Sample records for address unmet national

  1. The Diagnosis of CAD in Women: Addressing the Unmet Need—A Report from the National Expert Roundtable Meeting

    Ladapo, Joseph L.; Monane, Mark; Lansky, Alexandra; Skoufalos, Alexandria; Nash, David B.


    Abstract A multistakeholder panel comprising experts in the fields of clinical cardiology, medical technology innovation, women's health research and policy analysis, personalized medicine, payers (including self-insured employers), patient advocacy, and health economics was convened at the Heart House in Washington, DC. The following points emerged as key concepts: (1) Diagnostic challenges in the evaluation of women with symptoms suggestive of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) result from: (a) presentation with atypical symptoms and lower pretest probability of disease compared to men, (b) fatty tissue and breast tissue attenuation on cardiac imaging leading to false positive findings, and (c) the presence of microvascular CAD. (2) Diagnostic challenges lead to both over-testing of low-risk women and under-testing of high-risk women. (3) Efforts should be directed toward increasing clinician, clinical professional society, and consumer awareness and understanding of sex-specific differences between men and women in the pathophysiology of CAD. (4) Multiple health care stakeholders should be made aware of new advances in genomic approaches to address the challenges of diagnosing obstructive CAD; specifically, the Corus CAD gene expression test, which was shown to have high sensitivity and negative predictive value in a recent clinical trial. As such, it has promise as a tool to help clinicians to rule out obstructive CAD as a cause of a patient's symptoms. (Population Health Management 2015;18:86–92) PMID:25714757

  2. Addressing unmet needs in the treatment of COPD

    Francesco Patalano


    Full Text Available The burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is considerable, both socially and economically. Central to COPD management is the use of long-acting bronchodilators, which provide patients with optimal bronchodilation and improvements in symptoms. The once-daily, long-acting β2-agonist indacaterol, the long-acting muscarinic antagonist glycopyrronium, and the indacaterol/glycopyrronium fixed-dose combination QVA149 have all been shown to significantly improve lung function and patient-reported outcomes. The ability to take medication appropriately is important. Easy to use, low resistance devices may help patients take their medication and achieve good drug deposition. There is a need to optimise COPD management by treating the right patients with the right therapy at the right time during the course of their disease. Herein, we present a view on the current COPD management landscape and current unmet needs, and look to the future of COPD treatment and how patient care can be optimised.

  3. Addressing the burden of epilepsy: Many unmet needs.

    Beghi, Ettore


    the presence of comorbidity. Although in several countries the costs of epilepsy are met by the national health systems, out-of-pocket costs may be a relevant fraction of the overall costs, especially in countries where the public management of health care is suboptimal or non-existent. Epilepsy strongly affects patients' independence, psychological health and emotional adjustment. Epilepsy impairs all aspects of health-related quality of life. Awareness and attitudes of the public about epilepsy may significantly affect the burden of the disease. All these factors add to the burden of the disease. However, many of the factors implicated in the onset of epilepsy, its course and treatment can be favorably addressed with appropriate strategic plans. More research is needed to investigate and manage the medical and psychosocial implications of epilepsy. PMID:26952026

  4. Challenges Addressing Unmet Need for Contraception: Voices of Family Planning Service Providers in Rural Tanzania.

    Baraka, Jitihada; Rusibamayila, Asinath; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Baynes, Colin


    Provider perspectives have been overlooked in efforts to address the challenges of unmet need for family planning (FP). This qualitative study was undertaken in Tanzania, using 22 key informant interviews and 4 focus group discussions. The research documents perceptions of healthcare managers and providers in a rural district on the barriers to meeting latent demand for contraception. Social-ecological theory is used to interpret the findings, illustrating how service capability is determined by the social, structural and organizational environment. Providers' efforts to address unmet need for FP services are constrained by unstable reproductive preferences, low educational attainment, and misconceptions about contraceptive side effects. Societal and organizational factors--such as gender dynamics, economic conditions, religious and cultural norms, and supply chain bottlenecks, respectively--also contribute to an adverse environment for meeting needs for care. Challenges that healthcare providers face interact and produce an effect which hinders efforts to address unmet need. Interventions to address this are not sufficient unless the supply of services is combined with systems strengthening and social engagement strategies in a way that reflects the multi-layered, social institutional problems. PMID:27337850

  5. 78 FR 3005 - Creating an Alternative Approval Pathway for Certain Drugs Intended to Address Unmet Medical Need...


    ... processes and have led to major advances in the treatment of conditions such as cystic fibrosis, HIV... fostering the application of scientific advances to the treatment of disease through drug development, including the use of novel approaches that can facilitate development of treatment for unmet...

  6. 2015 Address Ranges National Geodatabase

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 TIGER Geodatabases are extracts of selected nation based and state based geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  7. 77 FR 11116 - Draft National Plan To Address Alzheimer's Disease


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Draft National Plan To Address Alzheimer's Disease AGENCY: Office of the Assistant.... SUMMARY: HHS is soliciting public input on the draft National Plan to Address Alzheimer's Disease, which... Alzheimer's disease. Coordinate Alzheimer's disease research and services across all federal...

  8. Notation for national and international telephone numbers, e-mail addresses and Web addresses

    International Telecommunication Union. Geneva


    Recommendation E.123 defines a standard way to write telephone numbers, e-mail addresses, and web addresses. It recommends the following formats (when dialing the area code is optional for local calling): Telephone number: National notation (042) 123 4567 International notation +31 (0)42 123 4567 E-mail address: Internet address / URL: It also recommends that a hypen (-), space ( ), or period (.) can be used to visually separate groups of numbers. The parentheses are used to indicate digits that are sometimes not dialed. a slash (/) is used to indicate alternate numbers. This information is important if you want to make sure people know how to dail a phone number in a specific country.

  9. The nation's first consortium to address waste management issues

    On July 26, 1989, the secretary of the Department of Energy (DOE), Admiral James Watkins, announced approval of the Waste-Management Education and Research Consortium (WERC). The consortium is composed of New Mexico State University (NMSU), the University of New Mexico, the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. This pilot program is expected to form a model for other regional and national programs. The WERC mission is to expand the national capability to address issues associated with the management of hazardous, radioactive, and solid waste. Research, technology transfer, and education/training are the three areas that have been identified to accomplish the objectives set by the consortium. The members of the consortium will reach out to the DOE facilities, other government agencies and facilities, and private institutions across the country. Their goal is to provide resources for solutions to waste management problems

  10. Creating a National Coalition to Address Tractor Overturn Fatalities.

    Tinc, P J; Ayers, P D; May, J J; Purschwitz, M A; Sorensen, J A


    Tractor overturns continue to be the leading cause of death on U.S. farms. While rollover protective structures (ROPS) are effective in preventing these fatalities, they are underutilized due to a number of barriers. Past programs in the U.S. and abroad have targeted this area of agricultural safety; however, a national program is not yet in place for U.S. farmers. This study seeks to build a national partnership to address tractor overturn fatalities by increasing the number of tractors with ROPS. A diverse, multisector steering committee has been organized and is working together using Whole System in a Room methods. This method brings together partners from nine stakeholder groups to identify and commit to a collaborative solution to the issue. PMID:26204786

  11. National Institutes of Health addresses the science of diversity.

    Valantine, Hannah A; Collins, Francis S


    The US biomedical research workforce does not currently mirror the nation's population demographically, despite numerous attempts to increase diversity. This imbalance is limiting the promise of our biomedical enterprise for building knowledge and improving the nation's health. Beyond ensuring fairness in scientific workforce representation, recruiting and retaining a diverse set of minds and approaches is vital to harnessing the complete intellectual capital of the nation. The complexity inherent in diversifying the research workforce underscores the need for a rigorous scientific approach, consistent with the ways we address the challenges of science discovery and translation to human health. Herein, we identify four cross-cutting diversity challenges ripe for scientific exploration and opportunity: research evidence for diversity's impact on the quality and outputs of science; evidence-based approaches to recruitment and training; individual and institutional barriers to workforce diversity; and a national strategy for eliminating barriers to career transition, with scientifically based approaches for scaling and dissemination. Evidence-based data for each of these challenges should provide an integrated, stepwise approach to programs that enhance diversity rapidly within the biomedical research workforce. PMID:26392553

  12. Fathers of the Nation: Barack Obama Addresses Nelson Mandela

    Elisa Bordin


    Full Text Available This essay analyzes Barack Obama’s Nelson Mandela Memorial speech together with other seminal texts of Obama’s political and personal creed, such as his book Dreams from My Father (1995 and his speech “A More Perfect Union” (2008. This reading becomes helpful to understand Mandela’s transnational power, which Obama uses to comment on the United States by comparing Madiba to other American “fathers of the nation.” Thus, he uproots Mandela’s from a specifically South African legacy, expands his figure, and addresses him as a transnational father of his own nation, whose power, influence, and example transcend South African borders. As a consequence of this enlargement and transnational validation of Mandela’s figure, the speech delivered at the Memorial becomes an occasion to tackle American past and future, while the memory of Madiba and his driving example in Obama’s life serve to reinforce previous positions conveyed in other discourses by the American President, such as the “A More Perfect Union” speech delivered in Philadelphia in 2008.

  13. Addressing environmental justice under the National Environment Policy Act at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    Cohen, T.M.; Bleakly, D.R.


    Under Executive Order 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations, the Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico (SNL) are required to identify and address, as appropriate, disproportionately high, adverse human health or environmental effects of their activities on minority and low-income populations. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) also requires that environmental justice issues be identified and addressed. This presents a challenge for SNL because it is located in a culturally diverse area. Successfully addressing potential impacts is contingent upon accurately identifying them through objective analysis of demographic information. However, an effective public participation process, which is necessarily subjective, is also needed to understand the subtle nuances of diverse populations that can contribute to a potential impact, yet are not always accounted for in a strict demographic profile. Typically, there is little or no coordination between these two disparate processes. This report proposes a five-step method for reconciling these processes and uses a hypothetical case study to illustrate the method. A demographic analysis and community profile of the population within 50 miles of SNL were developed to support the environmental justice analysis process and enhance SNL`s NEPA and public involvement programs. This report focuses on developing a methodology for identifying potentially impacted populations. Environmental justice issues related to worker exposures associated with SNL activities will be addressed in a separate report.

  14. National Conference on Outdoor Leadership. 2008 Keynote Address

    Louv, Richard


    In this keynote address, Richard Louv laments that today's children lack direct connection to nature. Over the past 15 years, he interviewed families across the country about the changes in their lives, including their relationship with nature. With few exceptions, even in rural areas, parents say the same thing: Most children aren't playing…

  15. National building stocks: addressing energy consumption or decarbonization?

    Herring, Horace


    The Building Research & Information special issue titled 'Climate Change: National Building Stocks' (2007) focused attention on the potential that the national building stock has in reducing CO2 emissions. However, can this potential be realized? To do so requires faith in energy models that suggest that demolition, new build, and the refurbishing of existing homes with insulation measures can deliver massive energy savings by 2050. But why, in the future, can there be increased efficiency an...

  16. The capability of national education systems to address ethnic diversity

    Charl C. Wolhuter


    Full Text Available Modern societies have become much more complex in recent decades, also in terms of ethnic identities and differences. The question arose whether education systems were capable of addressing the needs of ethnic and other minorities in countries across the globe. After examining a cross-section of education systems (in Australia, Canada, China, Israel, Malaysia, Rwanda, Russia and South Africa with the aid of a set of specially developed criteria, it was concluded that these systems seemed to comply with the criteria in various ways, albeit in different measures and in several configurations. It is recommended that policy makers apply such criteria for enhancing the capability of an education system to address the needs of ethnic minorities and to meet the demands of increased social complexity.

  17. Addressing language barriers: building response capacity for a changing nation.

    Partida, Yolanda


    The absence of universally available language services is a national healthcare system failure, the burden of which is suffered by patients with limited English proficiency and their healthcare providers. Conceptualizing mandatory provision of language access as an unfair, unfunded mandate ignores massive and fundamental social changes taking place. Overcoming language barriers is essential to safe, quality health care. This paper, informed by the experience of Hablamos Juntos, a national demonstration project funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, argues that national and health industry investments are needed to develop population-based approaches supported by communication and information technology, and that these investments may prove useful to improving healthcare communication for English-speaking patients as well. PMID:17957423

  18. Addressing a Nation's Challenge: Graduate Programs in Gerontology in Israel

    Carmel, Sara; Lowenstein, Ariela


    Like other developed nations, Israel has rapidly aged. This demographic revolution has created new challenges for Israeli society. We describe the societal background, including the emerging societal needs, solutions, and problems, as well as the professional principles, which guided us in developing the first two Israeli academic programs in…

  19. Unmet needs in the management of schizophrenia.

    Torres-González, Francisco; Ibanez-Casas, Inmaculada; Saldivia, Sandra; Ballester, Dinarte; Grandón, Pamela; Moreno-Küstner, Berta; Xavier, Miguel; Gómez-Beneyto, Manuel


    Studies on unmet needs during the last decades have played a significant role in the development and dissemination of evidence-based community practices for persistent schizophrenia and other severe mental disorders. This review has thoroughly considered several blocks of unmet needs, which are frequently related to schizophrenic disorders. Those related to health have been the first block to be considered, in which authors have examined the frequent complications and comorbidities found in schizophrenia, such as substance abuse and dual diagnosis. A second block has been devoted to psychosocial and economic needs, especially within the field of recovery of the persistently mentally ill. Within this block, the effects of the current economic difficulties shown in recent literature have been considered as well. Because no patient is static, a third block has reviewed evolving needs according to the clinical staging model. The fourth block has been dedicated to integrated evidence-based interventions to improve the quality of life of persons with schizophrenia. Consideration of community care for those reluctant to maintain contact with mental health services has constituted the fifth block. Finally, authors have aggregated their own reflections regarding future trends. The number of psychosocial unmet needs is extensive. Vast research efforts will be needed to find appropriate ways to meet them, particularly regarding so-called existential needs, but many needs could be met only by applying existing evidence-based interventions. Reinforcing research on the implementation strategies and capacity building of professionals working in community settings might address this problem. The final aim should be based on the collaborative model of care, which rests on the performance of a case manager responsible for monitoring patient progress, providing assertive follow-up, teaching self-help strategies, and facilitating communication among the patient, family doctor, mental

  20. Fathers of the Nation: Barack Obama Addresses Nelson Mandela


    This essay analyzes Barack Obama’s Nelson Mandela Memorial speech together with other seminal texts of Obama’s political and personal creed, such as his book Dreams from My Father (1995) and his speech “A More Perfect Union” (2008). This reading becomes helpful to understand Mandela’s transnational power, which Obama uses to comment on the United States by comparing Madiba to other American “fathers of the nation.” Thus, he uproots Mandela’s from a specifically South African legacy, expands h...

  1. Unmet needs in the transition to adulthood: 18- to 30-year-old people with hemophilia.

    Quon, Doris; Reding, Mark; Guelcher, Chris; Peltier, Skye; Witkop, Michelle; Cutter, Susan; Buranahirun, Cathy; Molter, Don; Frey, Mary Jane; Forsyth, Angela; Tran, Duc Bobby; Curtis, Randall; Hiura, Grant; Levesque, Justin; de la Riva, Debbie; Compton, Matthew; Iyer, Neeraj N; Holot, Natalia; Cooper, David L


    Young adults with hemophilia face unique challenges during the transition to adulthood, including issues associated with switching from pediatric to adult hematology care, building mature interpersonal relationships, and establishing an independent career with an assurance of medical insurance coverage. A greater understanding of these challenges is essential for developing effective strategies to address the specific needs of this population. These challenges may be differentiated from those of older adults with hemophilia in large part because of more extensive childhood prophylaxis and safer factor products, resulting in fewer joint problems and lower rates of HIV and HCV infections. This analysis of the changing nature and unmet needs of today's young adults entering into adult hemophilia treatment centers, as well as potential strategies for optimally addressing these needs, was developed following roundtable discussions between patients, caregivers, hematologists, and other health care professionals participating in comprehensive care. Challenges identified among young adults with hemophilia include psychosocial issues related to maturity, personal responsibility, and increased independence, as well as concerns regarding when and with whom to share information about one's hemophilia, limited awareness of educational and financial resources, and a low perceived value of regular hematology care. The initiatives proposed herein highlight important opportunities for health care professionals at pediatric and adult hemophilia treatment centers, as well as national organizations, community groups, and career counselors, to address key unmet needs of this patient population. PMID:26619193

  2. Unmet needs in the management of schizophrenia

    Torres-González F


    integrated evidence-based interventions to improve the quality of life of persons with schizophrenia. Consideration of community care for those reluctant to maintain contact with mental health services has constituted the fifth block. Finally, authors have aggregated their own reflections regarding future trends. The number of psychosocial unmet needs is extensive. Vast research efforts will be needed to find appropriate ways to meet them, particularly regarding so-called existential needs, but many needs could be met only by applying existing evidence-based interventions. Reinforcing research on the implementation strategies and capacity building of professionals working in community settings might address this problem. The final aim should be based on the collaborative model of care, which rests on the performance of a case manager responsible for monitoring patient progress, providing assertive follow-up, teaching self-help strategies, and facilitating communication among the patient, family doctor, mental health specialist, and other specialists. Keywords: schizophrenia, needs, unmet needs, severe mental disorders

  3. Managing the unmet psychosocial and information needs of patients with cancer

    Abrahamson, Kathleen, RN,MS


    Kathleen Abrahamson1, Morgan Durham1, Rebekah Fox21Department of Public Health, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY, USA; 2Department of Communication, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX, USAAbstract: In this article, we synthesize current literature regarding the unmet needs of cancer patients, with a specific focus on interventions that address psychosocial distress, social support, and information deficits. Research indicates many patients diagnosed with cancer express unmet...

  4. Which unmet needs contribute to behavior problems in persons with advanced dementia?

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Dakheel-Ali, Maha; Marx, Marcia S; Thein, Khin; Regier, Natalie G


    The Unmet Needs Model states that problem behaviors of people with dementia result from unmet needs stemming from a decreased ability to communicate those needs and to provide for oneself. The purpose of this study is to describe the unmet needs of persons with dementia exhibiting behavior problems. Eighty-nine residents with dementia from six Maryland nursing homes were assessed by research assistants and nursing assistants for their unmet needs using multiple assessment tools. Three unmet needs per resident were identified on average, with informants rating boredom/sensory deprivation, loneliness/need for social interaction, and need for meaningful activity as the most prevalent needs. Discomfort was associated with higher levels of verbally agitated behaviors (e.g., complaining). Based on results and independent ratings of pain, the authors estimate notable under-detection of discomfort and pain by both types of informants. The study demonstrates methodologies for uncovering unmet needs among persons with dementia and highlights the importance of developing programs that address those unmet needs, especially social and activity needs of nursing home residents. The detection of pain, and possibly that of discomfort, may require a different methodology. PMID:25933478

  5. Global Neurosurgery: The Unmet Need.

    Park, Kee B; Johnson, Walter D; Dempsey, Robert J


    Globally, the lack of access to basic surgical care causes 3 times as much deaths as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria combined. The magnitude of this unmet need has been described recently, and the numbers are startling. Major shifts in global health agenda have highlighted access to essential and emergency surgery as a high priority. A broad examination of the current global neurosurgical efforts to improve access has revealed some strengths, particularly in the realm of training; however, the demand grossly outstrips the supply; most people in low-income countries do not have access to basic surgical care, either due to lack of availability or affordability. Projects that help create a robust and resilient health system within low- and middle-income countries require urgent implementation. In this context, concurrent scale-up of human resources, investments in capacity building, local data collection, and analysis for accurate assessment are essential. In addition, through process of collaboration and consensus building within the neurosurgical community, a unified voice of neurosurgery is necessary to effectively advocate for all those who need neurosurgical care wherever, whenever. PMID:26732963

  6. Unmet Healthcare Needs in People with Disabilities: Comparison with the General Population in Korea

    Hwang, Byungkwan; Chun, Sung-Min; Park, Jong-Hyock; Shin, Hyung-Ik


    Objective To determine the degree of disparity in unmet healthcare needs between people with disabilities and the general population in South Korea, and to analyze their perspective reasons. Method Survey results of 9,744 subjects that participated in the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 7,000 people that participated in the 2008 Survey of Disabled people were used in this population-based cross-sectional study. Unmet healthcare needs were identified as reporting...

  7. National Forum: How Schools and Parents Can Work Together to Address Bullying

    Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, 2012


    On 31 July 2012 the Minister for School Education, Early Childhood and Youth, Peter Garrett convened the "National Forum: How schools and parents can work together to address bullying" at Parliament House. The Forum brought together principals, parents groups, young people, as well as experts in education, child welfare, psychology and marketing…

  8. Provision of neuropsychiatry services: variability and unmet need.

    Agrawal, Niruj; Bhattacharya, Rahul; Rickards, Hugh


    Aims and method Neuropsychiatry services remain underdeveloped and underprovided. Previous studies have shown variability in service provision in the UK. In this survey we approached all mental health and neuropsychiatric service providers within London to map current neuropsychiatric service provision and explore perceived barriers. Results All the specialist mental health service providers responded. There was huge variability in neuropsychiatric service provision within different parts of London. There was evidence of significant unmet need and variability in service pathways. Lack of earmarked funds for neuropsychiatry and disjointed funding stream for such services were identified by providers as a barrier. Clinical implications This study provides further evidence of an ongoing lack of adequate neuropsychiatric service provision. Reasons for variability and unmet need are discussed. Adoption of a previously proposed hub-and-spoke model of service provision and the removal of commissioning barriers through uniform national commissioning may help deal with this problem. PMID:26755990

  9. Beyond the "National Container": Addressing Methodological Nationalism in Higher Education Research

    Shahjahan, Riyad A.; Kezar, Adrianna J.


    This essay argues that there is a need for higher education researchers to become aware of methodological nationalism (MN) and take steps to reframe their scholarship in new ways. It illuminates two characteristics of MN prevalent in higher education research and suggests that although a few researchers have attempted to move beyond MN in the…

  10. Unmet need for contraception in Vietnam: who needs what and when.

    Ross, J A; Pham, S B


    The Vietnam 1988 survey established the first national estimates for reproductive preferences and behavior. It created a unique baseline for levels and differentials, both for the marked differences between North and South, and for various social and demographic categories. It also provided the first national data for program guidance, including information on unmet need. Unmet need for contraception has been extensively documented for much of the developing world, but its structure is not yet well understood. This study differentiates unmet-need couples by several demographic characteristics, by time since the last birth, and by features identified through a computer search program. Past investigations have emphasized the per cent with unmet need within various population subgroups, but some of those subgroups are small, whereas the national family planning program must be oriented to subgroups with large absolute numbers of unmet need couples. Unmet-need couples are selective, whether by reference to the married population or by reference to other couples who also wish to avoid pregnancy but are using a method. Most unmet-need couples are younger than users, have fewer children and, especially, are closer to their last birth. Surprisingly, most have never used a contraceptive method before, even though Vietnam has had a vigorous family planning program and 49 per cent of all couples in the survey reported some experience with a modern contraceptive method. In terms of sheer numbers, those in need are distributed very widely throughout the country. The most disadvantaged segments of the population have both high percentages and large numbers in need, but the concentration of the national program upon a single contraceptive method restricts their options. PMID:9325656

  11. Strategies to Address Identified Education Gaps in the Preparation of a National Security Workforce



    This report will discuss strategies available to address identified gaps and weaknesses in education efforts aimed at the preparation of a skilled and properly trained national security workforce.The need to adequately train and educate a national security workforce is at a critical juncture. Even though there are an increasing number of college graduates in the appropriate fields, many of these graduates choose to work in the private sector because of more desirable salary and benefit packages. This is contributing to an inability to fill vacant positions at NNSA resulting from high personnel turnover from the large number of retirements. Further, many of the retirees are practically irreplaceable because they are Cold War scientists that have experience and expertise with nuclear weapons.

  12. Supervision Strategies and Approaches for Female Parolees: Examining the Link between Unmet Needs and Parolee Outcome

    Schram, Pamela J.; Koons-Witt, Barbara A.; Williams, Frank P., III; McShane, Marilyn D.


    A number of parolees are returning to the community with programming needs that may not have been addressed during their incarceration; these unmet needs may subsequently affect their successful reintegration into the community. Although there is an increasing female parole population, there has been a paucity of research concerning female…

  13. Currently Married Women with an Unmet Need for Contraception in Eritrea: Profile and Determinants

    Roderic Beaujot


    Full Text Available Eritrea’s contraceptive prevalence rate is one of the lowest in sub-Saharan Africa and its fertility has only started to decline. Using data from the 2002 Eritrea Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS, this study examines the determinants of unmet need for family planning that is the discrepancy between fertility goals and actual contraceptive use. More than one-quarter of currently married women are estimated to have an unmet need and this has remained unchanged since 1995. The most important reason for unmet need is lack of knowledge of methods or of a source of supply. Currently married women with higher parity, and low autonomy, low or medium household economic status, and who know no method of contraception or source of supply are identified as the most likely to have an unmet need. Addressing the unmet need for family planning entails not merely greater knowledge of or access to contraceptive services, but also the enhancement of the status of women.

  14. Unmet needs, quality of life and support networks of people with dementia living at home

    Oomman Sabu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is lack of evidence about the unmet needs of people with dementia (PWD living at home and the predictors of high levels of unmet needs. The main aim of this study was to identify the relationship between unmet needs, social networks and quality of life of PWD living at home. Methods One hundred and fifty two community dwelling PWD and 128 carers were interviewed about PWD's needs, social networks, quality of life and other functional and psychological factors. All the interviews with PWD were carried out at their homes. Interviews with carers were undertaken either at PWD's home, their own home or at the health centre. Whenever possible, PWD and carers were interviewed separately. The data collection took place between November 2005 and July 2007. The majority of participants (129, 84.9% were recruited from National Health Services (NHS and the rest (23, 15.1% were recruited from other organisations such as social services and voluntary organizations in the UK. Results The most frequent unmet needs for PWD were daytime activities (77, 50.7%, company (60, 39.5%, and help with psychological distress (47, 30.9%. Higher number of behavioural and psychological symptoms, low-community involvement social networks, having a younger carer and higher carer's anxiety were found to be predictors of higher unmet needs in PWD. Social networks and behavioural and psychological symptoms had an indirect effect on PWD's self-rated quality of life through unmet needs. Conclusions Interventions aiming to reduce unmet needs, through the treatment of behavioural and psychological symptoms and the involvement of PWD in the community, would potentially improve PWD's quality of life.

  15. Unmet needs of bipolar disorder patients

    Hajda M


    Full Text Available Miroslav Hajda,1 Jan Prasko,1 Klara Latalova,1 Radovan Hruby,2 Marie Ociskova,1 Michaela Holubova,1,3 Dana Kamaradova,1 Barbora Mainerova1 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 2Outpatient Psychiatric Department, Martin, Slovak Republic; 3Department of Psychiatry, Regional Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic Background: Bipolar disorder (BD is a serious mental illness with adverse impact on the lives of the patients and their caregivers. BD is associated with many limitations in personal and interpersonal functioning and restricts the patients’ ability to use their potential capabilities fully. Bipolar patients long to live meaningful lives, but this goal is hard to achieve for those with poor insight. With progress and humanization of society, the issue of patients’ needs became an important topic. The objective of the paper is to provide the up-to-date data on the unmet needs of BD patients and their caregivers. Methods: A systematic computerized examination of MEDLINE publications from 1970 to 2015, via the keywords “bipolar disorder”, “mania”, “bipolar depression”, and “unmet needs”, was performed. Results: Patients’ needs may differ in various stages of the disorder and may have different origin and goals. Thus, we divided them into five groups relating to their nature: those connected with symptoms, treatment, quality of life, family, and pharmacotherapy. We suggested several implications of these needs for pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Conclusion: Trying to follow patients’ needs may be a crucial point in the treatment of BD patients. However, many needs remain unmet due to both medical and social factors. Keywords: bipolar disorder, unmet needs, stigma, treatment, medication, quality of life, family, psychotherapy

  16. Unmet Need for Family Planning: Implication for Under-five Mortality in Nigeria

    Adedini, Sunday Adepoju; Odimegwu, Clifford; Imasiku, Eunice Ntwala; Ononokpono, Dorothy Ngozi


    ABSTRACT There are gaps in evidence on whether unmet need for family planning has any implication for under-five mortality in Nigeria. This study utilized 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data to examine the effect of unmet need on under-five mortality. Cox regression analysis was performed on 28,647 children born by a nationally-representative sample of 18,028 women within the five years preceding the survey. Findings indicated elevated risks of under-five death for children whose ...

  17. Unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group in urban Tamil Nadu

    Malini M Bhattathiry


    Full Text Available Context: Unmet need for family planning (FP, which refers to the condition in which there is the desire to avoid or post-pone child bearing, without the use of any means of contraception, has been a core concept in the field of international population for more than three decades. Objectives: The very objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of "unmet need for FP" and its socio-demographic determinants among married reproductive age group women in Chidambaram. Materials and Methods: The study was a community-based cross-sectional study of married women of the reproductive age group, between 15 and 49 years. The sample size required was 700. The cluster sampling method was adopted. Unmarried, separated, divorced and widows were excluded. Results: The prevalence of unmet need for FP was 39%, with spacing as 12% and limiting as 27%. The major reason for unmet need for FP among the married group was 18%, for low perceived risk of pregnancy, 9%, feared the side effects of contraception 5% lacked information on contraceptives, 4% had husbands who opposed it and 3% gave medical reasons. Higher education, late marriage, more than the desired family size, poor knowledge of FP, poor informed choice in FP and poor male participation were found to be associated with high unmet need for FP. Conclusion: Unmet need for younger women was spacing of births, whereas for older women, it was a limitation of births. Efforts should be made to identify the issues in a case by case approach. Male participation in reproductive issues should be addressed.

  18. Reviewing the Unmet Needs of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Mehr, Stanton R; Zimmerman, Marj P


    Significant innovations in the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have primarily addressed the frequency of flare-ups in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). Many advances have been made in this area, and the medical community may be on the verge of a serious discussion of what constitutes a truly effective MS treatment. Certainly, it is important to further delay MS flare-ups and more effectively treat RRMS symptoms. However, great strides in reducing or preventing MS-related disability and providing neuroprotection have been elusive. Many unmet needs are still voiced by patients with MS, clinicians, and caregivers. Current information on the need for progress in various areas is reviewed in this article, including psychosocial care, treatments for progressive MS, biomarker identification, functional outcome measures, individualization of treatment, reducing side effects of medications, and improving medication adherence. PMID:26702334

  19. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research

    John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole


    The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials

  20. Unmet health care needs for persons with environmental sensitivity

    Gibson PR; Kovach S; Lupfer A


    Pamela Reed Gibson, Shannon Kovach, Alexis LupferDepartment of Psychology, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA, USAAbstract: Studies of unmet health care needs have shown that women, people with poor health, and people with lower socioeconomic status are more likely to report having unmet health care needs. In this study, we examined the types of and reasons for unmet health care needs in 465 people with environmental sensitivities. A second area of inquiry involved negative reactions ...

  1. Perceived Competence in Addressing Student Substance Abuse: A National Survey of Middle School Counselors

    Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J.; Lopez, Adriana L.; Slagle, Clark P.


    Background: Student substance abuse is a serious concern for middle school personnel. School counselors are most likely to deliver mental health services, including substance abuse, in school settings. However, limited research is available on the perceived competence of middle school counselors for addressing student substance abuse concerns. The…

  2. Literacy: A Route to Addressing Child Poverty? National Literacy Trust Research Review

    National Literacy Trust, 2011


    This short document reviews research into the role of low literacy in poverty and disadvantage. It sets out evidence for the impact of parental engagement in home learning and the significance of attitudes, aspirations and literacy development. The National Literacy Trust hopes that this is a useful resource for those with responsibility for, and…

  3. Addressing Child Poverty: How Does the United States Compare With Other Nations?

    Smeeding, Timothy; Thévenot, Céline


    Poverty during childhood raises a number of policy challenges. The earliest years are critical in terms of future cognitive and emotional development and early health outcomes, and have long-lasting consequences on future health. In this article child poverty in the United States is compared with a set of other developed countries. To the surprise of few, results show that child poverty is high in the United States. But why is poverty so much higher in the United States than in other rich nations? Among child poverty drivers, household composition and parent's labor market participation matter a great deal. But these are not insurmountable problems. Many of these disadvantages can be overcome by appropriate public policies. For example, single mothers have a very high probability of poverty in the United States, but this is not the case in other countries where the provision of work support increases mothers' labor earnings and together with strong public cash support effectively reduces child poverty. In this article we focus on the role and design of public expenditure to understand the functioning of the different national systems and highlight ways for improvements to reduce child poverty in the United States. We compare relative child poverty in the United States with poverty in a set of selected countries. The takeaway is that the United States underinvests in its children and their families and in so doing this leads to high child poverty and poor health and educational outcomes. If a nation like the United States wants to decrease poverty and improve health and life chances for poor children, it must support parental employment and incomes, and invest in children's futures as do other similar nations with less child poverty. PMID:27044705

  4. Epigenetics and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Unmet Needs.

    Meroni, Pier Luigi; Penatti, Alessandra Emiliana


    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic relapsing-remitting autoimmune disease affecting several organs. Although the management of lupus patients has improved in the last years, several aspects still remain challenging. More sensitive and specific biomarkers for an early diagnosis as well as for monitoring disease activity and tissue damage are needed. Genome-wide association and gene mapping studies have supported the genetic background for SLE susceptibility. However, the relatively modest risk association and the studies in twins have suggested a role for environmental and epigenetic factors, as well as genetic-epigenetic interaction. Accordingly, there is evidence that differences in DNA methylation, histone modifications, and miRNA profiling can be found in lupus patients versus normal subjects. Moreover, impaired DNA methylation on the inactive X-chromosome was suggested to explain, at least in part, the female prevalence of the disease. Epigenetic markers may be help in fulfilling the unmet needs for SLE by offering new diagnostic tools, new biomarkers for monitoring disease activity, or to better characterize patients with a silent clinical disease but with an active serology. Anti-DNA, anti-phospholipid, and anti-Ro/SSA autoantibodies are thought to be pathogenic for glomerulonephritis, recurrent thrombosis and miscarriages, and neonatal lupus, respectively. However, tissue damage occurs occasionally or, in some patients, only in spite of the persistent presence of the antibodies. Preliminary studies suggest that epigenetic mechanisms may explain why the damage takes place in some patients only or at a given time. PMID:26206675

  5. Facing safety and security challenges: A national and international perspective (Opening address)

    This international conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems is more than a gathering of senior regulators and of nuclear technologists; it is truly an international assembly of those who implement nuclear safety, security and emergency preparedness. The sessions should have a definitive underlying theme and purpose that support the objectives of the conference. A common understanding of the purpose of regulation in general and nuclear regulation in particular, should provide the connectivity between every one of us, independent of country or organization. A good starting point for the common understanding of regulation would be to note that regulation is done for the well-being of our people, for the common good, with full consideration of the national interests, and of international law and agreements. Nuclear regulation is a disciplined national tool for establishing predictable safety and security frameworks. It works by establishing and improving technical and legal structures to define the acceptable safety case that serves the public interest. Senior nuclear regulators, you and I, are coming together, in Moscow, in winter, in 2006, to make a statement regarding our responsibilities and to deliver a series of products, sustained by a common understanding of nuclear regulation. Moreover, we are here because we care about our nations and because we can and want to work together, better. In this regard, I present for your thoughtful consideration here, as a purpose, the objective stated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its current strategic plan: to enable the use and management of radioactive materials and nuclear fuels for beneficial civilian purposes in a manner that protects public health and safety and the environment, promotes the security of our nation, and provides for regulatory actions that are open, effective, efficient, realistic and timely. With that purpose in mind, it becomes clear why our presence here today is important. In

  6. [State of unmet medical needs in France in 2006: necessity of reinforcing research effort].

    Jouan-Flahault, Chrystel; Billon, Nathalie; Castaigne, Alain; Henry, Yves-Dominique; Omnes, Carole; Puech, Alain; Rosilio, Myriam; Lassale, Catherine


    Leem (French Pharmaceutical Companies) realized an inventory of unmet medical needs in 2006 in France for 12 pathologies. All of them are considered as national public health priorities by the law of August 9th, 2004. Allied to the epidemiological projections, analyses concerned various stages and/or pathology forms, impact of guidelines in clinical practice, therapeutic strategies, marketed therapeutics and pharmacological products in an advanced phase of clinical development. With more than 100 products listed in clinical phase III or pre-registration/marketed for those pathologies, French Pharmaceutical Companies contribute, quasi exclusively, to the development of innovative pharmaceutical products to answer unmet medical needs. This study illustrates the necessity of French Government to support therapeutic innovation led by Pharmaceutical Companies in France. PMID:18206102

  7. Addressing Waste Management Issues for D and D of Excess Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Since the Manhattan Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been engaged in developing and demonstrating nuclear and radiochemical processes at the laboratory and pilot plant scale. Many of these processes were later implemented in Department of Energy (DOE) production facilities across the U.S. and in producing radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications. These activities have resulted in a large variety of unique remote handled legacy wastes and contaminated hot cell facilities. The DOE has established the Integrated Facility Disposition Project (IFDP) to dispose of the legacy waste and to deactivate, decontaminate and decommission (D and D) ∼300 facilities no longer needed for the Oak Ridge mission. The IFDP will be required to characterize, treat, package, and dispose of a variety of waste streams, including remote handled solid waste streams for which no treatment capability currently exists at ORNL. In addition, the existing waste management systems at ORNL are thirty plus years old and are reaching the end of their design life. They will require replacement and/or significant upgrades in order to meet the future needs of the IFDP. Difficult-to-handle remote handled solid materials that must be dispositioned include materials that contain approximately 27 million curies (Sr-90 equivalents) with dose rates as high as one million R/hr. The materials that must be handled range from less than inch in all dimensions to extremely large components; the largest identified to date are 9'x9'x9', 34 ton casks. Included in this list are a number of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) containing ∼104-106 curies of cesium or strontium and hazardous components (e.g., mercury and other heat transfer and heat sensing materials) that must be dismantled to allow recovery and segregation of the radioisotope from the hazardous materials and repackaging of the materials to meet waste acceptance criteria. A number of materials will require 'down


    Mohammad Waseem Faraz


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTI ON: Family planning is a “way of thinking and living that is adopted voluntarily, upon the basis of knowledge, attitudes, and responsible decisions by individuals and couples, in order to promote the health and welfare of the family group and thus contribute effectively to the social development of a country”. 1 The concept of unmet need for contraception has been central to international family planning programs and research for more than forty years, but it has perhaps never been more salient to research and practice than it is now. Over the past decade, the rising rates of contraceptive use have reduced the unmet need for family planning in most countries. However the unmet need remains persistently high or is increasing in developing countries like India, indicating that greater efforts are needed to understand and address the causes of unm et need. OBJECTIVES: 1 To assess the Unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group (15 – 44 years. 2 To identify certain socio - demographic factors associated with unmet need for family planning. 3 To determine the reasons for non - usage of contraceptive use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross - sectional study was carried out in the Urban health training Centre of Department of Community Medicine. The study population included 924 married women aged 15 - 44 years. The data was collected u sing pre te st ed profor m a and was analyzed using percentages and Chi - Square test. RESULTS : The unmet need for family planning was 28.9% in the study population. The overall unmet need is low at the beginning of reproductive age, but it increased and reached a peak in the mid - twenties & then declined. The literacy status among women with unmet needs is plays a vital role. Want of child in future was quoted as the main reason for non - use of contraceptives. CONCLUSION: Despite a fair knowledge about the family planning methods, various socio - cultural and problems

  9. A regional approach to unmet needs in anaphylaxis.

    Minale, P; Bignardi, D; Troise, C; Voltolini, S; Dignetti, P


    .3%. Anaphylaxis diagnosis was considered likely if any 1 of 3 criteria is satisfied within minutes to hours: acute onset of illness with involvement of skin, mucosal surface, or both, and at least 1 of the following: respiratory compromise, hypotension, or end-organ dysfunction; 2 or more of the following occur rapidly after exposure to a likely allergen: involvement of skin or mucosal surface, respiratory compromise, hypotension, or persistent gastrointestinal symptoms; hypotension develops after exposure to a known allergen for that patient: age-specific low blood pressure or decreased systolic blood pressure more than 30% compared with baseline. Of 205 patients reported, 132 were classified as severe anaphylaxis; other 73 cases reported were 12 drugs related angioedema (mostly NSAID related), 9 ACEi related angioedema, 3 ereditary C1inh deficiency angioedema, 24 istaminergic idiopatic angioedema, 14 urticaria angioedema, 6 severe asthma, 2 latex reactions; in three patients a proper diagnosis was not achieved due to refuse / impossibility to perform diagnostic workout. Hymenoptera venom and food proved to be the main triggers, followed by drugs. 100% patients at risk of anaphylaxis received self-injectable adrenaline, pertinent education and individual action plan. In the same period, even though short, there were only two readmissions to ED. First result seems to confirm the usefulness of our approach to address some of unmet needs in anaphylaxis management, as recently pointed out by ICON guidelines (4). PMID:27152604

  10. Pharmaceutical nanotechnology : unmet needs in drug delivery

    Crommelin, D.J.A.; Park, K.; Florence, A.


    Nanotechnology has been gaining interest within and outside the scientific community. Conferences addressing different aspects of this rapidly growing field are organized at many different places. In May 2009 the LTS Academy organized a two-day workshop to discuss the relevance of nanotechnology to

  11. Risk factors for perceived unmet medical needs in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in Seoul, Korea.

    Kang, Cho Ryok; Bang, Ji Hwan; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Kui Nam; Lee, Hee-Jin; Lee, Young Hwa; Ryu, Bo Yeong; Cho, Soo Kyung; Oh, Myoung-Don; Lee, Jong-Koo


    To identify the factors associated with perceived unmet medical needs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults, we analyzed the results from a series of city-wide cross-sectional surveys of HIV-infected adults living in Seoul, Korea. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors related to unmet medical needs. Among the 775 subjects included in the study, 15.4% had perceived unmet medical needs. Significant factors included age group (35-49 years; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-3.06), lower monthly income (aOR, 3.75 for the <$900/mo group and 2.44 for the $900-$1800/mo group; 95% CI, 1.68-8.35 and 1.18-5.04, respectively), beneficiaries of the National Medical Aid Program (aOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.01-3.17), recent CD4 cell counts <500/µL (aOR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.01-2.33). Taken together, these data reveal strong associations of middle age and low socioeconomic status with perceived unmet medical needs among HIV-infected adults. PMID:27009447

  12. Integrating Collaboration, Adaptive Management, and Scenario-Planning to Address Rapid Change: Experiences at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area

    Caves, J. K.; Bodner, G.; Simms, K.; Fisher, L.; Robertson, T.


