WorldWideScience

Sample records for address public health

  1. Why public health might address the emerging role of vaccinomics?

    Stefania Boccia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The greatest public health benefit of the advances brought about by the understanding of the human genome, completely sequenced in 2000, will likely occur as genomic medicine expands its focus from rare genetic disorders towards the inclusion of more common diseases also, such as coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer and infectious disease. Advances in Genomics hold the promise of improving the delivery of health care, particularly that of preventive medicine, and of tailoring drug treatment.

  2. Corruption of pharmaceutical markets: addressing the misalignment of financial incentives and public health.

    Gagnon, Marc-André

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains how the current architecture of the pharmaceutical markets has created a misalignment of financial incentives and public health that is a central cause of harmful practices. It explores three possible solutions to address that misalignment: taxes, increased financial penalties, and drug pricing based on value. Each proposal could help to partly realign financial incentives and public health. However, because of the limits of each proposal, there is no easy solution to fixing the problem of financial incentives. PMID:24088147

  3. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health

    Martinez Valle, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and comp...

  4. Public health at the vicinity of nuclear installations: how to address the raised issues

    This document is proposed by a work-group which gathered the IRSN, public local information commissions and the French Health Survey Institute (InVS). It is designed to be a methodological document on the benefits and limits of health analysis tools with respect to real situations. The first part discusses the implementation of a public health survey, its approach, its modalities and how its results are published. The second part deals with methodological issues for the definition of the specifications of a public health survey, and its protocol. Thus, it discusses how releases in the environment are to be addressed (releases from nuclear installations and from other activities involving radioactivity), the different pathologies to be studied, the existing health data and survey tools (mortality and cancer incidence data, medical-administrative data), and the possible survey types (descriptive or analytical epidemiological surveys) and their limitations

  5. Mapping of Health Communication and Education Strategies Addressing the Public Health Dangers of Illicit Online Pharmacies.

    Anderson, Allison C; Mackey, Tim K; Attaran, Amir; Liang, Bryan A

    2016-04-01

    Illicit online pharmacies are a growing global public health concern. Stakeholders have started to engage in health promotion activities to educate the public, yet their scope and impact has not been examined. We wished to identify health promotion activities focused on consumer awareness regarding the risks of illicit online pharmacies. Organizations engaged on the issue were first identified using a set of engagement criteria. We then reviewed these organizations for health promotion programs, educational components, public service announcements, and social media engagement. Our review identified 13 organizations across a wide spectrum of stakeholders. Of these organizations, 69.2% (n = 9) had at least one type of health promotion activity targeting consumers. Although the vast majority of these organizations were active on Facebook or Twitter, many did not have dedicated content regarding online pharmacies (Facebook: 45.5%, Twitter: 58.3%). An online survey administered to 6 respondents employed by organizations identified in this study found that all organizations had dedicated programs on the issue, but only half had media planning strategies in place to measure the effectiveness of their programs. Overall, our results indicate that though some organizations are actively engaged on the issue, communication and education initiatives have had questionable effectiveness in reaching the public. We note that only a few organizations offered comprehensive and dedicated content to raise awareness on the issue and were effective in social media communications. In response, more robust collaborative efforts between stakeholders are needed to educate and protect the consumer about this public health and patient safety danger. PMID:26846423

  6. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health.

    Valle, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH. PMID:26928215

  7. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health

    Adolfo Martinez Valle

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and evaluation (M&E have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH. This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH.

  8. Addressing domestic violence through antenatal care in Sri Lanka's plantation estates: Contributions of public health midwives.

    Infanti, Jennifer J; Lund, Ragnhild; Muzrif, Munas M; Schei, Berit; Wijewardena, Kumudu

    2015-11-01

    Domestic violence in pregnancy is a significant health concern for women around the world. Globally, much has been written about how the health sector can respond effectively and comprehensively to domestic violence during pregnancy via antenatal services. The evidence from low-income settings is, however, limited. Sri Lanka is internationally acknowledged as a model amongst low-income countries for its maternal and child health statistics. Yet, very little research has considered the perspectives and experiences of the key front line health providers for pregnant women in Sri Lanka, public health midwives (PHMs). We address this gap by consulting PHMs about their experiences identifying and responding to pregnant women affected by domestic violence in an underserved area: the tea estate sector of Badulla district. Over two months in late 2014, our interdisciplinary team of social scientists and medical doctors met with 31 estate PHMs for group interviews and a participatory workshop at health clinics across Badulla district. In the paper, we propose a modified livelihoods model to conceptualise the physical, social and symbolic assets, strategies and constraints that simultaneously enable and limit the effectiveness of community-based health care responses to domestic violence. Our findings also highlight conceptual and practical strategies identified by PHMs to ensure improvements in this complex landscape of care. Such strategies include estate-based counselling services; basic training in family counselling and mediation for PHMs; greater surveillance of abusive men's behaviours by male community leaders; and performance evaluation and incentives for work undertaken to respond to domestic violence. The study contributes to international discussions on the meanings, frameworks, and identities constructed at the local levels of health care delivery in the global challenge to end domestic violence. In turn, such knowledge adds to international debates on the roles

  9. Preventive interventions addressing underage drinking: state of the evidence and steps toward public health impact.

    Spoth, Richard; Greenberg, Mark; Turrisi, Robert

    2008-04-01

    The epidemiological features of underage drinking and evidence of its social, health, and economic consequences suggest compelling reasons for the development and dissemination of effective preventive interventions. To clarify the nature and extent of the current evidence base on preventive interventions addressing underage drinking, a review of the literature was conducted through extensive searches of the research literature on outcome evaluations, existing reviews of this body of outcome research (N = 25), and summary reports of evidence on specific interventions. More than 400 interventions were identified and screened, and the evidence for 127 was reviewed. Criteria for the evaluation of evidence were established for intervention studies with alcohol-specific outcome measures for 3 developmental periods ( or = 20 years of age). Ultimately, 12 interventions met criteria for "most promising" evidence and 29 met criteria for "mixed or emerging" evidence. Conducting this review revealed clear advances in the number of evidence-based interventions available and the quality of outcome research; however, much work remains to achieve greater public health impact through evidence-based interventions. This work should consider (1) the great need for intervention research related to understudied developmental phases, intervention domains (eg, family, school, community, and media), and populations (eg, early tweens, late teens, young adults not attending college, and nonmajority populations); (2) the critical importance of addressing key issues in research design and methods (eg, limited longitudinal studies, replication studies, and dissemination research); and (3) the need for improved consistency in application of evidence and reporting standards. Finally, we recommend the application of emerging consumer-oriented and community-participatory models for intervention development and research, designed to increase the likelihood of "real-world" public health impact

  10. Addressing individual behaviours and living conditions: Four Nordic public health policies

    Vallgårda, Signild

    : Analyses of recent public health programmes in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Results: Focus is on either, or both, individual behaviour and living conditions as causes of ill health; the remedies are classical liberal as well as social democratic policies. None of the programmes is consistent with...... approach to public health exists. All programmes contain contradictory policies and ideological statements with differences regarding the emphasis on individual behaviour versus choice and living conditions and political responsibility. The policies are not entirely predictable from the political stance of......Aims: To identify characteristics of the public health policies of four Nordic countries concerning how they present the causes of ill health, the best ways to deal with these causes, and where to place responsibility; additionally, to investigate whether there is a common Nordic policy. Methods...

  11. CDC Grand Rounds: Addressing Preparedness Challenges for Children in Public Health Emergencies.

    Hinton, Cynthia F; Griese, Stephanie E; Anderson, Michael R; Chernak, Esther; Peacock, Georgina; Thorpe, Phoebe G; Lurie, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Recent public health emergencies including Hurricane Katrina (2005), the influenza H1N1 pandemic (2009), and the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa (2014–2015) have demonstrated the importance of multiple-level emergency planning and response. An effective response requires integrating coordinated contributions from community-based health care providers, regional health care coalitions, state and local health departments, and federal agency initiatives. This is especially important when planning for the needs of children, who make up 23% of the U.S. population (1) and have unique needs that require unique planning strategies. PMID:26356838

  12. Governors' priorities for public health and chronic disease prevention: a qualitative analysis of State of the State addresses.

    Eyler, Amy A; Zwald, Marissa L

    2015-09-01

    Governors use State of the State speeches to publicly outline state status, progress, and policy priorities. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively analyze the public health content of State of the State addresses from 2009 to 2013. Speech transcripts were collected and uploaded into NVivo10. Speeches were coded using a priori, general thematic codes followed by detailed sub-coding of public health text. Data was organized by emergent thematic patterns. From 2009 to 2013, 48 governors presented 72 speeches with public health messages. Framing current public health problems and outlining strategies were two of the three main themes that emerged. Problems were often framed using data or emphasizing economic costs. Governors outlined prevention strategies on tobacco, nutrition, or physical activity through increased funding, policies, or partnerships. Speech content provides information on priorities and trends and can be used to inform advocacy efforts. Future research should link these priorities to outcomes of legislation. PMID:26327940

  13. Public injection drug use in Vancouver’s downtown eastside: addressing public health and public order concerns

    DeBeck, Kora

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates public injecting among participants enrolled in VIDUS using logistic regression analyses. Variables found to be significant and positively associated with public injection include: homelessness, frequent heroin injection, frequent crack use and binge drug use. Participation in addiction treatment was found to be negatively associated with public injecting. A sub-analysis of reported reasons for public injecting provided further support for a strong link between homeles...

