deep fascia or...

  3. Resistance training induces qualitative changes in muscle morphology, muscle architecture, and muscle function in elderly postoperative patients

    Suetta, Charlotte; Andersen, Jesper L; Dalgas, Ulrik;

    2008-01-01

    beneficial qualitative changes in muscle fiber morphology and muscle architecture in elderly postoperative patients. In contrast, rehabilitation regimes based on functional exercises and neuromuscular electrical stimulation had no effect. The present data emphasize the importance of resistance training in......Although the negative effects of bed rest on muscle strength and muscle mass are well established, it still remains a challenge to identify effective methods to restore physical capacity of elderly patients recovering from hospitalization. The present study compared different training regimes with...... respect to muscle strength, muscle fiber size, muscle architecture, and stair walking power in elderly postoperative patients. Thirty-six patients (60-86 yr) scheduled for unilateral hip replacement surgery due to hip osteoarthritis were randomized to either 1) resistance training (RT: 3/wk x 12 wk), 2...

  4. Three Intermittent Sessions of Cryotherapy Reduce the Secondary Muscle Injury in Skeletal Muscle of Rat

    Oliveira, Nuno M. L.; Elaine P. Rainero; Salvini, Tania F.

    2006-01-01

    Although cryotherapy associated to compression is recommended as immediate treatment after muscle injury, the effect of intermittent sessions of these procedures in the area of secondary muscle injury is not established. This study examined the effect of three sessions of cryotherapy (30 min of ice pack each 2h) and muscle compression (sand pack) in the muscle-injured area. Twenty-four Wistar rats (312 ± 20g) were evaluated. In three groups, the middle belly of tibialis anterior (TA) muscle w...

  5. Muscle hypertrophy induced by myostatin inhibition : a new therapeutic approach of muscle atrophy

    Gilson, Hélène

    2009-01-01

    Increasing size and strength of skeletal muscle represents a promising therapeutic strategy for muscular disorders. One possible new tool is Myostatin (Mstn) because it plays a crucial role in regulating skeletal muscle mass. The first goal of our work was to determine whether Mstn inhibition could prevent muscle atrophy in catabolic states. As glucocorticoids play a major role in most muscle atrophy models, we assessed whether muscle atrophy caused by glucocorticoids in excess could be preve...

  6. Associations of Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity With Metabolic Syndrome Considering Both Muscle Mass and Muscle Strength

    Lee, Jihye; Hong, Yeon-Pyo; Shin, Hyun Ju; Lee, Weonyoung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated the associations of sarcopenia-defined both in terms of muscle mass and muscle strength-and sarcopenic obesity with metabolic syndrome. Methods: Secondary data pertaining to 309 subjects (85 men and 224 women) were collected from participants in exercise programs at a health center in a suburban area. Muscle mass was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis, and muscle strength was measured via handgrip strength. Sarcopenia based on muscle mass alone was def...

  7. Muscle phosphofructokinase deficiency. Biochemical and immunological studies of phosphofructokinase isozymes in muscle culture.

    Davidson, M; Miranda, A. F.; Bender, A N; DiMauro, S.; Vora, S.

    1983-01-01

    Muscle cultures from three unrelated patients with muscle phosphofructokinase (PFK; EC 2.7.1.11) deficiency (Glycogenosis type VII; Tarui disease) had normal PFK activity and normal morphology. Chromatographic and immunological studies showed that normal muscle cultures express all three PFK subunits, M (muscle-type), L (liver-type), and P (platelet-type) and contain multiple homotetrameric and heterotetrameric isozymes. Muscle cultures from patients lack catalytically active M subunit-contai...

  8. What is the policy problem? : Methodological challenges in policy evaluation

    Hanberger, Anders

    2001-01-01

    Because when a policy process starts, nobody knows what line of action will eventually be implemented, policy evaluation has to continuously examine the content of different policy components. In order to understand and explain public policy, different stakeholders’ perceptions of the policy problem need to be scrutinized. A policy evaluation should also facilitate the interpretation of policy in a broader context. What values and order does the policy or programme promote? Using an open eval...

  9. Language Policy and Communication Policy - Same Same but Different?

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Johnsen, Mia

    2006-01-01

    Surprisingly, no attempts have yet been made to relate language policy and communication policy. This is the case in theoretical contributions on language policy and theoretical contributions on communication policy alike, none of which mentions the other concept. It is also the case in existing language policies where the term communication policy is not mentioned at all. Likewise, the term language policy is not found in communication policies, even where a particular company or organisatio...

  10. Cyber security policy guidebook

    Bayuk, nifer L; Rohmeyer, l; Sachs, cus; Schmidt, frey; Weiss, eph

    2012-01-01

    This book is a taxonomy and thesaurus of current cybersecurity policy issues, including a thorough description of each issue and a corresponding list of pros and cons with respect to identified stances on each issue. It documents policy alternatives for the sake of clarity with respect to policy alone, and dives into organizational implementation issues. Without using technical jargon, the book emphasizes the importance of critical and analytical thinking when making policy decisions.  It also equips the reader with descriptions of the impact of specific policy ch

  11. EU Industrial Policy

    Pellegrin, Julie; Giorgetti, Maria Letizia; Jensen, Camilla;

    Following disregard in the 1980s, industrial policy has recently attracted policy attention at EU level. The objective of this study provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee, is to establish the state of the art of a coordinated and integrated EU industrial policy. It...... assesses current initiatives, policies and arrangements and proposes an overview of stakeholders' positions at EU and national levels in order to feed into the debate on how to improve competitiveness and growth in Europe....

  12. EUROPEAN MARITIME TRANSPORT POLICY

    Jerzy Kujawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the common EU policy on maritime transport, which comprises almost 80% of the volume of external trade of the Union and about 40% of internal transport needs. The first part of the paper presents the origins of the common maritime transport policy and the difficulties encountered during its initial formation. Subsequently, the evolution of the concepts of the policy and its current shape is discussed. The final, substantial part of the article describes the main aims and directions of the EU maritime transport policy and includes an evaluation of the effects of the policy.

  13. Governing EU employment policy

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... Drawing an analytical distinction between cooperation, coordination and collaboration, the article analyses the formulation and implementation of EU employment policies. It concludes that while the formulation of policy objectives and the discussion of national policy approaches do involve elements of...

  14. Designing collaborative policy innovation

    Agger, Annika; Sørensen, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Recent approaches to enhancing public innovation suffer from two shortcomings: They overemphasize competition as a driver of innovation and overlook the fact that public sector innovation involves policy innovation as well as service innovation. Drawing on governance research and innovation theory......, the chapter investigates the extent to which and how collaboration between politicians and relevant stakeholders can spur the formulation, implementation and diffusion of new innovative policies. A case study of a process of collaborative policy innovation in a Danish municipality shows that...... collaborative policy arenas do contribute to policy innovation but also that the degree to which they do so depends on the institutional design of these arenas....

  15. Bone marrow mesenchymal cells improve muscle function in a skeletal muscle re-injury model.

    Bruno M Andrade

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle injury is the most common problem in orthopedic and sports medicine, and severe injury leads to fibrosis and muscle dysfunction. Conventional treatment for successive muscle injury is currently controversial, although new therapies, like cell therapy, seem to be promise. We developed a model of successive injuries in rat to evaluate the therapeutic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMMC injected directly into the injured muscle. Functional and histological assays were performed 14 and 28 days after the injury protocol by isometric tension recording and picrosirius/Hematoxilin & Eosin staining, respectively. We also evaluated the presence and the fate of BMMC on treated muscles; and muscle fiber regeneration. BMMC treatment increased maximal skeletal muscle contraction 14 and 28 days after muscle injury compared to non-treated group (4.5 ± 1.7 vs 2.5 ± 0.98 N/cm2, p<0.05 and 8.4 ± 2.3 vs. 5.7 ± 1.3 N/cm2, p<0.05 respectively. Furthermore, BMMC treatment increased muscle fiber cross-sectional area and the presence of mature muscle fiber 28 days after muscle injury. However, there was no difference in collagen deposition between groups. Immunoassays for cytoskeleton markers of skeletal and smooth muscle cells revealed an apparent integration of the BMMC within the muscle. These data suggest that BMMC transplantation accelerates and improves muscle function recovery in our extensive muscle re-injury model.

  16. Synchronous monitoring of muscle dynamics and muscle force for maximum isometric tetanus

    Zakir Hossain, M.; Grill, Wolfgang

    2010-03-01

    Skeletal muscle is a classic example of a biological soft matter . At both macro and microscopic levels, skeletal muscle is exquisitely oriented for force generation and movement. In addition to the dynamics of contracting and relaxing muscle which can be monitored with ultrasound, variations in the muscle force are also expected to be monitored. To observe such force and sideways expansion variations synchronously for the skeletal muscle a novel detection scheme has been developed. As already introduced for the detection of sideways expansion variations of the muscle, ultrasonic transducers are mounted sideways on opposing positions of the monitored muscle. To detect variations of the muscle force, angle of pull of the monitored muscle has been restricted by the mechanical pull of the sonic force sensor. Under this condition, any variation in the time-of-flight (TOF) of the transmitted ultrasonic signals can be introduced by the variation of the path length between the transducers. The observed variations of the TOF are compared to the signals obtained by ultrasound monitoring for the muscle dynamics. The general behavior of the muscle dynamics and muscle force shows almost an identical concept. Since muscle force also relates the psychological boosting-up effects, the influence of boosting-up on muscle force and muscle dynamics can also be quantified form this study. Length-tension or force-length and force-velocity relationship can also be derived quantitatively with such monitoring.

  17. Cytokines: muscle protein and amino acid metabolism

    van Hall, Gerrit

    2012-01-01

    raises TNF-α and IL-6 to moderate levels, has only identified IL-6 as a potent cytokine, decreasing systemic amino acid levels and muscle protein metabolism. The marked decrease in circulatory and muscle amino acid concentrations was observed with a concomitant reduction in both the rates of muscle...... IL-6 on the regulation of muscle protein metabolism but indirectly via IL-6 reducing amino acid availability. SUMMARY: Recent studies suggest that the best described cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 are unlikely to be the major direct mediators of muscle protein loss in inflammatory diseases. However, these...

  18. Emerin increase in regenerating muscle fibers

    S Squarzoni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The fate of emerin during skeletal muscle regeneration was investigated in an animal model by means of crush injury. Immunofluorescence, immunoblotting and mRNA analysis demonstrated that emerin level is increased in regenerating rat muscle fibers with respect to normal mature myofibers. This finding suggests an involvement of emerin during the muscle fiber regeneration process, in analogy with its reported involvement in muscle cell differentiation in vitro. The impairment of skeletal muscle physiological regeneration or reorganization could be a possible pathogenetic mechanism for Emery Dreifuss muscular dystrophy.

  19. Adaptive Filters for Muscle Response Suppression

    Sennels, Søren; Biering-Soerensen, Fin; Hansen, Steffen Duus;

    1996-01-01

    are proposed, based on the observation that the shape of the muscle responses only exhibits moderate changes during a time window of up to 300 ms. The filters are derived and compared with a conventional fixed comb filter on both simulated and real data. For variations in amplitude of the muscle responses......To be able to use the voluntary EMG-signal from an electrically stimulated muscle as control signal for FES-applications, it is necessary to eliminate the muscle response evoked by the stimulation. The muscle response is a non-stationary signal, therefore a set of linear adaptive prediction filters...

  20. The Policy Design Effect

    Hedegaard, Troels Fage

    2014-01-01

    Public and individual support for a policy is affected by how it is designed – that is, how eligibility is determined. This results in universal policies being more popular than contributions-based policies, which in turn enjoy more public support than the selective kind. The literature on welfare...... attitudes have argued that this ‘policy design effect’ can be explained by a combination of self-interest patterns, public perceptions of the recipient group and whether eligibility under the policy is perceived as fair or arbitrary.The explanations, however, lack micro-level theory and testing as to why...... the design of a policy affects individual and public support. This article seeks to explain this policy design effect by theoretically outlining and testing how being proximate to recipients of a social benefit affects attitudes towards the benefit. A survey of attitudes towards spending on five...

  1. Checking Security Policy Compliance

    Gowadia, Vaibhav; Kudo, Michiharu

    2008-01-01

    Ensuring compliance of organizations to federal regulations is a growing concern. This paper presents a framework and methods to verify whether an implemented low-level security policy is compliant to a high-level security policy. Our compliance checking framework is based on organizational and security metadata to support refinement of high-level concepts to implementation specific instances. Our work uses the results of refinement calculus to express valid refinement patterns and their properties. Intuitively, a low-level security policy is compliant to a high-level security policy if there is a valid refinement path from the high-level security policy to the low-level security policy. Our model is capable of detecting violations of security policies, failures to meet obligations, and capability and modal conflicts.

  2. Policy and Practice

    Boje, Thomas P.; Ejrnæs, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a typology of different family policy systems in Europe and evaluate their impact on the employment strategy of mothers with care responsibilities for dependent children. Design/methodology/approach – The paper outlines a typology of family policy...... regimes in Europe – covering the 26 countries. A typology based on a cluster analysis of macro indicators of family policy – coverage of childcare, effective parental leave and spending on family policies. The cluster analysis is based on data from OECD family data base. Then follows an analysis...... of the impact of the different family policy regimes on mothers' employment strategies when they return into gainful employment, based on data from the European Social Survey, 2008. Findings – The authors have identified four different family policy models: extensive family policy, long parental leave, family...

  3. Policies for Renewable Heat

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This paper builds on IEA publications, Deploying Renewables, Principles for Effective Policies and Deploying Renewables, Best and Future Policy Practice, that discuss the 'integrated policy approach,' whereby renewable energy technologies require different support policies at different stages of their maturity pathways. The paper discusses how the integrated policy approach applies to renewable heat. It attempts to provide guidance for policy-makers on renewable heat throughout the different phases of the policy lifecycle, allowing for the specific challenges of renewable heat and needs of the many stakeholders involved. Stimulating a market for heat involves challenges that are different and, often, more difficult to overcome than in the electricity and transport sectors.