    There is growing recognition that public lands cannot be managed as islands; rather, land management must address the ecological, social, and temporal complexity that often spans jurisdictions and traditional planning horizons. Collaborative decision-making and adaptive management (CAM) have been promoted as methods to reconcile competing societal demands and respond to complex ecosystem dynamics. We present the experiences of land managers and stakeholders in using CAM at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area (LCNCA), a highly valued site under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The CAM process at Las Cienegas is marked by strong stakeholder engagement, with four core elements: 1) shared watershed goals with measurable resource objectives; 2) mechanisms to incorporate new information into decision-making; 3) efforts to make information increasingly relevant and reliable; and 4) shared learning to improve both the process and management actions. The combination of stakeholder engagement and adaptive management has led to agreement on contentious issues, more innovative solutions, and more effective land management. Yet the region is now experiencing rapid changes outside managers' control—including climate change, human population growth, and reduced federal budgets—with large but unpredictable impacts on natural resources. While CAM experience provides a strong foundation for making the difficult and contentious management decisions that such changes are likely to require, neither collaboration nor adaptive management provides a sufficient structure for addressing uncontrollable and unpredictable change. As a result, LCNCA is exploring two specific modifications to CAM that may better address emerging challenges, including: 1) Creating nested resource objectives to distinguish between those objectives which may be crucial from those which may hinder a flexible response to climate change, and 2) Incorporating scenario planning into CAM

  13. The Unmet Need for Mental Health Services among Probationers' Children

    Phillips, Susan D.; Venema, Rachel; Roque, Lorena


    This study explores the unmet need for mental health services among children with parents on probation. A group of 77 probationers provided information on 170 children. Information about children's need for mental health services was based on the Child Behavior Checklist and information about children's receipt of mental health services was based…

  14. Unmet health care needs for persons with environmental sensitivity

    Gibson PR


    Full Text Available Pamela Reed Gibson, Shannon Kovach, Alexis LupferDepartment of Psychology, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA, USAAbstract: Studies of unmet health care needs have shown that women, people with poor health, and people with lower socioeconomic status are more likely to report having unmet health care needs. In this study, we examined the types of and reasons for unmet health care needs in 465 people with environmental sensitivities. A second area of inquiry involved negative reactions to general anesthesia. Results showed that the most common barriers to receiving care were the inability to find a provider who understands environmental sensitivities and a lack of accessibility due to chemical and electromagnetic exposures in health care environments. Lower income and poorer health (longer illness, a worsening or fluctuating course of illness, and a higher level of disability were significantly correlated with the total number of reported unmet health care needs. Some people with environmental sensitivities reported having negative reactions to anesthesia of long duration; most common were nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and reduced cognitive ability.Keywords: environmental sensitivity, chemical sensitivity, electrohypersensitivity, chemical hypersensitivity, chemical intolerance, contested illness

  15. Unmet Support Service Needs and Health-Related Quality of Life among Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: The AYA HOPE Study

    Ashley Wilder Smith


    Full Text Available Introduction: Cancer for adolescents and young adults (AYA differs from younger and older patients; AYA face medical challenges while navigating social and developmental transitions. Research suggests that these patients are under- or inadequately served by current support services, which may affect health-related quality of life (HRQOL.Methods: We examined unmet service needs and HRQOL in the National Cancer Institute’s Adolescent and Young Adult Health Outcomes and Patient Experience (AYA HOPE study, a population-based cohort (n=484, age 15-39, diagnosed with cancer 6-14 months prior, in 2007-2009. Unmet service needs were psychosocial, physical, spiritual, and financial services where respondents endorsed that they needed, but did not receive, a listed service. Linear regression models tested associations between any or specific unmet service needs and HRQOL, adjusting for demographic, medical and health insurance variables.Results: Over one-third of respondents reported at least one unmet service need. The most common were financial (16%, mental health (15%, and support group (14% services. Adjusted models showed that having any unmet service need was associated with worse overall HRQOL, fatigue, physical, emotional, social, and school/work functioning, and mental health (p’s<0.0001. Specific unmet services were related to particular outcomes (e.g., needing pain management was associated with worse overall HRQOL, physical and social functioning (p’s<0.001. Needing mental health services had the strongest associations with worse HRQOL outcomes; needing physical/occupational therapy was most consistently associated with poorer functioning across domains.Discussion: Unmet service needs in AYAs recently diagnosed with cancer are associated with worse HRQOL. Research should examine developmentally appropriate, relevant practices to improve access to services demonstrated to adversely impact HRQOL, particularly physical therapy and mental

  16. Makerere University College of Health Sciences’ role in addressing challenges in health service provision at Mulago National Referral Hospital

    Sekandi Juliet


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mulago National Referral Hospital (MNRH, Uganda’s primary tertiary and teaching hospital, and Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS have a close collaborative relationship. MakCHS students complete clinical rotations at MNRH, and MakCHS faculty partner with Mulago staff in clinical care and research. In 2009, as part of a strategic planning process, MakCHS undertook a qualitative study to examine care and service provision at MNRH, identify challenges, gaps, and solutions, and explore how MakCHS could contribute to improving care and service delivery at MNRH. Methods Key informant interviews (n=23 and focus group discussions (n=7 were conducted with nurses, doctors, administrators, clinical officers and other key stakeholders. Interviews and focus groups were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim, and findings were analyzed through collaborative thematic analysis. Results Challenges to care and service delivery at MNRH included resource constraints (staff, space, equipment, and supplies, staff inadequacies (knowledge, motivation, and professionalism, overcrowding, a poorly functioning referral system, limited quality assurance, and a cumbersome procurement system. There were also insufficiencies in the teaching of professionalism and communication skills to students, and patient care challenges that included lack of access to specialized services, risk of infections, and inappropriate medications. Suggestions for how MakCHS could contribute to addressing these challenges included strengthening referral systems and peripheral health center capacity, and establishing quality assurance mechanisms. The College could also strengthen the teaching of professionalism, communication and leadership skills to students, and monitor student training and develop courses that contribute to continuous professional development. Additionally, the College could provide in-service education for providers on professionalism

  17. Precompetitive Data Sharing as a Catalyst to Address Unmet Needs in Parkinson’s Disease

    Stephenson, Diane; Hu, Michele T.; Romero, Klaus; Breen, Kieran; Burn, David; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Bhattaram, Atul; Isaac, Maria; Venuto, Charles; Kubota, Ken; Little, Max A.; Friend, Stephen; Lovestone, Simon; Morris, Huw R.; Grosset, Donald; Sutherland, Margaret; Gallacher, John; Williams-Gray, Caroline; Bain, Lisa J.; Avil’es, Enrique; Marek, Ken; Toga, Arthur W.; Stark, Yafit; Gordon, Mark Forrest; Ford, Steve


    Parkinson’s disease is a complex heterogeneous disorder with urgent need for disease-modifying therapies. Progress in successful therapeutic approaches for PD will require an unprecedented level of collaboration. At a workshop hosted by Parkinson’s UK and co-organized by Critical Path Institute’s (C-Path) Coalition Against Major Diseases (CAMD) Consortiums, investigators from industry, academia, government and regulatory agencies agreed on the need for sharing of data to enable future success. Government agencies included EMA, FDA, NINDS/NIH and IMI (Innovative Medicines Initiative). Emerging discoveries in new biomarkers and genetic endophenotypes are contributing to our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of PD. In parallel there is growing recognition that early intervention will be key for successful treatments aimed at disease modification. At present, there is a lack of a comprehensive understanding of disease progression and the many factors that contribute to disease progression heterogeneity. Novel therapeutic targets and trial designs that incorporate existing and new biomarkers to evaluate drug effects independently and in combination are required. The integration of robust clinical data sets is viewed as a powerful approach to hasten medical discovery and therapies, as is being realized across diverse disease conditions employing big data analytics for healthcare. The application of lessons learned from parallel efforts is critical to identify barriers and enable a viable path forward. A roadmap is presented for a regulatory, academic, industry and advocacy driven integrated initiative that aims to facilitate and streamline new drug trials and registrations in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:26406139


    The Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) has identified the development of improved methods for measuring, monitoring, and characterizing complex wastes in soils, sediments, biota, and groundwater as a priority under GOAL 3: LAND PRESERVATION AND RESTORATION:Prese...

  19. Necessidade insatisfeita por métodos anticoncepcionais no Brasil Unmet contraception needs in Brazil

    Luciane Santiago Tavares


    childbearing, but are not using any conceptive method, that is, women with an unmet contraceptive need. The objective of this study is to describe the magnitude of the unmet contraceptive needs among Brazilian married women, as well as to identify the factors associated with this need. The information used is from the National Demographics and Health Survey carried out in Brazil in 1996. In order to identify the determinants associated with the unmet contraceptive needs, a multinomial model was used, with the outcome variable classified into three categories: need for spacing births, need for limiting births, and no need. The analysis conducted along with this work showed a strong association between factors related to the life cycle (age and number of children and unmet contraception needs. In relation to socioeconomic factors, the high likelihood of unmet contraceptive needs among women from the Northeast region stands out. It has also been shown that women with a higher educational level are less prone to have an unmet need for limiting births. The analysis points out the need of an appropriate and universal program for family planning services to assure full support to women's health.

  20. Opening address

    The impact of the Chernobyl accident on health has been dramatic but different than expected. It has posed a tremendous health, social and economic burden on the people of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Now the picture of the impact of the accident on health and environment is clearer and the agenda can further move towards development and focused health programmes. The work of the Chernobyl Forum, which allowed this important objective to be reached, is an example of the multiplied added value that different United Nations agencies working together can achieve when addressing complex problems affecting large communities in an independent, comprehensive and credible way. This model should be the basis for future action with the Member States towards reconstruction, development and better health

  1. Parenting-by-gender interactions in child psychopathology: attempting to address inconsistencies with a Canadian national database

    Thabane Lehana


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown strong links between parenting and child psychopathology. The moderating role of child gender is of particular interest, due to gender differences in socialization history and in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Currently there is little agreement on how gender moderates the relationship between parenting and child psychopathology. This study attempts to address this lack of consensus by drawing upon two theories (self-salience vs. gender stereotyped misbehaviour to determine how child gender moderates the role of parenting, if at all. Methods Using generalized estimating equations (GEE associations between three parenting dimensions (hostile-ineffective parenting, parental consistency, and positive interaction were examined in relationship to child externalizing (physical aggression, indirect aggression, and hyperactivity-inattention and internalizing (emotional disorder-anxiety dimensions of psychopathology. A sample 4 and 5 year olds from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY were selected for analysis and followed over 6 years (N = 1214. Two models with main effects (Model 1 and main effects plus interactions (Model 2 were tested. Results No child gender-by-parenting interactions were observed for child physical aggression and indirect aggression. The association between hostile-ineffective parenting and child hyperactivity was stronger for girls, though this effect did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance (p = .059. The associations between parenting and child emotional disorder did vary as a function of gender, where influences of parental consistency and positive interaction were stronger for boys. Discussion Despite the presence of a few significant interaction effects, hypotheses were not supported for either theory (i.e. self-salience or gender stereotyped misbehaviour. We believe that the inconsistencies in the literature regarding child gender

  2. Insect Consumption to Address Undernutrition, a National Survey on the Prevalence of Insect Consumption among Adults and Vendors in Laos.

    Hubert Barennes

    Full Text Available Insect consumption (entomophagy is a potentially high nutritious and healthy source of food with high fat, protein, vitamin, fiber and micronutrient content. At least 2 billion people globally eat insects (over 1900 edible species though this habit is regarded negatively by others. There is a limited amount of data on the perception and consumption of insects. We conducted a national cross-sectional survey in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos to assess the prevalence and characteristics of insect consumption among adult lay people and insect vendors.We conducted a multi stage randomized national survey in 1303 households in 96 villages in 16 Lao provinces. Three insect vendors or collectors per village were also included. A standardized pretested questionnaire addressed the following issues: socioeconomic characteristics, type of insects consumed and frequency of consumption, reasons and trends in consumption as well as reports on side effects, over the last 10 years.A total of 1059 adults (Sex ratio F/M: 1.2, 30 ethnic groups, and 256 vendors were enrolled. A total of 1025 (96.8% lay people were currently insect consumers, 135 (13.0% daily or weekly consumers, and 322 (31.1% consumed several times per month. For the majority (575, 55.6% the consumption was infrequent (less than a few times per year and only 22 (2% had never eaten insects. Consumption started in childhood. Insect availability was seasonal (670, 63.2% and respondents would have eaten more insects, if they had been more available (919, 86.7%. Hmong and Leu ethnic groups had significantly lower consumption levels than the general population. Eggs of weaver ants, short-tailed crickets, crickets, grasshoppers, and cicadas were the top 5 insects consumed. Consumption had decreased in the last decade, mostly due to less availability (869; 84.0% and change of life (29; 5.5%. Of 1059, 80 (7.5% reported allergy problems and 106 (10.0% reported some use in traditional medicine. A

  3. Unmet Supportive Care Needs among Breast Cancer Survivors of Community-Based Support Group in Kuching, Sarawak

    Emmanuel Joseph Fong


    Full Text Available Background. Recognizing the needs of cancer survivors is one of the important aspects in healthcare delivery. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of unmet supportive care needs and its associated factors among the breast cancer survivors of community-based support group in Kuching, Sarawak. Materials and Methods. This was a cross-sectional study using Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS-SF34. All the members of community-based breast cancer support groups in Kuching were invited. A total of 101 respondents were face-to-face interviewed after the consent was obtained. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. The respondents endorsed health system and information domain with the highest mean score (2.48; 95% CI: 2.32–2.64. Top 10 items with “moderate to high” level unmet needs had a prevalence of 14.9% to 34.7% of respondents indicating need. Significantly higher level of unmet needs was associated with survivors who were younger (less than 60 years old, had higher education attainment, were unemployed, had survival duration of up to 5 years, and were undergoing active treatment. Conclusion. Systematic delivery of health information which is targeted, culturally sensitive, and linguistically appropriate for addressing younger age, education level, employment status, length of survivorship, and treatment stage should be considered not only at hospital-based setting but also at the community-based support groups.

  4. Unmet Supportive Care Needs among Breast Cancer Survivors of Community-Based Support Group in Kuching, Sarawak

    Fong, Emmanuel Joseph; Cheah, Whye Lian


    Background. Recognizing the needs of cancer survivors is one of the important aspects in healthcare delivery. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of unmet supportive care needs and its associated factors among the breast cancer survivors of community-based support group in Kuching, Sarawak. Materials and Methods. This was a cross-sectional study using Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS-SF34). All the members of community-based breast cancer support groups in Kuching were invited. A total of 101 respondents were face-to-face interviewed after the consent was obtained. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. The respondents endorsed health system and information domain with the highest mean score (2.48; 95% CI: 2.32–2.64). Top 10 items with “moderate to high” level unmet needs had a prevalence of 14.9% to 34.7% of respondents indicating need. Significantly higher level of unmet needs was associated with survivors who were younger (less than 60 years old), had higher education attainment, were unemployed, had survival duration of up to 5 years, and were undergoing active treatment. Conclusion. Systematic delivery of health information which is targeted, culturally sensitive, and linguistically appropriate for addressing younger age, education level, employment status, length of survivorship, and treatment stage should be considered not only at hospital-based setting but also at the community-based support groups. PMID:27239346

  5. Expanding the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network to address the management of substance use disorders in general medical settings

    Tai B


    Full Text Available Betty Tai, Steven Sparenborg, Udi E Ghitza, David Liu Center for the Clinical Trials Network, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA Abstract: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010 and the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (2008 expand substance use disorder (SUD care services in the USA into general medical settings. Care offered in these settings will engage substance-using patients in an integrated and patient-centered environment that addresses physical and mental health comorbidities and follows a chronic care model. This expansion of SUD services presents a great need for evidence-based practices useful in general medical settings, and reveals several research gaps to be addressed. The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network of the National Institute on Drug Abuse can serve an important role in this endeavor. High-priority research gaps are highlighted in this commentary. A discussion follows on how the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network can transform to address changing patterns in SUD care to efficiently generate evidence to guide SUD treatment practice within the context of recent US health care legislation. Keywords: Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, substance use disorders, practice-based research network, electronic health records

  6. Unmet needs among men with human immunodeficiency virus in community mental health care: a cross-sectional study.

    Durbin, Anna; Sirotich, Frank; Antoniou, Tony; Roesslein, Kay; Durbin, Janet; Lunsky, Yona


    While community-based mental health services play an important role in caring for persons with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and co-existing mental health disorders, the extent to which their support needs are addressed in this setting is unknown. Accordingly, we examined if HIV infection was associated with unmet support needs among men living with and without HIV receiving community mental health care. This cross-sectional study examined 215 men (135 living with HIV and 80 without HIV) receiving case management services in urban Ontario. Using the Camberwell Assessment of Need, we ascertained the prevalence of support needs in 13 domains grouped into three clusters: Basic needs (accommodation, food, benefits, and money management); self-care/functional needs (daytime activities, self-care, and looking after the home); and health/safety needs (physical, psychological distress, psychotic symptoms, safety to self, and safety to others). We used generalized estimating equations with a logit link to examine the association between HIV and unmet need in each domain. Compared to HIV-negative men, men with HIV were more likely to have mood and concurrent disorders, and intellectual and developmental disabilities. Following multivariable analyses, men with HIV had greater unmet needs related to food (odds ratio + 95% confidence interval: 9.36 (4.03, 21.75), p HIV receiving community mental health support had greater unmet need in basic and health domains than HIV-negative men receiving such support. Further research is required to develop and evaluate interventions to best support community-dwelling persons with HIV and mental health disorders. PMID:26971736

  7. "War on Terror" Is a Curative: Recontextualization and Political Myth-Making in Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo's 2002-2004 State of the Nation Addresses

    Navera, Gene Segarra


    The article examines the State of the Nation addresses (SONA) delivered by Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (2001-2010) from 2002-2004, during which time she actively invoked the need to engage in the U.S. government-led "global war on terror." It specifically investigates how these presidential speeches recontextualized the war on…

  8. Opening address

    Full text: Honourable Representatives of His Majesty King Mohammed VI and of the Government of Morocco, representatives of sponsoring organizations, distinguished participants, on behalf of the Director General of the IAEA, it is my pleasure and privilege to welcome you to this International Conference on National Infrastructures for Radiation Safety: Towards Effective and Sustainable Systems. I would like to express my sincere appreciation to His Majesty King Mohammed VI for his patronage, to the Government of Morocco and the University Mohammed V, Agdal, for hosting this conference in the beautiful and historic city of Rabat, and to the local organizers for their diligent planning and gracious hospitality. I would also like to thank the four organizations that are co-operating with the IAEA in holding this conference: the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, the International Labour Organization, the European Commission and the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency. National infrastructure for radiation safety has emerged as an issue of international concern over the last two decades. Systematic and strategic consideration of infrastructure has become widely recognized as an essential prerequisite for safety. The first IAEA conference to address the topic was in Munich, Germany, in 1990. The 1996 edition of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (known as the Basic Safety Standards or BSS) highlighted the issue, and the IAEA's technical co-operation Model Project for Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure was introduced to help address it. The Model Project has helped, and continues to help, more than 85 IAEA Member States to work towards the goal of a radiation safety infrastructure in accordance with the Basic Safety Standards. A great deal has been achieved, but this work is not complete. Furthermore, not all States are members of the IAEA or the Model

  9. Poverty in the midst of plenty: unmet needs and distribution of health care resources in South Korea.

    Jongho Heo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The unmet needs for health care have been used as an alternative measurement to monitor equity in health services. We sought to examine contextual influences on unmet needs for health care whereas precedent studies have been focused on individual characteristics on them. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The current study conducted multilevel logistic regression analysis to assess the effects of individual- and contextual-level predictors in meeting individual health care needs in South Korea. We sampled 7,200 individuals over the age of 19 in the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2009. Included in the regression model were individual predictors such as demographic variables, socio-economic status, and self-rated health; the density of beds and physicians in public and private sectors within different regions were used as contextual-level predictors. This study showed the inverse association between unmet needs and regional resources in private sectors after controlling for the effects of individual-level predictors. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that increasing regional resources in private sectors might produce inefficiency in the health care system and inequity in access to health services, particularly where the competition in private health care sectors was highly stimulated under the fee-for-service reimbursement scheme. Policies for the reallocation of health care resources and for reduction of individual health care costs are needed in Korea.

  10. Medical innovation, unmet medical needs, and the drug pipeline.

    Mather, Charles M


    This paper outlines and illustrates the working of a theoretical approach from the social sciences for analyzing medical innovation, unmet medical need, and the drug pipeline. Using the social history of three drugs made from recombinant DNA (insulin, human growth hormone, and tissue-plasminogen activator) the paper shows how drugs can be both technically and organizationally efficient while the needs they satisfy can be created or identified. The paper posits that drugs that require more organizational efficiency tend to satisfy identified, rather then created needs. Key words: Recombinant DNA, technical efficiency, organizational efficiency, anthropology. PMID:16493177

  11. Why Has It Taken So Long to Address the Problems Created by Uranium Mining in the Navajo Nation?

    Brugge, Doug


    Following the start of uranium mining after World War II, progress toward addressing the hazards it created for workers and nearby communities was slow, taking many decades. This essay asks why it took so long and suggests several factors that might have contributed. PMID:26463258

  12. Unmet need for family planning in South Africa 1998 Malawi 2000 / Tshegofatso Queen Molebatsi

    Molebatsi, Tshegofatso Queen


    Introduction: Unmet need for family planning is high in most African countries including South Africa and Malawi as witnessed by high levels of teenage pregnancies, unwanted births and unsafe abortion. As such unmet need for family planning was added to the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG) as an indicator for tracking progress on improving maternal health. Objective: The primary objective of the study is to determine the correlates of unmet need for family planning among women of re...

  13. Unmet needs, quality of life and support networks of people with dementia living at home

    Oomman Sabu; Galboda Kumari; Woods Bob; Miranda-Castillo Claudia; Olojugba Charles; Orrell Martin


    Abstract Background There is lack of evidence about the unmet needs of people with dementia (PWD) living at home and the predictors of high levels of unmet needs. The main aim of this study was to identify the relationship between unmet needs, social networks and quality of life of PWD living at home. Methods One hundred and fifty two community dwelling PWD and 128 carers were interviewed about PWD's needs, social networks, quality of life and other functional and psychological factors. All t...

  14. Focus on relationship between the caregivers unmet needs and other caregiving outcomes in cancer palliative care

    Buscemi, Valérie; Font Guiteras, Antoni; Viladrich, M. C.,


    Objetive: Study the relationships between caregivers unmet needs and others caregiving outcomes in palliative care and cancer, which is a first and necessary step to offer adequate supporting intervention. Methods: 59 caregivers participated in a research that examined the caregiving outcomes using an Unmet Needs Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Bakas Caregiving Outcomes Scale. Results and conclusions: Results showed a high average of unmet needs, especially e...

  15. Poverty and working status in changes of unmet health care need in old age.

    Park, Sojung; Kim, BoRin; Kim, Soojung


    This study examined relationships between socioeconomic disadvantage and unmet health care needs among older adults in Korea adjusting for predisposing and health need factors. We examined how older adults' low-income status and working status affect unmet needs for healthcare over time, and how the association varies by reason for unmet needs (i.e. financial or non-financial). We used three waves of data (2009, 2011, 2012) from the Korea Health Panel (KHP) survey and a multinomial logistic mixed model to analyze how low socioeconomic disadvantages affects changes in unmet healthcare needs independently and in combination. Results showed that near-poor elders were more likely to experience increased risk of unmet need due to non-financial constraints over time. When working, near-poor elders risk of unmet healthcare needs due to financial and non-financial factors increases substantially over time. Across societies, different subgroups of older adults may be at risk of unmet healthcare needs, contingent on healthcare policies. Our finding suggests that in Korea, near-poor working elders are the vulnerable subgroup at highest risk of unmet healthcare needs. This finding provides much-needed evidence of heterogeneity of vulnerability in unmet healthcare needs and can be used to design more affordable and accessible programs and services for this group. PMID:27025977

  16. Determinants of Unmet Need for Family Planning In a Developing Country: An Observational Cross Sectional Study

    Saima Nazir, Anshu Mittal, Bhupinder K Anand, RKD Goel, Jagjeet Singh, Arshad Rashid


    Conclusion: Education, income, occupation, knowledge about contraception, communication with partner regarding family planning, media accessibility, gender preference were identified as the contributing factors for Unmet Need."

  17. The unmet need for Emergency Obstetric Care in Tanga Region, Tanzania

    Mtatifikolo Ferdinand


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving maternal health by reducing maternal mortality constitutes the fifth Millennium Development Goal and represents a key public health challenge in the United Republic of Tanzania. In response to the need to evaluate and monitor safe motherhood interventions, this study aims at assessing the coverage of obstetric care according to the Unmet Obstetric Need (UON concept by obtaining information on indications for, and outcomes of, major obstetric interventions. Furthermore, we explore whether this concept can be operationalised at district level. Methods A two year study using the Unmet Obstetric Need concept was carried out in three districts in Tanga Region, Tanzania. Data was collected prospectively at all four hospitals in the region for every woman undergoing a major obstetric intervention, including indication and outcome. The concept was adapted to address differentials in access to emergency obstetric care between districts and between rural and urban areas. Based upon literature and expert consensus, a threshold of 2% of all deliveries was used to define the expected minimum requirement of major obstetric interventions performed for absolute maternal indications. Results Protocols covering 1,260 complicated deliveries were analysed. The percentage of major obstetric interventions carried out in response to an absolute maternal indication was only 71%; most major obstetric interventions (97% were caesarean sections. The most frequent indication was cephalo-pelvic-disproportion (51%. The proportion of major obstetric interventions for absolute maternal indications performed amongst women living in urban areas was 1.8% of all deliveries, while in rural areas it was only 0.7%. The high proportion (8.3% of negative maternal outcomes in terms of morbidity and mortality, as well as the high perinatal mortality of 9.1% (still birth 6.9%, dying within 24 hours 1.7%, dying after 24 hours 0.5% raise concern about the

  18. National Institute of Justice (NIJ): improving the effectiveness of law enforcement via homeland security technology improvements (Keynote Address)

    Morgan, John S.


    Law enforcement agencies play a key role in protecting the nation from and responding to terrorist attacks. Preventing terrorism and promoting the nation"s security is the Department of Justice"s number one strategic priority. This is reflected in its technology development efforts, as well as its operational focus. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is the national focal point for the research, development, test and evaluation of technology for law enforcement. In addition to its responsibilities in supporting day-to-day criminal justice needs in areas such as less lethal weapons and forensic science, NIJ also provides critical support for counter-terrorism capacity improvements in state and local law enforcement in several areas. The most important of these areas are bomb response, concealed weapons detection, communications and information technology, which together offer the greatest potential benefit with respect to improving the ability to law enforcement agencies to respond to all types of crime including terrorist acts. NIJ coordinates its activities with several other key federal partners, including the Department of Homeland Security"s Science and Technology Directorate, the Technical Support Working Group, and the Department of Defense.

  19. Vaginal biological and sexual health--the unmet needs.

    Graziottin, A


    The vagina is a most neglected organ. It is usually clinically considered with a minimalistic view, as a 'connecting tube' for a number of physiologic functions: passage of menstrual blood, intercourse, natural conception and delivery. Unmet needs include, but are not limited to, respect of vaginal physiologic biofilms; diagnosis and care of the optimal tone of the levator ani, which surrounds and partly support it; care of its anatomic integrity at and after delivery and at pelvic/vaginal surgery; care of long-term consequences of pelvic radiotherapy; long-term care of the atrophic changes it will undergo after the menopause, unless appropriate, at least local, estrogen therapy is used; appreciation and respect of its erotic meaning, as a loving, receptive, 'bonding' organ for the couple. The vaginal erotic value is key as a non-visible powerful center of femininity and sexuality, deeply and secretly attractive in terms of taste, scent (together with the vulva), touch and proprioception. The most welcoming when lubrication, softness and vaginal orgasm award the woman and the partner with the best of pleasures. Prevention of sexual/vaginal abuse is a very neglected unmet need, as well. Who cares? PMID:26366794

  20. Parenting-by-gender interactions in child psychopathology: attempting to address inconsistencies with a Canadian national database

    Thabane Lehana; Odueyungbo Adefowope; Browne Dillon T; Byrne Carolyn; Smart Lindsay A


    Abstract Background Research has shown strong links between parenting and child psychopathology. The moderating role of child gender is of particular interest, due to gender differences in socialization history and in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Currently there is little agreement on how gender moderates the relationship between parenting and child psychopathology. This study attempts to address this lack of consensus by drawing upon two theories (self-salience vs. gender stereot...

  1. Recommendations for strengthening the national systems and the international regime for combating of illicit trafficking. Keynote address/session 10

    Full text: Illicit trafficking activities involving nuclear material and equipment are acts of nuclear proliferation. The threat of illicit trafficking is an international concern and the consequences of illicit trafficking, such as war or terrorist attacks using illegally manufactured nuclear weapons, might affect any country. As long as these materials and equipment remain a potential for theft and smuggling due to insufficient security and control conditions, there is a possibility that proliferators or terrorist groups may illegally take possession of such materials and equipment for illicit purposes. A precondition for preventing illicit trafficking is the existence of effective national systems for supervision and control of nuclear material and equipment, including physical protection and export/import control, based on an accurate and complete legislation. In addition thereto, national systems for combating of illicit trafficking, through prevention and detection within a state's territory or across its borders, incorporate such components as: supervision and control of nuclear operations; organisation of operator activities through quality assurance, internal control, security culture, etc.; law enforcement functions (police, intelligence, customs, investigation, prosecution, penalties and sanctions); and procedures for co-ordination and co-operation between supervising and law enforcement authorities. According to a joint Swedish-Norwegian-Latvian study, there are imperfections in many national systems for combating of illicit trafficking, such as: Incomplete legislation on nuclear non-proliferation and safety, physical protection and export/import control; Unclear or overlapping responsibilities between national supervision and law enforcement authorities, leading to poor co-operation and co-ordination of preventing and detecting measures; Incomplete rules and regulations concerning operator functions and responsibilities, including requirements on

  2. Opening address

    The opening address by the host country started by thanking to the International Atomic Energy Agency for holding this important scientific event in in Morocco. The themes to be considered by this conference are among the priorities of the Scientific Research Department in its endeavour to promote scientific research in the field of nuclear science and technology for peaceful uses in Morocco. By so doing, this Department is following and supporting the efforts being made by our country to provide training, and elaborate rules and regulations, and to create infrastructure, acquire material and, equipment and encourage qualified and active researchers. Hence, the convening of this conference responds to a strategic interest of our country, which, similar to other countries, is committed to the achievement of comprehensive and sustainable development for the protection of human kind and the environment. This is considered nowadays as a strategic and vital objective as it entails the protection of people from radiation and against all kinds of professional risks and health hazards. Morocco attaches great importance to radiation safety issues. Our country adhered to all international conventions related to nuclear safety. It is in the process of adapting its internal regulations to international norms and standards, and it is making progress towards the establishment of a national safety body which meets those norms and standards, with the assistance of the IAEA. For this purpose, a standing committee for the follow-up of nuclear affairs has been created on the basis of Royal Instructions, and placed under the authority of the Prime Minister. Its task is to serve as a think-tank on nuclear safety issues and to make proposals on ways and means of reinforcing radiation safety measures. It goes without saying that the peaceful uses of nuclear energy must meet the safety standards elaborated by the IAEA. However, we are convinced that the elaboration of safety standards

  3. Opening address

    Nuclear terrorism has been recognized as a potential threat to human security and economic prosperity since at least the 1970s. Evidence of Al Qaeda's interest in acquiring nuclear material came to light during the 1990s. However, it is since the attacks of 11 September 2001 that the risk of nuclear terrorist acts has come to be a widespread public and governmental concern, for understandable reasons, and that efforts to combat illicit trafficking, which could lead to nuclear or other radioactive materials falling into the hands of terrorists, have intensified. Six years on, it makes sense to take stock of what has been achieved in the combat to stem illicit trafficking and of where further actions - actions of individual States and cooperative international actions - might usefully be initiated. The IAEA has maintained an Illicit Trafficking Database since 1995. Information reported to this database confirms that concerns about illicit trafficking in nuclear material are justified. Database information points to persistent theft and loss of radioactive sources. States' international obligations relevant to international nuclear trafficking are based on the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, which deals with weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons and non-State actors, and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1375, which requires all States to take the necessary steps to prevent the commission of terrorist acts, including early warning to other States. In addition to these legally binding instruments, there is the non-binding Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, which Member States of the IAEA agreed in 2003. The Code addresses the establishment of an adequate system of regulatory control, from the production of radioactive sources to their final

  4. Keynote address

    DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs

  5. A Comparative Perspective on National Policies Addressing Genetically Modified Organisms. How Does the Us - European Union Debate on this Topic Affect Other Countries?

    DRAGOȘ Dacian C.; Bogdana NEAMŢU


    The paper explores the topic of genetically modified organisms (hereafter GMOs) and focuses on national and international regulatory approaches to this field. The analysis herein addresses a multitude of interconnected issues on GMOs as the authors’ intention is to explain how a policy problem that is environmental in nature can generate debates and consequences that go beyond the realm and scope of environmental policy. Each of the sections of the paper could be expanded into an autonomous p...

  6. Assessment of the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative: Addressing Environmental and Siting Issues Associated with Wind Energy Development

    Van Cleve, Frances B.; States, Jennifer C.


    The National Wind Coordinating Collaborative (NWCC) is a consensus-based stakeholder group comprised of representatives from the utility, wind industry, environmental, consumer, regulatory, power marketer, agricultural, tribal, economic development, and state and federal government sectors. The purpose of the NWCC is to support the development of an environmentally, economically, and politically sustainable commercial market for wind power (NWCC 2010). The NWCC has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) since its inception in 1994. In order to evaluate the impact of the work of the NWCC and how this work aligns with DOE’s strategic priorities, DOE tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct a series of informal interviews with a small sample of those involved with NWCC.

  7. Insect Consumption to Address Undernutrition, a National Survey on the Prevalence of Insect Consumption among Adults and Vendors in Laos

    Barennes, Hubert; Phimmasane, Maniphet; Rajaonarivo, Christian


    Background Insect consumption (entomophagy) is a potentially high nutritious and healthy source of food with high fat, protein, vitamin, fiber and micronutrient content. At least 2 billion people globally eat insects (over 1900 edible species) though this habit is regarded negatively by others. There is a limited amount of data on the perception and consumption of insects. We conducted a national cross-sectional survey in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Laos) to assess the prevalence an...

  8. Unmet Health Care Service Needs of Children With Disabilities in Penang, Malaysia.

    Tan, Seok Hong


    Information on unmet health care needs reveal problems that are related to unavailability and inaccessibility of services. The study objectives were to determine the prevalence, and the reasons for unmet service needs among children with disabilities in the state of Penang, Malaysia. Caregivers of children with disabilities aged 0 to 12 years registered with the Penang Social Welfare Department in 2012 answered a self-administered mailed questionnaire. A total of 305 questionnaires were available for analysis (response rate 37.9%). Services that were very much needed and yet highly unmet were dental services (49.6% needed, 59.9% unmet), dietary advice (30.9% needed, 63.3% unmet), speech therapy (56.9% needed, 56.8% unmet), psychology services (25.5% needed, 63.3% unmet), and communication aids (33.0% needed, 79.2% unmet). Access problems were mainly due to logistic issues and caregivers not knowing where to obtain services. Findings from this study can be used to inform strategies for service delivery and advocacy for children with disabilities in Penang, Malaysia. PMID:26122314

  9. Unmet needs in cancer rehabilitation during the early cancer trajectory - a nationwide patient survey

    Veloso, Astrid Gisèle; Sperling, Cecilie; Holm, Lise Vilstrup; Nicolaisen, Anne; Rottmann, Nina; Thayssen, Susanne; Christensen, René Depont; Lehmann Knudsen, Janne; Hansen, Dorte Gilså


    A cancer diagnosis may lead to psychosocial problems and physical symptoms that can be relieved during rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to analyse patient-perceived unmet needs of rehabilitation close to time of diagnosis, i.e. frequencies of unmet needs and the association with...

  10. Opening address

    and become more technical. Involving experts from all fields is then crucial for success. This perception is reflected in the goals of this meeting. It is designed as an extensive information exchange forum between decision makers, regulators, radiation and waste safety specialists, and the nuclear industry. It is this mix which promises high efficiency with respect to solving the problems that you are addressing. I am sure that the safe termination of practices involving radioactive materials during the decommissioning of nuclear installations is one of the major challenges that industrialized nations will have to face during the next decades

  11. Understanding the political economy and key drivers of energy access in addressing national energy access priorities and policies

    Globally, 1.5 billion people lack access to electricity and nearly 3 billion lack access to modern cooking energy options. Of the world’s “energy poor”, 95% are in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Within Asia, almost 80% of electricity-deprived and 86% of biomass-dependent populations are in the “Big 5” countries: Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, and Pakistan. In this paper, we discuss the broad contours of the political economy of energy access in these countries. The political economy is assessed through an examination of three sustainability objectives: accessibility of physical infrastructure; energy service delivery; and conformance to social goals. The key areas of concern include emphasis on supply-driven grid electricity; vested power dynamics favouring affluent and urban areas; unreliability of energy service provision; and misdirected and misappropriated subsidies. The above-mentioned issues are responsible for limiting accelerated achievement of universal energy access in the “Big 5” countries and need to be addressed through innovative approaches. The paper emphasizes the need for firm commitments, policy convergence, and the implementation of 'pro-poor' equitable energy policies through a broad-based energy framework of bench-marked, technology-neutral energy provisioning that ensures reliability and equity. It highlights the need for reorienting of the subsidy regime and incorporating energy service delivery indicators in monitoring and reporting mechanisms. - Highlights: ► Limited emphasis on improved cooking programmes relative to electrification schemes. ► Strong disparity between rural and urban electrification and LPG access. ► Grid extension and subsidy on cooking fuels has limited success. ► Electricity access does not indicate transition to better cooking options. ► Technology neutrality in choosing suitable alternatives may led to improved access. ► There is need to re-orient energy subsidies and incentives.

  12. Fulfilling an Unmet Need: Roles for Clinical Pharmacists in Preconception Care.

    DiPietro Mager, Natalie A


    Preconception care refers to a set of interventions that identify and address biomedical, behavioral, and social risks to a woman's health that may negatively impact a future pregnancy. A great need for preconception care currently exists in the United States, and women's attitudes about discussions with health care providers about healthy and safe pregnancies are positive. Clinical pharmacists are well positioned to work with other health care and public health professionals to ensure that all women of childbearing potential have access to preconception care. As part of the collaborative health care team, clinical pharmacists can directly provide services or support and referrals to other members of the health care team or to community resources through clinical-community linkages. Specifically, clinical pharmacists can provide education, counseling, and/or services to women to address family planning, medication and disease state management, immunizations, screenings, health promotion, and substance use. Clinical pharmacists can also impact preconception care through drug information services, advocacy, and research. Preconception care services can be incorporated into daily pharmacy practice, and there are potential means for reimbursement. Multiple roles exist for clinical pharmacists to fulfill unmet needs in preconception care. PMID:26846305

  13. Prevalence of unmet need for contraception in urban slum communities, Mumbai

    Shahina Begum


    Full Text Available Background: Unmet need for family planning is a tool to monitor the family planning program. Hence, the objective of study is to examine the prevalence of unmet need for family planning among women living in urban slum communities, Mumbai. Methods: The cross-sectional survey was conducted among currently married women aged 18-39 years and having at least one child. A total of 2797 women were selected using systematic random sampling. Information on demographic characteristics, their contraceptive behaviour and fertility intention were collected by face to face interview using structured questionnaire. Chi square test was applied and p <0.05 was considered as significant. Results: About 59.4% were currently using family planning methods and 40.6% have reported unmet need for family planning. Awareness of contraceptive methods among women with unmet need for family planning was universal. The prevalence of unmet need for family planning significantly decreased as the age and number of children increased. The prevalence of unmet need was significantly higher than met need for family planning among women having one child as compared to women having 2 or more children. Conclusions: A significant gap was observed between met and unmet need for family planning among younger women and having one child. The study emphasises the need for family planning programs to focus on younger couples having one child. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 627-630

  14. Opening address

    Full text: The International Labour Organization (ILO), is very pleased to be associated with this International Conference on National Infrastructures for Radiation Safety. On behalf of the Director General, Mr. J. Somavia, I would like to congratulate the national organizer and host, the University Mohammed V, Agdal, and the Government of Morocco, the IAEA and the other co-operating organizations: the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, the European Commission and the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency for taking this initiative. When flying here to Morocco yesterday, I read newspaper reports about the results of the investigations related to the disaster of the Columbia space shuttle. The findings were as follows: the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), must establish a safety culture within itself. NASA was well aware of the problem of falling insulation material but did not take it seriously before the disaster. The workers in the Chernobyl power plant knew the hazards and safety rules but did not take them seriously. Every day, more than 5000 people die from occupational accidents and work related diseases as the hazards are not taken seriously. Some of them are caused by ionizing radiation. We in the ILO expect enterprises and workplaces to follow proper occupational safety and health management systems so as to avoid accidents, diseases and other problems at work. Equally, we must expect national leadership, sound nationwide management, for radiation safety, which means: National policy setting, which usually results in national standards and laws; National structures and mechanisms, that is, who is in charge of what; Responsibilities and accountabilities set, and resources allocated; National action plans, a national programme;Implementation of these plans;Follow-up, monitoring, review, feedback to enhance the process using selected indicators; Continuous improvement in measurable steps at national level

  15. Association between unmet needs and quality of life of cancer patients

    Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Holm, Lise Vilstrup;


    patients diagnosed between 1 October 2007 and 30 September 2008 was established. At 14 months following diagnosis participants completed a questionnaire including health-related quality of life (EORTC QLQ C-30), psychological distress (POMS-SF), and unmet needs with regard to physical, emotional, family.......2%). Overall, 60.1% expressed an unmet need of rehabilitation in at least one area, physical and emotional problems being the most frequent (40.0% and 37.5%). For all scales of the EORTC QLQ C-30 and POMS, significant adjusted mean differences were observed between patients with unmet needs in at least one...

  16. Irritable bowel syndrome: the burden and unmet needs in Europe.

    Quigley, E M M


    Irritable bowel syndrome affects approximately 10-15% of the European population, although prevalence rates vary depending on the classification used and the country surveyed. This may be due to differences in patterns of medical care and diagnosis of the condition. Up to 70% of individuals with irritable bowel syndrome may not have been formally diagnosed. The disorder affects 1.5-3 times as many women as men and poses a significant economic burden in Europe, estimated at euro 700-euro 1600 per person per year. It also reduces quality of life and is associated with psychological distress, disturbed work and sleep, and sexual dysfunction. It is a chronic disorder, which affects many individuals for more than 10 years. Most patients are managed in primary care, although some are referred to gastroenterologists and other specialists. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome undergo more abdomino-pelvic surgery than the general population. We propose that a positive diagnosis of the condition may avoid the delay in diagnosis many patients experience. We conclude that, in Europe, there are significant unmet needs including lack of familiarity with irritable bowel syndrome, difficulties in diagnosis and lack of effective treatments for the multiple symptoms of the disorder. The development of pan-European guidelines for irritable bowel syndrome will benefit patients with this condition in Europe.

  17. IP Addressing


    tut quiz anim This interactive tutorial covers the following: The concept of halving a binary number space., Using the halving concept to explain how the Internet IP space is segmented into the A, B, and C address classifications., How the first octet ranges for the A, B, and C IP space are produced.In this tutorial, explanations are illustrated by simple animations. Students are asked to observe number patterns, and check their observations against automated 'answers.' There is a qu...

  18. Inaugural Address

    Syed Yousaf Raza Gilani


    Sardar Aseff Ahmad Ali, Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission, Dr Rashid Amjad, President, Pakistan Society of Development Economists, Honourable Ministers, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen! It is indeed a privilege and honour to address this distinguished gathering of economists. I am very happy that this meeting is being attended by internationally acclaimed economists and academics from both within and outside the country. I am especially heartened to see that students of economics from a...