  14. Iron deficiency anemia among children: Addressing a global public health problem within a Canadian context

    Christofides, Anna; Schauer, Claudia; Zlotkin, Stanley H.

    2005-01-01

    Despite current Canadian pre- and perinatal nutrition programs, the prevalence of both iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is very high among young Aboriginal children from Canada’s remote north. The major risk factors for IDA include prolonged consumption of evaporated cow’s milk, chronic infection and prolonged exclusive breastfeeding. In the present article, the authors discuss IDA as a significant public health problem in Canadian Aboriginal communities. Whereas the prevalenc...

  15. Climate Change and Health on the U.S. Gulf Coast: Public Health Adaptation is Needed to Address Future Risks

    Elisaveta P. Petkova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate change on human health have been documented globally and in the United States. Numerous studies project greater morbidity and mortality as a result of extreme weather events and other climate-sensitive hazards. Public health impacts on the U.S. Gulf Coast may be severe as the region is expected to experience increases in extreme temperatures, sea level rise, and possibly fewer but more intense hurricanes. Through myriad pathways, climate change is likely to make the Gulf Coast less hospitable and more dangerous for its residents, and may prompt substantial migration from and into the region. Public health impacts may be further exacerbated by the concentration of people and infrastructure, as well as the region’s coastal geography. Vulnerable populations, including the very young, elderly, and socioeconomically disadvantaged may face particularly high threats to their health and well-being. This paper provides an overview of potential public health impacts of climate variability and change on the Gulf Coast, with a focus on the region’s unique vulnerabilities, and outlines recommendations for improving the region’s ability to minimize the impacts of climate-sensitive hazards. Public health adaptation aimed at improving individual, public health system, and infrastructure resilience is urgently needed to meet the challenges climate change may pose to the Gulf Coast in the coming decades.

  16. The Role of Public Health in Addressing Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Mental Health and Mental Illness

    Annelle B. Primm, MD, MPH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Racial/ethnic minority populations are underserved in the American mental health care system. Disparity in treatment between whites and African Americans has increased substantially since the 1990s. Racial/ethnic minorities may be disproportionately affected by limited English proficiency, remote geographic settings, stigma, fragmented services, cost, comorbidity of mental illness and chronic diseases, cultural understanding of health care services, and incarceration. We present a model that illustrates how social determinants of health, interventions, and outcomes interact to affect mental health and mental illness. Public health approaches to these concerns include preventive strategies and federal agency collaborations that optimize the resilience of racial/ethnic minorities. We recommend strategies such as enhanced surveillance, research, evidence-based practice, and public policies that set standards for tracking and reducing disparities.

  17. The role of Violence Against Women Act in addressing intimate partner violence: a public health issue.

    Modi, Monica N; Palmer, Sheallah; Armstrong, Alicia

    2014-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as violence committed by a current or former boyfriend or girlfriend, spouse or ex-spouse. Each year, 1.3 to 5.3 million women in the United States experience IPV. The large number of individuals affected, the enormous healthcare costs, and the need for a multidisciplinary approach make IPV an important healthcare issue. The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) addresses domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. It emphasizes development of coordinated community care among law enforcement, prosecutors, victim services, and attorneys. VAWA was not reauthorized in 2012 because it lacked bipartisan support. VAWA 2013 contains much needed new provisions for Native Americans; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, gay, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals; and victims of human trafficking but does not address the large amount of intimate partner violence in America's immigrant population. There are important remaining issues regarding intimate partner violence that need to be addressed by future legislation. This review examines the role of legislation and addresses proposals for helping victims of IPV. PMID:24299159

  18. Addressing the Needs of the Whole Child: What Public Health Can Do to Answer the Education Sector’s Call for a Stronger Partnership

    Diane Allensworth, PhD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the overall level of child health in the United States remains high, public health professionals know that racial and ethnic disparities in child and adolescent health persist and that lifestyle choices related to chronic disease in adults are often established in childhood and adolescence. And yet, those health needs are not the public health sector’s alone to resolve. We have natural partners among educators. Improving graduation rates is one of the most cost-effective ways to reduce health disparities. This article provides strategies for how public health professionals can answer this call by educators to address the needs of the whole child.

  19. Research Findings on Xylitol and the Development of Xylitol Vehicles to Address Public Health Needs

    Milgrom, P.; Ly, K.A.; Rothen, M.

    2013-01-01

    Xylitol has been demonstrated to be a safe and effective tooth decay preventive agent when used habitually. Nevertheless, its application has been limited by absence of formulations that demand minimal adherence and are acceptable and safe in settings where chewing gum may not be allowed. A substantial literature suggests that a minimum of five to six grams and three exposures per day from chewing gum or candies are needed for a clinical effect. At the same time there is conflicting evidence in the literature from toothpaste studies suggesting that lower-doses and less frequent exposures might be effective. The growing use of xylitol as a sweetener in low amounts in foods and other consumables is, simultaneously, increasing the overall exposure of the public to xylitol and may have additive benefits. PMID:19710081

  20. Public health agendas addressing violence against rural women - an analysis of local level health services in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Marta Cocco da Costa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses health managers' perceptions of local public health agendas addressing violence against rural women in municipalities in the southern part of the State Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. It consists of an exploratory descriptive study utilizing a qualitative approach. Municipal health managers responsible for planning actions directed at women's health and primary health care were interviewed. The analysis sought to explore elements of programmatic vulnerability related to violence in the interviewees' narratives based on the following dimensions of programmatic vulnerability: expression of commitment, transformation of commitment into action, and planning and coordination. It was found that local health agendas directed at violence against rural women do not exist. Health managers are therefore faced with the challenge of defining lines of action in accordance with the guidelines and principles of the SUS. The repercussions of this situation are expressed in fragile comprehensive services for these women and programmatic vulnerability.

  1. Addressing Public Concerns about GMOs

    The introduction of genetic engineering technology to agriculture has raised concerns in the public sector regarding the safety of applying this technology to the food supply. Concerns focus on two major issues: human/animal health and environmental risks. Such concerns have arisen in part because...

  2. A pilot study of medical student attitudes to, and use of, commercial movies that address public health issues

    Cowie Rachael

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An innovative approach to learning public health by using feature-length commercial movies was piloted in the fourth year of a medical degree. We aimed to explore how students responded to this approach and the relative effectiveness of two promotional strategies. Firstly we placed DVDs of 15 movies (with public health-related content in the medical school library. Then alternating groups of students (total n = 82 students were exposed to either a brief promotional intervention or a more intensive intervention involving a class presentation. The response rates were 99% at baseline and 85% at follow-up. Findings The level and strength of support for using movies in public health training increased after exposure to the public health module with significantly more students "strongly agreeing". Student behaviour, in terms of movies viewed or accessed from the library, also suggested student interest. While there were no statistically significant differences in median viewing or library access rates between the two intervention groups, the distribution of viewing patterns was shifted favourably. Those exposed to the more intensive intervention (class presentation were significantly more likely to have reported watching at least one movie (97% vs. 81%; p = 0.033 or to having accessed at least one movie from the library (100% vs. 70%, p = 0.0001. Conclusions This pilot study found that the students had very positive attitudes towards viewing public health-related commercial movies. Movie access rates from the library were also favourable.

  3. Reinventing public health.

    Lee, P; Paxman, D

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is a review of the current state of public health in light of the social, political, economic, scientific, and technological changes buffeting the United States. As an assessment of progress in current public health efforts, we address the five major issues in public health for the 1990s raised by Breslow (8): reconstruction of public health; setting objectives for public health; from disease control to health promotion; determinants of health and health policy; continuing social inequities and their impacts on health; and the health implications of accelerating developments in technology. Finally, we look to the twenty-first century and provide five clear paths necessary to strengthen the capacity of public health agencies to protect and improve the health status of the population. PMID:9143710

  4. DEFINING THE “COMMUNITY” FOR A COMMUNITY-BASED PUBLIC HEALTH INTERVENTION ADDRESSING LATINO IMMIGRANT HEALTH DISPARITIES: AN APPLICATION OF ETHNOGRAPHIC METHODS

    Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean; Simmons, Lauren B.; Cubilla-Batista, Idalina; Andrade, Elizabeth L.; Gudger, Glencora

    2015-01-01

    Although Latino and other immigrant populations are the driving force behind population increases in the U.S., there are significant gaps in knowledge and practice on addressing health disparities in these populations. The Avance Center for the Advancement of Immigrant/Refugee Health, a health disparities research center in the Washington, DC area, includes as part of its mission a multi-level, participatory community intervention (called Adelante) to address the co-occurrence of substance ab...

  5. Public health

    Berg, van den, S.J.P.L.

    2007-01-01

    Agnes van den Berg wrote an essay about human health and nature, establishing that subject as an important policy argument in developing (urban) nature in the Netherlands. She studied the public balance of fear and fascination for nature, summarising benefits on human health. In this chapter, she adds disadvantages urban ecologists should take into account discussing urban nature in the context of a municipal policy debate

  6. Why Police Kill Black Males with Impunity: Applying Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to Address the Determinants of Policing Behaviors and "Justifiable" Homicides in the USA.