  4. The effectiveness of monetary policy

    Robert H. Rasche; Marcela M. Williams

    2007-01-01

    This analysis addresses changing views of the role and effectiveness of monetary policy, inflation targeting as an "effective monetary policy," monetary policy and short-run (output) stabilization, and problems in implementing a short-run stabilization policy.

  5. Impact of weightlessness on muscle function

    Tischler, M. E.; Slentz, M.

    1995-01-01

    The most studied skeletal muscles which depend on gravity, "antigravity" muscles, are located in the posterior portion of the legs. Antigravity muscles are characterized generally by a different fiber type composition than those which are considered nonpostural. The gravity-dependent function of the antigravity muscles makes them particularly sensitive to weightlessness (unweighting) resulting in a substantial loss of muscle protein, with a relatively greater loss of myofibrillar (structural) proteins. Accordingly alpha-actin mRNA decreases in muscle of rats exposed to microgravity. In the legs, the soleus seems particularly responsive to the lack of weight-bearing associated with space flight. The loss of muscle protein leads to a decreased cross-sectional area of muscle fibers, particularly of the slow-twitch, oxidative (SO) ones compared to fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) or oxidative-glycolytic (FOG) fibers. In some muscles, a shift in fiber composition from SO to FOG has been reported in the adaptation to spaceflight. Changes in muscle composition with spaceflight have been associated with decreased maximal isometric tension (Po) and increased maximal shortening velocity. In terms of fuel metabolism, results varied depending on the pathway considered. Glucose uptake, in the presence of insulin, and activities of glycolytic enzymes are increased by space flight. In contrast, oxidation of fatty acids may be diminished. Oxidation of pyruvate, activity of the citric acid cycle, and ketone metabolism in muscle seem to be unaffected by microgravity.

  6. Proteomic profiling of skeletal muscle plasticity.

    Ohlendieck, Kay

    2011-10-01

    One of the most striking physiological features of skeletal muscle tissues are their enormous capacity to adapt to changed functional demands. Muscle plasticity has been extensively studied by histological, biochemical, physiological and genetic methods over the last few decades. With the recent emergence of high-throughput and large-scale proteomic techniques, mass spectrometry-based surveys have also been applied to the global analysis of the skeletal muscle protein complement during physiological modifications and pathophysiological alterations. This review outlines and discusses the impact of recent proteomic profiling studies of skeletal muscle transitions, including the effects of chronic electro-stimulation, physical exercise, denervation, disuse atrophy, hypoxia, myotonia, motor neuron disease and age-related fibre type shifting. This includes studies on the human skeletal muscle proteome, animal models of muscle plasticity and major neuromuscular pathologies. The biomedical importance of establishing reliable biomarker signatures for the various molecular and cellular transition phases involved in muscle transformation is critically examined. PMID:23738259

  7. Workplace Stress in the United States: Issues and Policies

    Michael Darden

    2014-01-01

    Despite relative affluence, workplace stress is a prominent feature of the US labour market. To the extent that job stress causes poor health outcomes – either directly through increased blood pressure, fatigue, muscle pain, etc. or indirectly through increased rates of cigarette smoking – policy to lessen job stress may be appropriate. Focusing predominantly on the United States, this report reviews the literature on a variety of economic concerns related to job stress and health. Areas in w...

  8. Abdominal muscle training in sport.

    Norris, C M

    1993-01-01

    This paper evaluates several abdominal exercises, and highlights factors which are important for their safe prescription and effective use. The function of the abdominal muscles and hip flexors is considered, and the importance of the infra-umbilical portion of the rectus abdominis is emphasized. The effects of flexion on the lumbar spine are outlined. The trunk curl, sit-up, and straight leg raise are analysed, together with modifications of these exercises. The effect of foot fixation and h...

  9. Influence of muscle hypertrophy on the moment arm of the triceps brachii muscle.

    Sugisaki, Norihide; Wakahara, Taku; Murata, Koichiro; Miyamoto, Naokazu; Kawakami, Yasuo; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2015-04-01

    Although the moment arm of the triceps brachii muscle has been shown to be associated with the muscle's anatomical cross-sectional area, whether training-induced muscle hypertrophy alters the moment arm of the muscle remains unexplored. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine this. Eleven men underwent a 12-week resistance training program for the triceps brachii muscle. The maximum muscle anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSAmax), the moment arm of the triceps brachii muscle, and the anterior-posterior dimension of the olecranon were measured using a magnetic resonance imaging system before and after intervention. The ACSAmax (33.6 ± 11.9%, P .05). The change in moment arm was smaller than that expected from the relationship between the ACSAmax and the moment arm before the intervention. The present results indicate that training-induced triceps brachii muscle hypertrophy could increase the muscle moment arm, but its impact can be small or negligible. PMID:25411895

  10. Language Policy and Communication Policy - Same Same but Different?

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Johnsen, Mia

    2006-01-01

    Surprisingly, no attempts have yet been made to relate language policy and communication policy. This is the case in theoretical contributions on language policy and theoretical contributions on communication policy alike, none of which mentions the other concept. It is also the case in existing...... language policies where the term communication policy is not mentioned at all. Likewise, the term language policy is not found in communication policies, even where a particular company or organisation has a language policy as well as a communication policy. This contribution aims to define both terms and...

  11. Postinjection Muscle Fibrosis from Lupron

    Erica Everest

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 6.5-year-old girl with central precocious puberty (CPP, which signifies the onset of secondary sexual characteristics before the age of eight in females and the age of nine in males as a result of stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Her case is likely related to her adoption, as children who are adopted internationally have much higher rates of CPP. She had left breast development at Tanner Stage 2, adult body odor, and mildly advanced bone age. In order to halt puberty and maximize adult height, she was prescribed a gonadotropin releasing hormone analog, the first line treatment for CPP. She was administered Lupron (leuprolide acetate Depot-Ped (3 months intramuscularly. After her second injection, she developed swelling and muscle pain at the injection site on her right thigh. She also reported an impaired ability to walk. She was diagnosed with muscle fibrosis. This is the first reported case of muscle fibrosis resulting from Lupron injection.

  12. An allometric analysis of the number of muscle spindles in mammalian skeletal muscles.

    Banks, R W

    2006-06-01

    An allometric analysis of the number of muscle spindles in relation to muscle mass in mammalian (mouse, rat, guinea-pig, cat, human) skeletal muscles is presented. It is shown that the trend to increasing number as muscle mass increases follows an isometric (length) relationship between species, whereas within a species, at least for the only essentially complete sample (human), the number of spindles scales, on average, with the square root rather than the cube root of muscle mass. An attempt is made to reconcile these apparently discrepant relationships. Use of the widely accepted spindle density (number of spindles g(-1) of muscle) as a measure of relative abundance of spindles in different muscles is shown to be grossly misleading. It is replaced with the residuals of the linear regression of ln spindle number against ln muscle mass. Significant differences in relative spindle abundance as measured by residuals were found between regional groups of muscles: the greatest abundance is in axial muscles, including those concerned with head position, whereas the least is in muscles of the shoulder girdle. No differences were found between large and small muscles operating in parallel, or between antigravity and non-antigravity muscles. For proximal vs. distal muscles, spindles were significantly less abundant in the hand than the arm, but there was no difference between the foot and the leg. PMID:16761976

  13. Muscle activity characterization by laser Doppler Myography

    Scalise, Lorenzo; Casaccia, Sara; Marchionni, Paolo; Ercoli, Ilaria; Primo Tomasini, Enrico

    2013-09-01

    Electromiography (EMG) is the gold-standard technique used for the evaluation of muscle activity. This technique is used in biomechanics, sport medicine, neurology and rehabilitation therapy and it provides the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. Among the parameters measured with EMG, two very important quantities are: signal amplitude and duration of muscle contraction, muscle fatigue and maximum muscle power. Recently, a new measurement procedure, named Laser Doppler Myography (LDMi), for the non contact assessment of muscle activity has been proposed to measure the vibro-mechanical behaviour of the muscle. The aim of this study is to present the LDMi technique and to evaluate its capacity to measure some characteristic features proper of the muscle. In this paper LDMi is compared with standard superficial EMG (sEMG) requiring the application of sensors on the skin of each patient. sEMG and LDMi signals have been simultaneously acquired and processed to test correlations. Three parameters has been analyzed to compare these techniques: Muscle activation timing, signal amplitude and muscle fatigue. LDMi appears to be a reliable and promising measurement technique allowing the measurements without contact with the patient skin.

  14. Redox control of skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Powers, Scott K; Morton, Aaron B; Ahn, Bumsoo; Smuder, Ashley J

    2016-09-01

    Skeletal muscles comprise the largest organ system in the body and play an essential role in body movement, breathing, and glucose homeostasis. Skeletal muscle is also an important endocrine organ that contributes to the health of numerous body organs. Therefore, maintaining healthy skeletal muscles is important to support overall health of the body. Prolonged periods of muscle inactivity (e.g., bed rest or limb immobilization) or chronic inflammatory diseases (i.e., cancer, kidney failure, etc.) result in skeletal muscle atrophy. An excessive loss of muscle mass is associated with a poor prognosis in several diseases and significant muscle weakness impairs the quality of life. The skeletal muscle atrophy that occurs in response to inflammatory diseases or prolonged inactivity is often associated with both oxidative and nitrosative stress. In this report, we critically review the experimental evidence that provides support for a causative link between oxidants and muscle atrophy. More specifically, this review will debate the sources of oxidant production in skeletal muscle undergoing atrophy as well as provide a detailed discussion on how reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species modulate the signaling pathways that regulate both protein synthesis and protein breakdown. PMID:26912035

  15. Muscle activity characterization by laser Doppler Myography

    Electromiography (EMG) is the gold-standard technique used for the evaluation of muscle activity. This technique is used in biomechanics, sport medicine, neurology and rehabilitation therapy and it provides the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. Among the parameters measured with EMG, two very important quantities are: signal amplitude and duration of muscle contraction, muscle fatigue and maximum muscle power. Recently, a new measurement procedure, named Laser Doppler Myography (LDMi), for the non contact assessment of muscle activity has been proposed to measure the vibro-mechanical behaviour of the muscle. The aim of this study is to present the LDMi technique and to evaluate its capacity to measure some characteristic features proper of the muscle. In this paper LDMi is compared with standard superficial EMG (sEMG) requiring the application of sensors on the skin of each patient. sEMG and LDMi signals have been simultaneously acquired and processed to test correlations. Three parameters has been analyzed to compare these techniques: Muscle activation timing, signal amplitude and muscle fatigue. LDMi appears to be a reliable and promising measurement technique allowing the measurements without contact with the patient skin

  16. Engineering skeletal muscle tissue in bioreactor systems

    An Yang; Li Dong

    2014-01-01

    Objective To give a concise review of the current state of the art in tissue engineering (TE) related to skeletal muscle and kinds of bioreactor environment.Data sources The review was based on data obtained from the published articles and guidelines.Study selection A total of 106 articles were selected from several hundred original articles or reviews.The content of selected articles is in accordance with our purpose and the authors are authorized scientists in the study of engineered muscle tissue in bioreactor.Results Skeletal muscle TE is a promising interdisciplinary field which aims at the reconstruction of skeletal muscle loss.Although numerous studies have indicated that engineering skeletal muscle tissue may be of great importance in medicine in the near future,this technique still represents a limited degree of success.Since tissue-engineered muscle constructs require an adequate connection to the vascular system for efficient transport of oxygen,carbon dioxide,nutrients and waste products.Moreover,functional and clinically applicable muscle constructs depend on adequate neuromuscular junctions with neural calls.Third,in order to engineer muscle tissue successfully,it may be beneficial to mimic the in vivo environment of muscle through association with adequate stimuli from bioreactors.Conclusion Vascular system and bioreactors are necessary for development and maintenance of engineered muscle in order to provide circulation within the construct.

  17. Are muscle synergies useful for neural control ?

    Aymar de Rugy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The observation that the activity of multiple muscles can be well approximated by a few linear synergies is viewed by some as a sign that such low-dimensional modules constitute a key component of the neural control system. Here, we argue that the usefulness of muscle synergies as a control principle should be evaluated in terms of errors produced not only in muscle space, but also in task space. We used data from a force-aiming task in two dimensions at the wrist, using an EMG-driven virtual biomechanics technique that overcomes typical errors in predicting force from recorded EMG, to illustrate through simulation how synergy decomposition inevitably introduces substantial task space errors. Then, we computed the optimal pattern of muscle activation that minimizes summed-squared muscle activities, and demonstrated that synergy decomposition produced similar results on real and simulated data. We further assessed the influence of synergy decomposition on aiming errors in a more redundant system, using the optimal muscle pattern computed for the elbow-joint complex (i.e., 13 muscles acting in two dimensions. Because EMG records are typically not available from all contributing muscles, we also explored reconstructions from incomplete sets of muscles. The redundancy of a given set of muscles had opposite effects on the goodness of muscle reconstruction and on task achievement; higher redundancy is associated with better EMG approximation (lower residuals, but with higher aiming errors. Finally, we showed that the number of synergies required to approximate the optimal muscle pattern for an arbitrary biomechanical system increases with task-space dimensionality, which indicates that the capacity of synergy decomposition to explain behaviour depends critically on the scope of the original database. These results have implications regarding the viability of muscle synergy as a putative neural control mechanism, and also as a control algorithm to

  18. Implementing public employment policy

    Larsen, Flemming; Bredgaard, Thomas

    . But there is an interesting question to investigate here: whether and if so how, NPM-inspired reforms are related to changes in employment policy towards a work-first approach? Are changes in public management systems created as deliberate policy changes, or do they bring about more indirect and......Like most other areas within welfare policy, the employment and social policy areas are undergoing far-reaching changes in many countries. Partly in the shape of new forms of governance inspired by New Public Management (NPM), partly through new policies oriented towards activation and stronger...... disciplining of the unemployed (work first) (cf.Bredgaard & Larsen, 2005; Sol & Westerweld, 2005). It is, however, remarkable that in the research field there seems to be a division of labour so that changes in public administration and changes in the substance of employment policies are dealt with separately...