  19. Opening address

    The supply of energy is the most important problem facing mankind today. Energy is necessary for economic development, and it is in the interests of the industrialized nations to ensure that the developing countries reach their economic potential. The need for the increased use of nuclear power is evident, and the CANDU reactor provides a simple, proven energy source; the 950 MW CANDU has potential applications in both industrialized and third world nations. The Canadian nuclear industry has an important role to play in the world, but must be rationalized in order to compete successfully in the international marketplace

  20. Development of new treatment approaches for epilepsy: unmet needs and opportunities.

    French, Jacqueline A; White, H Steve; Klitgaard, Henrik; Holmes, Gregory L; Privitera, Michael D; Cole, Andrew J; Quay, Ellinor; Wiebe, Samuel; Schmidt, Dieter; Porter, Roger J; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Trinka, Eugen; Perucca, Emilio


    A working group was created to address clinical "gaps to care" as well as opportunities for development of new treatment approaches for epilepsy. The working group primarily comprised clinicians, trialists, and pharmacologists. The group identified a need for better animal models for both efficacy and tolerability, and noted that animal models for potential disease-modifying or antiepileptogenic effect should mirror conditions in human trials. For antiseizure drugs (ASDs), current animal models have not been validated with respect to their relationship to efficacy in common epilepsy syndromes. The group performed an "expert opinion" survey of perceived efficacy of the available ASDs, and identified a specific unmet need for ASDs to treat tonic-atonic and myoclonic seizures. No correlation has as yet been demonstrated between animal models of tolerability and adverse effects (AEs), versus tolerability in humans. There is a clear opportunity for improved therapies in relation to dose-related AEs. The group identified common and rare epilepsy syndromes that could represent opportunities for clinical trials. They identified opportunities for antiepileptogenic (AEG) therapies in both adults and children, acknowledging that the presence of a biomarker would substantially improve the chances of a successful trial. However, the group acknowledged that disease-modifying therapies (given after the first seizure or after the development of epilepsy) would be easier to study than AEG therapies. PMID:23909849

  1. President's address

    The speaker discusses some of the economic problems facing the Canadian nuclear industry. The worldwide economic slowdown has caused a fall in energy needs in Canada as well as in other nations. Consequently the demand for uranium has fallen and the market for new reactors looks bleak. However, the speaker feels that a solution can be found using creativity and innovative thinking

  2. Unmet Needs for Psychosocial Care in Hematologic Malignancies and Hematopoietic Cell Transplant.

    Barata, Anna; Wood, William A; Choi, Sung Won; Jim, Heather S L


    Individuals diagnosed with hematologic malignancies experience significant unmet psychological, physical, informational, financial, and spiritual needs. The goal of the current review is to summarize and highlight recent research focused on these issues in the diagnosis and treatment periods and beyond. The review also describes the needs of adolescent and young adult (AYA) and pediatric patients. While a large body of research has reported on unmet needs among adult hematologic cancer patients, there is far less data regarding the challenges confronted by AYA and pediatric populations. Available data suggests that among all age groups, hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a risk factor for greater unmet needs. Recommendations for screening and evidence-based interventions to prevent or ameliorate unmet needs are provided. Future research is needed to develop additional evidence-based psychosocial interventions with a focus on hematologic cancer. PMID:27113094

  3. Keynote address

    This paper addresses various aspects of the bases underlying the nuclear third party liability regime, and also analyses the distinction between danger and risk and the manner in which damage caused by flood, mass unemployment (economic damage mainly) and certain diseases is dealt with in the absence of liability provisions similar to those applicable to nuclear incidents. It also is suggested that the State because of its duty under the Basic Law to ensure adequate energy supplies, should be co-responsible for liability questions along with the nuclear operator. (NEA)

  4. A comparative study between met & unmet need groups of contraception in rural area of Maharashtra, India

    Harsha M. Solanki; Chavan Mansi K. Chavan; Velhal Gajanan D; Mehul T. Parmar


    Objectives To compare met & unmet need groups of contraception with socio-economic, demographic, accessibility & family Planning (FP) related factors. Methods Community based cross-sectional, comparative study was conducted among 363 married women of reproductive age groups in rural area selected by stratified simple random technique. After collecting preliminary information, the study population then divided into two groups based on their contraceptive use i.e. MET Group & UNMET NEED Groups...

  5. Keynote Address

    Griffin, Mike


    Biography: Nominated by President George W. Bush and confirmed by the United States Senate, Michael Griffin began his duties as the 11th Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration on April 14, 2005. As Administrator, he leads the NASA team and manages its resources to advance the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. Prior to being nominated as NASA Administrator, Griffin was serving as Space Department Head at Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory in Laur...

  6. Immigrant-Native Disparities in Perceived and Actual Met/Unmet Need for Medical Care.

    Howe Hasanali, Stephanie


    This study compares the unmet medical needs of foreign-born and U.S.-born adults. Both subjective and objective unmet medical needs are considered, and the roles of duration of U.S. residence, English language proficiency, and state-level destination type in explaining immigrants' unmet need are assessed. Multivariate analyses of the 2007-2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey reveal that immigrants reported less subjective unmet need and equal or greater objective unmet need vis-à-vis natives. Among immigrants only, living less than 5 years in the U.S. and in a new or traditional, high-skill destination state versus a traditional, low-skill state is significantly associated with greater objective, but not subjective, unmet need. While this study reinforces the importance of stable health insurance and, to a lesser extent, income for gaining entry to the formal healthcare system for both immigrants and natives, it also highlights the need to identify factors that influence immigrants' positive health-related perceptions, including characteristics of the healthcare system in origin countries. PMID:25204623

  7. Welcome Address


    @@  On behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute, I welcome you to Beijing and to the Third Asian Conference on Food Safety and Nutrition. Many of you will remember the first Asian conference on Food Safety held in Kuala Lumpur in 1990 and the second held in Bangkok in 1994. These meetings have been so successful that ILSI made the commitment to host such a conference periodically in order to provide a forum to share the latest information and to set new goals and priorities.   This year, we have broadened the scope of the agenda to include issues on nutrition. I want to thank all of our co-sponsors and members of the Planning Committee for preparing such a comprehensive and timely program. Some of the issues and challenges facing Asia that will be addressed at this meeting are:

  8. Opening address

    Adopted under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, Resolution 1540 (2004) - hereafter UNSCR 1540 - sets out several obligations and recommendations for United Nations Member States, including specific requirements regarding illicit trafficking in operational paragraph (OP) 3, where it decides that all States shall take and enforce measures to prevent WMD proliferation including: 'Develop and maintain appropriate effective border controls and law enforcement efforts to detect, deter, prevent and combat, including through international cooperation when necessary, the illicit trafficking and brokering in such items in accordance with their national legal authorities and legislation and consistent with international law'. UNSCR 1540 also created a committee to monitor and report on the measures taken by States to implement these obligations, known as the 1540 Committee. This paper discusses the gaps in national and international proliferation systems identified by the 1540 Committee. By creating obligations for States regarding non-State actors UNSCR 1540 supplements the existing NPT and other nuclear non-proliferation treaty regimes. The presentation looks more narrowly at eight questions of particular relevance to illicit trafficking in nuclear materials, which UNSCR 1540 broadly defines to include dual-use as well as special purpose items. The questions are whether a State has legislation specifically related to nuclear materials for border control, trading or brokering of nuclear items, and controls on transit, trans-shipment, re-export or import of nuclear items. The largest gaps exist in establishing legal frameworks for trans-shipments, trading or brokering of items and re-exports. The 1540 Committee recognizes the need to help the international community close these gaps. The 1540 Committee would like to work in even closer cooperation with the IAEA and other NGOs to develop mechanisms to share appropriate information and foster the global effort to

  9. Opening address

    Recognizing the global danger of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive material, governments have in recent years taken a number of steps which includes the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), the 2005 Amendments to the CPPNM, the International Convention of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540. Perhaps more important than formal legal measures alone are the actions governments have initiated to institute practical cooperation in this field. Of course, the IAEA has been a leader in this effort, as reflected in the Nuclear Security Plan. Of the many areas where the IAEA has contributed, let me cite three: the development of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, the numerous efforts through technical assistance programmes to assess physical protection needs and to build national capacity to implement physical protection systems, and the collection and dissemination of information through the Illicit Trafficking Database. States are acting together to develop training and communications channels to facilitate intervention in an ongoing illicit transfer or to build national capacity to protect nuclear materials and respond to security threats. 60 nations have joined the Russian Federation and the USA as partners in the global initiative to Combat nuclear Terrorism. These visible forms of international cooperation are backed up by numerous bilateral assistance and cooperation programmes directed at improving physical protection, including during transport, consolidating and eliminating unused nuclear materials and radioactive sources, bolstering nuclear detection at ports and borders, strengthening the ability of law enforcement agencies to identify and prosecute nuclear smuggling cases, developing procedures and protocols to intervene in emergency situations involving nuclear or radioactive materials, and exchanging information on nuclear terrorism

  10. Report of the TFOS/ARVO Symposium on global treatments for dry eye disease: an unmet need.

    Sullivan, David A; Hammitt, Katherine M; Schaumberg, Debra A; Sullivan, Benjamin D; Begley, Carolyn G; Gjorstrup, Per; Garrigue, Jean-Sébastien; Nakamura, Masatsugu; Quentric, Yann; Barabino, Stefano; Dalton, Michelle; Novack, Gary D


    In September 2010, a Symposium in Florence, Italy, was held to address the unmet need for global treatments for dry eye disease (DED). It was sponsored by The Tear Film & Ocular Surface Society (TFOS; and co-sponsored by the Association for Research in Vision & Ophthalmology ( The Symposium objectives were two-fold: first, to discuss accepted and emerging clinical endpoints of DED with regulatory experts from around the world; and second, to consider how to improve clinical trials of treatments for DED. The Symposium focused on the personal and collective burden of DED, as well as the developmental and regulatory challenges associated with generating new DED therapeutics. This article provides a synopsis of many of the presentations, discussions and recommendations of this Symposium. PMID:22482471

  11. Perceptions of unmet healthcare needs: what do Punjabi and Chinese-speaking immigrants think? A qualitative study

    Haggerty Jeannie L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unmet healthcare needs - the difference between healthcare services deemed necessary to deal with a particular health problem and the actual services received - is commonly measured by the question, "During the past 12 months, was there ever a time when you felt that you needed healthcare, but you didn't receive it?" In 2003, unmet needs were reported by 10% of immigrants in Canada, yet, little is known specifically about Chinese- or Punjabi-speaking immigrants' perceptions and reporting of unmet needs. Our study examined: 1 How are unmet healthcare needs conceptualized among Chinese- and Punjabi-speaking immigrants? 2 Are their primary healthcare experiences related to their unmet healthcare needs? Methods Twelve focus groups (6 Chinese, 6 Punjabi; n = 78 were conducted in Chinese or Punjabi and socio-demographic and health data were collected. Thematic analysis of focus group data examined the perceptions of unmet needs and any relationship to primary healthcare experiences. Results Our analysis revealed two overarching themes: 1 defining an unmet healthcare need and 2 identifying an unmet need. Participants had unmet healthcare needs in relation to barriers to accessing care, their lack of health system literacy, and when the health system was less responsive than their expectations. Conclusions Asking whether someone ever had a time when they needed healthcare but did not receive it can either underestimate or overestimate unmet need. Measuring unmet need using single items is likely insufficient since more detail in a revised set of questions could begin to clarify whether the reporting of an unmet need was based on an expectation or a clinical need. Who defines what an unmet healthcare need is depends on the context (insured versus uninsured health services, experience in two or more healthcare systems versus experience in one healthcare system and who is defining it (provider, patient, insurer.

  12. Inaugural address

    Joshi, P. S.


    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  13. Opening address

    Full text: I have the pleasure to welcome you, on behalf of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to this important International Conference on National infrastructures for Radiation Safety. Let me congratulate the organizers of this conference for their decision to approach the Government of Morocco to host this meeting in the beautiful city of Rabat but, first of all, let me thank our host, His Majesty King Mohammed VI and the Government of Morocco, and the University Mohammed V, Agdal, for the kind hospitality and the beautiful setting here in Rabat, and for making this dream become a pleasant reality. We are convening here to discuss 'radiation safety infrastructure', a term which for outsiders - and probably also many of us - seems to be a bit fuzzy. Over the last decades, considerable progress has been made in radiation safety techniques, in measurement, monitoring, exposure prevention, and intervention techniques. In general, occupational exposure for workers has dropped continuously, as data from the Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) system can demonstrate. Today, it is becoming clear that further progress cannot rely on improving hard techniques alone, but also has to focus on the soft issues: on institutional aspects, on aspects of information, organization, and finally, a safety culture - in a word, on infrastructure. On one side, sustainable infrastructures - at both the international and the national level - are essential in order to maintain the positive trend in radiation safety, in occupational exposure and, thus, to support the safe use of nuclear energy and radiation. On the other hand, effective national and international infrastructures are required to ensure the radiation safety and security of radioactive sources, and to avoid incidents and accidents with 'orphan' sources, which have become a major concern in recent years. The OECD/NEA is happy to provide the experience of its 28 member countries from Europe, North America and the

  14. Opening Address

    Yamada, T.


    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  15. Opening address

    This opening address covers two main areas: first, a snapshot of the continuing threat and the recent changes having been made to the United Kingdom's counterterrorism structures to respond to it; and second, how the United Kingdom is combating nuclear terrorism through a range of measures covering physical security, decreasing vulnerability to attack and increasing resilience. Combating the threat of nuclear terrorism requires an international effort. Radiological and fissile materials are present throughout the world and, as such, it should be secured wherever it is found. All countries are encouraged to continue to enhance security and protection mechanisms for radiological and fissile material; and to develop contingency plans should the worst happen. The United Kingdom has responded to the very serious and real threat by consolidating and strengthening elements of its counterterrorist planning via the creation in May this year of the Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism (OSCT). These changes have been coupled with an unprecedented level of investment to enable the delivery of the United Kingdom counterterrorist strategy - known as CONTEST - through which we aim to (a) stop terrorist attacks; (b) where it cannot be stopped, to mitigate its impact; (c) strengthen our overall protection against terrorist attack; (d) stop people becoming terrorists or supporting violent extremism. In the case of radiological and nuclear terrorism, it is not sufficient merely to prepare for such an attack; one must also devote efforts to preventing such attacks in the first instance by intercepting dangerous materials before they reach their intended target; and by strengthening the protection of vulnerable places and detecting or mitigating any devices before they are placed or activated. As such, in terms of the United Kingdom's efforts on radiological and nuclear terrorism, there are three main strands to this work: physical protection of materials including the global

  16. Keynote address

    This keynote address describes the reasons why Ontario restructured its electricity sector to include open market competition. Much effort, time, money and expertise have been devoted to developing the Ontario competitive market. The 1997 White Paper issued by the Ontario Ministry of Energy, Science and Technology was the first paper to express the urgent need for change because the old system was failing. Prices increased by 60 per cent between 1986 and 1993. Although governments imposed a price freeze, it is recognized that such prices freezes cannot be sustained. Between 1980 and 1986, Ontario Hydro's debt rose from $12 billion to over $30 billion. The cause was attributed to poor business performance which was putting the taxpayers at risk. The author states that the potential and social benefits of competitive electricity markets are significant. Opening the power markets improves the efficiency of electricity systems and offers significant benefits. It is noted that restructuring does not mean deregulation. The Ontario Energy Board and the Independent Market Operator continue to regulate the market to ensure its proper operation and to protect consumers. In a properly functioning competitive market, prices change in response to market conditions. Electricity prices have generally declined where competitive markets have been introduced in other jurisdictions around the world. The author also cautions that it is easy to create unfounded fears about a competitive market and cited California as an example. California's problems arose from a lack of generating capacity, regulation which discouraged new power generation, inadequate transmission capacity, lack of snow in the northeast where hydropower is produced, and a consumer price cap that encouraged power consumption at a time when supply was short. The author notes that these factors do not exist in Ontario and that the competitive market should not be abandoned

  17. Presidential address.

    Vohra, U


    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  18. Welcome Address

    Kiku, H.


    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  19. Unmet needs of women with breast cancer during and after primary treatment: A prospective study in Denmark

    von Heymann-Horan, A.B; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Dziekanska, Angelika;


    with unmet needs remained stable between four (42%) and eight months (40%). Unmet needs were reported for patient education, counselling and alternative treatment. The factors significantly associated with having unmet needs were younger age (OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.89-0.95), higher education (OR 2.49; 95% CI 1....... A total of 53% of women with breast cancer had unmet needs at some time between diagnosis and the end of primary treatment (eight months after diagnosis). A contextual understanding of unmet needs is necessary for planning cancer rehabilitation, as not only factors such as anxiety, physical functioning......Abstract Integrated plans will be required to ensure care and rehabilitation for the growing number of cancer survivors. Information is lacking, however, about the extent to which patients' rehabilitation needs are being met, and characteristics of patients who experience unmet needs after...

  20. The National Historic Preservation Act is Not Your Problem, But How You are Addressing it for Your CERCLA Project May Be - 12344

    The 1995 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joint 'Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under CERCLA was developed so that decommissioning could occur in a manner that ensures protection of worker and public health and the environment, that is consistent with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), that provides for stakeholder involvement, and that achieves risk reduction without unnecessary delay'. The source of the 'unnecessary delays' the joint policy intended to avert could be attributed to numerous factors such as obtaining permits, conducting administrative activities, or implementing regulatory processes that could yield, among other things, differing preferred alternatives. Why, you might ask, more than fifteen years later, does DOE continue to struggle through CERCLA projects with unnecessary delays? From problem identification, to determination of nature and extent, to alternative analysis and ultimately remedy selection and implementation, reaching a compliant and effective clean-up end-point can be a process that seems to mimic geologic timescales. The source of these delays is often the failure to use all of the tools the CERCLA process offers. As one example, renewed commitment to follow the CERCLA process to address the regulatory reviews pursuant to the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) is called for. Project managers implementing CERCLA actions in any agency, not only DOE, do not need to be apprehensive about using the CERCLA process for NHPA review but should welcome it. It is critical that methods are used that address substantive NHPA requirements clearly and consistently, and that they are shared and communicated as frequently as needed to interested and questioning stakeholders. (author)

  1. Keynote address

    Radioactive waste management is definitely a field where an added value may be gained through international cooperation. However, the bases for international cooperation must remain very clear at all times. Waste management is essentially a matter of national jurisdiction. The approach to radioactive waste management is specific to each country, it may be influenced by the historical background of the waste management activities in the country, by the specific technical designs developed to ensure safe management, by the nature of geological formations (if underground disposal is sought), by the industrial infrastructure, by the corporate framework, by the national arrangements for safety regulation, etc. Industrial solutions for radioactive waste management exist or are emerging for most types of low and intermediate level waste. Disposing of low and intermediate level waste in surface facilities now represents a sound and proven industrial practice. A common objective for all countries is to have the availability of solutions for the entire set of waste categories. In the current context, the solutions for some categories appear to be less developed than for others. One may think more particularly of radium-bearing waste resulting from historical practices initiated as early as the beginning of the 20th century. Others may mention graphite waste originating from the former gas-graphite reactor system. The waste package is a key element in the waste management mechanism. It constitutes the basis of the safety approach. The care with which the specifications of the package are first defined, then controlled, through rigorous quality assurance procedures, is essential. The safe management of radioactive waste is achieved primarily through the reliability of the managers and of all the actors involved in waste disposal in carrying out their long term responsibilities. In order to properly implement their missions, they must be associated, at an early stage, with any

  2. Opening address

    Being fully aware of the IAEA's central and important roles in the field of nuclear security, Japan has cooperated closely with the IAEA in the field of nuclear security. One of Japan's efforts was holding a seminar on strengthening nuclear security in Asian countries in November 2006, making use of Japan's contribution to the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. The seminar was organized for the first time in Asia to address nuclear security matters, in which more than 100 experts from 19 countries participated. Japan also hosted a seminar, aimed at promoting the accession to the international counterterrorism conventions and protocols, inviting government officials and experts from Asia Pacific countries. At the seminar, Japan presented its experience and lessons learned with regard to its ratification of relevant international conventions such as the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. Japan has also provided assistance for capacity building in the field of physical protection measures, and is preparing three projects for Asian countries through the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. In Thailand, Japan has a project aimed at improving physical protection of nuclear research facilities. In Vietnam, Japan plans to host a workshop on radiation detection equipment for border officials and is also preparing for a seminar aimed at capacity building of control on nuclear material in Vietnam. Japan is committed to continue its efforts to make the IAEA Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement together with an Additional Protocol the universally accepted verification standard for the peaceful use undertakings of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Japan's basic policy on bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements is as follows. Considering the dual nature of nuclear material and technology, Japan is of the view that three Ss, that is, S for 'safeguards' (non-proliferation), S for 'safety

  3. Opening address

    Last week we were reminded once again of the after-effects of Chernobyl. Unexpectedly high values of the radioactive substance caesium were found in moose meat from the south of Vaesterbotten County. A moose cow shot in Aengersjoe had 2000 becquerel per kilo meat, and a moose calf had almost 4000 becquerel. The caesium content in Swedish moose has varied after the 1986 reactor breakdown at Chernobyl. The explanation for this year's unusually high content appears to be that, due to the warm weather, the moose have eaten blueberries which contain more caesium than plants in wood clearings. Moose meat containing caesium reminds us of the vulnerability of our society. It reminds us that emissions cross borders and that ambitious, long term environmental policies must be adopted at the national but above all at the international level. Work on environmental objectives is an important component of Swedish efforts to overcome our environmental problems within a generation. In Sweden, our work is based on 15 environmental quality objectives. We have established subgoals, action strategies and follow-up mechanisms. In an international context it is, I venture to say, unique in its systematic structure. The Swedish Government and Riksdag have laid down that: - Human health and biological diversity shall be protected against harmful effects of radiation in the outdoor environment. - By the year 2010, the content in the environment of radioactive substances emitted from all activities and operations shall be so low that human health and biological diversity are protected. - By the year 2020 the annual number of cases of skin cancer caused by the sun shall not be higher than the figure for the year 2000. The risks involved in electromagnetic fields shall be continuously reviewed and necessary measures taken when such risks are identified. These objectives describe the quality and conditions for Sweden's environmental, natural and cultural resources that are ecologically

  4. Epidemiological Correlates Of Unmet Need For Contraception In Urban Slum Population

    Supriya Satish Patil*, MP Durgawale and SR Patil


    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to find out magnitude and identifying the different variables, which are associated with unmet need for contraception among married women in the age group of 15-44 yrs in an urban slum of Karad, Maharashtra. A cross-sectional community based study was carried out among married women aged 15-44 yrs. Personal interview method with house-to-house visit was adopted as the study method. In this study unmet need for contraception was found in 59 (45.1% women, need for spacing in 25 (19.1% and need for limiting birth in 34 (26% women. About 81.3% of women in the unmet group belong to the age 15-29 yrs. There was significant association between prevalence of unmet need and age, number of living children, education. There was no significant association found between occupation, religion and unmet need for contraception. The present study revealed that lack of information about contraceptive method and its sources (57.6% were the common reasons for non-acceptance of contraception. It can be concluded that health education campaigns are necessary to increase awareness and counseling of eligible couples on importance of small family norm is essential.

  5. Unmet need for family planning in Indonesia and the policy strategy of intervention in several countries



    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are to analyse the unmet need situation in Indonesia, identify determining factors and the intervention policy strategy in several countries. This paper was a literature study, taken from the data of the 2012 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS and various other sources. It is seen that unmet need level in Indonesia decreases from time to time. During the 1991 to 2012 IDHS, total unmet need decreased from 17% to 11% (4.5% for spacing and 6.9% for limiting. However, the number is considered still quiet high so an effort to solve it is needed. Determinants of unmet need can be associated with various factors such as demographical characteristic and social economic, education, culture, geographical access and condition in the area. Recommended to the government in order to develop policy strategy focused on intervention of unmet need determinants, improve financial resource allocation for access improvement of contraception service and develop capacity, improve service quality including staff training, and also public education in big scale to decrease social barriers. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 1680-1685

  6. Opening address

    There is now universal recognition of the illicit trafficking problem and more uniform agreement on the need to take action to combat nuclear terrorism. In the past, security issues were considered strictly a national responsibility. It is now recognized that illicit trafficking not only concerns the protection of national borders but that there are vital international parameters. The IAEA's activities in the nuclear security field took a quantum leap in 2002 when it established its first Nuclear Security Plan for 2002-2005, including protection against illicit trafficking. We are now implementing the second plan for 2006-2009, which has been approved by our Board of Governors and the General Conference in 2005. The current Nuclear Security Plan for 2006-2009, which ranges over two bi-annual programme and budget periods, is comprehensive and identifies three activity areas, as well as activities supporting nuclear security. The first activity area is entitled 'Needs assessment, analysis and coordination' and is 'horizontal' in that it supports the implementation of the entire plan, and provides nuclear security relevant information, for purposes of information exchange to help prioritize activities and in support of operational activities. The ITDB programme is a cornerstone in the work to combat illicit trafficking. The second activity area, namely, prevention, aims at supporting sustainable capacity building in IAEA Member States to meet the threat of nuclear terrorism and of other criminal activities involving nuclear and other radioactive substances. Core activities include an effective accounting registry and physical protection, the implementation of a nuclear security culture and measures to sustain effective systems in the long term. Should prevention fail, it will be important to have a second line of defence, which is the third activity area in the plan, referred to as detection and response. This is the area which is of particular concern at this

  7. Cancer survivors and their partners: the assessment of unmet supportive care needs

    Our understanding of unmet supportive care needs of cancer survivors and their partners is limited. Most studies have focused on needs of patients undergoing treatment and on Quality of life or patient satisfaction. For the purpose of this research, cancer survivors are defined as persons who received a cancer diagnosis at least one year previously and are disease free. The aim of this study is to develop measures to assess unmet needs in survivors and their partners. After developing the questionnaire items it was piloted for validity in a wide sample of cancer patients from the radiation oncology department. 105 patients, all women, 101 with breast cancer and 40 partners participated. Psychological morbidity of depression and anxiety was recorded and was low. Quality of life for both survivors and partners was close to the US population mean. For patients top 4 unmet needs was 1. Anxiety about cancer returning (35%), current information (21%), understandable information (28%), ongoing case manager (25%). Unmet needs for partners were 1. Need to know all the doctors were communication (3.2%), need for local health services (2.8%), current information (2.1%) and help with managing concerns about the cancer returning (2.1%). 73% of partners reported at least one positive outcome from their partner's experience, significantly more than the survivors. In conclusion, interim analysis of the questionnaire reveals validity. Survivors report ongoing high levels of unmet needs 3-9 years after cancer diagnosis ( 30%). Less than 4% of partners report such unmet needs. There is significant correlation between needs of partners and survivors, many of which relate to issues of ongoing support and information delivery

  8. Addressing Parent-Child Conflict: Attachment-Based Interventions with Parents

    Kindsvatter, Aaron; Desmond, Kimberly J.


    This article describes the use of attachment theory to address parent-child conflict. The authors propose that parent-child conflict is attributable to the unmet attachment needs of both children and parents and that attachment insecurity results in problematic patterns of attachment in parent-child relationships. Three conversational frames are…

  9. Comprehensive care and pregnancy: The unmet care needs of pregnant women with a history of rape

    Munro, Michelle L.; Rietz, Melissa Foster


    This paper proposes a framework for assessing the unmet needs of rape survivors during pregnancy based on the Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) practice level theory and an empirical exploration of rape survivors’ health status in pregnancy via a secondary analysis. Our findings indicate that there may be unmet needs in pregnancy related to all five post-assault comprehensive care components: (1) physical care, (2) pregnancy prevention, (3) sexually transmitted infection screening, (4) psychological care, and (5) legal care. Rape history and its current impact on the survivor predicted somatic disorders, substance use, unwanted pregnancy, infections, posttraumatic stress disorder, and recent abuse. PMID:23215990

  10. Radiological emergencies in industry (causes and consequences). Address at the second national course of Radiation Safety in Industry. Jun 5-7 2000 Guatemala

    The address discusses the following issues: review of accidents in industrial radiography, human factors, technical failures, factors that decrease risk, personnel training, design of equipment and recommendations

  11. Investigating Unmet Health Needs in Primary Health Care Services in a Representative Sample of the Greek Population

    Evelina Pappa


    Full Text Available Unmet health care needs are determined as the difference between the services judged necessary and the services actually received, and stem from barriers related to accessibility, availability and acceptability. This study aims to examine the prevalence of unmet needs and to identify the socioeconomic and health status factors that are associated with unmet needs. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Greece in 2010 and involved data from 1,000 consenting subjects (>18 years old. Multiple binary logistic regression analysis was applied to investigate the predictors of unmet needs and to determine the relation between the socio-demographic characteristics and the accessibility, availability and acceptability barriers. Ninety nine participants (9.9% reported unmet health needs during the 12 months prior to the research. The most frequently self-reported reasons were cost and lack of time. Youth, parenthood, physician consultations, and poor mental health increased the likelihood of unmet needs. Women were less likely to report accessibility and availability than acceptability barriers. Educational differences were evident and individuals with primary and secondary education were associated with significantly more accessibility and availability barriers compared with those with tertiary education. Unmet health needs pose a significant challenge to the health care system, especially given the difficult current financial situation in Greece. It is believed that unmet health needs will continue to increase, which will widen inequalities in health and health care access.

  12. The unmet treatment need for moderate to severe psoriasis: results of a survey and chart review.

    Christophers, E.; Griffiths, C.E.; Gaitanis, G.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de


    BACKGROUND: Conventional systemic therapies and phototherapy for psoriasis are limited by safety concerns that may preclude long-term treatment with these agents. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the unmet need for safe and effective treatments for psoriasis. METHODS: A survey was conducted at three psoriasi

  13. Unmet Dental Needs and Barriers to Dental Care among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Lai, Bien; Milano, Michael; Roberts, Michael W.; Hooper, Stephen R.


    Mail-in pilot-tested questionnaires were sent to a stratified random sample of 1,500 families from the North Carolina Autism Registry. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the significance of unmet dental needs and other predictors. Of 568 surveys returned (Response Rate = 38%), 555 were complete and usable. Sixty-five…

  14. Unmet Healthcare and Social Services Needs of Older Canadian Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    Shooshtari, Shahin; Naghipur, Saba; Zhang, Jin


    The authors sought to create a demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related profile of older (40+) Canadian adults with developmental disabilities (DD) residing in their communities, and to enhance current knowledge of their unmet health and social support services needs. They provide a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the 2001…

  15. The unmet need in rheumatology: reports from the Targeted Therapies meeting 2016.

    Winthrop, Kevin L; Strand, Vibeke; van der Heijde, Désiréé M; Mease, Philip J; Crow, Mary K; Weinblatt, Michael; Bathon, Joan M; Buch, Maya H; Burmester, Gerd R; Dougados, Maxime; Kay, Jonathan; Mariette, Xavier; Breedveld, Ferry C; Kalden, Joachim R; Smolen, Josef S; Furst, Daniel E


    The 18th annual international Targeted Therapies meeting brought together over 100 leading scientists and clinicians from around the world in the field of rheumatology. During the meeting, breakout sessions were held consisting of 5 disease-specific groups each with 20-40 experts assigned to each group based on clinical or scientific expertise. Specific groups included: rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis/spondyloarthritis, systemic lupus erythematous, and other connective tissue diseases (e.g. Sjögren's, Behçet's, others). In each group, experts were asked to identify unmet needs in 3 categorical areas: basic/translational science, clinical science and therapeutic development, and clinical care. Needs were prioritised as primary or secondary. Overall, similar primary unmet needs were identified within each disease foci. Within translational science, these included the need for better understanding the heterogeneity within each disease, such that predictive tools for therapeutic response could be developed. Within clinical science and therapeutic trials, the ability to prevent progression to disease onset in those at risk, and the ability to cure disease were identified. A further unmet need was to develop new and accessible therapeutics, as well as to conduct strategic trials of currently approved therapies. Within the clinical care realm, improved co-morbidity management and patient-centered care were identified as unmet needs. Lastly, it was strongly felt there was a need to develop a scientific infrastructure for well-characterised, longitudinal cohorts married with biobanks and mechanisms to support data-sharing. This infrastructure could facilitate many of the unmet needs identified within each disease area. PMID:27586809

  16. Opinion of doctors about unmet needs of rural diabetics

    Rohit Dixit


    Results: All the doctors who were involved in the study had different opinion. MBBS doctors are more aware than BHMS/BAMS/BUMS doctors about the minimum degree required doing a diabetic practice legally in India. Both the group of doctors believed that the needs of diabetic population in rural India are not properly addressed; the reason behind this was lack of qualified doctors (according to majority of BHMS/BAMS/BUMS doctors and lack of awareness among the rural patients (according to MBBS doctors. Both the doctors believe that MBBS doctors with some fellowship courses in diabetes can manage diabetes effectively (except serious complications. Conclusions: Both the doctors believe that MBBS doctors with some fellowship courses in diabetes can manage diabetes effectively (except serious complications. In India only MD (general medicine and endocrinologists are technically qualified to treat diabetes. MCI should come forward and recognize the fellowship courses by regularizing them with proper guidelines and protocol set up for the institution providing such courses and allow those doctors to practice in rural areas, so that diabetics' needs are addressed properly. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 116-120

  17. Quantities and Units used in Radiation Safety. Address at the third national course of Radiation Safety in Radiology. May 22-24, 2000 Guatemala

    The address discusses the following issues: the radiological units, radiation dose units, radiation protection units and operational quantities used for individual monitoring recently introduced by the International Commission of Radiological Units

  18. Pharmacoresistant epilepsy: unmet needs in solving the puzzle(s).

    Weaver, Donald F; Pohlmann-Eden, Bernd


    Pharmacoresistant epilepsy is a significant medical problem. The 2nd Halifax International Epilepsy Conference & Retreat identified crucial needs, which if successfully addressed, will aid in paving the way to improved lives for people with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. These are needs: (1) for an evidence-based and dynamic definition of pharmacoresistant epilepsy; (2) for a comprehensive description of the natural history of pharmacoresistant epilepsy; (3) for a comprehensive description of the complications and comorbidities of pharmacoresistant epilepsy; (4) for a rigorous delineation of the epidemiology and socioeconomic impact of pharmacoresistant epilepsy; (5) for clinically meaningful diagnostic and prognostic physiologically based electroencephalography (EEG) biomarkers; (6) for clinically meaningful diagnostic and prognostic anatomically based (MRI Imaging) biomarkers; (7) for biomolecular/biochemical mechanistic understanding of etiopathogenesis for pharmacoresistant epilepsy; (8) for representative animal models of pharmacoresistant epilepsy; (9) for new and effective drugs or other novel treatments for pharmacoresistant epilepsy; and (10) to promote continuing research and research funding targeting pharmacoresistant epilepsy. PMID:23646978

  19. Special address by the Director of the Federal Radiation Protection Service, Prof. Akin Ojo at the opening ceremony of the national workshop on radiation protection and quality control in medical and industrial practices FRPS, Ibadan on Monday 15 November 1999

    A special address by the Director of the Federal Radiation Protection Service, Prof. Akin Ojo at the opening ceremony of the national workshop on radiation protection and quality control in medical and industrial practices held at the Federal Radiation Protection Service, Physics Dept. University of Ibadan from Monday 15 to Friday 19 November 1999

  20. Degenerative Mitral Stenosis: Unmet Need for Percutaneous Interventions.

    Sud, Karan; Agarwal, Shikhar; Parashar, Akhil; Raza, Mohammad Q; Patel, Kunal; Min, David; Rodriguez, Leonardo L; Krishnaswamy, Amar; Mick, Stephanie L; Gillinov, A Marc; Tuzcu, E Murat; Kapadia, Samir R


    Degenerative mitral stenosis (DMS) is an important cause of mitral stenosis, developing secondary to severe mitral annular calcification. With the increase in life expectancy and improved access to health care, more patients with DMS are likely to be encountered in developed nations. These patients are generally elderly with multiple comorbidities and often are high-risk candidates for surgery. The mainstay of therapy in DMS patients is medical management with heart rate control and diuretic therapy. Surgical intervention might be delayed until symptoms are severely limiting and cannot be managed by medical therapy. Mitral valve surgery is also challenging in these patients because of the presence of extensive calcification. Hence, there is a need to develop an alternative percutaneous treatment approach for patients with DMS who are otherwise inoperable or at high risk for surgery. In this review, we summarize the available data on the epidemiology of DMS and diagnostic considerations and current treatment strategies for these patients. PMID:27142604

  1. Multi-Sector Participation In The National Response To Prevent And Address The Hiv/Aids Epidemic In The Republic Of Cuba, 2007-2008

    Isora Ramos Valle; Isabel Louro Bernal; Ana Teresa Farinas Reinoso; Susana Llanusa; Nereida Rojo Pérez


    The development of a strong national response involving multiple sectors—including civil society—is an essential aspect of the social management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The goals of this response are to control the epidemic and improve the quality of life for people living with HIV/AIDS; this includes combating stigma and discrimination, as well as ensuring due compliance with the law. Cuba has a national program to prevent and control HIV/AIDS. Since 2003 Cuba’s national program has receiv...

  2. DOENEWS: Address of John S. Herrington, Secretary of Energy, at the National symposium on the superconducting super collider in Denver, Colorado, December 3, 1987

    In this address, the President's support for basic science is briefly discussed, and support for the Superconducting Super Collider in particular is emphasized. Perceived benefits of the Super Collider are discussed, including benefits to the world, training for scientists, maintaining American competitiveness. Federal support of science, including Congressional action, is discussed briefly

  3. Address Points - Volusia County Addresses (Point)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Situs Addresses for Volusia County. Maintained by Growth and Resource Management. Addresses are determined by the cities for their jurisdiction and by the County...

  4. Uncertain Health Insurance Coverage and Unmet Children’s Health Care Needs

    DeVoe, Jennifer E.; Ray, Moira; Krois, Lisa; Carlson, Matthew J.


    Background and Objectives The State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) has improved insurance coverage rates. However, children’s enrollment status in SCHIP frequently changes, which can leave families with uncertainty about their children’s coverage status. We examined whether insurance uncertainty was associated with unmet health care needs. Methods We compared self-reported survey data from 2,681 low-income Oregon families to state administrative data and identified children with uncertain coverage. We conducted cross-sectional multivariate analyses using a series of logistic regression models to test the association between uncertain coverage and unmet health care needs. Results The health insurance status for 13.2% of children was uncertain. After adjustments, children in this uncertain “gray zone” had higher odds of reporting unmet medical (odds ratio [OR] =1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.07, 2.79), dental (OR=2.41; 95% CI=1.63, 3.56), prescription (OR=1.64, 95% CI=1.08, 2,48), and counseling needs (OR=3.52; 95% CI=1.56, 7.98), when compared with publicly insured children whose parents were certain about their enrollment status. Conclusions Uncertain children’s insurance coverage was associated with higher rates of unmet health care needs. Clinicians and educators can play a role in keeping patients out of insurance gray zones by (1) developing practice interventions to assist families in confirming enrollment and maintaining coverage and (2) advocating for policy changes that minimize insurance enrollment and retention barriers. PMID:20135570

  5. Key Concepts for Estimating the Burden of Surgical Conditions and the Unmet Need for Surgical Care

    Bickler, Stephen; Ozgediz, Doruk; Gosselin, Richard; Spiegel, David; Hsia, Renee; Dunbar, Peter; McQueen, Kelly; Jamison, Dean; Weiser, Thomas Geoghegan


    Background: Surgical care is emerging as a crucial issue in global public health. Methodology is needed to assess the impact of surgical care from a public health perspective. Methods: A consensus opinion of a group of surgeons, anesthesiologists, and public health experts was established regarding the methodology for estimating the burden of surgical conditions and the unmet need for surgical care. Results: For purposes of analysis, we define surgical conditions as any disease state requirin...

  6. The unmet need for Emergency Obstetric Care in Tanga Region, Tanzania

    Mtatifikolo Ferdinand; Hunger Claudia; Kuelker Rainer; Massawe Siriel; Prytherch Helen; Jahn Albrecht


    Abstract Background Improving maternal health by reducing maternal mortality constitutes the fifth Millennium Development Goal and represents a key public health challenge in the United Republic of Tanzania. In response to the need to evaluate and monitor safe motherhood interventions, this study aims at assessing the coverage of obstetric care according to the Unmet Obstetric Need (UON) concept by obtaining information on indications for, and outcomes of, major obstetric interventions. Furth...

  7. Inequity in long-term care use and unmet need: two sides of the same coin

    García-Gómez, Pilar; Hernandez-Quevedo, Christina; Jiménez-Rubio, Dolores; Oliva, Juan


    International studies have shown evidence on inequity in use of health services of different kinds, depending on the type of health care service analysed. However, equity in the access to long-term care (LTC) services has received much less attention. We investigate the determinants of several LTC services and the existence of unmet need by the disabled population using unique data from a survey conducted on the disabled population in Spain in 2008. We further measure the level of horizontal ...

  8. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.


    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  9. Unmet needs and relationship challenges of head and neck cancer patients and their spouses.

    Badr, Hoda; Herbert, Krista; Reckson, Batya; Rainey, Hope; Sallam, Aminah; Gupta, Vishal


    In head and neck cancer (HNC), couple-based interventions may be useful for facilitating treatment completion, patient rehabilitation, and improving both partners' quality of life. With the goal of identifying targets for future interventions, we conducted a qualitative study to understand patient and spouse unmet needs and relationship challenges during curative radiotherapy for HNC. Semistructured interviews were conducted with six HNC patients (83% male) and six spouses (83% female) within 6 months of completing treatment. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed using grounded theory analysis. Patients and spouses identified several unmet needs including better preparation regarding the severity of physical side effects, a clearer timeline for recovery, and strategies for dealing with their own and each other's emotional reactions. Caregiver's unmet needs included balancing competing roles/responsibilities, making time for self-care, and finding effective strategies for encouraging patient's self-care. Eighty-three percent of spouses and all patients reported increased conflict during treatment. Other relationship challenges included changes in intimacy and social/leisure activities. Findings suggest that couple-based interventions that emphasize the importance of managing physical and psychological symptoms through the regular practice of self-care routines may be beneficial for both patients and spouses. Likewise, programs that teach spouses ways to effectively motivate and encourage patients' self-care may help minimize conflict and help couples navigate HNC treatment and recovery together as a team. PMID:27269579

  10. Unmet need and psychological distress predict emergency department visits in community-dwelling elderly women: a prospective cohort study

    Quail Jacqueline M; Wolfson Christina; Lippman Abby


    Abstract Background Unmet need to perform activities of daily living (ADL) is associated with increased use of urgent health services by the elderly. However, the reported associations may be confounded by psychological distress. We examine the independent effects of unmet need and psychological distress upon emergency department (ED) visits. Methods We conducted a prospective study of randomly selected community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 75. We report here the results for women only (n = 530). ...

  11. A survey of cancer patients' unmet information and coordination needs in handovers -- a cross-sectional study

    Søndergaard, Eva Gad; Grøne, Bettina Haastrup; Wulff, Christian Nielsen; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Søndergaard, Jens


    handovers. The objectives of this study were to examine cancer patients' unmet needs for information and coordination in handovers and to analyse the association between patients' demographic and clinical characteristics and unmet information and coordination needs.......The care responsibilities for cancer patients are frequently handed over from one healthcare professional to another. These handovers are known to pose a threat to the safety of patients and the efficiency of the healthcare system. Little is known about specific needs of cancer patients in...

  12. Factors associated with unmet dental care needs in Canadian immigrants: an analysis of the longitudinal survey of immigrants to Canada

    Calvasina, Paola; Muntaner, Carles; Quiñonez, Carlos


    Background Immigrants are often considered to have poorer oral health than native born-populations. One possible explanation for immigrants’ poor oral health is lack of access to dental care. There is very little information on Canadian immigrants’ access to dental care, and unmet dental care needs. This study examines predictors of unmet dental care needs among a sample of adult immigrants to Canada over a three-point-five-year post-migration period. Methods A secondary data analysis was con...

  13. Idaho National Laboratory/Nuclear Power Industry Strategic Plan for Light Water Reactor Research and Development An Industry-Government Partnership to Address Climate Change and Energy Security

    Electric Power Research


    The dual issues of energy security and climate change mitigation are driving a renewed debate over how to best provide safe, secure, reliable and environmentally responsible electricity to our nation. The combination of growing energy demand and aging electricity generation infrastructure suggests major new capacity additions will be required in the years ahead.

  14. Preventing and Addressing Homophobic and Transphobic Bullying in Education: A Human Rights-Based Approach Using the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

    Cornu, Christophe


    Homophobic and transphobic bullying in schools can have a serious effect on children and young people subjected to it at a crucial moment in their lives. It is an obstacle to the right to education, which is one of the basic universal human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and various United Nations Conventions. This…

  15. Addressing the Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs of Young People in Ethiopia: An Analysis of the Current Situation.