    Gilbert, Keon L; Ray, Rashawn

    2016-04-01

    Widespread awareness of the recent deaths of several black males at the hands of police has revealed an unaddressed public health challenge-determining the root causes of excessive use of force by police applied to black males that may result in "justifiable homicides." The criminalization of black males has a long history in the USA, which has resulted in an increase in policing behaviors by legal authorities and created inequitable life chances for black males. Currently, the discipline of public health has not applied an intersectional approach that investigates the intersection of race and gender to understanding police behaviors that lead to "justifiable homicides" for black males. This article applies the core tenets and processes of Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to develop a framework that can improve research and interventions to address the disparities observed in recent trend analyses of "justifiable homicides." Accordingly, we use PHCRP to offer an alternative framework on the social, legal, and health implications of violence-related incidents. We aim to move the literature in this area forward to help scholars, policymakers, and activists build the capacity of communities to address the excessive use of force by police to reduce mortality rates from "justifiable homicides." PMID:26661386

  7. Addressing the disconnect between public health science and personalised health care: the potential role of cluster analysis in combination with multi-criteria decision analysis

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Dowie, Jack; Turner, Robin;

    2013-01-01

    Background: Public health promotion and person-centred health care are being pursued simultaneously, with little attempt to resolve the conflict between them. One necessary step is to accept that health-care decisions involve multiple criteria and hence are preference sensitive. A second is to ar......Background: Public health promotion and person-centred health care are being pursued simultaneously, with little attempt to resolve the conflict between them. One necessary step is to accept that health-care decisions involve multiple criteria and hence are preference sensitive. A second...... are from one arm of an Australian trial of online and interactive personalised decision aids for prostate cancer screening. Participants were 523 men aged 40–79 years, who assigned importance weights to five criteria: loss of lifetime, needless biopsy, and bowel, urinary, and sexual problems......-investigators in the trial from which data come. All authors approved the final abstract. Conflicts of interest: JD has a financial interest in the Annalisa software used in the trial but did not benefit from its use in it. The other authors declare they have no conflicts of interest....

  8. 'Change of Heart!': A New E-Learning Model Geared to Addressing Complex and Sensitive Public Health Issues

    Hillier, Dawn; Mitchell, Alice; Millwood, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Psychosocial risk factors for poor health show that we are highly sensitive to particular dimensions of the social and work environments. Central is the contrast between mutually supportive collaborative relationships versus stressful relationships of social dominance--in the workplace and at home. These social ordeals can exacerbate the effect of…

  9. Addressing the public health burden caused by the nutrition transition through the Healthy Foods North nutrition and lifestyle intervention programme.

    Sharma, S; Gittelsohn, J; Rosol, R; Beck, L

    2010-10-01

    Dietary inadequacies, low levels of physical activity, excessive energy intake and high obesity prevalence have placed Inuit and Inuvialuit populations of the Canadian Arctic at increased risk of chronic disease. An evidence-based, community participatory process was used to develop Healthy Foods North (HFN), a culturally appropriate nutrition and physical activity intervention programme that aimed to reduce risk of chronic disease and improve dietary adequacy amongst Inuit/Inuvialuit in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. HFN was implemented over the course of 12 months in a series of seven phases between October 2008 and 2009 (Nunavut) and June 2008 and 2009 (Northwest Territories). Combining behaviour change and environmental strategies to increase both the availability of healthful food choices in local shops and opportunities for increasing physical activity, HFN promoted the consumption of traditional foods and nutrient-dense and/or low energy shop-bought foods, utilisation of preparation methods that do not add fat content, decreased consumption of high-energy shop-bought foods, and increased physical activity. Messages identified in the community workshops, such as the importance of family eating and sharing, were emphasised throughout the intervention. Intervention components were conducted by community staff and included working with shops to increase the stocking of healthy foods, point of purchase signage and promotion in shops and community settings, pedometer challenges in the workplace and use of community media (e.g. radio and cable television advertisements) to reinforce key messages. HFN represents an innovative multilevel approach to the reduction of chronic disease risk factors amongst Inuit and Inuvialuit, based on strong collaboration with local agencies, government and institutions. PMID:21158971

  10. The Conversational Frame in Public Address.

    Branham, Robert James; Pearce, W. Barnett

    1996-01-01

    Explores the diverse forms and motives of the conversational frame in public address. Argues that, by framing their remarks and transactions with their listeners as conversational, orators may attempt to reconstruct or seem to reconstruct speaker-audience relationships and to position themselves and their audiences within networks of reciprocal…

  11. Road Map to Address Cognitive Health

    2014-06-09

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Lynda Anderson highlights the important roles that states and communities can play in addressing cognitive health as part of overall health.  Created: 6/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/9/2014.

  12. Public health challenges for universal health coverage.

    Tripathy, Radha Madhab

    2014-01-01

    The effective functioning of any health system requires an efficient public health service. Every human being has the right to enjoy "the highest attainable standard of health," which can be fulfilled by giving every man an affordable and equitable health system he deserves and demands. In these years, complex health changes have complicated the situation in India. Most important gaps in the health care include an understanding of the burden of the disease and what leads to and causes ill health, the availability and use of appropriate technology in the management of disease, ill health and health systems that have an impact on service delivery. Universal Health Coverage (UHC) has the potential to increase economic growth, improve educational opportunities, reduce impoverishment and inequalities, and foster social cohesion. Steps taken for achieving UHC will address the public health challenges and vice versa. PMID:25116820

  13. Ethnocentric approach to address South Asian health issues.

    Sharif, A

    2012-09-01

    South Asian populations have distinct healthcare requirements to other ethnic demographics. Epidemiologically they constitute a high-risk group for many public health diseases such as cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus. Despite individuals of South Asian backgrounds encompassing many individual countries, cultures, religions and backgrounds they share many common health concerns that are poorly tackled in established models of healthcare delivery. To successfully address this burgeoning public health burden, it is important for healthcare professionals and providers to appreciate the need for an ethnocentric approach to South Asian health requirements. Key stakeholders need to understand the need for an integrated ethnocentric approach to challenge the poor health status of this population. Appreciation of the socio-cultural dimension to South Asian healthcare requirements should help guide targeted and focused strategies to improve the outlook for this unique population at high public health risk. PMID:22753671

  14. Public Health Genomics

    Lavinha, João

    2012-01-01

    Professional genomic and molecular medicine and consumer genetics. The health field concept and the public health wheel. The enterprise of Public Health Genomics (PHGEN). Genetic exceptionalism. Ethical benchmarks. Introduction and use of genome-based knowledge in the health services. Stakeholder involvement.

  15. Public Health Surveillance for Mental Health

    Elsie J. Freeman, MD, MPH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Public health systems have relied on public health surveillance to plan health programs, and extensive surveillance systems exist for health behaviors and chronic disease. Mental health has used a separate data collection system that emphasizes measurement of disease prevalence and health care use. In recent years, efforts to integrate these systems have included adding chronic disease measures to the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys and depression measures to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System; other data collection systems have been similarly enhanced. Ongoing challenges to integration include variations in interview protocols, use of different measures of behavior and disease, different interval reference periods, inclusion of substance abuse disorders, dichotomous vs continuous variables, and approaches to data collection. Future directions can address linking surveillance efforts more closely to the needs of state programs, increasing child health measurements in surveys, and improving knowledge dissemination from survey analyses.

  16. Chiropractic care and public health

    Johnson, Claire; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Côté, Pierre;

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this collaborative summary is to document current chiropractic involvement in the public health movement, reflect on social ecological levels of influence as a profession, and summarize the relationship of chiropractic to the current public health topics of: safety, health issues t...... prevention and public health? What role do citizen-doctors of chiropractic have in organizing community action on health-related matters? How can our future chiropractic graduates become socially responsible agents of change?......The purpose of this collaborative summary is to document current chiropractic involvement in the public health movement, reflect on social ecological levels of influence as a profession, and summarize the relationship of chiropractic to the current public health topics of: safety, health issues...... through the lifespan, and effective participation in community health issues. The questions that are addressed include: Is spinal manipulative therapy for neck and low-back pain a public health problem? What is the role of chiropractic care in prevention or reduction of musculoskeletal injuries in...

  17. Lighting and public health.

    Ierland, J. van & Schreuder, D.A.

    1969-01-01

    The following topics; are discussed with respect to public health: - the effect of visible and ultraviolet radiation upon man. - vision with respect to lighting. interior lighting. - artificial lighting of work environments. - day light and windows. - recommendations for lighting. public lighting. -

  18. EPIDEMIOLOGÍA Y ANTROPOLOGÍA: Una propuesta frente a problemas complejos en Salud Pública Epidemiology and Anthropology: a proposal to address complexity in public health

    Guillermo Sánchez Vanegas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Los problemas de salud pública son objetos complejos, multifacéticos, concatenados y contradictorios. La epidemiología requiere de un complemento que le permita lidiar con esos objetos. El riesgo visto desde la perspectiva epidemiológica de los modelos multivariados, ofrece un alto potencial, pero es insuficiente para la comprensión integral de los fenómenos de estudio. La propuesta plantea una integración entre la epidemiología y la antropología, a partir del diálogo entre modelos de riesgo y narrativas provenientes de una etnografía abductiva, iterativa y recursiva.Public health problems are complex, multifaceted, concatenated and contradictory; epidemiology is in need of a complement allowing it to deal with such objects. Risk seen from the point of view of multivariate models' epidemiological perspective would seem to offer great potential in this respect but, nevertheless, this is inadequate for an integral understanding of study phenomena. The current proposal suggests integrating epidemiology and anthropology from dialogue between risk and narrative models arising from abductive, iterative and recursive ethnography.