  19. Shaping Policy Curves

    Broome, André; Seabrooke, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    International organizations (IOs) such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank are assumed to rely on ‘sympathetic interlocutors’ at the national level to drive through economic reforms that conform to global policy norms. In this article we answer the following question: How do...... provide a conceptual framework for understanding how IOs seek to use their own cognitive authority to foster ‘diagnostic coordination’ across technocratic economic policy communities. This encourages officials to adapt to a common policy language and delimits the policy space within which they identify...... sympathetic interlocutors for IOs emerge in the first place? We address this question by examining how IOs engage in teaching norms to national officials via transnational policy training in order to increase the number of domestic reformers who are sympathetic to their prescriptions for policy change. We...

  20. Environmental Policy Performance Revisited: Designing Effective Policies for Green Markets

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2012-01-01

    Studies of environmental policy performance tend to concentrate on the impact of particular policy institutions or of single policy instruments. However, environmental policies most often consist of a package of policy instruments. Further, these studies pay no or very little attention to policy instruments directed at the demand-side of the market. Therefore this article develops a policy typology for government intervention aimed at creating green markets. The typology distinguishes between...

  1. City, ICT and Policy

    Galit Cohen; Peter Nijkamp

    2004-01-01

    New technologies tend to exert a profound influence on modern city life. This paper addresses the role of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the city. After a broad overview of the potential of ICT in a geographical setting and its possible impact on urban policy in regard to the ICT sector, the paper focusses attention on urban public policy in regard to the ICT sector. This study offers the proposition that urban ICT policy is driven by the stakeholders attitudinal and perc...

  2. Performance of national policies

    1997-01-01

    National spatial policies are usually indicative and strategic. As a result, this kind of policy does not have a direct bearing on the spatial organisation of society. Instead the performance of these policies depends on whether or not they are used in subsequent decisionmaking and planning procedures, where and when this seems relevant. Consequently, straightforward evaluation procedures, based on a combined methodology of before - after design and the measurement of conformity, do not help ...

  3. Consistent Trade Policy Aggregation

    Anderson, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Much empirical work requires the aggregation of policies. This paper provides methods of policy aggregation that are consistent with two common objectives of empirical work. One is to preserve real income. The other is to preserve the real volume of activity in one or more parts of the economy. Trade policy aggregation is an acute example of the aggregation problem with thousands of highly dispersed trade barriers to be aggregated. An application to India shows that the standard atheoretic me...

  4. Counterterrorism policy in Colombia

    Self, Kevin A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to suggest a coherent, credible, and long-term counterterrorism policy in Colombia. The events of September 11, 2001 heightened U.S. awareness of Colombian terrorist organizations, the most powerful being the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). The U.S. counterterror approach in Colombia appears fragmented, with only minor changes to its previous drug control policies. In contrast, the Colombian government has developed and implemented a policy to ...

  5. Health policy roundtable

    Productivity Commission Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic; Social Research

    2002-01-01

    Proceedings of a conference organised by the Productivity Commission and the Melbourne Institute of Economic and Social Research held on 7-8 March 2002 to explore key policy issues facing Australia's health sector. The Roundtable drew together thirty leading practitioners and analysts on health policy issues. The topics covered included international developments in health policy, cost pressures in health care systems, access and service delivery, supplier-induced demand and occupational regu...

  6. Poverty and Immigration Policy

    Oberman, Kieran

    2015-01-01

    What are the ethical implications of global poverty for immigration policy? This article finds substantial evidence that migration is effective at reducing poverty. There is every indication that the adoption of a fairly open immigration policy by rich countries, coupled with selective use of immigration restrictions in cases of deleterious brain drain, could be of significant assistance to people living in poor countries. Empirically there is nothing wrong with using immigration policy to ad...

  7. Pension Fund Investment Policy

    Zvi Bodie

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to survey what is known about the investment policy of pension funds. Pension fund investment policy depends critically on the type of plan: defined contribution versus defined benefit. For defined contribution plans investment policy is not much different than it is for an individual deciding how to invest the money in an Individual Retirement Account (IRA). The guiding principle is efficient diversification, that is, achieving the maximum expected return for any...

  8. Federal science policy

    I will give a short course, a very short course, in the political science of science. Next, I shall spend most of my time discussing the two policy studies in which our Committee on Science, Space, and Technology is engaged. Naturally they are a Science Policy Study and a Technology Policy Study. Finally, I want to give you a brief update on the battle of the budjet

  9. Dividend Policy Controverses

    Ljiljana Vidučić

    2005-01-01

    Dividend theory shares with capital structure theories the attribute of area of high controversy. Financial literature discusses whether there is an interdependency of dividends and share price, i.e. value of the firm. The main views may be defined with three theories of dividend policy. However, unambiguous solutions are still lacking. Literature on dividends highlights several concepts that may be important in defining the dividend policy. Dividend policy aims to define payout ratio, sort o...

  10. Disaster Risk Management Policy

    Inter-American Development Bank

    2007-01-01

    This Disaster Risk Management Policy has been developed in the context of an increase in the number and seriousness of disasters in Latin America and the Caribbean, and the awareness that disasters have significant bearing on the economic and social development of most countries in the region, affecting disproportionately the poorest countries and people. This policy, which emphasizes risk reduction, is intended to improve the institutional and policy framework of the Bank to support disaster...

  11. Guiding Economic Policy

    2008-01-01

    Three top Chinese officials responsible for guiding China’s macroeconomic policies expound on the state of the economy In Premier Wen Jiabao’s recent govern- ment work report,he said that the major task this year would be to prevent over- all prices from rising rapidly.Along with this,he accentuated a prudent fiscal policy and a tight monetary policy. Following the premier’s work report,

  12. Open Access Policy Update

    Morrison, Heather

    2007-01-01

    This presentation explores the status of open access policy developments internationally, and particularly in Canada, as of April 2007. While open access resources are substantial, and growing rapidly, the primary issue for open access archives (institutional repositories) is content acquisition, and few researchers fully understand open access, illustrating an ongoing need for policy. Open access policy initiatives are happening around the world. Sherpa Juliet lists more than 20 funding a...

  13. Smart innovation policies

    Camagni, Roberto; Capello, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents conceptual and empirical reasons for moving from a thematically-regionally neutral innovation policy to a thematically and regionally focused innovation policy, in line with the smart specialization approach of the new cohesion policy framework. The paper starts by claiming that the pathways towards innovation and modernization are differentiated among regions according to local specificities. In fact, territorial innovation patterns exist, that differ one another in terms...

  14. Activist Fiscal Policy

    Auerbach, Alan J.; William G. Gale; Harris, Benjamin H.

    2010-01-01

    During and after the "Great Recession" that began in December 2007, the U.S. federal government enacted several rounds of activist fiscal policy. In this paper, we review the recent evolution of thinking and evidence regarding the effectiveness of activist fiscal policy. Although fiscal interventions aimed at stimulating and stabilizing the economy have returned to common use, their efficacy remains controversial. We review the debate about the traditional types of fiscal policy interventions...

  15. Monetary Policy Proving Effective

    2010-01-01

    @@ Hu Xiaolian,Vice Governor of the People's Bank of China,the country's central bank,published an article concerning China's managed floating exchange rate regime and the effectiveness of the monetary policy on the bank's website on July 26.She pointed out monetary policy,as an important instrument of China's macroeconomic control,has faced many challenges in recent years.A more flexible exchange rate regime will help improve the effectiveness of the policy.

  16. Evaluation of Muscle Function of the Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscle Ex vivo and Tibialis Anterior Muscle In situ in Mice

    Hakim, Chady H.; Wasala, Nalinda B.; Duan, Dongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Body movements are mainly provided by mechanical function of skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle is composed of numerous bundles of myofibers that are sheathed by intramuscular connective tissues. Each myofiber contains many myofibrils that run longitudinally along the length of the myofiber. Myofibrils are the contractile apparatus of muscle and they are composed of repeated contractile units known as sarcomeres. A sarcomere unit contains actin and myosin filaments that are spaced by the Z disc...

  17. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN MUSCLE MASS, MUSCLE STRENGTH, PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE, AND MUSCLE FATIGUE RESISTANCE IN COMMUNITY-DWELLING ELDERLY SUBJECTS

    Dell, Elizabeth; Vitriana; Irma Ruslina Defi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the correlations between muscle mass, muscle strength, physical performance, and muscle fatigue resistance in community-dwelling elderly people in order to elucidate factors which contribute to elderly’s performance of daily activities. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on community-dwelling elderly in Bandung from September to December 2014. One hundred and thirty elderly, 60 years old or above, were evaluated using bioelectrical impedance analysis to...

  18. Academia, policy and politics.

    Le Grand, Julian

    2006-01-01

    In October 2003, I started a secondment from the London School of Economics (LSE), where I hold the Richard Titmuss Chair of Social Policy, to No 10 Downing Street, where I worked as a senior policy adviser to the Prime Minister, Tony Blair. I began working initially on a specific project: developing policies on extending user choice in public services, with particular reference to health care and education. Then I was asked to be the Prime Minister’s health policy adviser, a role I agreed to...

  19. Energy Operations Policy

    The document sets out the operational role of the Bank in this sector and establishes the overall framework for the Bank's activities. This new Policy replaces and updates the Natural Resources Operations Policy and the Energy Operations Policy approved by the Board of Directors in 1999 and 2000, respectively, combining the two spheres of activity into one comprehensive policy. Specifically, this Policy builds on past policies and complements more closely new regional and global energy initiatives now being implemented by national and international bodies. The Policy particularly mandates the Bank to increase its support for energy efficiency and renewable energy, corporate governance and transparency, and to refine its activities in other areas based on lessons learned and evolving best international practices. The Policy encompasses all activities in energy conversion including: demand side performance, power generation, transmission, distribution and supply, the entire oil and gas cycle from production to transportation, refining, and distribution and coal mining. The Policy will guide the Bank in its direct investment operations and, as expressly provided, in its investments through financial intermediaries

  20. Collaborative Policy Innovation

    Sørensen, Eva; Boch Waldorff, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    of collaborative policy innovation in the area of mental health care in Denmark indicates that collaboration can contribute to qualify the politicians’ understanding of wicked policy problems, and to fostering new creative policy solutions. The study also shows, however, that the new problem understandings......Governments all over the Western world currently face wicked problems that call for policy innovation. A new strand of research in public innovation points to collaboration between public authorities and relevant and affected stakeholders as an important driver of public innovation. A case study...

  1. THREE INTERMITTENT SESSIONS OF CRYOTHERAPY REDUCE THE SECONDARY MUSCLE INJURY IN SKELETAL MUSCLE OF RAT

    Nuno M. L. Oliveira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Although cryotherapy associated to compression is recommended as immediate treatment after muscle injury, the effect of intermittent sessions of these procedures in the area of secondary muscle injury is not established. This study examined the effect of three sessions of cryotherapy (30 min of ice pack each 2h and muscle compression (sand pack in the muscle-injured area. Twenty-four Wistar rats (312 ± 20g were evaluated. In three groups, the middle belly of tibialis anterior (TA muscle was injured by a frozen iron bar and received one of the following treatments: a three sessions of cryotherapy; b three sessions of compression; c not treated. An uninjured group received sessions of cryotherapy. Frozen muscles were cross- sectioned (10 µm and stained for the measurement of injured and uninjured muscle area. Injured muscles submitted to cryotherapy showed the smallest injured area (29.83 ± 6.6%, compared to compressed (39.2 ± 2.8%, p= 0.003 and untreated muscles (41.74 ± 4.0%, p = 0.0008. No difference was found between injured compressed and injured untreated muscles. In conclusion, three intermittent sessions of cryotherapy applied immediately after muscle damage was able to reduce the secondary muscle injury, while only the muscle compression did not provide the same effectiveness

  2. Muscle dynamics in fish during steady swimming

    Shadwick, RE; Steffensen, JF; Katz, SL;

    1998-01-01

    position in swimming fish. Quantification of muscle contractile properties in cyclic contractions relies on in vitro experiments using strain and activation data collected in vivo. In this paper we discuss the relation between these parameters and body kinematics. Using videoradiographic data from swimming...... contraction, suggesting that the phase relation between the muscle strain cycle and its activation must vary along the body. Since this phase relation is critical in determining how the muscle performs in cyclic contractions, the possibility has emerged that dynamic muscle function may change with axial...... mackerel we demonstrate that red muscle strain can be accurately predicted from midline curvature but not from lateral displacement. Electromyographic recordings show neuronal activation patterns that are consistent with red muscle performing net positive work at all axial positions. The relatively...