    Muntean, Nigina; Kereta, Worknesh; Mitchell, Kirstin R


    Young people in Ethiopia face a number of risks to their sexual and reproductive health, including adolescent pregnancy, sexual violence, and unmet need for family planning. This study explores the extent to which current service provision addresses the SRH needs of young Ethiopians . Methods included a comprehensive review of the academic and policy literature on young people's SRH and service provision in Ethiopia; and 14 semi-structured Key Informant Interviews. Factors affecting utilization of sexual and reproductive services by young people include: limited SRH knowledge, lack of open discussion of sexual matters, low status of women, cultural and logistical barriers, competing priorities among community health professionals, limited resources for health facilities, and negative attitudes of providers towards unmarried youth. While the antenatal needs of young married women are somewhat addressed, gaps exist in terms of services for unmarried youth, young men, rural youth and vulnerable groups. The national policy platform has created an enabling environment for addressing youth SRH needs but challenges to implementing these policies still persist. The way forward requires a focus on reducing barriers to utilization of services, and attention to underserved groups. It also requires resource mobilization, strong leadership and effective coordination between stakeholders and donors. PMID:26897917

  16. Multi-Sector Participation In The National Response To Prevent And Address The Hiv/Aids Epidemic In The Republic Of Cuba, 2007-2008

    Isora Ramos Valle


    Full Text Available The development of a strong national response involving multiple sectors—including civil society—is an essential aspect of the social management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The goals of this response are to control the epidemic and improve the quality of life for people living with HIV/AIDS; this includes combating stigma and discrimination, as well as ensuring due compliance with the law. Cuba has a national program to prevent and control HIV/AIDS. Since 2003 Cuba’s national program has received material and financial support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Program evaluation is carried out by an independent team at ENSAP (National School of Public Health. This paper reports on results of one part of that evaluation: an assessment of the agencies and sectors who made up the organized social and national response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The evaluation primarily used qualitative analyses of the activities and tasks proposed by sectors in their 2006-2008 work plans. Visits were made to the provinces of Ciudad de la Habana, Matanzas, and Holguín. Qualitative techniques included in-depth interviews, semi-structured interviews, observation, and review of documentary evidence of all kinds (videos, reports, minutes, protocols, results of social research, and radio broadcast messages and varied depending on the particular features of each sector. We noted improvements in multi-sector participation in the prevention and response to the national HIV/AIDS epidemic. Conscious of their role, sectors generally carried out their programmed activities and had improved their organization, planning, and systematization; integration among the sectors was also better. These local initiatives provided evidence of a multi-sector response characterized by autonomy, emotional involvement, and an identification with the goals of the project; this went beyond simply meeting targets. Cross-sector work showed a marked increase and a

  17. Report of the Inaugural Meeting of the TFOS i(2) = initiating innovation Series: Targeting the Unmet Need for Dry Eye Treatment.

    Chao, Wendy; Belmonte, Carlos; Benitez Del Castillo, José M; Bron, Anthony J; Dua, Harminder S; Nichols, Kelly K; Novack, Gary D; Schrader, Stefan; Willcox, Mark D; Wolffsohn, James S; Sullivan, David A


    On March 21, 2015, a meeting was held in London, United Kingdom, to address the progress in targeting the unmet need for dry eye disease (DED) treatment. The meeting, which launched the i(2) = initiating innovation series, was sponsored by the Tear Film & Ocular Surface Society (TFOS; and supported by Dompé. The TFOS i(2) meeting was designed to review advances in the understanding of DED since publication of the 2007 TFOS International Dry Eye WorkShop (DEWS) report, and to help launch the highly anticipated sequel, DEWS II. The meeting was structured to discuss the scope of the DED problem, to review the clinical challenges of DED, and to consider the treatment challenges of DED. This article provides a synopsis of the presentations of this TFOS i(2) meeting. PMID:26774910

  18. Allegheny County Address Points

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  19. Association between unmet needs and clinical status in patients with first episode of schizophrenia in Chile

    Natalia eJorquera


    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder involving needs in several matters that are often not covered. A need is defined as a gap between the ideal state and the current state of a patient about a specific topic. Aim: To describe needs in patients with first episode of schizophrenia at the start of treatment, and to describe associated clinical factors. Methods: Observational descriptive cross-sectional design. Patients were over fifteen years old, with first episode schizophrenia, and admitted to treatment in the public health system from six district in two cities of Chile, between 2005 and 2006. Sociodemographic data, clinical evaluations of current psychosis based on the PANSS, and the time of untreated psychosis were obtained. A clinical interview, was carried out followed by the Camberwell Assessment of Need. Results: 29 patients were evaluated, 79.3% male, mean age 21.9 years old. The areas with more needs reported were; psychotic symptoms with 65.5% of sample, 21.1% of which reported it unmet; and daytime activities, where 44.8% of patients reported a need, 61.54% of them as unmet. The percentage of unmet needs correlated with PANSS score (r= 0.55; p=0.003, and with time of positive symptoms prior to diagnosis (r= 0.416; p=0.03. Discussion: Needs assessment in schizophrenia is necessary. It may affect its clinical course, be relevant in its management and help monitor recovery. Defining the main needs in people with first episode schizophrenia and associated factors allows for a better design of treatment strategies in order to obtain better therapeutic results and recovery.

  20. Measuring dementia carers' unmet need for services - an exploratory mixed method study

    Vickers James


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To ensure carers of people with dementia receive support, community services increasingly use measures of caregiver (carer burden to assess for unmet need. This study used Bradshaw's taxonomy of need to explore the link between measures of carer burden (normative need, service use (expressed need, and carer's stated need (felt need. Methods This mixed method exploratory study compared measures of carer burden with community services received and unmet needs, for 20 community-dwelling carer/care-recipient pairs. Results A simple one-item measure of carers' felt need for more services was significantly related to carer stress as measured on the GHQ-30. Qualitative data showed that there are many potential stressors for carers, other than those related to the care-giving role. We found a statistically significant rank correlation (p = 0.01 between carer's use of in-home respite and the care-recipient's cognitive and functional status which is likely to have been related to increased requirement for carer vigilance, effort and the isolation of spouse carers. Otherwise, there were no statistically significant relationships between carer burden or stress and level of service provision. Conclusion When carers are stressed or depressed, they can recognise that they would like more help from services, even if measures of carer burden and care recipient status do not clearly indicate unmet service needs. A question designed to elicit carer' felt need may be a better indicator of service need, and a red flag for recognising growing stress in carers of people with dementia. Assessment of service needs should recognise the fallibility of carer burden measures, given that carer stress may not only come from caring for someone with dementia, but can be significantly compounded by other life situations.

  1. Determinants of low family planning use and high unmet need in Butajira District, South Central Ethiopia

    Mekonnen Wubegzier


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid population growth does not match with available resource in Ethiopia. Though household level family planning delivery has been put in place, the impact of such programs in densely populated rural areas was not studied. The study aims at measuring contraception and unmet need and identifying its determinants among married women. Methods A total of 5746 married women are interviewed from October to December 2009 in the Butajira Demographic Surveillance Area. Contraceptive prevalence rate and unmet need with their 95% confidence interval is measured among married women in the Butajira district. The association of background characteristics and family planning use is ascertained using crude and adjusted Odds ratio in logistic regression model. Results Current contraceptive prevalence rate among married women is 25.4% (95% CI: 24.2, 26.5. Unmet need of contraception is 52.4% of which 74.8% was attributed to spacing and the rest for limiting. Reasons for the high unmet need include commodities' insecurity, religion, and complaints related to providers, methods, diet and work load. Contraception is 2.3 (95% CI: 1.7, 3.2 times higher in urbanites compared to rural highlanders. Married women who attained primary and secondary plus level of education have about 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.6 and 2 (95% CI: 1.4, 2.9 times more risk to contraception; those with no child death are 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.5 times more likely to use contraceptives compared to counterparts. Besides, the odds of contraception is 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.6 and 1.5 (1.1, 2.0 times more likely among women whose partners completed primary and secondary plus level of education. Women discussing about contraception with partners were 2.2 (95% CI: 1.8, 2.7 times more likely to use family planning. Nevertheless, contraception was about 2.6 (95% CI: 2.1, 3.2 more likely among married women whose partners supported the use of family planning. Conclusions The local government

  2. Strengthening global physical protection practices; gaining better information on national practices for protection of weapons-usable material. Keynote address/session 3

    Full text: Unlike the Non-Proliferation Treaty requirement that non-nuclear-weapon parties provide 'safeguards' information to the IAEA on their nuclear materials and their state systems for accounting and control, there is no related requirement to provide information on state systems of physical protection. A review of 1997 IAEA and Stanford physical protection conference proceedings showed both the absence of information on important practices from many states and the great variation in practices from state to state. Besides the lack of internationally required standards for domestic protection, reasons for the variations described in Stanford-Sandia National Laboratories research include: differences in states' perceptions of the threats to their materials; differences in their abilities to pay the cost of stronger physical protection; differences in their laws and regulatory practices in general; and differences in their cultural attitudes - for example, attitudes toward whether to arm personnel guarding weapon-usable material or to require clearances for personnel with access to such material. The information presented to the 1997 IAEA and Stanford conferences was supplied voluntarily. The two global documents which provide norms for physical protection do not require submission of such information. These are the 1980 Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and the 1999 IAEA INFCIRC/225/Rev.4. This means that, without bilateral cooperation, no state can find out how other states are protecting their nuclear material. Yet, as IAEA Director General El Baradei has said, '[I]t is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent [physical protection] responsibility is fulfilled. ...The need for international cooperation becomes evident in situations - where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter and defeat hostile actions against nuclear

  3. Breast cancer patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy: Distress, depressive symptoms and unmet needs of psychosocial support

    Background and purpose: The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer can cause considerable psychological consequences, which may remain unrecognized and untreated. In this study, the prevalence of depressive symptoms and distress, and unmet needs for psychosocial support were assessed among breast cancer patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy. Material and methods: Out of 389 consecutive patients, 276 responded and comprised the final study group. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. Distress was measured with the Distress Thermometer. Hospital records of the patients were examined for additional information. Results: Nearly one third of patients (32.1%) displayed depressive symptoms, and more than a quarter of patients (28.4%) experienced distress. Younger age (p = 0.001) and negative hormone receptor status (p = 0.008) were independent factors associated with distress. One quarter of the patients expressed an unmet need for psychosocial support, which was independently associated with depressive symptoms and/or distress (p = 0.001) and younger age (p = 0.006). Conclusions: During radiotherapy for breast cancer, the staff should have awareness of the higher risk of depression and distress in their patients and should consider screening tools to recognise distress and depressive symptoms. Special attention should be paid to younger patients.

  4. The impact of pain on quality of life and the unmet needs of pain management: results from pain sufferers and physicians participating in an Internet survey.

    McCarberg, Bill H; Nicholson, Bruce D; Todd, Knox H; Palmer, Trish; Penles, Leslie


    Pain is one of the most common medical complaints, but despite its prevalence, many individuals still suffer with unrelieved or undertreated pain. This marketing research survey was designed to determine the physical, psychological, and economic impact pain has on the lives of individuals suffering with pain and to identify the unmet needs of patients who have taken opioid medications to treat their pain. In addition, the survey sought to address the challenges physicians face when treating patients with pain. Pain sufferers were recruited through e-mail invitation to an Internet survey; 173,854 invitations were sent out, 22,018 people responded (12.7%), and 606 met the criteria for inclusion in the survey as pain sufferers. Of these, 359 people had moderate to moderately severe chronic pain and 247 people had moderate to moderately severe acute pain. Additionally, physicians currently treating pain were recruited through e-mail and postal mail invitations and 492 met eligibility criteria: 241 specialists (orthopedic or general surgeons, pain specialists or anesthesiologists), 125 primary care, and 126 emergency medicine physicians. Results of this survey supported what many physicians observe in their practice and hear from their patients, that pain has a negative impact on daily activities in the majority of pain sufferers. Many chronic pain sufferers reported that pain had deleterious effects on their mental health, employment status, sleep, and personal relationships. The impact of pain on patient quality of life and the unmet needs in pain management were recognized by the majority of physicians surveyed, with inadequate pain control, end-of-dose pain, and side effects associated with increased dosing reported as negative factors influencing their choice of pain medication. In conclusion, effective communication between physicians and patients is encouraged to not only improve overall pain management but also to establish shared treatment goals with functional

  5. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  6. A Call to Action: An Address to the Tulsa Metropolitan Chamber of Commerce, A Response to the Report of the National Commission on Excellence in Education: A Nation at Risk.

    Zenke, Larry L.

    The Superintendent of Schools reports factual information about and briefly describes accomplishments of the Tulsa Public Schools to enable the Board of Directors of the Chamber of Commerce to assess the status of the schools vis-a-vis the Report of the National Commission on Excellence in Education. Recent scores of students on national…

  7. Traumatic brain injury: unmet support needs of caregivers and families in Florida.

    Christina Dillahunt-Aspillaga

    Full Text Available Sustaining a Traumatic Brain Injury results in familial strain due to the significant impact the injury has upon the role and function of individuals and their families at home and in the community. Using the Stress Process Model of Caregiving, a caregiver needs assessment survey was developed and conducted to better understand the needs of individuals with a Traumatic Brain Injury and their caregivers. Survey results indicate that caregivers experience many challenges including unmet needs in areas of relational supports such as maintaining relationships, long-term emotional and financial support for themselves and the survivor, and the need for a patient or caregiver advocate. Implications for future practice are presented.

  8. Seniors’ unmet mobility needs – how important is a driving licence?

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina


    Previous studies have come to different conclusions regarding how important a driving licence is for seniors to fulfil their mobility needs. We investigated this question based on three groups of Danish seniors: persons who were licensed as drivers (‘‘drivers’’); persons who have never been...... licensed drivers (‘‘never-drivers’’); and persons who recently gave up their licence (‘‘ex-drivers’’). Data were collected via standardised telephone interviews in 2012 among 863 individuals born in 1939/40. The three groups differed significantly in socio-demographics and health; never-drivers had the...... became insignificant for unmet shopping needs. The effect of never having had a licence was hardly affected by the inclusion of control variables. The results emphasise the importance of a driving licence in fulfilling seniors’ mobility needs. Contrary to our hypotheses, more experience with, and better...

  9. Assessing Unmet and Latent Demand for Pharmacists at the State Level

    Arora, Prachi; Mott, David A.; Chui, Michelle A.; Kreling, David H.


    Background Past reports suggest that a near balance has been reached in the supply and demand for pharmacists in the US. Although data on the level of supply of pharmacists is available, there is no continuous and systematic tracking of the level of demand (unmet and latent) for pharmacists at state level. Unmet demand, an established construct in pharmacy workforce, is important to measure the number of vacancies and assess pharmacist shortage consistently over time. Latent demand or potential demand is a novel construct and has never been measured in pharmacy workforce. With the increase in supply, it is important to measure the potential demand that could be budgeted in pharmacies in the near future. Objective The objective of this study was to measure the unmet and latent demand for pharmacists and explore the association between latent demand and workload characteristics in community and hospital pharmacies in Wisconsin in 2011-12. Methods The study used a cross-sectional, descriptive survey design. A sample of community pharmacies (n=1,064) and hospital pharmacies (n=126) licensed in Wisconsin in 2011-12 was identified. Key informants (managers/owners) of sampled pharmacies were sent a one-page cover letter explaining the purpose of the study and requesting participation and a three page survey form. The main outcome measures of the study were total number of FTE pharmacist positions vacant, presence of adequate staff size, additional number of FTE pharmacist positions needed to attain adequate staff size, prescription volume, daily census, hospital size and number of hours prescription department is open. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all the pharmacies collectively, then separately for community and hospital pharmacies. Pharmacy setting, vacancies and workload characteristics of pharmacies with and without latent demand were compared using chi-squared test of independence and/or t-test. Sample weights were calculated and used in all the

  10. Reasons and Determinants for Perceiving Unmet Needs for Mental Health in Primary Care in Quebec

    Dezetter, Anne; Duhoux, Arnaud; Menear, Matthew; Roberge, Pasquale; Chartrand, Elise; Fournier, Louise


    Objective: To evaluate the mental health care needs perceived as unmet by adults in Quebec who had experienced depressive and (or) anxious symptomatology (DAS) in the previous 2 years and who used primary care services, and to identify the reasons associated with different types of unmet needs for care (UNCs) and the determinants of reporting UNCs. Method: Longitudinal data from the Dialogue Project were used. The sample consisted of 1288 adults who presented a common mental disorder and who consulted a general practitioner. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to measure DAS, and the Perceived Need for Care Questionnaire facilitated the assessment of the different types of UNCs and their motives. Results: About 40% of the participants perceived UNCs. Psychotherapy, help to improve ability to work, as well as general information on mental health and services were the most mentioned UNCs. The main reasons associated with reporting UNCs for psychotherapy and psychosocial interventions are “couldn’t afford to pay” and “didn’t know how or where to get help,” respectively. The factors associated with mentioning UNCs (compared with met needs) are to present a high DAS or a DAS that increased during the past 12 months, to perceive oneself as poor or to not have private health insurance. Conclusions: To reduce the UNCs and, further, to reduce DAS, it is necessary to improve the availability and affordability of psychotherapy and psychosocial intervention services, and to inform users on the types of services available and how to access them. PMID:26175326

  11. Unmet needs of outpatients with late-life depression; a comparison of patient, staff and carer perceptions

    Houtjes, Wim; Meijel, Berno van; Deeg, Dorly; Beekman, Aartjan


    There is evidence that late life depression is associated with high levels of unmet needs. Only a minority of the depressed patients appears to be adequately treated. Ninety-nine older patients (58-92 years), 96 informal carers and 85 health-care professionals were recruited from six outpatient fac

  12. Conference President's address

    The objective of the Conference is to promote the development of a coherent international policy on the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation and to foster information exchange on this subject. The organizers, the IAEA in cooperation with United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the European Commission (EC) and the International Union of Radioecology (IUR), as well as the hosts of the conference, the Government of Sweden through the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI), are pleased that so nearly 300 delegates from 53 countries have been nominated by their governments to attend this meeting. Another objective is to discuss the implications of the ICRP's proposal for a framework to assess radiation effects in the environment. A framework for radiological protection of the environment must be practical and simple, as should be international standards for discharges into the environment that take account of such an approach. This is a task for the IAEA, in cooperation with other international organizations. This conference therefore provides an opportunity for you to influence the development of both ICRP and IAEA policy in this area. The background session today will give information on the current situation as well as social and political drivers for change. A number of organizations will provide an insight to the present status of international policies on the radiological protection related to releases to the environment. During the course of the conference, there will be five topical sessions that will cover selected subjects related to protection of the environment, such as stakeholders' views, case studies, approaches for non-radioactive pollutants, the state of current scientific knowledge and, finally, the implications of ICRP proposals for international safety standards. Keynote speakers will address key issues within each topical session, and a rapporteur will summarize the

  13. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    Hsu, Pei-Ling


    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  14. Emerging organisational models of primary healthcare and unmet needs for care: insights from a population-based survey in Quebec province

    Levesque Jean-Frédéric


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reform of primary healthcare (PHC organisations is underway in Canada. The capacity of various types of PHC organizations to respond to populations’ needs remains to be assessed. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the association of PHC affiliation with unmet needs for care. Methods Population-based survey of 9205 randomly selected adults in two regions of Quebec, Canada. Outcomes Self-reported unmet needs for care and identification of the usual source of PHC. Results Among eligible adults, 18 % reported unmet needs for care in the last six months. Reasons reported for unmet needs were: waiting times (59 % of cases; unavailability of usual doctor (42 %; impossibility to obtain an appointment (36 %; doctors not accepting new patients (31 %. Regression models showed that unmet needs were decreasing with age and was lower among males, the least educated, and unemployed or retired. Controlling for other factors, unmet needs were higher among the poor and those with worse health status. Having a family doctor was associated with fewer unmet needs. People reporting a usual source of care in the last two-years were more likely to report unmet need for care. There were no differences in unmet needs for care across types of PHC organisations when controlling for affiliation with a family physician. Conclusion Reform models of primary healthcare consistent with the medical home concept did not differ from other types of organisations in our study. Further research looking at primary healthcare reform models at other levels of implementation should be done.

  15. Access Disparity and Health Inequality of the Elderly: Unmet Needs and Delayed Healthcare

    Tetsuji Yamada


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate healthcare access disparity that will cause delayed and unmet healthcare needs for the elderly, and to examine health inequality and healthcare cost burden for the elderly. To produce clear policy applications, this study adapts a modified PRECEDE-PROCEED model for framing theoretical and experimental approaches. Data were collected from a large collection of the Community Tracking Study Household Survey 2003–2004 of the USA. Reliability and construct validity are examined for internal consistency and estimation of disparity and inequality are analyzed by using probit/ols regressions. The results show that predisposing factors (e.g., attitude, beliefs, and perception by socio-demographic differences are negatively associated with delayed healthcare. A 10% increase in enabling factors (e.g., availability of health insurance coverage, and usual sources of healthcare providers are significantly associated with a 1% increase in healthcare financing factors. In addition, information through a socio-economic network and support system has a 5% impact on an access disparity. Income, health status, and health inequality are exogenously determined. Designing and implementing easy healthcare accessibility (healthcare system and healthcare financing methods, and developing a socio-economic support network (including public health information are essential in reducing delayed healthcare and health inequality.

  16. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need. (authors)

  17. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman


    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  18. Addressing the nuclear misconception

    There is a perception, fostered and encouraged by the anti-nuclear groups, that the nuclear industry generates large quantities of waste with no idea how to deal with it, that it is unsafe, uneconomic, and environmentally damaging. The task is to change these perceptions, by demonstrating that the industry is not a problem in itself, but in fact provides solutions to problems. This paper, while primarily concerned with waste, addresses all of these issues as each has a bearing on the perception of the industry and therefore must be considered when addressing the issue of waste. The paper concludes that evidence exists to support the industry view, but that the mission of the industry should be to change the perception of the industry, by influencing and working together with its stake holders to address their concerns, rather than merely presenting more and more facts. (author)

  19. Addressing the nuclear misconception

    There is a perception, fostered and encouraged by the anti-nuclear groups, that the nuclear industry generates large quantities of waste with no idea how to deal with it, is unsafe, uneconomic, and environmentally damaging. The task of the industry is to change the perception by demonstrating that the industry provides solutions to problems, and is not a problem in itself. This paper, whilst primarily concerned with waste, addresses all of these issues as each has a bearing on the perception of the industry and therefore must be considered when addressing the issue of waste. The paper concludes that evidence exists to support the industry, but that the mission of the industry should be to change the perception of it, by influencing and working together with its stakeholders to address their concerns, rather than merely presenting more and more facts. (author)

  20. Characteristics, treatment patterns, and unmet needs of Japanese patients with atrial fibrillation

    Koretsune Y


    Full Text Available Yukihiro Koretsune,1 Bruno Rossi,2 Kazuya Iwamoto,3 Edward CY Wang,4 Marco DiBonaventura,5 Jean-Baptiste Briere41Institute for Clinical Research, Osaka National Hospital, Osaka, Japan; 2Market Access, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd., Osaka, Japan; 3Medical Affairs Cardiovascular and Neurology, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd., Osaka, Japan; 4Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd., Osaka, Japan; 5Health Outcomes Practice, Kantar Health, New York, NY, USABackground: Data on characteristics, comorbidities, health outcomes, and treatment patterns of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF in Japan are scarce. The aim of this study was to address this gap in order to better understand the characteristics of Japanese AF patients.Methods and results: The 2008-2010 Japan National Health and Wellness Survey data sets were used in this study (N = 60,015. Demographics, health characteristics, stroke risk (using the CHA2DS2-VASc score, comorbidities, and health outcomes were all assessed. A total of 565 patients (0.94% self-reported a physician diagnosis of AF. Patients with AF reported a number of comorbidities, including another cardiovascular condition (87.08%, a urological condition (67.79%, and dyspepsia (37.35%. Patients with AF also reported significantly worse health status and significantly more resource use than did controls. Based on the CHA2DS2-VASc score, most patients (88.50% were at either moderate or high risk, yet only 64.25% of patients were currently being treated. Among those not currently treated, 42.57% had discontinued previous treatment. Among those currently treated, over a third reported nonadherent behaviors.Conclusion: Despite the disease burden and the high risk for a future stroke, not all patients are being treated according to guidelines. This treatment gap highlights the need for better therapeutic alternatives, in order to improve the management of patients with AF, in Japan.Keywords: stroke risk, health status, adherence

  1. Unmet reproductive health needs among women in some West African countries: a systematic review of outcome measures and determinants

    Ayanore, Martin Amogre; Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim


    Background Identifying relevant measures of women’s reproductive health needs is critical to improve women’s chances of service utilization. The study aims to systematically review and analyze the adequacy of outcome measures and determinants applied in previous studies for assessing women reproductive health needs across West Africa. Methods Evidence on outcomes and determinants of unmet reproductive health needs among women of childbearing age in diverse multicultural, religious, and ethnic...

  2. Responding to the Needs of Children and Families After a Disaster: Linkages Between Unmet Needs and Caregiver Functioning

    Kilmer, Ryan P.; Gil-Rivas, Virginia


    Disasters may negatively influence caregivers’ ability to respond to the needs of their families. In this context, service organizations’ response to families’ needs may affect caregivers’ symptoms and parenting. Interviews were conducted with caregivers affected by Hurricane Katrina approximately 12-months (T1; N = 68) and 2 years post-hurricane (T2; N = 52). Caregivers reported high levels of service needs and unmet needs for themselves and their child(ren) and family at both time points. R...

  3. Nation

    Østergaard, Uffe


    Nation er et gammelt begreb, som kommer af det latinske ord for fødsel, natio. Nationalisme bygger på forestillingen om, at mennesker har én og kun én national identitet og har ret til deres egen nationalstat. Ordet og forestillingen er kun godt 200 år gammel, og i 1900-tallet har ideologien bredt...... sig over hele verden. Nationalisme er blevet global....

  4. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.


    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  5. A new method to address unmet needs for extracting individual cell migration features from a large number of cells embedded in 3D volumes.

    Ivan Adanja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In vitro cell observation has been widely used by biologists and pharmacologists for screening molecule-induced effects on cancer cells. Computer-assisted time-lapse microscopy enables automated live cell imaging in vitro, enabling cell behavior characterization through image analysis, in particular regarding cell migration. In this context, 3D cell assays in transparent matrix gels have been developed to provide more realistic in vitro 3D environments for monitoring cell migration (fundamentally different from cell motility behavior observed in 2D, which is related to the spread of cancer and metastases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper we propose an improved automated tracking method that is designed to robustly and individually follow a large number of unlabeled cells observed under phase-contrast microscopy in 3D gels. The method automatically detects and tracks individual cells across a sequence of acquired volumes, using a template matching filtering method that in turn allows for robust detection and mean-shift tracking. The robustness of the method results from detecting and managing the cases where two cell (mean-shift trackers converge to the same point. The resulting trajectories quantify cell migration through statistical analysis of 3D trajectory descriptors. We manually validated the method and observed efficient cell detection and a low tracking error rate (6%. We also applied the method in a real biological experiment where the pro-migratory effects of hyaluronic acid (HA were analyzed on brain cancer cells. Using collagen gels with increased HA proportions, we were able to evidence a dose-response effect on cell migration abilities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The developed method enables biomedical researchers to automatically and robustly quantify the pro- or anti-migratory effects of different experimental conditions on unlabeled cell cultures in a 3D environment.

  6. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G.


    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor develop...

  7. Holographic content addressable storage

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George


    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  8. Addressing mathematics & statistics anxiety

    Kotecha, Meena


    This paper should be of interest to mathematics and statistics educators ranging from pre-university to university education sectors. It will discuss some features of the author’s teaching model developed over her longitudinal study conducted to understand and address mathematics and statistics anxiety, which is one of the main barriers to engaging with these subjects especially in non-specialist undergraduates. It will demonstrate how a range of formative assessments are used to kindle, as w...

  9. UK prescribing practices as proxy markers of unmet need in allergic rhinitis: a retrospective observational study.

    Price, David B; Scadding, Glenis; Bachert, Claus; Saleh, Hesham; Nasser, Shuaib; Carter, Victoria; von Ziegenweidt, Julie; Durieux, Alice M S; Ryan, Dermot


    Little data on UK prescribing patterns and treatment effectiveness for allergic rhinitis (AR) are available. We quantified unmet pharmacologic needs in AR by assessing AR treatment effectiveness based on the prescribing behaviour of UK general practitioners (GP) during two consecutive pollen seasons (2009 and 2010). We conducted a retrospective observational study with the data from the Optimum Patient Care Research Database. We assessed diagnoses and prescription data for patients with a recorded diagnosis of rhinitis who took rhinitis medication during the study period. We assessed the data from 25,069 patients in 2009 and 22,381 patients in 2010. Monotherapy was the initial prescription of the season for 67% of patients with seasonal AR (SAR) and 77% of patients with nonseasonal upper airways disease (NSUAD), for both years. Initial oral antihistamine (OAH) or intranasal corticosteroid (INS) monotherapy proved insufficient for >20% of SAR and >37% of NSUAD patients. Multiple therapy was the initial prescription for 33% of SAR and 23% of NSUAD in both years, rising to 45% and >50% by season end, respectively. For NSUAD, dual-therapy prescriptions doubled and triple-therapy prescriptions almost tripled during both seasons. Many patients revisited their GP regardless of initial prescription. Initial OAH or INS monotherapy provides insufficient symptom control for many AR patients. GPs often prescribe multiple therapies at the start of the season, with co-prescription becoming more common as the season progresses. However, patients prescribed multiple therapies frequently revisit their GP, presumably to adjust treatment. These data suggest the need for more effective AR treatment and management strategies. PMID:27334893

  10. Address delivered in Vilnius

    Piłsudski, Józef


    Title: Przemówienie w Wilnie 20 kwietnia 1922 roku (Address delivered in Vilnius, 20 April, 1922) Originally published: Pisma-mowy-rozkazy, vol. V, Warsaw, Instytut Józefa Piłsudskiego, 1933, pp. 255–260. Language: PolishThe excerpt used is from the original About the author Józef Piłsudski [1867, Zułów (in the district of Święciany, Lit. Zalave/Švenčionys, present-day Lithuania) – 1935, Warsaw]: politician. Piłsudski was born to a family belonging to the Polish-speaking gentry in the Lithuan...

  11. Addressing Software Security

    Bailey, Brandon


    Historically security within organizations was thought of as an IT function (web sites/servers, email, workstation patching, etc.) Threat landscape has evolved (Script Kiddies, Hackers, Advanced Persistent Threat (APT), Nation States, etc.) Attack surface has expanded -Networks interconnected!! Some security posture factors Network Layer (Routers, Firewalls, etc.) Computer Network Defense (IPS/IDS, Sensors, Continuous Monitoring, etc.) Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Software Security (COTS, FOSS, Custom, etc.)

  12. Review of ICT-Based Services for Identified Unmet Needs in People with Dementia

    Lauriks, Steve; Reinersmann, Annika; van der Roest, Henriëtte Geralde; Meiland, Franka; Davies, Richard; Moelaert, Ferial; Mulvenna, Maurice D.; Nugent, Chris D.; Dröes, Rose-Marie

    Some of the needs that people with dementia and their informal carers currently perceive as insufficiently met by regular care and support services might be alleviated, or even be met, using modern Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The study described in this chapter was designed to provide an insight into the state of the art in ICT solutions that could contribute to meet the most frequently mentioned unmet needs by people with dementia and their informal carers. These needs can be summarized as (1) the need for general and personalized information; (2) the need for support with regard to symptoms of dementia; (3) the need for social contact and company; and (4) the need for health monitoring and perceived safety. Databases that were searched include PubMed, Cinahl, Psychinfo, Google (Scholar), INSPEC and IEEE. In total 22 websites and 46 publications were included that satisfied the following criteria: the article reports on people with dementia and/or their informal carers and discusses an ICT device that has been tested within the target group and has proven to be helpful. Within the first need area 18 relevant websites and three studies were included; within the second need area 4 websites and 20 publications were included. Within the third and fourth need area 11 and 12 publications were included, respectively. Most articles reported on uncontrolled studies. It is concluded that the informational websites offer helpful information for carers but seem less attuned to the person with dementia and do not offer personalized information. ICT solutions aimed at compensating for disabilities, such as memory problems and daily activities, demonstrate that people with mild to moderate dementia are capable of handling simple electronic equipment and can benefit from it in terms of more confidence and enhanced positive affect. Instrumental ICT support for coping with behavioural and psychological changes in dementia is relatively disregarded as yet, while

  13. Challenges, coping strategies, and unmet needs of families with a child with autism spectrum disorder in Goa, India.

    Divan, Gauri; Vajaratkar, Vivek; Desai, Miraj U; Strik-Lievers, Luisa; Patel, Vikram


    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are increasingly recognized in developing countries like India. However, little is known about the experiences of parents raising a child with ASD. This study aimed to describe the experiences of families in Goa, India with a view to understanding the unmet needs of families raising a child with ASD. Twenty in-depth interviews and nine focus group discussions were carried out with families of children with ASD and key community stakeholders such as special educators, teachers, and parents of typically developing children. This qualitative data was triangulated to explore the experiences, life impact, and unmet needs of raising a child with ASD. Key findings suggest that raising a child with ASD puts a tremendous strain on families due to competing commitments, often leading to initial social withdrawal with later reintegration into social networks. Second, the impact is multidimensional, involving the personal sphere but also extending into the wider community with negative experiences of discrimination. Third, parents actively respond to these challenges through a range of approaches with help from existing and new social support networks and health care providers. Fourth, professionals from the health, education, and religious sectors have a low awareness of the unique needs of families living with ASD which leads to a considerable economic and emotional burden on families. Finally, as a consequence of these experiences, several unmet needs can be identified, notably for supporting increasingly isolated families and the limited access to multidisciplinary evidence-based services for ASD. Autism Res 2012, 5: 190-200. © 2012 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22473816

  14. Addressing Climate Crisis


    @@ A series of extreme global weather events,like floods in Pakistan and droughts in Russia,should serve as a call to the world to take action against climate change.But worries have been mounting since global climate talks stalled,partly due to rifts between developed and developing countries.What efforts should be made to force progress in the negotiating process? What role has China played in combating climate change? Su Wei,China's chief climate negotiator and Director-General of the Climate Change Department of the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),sat down with Beijing Review reporter Hu Yue to answer these questions and more.

  15. Addressing Climate Crisis


    A series of extreme global weather events,like floods in Pakistan and droughts in Russia,should serve as a call to the world to take action against climate change.But worries have been mounting since global climate talks stalled,partly due to rifts between developed and developing countries.What efforts should be made to force progress in the negotiating process?What role has China played in combating climate change?Su Wei,China’s chief climate negotiator and Director-General of the Climate Change Department of the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),sat down with Beijing Review reporter Hu Yue to answer these questions and more.Edited excerpts follow

  16. Study of family planning practices with special reference to unmet need among married women in rural area of Amravati district of Maharashtra

    VK Wasnik


    Full Text Available Background: At present various active programmes on family planning are running over the few decades but considerate number of people yet not motivated to adopt the family planning in their practical life. The study was conducted to find out the unmet need of family planning among the married woman of reproductive age in a rural area. Methods: Study design: Cross-sectional type of descriptive study. Settings: The study was conducted at Rajurwadi village under Primary Health Unit. Subjects: All the married women of reproductive age, residing in a selected village of Primary Health Unit were selected as the study subject.  Results: It was revealed from the present study that 27.7% of the respondents had unmet need for family planning. The reasons for unmet need were lack of knowledge, health concerns & Religious belief. Conclusion: Social correlates like age, religion & literacy sta­tus influenced the unmet needs of family planning. Good quality services and access to convenient methods are important to meet unmet need. 

  17. Road Map to Address Cognitive Health


    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Lynda Anderson highlights the important roles that states and communities can play in addressing cognitive health as part of overall health.  Created: 6/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/9/2014.

  18. Addressing Student Debt in the Classroom

    Perkins, David; Johnston, Tim; Lytle, Rick


    Student debt is a national concern. The authors address debt in the classroom to enhance students' understanding of the consequences of debt and the need for caution when financing their education. However, student feedback indicates this understanding has a delayed effect on borrowing behavior and underscores the importance of making difficult…

  19. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 516 - Mailing Addresses


    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing Addresses B Appendix B to Part 516 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Pt. 516, App. B Appendix B to Part 516—Mailing Addresses The following is...

  20. Is food allergen analysis flawed? Health and supply chain risks and a proposed framework to address urgent analytical needs.

    Walker, M J; Burns, D T; Elliott, C T; Gowland, M H; Mills, E N Clare


    Food allergy is an increasing problem for those affected, their families or carers, the food industry and for regulators. The food supply chain is highly vulnerable to fraud involving food allergens, risking fatalities and severe reputational damage to the food industry. Many facets are being pursued to ameliorate the difficulties including better food labelling and the concept of thresholds of elicitation of allergy symptoms as risk management tools. These efforts depend to a high degree on the ability reliably to detect and quantify food allergens; yet all current analytical approaches exhibit severe deficiencies that jeopardise accurate results being produced particularly in terms of the risks of false positive and false negative reporting. If we fail to realise the promise of current risk assessment and risk management of food allergens through lack of the ability to measure food allergens reproducibly and with traceability to an international unit of measurement, the analytical community will have failed a significant societal challenge. Three distinct but interrelated areas of analytical work are urgently needed to address the substantial gaps identified: (a) a coordinated international programme for the production of properly characterised clinically relevant reference materials and calibrants for food allergen analysis; (b) an international programme to widen the scope of proteomics and genomics bioinformatics for the genera containing the major allergens to address problems in ELISA, MS and DNA methods; (c) the initiation of a coordinated international programme leading to reference methods for allergen proteins that provide results traceable to the SI. This article describes in more detail food allergy, the risks of inapplicable or flawed allergen analyses with examples and a proposed framework, including clinically relevant incurred allergen concentrations, to address the currently unmet and urgently required analytical requirements. Support for the

  1. Observations of IPv6 Addresses

    Malone, David


    IPv6 addresses are longer than IPv4 addresses, and are so capable of greater expression. Given an IPv6 address, conventions and standards allow us to draw conclusions about how IPv6 is being used on the node with that address. We show a technique for analysing IPv6 addresses and apply it to a number of datasets. The datasets include addresses seen at a busy mirror server, at an IPv6-enabled TLD DNS server and when running traceroute across the production IPv6 network. The technique quantif...

  2. Welfare work addressing immigrants and refugees

    Øland, Trine

    integrationist visions in their quest to protect immigrants’ and refugees’ fundamental wellbeing and status as human beings with equal rights, group life and history. These opposing elements generate ambiguity and contradiction within integrationist welfare work. The ambition of the presentation is to enquire......In this presentation I will discuss the ways in which welfare workers addressing immigrants and refugees (re)produce integrationist visions, symbolizing society as an integrated whole and immigrants/refugees as a distraction to that whole. Paradoxically, welfare workers also oppose these......, nurses and more) addressing immigrants and refugees and their families and descendants in the Danish welfare nation-state....

  3. Ministerial Presentation: Philippines. Philippine National Presentation [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    generation that will result to sustainable and reasonably-priced electricity rates. We are however, confronted with the challenge that, on the average, about 60% of energy sources utilized in the power generation mix come from fossil fuels primarily oil, coal and natural gas. Moreover, the Philippines still has one of the highest power rates in Asia. That is yet another basis as to why we are seriously considering nuclear power since it provides a relatively competitive generation cost with the cheapest power source which is coal. Among power sources with high upfront costs like wind and solar, nuclear power has the cheapest generation cost. As we work to bring about access to affordable and sufficient electricity for every Filipino, we keep in mind that energy utilization must be consistent with the need for the protection and preservation of our planet's fragile ecosystems. Therefore, we are aiming to reduce the country's contribution to carbon dioxide emissions. The Philippines has taken proactive action by laying the groundwork to shift to a renewable energy system. As a signatory to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and the subsequent Kyoto Protocol, we are fully committed to doing our part in addressing global warming even though we are not legally bound to impose a national limitation on emissions. In our efforts to ensure that the use of energy must not damage our environment, we have to deal with the fact that renewable energy development is still costly. As such, nuclear power presents an appealing energy option since the complete nuclear power chain emits the least carbon which is about the same as wind and hydropower. For a developing and non oil-producing country like the Philippines, these are the merits we see in utilizing nuclear energy in power generation. We have already undertaken a nuclear power program in the past. Political circumstances then resulted to the mothballing of the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant, our lone nuclear power plant which

  4. Quality of Life and Unmet Need in People with Psychosis in the London Borough of Haringey, UK

    Maria Lambri


    Full Text Available Objectives. Deinstitutionalization of long-term psychiatric patients produced various community-based residential care facilities. However, inner-city areas have many patients with severe mental illness (SMI as well as deprivation, unemployment, and crime. This makes meeting their community needs complex. We undertook a needs assessment of service provision and consonance between service users’ evaluation of need and by care workers. Design. Cross-sectional study with random sample of SMI service users in four housing settings: rehabilitation units; high-supported; medium-supported; low-supported housing. Setting. London Borough of Haringey. Outcome Measures. 110 SMI service users and 110 keyworkers were interviewed, using Camberwell Assessment of Need; SF-36; Lancashire Quality-of-Life profile; demographic and clinical information. Results. People in “low-support” and “high-support” housing had similar symptom scores, though low support had significantly lower quality of life. Quality of life was positively predicted by self-reported mental-health score and negatively predicted by unmet-need score in whole sample and in medium-support residents. Residents’ and care-workers’ assessments of need differed considerably. Conclusions. Although patients’ housing needs were broadly met, those in low-supported housing fared least well. Attendance to self-reported mental health and unmet social needs to quality of life underpins planning of residential services for those with SMI. Social and personal needs of people in supported housing may be underestimated and overlooked; service providers need to prioritise these if concept of “recovery” is to advance.

  5. Integrating unmet needs into dementia health-related quality of life research and care: Introduction of the Hierarchy Model of Needs in Dementia.

    Schölzel-Dorenbos, C.J.M.; Meeuwsen, E.J.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.


    OBJECTIVES: To make an inventory of needs assessment instruments in dementia, to explore the interaction between unmet needs and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and to relate these to the conceptual model of Maslow's Hierarchy of needs in order to design a dementia-specific model. METHODS: Na

  6. Gender, Race-Ethnicity, and Psychosocial Barriers to Mental Health Care: An Examination of Perceptions and Attitudes among Adults Reporting Unmet Need

    Ojeda, Victoria D.; Bergstresser, Sara M.


    Though researchers have described psychosocial barriers to mental health care-seeking, limited research has examined ways in which gender and race-ethnicity are associated with individuals' perceptions and attitudes. This study investigates correlates of psychosocial barriers to mental health care in a population of adults reporting unmet need for…

  7. On the 40th Anniversary of the Restoration of the Lawful Seat of the People's Republic of China in the United Nations Keynote Address at the Fourth Lanting Forum

    Wu Hailong


    Excellencies,Scholars and experts,Friends from the business commnmunity and the press,Ladies and gentlemen,The theme of this Lanting Forum is China and the United Nations (UN).This is of special significance,because this year marks the 40th anniversary of the restoration of the lawful seat of the People's Republic of China in the UN.

  8. Addressing the UN Millennium Development Goals

    David Ojcius


    Full Text Available The United Nations Summit on the Millennium Development Goals concluded on 22 September 2010 with the adoption of a global action plan to achieve the eight anti-poverty goals by their 2015 target date and the announcement of major new commitments for women's and children's health and other initiatives against poverty, hunger and disease. FACTS Reports is determined to play an important role in communicating about specific field actions that address one or more of the Millenium Development Goa...

  9. Addressing the UN Millennium Development Goals

    David Ojcius; Jan Wallander


    The United Nations Summit on the Millennium Development Goals concluded on 22 September 2010 with the adoption of a global action plan to achieve the eight anti-poverty goals by their 2015 target date and the announcement of major new commitments for women's and children's health and other initiatives against poverty, hunger and disease. FACTS Reports is determined to play an important role in communicating about specific field actions that address one or more of the Millenium Development Goa...

  10. Forest Policies Addressing Climate Change in China


    As a developing country with a large population and a fragile ecological environment, China is particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. Beginning with the Rio Conference of 1992 China has played a progressively enhanced role in combating climate change. A series of policies and measures to address climate change have been taken in the overall context of national sustainable development strategy, making positive contributions to the mitigation and adaptation to climate change, among ...

  11. Partnerships as panacea for addressing global problems?

    Kolk, Ans


    textabstractThis chapter examines partnerships and their peculiarities, based on recent research from various disciplines, in the context of the large problems faced by (global) society. These problems are very complex, often cross national boundaries, and cannot easily be 'solved' by one single actor. Previous 'unilateral' attempts to address them have not been particularly successful, and there are limits to what a single actor can do. Cooperation also enables different actors to leverage t...