  19. Economic Evaluation Enhances Public Health Decision Making

    Rabarison, Kristina M.; Connie L. Bish; Massoudi, Mehran S.; Giles, Wayne H.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary public health professionals must address the health needs of a diverse population with constrained budgets and shrinking funds. Economic evaluation contributes to evidence-based decision making by helping the public health community identify, measure, and compare activities with the necessary impact, scalability, and sustainability to optimize population health. Asking “how do investments in public health strategies influence or offset the need for downstream spending on medical ...

  20. The role of health education in addressing the health divide

    Simovska, Venka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to argue that an approach to health education, consistent with critical education theory echoing Freire’s ideas, has the potential to play a significant role in addressing determinants of health by, first and foremost, providing children and young people with...

  1. Public health and Plowshare

    The protection of public health and safety is a principal area of concern in any application of nuclear energy. A health and safety analysis must be conducted and reviewed by appropriate agencies and the final results made available to interested agencies and groups, both public and private, prior to the application. This is especially important for the Plowshare Program - the peaceful uses of nuclear explosives - where the public is to be the ultimate beneficiary. Because public health must be a primary concern in the Plowshare Program, it is essential that the potential risk be weighed against the expected benefits to the public. Public health agencies must play an increasingly important role in the planning and operational stages of the peaceful applications of nuclear explosives and in the final stage of consumer use of Plowshare-generated products. There are many long term and long distance ramifications of the Plowshare Program, such a the potential radiological contamination of consumer products that may reach the consumer at long times after the event or at great distances from the site of the event. Criteria for evaluating public exposure to radiation from these products need to be developed based on sound scientific research. Standards for radioactivity in consumer products must be developed in relation to potential exposure of the public. Above all, a clear benefit to the public with a minimum of risk must be shown. The major purpose of this Symposium on the Public Health Aspects of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear-Explosives is to focus attention on the health and safety aspects, present the results of safety analyses accomplished to date and other information necessary to an understanding of the public health aspects, and to identify areas where additional research is required. A general overview of the total symposium content is presented with emphasis on the relationship of the topics to public health. (author)

  2. Prioritizing Sleep Health: Public Health Policy Recommendations.

    Barnes, Christopher M; Drake, Christopher L

    2015-11-01

    The schedules that Americans live by are not consistent with healthy sleep patterns. In addition, poor access to educational and treatment aids for sleep leaves people engaging in behavior that is harmful to sleep and forgoing treatment for sleep disorders. This has created a sleep crisis that is a public health issue with broad implications for cognitive outcomes, mental health, physical health, work performance, and safety. New public policies should be formulated to address these issues. We draw from the scientific literature to recommend the following: establishing national standards for middle and high school start times that are later in the day, stronger regulation of work hours and schedules, eliminating daylight saving time, educating the public regarding the impact of electronic media on sleep, and improving access to ambulatory in-home diagnostic testing for sleep disorders. PMID:26581727

  3. Redesigning Health Care Practices to Address Childhood Poverty.

    Fierman, Arthur H; Beck, Andrew F; Chung, Esther K; Tschudy, Megan M; Coker, Tumaini R; Mistry, Kamila B; Siegel, Benjamin; Chamberlain, Lisa J; Conroy, Kathleen; Federico, Steven G; Flanagan, Patricia J; Garg, Arvin; Gitterman, Benjamin A; Grace, Aimee M; Gross, Rachel S; Hole, Michael K; Klass, Perri; Kraft, Colleen; Kuo, Alice; Lewis, Gena; Lobach, Katherine S; Long, Dayna; Ma, Christine T; Messito, Mary; Navsaria, Dipesh; Northrip, Kimberley R; Osman, Cynthia; Sadof, Matthew D; Schickedanz, Adam B; Cox, Joanne

    2016-04-01

    Child poverty in the United States is widespread and has serious negative effects on the health and well-being of children throughout their life course. Child health providers are considering ways to redesign their practices in order to mitigate the negative effects of poverty on children and support the efforts of families to lift themselves out of poverty. To do so, practices need to adopt effective methods to identify poverty-related social determinants of health and provide effective interventions to address them. Identification of needs can be accomplished with a variety of established screening tools. Interventions may include resource directories, best maintained in collaboration with local/regional public health, community, and/or professional organizations; programs embedded in the practice (eg, Reach Out and Read, Healthy Steps for Young Children, Medical-Legal Partnership, Health Leads); and collaboration with home visiting programs. Changes to health care financing are needed to support the delivery of these enhanced services, and active advocacy by child health providers continues to be important in effecting change. We highlight the ongoing work of the Health Care Delivery Subcommittee of the Academic Pediatric Association Task Force on Child Poverty in defining the ways in which child health care practice can be adapted to improve the approach to addressing child poverty. PMID:27044692

  4. The Public Health Costs of Job Loss

    Kuhn, Andreas; Lalive, Rafael; Zweimüller, Josef

    2009-01-01

    We study the short-run effect of involuntary job loss on comprehensive measures of public health costs. We focus on job loss induced by plant closure, thereby addressing the reverse causality problem of deteriorating health leading to job loss as job displacements due to plant closure are unlikely caused by workers' health status, but potentially have important effects on individual workers' health and associated public health costs. Our empirical analysis is based on a rich data set from Aus...

  5. Nature and public health

    Annerstedt, Matilda

    2011-01-01

    Nature’s potentially positive effect on wellbeing may serve as an important resource for population health. Based on theories mainly derived from environmental psychology this resource has been explored in varied scientific studies the last century. This has rendered a substantial amount of empirical evidence for different beneficial effects of natural environments on health. The aim of this thesis was to consider these effects from a public health perspective. The state of the art f...

  6. Addressing conflicts of interest in Public Private Partnerships

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many articles have been written on conflicts of interests (COIs in fields such as medicine, business, politics, public service and education. With the growing abundance of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs, often involving complex relationships among the partners, it is important to understand how COIs can be mitigated and managed in PPPs. Discussion We wanted to study PPPs, particularly in the areas of global health and agriculture, but discovered no single source of information available to identify and compare various approaches for avoiding and managing COIs in PPPs. This is a significant gap, especially for those wishing to study, compare and strengthen existing COI policies related to PPPs. In order to bridge this gap, we reviewed how PPPs currently address COIs and highlight what might be considered good practice in developing COI policies. We reviewed the online COI policies of 10 PPPs in global health and agriculture, and interviewed two global health PPP chief executives. Summary Based on our review of policies and interviews, we conclude that there exists a range of good practices including attention to accountability and governance, acknowledgement and disclosure, abstention and withdrawal, reporting and transparency, and independent monitoring. There appears to be a need for PPPs to interact closely and learn from each other on these parameters and to also place more emphasis on independent external monitoring of COIs as a means of strengthening their major social objectives on which their activities are largely predicated. We also recommend the establishment of a web based database, which would serve as a forum to discuss COI issues and how they can be resolved.

  7. The Economic Crisis and Public Health

    Victor Sidel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The current global economic crisis seriously threatens the health of the public. Challenges include increases in malnutrition; homelessness and inadequate housing; unemployment; substance abuse, depression, and other mental health problems; mortality; child health problems; violence; environmental and occupational health problems; and social injustice and violation of human rights; as well as decreased availability, accessibility, and affordability of quality medical and dental care. Health professionals can respond by promoting surveillance and documentation of human needs, reassessing public health priorities, educating the public and policymakers about health problems worsened by the economic crisis, advocating for sound policies and programs to address these problems, and directly providing necessary programs and services.

  8. Addressing Maternal and Newborn Health: A Leadership Perspective.

    Mancuso, Leslie; Johnson, Peter; Hart, Leah; Austin, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Globally, each year 289,000 mothers die in childbirth and three million infants die in the first four weeks of life. The shortcomings in maternal and newborn health are particularly devastating in low-resource countries. This qualitative study describes the experience of an international nongovernmental organization, Jhpiego, which has been implementing public health programs to address maternal and newborn health outcomes for more than 40 years. Themes emerged from interviews with leaders of offices in a variety of countries with unique challenges related to health systems, human resources and infrastructure. Results emphasized the importance of partnerships with governments and international agencies for long-term program impact, as well as the recruitment of local talent for improving health systems to address problems that are best understood by the people who live and work in these countries. The discussion of program successes and challenges may inform best practices for promoting the health and wellness of women and families around the world. PMID:26860758

  9. GIS and Public Health

    Stefania Bertazzon

    2014-01-01

    This Special Issue on GIS and public health is the result of a highly selective process, which saw the participation of some 20 expert peer-reviewers and led to the acceptance of one half of the high-quality submissions received over the past year. Many threads link these papers to each other and, indeed, to our original call for papers, but the element that most clearly emerges from these works is the inextricable connection between public health and the environment. Indeed, GIS analysis of ...