  3. Pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation using biofeedback.

    Newman, Diane K

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic floor muscle exercises have been recommended for urinary incontinence since first described by obstetrician gynecologist Dr. Arnold Kegel more than six decades ago. These exercises are performed to strengthen pelvic floor muscles, provide urethral support to prevent urine leakage, and suppress urgency. In clinical urology practice, expert clinicians also teach patients how to relax the muscle to improve bladder emptying and relieve pelvic pain caused by muscle spasm. When treating lower urinary tract symptoms, an exercise training program combined with biofeedback therapy has been recommended as first-line treatment. This article provides clinical application of pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation using biofeedback as a technique to enhance pelvic floor muscle training. PMID:25233622

  4. Epigenetic regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism.

    Howlett, Kirsten F; McGee, Sean L

    2016-07-01

    Normal skeletal muscle metabolism is essential for whole body metabolic homoeostasis and disruptions in muscle metabolism are associated with a number of chronic diseases. Transcriptional control of metabolic enzyme expression is a major regulatory mechanism for muscle metabolic processes. Substantial evidence is emerging that highlights the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in this process. This review will examine the importance of epigenetics in the regulation of muscle metabolism, with a particular emphasis on DNA methylation and histone acetylation as epigenetic control points. The emerging cross-talk between metabolism and epigenetics in the context of health and disease will also be examined. The concept of inheritance of skeletal muscle metabolic phenotypes will be discussed, in addition to emerging epigenetic therapies that could be used to alter muscle metabolism in chronic disease states. PMID:27215678

  5. The exercised skeletal muscle: a review

    Marina Marini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The skeletal muscle is the second more plastic tissue of the body - second to the nervous tissue only. In fact, both physical activity and inactivity contribute to modify the skeletal muscle, by continuous signaling through nerve impulses, mechanical stimuli and humoral clues. In turn, the skeletal muscle sends signals to the body, thus contributing to its homeostasis. We'll review here the contribute of physical exercise to the shaping of skeletal muscle, to the adaptation of its mass and function to the different needs imposed by different physical activities and to the attainment of the health benefits associated with active skeletal muscles. Focus will primarily be on the molecular pathways and on gene regulation that result in skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise.

  6. Gene and cell therapy for muscle regeneration

    Stilhano, Roberta Sessa; Martins, Leonardo; Ingham, Sheila Jean McNeill; Pesquero, João Bosco; Huard, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle injury and healing are multifactorial processes, involving three steps of healing: (1) degeneration and inflammation, (2) regeneration, and (3) fibrosis. Fibrous tissue hinders the muscle’s complete recovery and current therapies fail in achieving total muscle recovery. Gene and cell therapy (or both) are potential future treatments for severe muscular injuries. Stem cells’ properties associated with growth factors or/and cytokines can improve muscle healing and permit long-te...

  7. Forever young: rejuvenating muscle satellite cells

    Madaro, Luca; Latella, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    A hallmark of aging is alteration of organismal homeostasis and progressive decline of tissue functions. Alterations of both cell intrinsic functions and regenerative environmental cues contribute to the compromised stem cell activity and reduced regenerative capability occurring in aged muscles. In this perspective, we discuss the new evidence supporting the hypothesis that skeletal muscle stem cells (MuSCs) are intrinsically defective in elderly muscles. In particular, we review three recen...

  8. Skeletal Muscle Autophagy: A New Metabolic Regulator

    Neel, Brian A.; Lin, Yuxi; Pessin, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy classically functions as a physiological process to degrade cytoplasmic components, protein aggregates, and/or organelles, as a mechanism for nutrient breakdown, and as a regulator of cellular architecture. Proper autophagic flux is vital for both functional skeletal muscle, which controls support and movement of the skeleton, and muscle metabolism. The role of autophagy as a metabolic regulator in muscle has been previously studied; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms that...

  9. Muscle function in COPD: a complex interplay

    Donaldson, Anna V; Maddocks, Matthew; Martolini, Dario; Polkey, Michael I; Man, William D-C

    2012-01-01

    The skeletal muscles play an essential role in life, providing the mechanical basis for respiration and movement. Skeletal muscle dysfunction is prevalent in all stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and significantly influences symptoms, functional capacity, health related quality of life, health resource usage and even mortality. Furthermore, in contrast to the lungs, the skeletal muscles are potentially remedial with existing therapy, namely exercise-training. This review...

  10. Proteomic profiling of skeletal muscle plasticity

    Ohlendieck, Kay

    2012-01-01

    One of the most striking physiological features of skeletal muscle tissues are their enormous capacity to adapt to changed functional demands. Muscle plasticity has been extensively studied by histological, biochemical, physiological and genetic methods over the last few decades. With the recent emergence of high-throughput and large-scale proteomic techniques, mass spectrometry-based surveys have also been applied to the global analysis of the skeletal muscle protein complement during physio...

  11. Etiological factors for muscle tension dysphonia

    Kušar, Rozalija

    2012-01-01

    This thesis discusses muscle tension dysphonia and etiological factors for its emergence. Muscle tension dysphonia is a consequence of irregular formation of the sound and is connected to increased and unnecessary muscle tension and phonation, and is usually without any anatomical and peripheral neurological irregularities and also without any changes on the mucous membrane. In the theoretical part of this thesis voice disorders and various classifications of voice disorders that occur in the...

  12. Human Muscle Fatigue Model in Dynamic Motions

    Ma, Ruina; Chablat, Damien; Bennis, Fouad; Ma, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Human muscle fatigue is considered to be one of the main reasons for Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD). Recent models have been introduced to define muscle fatigue for static postures. However, the main drawbacks of these models are that the dynamic effect of the human and the external load are not taken into account. In this paper, each human joint is assumed to be controlled by two muscle groups to generate motions such as push/pull. The joint torques are computed using Lagrange's formulation ...

  13. Muscle fibre ontogenesis in farm animal species

    Picard, Brigitte; Lefaucheur, Louis; Berri, Cécile; Duclos, Michel

    2002-01-01

    International audience In farm animals (bovine, ovine, swine, rabbit and poultry), muscle fibre characteristics play a key role in meat quality. The present review summarises the knowledge on muscle fibre characteristics and ontogenesis in these species. Myofibre ontogenesis begins very early during embryonic life, with the appearance of two or three successive waves of myoblasts which constitute the origin of the different types of muscle fibres. In small animals (rodents and poultry), a ...

  14. Insulin binding to individual rat skeletal muscles

    Studies of insulin binding to skeletal muscle, performed using sarcolemmal membrane preparations or whole muscle incubations of mixed muscle or typical red (soleus, psoas) or white [extensor digitorum longus (EDL), gastrocnemius] muscle, have suggested that red muscle binds more insulin than white muscle. We have evaluated this hypothesis using cryostat sections of unfixed tissue to measure insulin binding in a broad range of skeletal muscles; many were of similar fiber-type profiles. Insulin binding per square millimeter of skeletal muscle slice was measured by autoradiography and computer-assisted densitometry. We found a 4.5-fold range in specific insulin tracer binding, with heart and predominantly slow-twitch oxidative muscles (SO) at the high end and the predominantly fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) muscles at the low end of the range. This pattern reflects insulin sensitivity. Evaluation of displacement curves for insulin binding yielded linear Scatchard plots. The dissociation constants varied over a ninefold range (0.26-2.06 nM). Binding capacity varied from 12.2 to 82.7 fmol/mm2. Neither binding parameter was correlated with fiber type or insulin sensitivity; e.g., among three muscles of similar fiber-type profile, the EDL had high numbers of low-affinity binding sites, whereas the quadriceps had low numbers of high-affinity sites. In summary, considerable heterogeneity in insulin binding was found among hindlimb muscles of the rat, which can be attributed to heterogeneity in binding affinities and the numbers of binding sites. It can be concluded that a given fiber type is not uniquely associated with a set of insulin binding parameters that result in high or low binding

  15. MICROSTIMULATION ACTIVATES A HANDFUL OF MUSCLE SYNERGIES

    Overduin, Simon A.; d’Avella, Andrea; Carmena, Jose M.; Bizzi, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Muscle synergies have been proposed as a mechanism to simplify movement control. Whether these coactivation patterns have any physiological reality within the nervous system remains unknown. Here we applied electrical microstimulation to motor cortical areas of rhesus macaques to evoke hand movements. Movements tended to converge towards particular postures, driven by synchronous bursts of muscle activity. Across stimulation sites, the muscle activations were reducible to linear sums of a few...

  16. Microstimulation Activates a Handful of Muscle Synergies

    Overduin, Simon A.; d’Avella, Andrea; Carmena, Jose M.; Bizzi, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Muscle synergies have been proposed as a mechanism to simplify movement control. Whether these coactivation patterns have any physiological reality within the nervous system remains unknown. Here we applied electrical microstimulation to motor cortical areas of rhesus macaques to evoke hand movements. Movements tended to converge toward particular postures, driven by synchronous bursts of muscle activity. Across stimulation sites, the muscle activations were reducible to linear sums of a few ...

  17. Traumatic avulsion of extraocular muscles: case reports

    Nilza Minguini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We described the clinical, surgical details and results (motor and sensory of the retrieving procedure of traumatically avulsed muscles in three patients with no previous history of strabismus or diplopia seen in the Department of Ophthalmology, State University of Campinas, Brazil. The slipped muscle portion was reinserted at the original insertion and under the remaining stump, which was sutured over the reinserted muscle. For all three cases there was recovery of single binocular vision and stereopsis.

  18. The Effects of Lactate on Skeletal Muscle

    Willkomm, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise and physical activity are cornerstones in the prevention and treatment of numerous chronic conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and age-related sarcopenia. The associated health benefits arise from a number of tissues but due to its high plasticity skeletal muscle plays a pivotal role. The resident stem cells of skeletal muscle tissue, so called Satellite cells (SCs), contribute significantly to skeletal muscle adaptation and hence, maintenance of heal...

  19. Nutrient and energy sensing in skeletal muscle

    Deshmukh, Atul S.

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient overload and physical inactivity often leads to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Acute over-nutrition can induce insulin resistance, while physical exercise enhances skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. Like every living cell, skeletal muscle senses nutrient and energy signals and to adjust metabolic flux. This thesis focuses on some of the key nutrient and energy sensing (exercise/contraction-induced) pathways in skeletal muscle that regulate metabol...

  20. Physical activity, muscle function, falls and fractures

    Karlsson, Magnus K; Nordqvist, Anders; Karlsson, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Study design: A thematic review. Objectives: To evaluate if physical activity enhances muscle strength, improves balance, and reduces the fall frequency and the fracture incidence. Background: One of the major medical problems of today is the increasing incidence of fragility fractures. Muscle strength and fall is one of the major determinants of a fracture. If physical activity could increase muscle strength, improve balance and reduce the fall frequency, then training could be recommended a...

  1. Aging, exercise, and muscle protein metabolism.

    Koopman, René; van Loon, Luc J C

    2009-06-01

    Aging is accompanied by a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, leading to the loss of functional capacity and an increased risk of developing chronic metabolic disease. The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass is attributed to a disruption in the regulation of skeletal muscle protein turnover, resulting in an imbalance between muscle protein synthesis and degradation. As basal (fasting) muscle protein synthesis rates do not seem to differ substantially between the young and elderly, many research groups have started to focus on the muscle protein synthetic response to the main anabolic stimuli, i.e., food intake and physical activity. Recent studies suggest that the muscle protein synthetic response to food intake is blunted in the elderly. The latter is now believed to represent a key factor responsible for the age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass. Physical activity and/or exercise stimulate postexercise muscle protein accretion in both the young and elderly. However, the latter largely depends on the timed administration of amino acids and/or protein before, during, and/or after exercise. Prolonged resistance type exercise training represents an effective therapeutic strategy to augment skeletal muscle mass and improve functional performance in the elderly. The latter shows that the ability of the muscle protein synthetic machinery to respond to anabolic stimuli is preserved up to very old age. Research is warranted to elucidate the interaction between nutrition, exercise, and the skeletal muscle adaptive response. The latter is needed to define more effective strategies that will maximize the therapeutic benefits of lifestyle intervention in the elderly. PMID:19131471

  2. Heat stress inhibits skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    Frier, Bruce C.; Locke, Marius

    2007-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are molecular chaperones that aid in protein synthesis and trafficking and have been shown to protect cells/tissues from various protein damaging stressors. To determine the extent to which a single heat stress and the concurrent accumulation of Hsps influences the early events of skeletal muscle hypertrophy, Sprague-Dawley rats were heat stressed (42°C, 15 minutes) 24 hours prior to overloading 1 plantaris muscle by surgical removal of the gastrocnemius muscle. The...

  3. Magnetic stimulation of muscle evokes cerebral potentials in assessment of paraspinal muscle spasm.

    1998-01-01

    Objectlve: To assess the muscle spasm by magnetic stimulation of muscle evokes cerebral potentials (MMSEP). Methods: Paraspinal MMSEP and function assessment was recorded in detail before and after treat-

  4. Importance of mind-muscle connection during progressive resistance training

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Vinstrup, Jonas; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel; Jay, Kenneth; Colado, Juan Carlos; Andersen, Lars L.

    2016-01-01

    electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded for the triceps brachii and pectoralis major muscles. Subsequently, peak EMG of the filtered signals were normalized to maximum maximorum EMG of each muscle. RESULTS: In both muscles, focusing on using the respective muscles increased muscle activity at relative loads...... activating the triceps muscle the activity of the pectoralis muscle did not decrease. On the contrary, focusing on using the triceps muscle also increased pectoralis EMG at 50 and 60 % of 1RM. CONCLUSION: Resistance-trained individuals can increase triceps brachii or pectarilis major muscle activity during...

  5. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of muscle atrophy

    Paolo Bonaldo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a plastic organ that is maintained by multiple pathways regulating cell and protein turnover. During muscle atrophy, proteolytic systems are activated, and contractile proteins and organelles are removed, resulting in the shrinkage of muscle fibers. Excessive loss of muscle mass is associated with poor prognosis in several diseases, including myopathies and muscular dystrophies, as well as in systemic disorders such as cancer, diabetes, sepsis and heart failure. Muscle loss also occurs during aging. In this paper, we review the key mechanisms that regulate the turnover of contractile proteins and organelles in muscle tissue, and discuss how impairments in these mechanisms can contribute to muscle atrophy. We also discuss how protein synthesis and degradation are coordinately regulated by signaling pathways that are influenced by mechanical stress, physical activity, and the availability of nutrients and growth factors. Understanding how these pathways regulate muscle mass will provide new therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of muscle atrophy in metabolic and neuromuscular diseases.