  12. Managing Psychological Stress in the MS Medical Visit: Patient Perspectives and Unmet Needs

    Senders, Angela; Sando, Kelsi; Wahbeh, Helané; Peterson, Amie; Shinto, Lynne


    Psychological stress can negatively impact multiple sclerosis (MS). To further understand how stress is addressed in the MS medical visit, 34 people with MS participated in focus groups. Transcripts were analyzed by inductive thematic analysis. The majority of participants did not discuss stress with their provider, citing barriers to communication such as lack of time, poor coordination between specialties, physician reliance on pharmaceutical prescription, and patient lack of self-advocacy. Participants recommended several ways to better manage psychological wellbeing in the clinical setting. These findings provide a foundation for future studies aimed at minimizing the detrimental effect of stress in MS. PMID:25527612

  13. Port virtual addressing for PC

    Instruments for nuclear signal measurements based on add-on card for a personal computer (PC) are designed often. Then one faces the problem of the addressing of data input/output devices which show an integration level or intelligence that makes the use of several port address indispensable, and these are limited in the PC. The virtual addressing offers the advantage of the occupation of few addresses to accede to many of these devices. The principles of this technique and the appliances of a solution in radiometric in a radiometric card based on programmed logic are discussed in this paper

  14. Reclaiming unused IPv4 addresses

    IT Department


    As many people might know, the number of IPv4 addresses is limited and almost all have been allocated (see here and here for more information).   Although CERN has been allocated some 340,000 addresses, the way these are allocated across the site is not as efficient as we would like. As we face an increasing demand for IPv4 addresses with the growth in virtual machines, the IT Department’s Communication Systems Group will be reorganising address allocation during 2016 to make more efficient use of the IPv4 address ranges that have been allocated to CERN. We aim, wherever possible, to avoid giving out fixed IP addresses, and have all devices connected to the campus network obtain an address dynamically each time they connect. As a first stage, starting in February, IP addresses that have not been used for more than 9 months will be reclaimed. No information about the devices concerned will be deleted from LANDB, but a new IP address will have to be requested if they are ever reconnected to t...

  15. An address by AECL's president

    This complete address given by Reid Morden, the President of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, at the June 1997 meeting of the Canadian Nuclear Association. In his address, Morden discusses Canada's success in at home and abroad. He also corrects myths about nuclear energy

  16. From Unmet Clinical Need to Entrepreneurship: Taking Your Informatics Solution to Market

    Bowles, Kathryn H.; Heil, Eric


    This paper will describe the process for taking a decision support solution to market as a start-up business. The nurse inventor and Co-Founder of RightCare Solutions, Inc. will share the steps from answering a clinical question, to registering an invention, creating a business plan and company, obtaining venture funding, and launching a commercial product. We will share positives about the experience such as how to get start-up funds, gaining national exposure and access to an excellent team...

  17. Causes of childhood visual impairment and unmet low-vision care in blind school students in Ghana.

    Ntim-Amponsah, C T; Amoaku, W M K


    The purpose of this study was to determine the causes of childhood visual impairment and blindness in students of a school for blind children, to determine how many students had some residual vision, and to evaluate any unmet low-vision care. A survey of students in the blind school was conducted in two parts in May-June and then October 2003. The sample consisted of 201 students who became blind before the age of 16. Information was obtained from student interviews, doctors' referral notes and ophthalmic examination of all students who consented. Students with residual vision had low-vision assessments. These investigations were supplemented with active participation of the investigators in Parent-Teacher Association meetings and focus group discussions with parents. One hundred and ninety-nine students consented and were recruited, whereas two declined. Ninety-six became visually impaired within their first year of life and 33 by the age of 5 years. Pathology of the cornea and then the lens were the commonest causes of blindness. One hundred and eight students were totally blind, whereas 87 (43.7%) had some residual vision and formed the target for the second part of the study. Fifty-one out of 77 of this target group who turned up for low-vision examination had useful residual vision by the World Health Organisation (WHO) low-vision examination chart. Spectacle magnifiers aided two students to read normal print at N5 and N8, respectively. Different visual aids would help enhance the residual vision in some of the others. Emotional trauma was apparent in parents and teachers. Children who became blind later in life remained in shock for a longer time and adapted less well to their visual impairment. Visual impairment in the population is not uncommon. Some causes are preventable. There is a significant unmet need for low-vision care, particularly amongst children in Ghana, and perhaps many countries in the West Africa subregion. It is hoped that the findings from

  18. International policies to address the greenhouse effect. An evaluation of international mechanisms to encourage developing country participation in global greenhouse gas control strategies, especially through the formulation of national programmes

    The political feasibility of strategies for North-South cooperation on climate change within individual countries is analyzed. The conditions under which developing countries would be willing to take action to address climate change and industrialised countries would be willing to support these actions are discussed. Unfortunately, the study indicates that at present there is very limited common ground between developing and industrialised countries. Perceptions of actors and interest groups within seven countries (USA, Germany, UK, India, Indonesia, Brazil and Kenya) on climate change and international climate change policies (instruments and mechanisms) are compared, applying regime theory, and building upon a qualitative content analysis of interviews and documents, and on interviews with experts. The study concludes that developing countries distrust the position of industrialised countries, that is bases upon clearly distinguishing global from local problems and causes of climate change, climate, environmental, economic, and social problems in developing countries. In emphasising distinctions, that in the view of developing countries are incorrect, misleading and detrimental, industrialised countries increase the political costs of North-South cooperation. A more practical approach is recommended, based upon a 'four wheel drive strategy' in which capacity building, Joint Implementation, 'traditional' development cooperation, and strategies to actualize 'dormant' interest groups can all play a role. The additional costs of such a strategy should be balanced against the additional benefits in terms of a relative decline in costs of global change policies. 352 refs

  19. Caring for the brain tumor patient: Family caregiver burden and unmet needs

    Schubart, Jane R.; Kinzie, Mable B.; Farace, Elana


    The rapid onset and progression of a brain tumor, cognitive and behavioral changes, and uncertainty surrounding prognosis are issues well known to health practitioners in neuro-oncology. We studied the specific challenges that family caregivers face when caring for patients experiencing the significant neurocognitive and neurobehavioral disorders associated with brain tumors. We selected 25 family caregivers of adult brain tumor patients to represent the brain tumor illness trajectory (crisis, chronic, and terminal phases). Interviews documented caregiving tasks and decision-making and information and support needs. Themes were permitted to emerge from the data in qualitative analysis. We found that the family caregivers in this study provided extraordinary uncompensated care involving significant amounts of time and energy for months or years and requiring the performance of tasks that were often physically, emotionally, socially, or financially demanding. They were constantly challenged to solve problems and make decisions as care needs changed, yet they felt untrained and unprepared as they struggled to adjust to new roles and responsibilities. Because the focus was on the patient, their own needs were neglected. Because caregiver information needs are emergent, they are not always known at the time of a clinic visit. Physicians are frequently unable to address caregiver questions, a situation compounded by time constraints and cultural barriers. We provide specific recommendations for (1) improving the delivery of information; (2) enhancing communication among patients, families, and health care providers; and (3) providing psychosocial support for family caregivers. PMID:17993635

  20. Prostate cancer and supportive care: a systematic review and qualitative synthesis of men's experiences and unmet needs.

    King, A J L; Evans, M; Moore, T H M; Paterson, C; Sharp, D; Persad, R; Huntley, A L


    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide, accounting for an estimated 1.1 million new cases diagnosed in 2012 ( Currently, there is a lack of specific guidance on supportive care for men with prostate cancer. This article describes a qualitative systematic review and synthesis examining men's experience of and need for supportive care. Seven databases were searched; 20 journal articles were identified and critically appraised. A thematic synthesis was conducted in which descriptive themes were drawn out of the data. These were peer support, support from partner, online support, cancer specialist nurse support, self-care, communication with health professionals, unmet needs (emotional support, information needs, support for treatment-induced side effects of incontinence and erectile dysfunction) and men's suggestions for improved delivery of supportive care. This was followed by the development of overarching analytic themes which were: uncertainty, reframing, and the timing of receiving treatment, information and support. Our results show that the most valued form of support men experienced following diagnosis was one-to-one peer support and support from partners. This review highlights the need for improved access to cancer specialist nurses throughout the care pathway, individually tailored supportive care and psychosexual support for treatment side effects. PMID:25630851

  1. Exploring the Unmet Needs of the Patients in the Outpatient Respiratory Medical Clinic: Patients versus Clinicians Perspectives

    Lone Birgitte Skov Jensen


    Full Text Available Aim. Developing a theoretical framework explaining patients’ behaviour and actions related to unmet needs during interactions with health care professionals in hospital-based outpatient respiratory medical clinics. Background. The outpatient respiratory medical clinic plays a prominent role in many patients’ lives regarding treatment and counselling increasing the need for a better understanding of patients’ perspective to the counselling of the health care professionals. Design. The study is exploratory and based on Charmaz’s interpretation of grounded theory. Methods. The study included 65 field observations with a sample of 43 patients, 11 doctors, and 11 nurses, as well as 30 interviews with patients, conducted through theoretical sampling from three outpatient respiratory medical clinics in Denmark. Findings. The patients’ efforts to share their significant stories triggered predominantly an adaptation or resistance behaviour, conceptualized as “fitting in” and “fighting back” behaviour, explaining the patients’ counterreactions to unrecognized needs during the medical encounter. Conclusion. Firstly this study allows for a better understanding of patients’ counterreactions in the time-pressured and, simultaneously, tight structured guidance program in the outpatient clinic. Secondly the study offers practical and ethical implications as to how health care professionals’ attitudes towards patients can increase their ability to support emotional suffering and increase patient participation and responsiveness to guidance in the lifestyle changes.

  2. Epilepsy therapy: anticonvulsants, lessons learned and unmet medical needs. Interview by Rona Williamson.

    Klitgaard, Henrik


    Henrik Klitgaard, PhD, is currently Vice-President, UCB Fellow, Neurosciences Therapeutic Area and is based in Braine-l'Alleud, Belgium. He received a PhD in Human Physiology in 1989 at the August Krogh Institute at the University of Copenhagen (Denmark). During his university career, Klitgaard worked at the Pasteur Institute in Paris (France) and at Harvard University (MA, USA). Klitgaard is a leading figure in the epilepsy research community, thanks to more than 80 peer-reviewed papers and 15 reviews and book chapters, as well as frequent lectures at top neuroscience and epilepsy science meetings. His memberships and accolades include a position on the US National Institute of Health's epilepsy advisory committee, membership of the Neurobiology Committees of both the International League Against Epilepsy and American Epilepsy Society and a seat on the Scientific Advisory Committee of the patient organization C.U.R.E. (Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy). For more than two decades, Klitgaard has conducted antiepileptic drug discovery in the pharmaceutical industry. He has contributed numerous publications on basic and applied aspects of epilepsy research and has frequently been an invited speaker at epilepsy congresses and meetings. During his career in the pharmaceutical industry, Klitgaard has been involved in the discovery and development of antiepileptic drugs at both Novo Nordisk A/S and UCB Pharma. He is also currently involved in the development of two clinical and several preclinical AED candidates. PMID:23253386

  3. Stigma, explanatory models and unmet needs of caregivers of children with developmental disorders in a low-income African country: a cross-sectional facility-based survey

    Tilahun, Dejene; Hanlon, Charlotte; Fekadu, Abebaw; Tekola, Bethlehem; Baheretibeb, Yonas; Hoekstra, Rosa Anna


    Background Understanding the perspectives of caregivers of children with developmental disorders living in low-income countries is important to inform intervention programmes. The purpose of this study was to examine the stigma experiences, explanatory models, unmet needs, preferred interventions and coping mechanisms of caregivers of children with developmental disorders in Ethiopia. Methods Participants comprised caregivers (n = 102) of children with developmental disorders attending two ch...

  4. Unmet Needs Associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Eight European Countries as Reported by Caregivers and Adolescents: Results from Qualitative Research

    Sikirica, Vanja; Flood, Emuella; Dietrich, C. Noelle; Quintero, Javier; Harpin, Val; Hodgkins, Paul; Skrodzki, Klaus; Beusterien, Kathleen; Erder, M. Haim


    Introduction Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity, the levels of which are inappropriately high for an individual’s developmental age. Objective The objective of this study was to explore the unmet needs of children/adolescents with ADHD and their caregivers in eight European countries. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 38 caregivers of children/adolescents (aged 6–17 years) with ADHD a...

  5. Study of family planning practices with special reference to unmet need among married women in rural area of Amravati district of Maharashtra

    VK Wasnik; AK Jawarkar; DM Dhumale


    Background: At present various active programmes on family planning are running over the few decades but considerate number of people yet not motivated to adopt the family planning in their practical life. The study was conducted to find out the unmet need of family planning among the married woman of reproductive age in a rural area. Methods: Study design: Cross-sectional type of descriptive study. Settings: The study was conducted at Rajurwadi village under Primary Health Unit. Subjects: Al...

  6. Identifying the unmet health needs of patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism using a web-based needs assessment: implications for online interventions and peer-to-peer support

    Dwyer, Andrew A; Quinton, Richard; Morin, Diane; Pitteloud, Nelly


    Background Patients with rare diseases such as congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) are dispersed, often challenged to find specialized care and face other health disparities. The internet has the potential to reach a wide audience of rare disease patients and can help connect patients and specialists. Therefore, this study aimed to: (i) determine if web-based platforms could be effectively used to conduct an online needs assessment of dispersed CHH patients; (ii) identify the unmet...

  7. Opening Address [Technical Meeting/Workshop on Topical Issues on Infrastructure Development: Managing the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power Plants, Vienna (Austria), 24-27 January 2012

    after the accident. The IAEA has taken a series of actions in response to the Fukushima accident, including the activation of the IAEA Incident and Emergency Centre immediately after the accident and sending several IAEA International Fact Finding Expert Missions to Japan. Currently, the IAEA is working hard to implement the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, which was agreed at the Board of Governors last September. This Action Plan and its implementation will be explained later by my colleagues; I would like to point out that the development of the infrastructrure necessary for Member States embarking on nuclear power programme is one of the 12 areas covered in that action plan. I would like to stress that there is progress in Member States for the introduction of nuclear power. I had several opportunities in bilateral meetings to experience the commitment of senior officials in embarking countries. During the last two months, I visited two newcomer countries - Malaysia and UAE, and got first-hand information about their potential for a national nuclear program. During the side events of the last IAEA General Conference, senior officials from UAE, Turkey and Vietnam clearly expressed their commitments to nuclear power programmes with steady progress in the cooperation with vendor countries. I am impressed that these countries are working closely with vendor countries in developing the required physical infrastructure and human resources. Quite recently, I was informed that Belarus and Bangladesh had intergovernmental agreements with Russia to introduce nuclear power in their countries. So nuclear power remains an important option for energy supply. However, it is a fact that the public is concerned about nuclear safety, and several countries have experienced difficulties in national decisions to introduce nuclear power programmes. Although the situation differs among the countries, I hope that participants can learn good practices for public communication from the

  8. A Life’s Addresses

    Balle, Søren Hattesen


    number of different aspects of Koch’s own life such as marijuana, the Italian language, World War Two, etc. In this way, the book quite conventionally inscribes itself in the tradition of post-enlightenment apostrophic poetry as characterized by Culler, just as all its poems belong to the favourite......, are literally troped as and addressed in the manner of so many acquaintances, personal connections, relatives, friends, lovers, and family members in Koch’s life. My main claim is that Koch’s poetics in New Addresses is one that slightly dislocates the romantic dichotomy between the world of things...

  9. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    Massa, Mark S.


    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  10. Agenda to address climate change

    This document looks at addressing climate change in the 21st century. Topics covered are: Responding to climate change; exploring new avenues in energy efficiency; energy efficiency and alternative energy; residential sector; commercial sector; industrial sector; transportation sector; communities; renewable energy; understanding forests to mitigate and adapt to climate change; the Forest Carbon budget; mitigation and adaptation

  11. Introduction to IP address management

    Rooney, Tim


    "The book begins with a basic overview of IP networking, followed by chapters describing each of the three core IPAM technologies: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, DHCP, and DNS. The next three chapters describe IPAM management techniques and practice, followed by chapters on IPv4-IPv6 co-existence, security and the IPAM business case"--

  12. Communities Address Barriers to Connectivity.

    Byers, Anne


    Rural areas lag behind urban areas in access to information technologies. Public institutions play a critical role in extending the benefits of information technologies to those who would not otherwise have access. The most successful rural telecommunications plans address barriers to use, such as unawareness of the benefits, technophobia, the…

  13. Improved Secure Address Resolution Protocol

    Abhishek Samvedi; Sparsh Owlak; Vijay Kumar Chaurasia


    In this paper, an improved secure address resolution protocol is presented where ARP spoofing attack is prevented. The proposed methodology is a centralised methodology for preventing ARP spoofing attack. In the proposed model there is a central server on a network or subnet which prevents ARP spoofing attack.

  14. Rural-Urban Inequity in Unmet Obstetric Needs and Functionality of Emergency Obstetric Care Services in a Zambian District.

    Selia Ng'anjo Phiri

    Full Text Available Zambia has a high maternal mortality ratio, 398/100,000 live births. Few pregnant women access emergency obstetric care services to handle complications at childbirth. We aimed to assess the deficit in life-saving obstetric services in the rural and urban areas of Kapiri Mposhi district.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 as part of the 'Response to Accountable priority setting for Trust in health systems' (REACT project. Data on all childbirths that occurred in emergency obstetric care facilities in 2010 were obtained retrospectively. Sources of information included registers from maternity ward admission, delivery and operation theatre, and case records. Data included age, parity, mode of delivery, obstetric complications, and outcome of mother and the newborn. An approach using estimated major obstetric interventions expected but not done in health facilities was used to assess deficit of life-saving interventions in urban and rural areas.A total of 2114 urban and 1226 rural childbirths occurring in emergency obstetric care facilities (excluding abortions were analysed. Facility childbirth constituted 81% of expected births in urban and 16% in rural areas. Based on the reference estimate that 1.4% of childbearing women were expected to need major obstetric intervention, unmet obstetric need was 77 of 106 women, thus 73% (95% CI 71-75% in rural areas whereas urban areas had no deficit. Major obstetric interventions for absolute maternal indications were higher in urban 2.1% (95% CI 1.60-2.71% than in rural areas 0.4% (95% CI 0.27-0.55%, with an urban to rural rate ratio of 5.5 (95% CI 3.55-8.76.Women in rural areas had deficient obstetric care. The likelihood of under-going a life-saving intervention was 5.5 times higher for women in urban than rural areas. Targeting rural women with life-saving services could substantially reduce this inequity and preventable deaths.

  15. 46 CFR 67.321 - Requirement to report change of address of managing owner.


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement to report change of address of managing... report change of address of managing owner. Upon the change of address of the managing owner of a documented vessel, the managing owner shall report the change of address to the National Vessel...

  16. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)


    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  17. Caregivers for people with end-stage lung disease: Characteristics and unmet needs in the whole population

    David C Currow


    Full Text Available David C Currow1, Alicia Ward2, Katie Clark3, Catherine M Burns4, Amy P Abernethy1,51Department of Palliative and Supportive Services, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia; 2Concord Repatriation General Hospital Palliative Care Department, Concord, Sydney, Australia; 3Notre Dame University, Darlinghurst, Sydney, Australia; 4Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Centre, Durham, North Carolina, USA; 5Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Centre, Durham, North Carolina, USAIntroduction: End-stage lung disease (ESLD (predominantly caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and restrictive lung disease is a significant cause of death. Little is known about community care for people with ESLD especially in the period leading to death. This paper describes demographic characteristics of caregivers, and key characteristics of the deceased irrespective of specialist service utilization.Methods: The South Australian Health Omnibus is an annual, random, face-to-face, cross-sectional survey conducted statewide. For the last eight years questions about end of life have been asked of 3000 respondents annually (participation rate 77.9%. Directly standardized to the whole population, this study describes people who cared for someone with ESLD until death.Results: One third (6370/18267 had someone die in the last five years from a terminal illness, 644 from ESLD (3.5% of respondents; 10.2% of deaths. One in five (20.8% provided physical care: 43 respondents provided day-to-day and 63 provided intermittent hands-on care for an average of 40.1 months (SD 56.9. Caregivers were on average 51.2 years old (range 17–85; SD 16.5 and one in five was a spouse. Additional support to provide physical care was an unmet need by 17% of caregivers. The deceased were an average of 73.9 years old (range 47–92; SD 10.4. Only 31.1% were assessed as ‘comfortable’ or ‘very comfortable

  18. Addressing concrete cracking in NPPs

    The phenomenon of concrete cracking is one of the most frequently encountered deterioration at NPPs as it has been shown by a wide Survey of NPPs performed by IAEA in 1994-95 It can be due to a multitude of causes such as the normal ageing process (shrinkage, creep, prestressing force loss) as well as exposure to the environment (temperature variation, moisture, freeze/thaw, etc) The above mentioned Survey has also shown that in 64% of cases, no action was taken or required. It became also obvious that there is a lack of guidance as when remedial actions are needed. The paper describes, with the help of a Flow Chart, the various stages to be considered, from the first step of identification of cracks, to the definition of causes, evaluation of extent of damage, evaluation of effect/implications (safety, reliability), to the final step of deciding if repair action is required. Finally, based upon a wide literature survey the paper proposes in a Chart format, Criteria for addressing concrete cracks in NPPs., when taking in considerations all these factors. This paper discusses the process which should lead to the selection of an effective repair method and proposes, based upon worldwide standards and literature, criteria which should lead to the decision whether to repair or not concrete cracks, after the cracks have been identified and evaluated, addressing the entire range of aspects involved. (author)

  19. Burden and Unmet Needs of Caregivers of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients: A Systematic Review of the Volume and Focus of Research Output.

    Mansfield, Elise; Bryant, Jamie; Regan, Timothy; Waller, Amy; Boyes, Allison; Sanson-Fisher, Rob


    Caregivers of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience significant burden. To develop effective interventions to support this vulnerable group, it is necessary to understand how this burden varies as a function of patient well-being and across the illness trajectory. This systematic review aimed to identify the number and type of data-based publications exploring the burden and unmet needs of caregivers of individuals with COPD. Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases were searched for studies published between January 2000 and February 2014. Studies were eligible if they were quantitative studies examining unmet needs of, or burden on, adult caregivers of individuals with COPD. Eligible papers were categorised according to (i) type (i.e. descriptive, measurement and intervention studies); (ii) whether they measured associations between patient and caregiver burden and (iii) whether they measured caregiver burden longitudinally. Twenty-seven data-based papers met criteria for inclusion. There was a significant increase in the total number of publications over time. The majority of publications were descriptive studies (n = 25), with one measurement and one intervention study identified. Fourteen descriptive studies measured the relationship between patient or caregiver factors and caregiver burden. Only two studies measured caregiver burden over time. There are a number of gaps in the body of research examining burden and unmet needs of caregivers of individuals with COPD that preclude the development of effective interventions for this population. Greater research effort should be directed towards identifying rigorous measurement tools which more accurately characterise caregiver burden, so that evidence-based interventions can be developed. PMID:26979431

  20. The KAP-gap in Nepal: reasons for non-use of contraception among couples with an unmet need for family planning.

    Shrestha, A; Stoeckel, J; Tuladhar, J M


    This report summarizes the findings of a study designed to identify the reasons for non-use of family planning among Nepalese women who want to space or limit childbirth. The study's initial phase involved focus group sessions of women with unmet need for family planning who were asked their reasons for non-use. Researchers used this information to develop an in-depth questionnaire. Researchers then randomly selected a total sample of 5,152 women. After interviewing the women, researchers concluded that 31.6% the sample had unmet need for family planning. Consequently, researchers administered the questionnaire to the unmet demand population, which was almost equally divided among women who want to either spacing or limit childbirth. The study analyzes both reasons for the general non-use of contraception and reasons for the non-use of specific contraceptive methods (oral contraceptives, laparoscopy, and vasectomy). Although varying among the different contraceptive methods, the most commonly cited reasons were: 1) causes headache, weakness, nausea; 2) causes weight loss; 3) causes heavy bleeding; 4) insufficient money for nutritious foods; 5) causes weakness and cannot work; 6) currently in poor health; 7) husband disapproves; and 8) affects breastfeeding and dries breast-milk. Explaining the benefits of the study, the report indicates that the information can be incorporated into the training curriculum of health workers, and can be used to target information, education, and communication campaigns. Furthermore, evident in the responses that cite lack of nutritious foods and weakness, the study reveals that nutrition and food supplement programs could help increase contraceptive use. PMID:12343262

  1. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric


    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  2. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    Snir, Marc [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Wisniewski, Robert [Intel Corporation; Abraham, Jacob [unknown; Adve, Sarita [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Bagchi, Saurabh [Purdue University; Balaji, Pavan [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Belak, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Bose, Pradip [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center; Cappello, Franck [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Carlson, Bill [unknown; Chien, Andrew [University of Chicago; Coteus, Paul [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center; DeBardeleben, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Diniz, Pedro [University of Southern California; Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Erez, Mattan [University of Texas at Austin; Fazzari, Saverio [Booz Allen Hamilton; Geist, Al [ORNL; Gupta, Rinku [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Johnson, Fred [Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), Oak Ridge, TN; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Leyffer, Sven [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Liberty, Dean [AMD; Mitra, Subhasish [Stanford University; Munson, Todd [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Schreiber, Rob [HP Labs; Stearley, Jon [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Van Hensbergen, Eric [ARM


    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  3. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A


    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  4. Building Footprints - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Structures/Addresses Framework is a statewide spatial database of structure and address points in the State of Montana. The Montana Structures/Addresses...

  5. Supportive care needs among Indigenous cancer patients in Queensland, Australia: less comorbidity is associated with greater practical and cultural unmet need.

    Diaz, A; Bernardes, C M; Garvey, G; Valery, P C


    Little is known about the supportive care needs (SCN) of Australian Indigenous cancer patients. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between comorbidity and SCN among newly diagnosed Indigenous cancer patients in Queensland. Comorbidity was ascertained from medical chart review using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and SCN were measured using the Supportive Care Needs Assessment Tool for Indigenous Peoples (SCNAT-IP). Of 183 participants, 76 (42%) had no comorbidity (CCI = 0), 60 (33%) had had a CCI score of 1 and 47 (26%) had a CCI of two or more, with the most common condition being diabetes (30%). The most common moderate-high unmet need items varied between comorbidity groups, although all patients most frequently reported moderate-high unmet need in the Physical and Psychological and the Practical and Cultural needs domains. Patients with the greatest comorbidity (CCI ≥ 2) had significantly more reduced odds of practical and cultural needs than patients without comorbidity (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.11-0.75). This appeared to be partially explained by time since diagnosis, age, whether they were receiving current treatment and residential remoteness. Patients' experience of chronic disease, hospitals and the healthcare system may better prepare them for the practical and cultural aspects of their cancer journey. PMID:26918689

  6. Prediction of Unmet Primary Care Needs for the Medically Vulnerable Post-Disaster: An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis of Health System Responses

    Amy B. Martin


    Full Text Available Disasters serve as shocks and precipitate unanticipated disturbances to the health care system. Public health surveillance is generally focused on monitoring latent health and environmental exposure effects, rather than health system performance in response to these local shocks. The following intervention study sought to determine the long-term effects of the 2005 chlorine spill in Graniteville, South Carolina on primary care access for vulnerable populations. We used an interrupted time-series approach to model monthly visits for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions, an indicator of unmet primary care need, to quantify the impact of the disaster on unmet primary care need in Medicaid beneficiaries. The results showed Medicaid beneficiaries in the directly impacted service area experienced improved access to primary care in the 24 months post-disaster. We provide evidence that a health system serving the medically underserved can prove resilient and display improved adaptive capacity under adverse circumstances (i.e., technological disasters to ensure access to primary care for vulnerable sub-groups. The results suggests a new application for ambulatory care sensitive conditions as a population-based metric to advance anecdotal evidence of secondary surge and evaluate pre- and post-health system surge capacity following a disaster.

  7. Quality of life, unmet needs, and iatrogenic injuries in rehabilitation of patients with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome hypermobility type/Joint Hypermobility Syndrome.

    Bovet, Claire; Carlson, Matthew; Taylor, Matthew


    Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, hypermobility type (EDS-HT) and the joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) are connective tissue disorders that form an overlapping clinical syndrome and are associated with frequent medical visits and substantial morbidity. EDS-HT/JHS-associated pain correlates with poor quality of life. While physical therapy is the recommended treatment for EDS-HT/JHS, little is known about therapy-related patient experiences and iatrogenic injuries. We studied 38 adult EDS-HT/JHS patients, eliciting health-related quality of life (HRQoL) from 28 patients through the RAND SF-36 questionnaire. We also explored physical therapy experiences through focus groups with 13 patients. Our patients displayed poor HRQoL, with 71% reporting worse health over the past year. SF-36 scores were significantly lower than the scores of the average American population (P < 0.001 for 8 of 10 categories assessed), but were comparable to EDS-HT/JHS populations in Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Italy. Focus groups identified factors associated with: negative past physical therapy experiences, iatrogenic joint injuries, positive treatment experiences, and unmet rehabilitation needs. This group of EDS-HT/JHS patients has significant decrements in HRQoL and many unmet treatment needs, as well as a risk for iatrogenic injuries. We identify several approaches to help meet patients' needs and improve joint rehabilitation in patients with EDS-HT/JHS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27273746

  8. Gender: addressing a critical focus.

    Thornton, L; Wegner, M N


    The definition of gender was addressed at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, China). After extensive debate, the definition developed by the UN Population Fund in 1995 was adopted: "a set of qualities and behaviors expected from a female or male by society." The sustainability of family planning (FP) programs depends on acknowledgment of the role gender plays in contraceptive decision-making and use. For example, programs must consider the fact that women in many cultures do not make FP decisions without the consent of their spouse. AVSC is examining providers' gender-based ideas about clients and the effects of these views on the quality of reproductive health services. Questions such as how service providers can encourage joint responsibility for contraception without requiring spousal consent or how they can make men feel comfortable about using a male method in a society where FP is considered a woman's issue are being discussed. Also relevant is how service providers can discuss sexual matters openly with female clients in cultures that do not allow women to enjoy their sexuality. Another concern is the potential for physical violence to a client as a result of the provision of FP services. PMID:12294397

  9. Addressing verification challenges [International safeguards symposium on addressing verification challenges

    In his welcome address the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Mr. M. ElBaradei, stated that safeguards activities are probably the most difficult task entrusted to an international organization and to determine all the details of a country's nuclear programme is a daunting challenge that raises a number of questions. There is an increase in nuclear power around the globe as a result of shortages of energy and concerns about energy independence and climate change. On the one hand, this is good, because without energy there is no hope for development on the other hand, however, it means that nuclear know-how and nuclear technology will continue to spread to more and more countries. There is also an increase in the number of countries interested in developing nuclear fuel cycle capabilities: sensitive fuel cycle activities, reprocessing and above all uranium enrichment. It even seems that some countries might be hedging their bets in order to have the know-how should they need to develop their own deterrence. Verifying enrichment or reprocessing facilities is quite difficult, and the so-called conversion time is extremely short. Thus, the IAEA is dealing with what is called 'virtual nuclear weapon States'. The IAEA has been talking for a number of years about the need to develop a new international or multinational approach to the fuel cycle in order to avoid a situation with nine nuclear weapon States and another 20 or 30 States having the capacity to develop nuclear weapons in a very short period of time. There is a need to remember that there is a linkage between nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. Furthermore safeguards activities, though fundamentally technical in nature, are carried out in a political charged environment. The security dimension - that is, nuclear terrorism - also presents a new challenge, because State systems of accounting for and control of nuclear material are no longer simply tools for safeguards, but

  10. Actions States and Communities Can Take to Address Cognitive Health


    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Lynda Anderson highlights the important roles that states and communities can play in addressing cognitive health as part of overall health.  Created: 6/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/9/2014.

  11. Addressing Patient Sexual Orientation in the Undergraduate Medical Education Curriculum

    Tamas, Rebecca L.; Miller, Karen Hughes; Martin, Leslee J.; Greenberg, Ruth B.


    Objective: This study aims to estimate the number of hours dedicated to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender content in one medical school's undergraduate curriculum, compare it to the national average, and identify barriers to addressing this content. Methods: Course and clerkship directors were asked to estimate how many hours they spent on…

  12. Addressing concerns and achieving expectations

    Miller, C.L. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)


    Approximately 2-1/2 years ago many of us were gathered here in Prague at a similar conference with a similar name, {open_quotes}Energy and Environment: Transitions in Eastern Europe.{close_quotes} Over 300 professionals from 26 nations attended. The objective of the conference was to: Facilitate the Solution of Long and Short Term Energy and Environmental Problems in Eastern Europe by Bringing Together People, ideas and technologies which could be applied to specific problems in a logical step-by-step manner. It was conceded at the time that the long term solution would consist of thoughtfully integrated steps and that the conference was the first step. We are here in the Czech Republic again this week to continue what was started. As before, this conference continues to: (1) Provide a forum to identify and discuss cost-effective environmentally acceptable energy and environmental technology options and their associated socioeconomic issues. (2) Stimulate the Formation of business partnerships (3) Identify key barrier issues hindering technology applications and identify implementation pathways that eliminate or avoid obstacles to progress.

  13. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi


    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  14. Contraceptive use and distribution of high-risk births in Nigeria: a sub-national analysis

    Akanni Akinyemi


    Full Text Available Background: Family planning expansion has been identified as an impetus to harnessing Nigeria's demographic dividend. However, there is a need for data to address pockets of inequality and to better understand cultural and social factors affecting contraceptive use and health benefits. This paper contributes to addressing these needs by providing evidence on the trends and sub-national patterns of modern contraceptive prevalence in Nigeria and the association between contraceptive use and high-risk births in Nigeria. Design: The study utilised women's data from the last three Demographic and Health Surveys (2003, 2008, and 2013 in Nigeria. The analysis involved descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses. The multivariate analyses were performed to examine the relationship between high-risk births and contraceptive use. Associations were examined using Poisson regression. Results: Findings showed that respondents in avoidable high-risk birth categories were less likely to use contraceptives compared to those at no risk [rate ratio 0.82, confidence interval: 0.76–0.89, p<0.001]. Education and wealth index consistently predicted significant differences in contraceptive use across the models. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that women in the high-risk birth categories were significantly less likely to use a modern method of contraception relative to those categorised as having no risk. However, there are huge sub-national variations at regional and state levels in contraceptive prevalence and subsequent high-risk births. These results further strengthen evidence-based justification for increased investments in family planning programmes at the state and regional levels, particularly regions and states with high unmet needs for family planning.

  15. Faktor-faktor yang Berhubungan Dengan Unmet Need KB Pasca-Salin IUD post-placenta di Kamar Rawat Pasca-bersalin RSUP DR. M. Djamil periode Januari-Maret 2013

    Sari Handayani Utami


    Full Text Available AbstrakWanita pada periode post-partum memiliki angka unmet need terhadap kontrasepsi, padahal ini waktu yang tepat untuk mulai memakai kontrasepsi. Salah satu kontrasepsi pasca-salin terkini yang mulai disosialisasikan adalah IUD post-placenta. Namun demikian, masih belum banyak wanita pasangan usia subur yang menggunakan alat kontrasepsi ini bahkan mengetahuinya. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan unmet need KB pasca-salin IUD post-placenta. Jenis penelitian survey dengan desain cross sectional study. Waktu pengambilan data dari 12 Januari sampai dengan 12 Maret 2013. Sampel adalah wanita pasangan usia subur yang melahirkan pervaginam dan dipilih secara accidental sampling. Penelitian dilakukan pada 88 orang responden dengan 50 orang bukan akseptor KB IUD post-placenta dan 38 orang akseptor KB IUD Post-placenta. Pengumpulan data dilakukan menggunakan kuesioner melalui wawancara terpimpin. Data dianalisis secara univariat dan bivariat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan faktor yang memiliki hubungan signifikan dengan unmet need IUD post-placenta adalah faktor pengetahuan (p value = 0,001, sedangkan faktor lain yang tidak memiliki hubungan signifikan adalah faktor pendidikan (p value = 0,222, faktor status ekonomi (p value = 1,000, dan faktor konseling KB (p value = 0,583.Kata kunci: faktor yang berhubungan, unmet need, KB pasca-salin, IUD post-placentaAbstractThe women in post-partum period have unmet need rate to contraception, whereas it’s approriate time to start using contraception. One of recent post-partum contraception method is IUD post-placenta. But, only a few women of fertile age couple use this contraception even has known it. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors associated to unmet need of post-partum contraception IUD post-placenta. This survey study with cross sectional design study. The data was collected from January 12 until March 12 2013. The subject were

  16. International partnership in lunar missions: Inaugural address

    Dr A P J Abdul Kalam


    I am delighted to participate in the 6th International Conference on Exploration and Utilization of the Moon organized by the Physical Research Laboratory,Ahmedabad.I greet the organizers, eminent planetary exploration and space scientists from India and abroad,academicians,industrialists,engineers,entrepreneurs and distinguished guests.I understand that the International Lunar Conference is a forum to discuss scienti fic results of the ongoing and future space missions related to lunar exploration.This conference will also be utilized to develop understanding on various strategies,initiatives and missions leading to a permanent human presence on our Moon as the future objective.I am happy to note that interactions that took place in the earlier conferences have been bene ficial to participating countries through the intense sharing of scientific knowledge,data and hands-on mission experiences of various space agencies pursuing lunar exploration programmes.I find that nearly 100 scientific papers are being presented in this conference and that the Moon missions being planned and conducted by all the space faring nations of the world are being presented,reviewed and discussed.I note with excitement that many key issues related to space science and Moon missions are being addressed in this conference.These deliberations are important for the world space science community.This will enable you to obtain a comprehensive picture of the goals and policies of all nations striving towards a common vision of space research,being made available for the bene fit of all mankind.Indeed this augurs well for progress towards universal peace and harmony that is a cherished goal of the people of the world as a whole.

  17. E6 Addressing Scheme and Network Architecture

    Dmitry Anatolyevich Zaitsev; Sergey Ivanovich Bolshakov


    The paper describes new E6 addressing scheme for the creation of world-wide networks totally constructed on the base of Ethernet technology. Hierarchic E6 addresses with the length of 6 octets are used instead of both Ethernet MAC-addresses and IP-addresses that allows the routing within world-wide networks and cuts overhead of TCP, IP headers; the address space is extended in 16K times regarding IP addresses. Standard Ethernet LLC2 facilities are employed for guaranteed delivery of informati...

  18. Using the unmet obstetric needs indicator to map inequities in life-saving obstetric interventions at the local health care system in Kenya

    Echoka, Elizabeth; Dubourg, Dominique; Makokha, Anselimo;


    needs were identified in rural areas only while urban areas had rates higher than the reference rate (0.8% vs. 2.2% in 2008; 0.8% vs. 2.1% in 2009).ConclusionsThe findings, if used as a proxy to maternal mortality, suggest that rural women face higher risks of dying during pregnancy and childbirth. This......BackgroundDeveloping countries with high maternal mortality need to invest in indicators that not only provide information about how many women are dying, but also where, and what can be done to prevent these deaths. The unmet Obstetric Needs (UONs) concept provides this information. This concept...... indicates the need to improve priority setting towards ensuring equity in access to life saving interventions for pregnant women in underserved areas....

  19. A Novel Approach for TNA Address Management


    We present a new scheme to allocate/de-allocate Transport Network Assigned (TN A) address using Link Management Protocol (LMP) and to register/resolution these addresses using Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) for Automatically Switched Optical Network (ASON).

  20. SAVI: The IETF Standard in Address Validation

    Bagnulo, Marcelo; García-Martínez, Alberto


    In this article we describe Source Address Validation Implementation (SAVI), a security architecture being standardized by the IETF to prevent source address spoofing within a link. SAVI devices, usually layer 2 switches, create bindings between the IP address of a node and a property of the host¿s network attachment, such as the port through which the packet is received. Bindings are created by monitoring the packet exchange associated with IP address configuration mechanisms such as DHCP, S...

  1. Address allocation to mobile ad hoc networks

    Sakander, Zeeshan


    Addressing in MANETs is of significant importance, as a mobile device cannot participate in unicast communications until it is assigned a conflict-free IP address. All routing protocols assume nodes to be configured a priori with a unique IP address. Allocating addresses to mobile nodes is a fundamental and difficult problem. Unlike infrastructure based networks, MANETs support autonomous and spontaneous networking and therefore, should be capable of self-organization and self-configuration. ...

  2. Improving IPV6 Addressing Types and Size

    Khaldoun Batiha


    Full Text Available IPv6 protocol is the next candidate protocol after IPv4 protocolthatused foralong time. For this protocoltheaddressing types and address sizeare discussedto list some modifications that could improve itsperformancethrough the internet. Atthe same time, we prove that multicast addressing type is the mostimportant addressing type since it can mimic any other addressing type. Finally,a short studyis developedin order to reduce the current IPv6 address size to haveless overhead in the basic header packet, thisreductionomitsabout 40% of the over all basic IPv6 basic packet overhead.

  3. New dialogue for the way forward in maternal health: addressing market inefficiencies.

    McCarthy, Katharine; Ramarao, Saumya; Taboada, Hannah


    Despite notable progress in Millennium Development Goal (MDG) five, to reduce maternal deaths three-quarters by 2015, deaths due to treatable conditions during pregnancy and childbirth continue to concentrate in the developing world. Expanding access to three effective and low-cost maternal health drugs can reduce preventable maternal deaths, if available to all women. However, current failures in markets for maternal health drugs limit access to lifesaving medicines among those most in need. In effort to stimulate renewed action planning in the post-MDG era, we present three case examples from other global health initiatives to illustrate how market shaping strategies can scale-up access to essential maternal health drugs. Such strategies include: sharing intelligence among suppliers and users to better approximate and address unmet need for maternal health drugs, introducing innovative financial strategies to catalyze otherwise unattractive markets for drug manufacturers, and employing market segmentation to create a viable and sustainable market. By building on lessons learned from other market shaping interventions and capitalizing on opportunities for renewed action planning and partnership, the maternal health field can utilize market dynamics to better ensure sustainable and equitable distribution of essential maternal health drugs to all women, including the most marginalized. PMID:25467178

  4. Identifying and addressing potential conflict of interest: a professional medical organization's code of ethics.

    Heim, Lori


    The new Consumer Alliance agreement between the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) and The Coca-Cola Company provides a valuable opportunity to illustrate AAFP's adherence to its ethical foundation, demonstrate the AAFP's commitment to serving physicians and the public, and maintain the trust Americans put in their family physicians and the organization that represents them. Throughout the development of this program, as well as in all business interactions, the AAFP consistently addresses possible conflict of interest openly and directly, sharing with our members and the public exactly what measures we take to ensure that, in fact, no unethical conduct or breach of trust would--or will in the future--occur. In this case, the AAFP saw a public health and education need that was both unmet and undermined by the barrage of marketing messages and confusing information, and acted to fill that need. In so doing, the AAFP hewed to its high ethical standards, its core values, and its mission in the decisions made and the actions that followed. PMID:20644192

  5. Leveling the playing field: the personal coach program as an innovative approach to assess and address the supportive care needs of underserved cancer patients.

    Hohenadel, Joanne; Kaegi, Elizabeth; Laidlaw, Jack; Kovacik, Galina; Cortinois, Andrea; Kang, Rita; Jadad, Alejandro R


    Supportive care addresses informational, social, emotional, spiritual, physical, and practical needs that impact the lives of patients and their families. Accessing supportive care services is particularly challenging for patients facing significant financial and social barriers. This report discusses the Personal Coach Program (PCP), which provides specially trained coach navigators of supportive care for cancer patients, with special focus on those facing the above-mentioned barriers. The PCP was piloted with 63 patients treated at the Princess Margaret Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Patients faced barriers of language, poverty, culture, social isolation, and literacy. Triangulation was used to compare and contrast multiple sources of quantitative and qualitative evaluation data. Identifying appropriate patients for referral to the PCP was a major challenge. Six categories of unmet needs were identified: practical factors related to daily living, cancer information, emotional support, interaction with the healthcare team, problems with physical health,and factors related to family and friends. Many significant barriers to supportive care and unmet needs are not identified by time-pressured clinical staff in cancer clinics. The PCP helped to identify needs and to improve ability to access services. Participants were highly satisfied with the program and believed it had positive implications for both physical and emotional health. Based on these results, a demonstration model for a supportive-care program is proposed as an integral component of care for all cancer patients, including those at risk for underservice. PMID:17500506

  6. Parenting Among Adolescents and Young Adults with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in the United States: Challenges, Unmet Needs, and Opportunities.