  10. Music and Public Health

    Bonde, Lars Ole; Juel, Knud; Ekholm, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Background: ‘Music and public health’ is a new field of study. Few scientific studies with small samples have documented health implications of musical participation. Research questions in this epidemiological study were: 1) Is there an association between self-rated health and active use of music...... in daily life? 2) What associations can be observed between musical background, uses and understanding of music as a health factor, and self-reported health? Method: Data came from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2013, based on a simple random sample of 25.000 adult Danes (16+ years). Response rate......: 57%. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between musical background/activities and health-related indicators. Discussion: The study documents that a majority of informants use music to regulate physical and psychological states...

  11. Enhancing Written Communications to Address Health Literacy

    Gloria Mayer; Michael Villaire

    2009-01-01

    Health literacy is defined as the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions. Poor health literacy affects nearly one in two United States adults and greatly increases the cost of healthcare. Most patient education materials are written at a grade level too high to understand. This article describes how to write and design printed patient education materials to make them mor...

  12. Radiation and occupational health: opening address

    The part of address discusses the following issue: benefits of radiological protection in Malaysia, traceability and accountability as assurance of the validity of radiation measurement, Laboratory Accreditation Scheme, Atomic Energy Licensing Act

  13. Public Health England Obesity

    Public Health England

    2014-01-01

    The Public Health England Obesity website provides a single point of contact for wide-ranging authoritative information on data, evaluation, evidence and research related to weight status and its determinants. They work closely with a wide range of organisations and provide support to policy makers and practitioners involved in obesity and related issues.

  14. Public Health Pest Control.

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual supplies information helpful to individuals wishing to become certified in public health pest control. It is designed as a technical reference for vector control workers and as preparatory material for structural applicators of restricted use pesticides to meet the General Standards of Competency required of commercial applicators. The…

  15. Advancing Public Health through Continuing Education of Health Care Professionals

    Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Addleton, Robert L.; Vitale, Frank M.; Christiansen, Bruce A.; Mejicano, George C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how the CS2day (Cease Smoking Today) initiative positioned continuing education (CE) in the intersection between medicine and public health. The authors suggest that most CE activities address the medical challenges that clinicians confront, often to the neglect of the public health issues that are key risk factors for the…

  16. Addressing epidemiological and public health analytic challenges in outcome and impact research: a commentary on 'Prechewing Infant Food, Consumption of Sweets and Dairy and Not Breastfeeding are Associated with Increased Diarrhea Risk of Ten Month Old Infants'.

    Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Pelto, Gretel H

    2016-07-01

    Based on a paper by Conkle et al 2016, in which the authors use a descriptive epidemiological design to examine the relationship of premastication and other dietary behavioral variables to childhood diarrhea in the US, we address larger issues of "plausible causality" and the challenges involved in moving from epidemiological studies to public health policy. Drawing on examples from breastfeeding research and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) research, we discuss the following propositions: 1. Effective outcome analyses require simultaneous investigation of different, even contradictory, pathways; 2. Outcome versus impact assessments require different analytic procedures including context analysis; 3. Impact analysis requires understanding the trade-offs between detrimental and beneficial outcomes in relation to potential interventions; 4. No estimates exist for the likely detrimental and beneficial impacts of banning premastication, much less for their trade-offs. PMID:27229538

  17. Public Health Nurses’ Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Climate Change

    Polivka, Barbara J.; Chaudry, Rosemary V.; Mac Crawford, John

    2011-01-01

    Background: Climate change affects human health, and health departments are urged to act to reduce the severity of these impacts. Yet little is known about the perspective of public health nurses—the largest component of the public health workforce—regarding their roles in addressing health impacts of climate change. Objectives: We determined the knowledge and attitudes of public health nurses concerning climate change and the role of public health nursing in divisions of health departments i...

  18. Addressing health literacy in patient decision aids

    McCaffery, K; Holmes-Rovner, M.; S. Smith; Rovner, D.; Nutbeam, Don; Clayman, M.L.; Kelly-Blake, K.; Wolf, M.(University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, USA); Stacey, S

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective use of a patient decision aid (PtDA) can be affected by the user’s health literacy and the PtDA’s characteristics. Systematic reviews of the relevant literature can guide PtDA developers to attend to the health literacy needs of patients. The reviews reported here aimed to assess: 1. a) the effects of health literacy / numeracy on selected decision-making outcomes, and b) the effects of interventions designed to mitigate the influence of lower health literacy on decision-...

  19. Community Changes Address Common Health Threat

    2013-09-30

    This podcast helps residents living in multiunit housing, like apartments and condos, understand the threat of secondhand smoke. It also helps residents understand what steps they can take to breathe a little easier if involuntarily exposed to secondhand smoke.  Created: 9/30/2013 by Division of Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 9/30/2013.

  20. Pharmacogenomics and public health: implementing 'populationalized' medicine.

    Mette, Lindsey; Mitropoulos, Konstantinos; Vozikis, Athanassios; Patrinos, George P

    2012-05-01

    Pharmacogenomics are frequently considered in personalized medicine to maximize therapeutic benefits and minimize adverse drug reactions. However, there is a movement towards applying this technology to populations, which may produce the same benefits, while saving already scarce health resources. We conducted a narrative literature review to examine how pharmacogenomics and public health can constructively intersect, particularly in resource-poor settings. We identified 27 articles addressing the research question. Real and theoretical connections between public health and pharmacogenomics were presented in the areas of disease, drugs and public policy. Suggested points for consideration, such as educational efforts and cultural acceptability, were also provided. Including pharmacogenomics in public health can result in both health-related and economic benefits. Including pharmacogenomics in public health holds promise but deserves extensive consideration. To fully realize the benefits of this technology, support is needed from private, public and governmental sectors in order to ensure the appropriateness within a society. PMID:22594512

  1. [Public health and sexuality].

    Papart, Jean-pierre

    2014-03-19

    The paper questions the legitimacy and relevance of a potential emergence of any public health policies relating to sexology, as they exist for most of the major medical issues. It discusses the two major areas of intervention of sexology namely problems related to access to pleasure on the one hand, violence, abuse and other sexual perversions on the other hand. The legitimacy and relevance of public health policy to prevent the latter, i.e. sexual violence cannot be questioned. However, interventions to promote erotic skills are beyond the role and responsibility of the State but can be assigned to the civil society, especially community associations engaged in culture, solidarity and the promotion of social links in general. PMID:24734361

  2. Listening for Women's Voices: Revisioning Courses in American Public Address.

    Vonnegut, Kristin S.

    1992-01-01

    Employs seventeenth- and eighteenth-century U.S. women's rhetoric as a case study to argue that the rhetoric of muted groups can and should be included in U.S. public address courses. Draws on theories of social history and literary criticism to illustrate how women's texts might be introduced into the classroom. (MG)

  3. A multidimensional classification of public health activity in Australia

    Jorm, Louisa; Gruszin, Su; Churches, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Background At present, we have very limited ability to compare public health activity across jurisdictions and countries, or even to ascertain differences in what is considered to be a public health activity. Existing standardised health classifications do not capture important dimensions of public health, which include its functions, the methods and interventions used to achieve these, the health issues and determinants of health that public health activities address, the resources and infra...

  4. Evolution and public health

    Omenn, Gilbert S.

    2009-01-01

    Evolution and its elements of natural selection, population migration, genetic drift, and founder effects have shaped the world in which we practice public health. Human cultures and technologies have modified life on this planet and have coevolved with myriad other species, including microorganisms; plant and animal sources of food; invertebrate vectors of disease; and intermediate hosts among birds, mammals, and nonhuman primates. Molecular mechanisms of differential resistance or susceptib...

  5. Ubiquitous Health Monitoring Systems: Addressing Security Concerns

    Mahmoud Elkhodr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: It is important to secure the transmission of patient’s EHR in remote health monitoring systems. Security is among the main issues that need to be realized for the adaption of this monitoring technology. The face of healthcare is changing as ubiquitous computing technologies are being incorporated into the existing infrastructure. We specify the requirements, needed security mechanism, outstanding issues and the future challenges as well as the open problems that need to be achieved. Approach: Although there were benefits to technology, approaches that offer reliable privacy and security features must be presented to users in order to make these systems socially accepted. Results: We investigated the privacy and security implications generated from the deployment of remote health monitoring technology. To achieve these security requirements, building on the strengths of Transport Layer Security (TLS protocol, a trust negotiation approach was proposed. The application of this approach results in significant improvements in overcoming security related concerns compared to the traditional identity-based only access control techniques. Conclusion: We believe these considerations will eventually contribute toward an efficient and practical deployment of remote monitoring systems.

  6. The Public Health Costs of Job Loss

    Kuhn, Andreas; Lalive, Rafael; Zweimüller, Josef

    2009-01-01

    "We study the short-run effect of involuntary job loss on comprehensive measures of publicnhealth costs. We focus on job loss induced by plant closure, thereby addressing the reversencausality problem of deteriorating health leading to job loss as job displacements due to plant closure are unlikely caused by workers' health status, but potentially have important effects on individual workers' health and associated public health costs. Our empirical analysis isnbased on a rich data set from Au...