  6. Interleukin-6 myokine signaling in skeletal muscle

    Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura; Scheele, Camilla; Pedersen, Bente K; Serrano, Antonio L

    2013-01-01

    been associated with stimulation of hypertrophic muscle growth and myogenesis through regulation of the proliferative capacity of muscle stem cells. Additional beneficial effects of IL-6 include regulation of energy metabolism, which is related to the capacity of actively contracting muscle to...... synthesize and release IL-6. Paradoxically, deleterious actions for IL-6 have also been proposed, such as promotion of atrophy and muscle wasting. We review the current evidence for these apparently contradictory effects, the mechanisms involved and discuss their possible biological implications....

  7. Markov Process of Muscle Motors

    Kondratiev, Yu; Pirogov, S

    2007-01-01

    We study a Markov random process describing a muscle molecular motor behavior. Every motor is either bound up with a thin filament or unbound. In the bound state the motor creates a force proportional to its displacement from the neutral position. In both states the motor spend an exponential time depending on the state. The thin filament moves at its velocity proportional to average of all displacements of all motors. We assume that the time which a motor stays at the bound state does not depend on its displacement. Then one can find an exact solution of a non-linear equation appearing in the limit of infinite number of the motors.

  8. Truncated dystrophins reduce muscle stiffness in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of mdx mice

    Hakim, Chady H.; Duan, Dongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Muscle stiffness is a major clinical feature in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). DMD is the most common lethal inherited muscle-wasting disease in boys, and it is caused by the lack of the dystrophin protein. We recently showed that the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of mdx mice (a DMD mouse model) exhibits disease-associated muscle stiffness. Truncated micro- and mini-dystrophins are the leading candidates for DMD gene therapy. Unfortunately, it has never been clear whether these t...

  9. Evaluating Swallowing Muscles Essential for Hyolaryngeal Elevation by Using Muscle Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Pearson, William G.; Hindson, David F.; Langmore, Susan E.; Zumwalt, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    Elevation of the larynx is critical to swallowing function, an observation supported by the fact that radiation therapy-induced dysphagia is associated with reduced laryngeal elevation. We investigated muscles underlying hyolaryngeal elevation by using muscle functional MRI. We acquired scans from 11 healthy subjects to determine whole-muscle T2 signal profiles pre-swallowing, post-swallowing, and after performing swallowing exercises. Results demonstrate muscles essential to laryngeal elevat...

  10. Evaluation of the influence of muscle deactivation on other muscles and joints during gait motion.

    Komura, Taku; Prokopow, Przemyslaw; Nagano, Akinori

    2004-04-01

    When any muscle in the human musculoskeletal system is damaged, other muscles and ligaments tend to compensate for the role of the damaged muscle by exerting extra effort. It is beneficial to clarify how the roles of the damaged muscles are compensated by other parts of the musculoskeletal system from the following points of view: From a clinical point of view, it will be possible to know how the abnormal muscle and joint forces caused by the acute compensations lead to further physical damage to the musculoskeletal system. From the viewpoint of rehabilitation, it will be possible to know how the role of the damaged muscle can be compensated by extra training of the other muscles. A method to evaluate the influence of muscle deactivation on other muscles and joints is proposed in this report. Methodology based on inverse dynamics and static optimization, which is applicable to arbitrary motion was used in this study. The evaluation method was applied to gait motion to obtain matrices representing (1) the dependence of muscle force compensation and (2) the change to bone-on-bone contact forces. These matrices make it possible to evaluate the effects of deactivation of one of the muscles of the musculoskeletal system on the forces exerted by other muscles as well as the change to the bone-on-bone forces when the musculoskeletal system is performing the same motion. Through observation of this matrix, it was found that deactivation of a muscle often results in increment/decrement of force developed by muscles with completely different primary functions and bone-on-bone contact force in different parts of the body. For example, deactivation of the iliopsoas leads to a large reduction in force by the soleus. The results suggest that acute deactivation of a muscle can result in damage to another part of the body. The results also suggest that the whole musculoskeletal system must go through extra retraining in the case of damage to certain muscles. PMID:14996554

  11. Transdifferentiation of chicken embryonic cells into muscle cells by the 3' untranslated region of muscle tropomyosin.

    L'Ecuyer, T J; Tompach, P C; Morris, E.; Fulton, A B

    1995-01-01

    Transfection with a plasmid encoding the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of skeletal muscle tropomyosin induces chicken embryonic fibroblasts to express skeletal tropomyosin. Such cells become spindle shaped, fuse, and express titin, a marker of striated muscle differentiation. Skeletal muscle tropomyosin and titin organize in sarcomeric arrays. When the tropomyosin 3' UTR is expressed in osteoblasts, less skeletal muscle tropomyosin is expressed, and titin expression is delayed. Some transfe...

  12. The number and choice of muscles impact the results of muscle synergy analyses

    Katherine Muterspaugh Steele

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One theory for how humans control movement is that muscles are activated in weighted groups or synergies. Studies have shown that electromyography (EMG from a variety of tasks can be described by a low-dimensional space thought to reflect synergies. These studies use algorithms, such as nonnegative matrix factorization, to identify synergies from EMG. Due to experimental constraints, EMG can rarely be taken from all muscles involved in a task. However, it is unclear if the choice of muscles included in the analysis impacts estimated synergies. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of the number and choice of muscles on synergy analyses. We used a musculoskeletal model to calculate muscle activations required to perform an isometric upper-extremity task. Synergies calculated from the activations from the musculoskeletal model were similar to a prior experimental study. To evaluate the impact of the number of muscles included in the analysis, we randomly selected subsets of between 5 and 29 muscles and compared the similarity of the synergies calculated from each subset to a master set of synergies calculated from all muscles. We determined that the structure of synergies is dependent upon the number and choice of muscles included in the analysis. When five muscles were included in the analysis, the similarity of the synergies to the master set was only 0.57 ± 0.54; however, the similarity improved to over 0.8 with more than ten muscles. We identified two methods, selecting dominant muscles from the master set or selecting muscles with the largest maximum isometric force, which significantly improved similarity to the master set and can help guide future experimental design. Analyses that included a small subset of muscles also over-estimated the variance accounted for (VAF by the synergies compared to an analysis with all muscles. Thus, researchers should use caution using VAF to evaluate synergies when EMG is measured from a small

  13. Increased fatigue resistance of respiratory muscles during exercise after respiratory muscle endurance training

    Verges, S; Lenherr, O; Haner, A C; Schulz, C.; Spengler, C M

    2007-01-01

    Respiratory muscle fatigue develops during exhaustive exercise and can limit exercise performance. Respiratory muscle training, in turn, can increase exercise performance. We investigated whether respiratory muscle endurance training (RMT) reduces exercise-induced inspiratory and expiratory muscle fatigue. Twenty-one healthy, male volunteers performed twenty 30-min sessions of either normocapnic hyperpnoea (n = 13) or sham training (CON, n = 8) over 4-5 wk. Before and after training, subjects...

  14. Creatine supplementation enhances muscle force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals

    Cribb Paul J; Williams Andrew D; Rybalka Emma; Cooke Matthew B; Hayes Alan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Eccentric exercise-induced damage leads to reductions in muscle force, increased soreness, and impaired muscle function. Creatine monohydrate's (Cr) ergogenic potential is well established; however few studies have directly examined the effects of Cr supplementation on recovery after damage. We examined the effects of Cr supplementation on muscle proteins and force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals. Methods Fourteen untrained male pa...

  15. Muscle organizers in Drosophila: the role of persistent larval fibers in adult flight muscle development

    Farrell, E. R.; Fernandes, J.; Keshishian, H.

    1996-01-01

    In many organisms muscle formation depends on specialized cells that prefigure the pattern of the musculature and serve as templates for myoblast organization and fusion. These include muscle pioneers in insects and muscle organizing cells in leech. In Drosophila, muscle founder cells have been proposed to play a similar role in organizing larval muscle development during embryogenesis. During metamorphosis in Drosophila, following histolysis of most of the larval musculature, there is a second round of myogenesis that gives rise to the adult muscles. It is not known whether muscle founder cells organize the development of these muscles. However, in the thorax specific larval muscle fibers do not histolyze at the onset of metamorphosis, but instead serve as templates for the formation of a subset of adult muscles, the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLMs). Because these persistent larval muscle fibers appear to be functioning in many respects like muscle founder cells, we investigated whether they were necessary for DLM development by using a microbeam laser to ablate them singly and in combination. We found that, in the absence of the larval muscle fibers, DLMs nonetheless develop. Our results show that the persistent larval muscle fibers are not required to initiate myoblast fusion, to determine DLM identity, to locate the DLMs in the thorax, or to specify the total DLM fiber volume. However, they are required to regulate the number of DLM fibers generated. Thus, while the persistent larval muscle fibers are not obligatory for DLM fiber formation and differentiation, they are necessary to ensure the development of the correct number of fibers.

  16. Effects of Reduced Muscle Glycogen on Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR), Muscle and Exercise Performance

    Batts, Timothy W.

    2002-01-01

    Fatigue during exercise is associated with reduced muscle glycogen. However, evidence linking glycogen content to fatigue is lacking. In this study we examined whether reduced muscle glycogen content limited SR function or muscle performance. Two groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats were fasted for 24 hr and exercised for 90 min to reduce muscle glycogen; rats fasted after exercise formed the low glycogen (LG) group. Rats in the high glycogen (HG) group were allowed free access to food and...

  17. Dietary nitrate reduces skeletal muscle oxygenation response to physical exercise: a quantitative muscle functional MRI study

    Bentley, Rachel; Gray, Stuart R.; Schwarzbauer, Christian; Dawson, Dana; Frenneaux, Michael; He, Jiabao

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Dietary inorganic nitrate supplementation (probably via conversion to nitrite) increases skeletal muscle metabolic efficiency. In addition, it may also cause hypoxia‐dependent vasodilation and this has the potential to augment oxygen delivery to exercising skeletal muscle. However, direct evidence for the latter with spatial localization to exercising muscle groups does not exist. We employed quantitative functional MRI (fMRI) to characterize skeletal muscle oxygen utilization and re...

  18. Dietary nitrate reduces skeletal muscle oxygenation response to physical exercise: a quantitative muscle functional MRI study

    Bentley, R; Gray, S. R.; Schwarzbauer, C.; Dawson, D; Frenneaux, M; He, J.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary inorganic nitrate supplementation (probably via conversion to nitrite) increases skeletal muscle metabolic efficiency. In addition, it may also cause hypoxia‐dependent vasodilation and this has the potential to augment oxygen delivery to exercising skeletal muscle. However, direct evidence for the latter with spatial localization to exercising muscle groups does not exist. We employed quantitative functional MRI (fMRI) to characterize skeletal muscle oxygen utilization and replenishme...

  19. Effects of skeletal muscle lipotoxicity on muscle protein synthesis: implications for athletic and ageing populations

    Guillet, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle is linked to reduced insulin sensitivity in various groups of subjects. The increased lipid content within muscle in older people is independently associated with insulin resistance. Physical exercise improves muscle lipid infiltration and insulin resistance in postmenopausal women. Beside the consequence of muscle fat accumulation on insulin sensitivity, some evidences clearly show that high fat feeding in young mice influences the ability of mus...

  20. Cultural Policies in Kenya.

    Opondo, Patricia A.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the challenges that arise when government policies are implemented with the goal of promoting culture, tradition, heritage, and identity in society. Focuses specifically on music education. Examines the impact and effects of the post-independence cultural policies in Kenya. Provides recommendations for restructuring present cultural…

  1. Government Information Policy.

    Dearstyne, Bruce W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Six articles discuss government information policy in context of technology and electronic records; policies on information resources management from OMB (Office of Management and Budget); state information resources, including Council of State Governments (CSG); state record laws and preservation of archival records; and management of electronic…

  2. Modern regional innovation policy

    McCann, Philip; Ortega-Argiles, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the evolution of regional innovation policy into the mainstream of public policy. The paper examines the empirical and theoretical developments which have shifted much of the focus on innovation-related issues to matters of economic geography. As well as academic material we also

  3. Public Policy Agenda, 2010

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 Public Policy Agenda summarizes the American Association of State Colleges and Universities' (AASCU's) principles and priorities in key areas of higher education policy. This paper is intended to serve as a point of reference for the association's members and other interested organizations, as well as federal and state policymakers.…

  4. Protective Policy Laws.

    Gehrin, Donald D.

    1994-01-01

    Offers ways to help student affairs administrators understand protective policy laws and regulations. Looks at how such federal guidelines affect campus policies, practices, and procedures. Examines the Buckley Amendment, student consumer information, student right-to-know, campus security, and the Drug Free Schools and Communities Act. (Includes…

  5. Competition Policy and Innovation

    Møllgaard, Peter; Lorentzen, Jo

    2005-01-01

    topic. We move on to discuss the organisation of industriesin a dynamic context and draw out consequences for competition policy. We concludewith an outlook on the underlying tensions between technology alliances, competitionpolicy, and industrial policy.JEL codes: L4, L5, O31Keywords: Competition...

  6. Language Policy in Slovenia

    Novak-Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

    2012-01-01

    The historical background, political changes, migration processes, EU membership and the current socio-linguistic situation have all influenced language policy and language planning in Slovenia. This article presents the most important aspects of language policy in Slovenia with a focus on the concept of linguistic diversity. The ethnic make-up of…

  7. Procedures and Policies Manual

    Davis, Jane M.