    Hatfield-Timajchy, Kendra; Brown, Jennifer L; Haddad, Lisa B; Chakraborty, Rana; Kourtis, Athena P


    Given the realistic expectations of HIV-infected adolescents and young adults (AYA) to have children and start families, steps must be taken to ensure that youth are prepared to deal with the challenges associated with their HIV and parenting. Literature reviews were conducted to identify published research and practice guidelines addressing parenting or becoming parents among HIV-infected AYA in the United States. Research articles or practice guidelines on this topic were not identified. Given the paucity of information available on this topic, this article provides a framework for the development of appropriate interventions and guidelines for use in clinical and community-based settings. First, the social, economic, and sexual and reproductive health challenges facing HIV-infected AYA in the United States are summarized. Next, family planning considerations, including age-appropriate disclosure of HIV status to those who are perinatally infected, and contraceptive and preconception counseling are described. The impact of early childbearing on young parents is discussed and considerations are outlined during the preconception, antenatal, and postnatal periods with regard to antiretroviral medications and clinical care guidelines. The importance of transitioning AYA from pediatric or adolescent to adult-centered medical care is highlighted. Finally, a comprehensive approach is suggested that addresses not only medical needs but also emphasizes ways to mitigate the impact of social and economic factors on the health and well-being of these young parents and their children. PMID:27410495

  7. Nursing leadership in addressing the social determinants of health.

    Lathrop, Breanna


    Social determinants of health have a profound impact on health status and the prevalence of health disparities in the United States. Significant improvements in national health indices are not possible without addressing social determinants of health. Drawing on their historical legacy as patient advocates, patient care expertise, and community focused education, nurses are ideally positioned to lead the nation in strategies to promote health equity. Nurses can embrace this new leadership role through the use of interdisciplinary collaboration, advocacy, political involvement, and community partnerships. PMID:23793135

  8. Understanding And Addressing Equipment Limitations Through Testing

    Safeguards demands have brought about the use of new, advanced equipment. These new systems are typically more complex than previous systems sometimes making use of dense circuitry and complex controls that can bring out previously unseen susceptibilities to various environmental conditions. In addition to possibly being susceptible to ambient conditions such as temperature and humidity, there may be a misunderstanding regarding the operational limitations of the equipment. Will a radiation detector respond to a moving source? Will other types of radiation overwhelm the response of the detector to the radiation of interest? Will the electronics survive or become incapacitated after exposure to radiation? These questions and others need to be addressed through the use of a systematic testing program. The program should not be used as a tool for criticism, but as a method of improving the reliability of equipment in the field and as a technique for improving the operation of the equipment. This document presents some of the information that was obtained at Oak Ridge National Laboratory where a series of tests were performed on various types of equipment with differing functions. Equipment tested included data transmission devices and radiation sensors. Tests performed included ionizing radiation to test for effects from interfering radiation and as a characterization tool for such things as response to moving sources. Other tests involved the use of non-ionizing radiation to determine whether interference could occur when equipment is exposed to radio frequency or magnetic field environments. The remaining tests were performed to establish whether susceptibilities exist when equipment is exposed to various temperature and humidity environments. Although more testing may be needed, the test methodologies used could provide a direction to future qualification plans

  9. IP MASQUERADING: A Network Address Translation Technique

    Chiranji Lal Chowdhary; Prashant P.J.


    IP Masquerade, called "IPMASQ" or "MASQ" for short, is a form of Network Address Translation (NAT) which allows internally connected computers that do not have one or more registered Internet IP addresses to communicate to the Internet via the server's Internet IP address. Since IPMASQ is a generic technology, you can connect the server's internal and external to other computers through LAN technologies like Ethernet, Token Ring, and FDDI, as well as dialup connections line PPP or SLIP links....

  10. Organization of Control Units with Operational Addressing

    Alexander A. Barkalov; Roman M. Babakov; Larysa A. Titarenko


    The using of operational addressing unit as the block of control unit is proposed. The new structure model of Moore finite-state machine with reduced hardware amount is developed. The generalized structure of operational addressing unit is suggested. An example of synthesis process for Moore finite-state machine with operational addressing unit is given. The analytical researches of proposed structure of control unit are executed.

  11. IP Address Management Principles and Practice

    Rooney, Timothy


    This book will be the first covering the subject of IP address management (IPAM). The practice of IPAM includes the application of network management disciplines to IP address space and associated network services, namely DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) and DNS (Domain Name System). The consequence of inaccurately configuring DHCP is that end users may not be able to obtain IP addresses to access the network. Without proper DNS configuration, usability of the network will greatly suffer as the name-to-address lookup process may fail. Imagine having to navigate to a website or send a

  12. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou


    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  13. An Experimental of IPv6 Address Assignment for Global Unicast Address Using NS-3

    Dr. P. Sumathi


    Full Text Available Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6 is the next generation protocol and in the near future, routers are going to become more faster and new technologies are going to reduce the Internet delay. IPv6 global unicast address is similar to IPv4 public address and globally routable. This Global unicast address assignment process provides new function called Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC is a significant feature for host itself generating and configuring own addresses to enable communication. In this paper aims to describe experimental about IPv6 address assignment for global unicast address and evaluation of a host using various parameters such as Default router IP address, Throughput, Average End to End Delay and Domain Name Server (DNS IP address. The study was carried out using an open source Network Simulator (NS-3 to study and analyses the behavior of IPv6 address assignment.

  14. Preliminary development and psychometric evaluation of an unmet needs measure for adolescents and young adults with cancer: the Cancer Needs Questionnaire - Young People (CNQ-YP

    Clinton-McHarg Tara


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents and young adult (AYA cancer survivors may have unique physical, psychological and social needs due to their cancer occurring at a critical phase of development. The aim of this study was to develop a psychometrically rigorous measure of unmet need to capture the specific needs of this group. Methods Items were developed following a comprehensive literature review, focus groups with AYAs, and feedback from health care providers, researchers and other professionals. The measure was pilot tested with 32 AYA cancer survivors recruited through a state-based cancer registry to establish face and content validity. A main sample of 139 AYA cancer patients and survivors were recruited through seven treatment centres and invited to complete the questionnaire. To establish test-retest reliability, a sub-sample of 34 participants completed the measure a second time. Exploratory factor analysis was performed and the measure was assessed for internal consistency, discriminative validity, potential responsiveness and acceptability. Results The Cancer Needs Questionnaire - Young People (CNQ-YP has established face and content validity, and acceptability. The final measure has 70 items and six factors: Treatment Environment and Care (33 items; Feelings and Relationships (14 items; Daily Life (12 items; Information and Activities (5 items; Education (3 items; and Work (3 items. All domains achieved Cronbach's alpha values greater than 0.80. Item-to-item test-retest reliability was also high, with all but four items reaching weighted kappa values above 0.60. Conclusions The CNQ-YP is the first multi-dimensional measure of unmet need which has been developed specifically for AYA cancer patients and survivors. The measure displays a strong factor structure, and excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability. However, the small sample size has implications for the reliability of the statistical analyses undertaken

  15. A Novel Approach for TNA Address Management

    Xiaodong Wang; Yaohui Jin; Weishen Hu; Shenli Zhu


    We present a new scheme to allocate/de- allocate Transport Network Assigned (TNA) address using Link ManagementProtocol (LMP) and to register/resolution these addresses using Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) forAutomatically Switched Optical Network (ASON).

  16. Tradition and Change in Swedish Address Forms.

    Mitchell, Stephen A.

    In most European languages, choice of address form classifies the relation between speakers. The first theoretical framework for analyzing address form usage was established by Brown and Gilman (1960) in their investigation of the semantics of pronoun use in a wide variety of Indo-European languages, which concluded that Europeans use the informal…

  17. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan


    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  18. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.


    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RUS addresses. 1730.3 Section 1730.3 Agriculture... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain...) Documents required to be submitted to RUS under this part are to be sent to the office of the...

  19. An Experimental of IPv6 Address Assignment for Global Unicast Address Using NS-3

    DR.P.SUMATHI; Dr. Saroj Patel; Prabhakaran,, Dorairaj


    Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) is the next generation protocol and in the near future, routers are going to become more faster and new technologies are going to reduce the Internet delay. IPv6 global unicast address is similar to IPv4 public address and globally routable. This Global unicast address assignment process provides new function called Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC) is a significant feature for host itself generating and configuring own addresses to enable communi...

  20. Data structure, method and system for address lookup

    Stefanakis, G.; Sourdis, I.; Nedeltchev, G.G.; De Smet, R.


    Method and computer system for constructing a decision tree for use in address lookup of a requested address in an address space. The address space is arranged as a set of basic address ranges. Each basic address range is defined by a lower and an upper bound address, and an address in the address space is represented by a predetermined number of bits.

  1. Addressing malaria vector control challenges in South Sudan: proposed recommendations

    Chanda Emmanuel


    Full Text Available Abstract Upon the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005, the Republic of South Sudan (RSS has faced a lot of challenges, such as a lack of infrastructure, human resources and an enormous burden of vector borne diseases including malaria. While a national malaria strategic plan 2006-2011 was developed, the vector control component has remained relatively weak. The strategy endorses the distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs as the frontline intervention with other interventions recommended only when technical and institutional capacity is available. In 2006, a draft integrated vector management (IVM strategic plan 2007–2012 was developed but never implemented, resulting in minimal coordination, implementation and coverage of malaria vector control tools including their inherent impact. To address this challenge, the vector control team of the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP is being strengthened. With the objective of building national capacity and technical collaboration for effective implementation of the IVM strategy, a national malaria vector control conference was held from 15-17th October 2012 in Juba. A range of NMCP partners, state ministries, acadaemia, private sector, national and international non-governmental organizations, including regional and global policymakers attended the meeting. The conference represented a major milestone and made recommendations revolving around the five key elements of the IVM approach. The meeting endorsed that vector control efforts in RSS be augmented with other interventions within the confines of the IVM strategy as a national approach, with strong adherence to its key elements.

  2. Address forms in Chinese audit opinions

    Ziye; Zhao


    Although forms of address are widely used in textual and other types of disclosure,empirical evidence of their effects is rare.China provides a unique setting in which to test the economic consequences of the forms of address used in audit reports.From 2003 to 2011,about 60%of auditors surveyed addressed their clients by their real names in audit opinions,while the others used honorifics.Based on a sample of Chinese audit opinions,I report the following findings.First,the announcement of an audit opinion that uses the client’s real name elicits a greater market response than the announcement of an opinion featuring an honorific form of address.Second,the effects of real-name forms of address are stronger in firms with weak board governance.Third,the association between audit fees and audit risk factors,such as loss-making,is stronger in firms that are addressed by their real names in audit reports.I conclude from these findings that the forms of address used in audit opinions may reveal private information on audit quality.The results of this study are consistent with the power-solidarity effect described by sociolinguists.


    Ashok Kumar Srivastava


    Full Text Available Background:  Change in socio economic status, nuclearisation of joint family, migration of youths, changing traditional values and role of women have contributed to the crisis of care for the elderly.Methods: Descriptive cross sectional study was done at the field practice area of the department of Community Medicine, HIMS, Dehradun. A total of 526 elderly (60 years and above were interviewed using a pre tested schedule in 4 randomly selected villages. The findings are described in percentages and proportions.Results: Around 63.1% belonged to age group 60 -69 years, 35.4 % were illiterate, 48.4 % were not happy in life and 34.7 % felt they were burden to family. Basic unmet need was seen in 11.2% of the elderly and 34.3% were aware about geriatric welfare schemes.  Conclusion: The financial and social needs of the elderly needs to be fulfilled by preserving strong traditional joint family system, providing light occupation, giving them time and attention. IEC activity to be increased about different geriatric welfare schemes. There is also urgent need of geriatric counselling centre to deal with their physical and psychosocial problems.

  4. Local address and emergency contact details


    The HR Department would like to remind members of the personnel that they are responsible for ensuring that their personal data concerning local address and preferred emergency contact details remains valid and up-to-date.   Both are easily accessible via the links below: Local address:   Emergency contacts:   Please take a few minutes to check your details and modify if necessary. Thank you in advance. HR Department Head Office

  5. 78 FR 11700 - Notice of Availability: Beta Test of Electronic Product Fulfillment for Addressing and Delivery...


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Notice of Availability: Beta Test of Electronic Product Fulfillment for Addressing and Delivery Management Products AGENCY: Postal Service. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The National Customer Support Center (NCSC) is...

  6. NOAA's Coral Reef Conservation Program: 2016 projects to address coral reef conservation issues

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2016 the following projects will take place to address aspects of coral reef conservation: Enhancing Management of Pacific ESA-listed Corals with Improved...

  7. Opening Address: Meeting Tomorrow's Energy Needs

    I want to thank the IAEA, as well as the international and local organizing committees, for assembling this impressive group of conference attendees to share information and exchange ideas this week. I am honoured to be a part of this distinguished panel. I also want to thank our Japanese colleagues for their wonderful hospitality and for selecting the beautiful city of Kyoto as the venue. This is an historic time of challenge and opportunity. President Obama is seeking to accelerate our nation's transformation to a low carbon economy. He has set a goal of reducing carbon emissions by 80 per cent by 2050. As we meet here in Kyoto, the site of another historic climate change discussion, President Obama is preparing to attend the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen, continuing his Administration's commitment to tackling climate change and building a clean energy economy. Four months ago, Dr. Warren 'Pete' Miller was confirmed by the United States Senate to serve as Assistant Secretary for the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy. Soon afterwards, I joined Pete as his Principal Deputy. In that short time, Pete and I have come to appreciate fully the enormous task we have before us. Transforming our economy from one reliant on fossil fuels to a low carbon future will take investments in energy efficiency and all forms of low carbon energy technologies, including nuclear energy. Our job is to assure that nuclear technologies can contribute to meeting this aggressive goal for reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Nuclear energy can contribute to the future energy supply in two basic areas: (i) in its traditional role of generating electricity and (ii) as a source of process heat for industrial, petrochemical and desalination purposes. Within the Office of Nuclear Energy, we are now developing a roadmap that will help us in 'meeting tomorrow's energy needs' by addressing these two vital areas. We have established five strategic goals as the

  8. Census Bureau Planned Acquisition: Address Data

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The Census Bureau updates and maintains address data to support the correct allocation of population and housing for censuses and surveys. Boundaries, streets,...

  9. Addressing Your Child's Weight at the Doctor

    ... Beverage Toolkit Addressing your Child's Weight at the Doctor Updated:Aug 4,2014 The discussion of weight ... tips on how to make talking with your doctor about weight and childhood obesity less daunting: Come ...

  10. Radiation and occupational health: opening address

    The part of address discusses the following issue: benefits of radiological protection in Malaysia, traceability and accountability as assurance of the validity of radiation measurement, Laboratory Accreditation Scheme, Atomic Energy Licensing Act

  11. Address Points, Published in unknown, SWGRC.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Geographic coordinate system; in a Not Sure projection; The extent of these...

  12. Measuring the Density Matrix by Local Addressing

    Kis, Z


    We introduce a procedure to measure the density matrix of a material system. The density matrix is addressed locally in this scheme by applying a sequence of delayed light pulses. The procedure is based on the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) technique. It is shown that a series of population measurements on the target state of the population transfer process yields unambiguous information about the populations and coherences of the addressed states, which therefore can be determined.

  13. Instrument Mixes Addressing Mercury Emissions to Air



    This study deals with "instruments used to address mercury emissions to air", by which is meant all legislation, regulation and other measures intended to control or reduce anthropogenic, atmospheric mercury emissions. As the links are complex between actual inputs of mercury to society (consumption for intended use and mobilisation of mercury-impurities via industrial processes) and the final release sources, all types of measures addressing any phase in the life-cycle of mercury which may u...

  14. Addressing non-tariff measures in ASEAN

    Gloria O. Pasadilla


    Intra-ASEAN trade has increased six-fold since 1993 but greater integration challenge looms in addressing non-tariff measures. The paper discusses the various ASEAN work programs on NTMs and assesses the incidence of Members' NTMs on various products. Various ways of accelerating the reduction of non-tariff barriers are discussed, including dispute settlement mechanisms. The paper highlights the importance of a unilateral approach in addressing NTMs and the use of regulatory impact analysis t...

  15. Addressing Non-tariff Measures in ASEAN

    Gloria O. Pasadilla


    Intra-ASEAN trade has increased six-fold since 1993 but greater integration challenge looms in addressing non-tariff measures. The paper discusses the various ASEAN work programs on NTMs and assesses the incidence of Members‘ NTMs on various products. Various ways of accelerating the reduction of non-tariff barriers are discussed, including dispute settlement mechanisms. The paper highlights the importance of a unilateral approach in addressing NTMs and the use of regulatory impact analysis t...

  16. FPGA Implementation of Content Addressable Memory

    A. M. V. Pathi; M. Premchand; Ramesh Chandra; B. Prudhvi Raj


    Content Addressable Memory (CAM) is a special type of computer memory used in certain very high speed searching applications. It is also known as associative memory or associative storage or associative array. Content Addressable Memory (CAM) is frequently used in applications, such as lookup tables, databases, associative computing and networking, that requires high-speed searches due to its ability to improve application performance by using parallel comparison to reduce search time. Althou...

  17. Barriers to the Use of Evidence-Supported Programs to Address School Violence

    Cawood, Natalie Diane


    Researchers have argued that there is a research-practice gap in the delivery of prevention and mental health services in the school setting. This national survey addresses that gap by identifying the barriers confronted by school social workers in implementing evidence-supported programs to address interpersonal violence in the school context. A…

  18. Address Points, address, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Juab County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'address'....

  19. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  20. 校园网IP地址冲突原因分析及防范——以青海民族大学为例%Campus Network IP Address Conflict Causes Analysis and Prevention --Qinghai University for Nationalities As Example



    Through research,analysis of the IP address causes of conflict,on the basis of IP address conflicts should be resolved in the management and technical guard against them,to ensure the safety of the campus network on the LAN IP address conflict operation.%文章通过对局域网中IP地址的冲突问题进行研究,分析了常见的IP地址的冲突原因,在此基础上提出了IP地址冲突的解决应在管理上和技术上加以防范,保证校园网安全运行。

  1. Addressing nuclear and hostile environmental challenges with intelligent automation

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed and continues to develop solutions to address the challenges associated with nuclear and hostile environments. The nuclear challenge and, in general, most hostile environments present unique conditions requiring new approaches and techniques. Solutions used in controlled or conventional environments are limited in the highly volatile nuclear environment. Engineers at LLNL have been actively involved in finding unique and creative intelligent automation solutions. We have made significant advances in automation control theory, nuclear material handling processes, robotics systems, and sensors technology

  2. Strategies for Addressing Spreadsheet Compliance Challenges

    Weber, Brandon


    Most organizations today use spreadsheets in some form or another to support critical business processes. However the financial resources, and developmental rigor dedicated to them are often minor in comparison to other enterprise technology. The increasing focus on achieving regulatory and other forms of compliance over key technology assets has made it clear that organizations must regard spreadsheets as an enterprise resource and account for them when developing an overall compliance strategy. This paper provides the reader with a set of practical strategies for addressing spreadsheet compliance from an organizational perspective. It then presents capabilities offered in the 2007 Microsoft Office System which can be used to help customers address compliance challenges.

  3. Addressing techniques of liquid crystal displays

    Ruckmongathan, Temkar N


    Unique reference source that can be used from the beginning to end of a design project to aid choosing an appropriate LCD addressing technique for a given application This book will be aimed at design engineers who are likely to embed LCD drivers and controllers in many systems including systems on chip. Such designers face the challenge of making the right choice of an addressing technique that will serve them with best performance at minimal cost and complexity. Readers will be able to learn about various methods available for driving matrix LCDs and the comparisons at the end of each chap


    Prihantoro Prihantoro


    Invictus is a movie which is adapted from a true story of how the South African President, Nelson Mandela, tried to unite South Africa by supporting the national rugby team, Springbok, which used to be the symbol of Apartheid. His relation with other characters in this movie is reflected from the address forms and the choice is influenced by many aspects like social distance among the participants, age difference, formality scale etc. This paper focuses on the choice of address forms used amo...

  5. 32 CFR 37.1010 - What substantive issues should my award document address?


    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What substantive issues should my award document address? 37.1010 Section 37.1010 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... may adjust amounts of future milestone payments if a project's expenditures fall too far below...

  6. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control

    Tonso, William R.


    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  7. The Conversational Frame in Public Address.

    Branham, Robert James; Pearce, W. Barnett


    Explores the diverse forms and motives of the conversational frame in public address. Argues that, by framing their remarks and transactions with their listeners as conversational, orators may attempt to reconstruct or seem to reconstruct speaker-audience relationships and to position themselves and their audiences within networks of reciprocal…

  8. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  9. IP Address Use in Internetworking Routing


    tut quiz present anim This interactive tutorial covers the following: How routers use the elements of the IP address to forward packets of information., How information travels through the Internet.The interactions consists of pop-up definitions of terms, animations and self-check questions. EC3760 Introduction to Information Operations Engineering

  10. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.


    ... Section 301.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS GENERAL...., and be addressed as follows: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial... Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, 101 Independence Avenue,...

  11. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    Technology Teacher, 2008


    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  12. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter


    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops......, and gives examples of the unique challenges faced by the SME food industry....

  13. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric


    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores how…

  14. 37 CFR 251.1 - Official addresses.


    ... ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE... Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels (CARPs) must be addressed as follows: (a) If hand delivered by a... Friday between 8:30 a.m. and 5 p.m. (b) If hand delivered by a commercial courier (excluding...

  15. Regional Seminars to Address Current Nuclear Export Control Issues

    The control of nuclear-related exports, a critical component of the nonproliferation regime, is facing several opportunities and challenges. As countries sign and ratify the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) safeguards Additional Protocol (AP), they will begin to report far more export information, including exports of a list of items similar to the Nuclear Supplier Group's Trigger List that existed when the AP was developed in the mid-1990s. This positive development contrasts with challenges such as globalization, transshipments, and tracking of end-uses. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is proposing that the US Department of Energy (DOE) develop regional seminars that address these types of issues related to export/import controls. The DOE seminars would be designed to supplement regional seminars sponsored by the IAEA and member states on topics related to the Additional Protocol (referred to as 'IAEA seminars'). The topic of nuclear export/import controls is not thoroughly addressed in the IAEA seminars. The proposed DOE seminars would therefore have two objectives: familiarizing countries with the export/import provisions of the Additional Protocol, and addressing challenges such as those noted above. The seminars would be directed particularly at countries that have not ratified the AP, and at regions where export-related problems are particularly prevalent. The intent is to encourage governments to implement more effective nuclear export control systems that meet the challenges of the 21st century.

  16. Cough: an unmet clinical need

    Dicpinigaitis, Peter V.


    Cough is among the most common complaints for which patients worldwide seek medical attention. Thus, the evaluation and treatment of cough result in tremendous financial expenditure and consumption of health care resources. Yet, despite the clinical significance of cough, research efforts aimed at improving diagnostic capabilities and developing more effective therapeutic agents have been, to date, disappointing in their limited scope and outcomes. Acute cough due to the common cold represent...

  17. Unmet needs in automated cytogenetics

    Though some, at least, of the goals of automation systems for analysis of clinical cytogenetic material seem either at hand, like automatic metaphase finding, or at least likely to be met in the near future, like operator-assisted semi-automatic analysis of banded metaphase spreads, important areas of cytogenetic analsis, most importantly the determination of chromosomal aberration frequencies in populations of cells or in samples of cells from people exposed to environmental mutagens, await practical methods of automation. Important as are the clinical diagnostic applications, it is apparent that increasing concern over the clastogenic effects of the multitude of potentially clastogenic chemical and physical agents to which human populations are being increasingly exposed, and the resulting emergence of extensive cytogenetic testing protocols, makes the development of automation not only economically feasible but almost mandatory. The nature of the problems involved, and acutal of possible approaches to their solution, are discussed

  18. CANE: The Content Addressed Network Environment

    Gardner-Stephen, Paul


    The fragmented nature and asymmetry of local and remote file access and network access, combined with the current lack of robust authenticity and privacy, hamstrings the current internet. The collection of disjoint and often ad-hoc technologies currently in use are at least partially responsible for the magnitude and potency of the plagues besetting the information economy, of which spam and email borne virii are canonical examples. The proposed replacement for the internet, Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), does little to tackle these underlying issues, instead concentrating on addressing the technical issues of a decade ago. This paper introduces CANE, a Content Addressed Network Environment, and compares it against current internet and related technologies. Specifically, CANE presents a simple computing environment in which location is abstracted away in favour of identity, and trust is explicitly defined. Identity is cryptographically verified and yet remains pervasively open in nature. It is argued tha...

  19. Addressing food waste reduction in Denmark

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Clement, Jesper; Kornum, Niels;


    environmental challenge. Using the case of Denmark, this paper analyses causes of food waste, and discusses how different stakeholders address the prevention and reuse of the €1.18. billion of annual edible food waste. Currently, the majority of food waste is still incinerated with energy recovery. However......Global food demand is driven by population and economic growth, and urbanization. One important instrument to meet this increasing demand and to decrease the pressure on food production is to minimize food losses and food waste. Food waste and loss is a major societal, economic, nutritional and......, improvements in technology have made it more efficient to utilize food waste for biogas and compost, which improves nutrient cycling through the food system. Major efforts to address food waste in Denmark have mainly been promoted through civil society groups with governmental support, as well as by industry...

  20. FPGA Implementation of Content Addressable Memory

    A. M. V. Pathi


    Full Text Available Content Addressable Memory (CAM is a special type of computer memory used in certain very high speed searching applications. It is also known as associative memory or associative storage or associative array. Content Addressable Memory (CAM is frequently used in applications, such as lookup tables, databases, associative computing and networking, that requires high-speed searches due to its ability to improve application performance by using parallel comparison to reduce search time. Although the use of parallel comparison results in reduced search time, it also significantly increases power consumption. This project proposes a Parameter Extractor, based on ones-count approach. The major contribution of this project is that it proposed ones-count Parameter Extractor can achieve faster search capability compared to the conventional CAM

  1. Nation/non-nation

    Sonnichsen, André; Gad, Ulrik Pram


    Is nationality the only way of organizing political community? Given the ubiquity of the national principle, one might think so. But, in practice, the national principle is constantly challenged by what can be termed non-national identities. This article looks at manners in which such deviating...... identities can be conceptualized, how contemporary European states have attempted to deal with them when they arise and to what extent non-national modes of organizing political community can point towards a challenge to the national principle itself. In its capacity as an introduction to the special issue......, this article seeks to frame the subsequent articles within the overarching theme of the tension between national and non-national communities in contemporary Europe....

  2. Addressing consumerization of IT risks with nudging

    Iryna Yevseyeva; James Turland; Charles Morisset; Lynne Coventry; Thomas Groß


    In this work we address the main issues of Information Technology (IT) consumerization that are related to security risks, and vulnerabilities of devices used within Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) strategy in particular. We propose a ‘soft’ mitigation strategy for user actions based on nudging, widely applied to health and social behavior influence. In particular, we propose a complementary, less strict, more flexible Information Security policies, based on risk assessment of device vulnerabili...

  3. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    Narayan, Lalit


    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution. PMID:24758452

  4. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D


    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  5. Matching Alternative Addresses: a Semantic Web Approach

    Ariannamazi, S.; Karimipour, F.; Hakimpour, F.


    Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI) provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature's literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  6. Building an effective malaria vaccine pipeline to address global needs.

    Birkett, Ashley J


    Despite impressive gains over the last 15 years in reducing the mortality associated with malaria, it remains a public health emergency. New interventions, such as vaccines, are needed to ensure that previous gains serve as a foundation for future progress. Vaccines have the potential to prevent severe disease and death in those most vulnerable, and to accelerate elimination and eradication by breaking the cycle of parasite transmission. The pipeline is as healthy as it has ever been, with approaches targeting different stages of the parasite lifecycle using an array of technologies. This article reviews recent progress and reviews key considerations in the quest to develop products that are aligned with the unmet medical need. PMID:26469721

  7. Addressing Unfair Trading Practices in Bulgaria

    World Bank


    The Government of Bulgaria (GoB) is concerned that large retail chains may be using their superior bargaining position to dictate the terms of contractual relations with their suppliers. The Government believes that this constitutes unfair trading practices (UTP) and remedies should be found in the nation's competition policy framework. The GoB is considering the introduction of the concep...

  8. Addressing the water resource management issue

    Orprecio, J.; Rola, Agnes C.; Deutsch, William; Coxhead, Ian; Sumbalan, Antonio


    Metadata only record The rapid growth in demand for water by the agricultural, industrial and household sectors will place greater pressure on Philippine water supplies in the future. Among the many water management issues, surface water management, watershed management or more precisely, river basin management is prominent in both the local and national scenes.

  9. 78 FR 35149 - Addresses of Regional Offices


    ..., Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee; the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico; and... Relations With Native American Tribal Governments'' (59 FR 22951), Executive Order 13175, and 512 DM 2, we...--NATIONAL COASTAL WETLANDS CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAM 0 14. The authority citation for part 84 continues...

  10. Addressing the Crisis in Fundamental Physics

    Stubbs, Christopher W


    I present the case for fundamental physics experiments in space playing an important role in addressing the current "dark energy'' crisis. If cosmological observations continue to favor a value of the dark energy equation of state parameter w=-1, with no change over cosmic time, then we will have difficulty understanding this new fundamental physics. We will then face a very real risk of stagnation unless we detect some other experimental anomaly. The advantages of space-based experiments could prove invaluable in the search for the a more complete understanding of dark energy. This talk was delivered at the start of the Fundamental Physics Research in Space Workshop in May 2006.

  11. A Task Force to Address Bullying.

    Keller, Ronald; Budin, Wendy C; Allie, Tammy


    Bullying in the workplace can create a dysfunctional environment that is associated with serious physical and psychological harm to the person being bullied. Nurses' experience with bullying has gained considerable attention in recent years, and warrants further discussion. Nurse leaders need to develop and implement effective bullying prevention initiatives that will foster the functioning of a professional and productive staff in a healthy work environment. The aim of this article is to review workplace bullying as experienced by nurses, and describe how nurses at a Magnet-designated academic medical center developed and implemented a bullying task force to address the problem. PMID:26817556

  12. Grid Added Value to Address Malaria

    Breton, V; Hofmann, M


    Through this paper, we call for a distributed, internet-based collaboration to address one of the worst plagues of our present world, malaria. The spirit is a non-proprietary peer-production of information-embedding goods. And we propose to use the grid technology to enable such a world wide "open source" like collaboration. The first step towards this vision has been achieved during the summer on the EGEE grid infrastructure where 46 million ligands were docked for a total amount of 80 CPU years in 6 weeks in the quest for new drugs.

  13. Building technology services that address student needs.

    Le Ber, Jeanne M; Lombardo, Nancy T; Wimmer, Erin


    A 16-question technology use survey was conducted to assess incoming health sciences students' knowledge of and interest in current technologies, and to identify student device and tool preferences. Survey questions were developed by colleagues at a peer institution and then edited to match this library's student population. Two years of student responses have been compiled, compared, and reviewed as a means for informing library decisions related to technology and resource purchases. Instruction and event programming have been revised to meet student preferences. Based on the number of students using Apple products, librarians are addressing the need to become more proficient with this platform. PMID:25611437

  14. HEP technologies to address medical imaging challenges

    CERN. Geneva


    Developments in detector technologies aimed at solving challenges in present and future CERN experiments, particularly at the LHC, have triggered exceptional advances in the performance of medical imaging devices, allowing for a spectacular progress in in-vivo molecular imaging procedures, which are opening the way for tailored therapies of major diseases. This talk will briefly review the recent history of this prime example of technology transfer from HEP experiments to society, will describe the technical challenges being addressed by some ongoing projects, and will present a few new ideas for further developments and their foreseeable impact.

  15. Results Analysis of IP Address Auto- Configuration in Wireless Manets

    S.Zahoor Ul Huq; S. Shabana Begum; Dr. K.E.Sreenivasa Murthy; Prof. B. Satyanaryana


    The main task of an address allocation protocol is to manage the address allocation to the nodes in the ad hoc MANETs. All routing protocols assume nodes to be configured a priori with a uniqueIP address. Allocating addresses to mobile nodes is a fundamental and difficult problem. A mobile device cannot participate in unicast communications until it is assigned a conflict-free IP address. So addressing in MANETs is of significant importance, and the address configuration process should be fas...

  16. Addressing firefighter safety around solar PV systems

    Harris, B. [Sustainable Energy Technologies, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    The article discussed new considerations for installing photovoltaic (PV) systems that address the needs of fire service personnel. The presence of a PV system presents a multitude of dangers for firefighters, including electrical shock, the inhalation of toxic gases from being unable to cut a hole through the roof, falling debris and flying glass, and dead loading on a compromised structure and tripping on conduits. Mapping systems should be modified so that buildings with PV systems are identified for first responders, including firefighters who should learn that solar modules present an electrical hazard during the day but not at night; covering PV modules with foam or salvage covers may not shut the system down to a safe level; it takes a few moments for the power in PV modules to reduce to zero; and PV modules or conduit should never be cut, broke, chopped, or walked upon. The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection recommends creating pathways and allowing easier access to the roof by setting the modules back from roof edges, creating a structurally sound pathway for firefighters to walk on and space to cut ventilation holes. However, the setback rule makes the economics of solar installation less viable for residential applications. The technological innovations aimed at addressing system safety all focus on limiting firefighter contact with live electrical components to within the extra-low-voltage (ELV) band. Some of the inverters on the market that support ELV system architecture were described. 1 fig.

  17. Integrated optical addressing of an ion qubit

    Mehta, Karan K; McConnell, Robert; Ram, Rajeev J; Sage, Jeremy M; Chiaverini, John


    Scalable implementation of the optics required to control trapped atomic ions' quantum states will be required to construct large-scale ion trap quantum information processors. All experiments in ion traps so far have employed approaches cumbersome to scale to even a few tens of qubits, with the majority relying on manipulation of free space beams with bulk optics. Here we demonstrate lithographically defined nanophotonic dielectric waveguides integrated within a linear surface-electrode ion trap chip, and qubit addressing at multiple locations via focusing grating couplers that emit through openings in the trap electrodes to an ion trapped 50 $\\mu$m above the chip. We perform quantum coherent operations using visible light routed in and emitted from silicon nitride waveguides and couplers, on the optical qubit transition in individual $^{88}$Sr$^+$ ions. The addressing beam is focused near the ion position with a 2 $\\mu$m 1/$e^2$-radius along the trap axis, and we measure crosstalk errors between $10^{-2}$ a...

  18. Letter dated 18 October 1999 from the Permanent Representative of China to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General. Uphold the ABM Treaty, push forward nuclear disarmament process and promote international peace and security. General Assembly. 54. session. First Committee. Agenda item 76. General and complete disarmament

    The document reproduces the text of the letter dated 18 October 1999 sent to the Secretary-General by the Permanent Representative of China to the United Nations in connection with the agenda item 76 (General and complete disarmament) of the 54th session of the General Assembly, First Committee. The letter expresses the position of the Chinese delegation concerning the proposed amendment of the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM Treaty)

  19. Addressing Disease-Related Malnutrition in Healthcare

    Correia, Maria Isabel; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Diaz-Pizarro Graf, José Ignacio; Gomez-Morales, Gabriel; Fuentes Gutiérrez, Catalina; Goldin, Maria Fernanda; Navas, Angela; Pinzón Espitia, Olga Lucia; Tavares, Gilmária Millere


    Alarmingly high rates of disease-related malnutrition have persisted in hospitals of both emerging and industrialized nations over the past 2 decades, despite marked advances in medical care over this same interval. In Latin American hospitals, the numbers are particularly striking; disease-related malnutrition has been reported in nearly 50% of adult patients in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, an...

  20. Community Changes Address Common Health Threat


    This podcast helps residents living in multiunit housing, like apartments and condos, understand the threat of secondhand smoke. It also helps residents understand what steps they can take to breathe a little easier if involuntarily exposed to secondhand smoke.  Created: 9/30/2013 by Division of Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 9/30/2013.

  1. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    Camerlenghi, A.


    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  2. Address Forms in Chinese and English-Speaking Culture



    Address forms is one of markers of politeness and is an indispensable part of communication. An appropriate address form promotes interpersonal communication smoothly. An address form is polite in one culture, but might be inappropriate in an⁃other culture. The paper contrasts address forms in English and Chinese culture and explores the reasons for their different choice of address terms.

  3. Balance of the Sexes: Addressing Sex Differences in Preclinical Research

    Zakiniaeiz, Yasmin; Cosgrove, Kelly P.; Potenza, Marc N.; Mazure, Carolyn M.


    Preclinical research is fundamental for the advancement of biomedical sciences and enhancing healthcare. Considering sex differences in all studies throughout the entire biomedical research pipeline is necessary to adequately inform clinical research and improve health outcomes. However, there is a paucity of information to date on sex differences in preclinical work. As of 2009, most (about 80 percent) rodent studies across 10 fields of biology were still conducted with only male animals. In 2016, the National Institutes of Health implemented a policy aimed to address this concern by requiring the consideration of sex as a biological variable in preclinical research grant applications. This perspective piece aims to (1) provide a brief history of female inclusion in biomedical research, (2) describe the importance of studying sex differences, (3) explain possible reasons for opposition of female inclusion, and (4) present potential additional solutions to reduce sex bias in preclinical research. PMID:27354851

  4. Progress on Addressing Contingent Work Issues in Academia

    Daniel Jacoby


    Full Text Available Higher education workers in Washington State are challenging the use of contingent academic labor. This article examines data and policies relevant to the state's reliance upon part-time faculty in community colleges. Data from the State Board for Community and Technical Colleges is juxtaposed with results from a survey completed by 20% of the part-time faculty in 14 community colleges to show that most do not work part-time by choice. The quantitative analysis underlies a subsequent examination of legislative and court solutions pursued in Washington State. Despite significant spending constraints, the state shows signs of being in the national vanguard as it addresses contingent academic labor issues.

  5. Addressing consumerization of IT risks with nudging

    Iryna Yevseyeva


    Full Text Available In this work we address the main issues of Information Technology (IT consumerization that are related to security risks, and vulnerabilities of devices used within Bring Your Own Device (BYOD strategy in particular. We propose a ‘soft’ mitigation strategy for user actions based on nudging, widely applied to health and social behavior influence. In particular, we propose a complementary, less strict, more flexible Information Security policies, based on risk assessment of device vulnerabilities and threats to corporate data and devices, combined with a strategy of influencing security behavior by nudging. We argue that nudging, by taking into account the context of the decision-making environment, and the fact that the employee may be in better position to make a more appropriate decision, may be more suitable than strict policies in situations of uncertainty of security-related decisions. Several examples of nudging are considered for different tested and potential scenarios in security context.

  6. How is environmental conflict addressed by SIA?

    The fields of Environmental Conflict Management (ECM), Environmental Conflict Resolution (ECR), and Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) have become well established; however, as yet there has not been much use of Social Impact Assessment (SIA) to manage environmental conflicts. ECM, ECR and PCIA are mainly undertaken when problems are advanced or, more likely, have run their course (post-conflict). This paper examines how conflict is addressed by SIA and whether there is potential to develop it for more proactive assessment of conflicts (pre-conflict or while things develop). SIA has the potential to identify and clarify the cause(s) of environmental and natural resources conflicts, and could possibly enable some avoidance or early mitigation. A promising approach may be for 'conflict-aware' SIA to watch for critical conflict stages or thresholds and to monitor stakeholders. Effective conflict-aware SIA might also significantly contribute to efforts to achieve sustainable development.

  7. World Federation of Vascular Societies: presidential address

    Sillesen, Henrik Hegaard


    The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally....... Similar, in order to be able to train with relevant case mix and numbers, and in order always to have both complex open and endovascular skills on call 24 hours per day, 365 days a year, centralisation into larger units is necessary. The WFVS is important simply looking at the huge demographic differences...... throughout the world. In addition, for introduction of new treatments, training issues and dissemination of science a global organisation like the WFVS is needed....

  8. Combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma: Controversies to be addressed

    Wang, An-Qiang; Zheng, Yong-Chang; Du, Juan; Zhu, Cheng-Pei; Huang, Han-Chun; Wang, Shan-Shan; Wu, Liang-Cai; Wan, Xue-Shuai; Zhang, Hao-Hai; Miao, Ruo-Yu; Sang, Xin-Ting; Zhao, Hai-Tao


    Combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma (CHC) accounts for 0.4%-14.2% of primary liver cancer cases and possesses pathological features of both hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. Since this disease was first described and classified in 1949, the classification of CHC has continuously evolved. The latest definition and classification of CHC by the World Health Organization is based on the speculation that CHC arises from hepatic progenitor cells. However, there is no evidence demonstrating the common origin of different components of CHC. Furthermore, the definition of CHC subtypes is still ambiguous and the identification of CHC subtype when a single tumor contains many components has remained unresolved. In addition, there is no summary on the newly recognized histopathology features or the contribution of CHC components to prognosis and outcome of this disease. Here we provide a review of the current literature to address these questions. PMID:27182157

  9. The Sustainable Hydrogen Economy: Addressing the Challenges Ahead

    Turner, John A.


    It is rapidly becoming apparent that energy is one of the most important issues facing our world today; in fact, in today's society energy is as important as food and water. Humankind finds itself faced the challenge of how to continue to power society, particularly in the face of the rapidly growing economies of emerging nations like India and China, and yet answer questions of sustainability, energy security, geopolitics and global environment. One of the major issues facing America and most other countries in the world is how to supply a transportation fuel, an energy carrier to replace gasoline. Hydrogen as an energy carrier, primarily derived from water, can address issues of sustainability, environmental emissions and energy security. The ``Hydrogen Economy'' then is the production of hydrogen, its distribution and utilization as an energy carrier. While the vision of a hydrogen economy has been around for over 130 years, the most recent push to use hydrogen as an energy carrier came as part of a US Presidential Initiative, announced in the 2003 State of the Union Address. It is important that we consider hydrogen in tandem with other technologies as an alternative to the once-abundant hydrocarbon resources on which our society depends. This talk will introduce sustainable energy systems, including fuel cell technology and discuss the vision, the barriers and possible pathways for the production and implementation of hydrogen into the energy infrastructure.

  10. Addressing stress corrosion cracking on multi layer pipeline coating systems

    Hardy, Scott B.; Marr, James E. [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States); Willmot, Martyn [Jotun Group (Norway); Norman, David [David Norman Corrosion Control, Cornwall (United Kingdom); Khera, Ashish [Allied Engineering, Portland, ME (United States)


    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is now recognized by operators worldwide as a significant threat to the safe operation of their pipeline systems. Gas, oil, and refined products lines have all been susceptible to this form of environmentally assisted cracking. As a result, operators and regulators have been incorporating data related to the development and prevalence of SCC into their risk management systems in order that they may effectively address this time-dependant threat. The National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) published the first structured methodology for stress corrosion cracking direct assessment (SCCDA) in 2004 (RP0204-2004). Operators are now beginning to apply the methods outlined in the standard to assess their systems. Research and industry experience have shown that various pipeline coating systems can be more or less effective in preventing the formation and growth of SCC. Newer pipeline coatings, such as multi layer epoxy/extruded polyolefin systems have been widely regarded as effective coating systems to address the threat posed by SCC when they are properly applied. New field studies performed on a pipeline coated with a three layer epoxy/polyethylene system have raised the possibility that operators utilizing these types of coatings may need to reassess how they manage the SCC threat. (author)


    Fawzia Cassim


    Full Text Available This article looks at the definition of cyber terrorism and terrorist use of the Internet. The article evaluates cyber terrorist threats facing countries such as the United States of America, the United Kingdom, India and South Africa. The article also examines measures introduced by the respective governments in these countries to counteract cyber terrorist threats. Finally, the article will propose a way forward to counteract such possible threats in the future.The face of terrorism is changing. The convergence of the physical and virtual worlds has resulted in the creation of a “new threat” called cyber terrorism. Cyber terrorism is one of the recognised cyber crimes. The absence of suitable legal frameworks to address cyber terrorism at national and regional levels, the lack of adequate safeguards, the lack of cyber security strategies and the pre-occupation of countries with internal factors have all contributed to the creation of an environment that can be easily infiltrated by cyber terrorists. The horrific events of 9/11 provided the impetus for many countries to introduce anti-terrorist legislation. The United States of America, United Kingdom, India and South Africa have introduced legislation to address the threat of cyber terrorism.

  12. IP address management : augmenting Sandia's capabilities through open source tools.

    Nayar, R. Daniel


    Internet Protocol (IP) address management is an increasingly growing concern at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the networking community as a whole. The current state of the available IP addresses indicates that they are nearly exhausted. Currently SNL doesn't have the justification to obtain more IP address space from Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). There must exist a local entity to manage and allocate IP assignments efficiently. Ongoing efforts at Sandia have been in the form of a multifunctional database application notably known as Network Information System (NWIS). NWIS is a database responsible for a multitude of network administrative services including IP address management. This study will explore the feasibility of augmenting NWIS's IP management capabilities utilizing open source tools. Modifications of existing capabilities to better allocate available IP address space are studied.