  7. A tale of two fields: public health ethics.

    Klugman, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade, public health and bioethics have been courting each other, trying to figure out a way to inform and assist one another. Ethics in public health began in epidemiology and public health in ethics began in health law. Attempts have been made to create both an ethics of and in public health. Although many edited volumes and even model curriculums have been created for the teaching of public health ethics, most efforts are mired in medical ethics and do not take the unique population perspective of public health. Several challenges to the development and teaching of public health ethics remain, including the issue of ethics being a required public health competency and the questions: what should be in a public health ethics curriculum, where will instructors be trained and how will such faculty be paid? A true public health ethics will help professionals address issues of values, critical thinking and decision making. PMID:19205316

  8. Actions States and Communities Can Take to Address Cognitive Health

    2014-06-09

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Lynda Anderson highlights the important roles that states and communities can play in addressing cognitive health as part of overall health.  Created: 6/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/9/2014.

  9. Doping and Public Health

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    http://www.idrottsforum.org/features/aarhus_doping/chrask_doping2007.html INHDR - International Network for Humanistisc Doping Research, med den virtuella adressen www.doping.au.dk , höll sin andra konferens den 15-16 augusti på Aarhus Universitet, med dess Center for Idræt som värdinstitution. En...... rad av världens främsta idrottsvetare och dopningsexperter hade mött upp för att presentera papers till en intresserad och engagerad publik. Temat för konferensen var "Doping and Public Health", och den aspekten behandlades också; dock tolkade flera presentatörer temat på sina egna vis, och hela...

  10. Public health improvement and integrated planning in British Columbia

    Parks, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    Experiences of staff involved in public health improvement in a health authority highlight several barriers and keys to success. Analyzing these experiences with the BC Core Functions Improvement Process and reviewing the literature of other recent initiatives leads to a summary of potential key areas to address public health improvement. This project will explore in detail the key area of integrated planning using information from interviews with public health staff, a public health leadersh...

  11. Environmental remediation: Addressing public concerns through effective community relations

    The public's perception of risk drives their response to any potential environmental remediation project. Even if the actual environmental and health risks may be relatively low, public perception of high risk may doom the project to an uphill struggle characterized by heated public meetings, negative media coverage, reluctant regulators, project delays and increased costs. The ultimate Catch 22 in such a case is that the contamination remains in-place until the public drama is concluded. This paper explores the development and implementation of a Community Relations Plan for the clean up of a Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) site owned and operated by corporate predecessors of Arizona Public Service Company (APS) near the turn of the century. The unique challenges associated with this project were that the former MGP was located in downtown Phoenix at the site of a future federal courthouse. Although the MGP site had been under investigation for some time, the clean-up schedule was driven by a tight courthouse construction schedule. Compounding these challenges were the logistics associated with conducting a large-scale cleanup in a congested, highly visible downtown location. An effective Community Relations Plan can mean the difference between the success and failure of an environmental remediation project. Elements of an effective plan are: identifying key stakeholders and involving them in the project from the beginning; providing timely information and being open and honest about the potential environmental and health risks; involving your company's community relations and media staff; and educating affected company employees. The Community Relations Plan developed for this project was designed to alleviate public concern about potential risks (perceived or real) associated with the project by keeping key stakeholders informed of all activities well in advance

  12. Public health preparedness evaluation and measurement

    Elena Savoia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Dear Sir;
    Public health preparedness refers to the ability of different local, state, and federal entities to carry out a prompt,effective response to any public health threat.[1] Indeed,it is clear that the term “threat”could embrace
    a myriad of elements. Recently, the main focus has been on bioterrorism, defined as the terrorist use of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive weapons of mass destruction.

    However, preparedness also involves other threats such as seasonal influenza epidemics, earthquakes or electricity failures. Programs aimed at improving the level of preparedness of different types of agencies (such as law enforcement, public health agencies, fire services, emergency medical services etc. in case of terrorist attacks could largely improve the overall ability of the public health system in addressing any threat to health, in particular those related to infectious diseases.[2]

  13. Leprosy: International Public Health Policies and Public Health Eras

    Niyi Awofeso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Public health policies continue to play important roles in national and international health reforms. However, the influence and legacies of the public health eras during which such policies are formulated remain largely underappreciated. The limited appreciation of this relationship may hinder consistent adoption of public health policies by nation-states, and encumber disinvestment from ineffective or anachronistic policies. This article reviews seven public health eras and highlights how each era has influenced international policy formulation for leprosy control—“the fertile soil for policy learning”. The author reiterates the role of health leadership and health activism in facilitating consistency in international health policy formulation and implementation for leprosy control.

  14. Social marketing in public health.

    Grier, Sonya; Bryant, Carol A

    2005-01-01

    Social marketing, the use of marketing to design and implement programs to promote socially beneficial behavior change, has grown in popularity and usage within the public health community. Despite this growth, many public health professionals have an incomplete understanding of the field. To advance current knowledge, we provide a practical definition and discuss the conceptual underpinnings of social marketing. We then describe several case studies to illustrate social marketing's application in public health and discuss challenges that inhibit the effective and efficient use of social marketing in public health. Finally, we reflect on future developments in the field. Our aim is practical: to enhance public health professionals' knowledge of the key elements of social marketing and how social marketing may be used to plan public health interventions. PMID:15760292

  15. Nursing leadership in addressing the social determinants of health.

    Lathrop, Breanna

    2013-02-01

    Social determinants of health have a profound impact on health status and the prevalence of health disparities in the United States. Significant improvements in national health indices are not possible without addressing social determinants of health. Drawing on their historical legacy as patient advocates, patient care expertise, and community focused education, nurses are ideally positioned to lead the nation in strategies to promote health equity. Nurses can embrace this new leadership role through the use of interdisciplinary collaboration, advocacy, political involvement, and community partnerships. PMID:23793135

  16. Personalism for public health ethics

    Carlo Petrini; Sabina Gainotti; Pablo Requena

    2010-01-01

    In public health ethics, as in bioethics, utilitarian approaches usually prevail, followed by Kantian and communitarian foundations. If one considers the nature and core functions of public health, which are focused on a population perspective, utilitarianism seems still more applicable to public health ethics. Nevertheless, faulting additional protections towards the human person, utilitarianism doesn't offer appropriate solutions when conflicts among values do arise. Further criteria must b...

  17. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored. PMID:16521670

  18. 75 FR 51831 - Request for Measures of Health Plan Efforts To Address Health Plan Members' Health Literacy Needs

    2010-08-23

    ... Address Health Plan Members' Health Literacy Needs AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality... health providers address health plan enrollees' health literacy needs and how well they communicate with... supplemental item set (the ``new instrument'') for addressing health literacy for the CAHPS Health Plan...

  19. Building the national health information infrastructure for personal health, health care services, public health, and research

    Detmer Don E

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving health in our nation requires strengthening four major domains of the health care system: personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and health-related research. Many avoidable shortcomings in the health sector that result in poor quality are due to inaccessible data, information, and knowledge. A national health information infrastructure (NHII offers the connectivity and knowledge management essential to correct these shortcomings. Better health and a better health system are within our reach. Discussion A national health information infrastructure for the United States should address the needs of personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and research. It should also address relevant global dimensions (e.g., standards for sharing data and knowledge across national boundaries. The public and private sectors will need to collaborate to build a robust national health information infrastructure, essentially a 'paperless' health care system, for the United States. The federal government should assume leadership for assuring a national health information infrastructure as recommended by the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics and the President's Information Technology Advisory Committee. Progress is needed in the areas of funding, incentives, standards, and continued refinement of a privacy (i.e., confidentiality and security framework to facilitate personal identification for health purposes. Particular attention should be paid to NHII leadership and change management challenges. Summary A national health information infrastructure is a necessary step for improved health in the U.S. It will require a concerted, collaborative effort by both public and private sectors. If you cannot measure it, you cannot improve it. Lord Kelvin

  20. Oral health in Libya: addressing the future challenges

    Peeran, Syed Wali; Altaher, Omar Basheer; Peeran, Syed Ali; Alsaid, Fatma Mojtaba; Mugrabi, Marei Hamed; Ahmed, Aisha Mojtaba; Grain, Abdulgader

    2014-01-01

    Libya is a vast country situated in North Africa, having a relatively better functioning economy with a scanty population. This article is the first known attempt to review the current state of oral health care in Libya and to explore the present trends and future challenges. Libyan health system, oral health care, and human resources with the present status of dental education are reviewed comprehensively. A bibliographic study of oral health research and publications has been carried out. T...

  1. Liberalism and Public Health Ethics.

    Rajczi, Alex

    2016-02-01

    Many public health dilemmas involve a tension between the promotion of health and the rights of individuals. This article suggests that we should resolve the tension using our familiar liberal principles of government. The article considers the common objections that (i) liberalism is incompatible with standard public health interventions such as anti-smoking measures or intervention in food markets; (2) there are special reasons for hard paternalism in public health; and (3) liberalism is incompatible with proper protection of the community good. The article argues that we should examine these critiques in a larger methodological framework by first acknowledging that the right theory of public health ethics is the one we arrive at in reflective equilibrium. Once we examine the arguments for and against liberalism in that light, we can see the weaknesses in the objections and the strength of the case for liberalism in public health. PMID:25960065

  2. Public Health Events and International Health Regulations

    2012-06-21

    Dr. Katrin Kohl, a medical officer at the CDC, discusses the World Health Organization’s International Health Regulations for assessing and reporting on public health events across the world.  Created: 6/21/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/21/2012.