    2006-01-01

    This document was developed by the Middle Tennessee State University James E. Walker Library Collection Management Department to provide policies and procedural guidelines for the cataloging and processing of bibliographic materials. This document includes policies for cataloging monographs, serials, government documents, machine-readable data…

  8. Operations Policy Manual, 2010

    Teacher Education Accreditation Council, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC) "Operations Policy Manual" outlines all of TEAC's current policies and procedures related to TEAC members, TEAC administration, and the public, and includes the Bylaws of the Teacher Education Accreditation Council, Inc. An index is also included.

  9. Science and Technology Policy

    Baark, Erik

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the status of science and technology in Mongolia, and discusses the policy issues which have emerged with the transition to market economy in recent years.......This paper examines the status of science and technology in Mongolia, and discusses the policy issues which have emerged with the transition to market economy in recent years....

  10. Fact-Challenged Policy. Policy Memorandum #182

    Rothstein, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a response on the topic of school reform efforts being promoted by Bill Gates and other prominent education policy advocates. Last week, Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates published an op-ed in the Washington Post, "How Teacher Development could Revolutionize our Schools," proposing that American public schools should do a better job of…

  11. Intellectual Property: Policies and Policy Makers.

    Sanders, Diana W.

    2001-01-01

    Used modified version of 1978 National Association of College and University Business Officers survey instrument to investigate intellectual-property policies at 38 (of 210) 4-year institutions of higher education in the 15 Southern Regional Education Board states. Finds, for example, that in the majority of institutions, top administrators are…

  12. Chronic Stimulation-Induced Changes in the Rodent Thyroarytenoid Muscle

    McMullen, Colleen A.; Butterfield, Timothy A.; Dietrich, Maria; Andreatta, Richard D.; Andrade, Francisco H.; Fry, Lisa; Stemple, Joseph C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Therapies for certain voice disorders purport principles of skeletal muscle rehabilitation to increase muscle mass, strength, and endurance. However, applicability of limb muscle rehabilitation to the laryngeal muscles has not been tested. In this study, the authors examined the feasibility of the rat thyroarytenoid muscle to remodel as a…

  13. The physiological roles of Sirt1 in skeletal muscle

    Pardo, Patricia S.; Boriek, Aladin M.

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscle aging is associated with increased inflammation and oxidative stress, a decrease in the ability to rebuild muscle after injury and in response to exercise. In this perspective, we discuss the mechanisms regulating Sirt1 activity and expression in skeletal muscles, emphasizing their implications in muscle physiology and the impairment of muscle function with age.

  14. Firm Financial Policy

    Alexandru NEGREA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Financial policy outlines the main directions of action of the financial activity. In determining financial policy, managers must take into consideration interests of all stakeholders, given the political, social, financial and monetary context of the firm, but also the technical and technological one. In addition, the educational, environmental and scientific context must be considered when establishing the financial policy, as it also influences the latter. Therefore, within financial policy, managers must identify and adopt those financial decisions that can positively influence the future development of the firm. Present studies intended as a tool for those interested in the future of the firm, e.g. employers, employees, banks, insurance companies, service providers, etc. It details directions of actions used by managers within financial policy in order to increase firm profits.

  15. Good Tourism Policies

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Tourism policy matters in cultural tourism. The starting point of this paper is the observation that many tourism policy studies draw three inter-related conclusions. One, tourism policy must be inclusive and require the support of different stakeholders (Baker 2009; Bernhard Jørgensen and Munar...... 2009). Two, a balanced approach to tourism policy is needed to harness the benefits of tourism while mitigating negative effects (Budeanu 2009; Chang 1997; Jenkins 1997; Leheny 1995, Newby 1994; Teo and Yeoh, 1997). Three, tourism policies should accentuate and maintain the cultural uniqueness and...... authenticity of the destination (Morgan et al. 2011). It seems that many tourism authorities are ignorant of local interests, unaware of the touristification of local cultures and uninterested in promoting local cultures. But local cultures and communities are what that constitute cultural tourism....

  16. Random maintenance policies

    Nakagawa, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Exploring random maintenance models, this book provides an introduction to the implementation of random maintenance, and it is one of the first books to be written on this subject.  It aims to help readers learn new techniques for applying random policies to actual reliability models, and it provides new theoretical analyses of various models including classical replacement, preventive maintenance and inspection policies. These policies are applied to scheduling problems, backup policies of database systems, maintenance policies of cumulative damage models, and reliability of random redundant systems. Reliability theory is a major concern for engineers and managers, and in light of Japan’s recent earthquake, the reliability of large-scale systems has increased in importance. This also highlights the need for a new notion of maintenance and reliability theory, and how this can practically be applied to systems. Providing an essential guide for engineers and managers specializing in reliability maintenance a...

  17. Recovering Policy Implementation

    Lee S. Duemer

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies themes in the theoretical literature on policy implementation that can then be used to develop a research-based framework for the scholar about how qualitative research can be used to analyze policy implementation through the investigation of informal and formal communication lines. This article draws from existing scholarship to bridge the gap between policy studies and qualitative research to explore innovative ways for scholars to expand our understanding of policy implementation. The article uses the literature to propose a framework that can be used to examine policy implementation. The framework is based on the concepts of Orientation, Degree, Resources, Activity, Autonomy, Societal Values, Institutional Values, Rationale and Power Relationship.

  18. Dividend Policy Controverses

    Ljiljana Vidučić

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Dividend theory shares with capital structure theories the attribute of area of high controversy. Financial literature discusses whether there is an interdependency of dividends and share price, i.e. value of the firm. The main views may be defined with three theories of dividend policy. However, unambiguous solutions are still lacking. Literature on dividends highlights several concepts that may be important in defining the dividend policy. Dividend policy aims to define payout ratio, sort of dividend and way of maintaining dividend stability, since stability of dividend is found to be of interest in practice. Managers, namely, prefer stability of dividend policy and the amount of dividends taking in account the signalling effect. If stability of dividends is preferred by investors it follows that stable dividend policy will lead to minimization of cost of capital and maximization of share price.

  19. Approximate Modified Policy Iteration

    Scherrer, Bruno; Ghavamzadeh, Mohammad; Geist, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    Modified policy iteration (MPI) is a dynamic programming (DP) algorithm that contains the two celebrated policy and value iteration methods. Despite its generality, MPI has not been thoroughly studied, especially its approximation form which is used when the state and/or action spaces are large or infinite. In this paper, we propose three approximate MPI (AMPI) algorithms that are extensions of the well-known approximate DP algorithms: fitted-value iteration, fitted-Q iteration, and classification-based policy iteration. We provide an error propagation analysis for AMPI that unifies those for approximate policy and value iteration. We also provide a finite-sample analysis for the classification-based implementation of AMPI (CBMPI), which is more general (and somehow contains) than the analysis of the other presented AMPI algorithms. An interesting observation is that the MPI's parameter allows us to control the balance of errors (in value function approximation and in estimating the greedy policy) in the fina...

  20. Muscle activation during selected strength exercises in women with chronic neck muscle pain

    Andersen, Lars L; Kjaer, Michael; Andersen, Christoffer H;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Muscle-specific strength training has previously been shown to be effective in the rehabilitation of chronic neck muscle pain in women. The aim of this study was to determine the level of activation of the neck and shoulder muscles using surface electromyography (EMG) duri...

  1. Muscle activation during selected strength exercises in women with chronic neck muscle pain

    Andersen, L.L.; Kjaer, M.; Andersen, C.H.;

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Muscle-specific strength training has previously been shown to be effective in the rehabilitation of chronic neck muscle pain in women. The aim of this stud), was to determine the level of activation of the neck and shoulder muscles using surface electromyography (EMG) (lu...

  2. Muscle Atrophy Reversed by Growth Factor Activation of Satellite Cells in a Mouse Muscle Atrophy Model

    Hauerslev, Simon; Vissing, John; Krag, Thomas O

    2014-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies comprise a large group of inherited disorders that lead to progressive muscle wasting. We wanted to investigate if targeting satellite cells can enhance muscle regeneration and thus increase muscle mass. We treated mice with hepatocyte growth factor and leukemia inhibitory fa...

  3. Effect of muscle acidity on muscle metabolism and fatigue during intense exercise in man

    Bangsbo, Jens; Madsen, K.; Kiens, Bente;

    1996-01-01

    (kg wet weight)-1 min-1). The rate of muscle glycogen breakdown was the same in C and HL (8.1 +/- 1.2 vs. 8.2 +/- 1.0 mmol (kg wet weight)-1 min-1). 5. The present data suggest that elevated muscle acidity does not reduce muscle glycogenolysis/glycolysis and is not the only cause of fatigue during...

  4. Experiment K-7-18: Effects of Spaceflight in the Muscle Adductor Longus of Rats Flown in the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Part 2; Quantitative Autoradiographic Analysis of Gaba (Benzodiazepine) and Muscarinic (Cholinergic) Receptors in the Forebrain of Rats Flown on Cosmos 2044

    Wu, L.; Daunton, N. G.; Krasnov, I. B.; DAmelio, F.; Hyde, T. M.; Sigworth, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of receptors for GABA and acetylcholine in the forebrain of rats flown on COSMOS 2044 was undertaken as part of a joint US-Soviet study to determine the effects of microgravity on the central nervous system, and in particular on the sensory and motor portions of the forebrain. Changes in binding of these receptors in tissue from animals exposed to microgravity would provide evidence for possible changes in neural processing as a result of exposure to microgravity. Tritium-labelled diazepam and Quinuclidinyl-benzilate (QNB) were used to visualize GABA (benzodiazepine) and muscarinic (cholinergic) receptors, respectively. The density of tritium-labelled radioligands bound to various regions in the forebrain of both flight and control animals were measured from autoradiograms. Data from rats flown in space and from ground-based control animals that were not exposed to microgravity were compared.

  5. Lack of CFTR in skeletal muscle predisposes to muscle wasting and diaphragm muscle pump failure in cystic fibrosis mice.

    Maziar Divangahi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF patients often have reduced mass and strength of skeletal muscles, including the diaphragm, the primary muscle of respiration. Here we show that lack of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR plays an intrinsic role in skeletal muscle atrophy and dysfunction. In normal murine and human skeletal muscle, CFTR is expressed and co-localized with sarcoplasmic reticulum-associated proteins. CFTR-deficient myotubes exhibit augmented levels of intracellular calcium after KCl-induced depolarization, and exposure to an inflammatory milieu induces excessive NF-kB translocation and cytokine/chemokine gene upregulation. To determine the effects of an inflammatory environment in vivo, sustained pulmonary infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa was produced, and under these conditions diaphragmatic force-generating capacity is selectively reduced in Cftr(-/- mice. This is associated with exaggerated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression as well as upregulation of the E3 ubiquitin ligases (MuRF1 and atrogin-1 involved in muscle atrophy. We conclude that an intrinsic alteration of function is linked to the absence of CFTR from skeletal muscle, leading to dysregulated calcium homeostasis, augmented inflammatory/atrophic gene expression signatures, and increased diaphragmatic weakness during pulmonary infection. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized role for CFTR in skeletal muscle function that may have major implications for the pathogenesis of cachexia and respiratory muscle pump failure in CF patients.

  6. Muscle biopsy in Pompe disease

    Lineu Cesar Werneck

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pompe disease (PD can be diagnosed by measuring alpha-glucosidase levels or by identifying mutations in the gene enzyme. Muscle biopsies can aid diagnosis in doubtful cases. Methods: A review of muscle biopsy from 19 cases of PD (infantile, 6 cases; childhood, 4 cases; and juvenile/adult, 9 cases. Results: Vacuoles with or without glycogen storage were found in 18 cases. All cases had increased acid phosphatase activity. The vacuole frequency varied (almost all fibers in the infantile form to only a few in the juvenile/adult form. Atrophy of type 1 and 2 fibers was frequent in all forms. Atrophic angular fibers in the NADH-tetrazolium reductase and nonspecific esterase activity were observed in 4/9 of the juvenile/adult cases. Conclusion: Increased acid phosphatase activity and vacuoles were the primary findings. Most vacuoles were filled with glycogen, and the adult form of the disease had fewer fibers with vacuoles than the infantile or childhood forms.

  7. Modelling functional effects of muscle geometry.

    van der Linden, B J; Koopman, H F; Grootenboer, H J; Huijing, P A

    1998-04-01

    Muscle architecture is an important aspect of muscle functioning. Hence, geometry and material properties of muscle have great influence on the force-length characteristics of muscle. We compared experimental results for the gastrocnemius medialis muscle (GM) of the rat to model results of simple geometric models such as a planimetric model and three-dimensional versions of this model. The capabilities of such models to adequately calculate muscle geometry and force-length characteristics were investigated. The planimetric model with elastic aponeurosis predicted GM muscle geometry well: maximal differences are 6, 1, 4 and 6% for fiber length, aponeurosis length, fiber angle and aponeurosis angle respectively. A slanted cylinder model with circular fiber cross-section did not predict muscle geometry as well as the planimetric model, whereas the geometry results of a second slanted cylinder model were identical to the planimetric model. It is concluded that the planimetric model is capable of adequately calculating the muscle geometry over the muscle length range studied. However, for modelling of force-length characteristics more complex models are needed, as none of the models yielded results sufficiently close to experimental data. Modelled force-length characteristics showed an overestimation of muscle optimum length by 2 mm with respect to experimental data, and the force at the ascending limb of the length force curve was underestimated. The models presented neglect important aspects such as non-linear geometry of muscle, certain passive material properties and mechanical interactions of fibers. These aspects may be responsible for short-comings in the modelling. It is argued that, considering the inability to adequately model muscle length-force characteristics for an isolated maximally activated (in situ) muscle, it is to be expected that prediction will fail for muscle properties in conditions of complex movement with many interacting factors. Therefore

  8. Forelimb muscle activity during equine locomotion.

    Harrison, Simon M; Whitton, R Chris; King, Melissa; Haussler, Kevin K; Kawcak, Chris E; Stover, Susan M; Pandy, Marcus G

    2012-09-01

    Few quantitative data exist to describe the activity of the distal muscles of the equine forelimb during locomotion, and there is an incomplete understanding of the functional roles of the majority of the forelimb muscles. Based on morphology alone it would appear that the larger proximal muscles perform the majority of work in the forelimb, whereas the smaller distal muscles fulfil supplementary roles such as stabilizing the joints and positioning the limb for impact with the ground. We measured the timing and amplitude of the electromyographic activity of the intrinsic muscles of the forelimb in relation to the phase of gait (stance versus swing) and the torque demand placed on each joint during walking, trotting and cantering. We found that all forelimb muscles, except the extensor carpi radialis (ECR), were activated just prior to hoof-strike and deactivated during stance. Only the ECR was activated during swing. The amplitudes of muscle activation typically increased as gait speed increased. However, the amplitudes of muscle activation were not proportional to the net joint torques, indicating that passive structures may also contribute significantly to torque generation. Our results suggest that the smaller distal muscles help to stabilize the forelimb in early stance, in preparation for the passive structures (tendons and ligaments) to be stretched. The distal forelimb muscles remain active throughout stance only during canter, when the net torques acting about the distal forelimb joints are highest. The larger proximal muscles activate in a complex coordination to position and stabilize the shoulder and elbow joints during ground contact. PMID:22875767

  9. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization enhances insulin sensitivity.