  13. The potential for entomophagy to address undernutrition.

    Nadeau, Luc; Nadeau, Isaac; Franklin, Frank; Dunkel, Florence


    The use of insects as food for humans has the potential to substantially reduce undernutrition worldwide. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that 805 million people are undernourished, with a total food energy deficit of 67.6 billion kcal/day (84 kcal/day/person). Calculations in this article suggest that this deficit could theoretically be reduced or eliminated through edible insect rearing, utilizing organic side streams as feed, on 15,586 to 92,976 ha. PMID:25401273

  14. 27 CFR 4.35 - Name and address.


    ... the stated address, or (C) Produced sparkling wine by secondary fermentation at the stated address... alcoholic beverage business at such additional place or address, and (2) The label also contains in...

  15. 47 CFR 32.19 - Address for reports and correspondence.


    ... be addressed to the Wireless Competition Bureau, Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.19 Address...

  16. Opening Address [Presented by D. Magliani

    Full text: I am very pleased to address you this morning on behalf of A.-M. Cetto, Head of the Department of Technical Cooperation, as we open this important international symposium. Interest in the symposium has been very high, with the number of registered participants greatly exceeding the number initially expected. Every region is represented in significant number, particularly Europe. The symposium's aim, to provide a forum to discuss and exchange information on advances over the past decade in radiation dosimetry and its supportive role in radiation medicine and radiation protection, is of high importance to the technical cooperation programme, which has a long standing, well-established focus on health. Accurate measurements in radiation dosimetry are critical in decisions making related to human health and to the safety of radiation workers and the general public, and the focus of this symposium strengthens technical cooperation activities in this sector. In each programme cycle, the IAEA receives large numbers of requests for technical cooperation support in the fields of dosimetry and medical radiation physics. Currently, we have 144 active projects that include these fields of activity. Under the scope of our interregional technical cooperation project on medical physics in radiation medicine (INT/6/054), the IAEA is working with Member States, international physics societies and the World Health Organization to promote the recognition of medical physics in radiation medicine, and to harmonize educational material in order to ensure the safe and effective diagnosis and treatment of patients. We are very pleased to support the attendance of 36 participants at the symposium under this project. Participants can expect to return home with a fresh overview of the latest developments and trends in radiation dosimetry, and a better understanding of the issues. This will contribute to standardization in the field, leading to improved diagnosis and treatment of

  17. Can Social Identity Theory Addresses the Ethnocentric Tendencies of Consumers?

    Tamgid Ahmed Chowdhury


    Full Text Available This paper investigates two issues of consumer psychology. First part of the paper assesses the applicability of ‘consumer ethnocentric tendencies scale(CETSCALE’ for a developing country Bangladesh to challenge the orthodox belief that consumer ethnocentrism is a phenomenon of developed nations only. With statistically significant results, the study shows that 13 out of 17 items of original CETSCALE are applicable for Bangladesh which validates that CETSCALE can be a research instrument for developing nations. In the second part, based on the modified CETSCALE items, this paperinvestigates the applicability of ‘social identity theory’ in addressing ethnocentric tendencies of different socio-demographic groups of consumers in Bangladesh. Results show that even if all 13 items of modified CETSCALE were supported by the surveyed population as a whole, the opinions on the scale items differ when the consumers are segregated into smaller social identities. And this deviationis due to their ‘in-group’ interests which supports the applicability of the social identity theory in the present context. The methodology is based on 788 samples collected from 22 districts of Bangladesh.

  18. Global Governance: Some concerns about authentic democracy addressed

    Gillian Brock


    Full Text Available In this paper I take up a commonly voiced concern about the viability of global governance in general, and cosmopolitan democracy in particular, namely, whether genuine democracy can be achieved at the international level. Some (such as, Will Kymlicka argue that genuine democracy is only possible within nation-states, because authentic deliberation requires common nationality or identity, which generates the trust and solidarity necessary to sustain deliberation and democracy. Through analysis of the argument and consideration of the requirements of genuine democracy, we can see that these concerns can be addressed. I go on to suggest that the major challenge facing models of global governance is not one concerning lack of common identity, solidarity, or opportunities for authentic deliberation, rather, it lies elsewhere. We can assess global governance arrangements in terms of two main variables, which are sometimes in tension: effectiveness and accountability. We want systems of global governance to incorporate both considerations. Accountability can take the form of democratic procedures but alternative forms of accountability are also possible. Furthermore, a system of governance that both effectively attends to people’s interests and is suitably accountable can certainly claim to have adequate democratic credentials on the “Responsive Democracy” view I discuss. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN:

  19. Addressing Female Iron-Deficiency Anaemia in India: Is Vegetarianism the Major Obstacle?

    Anu Rammohan; Niyi Awofeso; Marie-Claire Robitaille


    Objectives. We examined the influence of vegetarian diet on the risk of developing anaemia among Indian women and suggest initiatives for addressing diet-related iron-deficiency anaemia. Methods. We analysed data on diet, social class, and haemoglobin levels from the nationally representative Indian National Family and Health Survey 2005/06 for a sample of 81,301 women aged 15–49 years using logistic regression models. Results. After controlling for individual-level factors and household leve...

  20. Addressing Underrepresentation: Physics Teaching for All

    Rifkin, Moses


    Every physics teacher wants to give his or her students the opportunity to learn physics well. Despite these intentions, certain groups of students—including women and underrepresented minorities (URMs)—are not taking and not remaining in physics. In many cases, these disturbing trends are more significant in physics than in any other science. This is a missed opportunity for our discipline because demographic diversity strengthens science. The question is what we can do about these trends in our classrooms, as very few physics teachers have been explicitly prepared to address them. In this article, I will share some steps that I've taken in my classroom that have moved my class in the right direction. In the words of Nobel Prize-winning physicist Carl Wieman and psychologists Lauren Aguilar and Gregory Walton: "By investing a small amount of class time in carefully designed and implemented interventions, physics teachers can promote greater success among students from diverse backgrounds. Ultimately, we hope such efforts will indeed improve the diversity and health of the physics profession."

  1. Presidential address: Experimenting with the scientific past.

    Radick, Gregory


    When it comes to knowledge about the scientific pasts that might have been - the so-called 'counterfactual' history of science - historians can either debate its possibility or get on with the job. Taking the latter course means re-engaging with some of the most general questions about science. It can also lead to fresh insights into why particular episodes unfolded as they did and not otherwise. Drawing on recent research into the controversy over Mendelism in the early twentieth century, this address reports and reflects on a novel teaching experiment conducted in order to find out what biology and its students might be like now had the controversy gone differently. The results suggest a number of new options: for the collection of evidence about the counterfactual scientific past, for the development of collaborations between historians of science and science educators, for the cultivation of more productive relationships between scientists and their forebears, and for heightened self-awareness about the curiously counterfactual business of being historical. PMID:27353945

  2. Addressing social resistance in emerging security technologies.

    Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy


    In their efforts to enhance the safety and security of citizens, governments and law enforcement agencies look to scientists and engineers to produce modern methods for preventing, detecting, and prosecuting criminal activities. Whole body scanners, lie detection technologies, biometrics, etc., are all being developed for incorporation into the criminal justice apparatus. Yet despite their purported security benefits these technologies often evoke social resistance. Concerns over privacy, ethics, and function-creep appear repeatedly in analyses of these technologies. It is argued here that scientists and engineers continue to pay insufficient attention to this resistance; acknowledging the presence of these social concerns yet failing to meaningfully address them. In so doing they place at risk the very technologies and techniques they are seeking to develop, for socially controversial security technologies face restrictions and in some cases outright banning. By identifying sources of potential social resistance early in the research and design process, scientists can both engage with the public in meaningful debate and modify their security technologies before deployment so as to minimize social resistance and enhance uptake. PMID:23970863

  3. Vaccine hesitancy: understanding better to address better.

    Kumar, Dewesh; Chandra, Rahul; Mathur, Medha; Samdariya, Saurabh; Kapoor, Neelesh


    Vaccine hesitancy is an emerging term in the socio-medical literature which describes an approach to vaccine decision making. It recognizes that there is a continuum between full acceptance and outright refusal of some or all vaccines and challenges the previous understanding of individuals or groups, as being either anti-vaccine or pro-vaccine. The behaviours responsible for vaccine hesitancy can be related to confidence, convenience and complacency. The causes of vaccine hesitancy can be described by the epidemiological triad i.e. the complex interaction of environmental- (i.e. external), agent- (i.e. vaccine) and host (or parent)- specific factors. Vaccine hesitancy is a complex and dynamic issue; future vaccination programs need to reflect and address these context-specific factors in both their design and evaluation. Many experts are of the view that it is best to counter vaccine hesitancy at the population level. They believe that it can be done by introducing more transparency into policy decision-making before immunization programs, providing up-to-date information to the public and health providers about the rigorous procedures undertaken before introduction of new vaccines, and through diversified post-marketing surveillance of vaccine-related events. PMID:26839681

  4. Addressing Assessment in Libyan Medical Education

    Richardson J, Gill D, Woolf K


    Full Text Available Assessment is a powerful driver of student learning: it gives a message to learners about what theyshould be learning, what the learning organisation believes to be important, and how they should goabout learning. Assessment tools allow measurement of student achievement and thereby giveteachers insight into their students’ learning, and enable teachers to make systematic judgementsabout progress and achievement. It is vital then that assessment tools drive students to learn theright things as well as measure student learning appropriately. Any attempts to reform curricula andteaching methods must consider the role of assessment in the learning process.Libyan doctors and medical students have been calling for changes to teaching and assessmentmethods at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. A team from the Academic Centre for MedicalEducation at University College, London have been running workshops in conjunction with the LibyanBoard of Medical Specialties since 2006 to discuss strategic aims of assessment in medical educationin Libya for the 21st century and to deliver an assessment skills course to Libyan educators. Thisarticle outlines the course and the outcomes of preliminary discussions between academics from theUK, participants in the assessment courses and representatives from the Libyan Board of MedicalSpecialties. As a result of these discussions it was agreed by all that Libyan Medical Schoolassessment methods need updating and, despite significant challenges, changes in assessment mustbe made as soon as possible. There is a real need for support in both addressing these changes andfor practical training for assessors in contemporary assessment methods.

  5. Advanced Cyberinfrastructure Investments Addressing Earth Science Challenges

    Walton, A. L.; Spengler, S. J.; Zanzerkia, E. E.


    The National Science Foundation supports infrastructure development and research into Big Data challenges as part of its long-term cyberinfrastructure strategy. This strategy highlights the critical need to leverage and partner with other agencies, resources and service providers to the U.S. research community. The current cyberinfrastructure and research activities within NSF support advanced technology development, pilot demonstrations of new capabilities for the scientific community in general, and integration and interoperability of data resources across the Geoscience community. These activities include the Data Infrastructure Building Blocks, Big Data and EarthCube programs, among others. Investments are competitively solicited; the resulting portfolio of high performance computing, advanced information systems, new software capabilities, analytics and modeling supports a range of science disciplines. This presentation provides an overview of these research programs, highlighting some of the key investments in advanced analytics, coupled modeling, and seamless collaboration. Examples related to the geosciences, computer-aided discovery and hypothesis generation are highlighted.

  6. Addressing Earth Science Data Access Challenges through User Experience Research

    Hemmings, S. N.; Banks, B.; Kendall, J.; Lee, C. M.; Irwin, D.; Toll, D. L.; Searby, N. D.


    The NASA Capacity Building Program (Earth Science Division, Applied Sciences Program) works to enhance end-user capabilities to employ Earth observation and Earth science (EO/ES) data in decision-making. Open data access and user-tailored data delivery strategies are critical elements towards this end. User Experience (UX) and User Interface (UI) research methods can offer important contributions towards addressing data access challenges, particularly at the interface of science application/product development and product transition to end-users. This presentation focuses on developing nation contexts and describes methods, results, and lessons learned from two recent UX/UI efforts conducted in collaboration with NASA: the redesign project and the U.S. Water Partnership (USWP) Portal development effort. SERVIR, a collaborative venture among NASA, USAID, and global partners, seeks to improve environmental management and climate change response by helping governments and other stakeholders integrate EO and geospatial technologies into decision-making. The USWP, a collaboration among U.S. public and private sectors, harnesses U.S.-based resources and expertise to address water challenges in developing nations. SERVIR's study, conducted from 2010-2012, assessed and tested user needs, preferences, and online experiences to generate a more user-friendly online data portal at The portal provides a central access interface to data and products from SERVIR's network of hubs in East Africa, the Hindu Kush Himalayas, and Mesoamerica. The second study, conducted by the USWP Secretariat and funded by the U.S. Department of State, seeks to match U.S.-based water information resources with developing nation stakeholder needs. The USWP study utilizes a multi-pronged approach to identify key design requirements and to understand the existing water data portal landscape. Adopting UX methods allows data distributors to design customized UIs that

  7. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems.

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar


    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin's dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber's structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure. PMID:27345617

  8. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar


    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin’s dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber’s structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure.

  9. The 2009 NCTE Presidential Address: Sailing over the Edge--Navigating the Uncharted Waters of a World Gone Flat

    Beers, Kylene


    This article presents the text of the author's presidential address, delivered at the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) Annual Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on November 22, 2009. For the author, the title of this president's address, "Sailing over the Edge: Navigating the Uncharted Waters of a World Gone Flat," calls to…

  10. Quality versus Quantity: The Role of Socioeconomic Status on Parent-Reported Service Knowledge, Service Use, Unmet Service Needs, and Barriers to Service Use

    Pickard, Katherine E.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.


    Research within the autism spectrum disorder field has emphasized the role of socioeconomic status in shaping parents' ability to access services for their child with autism spectrum disorder. However, research has yet to explore the possible mechanisms underlying this relationship. This study sought to address this research gap by examining the…

  11. 12 CFR 723.6 - What must your member business loan policy address?


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What must your member business loan policy address? 723.6 Section 723.6 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING..., and comparison with industry averages, depending upon the loan purpose; (h) The...

  12. 49 CFR 534.7 - Situations not directly addressed by this part.


    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Situations not directly addressed by this part. 534.7 Section 534.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF MANUFACTURERS IN THE CONTEXT OF CHANGES IN...

  13. The new candidate IPV6 address size prediction

    Khaldoun Batiha


    Full Text Available IPv4 protocol is now no more sufficient due to its limited address space where this protocol uses only 32-bit for addressing. IPv6 protocol is the next protocol which was introduced as a new protocol that provide a huge address space .In This paper we discussed the significant overhead in the IPv6 standard packet due to its 128 bits address size, so we develop three different studies in order to generate a prediction of exhibition date for several address sizes so we can suggest another size for address size in IPv6 to improve the overall performance of the internet and tolerate the overhead by reducing the address size. In the same time this size should accommodate the accelerated growth in needs for unassigned blocks of addresses for very long time.   Keywords: Ipv4 Protocol, Ipv6 Protocol, Addressing Types, Ipv6 Header, Exhibition Date, Address Pool.

  14. Evaluating Judicial Performance and Addressing Gender Bias

    Angela Melville


    Full Text Available Elek and Rottman argue that judicial evaluation is often biased against women and minority judges. The need to address bias is important, however often the desire for diversity seems so self-evident as to belie deeper analysis. This paper examines the two main rationales for gender equality on the bench. First, female judges are often considered necessary in order to bring a gendered perspective to judging, however it is argued that this rationale is flawed. Second, an alternative rationale based on equality and legitimacy is offered which avoids gender essentialism. While debates typically focus on these two rationales, a third rationale embraces both difference and equality/legitimacy. The presence of female judges has an important symbolic value which destabilises existing fraternal legal norms. Finally, increasing the number of female judges may not necessarily change judging, and this paper also analyses how the transformative potential offered by judicial diversity can work in practice. Elek y Rottman defienden que la evaluación judicial suele estar sesgada en contra de las mujeres y los jueces pertenecientes a minorías. La necesidad de abordar el sesgo es importante, sin embargo a menudo el deseo de diversidad parece tan evidente como para contradecir un análisis más profundo. Este artículo examina los dos motivos principales para la igualdad de género en el banquillo. En primer lugar, las mujeres jueces a menudo se consideran necesarias para aportar una perspectiva de género al hecho de juzgar, sin embargo, se defiende que este razonamiento es erróneo. En segundo lugar, se ofrece una alternativa lógica basada en la igualdad y la legitimidad que evita el esencialismo de género. Mientras que los debates suelen centrarse en estas dos razones, una tercera justificación abarca tanto la diferencia como la igualdad/legitimidad. La presencia de mujeres en la judicatura tiene un importante valor simbólico que desestabiliza las normas

  15. Multi Sensor Approach to Address Sustainable Development

    Habib, Shahid


    The main objectives of Earth Science research are many folds: to understand how does this planet operates, can we model her operation and eventually develop the capability to predict such changes. However, the underlying goals of this work are to eventually serve the humanity in providing societal benefits. This requires continuous, and detailed observations from many sources in situ, airborne and space. By and large, the space observations are the way to comprehend the global phenomena across continental boundaries and provide credible boundary conditions for the mesoscale studies. This requires a multiple sensors, look angles and measurements over the same spot in accurately solving many problems that may be related to air quality, multi hazard disasters, public health, hydrology and more. Therefore, there are many ways to address these issues and develop joint implementation, data sharing and operating strategies for the benefit of the world community. This is because for large geographical areas or regions and a diverse population, some sound observations, scientific facts and analytical models must support the decision making. This is crucial for the sustainability of vital resources of the world and at the same time to protect the inhabitants, endangered species and the ecology. Needless to say, there is no single sensor, which can answer all such questions effectively. Due to multi sensor approach, it puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of information, knowledge, budget, technology readiness and computational power. And, more importantly, the health of planet Earth and its ability to sustain life is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to bear this colossal responsibility. So far, each developed country within their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing

  16. Moving to world's best uranium address

    Most exploration dollars spent in South Australia are focused on exploiting uranium. This is for good reason as South Australia is the world's best address for uranium. Pressure to cut CO2 emissions and the ballistic growth of the Chinese and Indian economies has heightened expectations that the worldwide use of uranium for power generation will mushroom beyond its current 17% market share. The recent Australia-China deal only seems to confirm this; hence uranium's growing popularity among miners and explorers. Such is the attractiveness of uranium-related floats, when Toro Energy sought $18m in March it was swamped with more than three times share application volume. In the north west, Southern Gold and Hindmarsh Resources are expectantly drilling for commercial uranium deposits all around the acreage that hosts the Challenger gold mine in the Gawler Craton. The first exploration drilling for uranium in quaternary-age river channels will take place in South Australia's far north in May. Red Metal says while older and deeper tertiary river channels in the area that host the Beverley uranium mine were explored for uranium, the younger near-surface channel has not had a single hole drilled for uranium. This is despite the area being one of the 'hottest radiogenic terrains in South Australia'. The company will target calcrete-style uranium mineralisation similar to the Yerrlirrie deposit in Western Australia (52,000t U308). Tasman Resources will start drilling to test seven uranium targets within 30km of Olympic Dam, the world's largest known uranium deposit, later this year. Tasman also holds tenements adjoining the Warrior uranium deposit near Tarcoola that contains known radiometric anomalies within the 40km-long Wynbring paleochannels. They are the fourth largest uranium explorer in South Australia. Alliance Resources and its JV partner Quasar Resources are exploring the Beverley 4 Mile uranium prospect at Arkaroola. Quasar is an affiliate of Heathgate Resources

  17. Addressing contrasting cognitive models in scientific collaboration

    Diviacco, P.


    If the social aspects of scientific communities and their internal dynamics is starting to be recognized and acknowledged in the everyday lives of scientists, it is rather difficult for them to find tools that could support their activities consistently with this perspective. Issues span from gathering researchers to mutual awareness, from information sharing to building meaning, with the last one being particularly critical in research fields as the geo-sciences, that deal with the reconstruction of unique, often non-reproducible, and contingent processes. Reasoning here is, in fact, mainly abductive, allowing multiple and concurrent explanations for the same phenomenon to coexist. Scientists bias one hypothesis over another not only on strictly logical but also on sociological motivations. Following a vision, scientists tend to evolve and isolate themselves from other scientists creating communities characterized by different cognitive models, so that after some time these become incompatible and scientists stop understanding each other. We address these problems as a communication issue so that the classic distinction into three levels (syntactic, semantic and pragmatic) can be used. At the syntactic level, we highlight non-technical obstacles that condition interoperability and data availability and transparency. At the semantic level, possible incompatibilities of cognitive models are particularly evident, so that using ontologies, cross-domain reconciliation should be applied. This is a very difficult task to perform since the projection of knowledge by scientists, in the designated community, is political and thus can create a lot of tension. The strategy we propose to overcome these issues pertains to pragmatics, in the sense that it is intended to acknowledge the cultural and personal factors each partner brings into the collaboration and is based on the idea that meaning should remain a flexible and contingent representation of possibly divergent views

  18. MAC Address as a Key for Data Encryption

    Al-Husainy, Dr. Mohammed Abbas Fadhil


    In computer networking, the Media Access Control (MAC) address is a unique value associated with a network adapter. MAC addresses are also known as hardware addresses or physical addresses. TCP/IP and other mainstream networking architectures generally adopt the OSI model. MAC addresses function at the data link layer (layer 2 in the OSI model). They allow computers to uniquely identify themselves on a network at this relatively low level. In this paper, suggested data encryption technique is...

  19. Temporal and Spatial Classification of Active IPv6 Addresses

    Plonka, David; Berger, Arthur


    There is striking volume of World-Wide Web activity on IPv6 today. In early 2015, one large Content Distribution Network handles 50 billion IPv6 requests per day from hundreds of millions of IPv6 client addresses; billions of unique client addresses are observed per month. Address counts, however, obscure the number of hosts with IPv6 connectivity to the global Internet. There are numerous address assignment and subnetting options in use; privacy addresses and dynamic subnet pools significant...

  20. Addressing Tobacco in Managed Care: Results of the 2002 Survey

    Carol McPhillips-Tangum


    Full Text Available Introduction In the United States, tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death and disease. The health and cost consequences of tobacco dependence have made treatment and prevention of tobacco use a key priority among multiple stakeholders, including health plans, insurers, providers, employers, and policymakers. In 2002, the third survey of tobacco control practices and policies in health plans was conducted by America’s Health Insurance Plans’ technical assistance office as part of the Addressing Tobacco in Managed Care (ATMC program. Methods The ATMC survey was conducted in the spring of 2002 via mail, e-mail, and fax. A 19-item survey instrument was developed and pilot-tested. Of the 19 items, 12 were the same as in previous years, four were modified to collect more detailed data on areas of key interest, and three were added to gain information about strategies to promote smoking cessation. The sample for the survey was drawn from the 687 plans listed in the national directory of member and nonmember health plans in America's Health Insurance Plans. Results Of the 246 plans in the sample, 152 plans (62% representing more than 43.5 million health maintenance organization members completed the survey. Results show that health plans are using evidence-based programs and clinical guidelines to address tobacco use. Compared to ATMC survey data collected in 1997 and 2000, the 2002 ATMC survey results indicate that more health plans are providing full coverage for first-line pharmacotherapies and telephone counseling for smoking cessation. Plans have also shown improvement in their ability to identify at least some members who smoke. Similarly, a greater percentage of plans are employing strategies to address smoking cessation during the postpartum period to prevent smoking relapse and during pediatric visits to reduce or eliminate children’s exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Conclusion The results of the 2002 ATMC survey

  1. Research on the Mo del of a Lightweight Resource Addressing

    LUO Bingqing; SUN Zhixin


    This paper discussed the characteristics of addressing from the perspective of Internet address-ing mechanism. An Internet of things (IOT) resource ad-dressing iteration model was defined. In the model, a di-rect addressing mode for active nodes and an indirect addressing mode for passive codes were proposed, which meet the requirement for multiple encoding mode. A uni-fied IOT resource lightweight addressing scheme based on IPv6 has been proposed to implement the two addressing modes. The scheme utilized the virtual domain to solve the problem of the heterogeneous encoding. The paper imple-mented the addressing process from the Internet host to the sensor node based on IPv6 over low-power wireless personal area networks (6LoWPAN) protocol. The experi-ment results show that the scheme is performed to realize communication between wireless sensor networks and IPv6 networks.

  2. Youth Unemployment and National Service.

    Thomas, Franklin A.

    This 1983 speech by the president of the Ford Foundation addresses the problem of youth unemployment and examines the case for adoption of a system of "National Service." The widening effects of structural unemployment are cited; and economic, demographic, and technological reasons for this phenomenon are outlined. National Service is described as…

  3. Addressing concerns related to geologic hazards at the site of the proposed Transuranic Waste Facility , TA-63, Los Alamos National Laboratory: focus on the current Los Alamos Seismic Network earthquake catalog, proximity of identified seismic events to the proposed facility , and evaluation of prev

    Roberts, Peter M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kelley, Richard E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    This technical paper presents the most recent and updated catalog of earthquakes measured by the Los Alamos Seismic Network at and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), with specific focus on the site of the proposed transuranic waste facility (TWF) at Technical Area 63 (TA-63). Any questions about the data presented herein, or about the Los Alamos Seismic Network, should be directed to the authors of this technical paper. LANL and the Los Alamos townsite sit atop the Pajarito Plateau, which is bounded on its western edge by the Pajarito fault system, a 35-mile-long system locally comprised of the down-to-the-east Pajarito fault (the master fault) and subsidiary down-to-the-west Rendija Canyon, Guaje Mountain, and Sawyer Canyon faults (Figure 1). This fault system forms the local active western margin of the Rio Grande rift near Los Alamos, and is potentially seismogenic (e.g., Gardner et al., 2001; Reneau et al., 2002; Lewis et al., 2009). The proposed TWF area at TA-63 is situated on an unnamed mesa in the north-central part of LANL between Twomile Canyon to the south, Ten Site Canyon to the north, and the headwaters of Canada del Buey to the east (Figure 2). The local bedrock is the Quaternary Bandelier Tuff, formed in two eruptive pulses from nearby Valles caldera, the eastern edge of which is located approximately 6.5 miles west-northwest of the technical area. The older member (Otowi Member) of the Bandelier Tuff has been dated at 1.61 Ma (Izett and Obradovich 1994). The younger member (Tshirege Member) of the Bandelier Tuff has been dated at 1.256 Ma (age from Phillips et al. 2007) and is widely exposed as the mesa-forming unit around Los Alamos. Several discrete cooling units comprise the Tshirege Member. Commonly accepted stratigraphic nomenclature for the Tshirege Member is described in detail by Broxton and Reneau (1995), Gardner et al. (2001), and Lewis et al. (2009). The Tshirege Member cooling unit exposed at the surface at TA-63 is Qbt3

  4. Opening Address: Japan's Nuclear Reactor Strategy

    Thank you very much Mr. Chairman for your kind introduction. Distinguished colleagues, ladies and gentlemen, it is a great pleasure for me to have the chance to address you here in Kyoto at this 'International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles (FR09)'. At the outset, I would like to thank the IAEA for organizing this conference and, taking this opportunity, I would like to assure its new Director General, Y. Amano, of Japan's continuing support for the IAEA. I am looking forward to continuing to work with the IAEA in order to extend the benefits of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and science and technology to a global population. We are witnessing today a global emergence of interest in the construction of nuclear power plants. There are a number of reasons for this. Major factors are the urgent and ever growing need for energy, particularly in the developing world, fluctuations in fossil fuel prices, the pursuit of security of energy supply and the growing recognition of the need to combat global warming. Despite the global economic crisis, the IAEA's latest projections continue to show a significant increase in nuclear generating capacity in the medium term. The low projection for 2030 is now 511 GW(e) of generating capacity, compared with 370 GW(e) today. The high projection is 807 GW(e); more than a doubling of present levels. Most of the 30 countries that already use nuclear power plan to expand their output. Growth targets have been raised significantly in China, India and the Russian Federation. In addition, according to the IAEA, some 50 countries - mostly in the developing world - have informed the IAEA that they might be interested in launching nuclear power programmes and 12 of these are actively considering nuclear power. Even in the high case projection, however, nuclear power's share of global power generation will go down from the current 16% level to 14% by 2030 and then rise to 22% by 2050, according to the projection

  5. Addressing an Uncertain Future Using Scenario Analysis

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris


    nature, such as the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). NEMS is the source of the influential Annual Energy Outlook whose business-as-usual (BAU) case, the Reference Case, forms the baseline for most of the U.S. energy policy discussion. NEMS is an optimizing model because: 1. it iterates to an equilibrium among modules representing the supply, demand, and energy conversion subsectors; and 2. several subsectoral models are individually solved using linear programs (LP). Consequently, it is deeply rooted in the recent past and any effort to simulate the consequences of a major regime shift as depicted in Figure 1 must come by applying an exogenously specified scenario. And, more generally, simulating futures that lie outside of our recent historic experience, even if they do not include regime switches suggest some form of scenario approach. At the same time, the statistical validity of scenarios that deviate significantly outside the ranges of historic inputs should be questioned.

  6. Addressing Parental Vaccine Concerns: Engagement, Balance, and Timing.

    Jason M Glanz


    Full Text Available The recent United States measles epidemic has sparked another contentious national discussion about childhood vaccination. A growing number of parents are expressing concerns about the safety of vaccines, often fueled by misinformation from the internet, books, and other nonmedical sources. Many of these concerned parents are choosing to refuse or delay childhood vaccines, placing their children and surrounding communities at risk for serious diseases that are nearly 100% preventable with vaccination. Between 10% and 15% of parents are asking physicians to space out the timing of vaccines, which often poses an ethical dilemma for physicians. This trend reflects a tension between personal liberty and public health, as parents fight to control the decisions that affect the health of their children and public health officials strive to maintain high immunization rates to prevent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Interventions to address this emerging public health issue are needed. We describe a framework by which web-based interventions can be used to help parents make evidence-based decisions about childhood vaccinations.

  7. Modelling the economic impacts of addressing climate change

    This Power Point report presents highlights of the latest economic modelling of Canada's Kyoto commitment to address climate change. It presents framework assumptions and a snapshot under 4 scenarios. The objective of this report is to evaluate the national, sectoral, provincial and territorial impacts of the federal reference case policy package in which the emissions reduction target is 170 Mt from a business-as-usual scenario. The reference case policy package also includes 30 Mt of sinks from current packages of which 20 Mt are derived from the forestry sector and the remainder from agricultural sector. The report examined 4 scenarios based on 2 international carbon prices ($10 and $50) per tonne of carbon dioxide in 2010. The scenarios were also based on the fiscal assumptions that climate change initiatives and revenue losses would directly affect the governments' balances, or that the government balances are maintained by increasing personal income tax. A comparison of impacts under each of the 4 scenarios to 2010 was presented. The model presents impacts on GDP, employment, disposable income per household, and energy prices. 4 tabs., 4 figs

  8. Address forms in Persian based on Iranian movies

    Derakhshan Rokni, Tina


    The present thesis: “Address forms in Persian language based on Iranian movies”, investigates address forms as socio-linguistic forms which are directly related to social factors such as age, gender and social class. In the Persian language there is a strong tradition of addressing each other in various ways, changing from one context to another. Addressing is a universal phenomenon, but the rules that govern the choice are different from one language to another. So, the hierarchical struc...

  9. Results Analysis of IP Address Auto- Configuration in Wireless Manets

    S. Zahoor Ul Huq


    Full Text Available The main task of an address allocation protocol is to manage the address allocation to the nodes in the ad hoc MANETs. All routing protocols assume nodes to be configured a priori with a uniqueIP address. Allocating addresses to mobile nodes is a fundamental and difficult problem. A mobile device cannot participate in unicast communications until it is assigned a conflict-free IP address. So addressing in MANETs is of significant importance, and the address configuration process should be fast, as the algorithm must be able to select, allocate and assign a unique network address to the unconfigured node before with a unique IP address. Here we are providing two solutions for unique address assignment. One is by the using the broadcasting method (BrM, in which unique addresses are assigned, unique addresses are assigned with the cost of network load. This method works fine whenever a new ad hoc network has to be initiated and at a same time a group of nodes have to be configured with a unique IP addresses. But this method loads the network with much network traffic, when new nodes are to be joined. In order to overcome this we are using another approach which uses Modular Arithmetic (MoA. Modular Arithmetic with some modifications is used to generate the unique IP Addresses without loading the network. The proposed scheme is capable of assigning a unique IP address with low communicationoverhead, even addresses distribution and low latency when applied to large scale MANETs and even supports network merging and partitioning..

  10. Incorporating Natural Helpers to Address Service Disparities for Young Children with Conduct Problems

    Acevedo-Polakovich, I. David; NIEC, LARISSA N.; Barnet, Miya L.; Bell, Katrina M.


    In response to the high levels of unmet need among historically underserved young children with conduct problems, this paper outlines some of the key issues involved in incorporating natural helpers into the delivery of parenting interventions for the treatment of conduct problems among historically underserved children. Strategies for the selection and training of natural helpers are discussed along with challenges that might be encountered in these processes. Directions for future research ...

  11. Address Terms among University Students in Ghana: A Case Study

    Afful, Joseph Benjamin Archibald


    An important feature of the interface between language and society is the use of address terms. Following Brown and Gilman (1960), research studies of address terms have been extended to several cultural settings. This study contributes to this fertile area of sociolinguistic studies by describing the address terms used among undergraduates in an…

  12. 76 FR 22681 - Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Address Directory


    ... of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Address Directory AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) is updating its Address Directory which is.... Jody Sinkler, 703-767-5045. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: DLA Address Directory: Defense Logistics...

  13. 47 CFR 69.128 - Billing name and address.


    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Billing name and address. 69.128 Section 69.128... Computation of Charges § 69.128 Billing name and address. Appropriate subelements shall be established for the use of equipment or facilities that are associated with offerings of billing name and address....

  14. 77 FR 61418 - National Institute of Nursing Research; Notice of Closed Meeting


    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Nursing Research; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Institute of Nursing Research Special Emphasis Panel; Addressing Needs of...: Tamizchelvi Thyagarajan, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Nursing Research,...

  15. Unmet Need for Family Planning, Contraceptive Failure, and Unintended Pregnancy among HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Women in Zimbabwe

    McCoy, Sandra I.; Raluca Buzdugan; Ralph, Lauren J.; Angela Mushavi; Agnes Mahomva; Anna Hakobyan; Constancia Watadzaushe; Jeffrey Dirawo; Cowan, Frances M; Padian, Nancy S


    BACKGROUND: Prevention of unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV infection is a strategy recommended by the World Health Organization for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). We assessed pregnancy intentions and contraceptive use among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women with a recent pregnancy in Zimbabwe. METHODS: We analyzed baseline data from the evaluation of Zimbabwe's Accelerated National PMTCT Program. Eligible women were randomly sampled from the cat...

  16. Addressing Geriatric Oral Health Concerns through National Oral Health Policy in India

    Abhinav Singh


    Full Text Available There is an escalating demand for geriatric oral healthcare in all developed and developing countries including India. Two-thirds of the world’s elderly live in developing countries. This is a huge population that must receive attention from policy-makers who will be challenged by the changing demands for social and health services including oral health services. Resources are limited thus rather than being aspirational in wanting to provide all treatment needed for everybody, this critique presents a road map of how we might answer the present and future geriatric oral health concerns in a most efficient manner in a developing country. Viewing the recent Indian demographic profile and the trends in oral health, pertinent policy subjects have been discussed concerning the oral health needs of the elderly and also the associated challenges which include strategies to improve quality of life, strategies to train and educate the dental workforce and above all the role of healthcare systems towards realization of better aged society in India and other developing countries

  17. Leg ulcers in older people: a national study addressing variation in diagnosis, pain and sleep disturbance

    Hellström, Amanda; Nilsson, Camilla; Nilsson, Annina; Fagerström, Cecilia


    Background Leg ulcers commonly emerge as a symptom of other comorbidities, often in older people. As a consequence of the ulcer, pain and sleep disturbances might occur. Due to the complex illness, the responsibility of treatment is unclear between health caregivers. The interaction between ulcer type, sleep and pain has not previously been investigated. This study aimed to explore pain in older men and women (65 years and older) with different diagnoses of leg ulcers and to investigate the a...

  18. Technology Strategies to Address Grade-Level Outcomes: National Standards 1 and 2

    Baert, Helena


    The need to prepare students to thrive in the digital world and the benefit of using instructional technology have both been widely recognized in education. As new technology becomes available, its use by both students and teachers must be carefully evaluated. Technology can help enhance learning and facilitate the teaching process, if and when it…

  19. 78 FR 13776 - National Organic Program: Notice of Policies Addressing Kelp, Seeds and Planting Stock, Livestock...


    ... request for public comment on four draft guidance documents (76 FR 34180). The topics covered in the draft... Livestock Feed; ``NOP 5029-- Seeds, Annual Seedlings, and Planting Stock in Organic Crop Production''; and... Guidance Practices (GGPs) (January 25, 2007, 72 FR 3432-3440). The purpose of GGPs is to ensure...

  20. Addressing national priorities through nuclear technology: Application of stable isotope techniques in evaluating nutritional intervention programs

    The concept is a new concept in Kenya that need driven technology. A paradigm shift from the conventional methods of measuring breast milk intake by means of weighing infants before and after feeding. A validation tool against anthropometrical measures of body fat through body density and skin-fold measurements. A reliable, accurate and non-invasive tool for monitoring lean body mass changes in clinical assessments.Isotopes Techniques in Body composition assessment.Technique-based Parameters of efficacy and/or effect are: Isotope (deuterium) dose given orally to subject (about 30 grams),Saliva (or urine) samples collected after 3-4 hrs, Concentration of isotope in saliva is measured using Fourier Transformed Infra-red Spectrophotometer (FTIR), Concentration gives the Total Body Water (TBW) component in the body, TBW = 73% Fat Free Mass (FFM), Calculate FFM (kg) from equation and subtract from Total Body Weight (kg) to get value of Fat Mass (kg)

  1. [Violence in old age: the issue addressed in indexed national journals].

    de Castro, Anúbes Pereira; Guilam, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Sousa, Eduardo Sérgio Soares; Marcondes, Willer Baumgarten


    One of the consequences of increased life expectancy is the increase in the elderly population in many countries, including Brazil. Considering the vulnerability of this age group and the increasing prevalence of violence against the elderly, there is a pressing need for research and control interventions to minimize the phenomenon. This exploratory and descriptive article conducts an analysis into this topic in indexed Brazilian studies in SciELO, with special emphasis on the last five years. The themes were categorized into: Social construction and conceptualizations, 37.5%; Elderly Care and Protection Policies, 43.75%; and Typology of violence against the elderly, 18.75%. The results show that the Policy of protection of the elderly permeates the majority of discussions about violence in old age and the focus of the researchers' attention is on domestic violence, which needs to be broadened in field research. PMID:23670456

  2. Assisted reproductive technologies are an integrated part of national strategies addressing demographic and reproductive challenges

    Ziebe, Søren; Devroey, Paul; Jensen, Tina Kold


    The decline in the total fertility rate in the latter half of the 20th century in many European countries is becoming increasingly important in determining the demographic composition of Europe and its individual member states. This review focuses on discussion surrounding how assisted reproducti...

  3. 77 FR 43481 - Taking Additional Steps to Address the National Emergency With Respect to Somalia


    ... ] maiming, sexual and gender-based violence, attacks on schools and hospitals, taking hostages, and forced..., 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-18237 Filed 7-23-12; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... of violence committed against civilians in Somalia, all of which contribute to the deterioration...

  4. SRSA Presidential Address: Local Economic Impact of the Great Recession of 2008-2009

    Connaughton, John E.


    SRSA Presidential Address: The 2008/2009 recession has been the worst recession since World War II. The national unemployment rate went from 5.0 percent to over 10 percent in less than two years. GDP was negative during five of the six quarters during 2008 and the first half of 2009. Over 8.3 million establishment jobs were lost during the first 24 months of the recession. While the national numbers are staggering, the state and local impacts are quite varied. In this presentation I will iden...

  5. Name-Based Address Mapping for Virtual Private Networks

    Surányi, Péter; Shinjo, Yasushi; Kato, Kazuhiko

    IPv4 private addresses are commonly used in local area networks (LANs). With the increasing popularity of virtual private networks (VPNs), it has become common that a user connects to multiple LANs at the same time. However, private address ranges for LANs frequently overlap. In such cases, existing systems do not allow the user to access the resources on all LANs at the same time. In this paper, we propose name-based address mapping for VPNs, a novel method that allows connecting to hosts through multiple VPNs at the same time, even when the address ranges of the VPNs overlap. In name-based address mapping, rather than using the IP addresses used on the LANs (the real addresses), we assign a unique virtual address to each remote host based on its domain name. The local host uses the virtual addresses to communicate with remote hosts. We have implemented name-based address mapping for layer 3 OpenVPN connections on Linux and measured its performance. The communication overhead of our system is less than 1.5% for throughput and less than 0.2ms for each name resolution.

  6. Responsible nations

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper


    In National Responsibility and Global Justice, David Miller defends the view that a member of a nation can be collectively responsible for an outcome despite the fact that: (i) she did not control it; (ii) she actively opposed those of her nation's policies that produced the outcome; and (iii...... cooperative practice model*ground neither synchronic nor diachronic national responsibility, nor apply in the case of nations generally speaking....

  7. Addressing security issues related to virtual institute distributed activities

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.


    One issue confounding the development and experimentation of distributed modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its activities are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the

  8. Address Points, GLYNN.ADDRESSES - Glynn County 911 Address, Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Glynn County Board of Commissioners.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2010. It is described as...

  9. Addressing the financing needs of small businesses in the Seventh Federal Reserve District

    Jeremiah P. Boyle


    Addressing the Financing Needs of Small Businesses is a Federal Reserve System initiative designed to inform policymakers on the issues that restrict the flow of credit and opportunities to improve the flow of credit to small businesses. A widely held view among policymakers and other observers is that economic recovery and prospects for job growth will falter if small businesses cannot meet payroll, pay suppliers and invest in innovation and expansion. ; As part of this national initiative, ...

  10. Partnerships as panacea for addressing global problems? On rationale, context, actors, impact and limitations

    Kolk, A.


    This chapter examines partnerships and their peculiarities, based on recent research from various disciplines, in the context of the large problems faced by (global) society. These problems are very complex, often cross national boundaries, and cannot easily be 'solved' by one single actor. Previous 'unilateral' attempts to address them have not been particularly successful, and there are limits to what a single actor can do. Cooperation also enables different actors to leverage their resourc...

  11. Potential opportunities to reduce cervical cancer by addressing risk factors other than HPV

    Kumar, Ramaiah Vinay; Bhasker, Suman


    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in developing world and 80% of global burden is reported from these nations. Human papillomavirus along with poverty, illiteracy/lower education level and standards, multi-parity, tobacco, malnutrition and poor genital hygiene may act synergistically to cause cervical cancer. Risk factor of cervical cancer may in itself be the reason for non-viability of cervical cancer vaccine program in this part of the world. Interventions to address these risk fac...

  12. A New Method to Detect Abnormal IP Address on DHCP

    Ling-Feng Chiang; Jiang-Whai Dai


    Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) provides a means of allocating and managing IP addresses dynamically over a network. An important characteristic of the DHCP server is that different hosts or network cards are not allowed to simultaneously use the same IP address in the DHCP mechanism. However, anyone can guest corresponding parameters such as IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway from the DHCP mode, and then reconfigure a static IP to access the network from DHCP mode. Accor...

  13. Discovery of IPv6 router interface addresses via heuristic methods

    Gray, Matthew D.


    With the assignment of the last available blocks of public IPv4 addresses from Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, there is continued pressure for widespread IPv6 adoption. Because the IPv6 address space is orders of magnitude larger than the IPv4 address space, researchers need new methods and techniques to accurately measure and characterize growth in IPv6. This thesis focuses on IPv6 router infrastructure and examines the possibility of using heuristic methods in order to discover IPv6 ro...

  14. Profiling the Australian Consumer of Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Secondary Analysis of National Health Survey Data.