  3. Masterclass in veterinary public health.

    Clifford, Hannah

    2016-02-01

    Each summer, one student from each vet school in the British Isles gets the chance to attend a week-long masterclass to learn more about veterinary public health. Last year, Hannah Clifford was one of them. Here she explains how her understanding of the relevance and responsibility of vets working in public health has changed. PMID:26851115

  4. The World Health Organization Addressing Violence Against Women

    Claudia Garcia-Moreno

    2001-01-01

    Claudia Garcia-Moreno describes the approach of the World Health Organization to violence against women as a major public health issue. She explains how the focus of WHO's work is on building the knowledge base for policy and action and identifying the role of the health sector in the prevention of violence against women and in providing care for those experiencing abuse. Development (2001) 44, 129–132. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1110280

  5. Gender issues in medical and public health education.

    Wong, Y L

    2000-01-01

    There is no doubt that gender bias has been inherent in medical and public health education, research, and clinical practice. This paper discusses the central question for medical and public health educators viz. whether women's health concerns and needs could be best addressed by the conventional biomedical approach to medical and public health education, research, and practice. Gender inequalities in health and gender bias in medical and public health education are revealed. It is found that in most public health and prevention issues related to women's health, the core issue is male-female power relations, and not merely the lack of public health services, medical technology, or information. There is, thus, an urgent need to gender-sensitize public health and medical education. The paper proposes a gender analysis of health to distinguish between biological causes and social explanations for the health differentials between men and women. It also assessed some of the gender approaches to public health and medical education currently adopted in the Asia-Pacific region. It poses the pressing question of how medical and public health educators integrate the gender perspective into medical and public health education. The paper exhorts all medical and public health practitioners to explore new directions and identify innovative strategies to formulate a gender-sensitive curriculum towards the best practices in medicine and public health that will meet the health needs of women and men in the 21st century. PMID:11338745

  6. Intercultural Competency in Public Health: A Call for Action to Incorporate Training into Public Health Education

    Fleckman, Julia M.; Dal Corso, Mark; Ramirez, Shokufeh; Begalieva, Maya; Johnson, Carolyn C.

    2015-01-01

    Due to increasing national diversity, programs addressing cultural competence have multiplied in U.S. medical training institutions. Although these programs share common goals for improving clinical care for patients and reducing health disparities, there is little standardization across programs. Furthermore, little progress has been made to translate cultural competency training from the clinical setting into the public health setting where the focus is on population-based health, preventat...

  7. Influencing public health without authority

    K Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the present processes, products and needs of post-graduate public health education for the health programming, implementation and oversight responsibilities at field level and suggests some solutions for the institutes to adopt or adapt for improving the quality of their scholars. Large number of institutions has cropped up in India in the recent years to meet the growing demand of public health specialists/practitioners in various national health projects, international development partners, national and international NGOs. Throwing open MPH courses to multi-disciplinary graduate′s is a new phenomenon in India and may be a two edged sword. On one hand it is advantageous to produce multi-faceted Public health postgraduates to meet the multi tasking required, on the other hand getting all of them to a common basic understanding, demystifying technical teaching and churning out products that are acceptable to the traditional health system. These Institutions can and must influence public health in the country through producing professionals of MPH/ MD degree with right attitude and skill-mix. Engaging learners in experimentation, experience sharing projects, stepping into health professionals′ roles and similar activities lead to development of relatively clear and permanent neural traces in the brain. The MPH institutes may not have all efficient faculties, for which they should try to achieve this by inviting veterans in public health and professionals from corporate health industry for interface with students on a regular basis. The corporate and public health stalwarts have the capacities to transmit the winning skills and knowledge and also inspire them to adopt or adapt in order to achieve the desired goals.

  8. Personalism for public health ethics

    Carlo Petrini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In public health ethics, as in bioethics, utilitarian approaches usually prevail, followed by Kantian and communitarian foundations. If one considers the nature and core functions of public health, which are focused on a population perspective, utilitarianism seems still more applicable to public health ethics. Nevertheless, faulting additional protections towards the human person, utilitarianism doesn't offer appropriate solutions when conflicts among values do arise. Further criteria must be applied to protect the fundamental principles of respect for human life. Personalism offers similar advantages to utilitarianism but warrants more protection to the human person. We suggest a possible adaptation of personalism in the specific field of public health by means of four principles: absolute respect for life or principle of inviolability; subsidiarity and the "minimum" mandatory principle; solidarity; justice and non discrimination.

  9. Discover: What Is Public Health?

    ... care, controlling infectious disease, and reducing environmental hazards, violence, substance abuse, and injury. It spans many disciplines and is regularly spotlighted in popular culture and media . The impact is measurable. In the past century, public health ...

  10. Public health week: marketing the concept of public health.

    Evans, C A; Margolis, L A

    1992-01-01

    The Public Health Programs and Services (PHP&S) Branch of the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services began a strategic planning effort in January 1986 to meet new disease trends, curb rising health care costs, consolidate limited resources, and handle shifting demographics. A strategic plan was designed to assess the opportunities and challenges facing the agency over a 5-year horizon. Priority areas were recognized, and seven strategic directives were formulated to guide PHP&S in e...

  11. Linking Obesity Prevention and Mental Health Promotion to Address Health Disparities.

    Claydon, Elizabeth; Austin, Anna; Smith, Megan V

    2016-05-01

    Considerable racial health disparities exist, especially in mental health and obesity. However, few approaches exist to address obesity and mental health simultaneously in minority groups. An intervention to address mental health in a low-income, minority group of urban mothers was designed using results from a needs assessment. Participating women were asked to rank their top health concerns and personal goals. Along with mental health concerns and basic needs, the majority of mothers desired assistance with improving their physical well-being. These results are surprising, but lend credence to creating interventions that aim to address both mental health and obesity concerns simultaneously. PMID:26303902

  12. Challenges in Diabetes Care: Can Digital Health Help Address Them?

    Iyengar, Varun; Wolf, Alexander; Brown, Adam; Close, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    In Brief There is great enthusiasm for the potential of digital health solutions in medicine and diabetes to address key care challenges: patient and provider burden, lack of data to inform therapeutic decision-making, poor access to care, and costs. However, the field is still in its nascent days; many patients and providers do not currently engage with digital health tools, and for those who do, the burden is still often high. Over time, digital health has excellent potential to collect data more seamlessly, make collected data more useful, and drive better outcomes at lower costs in less time. But there is still much to prove. This review offers key background information on the current state of digital health in diabetes, six of the most promising digital health technologies and services, and the challenges that remain. PMID:27621530

  13. Periodontal health and global public health

    Petersen, Poul E; Baehni, Pierre C

    2012-01-01

    Chronic diseases are a growing burden to people, to health-care systems and to societies across the world. The rapid increase in the burden of chronic diseases is particularly prevalent in the developing countries. Periodontal disease is one of the two most important oral diseases contributing...... to the global burden of chronic disease. In addition to social determinants, periodontal health status is related to several proximal factors. Modifiable risk factors, such as tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption, poor diet and nutrition, obesity, psychological stress and insufficient personal....../oral hygiene, are important and these principal risk factors for periodontal disease are shared by other chronic diseases. The present monograph is devoted to the existing evidence on the practice of public health related to periodontal health. Public health is defined as the process of mobilizing and engaging...

  14. Equity-focused health impact assessment: A tool to assist policy makers in addressing health inequalities

    In Australasia (Australia and New Zealand) the use of health impact assessment (HIA) as a tool for improved policy development is comparatively new. The public health workforce do not routinely assess the potential health and equity impacts of proposed policies or programs. The Australasian Collaboration for Health Equity Impact Assessment was funded to develop a strategic framework for equity-focused HIA (EFHIA) with the intent of strengthening the ways in which equity is addressed in each step of HIA. The collaboration developed a draft framework for EFHIA that mirrored, but modified the commonly accepted steps of HIA; tested the draft framework in six different health service delivery settings; analysed the feedback about application of the draft EFHIA framework and modified it accordingly. The strategic framework shows promise in providing a systematic process for identifying potential differential health impacts and assessing the extent to which these are avoidable and unfair. This paper presents the EFHIA framework and discusses some of the issues that arose in the case study sites undertaking equity-focused HIA

  15. Patterns in PARTNERing across Public Health Collaboratives

    Christine A. Bevc

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162, to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships.

  16. Do we develop public health leaders?- association between public health competencies and emotional intelligence: a cross-sectional study

    Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Malho, André; Schröder-Bäck, Peter; Popa, Daniela; Burazeri, Genc

    2014-01-01

    Background Professional development of public health leaders requires a form of instruction which is competency-based to help them develop the abilities to address complex and evolving demands of health care systems. Concurrently, emotional intelligence (EI) is a key to organisational success. Our aim was twofold: i) to assess the relationship between the level of self-assessed public health and EI competencies among Master of European Public Health (MEPH) students and graduates at Maastricht...

  17. American Public Health Association

    ... Health Events View All Sep 15 Webinar Beyond Bias: Part 2 Date: Sep 15 2016 EST Show ... Australian study: nearly 25% of indigenous children report racial discrimination from peers https://t.co/1Aa6Qs8AE2 ht… ...