    Akerstrom, Thorbjorn; Laub, Lasse; Vedel, Kenneth; Brand, Christian Lehn; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Lindqvist, Anna Kaufmann; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Hellsten, Ylva

    2014-12-15

    Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, a possible causal relationship has not previously been identified. Therefore, we investigated whether increased skeletal muscle capillarization increases insulin sensitivity. Skeletal muscle-specific angiogenesis was induced by adding the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin to the drinking water of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 33), whereas 34 rats served as controls. Insulin sensitivity was measured ≥40 h after termination of the 3-wk prazosin treatment, which ensured that prazosin was cleared from the blood stream. Whole body insulin sensitivity was measured in conscious, unrestrained rats by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Tissue-specific insulin sensitivity was assessed by administration of 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose during the plateau phase of the clamp. Whole body insulin sensitivity increased by ∼24%, and insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose disposal increased by ∼30% concomitant with an ∼20% increase in skeletal muscle capillarization. Adipose tissue insulin sensitivity was not affected by the treatment. Insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake was enhanced independent of improvements in skeletal muscle insulin signaling to glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, suggesting that the improvement in insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake could be due to improved diffusion conditions for glucose in the muscle. The prazosin treatment did not affect the rats on any other parameters measured. We conclude that an increase in skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with increased insulin sensitivity. These data point toward the importance of increasing skeletal muscle capillarization for prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25352432

  10. Gender differences in MR muscle tractography

    Tractography of skeletal muscle can clearly reveal the 3-dimensional course of muscle fibers, and the procedure has great potential and could open new fields for diagnostic imaging. Studying this technique for clinical application, we noticed differences in the number of visualized tracts among volunteers and among muscles in the same volunteer. To comprehend why the number of visualized tracts varied so that we could acquire consistently high quality tractography of muscle fiber, we started to examine whether differences in individual parameters affected tractography visualization. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are gender- and age-specific differences that differentiate the muscles by gender and age in MR tractography of skeletal muscle fiber. We divided 33 healthy volunteers by gender and age among 3 groups, A (13 younger men, aged 20 to 36 years), B (11 younger women, 25 to 39 years), and C (9 older men, 50 to 69), and we obtained from each volunteer tractographs of 8 fibers, including the bilateral gastrocnemius medialis (GCM), gastrocnemius lateralis (GCL), soleus (SOL), and anterior tibialis (AT) muscles. We classified the fibers into 5 grades depending on the extent of visualized tracts and used Mann-Whitney U-test to compare scores by gender (Group A versus B) and age (Group A versus C). Muscle tracts were significantly better visualized in women than men (median total visual score, 34 versus 24, P<0.05). In particular, the SOL muscles showed better visualization in the right (4.0 in women, 1.0 in men, P<0.05) and left (3.0 in women, 1.0 in men, P<0.05). Difference by age was not significant. The GCL was the highest scored muscle in all groups. Our results suggest that group differences, especially by gender, affected visualization of tractography of muscle fiber of the calf. (author)

  11. Policy Mix and Debt Sustainability: Evidence from Fiscal Policy Rules

    Claeys, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This paper characterises rules-based fiscal policy setting. Basically, we translate a standard monetary policy rule into a simple fiscal policy rule. We then infer on fiscal policymakers' reaction coefficients by testing the rule with GMM. Interaction is also tested directly by the inclusion of monetary policy setting. Our results qualify existing evidence on systematic fiscal policy in two respects. First, fiscal policy usually stabilises public debt. And there is indeed substantial interact...

  12. Modeling environmental policy

    The eight book chapters demonstrate the link between the physical models of the environment and the policy analysis in support of policy making. Each chapter addresses an environmental policy issue using a quantitative modeling approach. The volume addresses three general areas of environmental policy - non-point source pollution in the agricultural sector, pollution generated in the extractive industries, and transboundary pollutants from burning fossil fuels. The book concludes by discussing the modeling efforts and the use of mathematical models in general. Chapters are entitled: modeling environmental policy: an introduction; modeling nonpoint source pollution in an integrated system (agri-ecological); modeling environmental and trade policy linkages: the case of EU and US agriculture; modeling ecosystem constraints in the Clean Water Act: a case study in Clearwater National Forest (subject to discharge from metal mining waste); costs and benefits of coke oven emission controls; modeling equilibria and risk under global environmental constraints (discussing energy and environmental interrelations); relative contribution of the enhanced greenhouse effect on the coastal changes in Louisiana; and the use of mathematical models in policy evaluations: comments. The paper on coke area emission controls has been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM

  13. Research in geosciences policy

    Brunner, Ronald D.

    1992-01-01

    The general task was to look beyond the adverse physical impacts and to defining the policy problem. In order for policy actions to be effective, they must address the right policy problems, which will be different from and broader than the physical problems. We will work on defining the policy problems with a view to indicating how practical solutions might be implemented. In particular, public officials need advice on what should be said, and done, and for what purposes. That advice needs to be based on systematic analysis of: (1) the scholarly literature in the social sciences, and related disciplines; (2) the charging content of the policy debate at the center of attention; and (3) how citizens perceive and understand issues related to global change. We will conduct this analysis. Chapter 1 and 2 each reports work on defining the policy problem and analyzing the scholarly literature. Chapters 3 and 4, respectively, address the policy debate and citizen viewpoints in issues related to global change.

  14. Office of Rural Health Policy

    ... Resources About Us Federal Office of Rural Health Policy  News $16 million in funding to improve health ... and learn more about FORHP programs.   Rural Health Policy FORHP prepares regular policy announcements focusing on the ...

  15. Changes in muscle strength and morphology after muscle unloading in Special Forces missions

    Thorlund, J B; Jakobsen, O; Madsen, T; Christensen, P A; Nedergaard, A; Andersen, J L; Suetta, C; Aagaard, P

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the changes in maximal muscle strength, rapid force capacity, jumping performance and muscle morphology following a Special Forces military operation involving 8 days of muscle unloading. Nine male Special Forces soldiers were tested before (pre......) and immediately after (post1) an 8-day simulated special support and reconnaissance (SSR) mission and after 3 h of active recovery (post2). Maximal muscle strength (MVC) and rate of force development (RFD) were measured along with maximal counter movement jump height (JH). Muscle biopsies were...

  16. The nerves to the plantaris muscle and a bipennate part of the soleus muscle

    Okamoto, Keishi; Wakebe, Tetsuaki; Saiki, Kazunobu; Tsurumoto, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    We performed nerve fiber analysis of the nerve to the plantaris muscle in ten cases. Macroscopically, the nerve to the plantaris muscle has a tendency to branch off from the tibial nerve itself independent of the nerves to the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles (the triceps surae muscle). After removing the epineurium of the tibial nerve, it was revealed that, in all ten cases, the nerve to the plantaris muscle formed a common funicular trunk with the nerve to a bipennate part of the soleus. Th...

  17. Effects of Purified Recombinant Neural and Muscle Agrin on Skeletal Muscle Fibers in Vivo

    Bezakova, Gabriela; Helm, Johannes P.; Francolini, Maura; Lømo, Terje

    2001-01-01

    Aggregation of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) in muscle fibers by nerve-derived agrin plays a key role in the formation of neuromuscular junctions. So far, the effects of agrin on muscle fibers have been studied in culture systems, transgenic animals, and in animals injected with agrin–cDNA constructs. We have applied purified recombinant chick neural and muscle agrin to rat soleus muscle in vivo and obtained the following results. Both neural and muscle agrin bind uniformly to the surface o...

  18. Comparison of isokinetic muscle strength and muscle power by types of warm-up

    Sim, Young-Je; Byun, Yong-Hyun; Yoo, Jaehyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of static stretching at warm-up on the isokinetic muscle torque (at 60°/sec) and muscle power (at 180°/sec) of the flexor muscle and extensor muscle of the knee joint. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 10 healthy students with no medically specific findings. The warm-up group and warm-up with stretching group performed their respective warm-up prior to the isokinetic muscle torque evaluation of the knee join...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy

    ... Conditions myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Open All Close All Description Myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy is a rare condition characterized by reduced body ...

  20. Sarcomeric dysfunction contributes to muscle weakness in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    Lassche, S.; Stienen, G.J.; Irving, T.C.; Maarel, S.M. van der; Voermans, N.C.; Padberg, G.W.A.M.; Granzier, H.; Engelen, B.G. van; Ottenheijm, C.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether sarcomeric dysfunction contributes to muscle weakness in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). METHODS: Sarcomeric function was evaluated by contractile studies on demembranated single muscle fibers obtained from quadriceps muscle biopsies of 4 patients wit

  1. A computerized method for objective measurement of muscle tone

    Ekaterina A. Vasilieva; Gennadij V. Ganin; Julia S. Archangelskaja; Grant Hudson; Boris J. Gutnik; Paul Yielder

    2011-01-01

    This article is concentrated on the objective computerizing method of measuring of muscle tone using compressive and decompressive deformation of superficial skeletal muscle of wrist in vivo. Four indices were highly recommended for complex analysis of muscle tone.

  2. Bio-inspired Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Muscles.

    Kim, Tae Hyeob; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Lee, Changsun; An, Jieun; Phuong, Tam Thi Thanh; Park, Sun Hwa; Lima, Márcio D; Baughman, Ray H; Kang, Tong Mook; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-01-01

    There has been continuous progress in the development for biomedical engineering systems of hybrid muscle generated by combining skeletal muscle and artificial structure. The main factor affecting the actuation performance of hybrid muscle relies on the compatibility between living cells and their muscle scaffolds during cell culture. Here, we developed a hybrid muscle powered by C2C12 skeletal muscle cells based on the functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) sheets coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to achieve biomimetic actuation. This hydrophilic hybrid muscle is physically durable in solution and responds to electric field stimulation with flexible movement. Furthermore, the biomimetic actuation when controlled by electric field stimulation results in movement similar to that of the hornworm by patterned cell culture method. The contraction and relaxation behavior of the PEDOT/MWCNT-based hybrid muscle is similar to that of the single myotube movement, but has faster relaxation kinetics because of the shape-maintenance properties of the freestanding PEDOT/MWCNT sheets in solution. Our development provides the potential possibility for substantial innovation in the next generation of cell-based biohybrid microsystems. PMID:27220918

  3. Cell death regulates muscle fiber number.

    Sarkissian, Tatevik; Arya, Richa; Gyonjyan, Seda; Taylor, Barbara; White, Kristin

    2016-07-01

    Cell death can have both cell autonomous and non-autonomous roles in normal development. Previous studies have shown that the central cell death regulators grim and reaper are required for the developmentally important elimination of stem cells and neurons in the developing central nervous system (CNS). Here we show that cell death in the nervous system is also required for normal muscle development. In the absence of grim and reaper, there is an increase in the number of fibers in the ventral abdominal muscles in the Drosophila adult. This phenotype can be partially recapitulated by inhibition of cell death specifically in the CNS, indicating a non-autonomous role for neuronal death in limiting muscle fiber number. We also show that FGFs produced in the cell death defective nervous system are required for the increase in muscle fiber number. Cell death in the muscle lineage during pupal stages also plays a role in specifying fiber number. Our work suggests that FGFs from the CNS act as a survival signal for muscle founder cells. Thus, proper muscle fiber specification requires cell death in both the nervous system and in the developing muscle itself. PMID:27131625

  4. Calpain 3 is important for muscle regeneration

    Hauerslev, Simon; Sveen, Marie-Louise; Duno, Morten;

    2012-01-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) type 2A is caused by mutations in the CAPN3 gene and complete lack of functional calpain 3 leads to the most severe muscle wasting. Calpain 3 is suggested to be involved in maturation of contractile elements after muscle degeneration. The aim of this study was...

  5. Sleeve Muscle Actuator: Concept and Prototype Demonstration

    Tad Driver; Xiangrong Shen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the concept and prototype demonstration results of a new sleeve muscle actuator,which provides a significantly improved performance through a fundamental structural change to the traditional pneumatic muscle.Specifically,the sleeve muscle incorporates a cylindrical insert to the center of the pneumatic muscle,and thus eliminates the central portion of the intemal volume.Through the analysis of the actuation mechanism,it is shown that the sleeve muscle is able to provide a consistent increase of force capacity over the entire range of motion.Furthermore,the sleeve muscle provides a significant energy saving effect,as a result of the reduced internal volume as well as the enhance force capacity.To demonstrate this new concept,a sleeve muscle prototype was designed and fabricated.Experiments conducted on the prototype verified the improvement in the force capacity and demonstrated a significant energy saving effect (20%-37%).Finally,as the future work on this new concept,the paper presents a new robotic elbow design actuated with the proposed sleeve muscle.This unique design is expected to provide a highly compact and powerful actuation approach for robotic systems.