    Leach, Matthew J


    use of CAM in this high-need population suggests that the present health care system may be inadequate in addressing the needs of these consumers and that CAM may play an important role in servicing these unmet demands. PMID:27548495

  15. The significance of addressing trauma in outpatient psychiatry.

    Al-Saffar, S; Borgå, P; Lawoko, S; Edman, G; Hällström, T


    Establishing post-traumatic stress disorder as a psychiatric diagnosis has only marginally increased awareness of traumatic experiences. Traumas are inconsistently recorded in initial psychiatric histories and, when observed, rarely reflected in the primary diagnosis and treatment. The present study aimed to investigate if there is an association between sufficiently addressing trauma and long-term outcome and what factors affect whether trauma, according to the patient's view, is sufficiently addressed or not. Socio-demographic data, experiences of trauma and treatment, and outcome, were collected retrospectively from Arabic, Iranian, Turkish and Swedish patients, who had visited a psychiatric clinic 3-4 years earlier. Fifty-one patients whose traumatic experiences had been sufficiently addressed were compared with 39 patients who perceived that their traumas had not been addressed. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine relationships between clinical variables and whether or not traumas had been addressed. Patients with trauma sufficiently addressed reported high confidence in staff (odds ratio, OR=7.2, pSwede (OR=2.4, p<0.10) were the background variables independently related to having trauma sufficiently addressed. Addressing trauma may improve patients' confidence in staff, self-rated health and trauma-related symptoms. Multiplicity of traumas and belonging to an ethnic minority implied that trauma was less addressed. PMID:15370780




    A novel mechanism was specified by which a node in ad hoc network may autoconfigure an IP address which is unique throughout the mobile ad hoc network. This new algorithm imposes less and constant overhead and delay in obtaining an IP address, and fully utilizes the available addresses space of an ad hoc network, and independent of the existing routing protocol, and less prone to security threats. Moreover, a new Join/Leave mechanism was proposed as an enhancement to the new IP address autoconfiguration algorithm, to support the overall operation of the existing routing protocol of wireless ad hoc networks.

  17. HCAHPS - National

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The national average for the HCAHPS survey categories. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...

  18. Payment - National

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment measures – national data. This data set includes national-level data for the payment measures associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart attack,...

  19. Complications - National

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Complications - national data. This data set includes national-level data the hip/knee complication measure, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality...

  20. Method for the electro-addressable functionalization of electrode arrays

    Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Dirk, Shawn M.; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Brozik, Susan M.


    A method for preparing an electrochemical biosensor uses bias-assisted assembly of unreactive -onium molecules on an electrode array followed by post-assembly electro-addressable conversion of the unreactive group to a chemical or biological recognition group. Electro-addressable functionalization of electrode arrays enables the multi-target electrochemical sensing of biological and chemical analytes.

  1. The (Im)possibility of the Project: Radford Address

    Green, Bill


    In this address, the author engages both with the possibility "and" the impossibility of the educational project--and suggests something of what it means to say this. His presentation is specifically addressed to the theme of the (im)possibility of the educational project. He draws from philosophy, literature, psychoanalysis and history, as well…

  2. The "Depreciation" and "Appreciation" of Some Address Terms in China.

    Zhucheng, Ju


    Examines how the cultural revolution in China has changed, to some extent, the rules governing the use of address terms, discussing the close interrelation between the use of address terms and cultural values and how the change in mental outlook has led to the depreciation or appreciation of certain terms. (Author/CB)

  3. Chair's Address: Voices of the Company We Keep

    Anokye, Akua Duku


    This article presents a written version of the address Akua Duku Anokye, chairwoman of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC), gave at the CCCC meeting in New York on March 24, 2007. In her address, Anokye talked about the importance of how an entity or an individual is known by the company they keep. To learn with whom has…

  4. Student Perceptions of Faculty Credibility Based on Email Addresses

    Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Scafe, Marla G.; Wiechowski, Linda S.


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate students' perceptions of faculty credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at an upper division business school in Michigan where all students have completed at least two years of college courses. The survey results show that a faculty member's selection of an email address does…

  5. Faculty Perceptions of Student Credibility Based on Email Addresses

    Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Wiechowski, Linda S.; Scafe, Marla G.


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate faculty perceptions of student credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at an upper division business school in Michigan where all students have completed at least two years of college courses. The survey results show that a student's selection of an email address does influence the…

  6. Student Perceptions of Peer Credibility Based on Email Addresses

    Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Scafe, Marla G.; Wiechowski, Linda S.; Maier, David J.


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate students' perceptions of their peer's credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at a community college in Michigan where all students were registered and actively taking at least one course. The survey results show that a student's selection of an email address does influence other…

  7. Addressing the risk of inadequate and excessive micronutrient intakes: traditional versus new approaches to setting adequate and safe micronutrient levels in foods

    Maaike J. Bruins


    Full Text Available Fortification of foods consumed by the general population or specific food products or supplements designed to be consumed by vulnerable target groups is amongst the strategies in developing countries to address micronutrient deficiencies. Any strategy aimed at dietary change needs careful consideration, ensuring the needs of at-risk subgroups are met whilst ensuring safety within the general population. This paper reviews the key principles of two main assessment approaches that may assist developing countries in deciding on effective and safe micronutrient levels in foods or special products designed to address micronutrient deficiencies, that is, the cut-point method and the stepwise approach to risk–benefit assessment. In the first approach, the goal is to shift population intake distributions such that intake prevalences below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR and above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL are both minimized. However, for some micronutrients like vitamin A and zinc, a narrow margin between the EAR and UL exists. Increasing their intakes through mass fortification may pose a dilemma; not permitting the UL to be exceeded provides assurance about the safety within the population but can potentially leave a proportion of the target population with unmet needs, or vice versa. Risk–benefit approaches assist in decision making at different micronutrient intake scenarios by balancing the magnitude of potential health benefits of reducing inadequate intakes against health risks of excessive intakes. Risk–benefit approaches consider different aspects of health risk including severity and number of people affected. This approach reduces the uncertainty for policy makers as compared to classic cut-point methods.

  8. Is Sport Nationalism Justifiable?

    José Luis Pérez Triviño


    Full Text Available The article aims to clarify the deep relationships established between sport and nationalism by considering, among other factors, the instrumentalisation of sport by political elites, political apathy of citizens, economic resources for sport, the question of violence or identitarian matters. In order to define if the combination of sport and nationalism is admissible, the paper defines sport nationalism and distinguishes the political use of sport for purposes of domestic and foreign policy. In the first section the analysis focuses on whether a causal link with respect to the contribution to violence can be established and with respect to its use in the internal politics of a state, the paper differentiates between normal political circumstances and political crises in order to properly address the question of whether there are grounds to assert that sport can distract citizens from asserting their genuine interests.

  9. Is Sport Nationalism Justifiable?

    José Luis Pérez Triviño


    Full Text Available The article aims to clarify the deep relationships established between sport and nationalism by considering, among other factors, the instrumentalisation of sport by political elites, political apathy of citizens, economic resources for sport, the question of violence or identitarian matters. In order to define if the combination of sport and nationalism is admissible, the paper defines sport nationalism and distinguishes the political use of sport for purposes of domestic and foreign policy. In the first section the analysis focuses on whether a causal link with respect to the contribution to violence can be established and with respect to its use in the internal politics of a state, the paper differentiates between normal political circumstances and political crises in order to properly address the question of whether there are grounds to assert that sport can distract citizens from asserting their genuine interests.

  10. National Flood Interoperability Experiment

    Maidment, D. R.


    The National Flood Interoperability Experiment is led by the academic community in collaboration with the National Weather Service through the new National Water Center recently opened on the Tuscaloosa campus of the University of Alabama. The experiment will also involve the partners in IWRSS (Integrated Water Resources Science and Services), which include the USGS, the Corps of Engineers and FEMA. The experiment will address the following questions: (1) How can near-real-time hydrologic forecasting at high spatial resolution, covering the nation, be carried out using the NHDPlus or next generation geofabric (e.g. hillslope, watershed scales)? (2) How can this lead to improved emergency response and community resilience? (3) How can improved an improved interoperability framework support the first two goals and lead to sustained innovation in the research to operations process? The experiment will run from September 2014 through August 2015, in two phases. The mobilization phase from September 2014 until May 2015 will assemble the components of the interoperability framework. A Summer Institute to integrate the components will be held from June to August 2015 at the National Water Center involving faculty and students from the University of Alabama and other institutions coordinated by CUAHSI. It is intended that the insight that arises from this experiment will help lay the foundation for a new national scale, high spatial resolution, near-real-time hydrologic simulation system for the United States.

  11. Addressing policy needs for prevention and control of type 2 diabetes in India.

    Atre, Sachin


    India carries nearly one-fifth of the global burden of diabetes cases, the majority of which are of type 2 diabetes. Recognising the need for controlling diabetes, the Government of India has initiated a national level programme for prevention and control of diabetes along with other non-communicable diseases in 2008. Despite being piloted and implemented, there is hardly any published literature about the national level situation of diabetes and its control efforts. The present article is written with the aim to fill this gap to some extent and to provide a situational analysis of the diabetes problem in India in a holistic way, addressing policy needs for the national programme. It focuses on three main areas, namely, awareness of diabetes, costs of drugs for its treatment and healthcare-system related issues. It argues that poor coverage and weak implementation of the national level programme are major forces that push patients to seek help in the weakly regulated private sector. Approaching the private sector is likely to increase the cost of care, which in turn can lead to an increased financial burden for patients and their families due to factors such as patients' lack of awareness about diabetes, poor drug price regulation and prescriptions including combinations and/or patented products of medicines used for treating diabetes by the private sector. This article addresses several needs such as strengthening the national programme and increasing its reach to unreached districts, exerting drug price regulation and implementing community-based participatory programmes for prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. It also underscores a need for piloting and implementing a robust national level electronic reporting system for diabetes programmes. PMID:25585513

  12. Culinary nationalism.

    Ferguson, Priscilla Parkhurst


    Culinary consciousness raisers, cooking texts often serve as vehicles of national identification. From Pampille (Marthe Allard Daudet) and her cookbook, Les Bons Plats de France, in 1913 to the international culinary competitions of today such as the Bocuse d'or, culinary distinction promotes national interests. In contrast to the strident nationalism of the early twentieth century, culinary nationalism today operates in an increasingly globalized world. National culinary distinction defines the nation and sells its products in a highly competitive international arena. A recent culinary text, the South Korean film Le Grand Chef [Sik Gaek ] (2007), illustrates the phenomenon, subsuming national culinary promotion in a mega culinary competition, all in the service of Korean culinary achievement. PMID:21539054

  13. National Library of Medicine Web Resources for Student Health Professionals

    Womble, R.


    Familiarize students affiliated with the Student National Medical Association with the National Library of Medicine's online resources that address medical conditions, health disparities, and public health preparedness needs.

  14. Idaho National Laboratory Mission Accomplishments, Fiscal Year 2015

    Allen, Todd Randall [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Virginia Latta [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    A summary of mission accomplishments for the research organizations at the Idaho National Laboratory for FY 2015. Areas include Nuclear Energy, National and Homeland Security, Science and Technology Addressing Broad DOE Missions; Collaborations; and Stewardship and Operation of Research Facilities.

  15. Duplicate Address Detection Table in IPv6 Mobile Networks

    Alisherov, Farkhod; Kim, Taihoon

    In IP networks, each computer or communication equipment needs an IP address. To supply enough IP addresses, the new Internet protocol IPv6 is used in next generatoion mobile communication. Although IPv6 improves the existing IPv4 Internet protocol, Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) mechanism may consume resources and suffer from long delay. DAD is used to ensure whether the IP address is unique or not. When a mobile node performs an inter-domain handoff, it will first generate a new IP and perform a DAD procedure. The DAD procedure not only wastes time but also increases the signaling load on Internet. In this paper, the author proposes a new DAD mechanism to speed up the DAD procedure. A DAD table is created in access or mobility routers in IP networks and record all IP addresses of the area. When a new IP address needs to perform DAD, it can just search in the DAD table to confirm the uniqueness of the address.

  16. The SolemnAddress Uttered by Vasile Goldiş in Alba-Iulia on 1 December, 1918

    Eugen GAGEA


    In the report he presented before the Great National Assembly of Alba-Iulia, Vasile Goldişunderlined some of the ideals for which humankind had fought and continued to fight in the postwarperiod: national freedom, social equality. The solemn address he uttered is an expression of hishumanism and confidence in human civilization, of the conviction that the organization of ademocratic state and the achievement of equality of rights for all citizens are and must be a “workof civilization”.

  17. IPv6 addressing proxy: mapping native addressing from legacy technologies and devices to the Internet of Things (IPv6).

    Jara, Antonio J; Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro; Skarmeta, Antonio F; Varakliotis, Socrates; Kirstein, Peter


    Sensors utilize a large number of heterogeneous technologies for a varied set of application environments. The sheer number of devices involved requires that this Internet be the Future Internet, with a core network based on IPv6 and a higher scalability in order to be able to address all the devices, sensors and things located around us. This capability to connect through IPv6 devices, sensors and things is what is defining the so-called Internet of Things (IoT). IPv6 provides addressing space to reach this ubiquitous set of sensors, but legacy technologies, such as X10, European Installation Bus (EIB), Controller Area Network (CAN) and radio frequency ID (RFID) from the industrial, home automation and logistic application areas, do not support the IPv6 protocol. For that reason, a technique must be devised to map the sensor and identification technologies to IPv6, thus allowing homogeneous access via IPv6 features in the context of the IoT. This paper proposes a mapping between the native addressing of each technology and an IPv6 address following a set of rules that are discussed and proposed in this work. Specifically, the paper presents a technology-dependent IPv6 addressing proxy, which maps each device to the different subnetworks built under the IPv6 prefix addresses provided by the internet service provider for each home, building or user. The IPv6 addressing proxy offers a common addressing environment based on IPv6 for all the devices, regardless of the device technology. Thereby, this offers a scalable and homogeneous solution to interact with devices that do not support IPv6 addressing. The IPv6 addressing proxy has been implemented in a multi-protocol Sensors 2013, 13 6688 card and evaluated successfully its performance, scalability and interoperability through a protocol built over IPv6. PMID:23686145

  18. IPv6 Addressing Proxy: Mapping Native Addressing from Legacy Technologies and Devices to the Internet of Things (IPv6

    Peter Kirstein


    Full Text Available Sensors utilize a large number of heterogeneous technologies for a varied set of application environments. The sheer number of devices involved requires that this Internet be the Future Internet, with a core network based on IPv6 and a higher scalability in order to be able to address all the devices, sensors and things located around us. This capability to connect through IPv6 devices, sensors and things is what is defining the so-called Internet of Things (IoT. IPv6 provides addressing space to reach this ubiquitous set of sensors, but legacy technologies, such as X10, European Installation Bus (EIB, Controller Area Network (CAN and radio frequency ID (RFID from the industrial, home automation and logistic application areas, do not support the IPv6 protocol. For that reason, a technique must be devised to map the sensor and identification technologies to IPv6, thus allowing homogeneous access via IPv6 features in the context of the IoT. This paper proposes a mapping between the native addressing of each technology and an IPv6 address following a set of rules that are discussed and proposed in this work. Specifically, the paper presents a technology-dependent IPv6 addressing proxy, which maps each device to the different subnetworks built under the IPv6 prefix addresses provided by the internet service provider for each home, building or user. The IPv6 addressing proxy offers a common addressing environment based on IPv6 for all the devices, regardless of the device technology. Thereby, this offers a scalable and homogeneous solution to interact with devices that do not support IPv6 addressing. The IPv6 addressing proxy has been implemented in a multi-protocol Sensors 2013, 13 6688 card and evaluated successfully its performance, scalability and interoperability through a protocol built over IPv6.

  19. Bringing location to IP Addresses withIP Geolocation

    Jamie Taylor; Joseph Devlin; Kevin Curran


    IP Geolocation allows us to assign a geographicallocation to an IP addressallowing us to build up a picture of the person behind that IP address.This can have many potential benefits for business and other types of application.The IP address of a device is unique to that device and as such the location can be narrowed down from the continent to the country and even to the street address of the device. This method of tracking can have very broad resultsand can sometimes only get an accurate re...

  20. ALEX: Improving SIP Support in Systems with Multiple Network Addresses

    Torrero, Livio; Risso, Fulvio Giovanni Ottavio; Baldi, Mario


    The successful and increasingly adopted session initiation protocol (SIP) does not adequately support hosts with multiple network addresses, such as dual-stack (IPv4-IPv6) or IPv6 multi-homed devices. This paper presents the Address List Extension (ALEX) to SIP that adds effective support to systems with multiple addresses, such as dual-stack hosts or multi-homed IPv6 hosts. ALEX enables IPv6 transport to be used for SIP messages, as well as for communication sessions between SIP user agents ...

  1. IP address lookup for Internet routers using cache routing table

    Houassi Hichem; Bilami Azeddine


    So that the routers forward an IP packet with his destination, they are running a forwarding decision on an incoming packet to determine the packet's next-hop router. This is achieved by looking up the longest matching prefix with a packet destination address in the routing tables. Therefore, one major factor in the overall performance of a router is the speed of the IP address lookup operation due to the increase in routing table size, in this paper, a new IP address lookup algorithm based o...

  2. The needs of people with HIV in the UK: findings from a national survey.

    Anderson, W J; Weatherburn, P


    The aim of this study was to describe the needs of people living with HIV in the UK. A questionnaire addressing 17 areas of need was completed by 1821 people living with HIV in the UK. The core need indicator was a personal assessment of happiness with current state. A quarter of all respondents were happy with their current state across all needs. For each need, the following proportions were unhappy with their current state: sex, 40%; anxiety/depression, 33%; sleep, 32%; self-confidence, 32%; money, 28%; household chores and self-care, 18%; housing, 18%; appetite, eating and drinking, 17%; friendships, 17%; discrimination, 16%; mobility, 15%; dealing with health professionals, 15%; relationships, 14%; drugs and alcohol, 9%; taking treatments regularly, 5%; HIV treatment knowledge, 4%; looking after children, 2%. Although some people with HIV are coping well with minimal unmet need, the overall picture of need is dominated by personal, social and economic issues. PMID:15601484

  3. Web Sites that Address Gestational Diabetes and Perinatal Obesity

    Montgomery, Kristen S.


    Obesity contributes to multiple health problems during pregnancy and predisposes a woman to develop gestational diabetes. This column reviews the currently best Web sites that address gestational diabetes and obesity during the perinatal period.

  4. 32 CFR 806.26 - Addressing FOIA requests.


    ... AFCEE/MSI, 3207 North Road, Brooks AFB, TX 78235-5363. (4) Air Force Civil Engineering Support Agency... FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.26 Addressing FOIA requests. (a) FOIA requests concerning...

  5. 27 CFR 7.25 - Name and address.


    ... false or misleading impression as to the geographic origin of the beer. (2) If malt beverages are... address in connection with the particular malt beverage. (Approved by the Office of Management and...

  6. Building a next generation Internet with source address validation architecture

    WU JianPing; REN Gang; LI Xing


    The IP packet forwarding of current Internet is mainly destination based. In the forwarding process, the source IP address is not checked in most cases.This causes serious security, management and accounting problems. Based on the drastically increased IPv6 address space, a "source address validation architecture" (SAVA) is proposed in this paper, which can guarantee that every packet received and forwarded holds an authenticated source IP address. The design goals of the architecture are lightweight, loose coupling, "multi-fence support" and incremental deployment. This paper discusses the design and implementation for the architecture, including inter-AS, intra-AS and local subnet. The performance and scalability of SAVA are described. This architecture is deployed into the CNGI-CERNET2infrastructure--a large-scale native IPv6 backbone network of the China Next Generation Internet project. We believe that the SAVA will help the transition to a new, more secure and dependable Internet.

  7. Find Shortage Areas: HPSA & MUA/P by Address

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Find Shortage Areas: Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA) and Medically Underserved Area/Population (MUA/P) by Address tool is a locator tool designed to...

  8. Address Points, Published in Not Provided, Shield Engineering, Inc..

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset as of Not Provided. Data by this publisher are often provided in Not Applicable coordinate system; in a Not Applicable projection; The...

  9. Management of Address Information to Improve Quality of Customer Contact

    CHANG Taiwoo; PARK Jinwoo; PARK Chankwon; JEONG Hanil; NAM Yunseok


    Customer relationship management systems are gaining importance in today's business environment since customer satisfaction is crucial to the success of an enterprise, and especially so in e-business environment where customers can find substitute suppliers quite easily. In CRM, the quality of customer information is very important, and the address information even more so. It is because the address information plays a major role for customer contact channel and for timely and effective marketing service. Furthermore, it gives the basic source of geographic information for the offline delivery, the terminal activity of the e-commerce. In this study, we analyze various standards and proposals for the address information, and propose data models for the management of the information focusing on address components, and proto-type systems for management and service.

  10. Address Points, Greenclp, Published in 2005, Daggett County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2005. It is described as 'Greenclp'. Data by this publisher are often...

  11. Address Points, areas, Published in 2008, Daggett County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'areas'. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  12. Address Points, Manilaclp, Published in 2005, Daggett County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2005. It is described as 'Manilaclp'. Data by this publisher are often...

  13. Address Points, birch, Published in 2005, Daggett County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as 'birch'. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  14. Address Points, Birchclp, Published in 2005, Daggett County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2005. It is described as 'Birchclp'. Data by this publisher are often...

  15. Address Points, gridTest, Published in 2005, Daggett County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2005. It is described as 'gridTest'. Data by this publisher are often...

  16. Address Points, Clayclp, Published in 2005, Daggett County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as 'Clayclp'. Data by this publisher are often provided...

  17. Address Points, Dutchclp, Published in 2005, Daggett County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as 'Dutchclp'. Data by this publisher are often provided...

  18. Address Points, Manila, Published in 2005, Daggett County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as 'Manila'. Data by this publisher are often provided...

  19. Address Points, areas-bk, Published in 2005, Daggett County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as 'areas-bk'. Data by this publisher are often provided...

  20. Nationalism in Contemporary Nation States

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt


    cases and countries with an overweight of national liberals, e.g. the US, and an overweight of de-constructivists, e.g. Japan, that are not well-captured by Kohn’s original framework. Furthermore, the study finds changes in nation-perceptions, especially in Eastern Europe, that point to the possibility...... in this and previous empirical studies. The article uses three rounds of ISSP data on national identity, which enables analyses across 44 countries and across two decades. The article applies MCA-analyses, as the first in the field. The article finds congruence between public criteria for being national and measures...... of national proudness, national belonging, attitudes to foreign mass media content and attitudes towards migration and migrations. The congruence supports the established two dimensional conceptual framework and demonstrates the presence of competing nation-perceptions within countries. However, the articles...

  1. A Comparative Study of Chinese and American Ways of Address



    From a cross-cultural pragmatic perspective,this paper nakes a comparative study on American and Chinese ways of address,and finds that due to different cultural values,languages differ in the actual realization of address strategies and modifications,which leads to varied interactional styles,and thus holds that there exist distinctive cultural differences in the interactional styles of verbal behaviors,which challenges the universality of pragmatic rules among different languages and cultures.

  2. Presidential Address: Industry Location, Economic Development Incentives, and Clusters

    Woodward, Douglas P.


    In his Presidential Address, Professor Woodward uses South Carolina’s economic development experience as a case study of significant challenges in regional development. The state has re-industrialized and emerged as a leader in attracting capital investment through generous financial incentives, after watching the demise of its major industry cluster (textiles and apparel) since the 1970s. The address argues that regional science research continues to advance our understanding of regional pol...

  3. A DHCP-based IP address autoconfiguration for MANETs

    Calderón, María; Bernardos, Carlos J.


    Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) are expected to become more and more important in the upcoming years, playing a significant role in 4G networks. In order to enable the deployment of IP services in such networks, IP address autoconfiguration mechanisms are required. Although the ad hoc topic has been a very intense research area, with a plethora of published papers about routing, there is a lack of proposals of address autoconfiguration with enough support from the technical ...

  4. The role of game design in addressing behavioural change

    Coulton, Paul


    With the increasing promotion of design for behavioural change as a means of addressing the complex societal and environmental challenges the world currently faces, comes the associated challenge of developing appropriate design techniques to achieve such change. Whilst many designers have sought inspiration from game design they have often drawn from the techniques associated with ‘gamification’ which has been heavily criticised as manipulative and only capable of addressing simplistic extri...

  5. Addressing Limited Data for Textual Entailment Across Domains

    Shivade, Chaitanya; Raghavan, Preethi; Patwardhan, Siddharth


    We seek to address the lack of labeled data (and high cost of annotation) for textual entailment in some domains. To that end, we first create (for experimental purposes) an entailment dataset for the clinical domain, and a highly competitive supervised entailment system, ENT, that is effective (out of the box) on two domains. We then explore self-training and active learning strategies to address the lack of labeled data. With self-training, we successfully exploit unlabeled data to improve ...

  6. 43 CFR Appendix B to Part 2 - Internet Addresses


    ... Regulations (43 CFR, Part 2, Subparts A and B): 7. DOI FOIA Policy and... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internet Addresses B Appendix B to Part 2... INFORMATION ACT Pt. 2, App. B Appendix B to Part 2—Internet Addresses 1. Department of the Interior (DOI)...

  7. A New Method to Detect Abnormal IP Address on DHCP

    Ling-Feng Chiang


    Full Text Available Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP provides a means of allocating and managing IP addresses dynamically over a network. An important characteristic of the DHCP server is that different hosts or network cards are not allowed to simultaneously use the same IP address in the DHCP mechanism. However, anyone can guest corresponding parameters such as IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway from the DHCP mode, and then reconfigure a static IP to access the network from DHCP mode. According to the DHCP mechanism, this study traces abnormalities of the client IP or MAC address by comparing the ARP table and DHCP binding table in this paper. This work performs the proposed method to detect abnormal hosts on both DHCPv4 and DHCPv6. The difference between these two tables provides illegality information to transmit to relevant routers or switching devices via the DHCP server to block the illegal user from accessing network resources. This study approach requires no source address or MAC address retrieval of the packet. This work significantly improves system performance by effectively blocking illegal users before packets transmit.

  8. Cooking Nation

    Tuori, Salla


    Abstract This article explores the discourses of multiculturalism and gender equality in relation to nation-building in Finland. The two discourses relate differently to the nation so that gender equality is seen as inherent to the nation while multiculturalism is seen as a challenge posed from outside. Nevertheless, the two discourses are dependent upon each other and cite each other. The material for the ...

  9. National Standards or Economic Imperialism?

    Conrad, Cecilia A.


    Argues that, although most K-12 social standards are deficient in their coverage of economic concepts, the National Council on Economic Education standards are equally deficient in addressing history and social studies subjects. Maintains that both disciplines must cooperate and coordinate their efforts for any meaningful educational reform to…

  10. The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning: Addressing Challenging Behavior in Infants and Toddlers

    Hunter, Amy; Hemmeter, Mary Louise


    The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (CSEFEL) is a federally funded national resource center designed to support early care and education providers address the social-emotional needs of children birth through age 5 years. Recent research has found that an extraordinarily high number of young children are being…

  11. Constituting Antebellum African American Identity: Resistance, Violence, and Masculinity in Henry Highland Garnet's (1843) "Address to the Slaves"

    Jasinski, James


    In August 1843 Presbyterian minister Henry Highland Garnet delivered his "Address to the Slaves of the United States of America" to the National Convention of Colored Citizens in Buffalo, NY. While often read (and almost as often dismissed) as either an unqualified call for a violent slave rebellion or, at the least, a celebration of prior acts of…

  12. A Global Perspective on Using Implementation Research to Address Hypertension-Associated Target Organ Damage.

    Peprah, Emmanuel; Lopez-Class, Maria; Shero, Susan; John-Sowah, Joylene; Engelgau, Michael


    Hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, imposes a significant public health burden and challenge to address it worldwide. Scaling up delivery of proven, effective interventions for hypertension could significantly advance the goal of reducing the global burden. Although significant progress has been made in many countries, some lament that large-scale initiatives focused on reducing blood pressure in global populations have not effectively addressed this challenge. Late-stage implementation research plays a critical role in determining effective and sustainable scale-up of these initiatives. In this article, we briefly discuss some of the global initiatives that have been funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the US National Institutes of Health. Intervention delivery strategies in low resource settings must have demonstrated effectiveness and consideration for the social, cultural and physical context (eg, access, affordability, and availability of medications) in which a program is being delivered in order to be sustainable nationally and globally. Hence, the use of implementation research is central to determining sustainable delivery of evidence-based and tailored interventions focused on hypertension control. The sustained control of hypertension in global populations holds tremendous potential for reducing morbidity, premature mortality, and the adverse economic impact of cardiovascular disease in all regions. PMID:27440980


    Djoko Susanto


    Full Text Available Abstract: This research investigates the use of sampeyan and anda by the students from Pasuruan and Probolinggo. Address terms is one of important tools in communication in Javanese society as it is used, for example, to designate the person they are talking to or to show the possession of formal and informal manners. However, the use of this address terms may have different interpretation across regions. This research is undertaken to find out (1 factors that influence the choice of address terms sampeyan and anda in Pasuruan and Probolinggo and (2 situations in which the interlocutors use the address terms sampeyan and anda. Several theories are used to help analyze the data, which include address terms (Wardhaugh, 2002, sampeyan and anda (Wolf & Poedjosoedarmo, 1982, Politeness theory (Brown & Levinson, 1987, and Power and Solidarity (Brown & Gilman, 1960. The data were obtained from the results of observations, questionnaires and interviews with the participants. The results of the study show that both sampeyan and anda were found to be commonly used by the participants to address their lecturer, instead of using Bapak. This is, of course, uncommon from either the perspective of standard usage of Javanese or Indonesian language. This study also indicates that the participants used sampeyan to lecturer/teacher, kyai, parent, and older sibling because they wanted to express (1 express politeness and (2 to indicate informality. Concerning to the use of anda, this study reveals that the participants use this address term because of (1 more formal and appropriate manners in environmental education, (2 respecting person of higher social status and older person, (3 more polite and more appropriate than sampeyan, and (4 the use of Indonesian as a formal language. In some respect, however, the participants use anda to lecturer/teacher, which is not appropriate because they were not socially equal to the lecturer/teacher.  This study provide

  14. Address Points, County Wide Address Points, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Hamilton County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as 'County...

  15. Address Points, Richland Co Address Points, Published in 2006, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, MSA Professional Services.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described...

  16. Addressing the Grand Challenge of atmospheric carbon dioxide: geologic sequestration vs. biological recycling

    Stuart Ben J


    Full Text Available Abstract On February 15, 2008, the National Academy of Engineering unveiled their list of 14 Grand Challenges for Engineering. Building off of tremendous advancements in the past century, these challenges were selected for their role in assuring a sustainable existence for the rapidly increasing global community. It is no accident that the first five Challenges on the list involve the development of sustainable energy sources and management of environmental resources. While the focus of this review is to address the single Grand Challenge of "develop carbon sequestration methods", is will soon be clear that several other Challenges are intrinsically tied to it through the principles of sustainability. How does the realm of biological engineering play a role in addressing these Grand Challenges?

  17. Methods for generating addressable focus cues in stereoscopic displays

    Liu, Sheng

    Conventional stereoscopic displays present a pair of stereoscopic images on a single and fixed image plane decoupled with the vergence and accommodation responses of the viewer. In consequence, these displays lack the capability of correctly rendering focus cues (i.e. accommodation and retinal blur) and may induce the discrepancy between accommodation and convergence. A number of visual artifacts associated with incorrect focus cues in stereoscopic displays have been reported, limiting the applicability of these displays for demanding applications and daily usage. In this dissertation, methods and apparatus for generating addressable focus cues in conventional stereoscopic displays are proposed. Focus cues can be addressed throughout a volumetric space, either through dynamically varying the focal distance of a display enabled by an active optical element or by multiplexing a stack of 2-D image planes. Optimal depth-weighted fusing functions are developed to fuse a number of discrete image planes into a seamless volumetric space with continuous and near-correct focus cues similar to the real world counterparts. The optical design, driving methodology, and prototype implementation of the addressable focus displays are presented and discussed. Experimental results demonstrate continuously addressable focus cues from infinity to as close as the near eye distance. Experiments to further evaluate the depth perception in the display prototype are conducted. Preliminary results suggest that the perceived distance and accommodative response of the viewer match with the addressable accommodation cues rendered by the display, approximating the real-world viewing condition.

  18. Terms of Address in the Chinese Business Enterprise

    Xiaoyan Huang


    Full Text Available This study examines terms of address currently used by employees of Chinese business enterprises. The authors find that a speaker’s address selections are related significantly to the gender of the speaker, the location of the enterprise in Eastern or Western China, and the ownership type of the enterprise; that is, whether the enterprise is state-owned or privately owned.  The authors develop hypotheses to explain the social origins of these observations.  It is also observed that the semantics of address in the enterprise persist across changes in underlying terminology and are resilient with respect to mandated speech.  In examining this subject of persistence, the authors find that the term ‘gē/jiě’ (brother/sister has replaced the term ‘tóngzhì’ (comrade as the primary means of expressing solidarity within the business enterprise.  The authors consider the question of whether address choices can be predicted based on externally observable situations or whether such choices require knowledge of the speaker’s motivations, which are not externally observable.  It is concluded that address is most predictable in situations where power is salient and less predictable in other situations.   

  19. Achieving Load Balance by Separating IP Address Spaces

    Sanqi Zhou


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a load balance approach by separating the host and router IP addresses into two spaces. In addition, in our approach, we propose a scheduling algorithm, named Edge Stream Balance (ESB, which is used by the proposed multipath routing scheme based on the address space separation. Each router can schedule each stream that is initiated by the connected host onto the proper path to the destination host by ESB dynamically. The multiple paths between any pair of hosts can be obtained by the connected routers by using the address separating mechanism. The merit of our approach is that: it balances the network traffic dynamically while being free of traffic demand assumption and offline flow optimization. The path of each stream is selected by each router individually other than using central system based on the address separation. The time complexity of ESB is much lower than the linear programming (LP and integer linear programming (ILP which are used in flow optimization. Simulation results show that on average of all simulated scenarios, compared to the existing single path routing which is based on the address separating, the unused link ratio (ULR reduces by 82%. And in the relative sense, the traffic across the network is balanced 31%.

  20. Creating a National HIV Curriculum.

    Spach, David H; Wood, Brian R; Karpenko, Andrew; Unruh, Kenton T; Kinney, Rebecca G; Roscoe, Clay; Nelson, John


    In recent years, the HIV care provider workforce has not kept pace with an expanding HIV epidemic. To effectively address this HIV workforce shortage, a multipronged approach is needed that includes high-quality, easily accessible, up-to-date HIV education for trainees and practicing providers. Toward this objective, the University of Washington, in collaboration with the AIDS Education and Training Center National Coordinating Resource Center, is developing a modular, dynamic curriculum that addresses the entire spectrum of the HIV care continuum. Herein, we outline the general principles, content, organization, and features of this federally funded National HIV Curriculum, which allows for longitudinal, active, self-directed learning, as well as real-time evaluation, tracking, and feedback at the individual and group level. The online curriculum, which is in development, will provide a free, comprehensive, interactive HIV training and resource tool that can support national efforts to expand and strengthen the United States HIV clinical care workforce. PMID:27086188

  1. Address switching: Reforming the architecture and traffic of Internet

    LI Xing; BAO CongXiao


    The success of the Internet is largely ascribable to the packet-switching scheme, which, however, also presents major challenges. Having identified three missing links in the current Internet architecture based on our long-term experiences of designing and operating large-scale backbones, we put forward a new, but incrementally deployable, network scheme-address switching. The address switching has both the advantages of packet switching and circuit switching; it supplies the missing links in the current Internet architecture and can reform the Internet traffic. Our analysis, protocol design and experiments indicate that the address switching can greatly improve the quality of service (QoS), security and routing scalability of today's Internet. So it can provide flexible, high-performance and "per-service" networking for the scientific research communities. Moreover, it can provide a fairer and more sustainable business model for the commodity Internet.

  2. Wind versus Biofuels for Addressing Climate, Health, and Energy

    The favored approach today for addressing global warming is to promote a variety of options: biofuels, wind, solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, geothermal, hydroelectric, and nuclear energy and to improve efficiency. However, by far, most emphasis has been on biofuels. It is shown here, though, that current-technology biofuels cannot address global warming and may slightly increase death and illness due to ozone-related air pollution. Future biofuels may theoretically slow global warming, but only temporarily and with the cost of increased air pollution mortality. In both cases, the land required renders biofuels an impractical solution. Recent measurements and statistical analyses of U.S. and world wind power carried out at Stanford University suggest that wind combined with other options can substantially address global warming, air pollution mortality, and energy needs simultaneously.

  3. No Address Space Operating System Prototype and Its Performance Test

    LIU Fuyan; YOU Jinyuan


    In this paper,we first analyze datastorage models in typical operating systems,the re-lation between distributed shared memory and datastorage model,as well as the relation between mem-ory hierarchy and data storage model.Then we pro-pose the concept of No Address Space Operating Sys-tem,discuss an implementation prototype,and ana-lyze its performance and advantages.We believe thatthe concept of process virtual address space should beabandoned in operating systems,instructions shouldaccess files directly,and processes should run on files.Compared with other operating systems,No AddressSpace Operating System has many advantages andshould be adopted in computer systems.

  4. Thinking Skills in England's National Curriculum

    Glevey, Kwame E.


    This article sets out to explore some of the issues raised by the introduction of a number of particular skills in the English National Curriculum known collectively as thinking skills. These skills are now embedded in the National Curriculum and teachers are required to address them as part of their daily duties. This article argues that…

  5. High-capacity content-addressable memory architecture

    Henshaw, Philip D.; Lis, Steven A.


    This paper describes a new hardware architecture for searching and accessing data. This Content Addressable Memory (CAM) can be implemented using holographic storage in spectral hole burning media. The use of laser wavelength as a fourth dimension for volume holographic recording provides an additional addressing variable which can be used to advantage in a CAM architecture. This paper consists of three parts: definition of a CAM, presentation of two CAM concepts for digital data string and analog function search, and a discussion of architecture issues.

  6. Neurochip Based on Light-addressable Potentiometric Sensor

    Qingjun Liu; Hua Cai; Ying Xu; Lifeng Qin; Lijiang Wang; Ping Wang


    A novel neurochip based on light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) is designed. Using its light addressable characteristic. The problems of the limitations of restricted discrete active sites of current neurochips, such as microelectrode array and field effect transistor array can be settled easily. Based on the theoretical analysis of the interface between cells and LAPS, spontaneously discharges of hippocampal neurons induced by Mg2+-free media treatment were recorded by LAPS. The results demonstrate that this kind of neurochip has potential to monitor electrophysiology of cultured cells in a non-invasive way.

  7. Measures to address climate change in Ontario government operations: Ontario government action plan

    Ontario supports the national target of stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000. Participation in the Voluntary Challenge and Registry will play a part in moving toward the national target. This submission covers actions taken by the Ontario government to address greenhouse gas emissions within its own operations. The report covers measures in government buildings (energy management, energy efficiency, building standards, building assessment, training, waste reduction, water conservation), the vehicle fleet, other initiatives (employee awareness, forest management, renewable energy installation, waste water treatment), and research and studies (emissions inventory and ambient monitoring studies, aquatic ecosystems and forest ecosystems research, Institute of Space and Technology Studies). It also covers communication and partnerships, and emissions from government operations

  8. Strategies to address climate change in central and Eastern Euopean countries

    Simeonova, K. [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)


    The paper presents analyses based on information mainly from the National Communications of nine Central and Eastern European countries that are undertaking radical transition from centrally planned to market driven economics (EIT). It is designed primarily to provide an overview of the policies and measures to address climate change that have been implemented, or under implementation or planned. In order to better understand the objective of policies and measures and the way they have been implemented in EIT countries that analysis has been supplemented by a review of the national circumstances and overall policy contexts in EIT countries that are relevant to climate change policies and measures problems. Therefore, these issues will be discussed in the paper along with analysis of mitigation policies and measures by sector.

  9. National laboratories

    The foundation of a 'National Laboratory' which would support a Research center in synchrotron radiation applications is proposed. The essential features of such a laboratory differing of others centers in Brazil are presented. (L.C.)

  10. Best practices in developing a national palliative care policy in resource limited settings: lessons from five African countries.

    Luyirika, Emmanuel Bk; Namisango, Eve; Garanganga, Eunice; Monjane, Lidia; Ginindza, Ntombi; Madonsela, Gugulethu; Kiyange, Fatia


    Given the high unmet need for palliative care in Africa and other resource limited settings, it is important that countries embrace the public health approach to increasing access through its integration within existing healthcare systems. To give this approach a strong foundation that would ensure sustainability, the World Health Organisation urges member states to ensure that policy environments are suitable for this intervention. The development, strengthening, and implementation of national palliative care policies is a priority. Given the lack of a critical mass of palliative care professionals in the region and deficiency in documenting and sharing best practices as part of information critical for regional development, policy development becomes a complex process. This article shares experiences with regard to best practices when advocating the national palliative care policies. It also tells about policy development process, the important considerations, and cites examples of policy content outlines in Africa. PMID:27563347

  11. National database

    Kristensen, Helen Grundtvig; Stjernø, Henrik


    Artikel om national database for sygeplejeforskning oprettet på Dansk Institut for Sundheds- og Sygeplejeforskning. Det er målet med databasen at samle viden om forsknings- og udviklingsaktiviteter inden for sygeplejen.......Artikel om national database for sygeplejeforskning oprettet på Dansk Institut for Sundheds- og Sygeplejeforskning. Det er målet med databasen at samle viden om forsknings- og udviklingsaktiviteter inden for sygeplejen....

  12. Nation First

    He Tao


    In addition to the success of onomic integration,the ultural effects of globalization have been considerable.The increasingly globalized culture creates the potential to alter the way people identify themselves,eroding geographic boundaries as well as local and national cultures.While the West was happily appreciating this gift from globalization,they found themselves involved in an unexpected wave of reemerging nationalism in many countries.

  13. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    Palliser, Janna


    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  14. The Democratic Imperative to Address Sexual Equality Rights in Schools

    Gereluk, Dianne


    Issues of sexual orientation elicit ethical debates in schools and society. In jurisdictions where a legal right has not yet been established, one argument commonly rests on whether schools ought to address issues of same-sex relationships and marriage on the basis of civil equality, or whether such controversial issues ought to remain in the…

  15. Promoting Interdisciplinary Collaboration: Trainees Addressing Siloed Medical Education

    Kitts, Robert Li; Christodoulou, Joanna; Goldman, Stuart


    Objective: Professional siloing within medical institutions has been identified as a problem in medical education, including resident training. The authors discuss how trainees from different disciplines can collaborate to address this problem. Method: A group of trainees from psychiatry, developmental medicine, neurology, and education came…

  16. 7 CFR Appendix A to Part 2710 - List of Addresses


    ... records, and indexes to those records, is permitted. Section 2. List of Addresses Director, Office of Information Resources Management, 14th and Independence Ave., SW., Rm. 113-W, Washington, DC 20250; Hours: 8:30 a.m.-5:00 p.m. Chief, Planning Division, OIRM, 14th and Independence Ave., SW., Rm....

  17. Addressing the Need for Management Processes for Higher Education Accreditation.

    Brennan, Linda L.; Austin, Walter W.


    The accreditation standards of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB International) ask business schools to describe consistent processes that provide for operational consistency and continuous improvement in support of the schools' stated missions. This article addresses the identification of requisite quality…

  18. Effective Organizational Structures and Processes: Addressing Issues of Change

    Andrade, Maureen Snow


    This chapter describes organizational structures and processes at the institutional and project levels for the development and support of distance learning initiatives. It addresses environmental and stakeholder issues and explores principles and strategies of effective leadership for change creation and management.

  19. Catholic Social Teaching: Addressing Globalization in Catholic Business Education

    Ball, James B.; Martinez, Zaida; Toyne, Brian


    Although business schools are increasingly aware of the importance of globalization in educating future business leaders, their business programs have addressed globalization from a limited perspective that fails to provide students with a broader understanding of its impact on societies and its moral consequences. The conventional approach to the…

  20. A WS-Addressing Profile for Distributed Process Documentation

    Munroe, S.; Groth, P.; Jiang, Sheng; Miles, S.; Tan, V.; Moreau, L


    Process documentation can often be distributed across different provenance stores. To enable the discovery of related process documentation, a mechanism is required to link disparate but related process documentation to enable the effective collection of such documentation in order to answer provenance queries. This document represents a WS-addressing profile on distributed process documentation that provides mechanisms to solve this problem.