  6. Bio-inspired Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Muscles

    Kim, Tae Hyeob; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Lee, Changsun; An, Jieun; Phuong, Tam Thi Thanh; Park, Sun Hwa; Lima, Márcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kang, Tong Mook; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-05-01

    There has been continuous progress in the development for biomedical engineering systems of hybrid muscle generated by combining skeletal muscle and artificial structure. The main factor affecting the actuation performance of hybrid muscle relies on the compatibility between living cells and their muscle scaffolds during cell culture. Here, we developed a hybrid muscle powered by C2C12 skeletal muscle cells based on the functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) sheets coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to achieve biomimetic actuation. This hydrophilic hybrid muscle is physically durable in solution and responds to electric field stimulation with flexible movement. Furthermore, the biomimetic actuation when controlled by electric field stimulation results in movement similar to that of the hornworm by patterned cell culture method. The contraction and relaxation behavior of the PEDOT/MWCNT-based hybrid muscle is similar to that of the single myotube movement, but has faster relaxation kinetics because of the shape-maintenance properties of the freestanding PEDOT/MWCNT sheets in solution. Our development provides the potential possibility for substantial innovation in the next generation of cell-based biohybrid microsystems.

  7. Regulation of skeletal muscle glycogenolysis during exercise

    Hargreaves, M; Richter, Erik

    1988-01-01

    Muscle-glycogen breakdown during exercise is influenced by both local and systemic factors. Contractions per se increase glycogenolysis via a calcium-induced, transient increase in the activity of phosphorylase a, and probably also via increased concentrations of Pi. In fast-twitch muscle...

  8. Autonomic Modification of Intestinal Smooth Muscle Contractility

    Montgomery, Laura E. A.; Tansey, Etain A.; Johnson, Chris D.; Roe, Sean M.; Quinn, Joe G.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal smooth muscle contracts rhythmically in the absence of nerve and hormonal stimulation because of the activity of pacemaker cells between and within the muscle layers. This means that the autonomic nervous system modifies rather than initiates intestinal contractions. The practical described here gives students an opportunity to observe…

  9. Bio-inspired Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Muscles

    Kim, Tae Hyeob; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Lee, Changsun; An, Jieun; Phuong, Tam Thi Thanh; Park, Sun Hwa; Lima, Márcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kang, Tong Mook; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-01-01

    There has been continuous progress in the development for biomedical engineering systems of hybrid muscle generated by combining skeletal muscle and artificial structure. The main factor affecting the actuation performance of hybrid muscle relies on the compatibility between living cells and their muscle scaffolds during cell culture. Here, we developed a hybrid muscle powered by C2C12 skeletal muscle cells based on the functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) sheets coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to achieve biomimetic actuation. This hydrophilic hybrid muscle is physically durable in solution and responds to electric field stimulation with flexible movement. Furthermore, the biomimetic actuation when controlled by electric field stimulation results in movement similar to that of the hornworm by patterned cell culture method. The contraction and relaxation behavior of the PEDOT/MWCNT-based hybrid muscle is similar to that of the single myotube movement, but has faster relaxation kinetics because of the shape-maintenance properties of the freestanding PEDOT/MWCNT sheets in solution. Our development provides the potential possibility for substantial innovation in the next generation of cell-based biohybrid microsystems. PMID:27220918

  10. Neuromuscular imaging in inherited muscle diseases

    Wattjes, Mike P. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, De Boelelaan 1117, HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kley, Rudolf A. [Klinken Bergmannsheil, Ruhr-University, Department of Neurology, Neuromuscular Centre Ruhrgebiet, Bochum (Germany); Fischer, Dirk [University Hospital of Basel, Department of Neurology, Basel (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital Basel, Department of Neuropaediatrics, Basel (Switzerland)

    2010-10-15

    Driven by increasing numbers of newly identified genetic defects and new insights into the field of inherited muscle diseases, neuromuscular imaging in general and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in particular are increasingly being used to characterise the severity and pattern of muscle involvement. Although muscle biopsy is still the gold standard for the establishment of the definitive diagnosis, muscular imaging is an important diagnostic tool for the detection and quantification of dystrophic changes during the clinical workup of patients with hereditary muscle diseases. MRI is frequently used to describe muscle involvement patterns, which aids in narrowing of the differential diagnosis and distinguishing between dystrophic and non-dystrophic diseases. Recent work has demonstrated the usefulness of muscle imaging for the detection of specific congenital myopathies, mainly for the identification of the underlying genetic defect in core and centronuclear myopathies. Muscle imaging demonstrates characteristic patterns, which can be helpful for the differentiation of individual limb girdle muscular dystrophies. The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive overview of current methods and applications as well as future perspectives in the field of neuromuscular imaging in inherited muscle diseases. We also provide diagnostic algorithms that might guide us through the differential diagnosis in hereditary myopathies. (orig.)

  11. COMMON FISCAL POLICY

    Gabriel Mursa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a common fiscal policy, designed to support the euro currency, has some significant drawbacks. The greatest danger is the possibility of leveling the tax burden in all countries. This leveling of the tax is to the disadvantage of countries in Eastern Europe, in principle, countries poorly endowed with capital, that use a lax fiscal policy (Romania, Bulgaria, etc. to attract foreign investment from rich countries of the European Union. In addition, common fiscal policy can lead to a higher degree of centralization of budgetary expenditures in the European Union.

  12. Science and technology policy

    Who is responsible for environmental and technological policy in Denmark? And how are those "policy-makers" made accountable to the public for their decisions?   This report attempts to answer these important questions by presenting the Danish contribution to the EU-funded project, Analysing Public...... Accountability Procedures in Europe.   The first chapter presents Danish public accountability procedures and places them in historical perspective. The other chapters are case studies of genetically modified food, transport policy in the Copenhagen area with a focus on the Metro, and local waste management in...

  13. Wind farm policy

    The background to the development of wind farms in the Argyll and Bute district of Scotland is explored in this document, alongside local policy. The complex issues involved in the planning, construction and operation of wind farms, especially their environmental impacts, are not sufficiently addressed in existing local government policy and this document seeks to clarify some of these areas. Recommendations for planning policy are made, as well as for the forestry industry and the protection of the environment, especially protected bird species. (UK)

  14. Monetary Policy Proving Effective

    2010-01-01

    Hu Xiaolian,Vice Governor of the People’s Bank of China,the country’s central bank, published an article concerning China’s managed floating exchange rate regime and the effectiveness of the monetary policy on the bank’s website on July 26.She pointed out monetary policy,as an important instrument of China’s macroeconomic control,has faced many challenges in recent years.A more flexible exchange rate regime will help improve the effectiveness of the policy.Edited excerpts follow

  15. Changes following denervation to the masseter muscle

    Lei Zhang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Masseter muscle nerve is often injured in mandible osteotomy. What changes in food intake and masseter muscle will be brought after masseter muscle nerve injury?OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to selectively establish animal models of denervated masseter muscle and investigate the effects of severing masseter muscular nerve on masseter muscle and animal's food intake. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized controlled animal experiment was performed at the Laboratory Animal Center, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University from September to November 2005. MATERIALS: A total of 50 healthy, adult, SPF-grade, New Zealand rabbits, of both genders, were used to develop an animal model of selectively denervated masseter muscle.METHODS: Five rabbits were randomly selected as normal controls. According to various mutilation methods, the remaining animals were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups, with 15 rabbits in each group: masseter muscular neural stem denervated, masseter muscular neural superior branch-denervated, and masseter muscular neural inferior branch-denervated groups. Self-control comparison was performed on each animal. The right masseter muscle served as the experimental side, and the left masseter muscle served as the control side. In each group, 3 time points (2, 8, and 24 weeks post-surgery) were allotted for observation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At the pre-set time points, masseter muscular thickness was measured with a Logic 500 color Doppler ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus. Masseter muscle tissue was resected for hematoxylin eosin staining. Masseter muscular fiber diameter and area were measured with an optical microscope. Masseter muscle tissue was sectioned and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide tetrazolium oxidoreductase (NADH-TR) and adenosine triphosphatase staining were performed. Following staining, the sections were quantitatively analyzed using an IBAS200 image analyzer.RESULTS: Post-surgery food intake: No abnormal

  16. Electric pulse stimulation of cultured murine muscle cells reproduces gene expression changes of trained mouse muscle.

    Nathalie Burch

    Full Text Available Adequate levels of physical activity are at the center of a healthy lifestyle. However, the molecular mechanisms that mediate the beneficial effects of exercise remain enigmatic. This gap in knowledge is caused by the lack of an amenable experimental model system. Therefore, we optimized electric pulse stimulation of muscle cells to closely recapitulate the plastic changes in gene expression observed in a trained skeletal muscle. The exact experimental conditions were established using the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha as a marker for an endurance-trained muscle fiber. We subsequently compared the changes in the relative expression of metabolic and myofibrillar genes in the muscle cell system with those observed in mouse muscle in vivo following either an acute or repeated bouts of treadmill exercise. Importantly, in electrically stimulated C2C12 mouse muscle cells, the qualitative transcriptional adaptations were almost identical to those in trained muscle, but differ from the acute effects of exercise on muscle gene expression. In addition, significant alterations in the expression of myofibrillar proteins indicate that this stimulation could be used to modulate the fiber-type of muscle cells in culture. Our data thus describe an experimental cell culture model for the study of at least some of the transcriptional aspects of skeletal muscle adaptation to physical activity. This system will be useful for the study of the molecular mechanisms that regulate exercise adaptation in muscle.

  17. Regulation of skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and muscle mass by SIRT3.

    Ligen Lin

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that the expression of mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 is high in the slow oxidative muscle and that the expression of muscle SIRT3 level is increased by dietary restriction or exercise training. To explore the function of SIRT3 in skeletal muscle, we report here the establishment of a transgenic mouse model with muscle-specific expression of the murine SIRT3 short isoform (SIRT3M3. Calorimetry study revealed that the transgenic mice had increased energy expenditure and lower respiratory exchange rate (RER, indicating a shift towards lipid oxidation for fuel usage, compared to control mice. The transgenic mice exhibited better exercise performance on treadmills, running 45% further than control animals. Moreover, the transgenic mice displayed higher proportion of slow oxidative muscle fibers, with increased muscle AMPK activation and PPARδ expression, both of which are known regulators promoting type I muscle fiber specification. Surprisingly, transgenic expression of SIRT3M3 reduced muscle mass up to 30%, likely through an up-regulation of FOXO1 transcription factor and its downstream atrophy gene MuRF-1. In summary, these results suggest that SIRT3 regulates the formation of oxidative muscle fiber, improves muscle metabolic function, and reduces muscle mass, changes that mimic the effects of caloric restriction.

  18. Changes in Predicted Muscle Coordination with Subject-Specific Muscle Parameters for Individuals after Stroke

    Brian A. Knarr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle weakness is commonly seen in individuals after stroke, characterized by lower forces during a maximal volitional contraction. Accurate quantification of muscle weakness is paramount when evaluating individual performance and response to after stroke rehabilitation. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of subject-specific muscle force and activation deficits on predicted muscle coordination when using musculoskeletal models for individuals after stroke. Maximum force generating ability and central activation ratio of the paretic plantar flexors, dorsiflexors, and quadriceps muscle groups were obtained using burst superimposition for four individuals after stroke with a range of walking speeds. Two models were created per subject: one with generic and one with subject-specific activation and maximum isometric force parameters. The inclusion of subject-specific muscle data resulted in changes in the model-predicted muscle forces and activations which agree with previously reported compensation patterns and match more closely the timing of electromyography for the plantar flexor and hamstring muscles. This was the first study to create musculoskeletal simulations of individuals after stroke with subject-specific muscle force and activation data. The results of this study suggest that subject-specific muscle force and activation data enhance the ability of musculoskeletal simulations to accurately predict muscle coordination in individuals after stroke.

  19. Mechanisms of exertional fatigue in muscle glycogenoses

    Vissing, John; Haller, Ronald G

    2012-01-01

    relates directly to the metabolic defect, but also to substrate-limited energy deficiency, as exemplified by the "second wind" phenomenon in McArdle disease. A number of secondary events may also play a role in inducing premature fatigue in glycogenoses, including (1) absent or blunted muscle acidosis...... concentrations of extracellular potassium in exercising muscle and (3) exaggerated accumulation of ADP during exercise that may inhibit sodium-potassium and calcium-ATPases. Disorders of muscle glycogenolysis and glycolysis reveal the crucial role of these metabolic processes for supplying both anaerobic and...... aerobic energy for muscle contraction; and the pathological fatigue that occurs when glycogenolysis and/or glycolysis is blocked imply an important role for theses metabolic pathways in normal muscle fatigue....

  20. Human skeletal muscle releases leptin in vivo

    Wolsk, Emil; Grøndahl, Thomas Sahl; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund;

    2012-01-01

    Leptin is considered an adipokine, however, cultured myocytes have also been found to release leptin. Therefore, as proof-of-concept we investigated if human skeletal muscle synthesized leptin by measuring leptin in skeletal muscle biopsies. Following this, we quantified human skeletal muscle and...... adipose tissue leptin release in vivo. We recruited 16 healthy male human participants. Catheters were inserted into the femoral artery and vein draining skeletal muscle, as well as an epigastric vein draining the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. By combining the veno-arterial differences in plasma...... leptin with measurements of blood flow, leptin release from both tissues was quantified. To induce changes in leptin, the participants were infused with either saline or adrenaline in normo-physiological concentrations. The presence of leptin in skeletal muscle was confirmed by western blotting. Leptin...