  18. Partnership work between Public Health and Health Psychology: introduction to a novel training programme

    Robinson Clare

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health services implement individual, community and population level interventions to change health behaviours, improve healthy life expectancy and reduce health inequalities. Understanding and changing health behaviour is complex. Integrating behaviour change theory and evidence into interventions has the potential to improve services. Methods Health Psychologists apply evidence and theories aimed at understanding and changing health behaviour. A Scottish programme is piloting the training of Health Psychologists within NHS contexts to address prominent public health challenges. Results This article outlines the details of this novel programme. Two projects are examined to illustrate the potential of partnership working between public health and health psychology. Conclusion In order to develop and improve behaviour change interventions and services, public health planners may want to consider developing and using the knowledge and skills of Health Psychologists. Supporting such training within public health contexts is a promising avenue to build critical NHS internal mass to tackle the major public health challenges ahead.

  19. USGS Science Serves Public Health

    Buxton, Herbert T.

    2010-01-01

    Human health so often depends on the health of the environment and wildlife around us. The presence of naturally occurring or human environmental contaminants and the emergence of diseases transferred between animals and humans are growing concerns worldwide. The USGS is a source of natural science information vital for understanding the quantity and quality of our earth and living resources. This information improves our understanding not only of how human activities affect environmental and ecological health, but also of how the quality of our environment and wildlife in turn affects human health. USGS is taking a leadership role in providing the natural science information needed by health researchers, policy makers, and the public to safeguard public health

  20. Digital Government and Public Health

    Jane E. Fountain

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Digital government is typically defined as the production and delivery of information and services inside government and between government and the public using a range of information and communication technologies. Two types of government relationships with other entities are government-to-citizen and government-to-government relationships. Both offer opportunities and challenges. Assessment of a public health agency’s readiness for digital government includes examination of technical, managerial, and political capabilities. Public health agencies are especially challenged by a lack of funding for technical infrastructure and expertise, by privacy and security issues, and by lack of Internet access for low-income and marginalized populations. Public health agencies understand the difficulties of working across agencies and levels of government, but the development of new, integrated e-programs will require more than technical change — it will require a profound change in paradigm.

  1. Intercultural Competency in Public Health: A Call for Action to Incorporate Training into Public Health Education.

    Fleckman, Julia M; Dal Corso, Mark; Ramirez, Shokufeh; Begalieva, Maya; Johnson, Carolyn C

    2015-01-01

    Due to increasing national diversity, programs addressing cultural competence have multiplied in U.S. medical training institutions. Although these programs share common goals for improving clinical care for patients and reducing health disparities, there is little standardization across programs. Furthermore, little progress has been made to translate cultural competency training from the clinical setting into the public health setting where the focus is on population-based health, preventative programming, and epidemiological and behavioral research. The need for culturally relevant public health programming and culturally sensitive public health research is more critical than ever. Awareness of differing cultures needs to be included in all processes of planning, implementation and evaluation. By focusing on community-based health program planning and research, cultural competence implies that it is possible for public health professionals to completely know another culture, whereas intercultural competence implies it is a dual-sided process. Public health professionals need a commitment toward intercultural competence and skills that demonstrate flexibility, openness, and self-reflection so that cultural learning is possible. In this article, the authors recommend a number of elements to develop, adapt, and strengthen intercultural competence education in public health educational institutions. PMID:26389109

  2. Prisons and public health

    Rourke, Sean B; Sobota, Michael; Tucker, Ruthann; Bekele, Tsegaye; Gibson, Katherine; Greene, Saara; Price, Colleen; Koornstra, J J; Monette, LaVerne; Byers, Steve; Watson, James; Hwang, Stephen W.; Guenter, Dale; Dunn, James; Ahluwalia, Amrita

    2011-01-01

    Background Social determinants of health (SDOH) may influence the probability of people living with HIV also being infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). We compared the SDOH of adults co-infected with HCV/HIV with that of HIV mono-infected adults to identify factors independently associated with HCV infection. Methods In this cross-sectional study, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 509 HIV-infected adults affiliated with or receiving services from community-based AIDS service organ...

  3. Noise and public health.

    Lipscomb, D M; Roettger, R W

    1976-01-01

    Environmental noise has increased to the point that it affects large numbers of people. The most consistently demonstrated health effect of exposure to noise is hearing impairment. Other effects, such as stress reaction, irritability, fatigue and disturbances to physiologic function have been seen in laboratory research but are highly individualized and restricted to such specific populations as industrial workers. Rising background sound levels in communities due to increased traffic flow, industralization, work saving machinery, and other noise sources have caused community noise levels to become dangerously high. This factor is complicated by exposure to high sound level recreational activities with greater frequency and for longer periods. Recognizing the existence of the problem, governmental agencies have begun to identify the scope of the problem, to designate standards and regulations controlling noise sources, and to regulate allowable noise exposure for workers. PMID:10297834

  4. Public health education in South Asia: a basis for structuring a master degree course

    Rajendra eKarkee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Countries in South Asian Association for Regional Corporation (SAARC lack enough public health workforces to address their poor public health situation. Recently, there have been efforts to develop capacity building in public health in these countries by producing competent public health workforce through public health institutes and schools. Considering the wide nature of public health, the public health education and curricula should be linked with skills, knowledge and competencies needed for public health practice and professionalism. The three domains of public health practice and the ten essential public health services provide an operational framework to explore this link between public health practice and public health education. This framework incorporates five core areas of public health education. A master degree course in public health can be structured by incorporating these core areas as basic and reinforcing one of these areas as an elective followed by a dissertation work.

  5. Insights in Public Health

    Choy, Lehua B; Smith, Heidi Hansen; Espiritu, Justine; Higa, Earl; Lee, Thomas; Maddock, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In 2011, a small pilot bike share program was established in the town core of Kailua, Hawai‘i, with funding from the Hawai‘i State Department of Health. The Kailua system consisted of two stations with 12 bicycles, and the goal was to secure additional funding to expand the station network in the future. Community feedback consistently indicated support for the bike share program. However, system metrics showed low levels of usage, averaging 41.5 rides per month (2011–2014). From observational data, users were primarily tourists. With minimal local staff, the bike share program had limited resources for promotion and education, which may have hindered potential use by local residents. Management of station operations and bike maintenance were additional, ongoing barriers to success. Despite the challenges, the pilot bike share program was valuable in several ways. It introduced the bike share concept to Hawai‘i, thereby helping to build awareness and connect an initial network of stakeholders. Furthermore, the pilot bike share program informed the development of a larger bike share program for urban Honolulu. As limited information exists in the literature about the experiences of smaller bike share programs and their unique considerations, this article shares lessons learned for other communities interested in starting similar bike share programs. PMID:26535166

  6. Visible and Invisible Trends in Black Men's Health: Pitfalls and Promises for Addressing Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Inequities in Health.

    Gilbert, Keon L; Ray, Rashawn; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Shetty, Shivan; Baker, Elizabeth A; Elder, Keith; Griffith, Derek M

    2016-03-18

    Over the past two decades, there has been growing interest in improving black men's health and the health disparities affecting them. Yet, the health of black men consistently ranks lowest across nearly all groups in the United States. Evidence on the health and social causes of morbidity and mortality among black men has been narrowly concentrated on public health problems (e.g., violence, prostate cancer, and HIV/AIDS) and determinants of health (e.g., education and male gender socialization). This limited focus omits age-specific leading causes of death and other social determinants of health, such as discrimination, segregation, access to health care, employment, and income. This review discusses the leading causes of death for black men and the associated risk factors, as well as identifies gaps in the literature and presents a racialized and gendered framework to guide efforts to address the persistent inequities in health affecting black men. PMID:26989830

  7. Addressing food security through public policy action in a community-based participatory research partnership.

    Vásquez, Victoria Breckwich; Lanza, Dana; Hennessey-Lavery, Susana; Facente, Shelley; Halpin, Helen Ann; Minkler, Meredith

    2007-10-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an increasingly utilized research approach that involves the affected community identifying a health-related problem, developing a research agenda, and planning an appropriate intervention to address the problem. This report on a CBPR partnership in San Francisco's Bayview Hunters Point neighborhood documents the rise of a community food security policy in response to youth-involved research that found poor access to quality food in an economically disadvantaged area of the city. To analyze the impact of the research on public policy, a framework of specific steps in the policy-making process is used to organize and better understand the partnership's objectives, activities, strategies, and successes. This community-health department partnership has been able to achieve an innovative and sustainable public policy solution, the Good Neighbor Program, by working closely with policy makers and local businesses to expand community accessibility to healthy food. PMID:17728199

  8. An Informatics Approach to Establishing a Sustainable Public Health Community

    Kriseman, Jeffrey Michael

    2012-01-01

    This work involved the analysis of a public health system, and the design, development and deployment of enterprise informatics architecture, and sustainable community methods to address problems with the current public health system. Specifically, assessment of the Nationally Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) was instrumental in…

  9. Lessons from tuberculosis control for public health.

    Frieden, T R

    2009-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) control in many ways exemplifies evidence-based public health practice, rigorously implemented, with appropriate emphasis on the central importance of political support for success. With more than 30 million patients treated in the past decade, TB control has important implications for managing both communicable and non-communicable diseases. Simple diagnostic tests, meticulously proven standardized treatment regimens with assured drug supply, supportive case management and a superb information system that tracks the progress of every patient, all facilitate effective program implementation. TB control shows that public health programs, including those that require long-term treatment in the primary care system, can be effective in poor countries; however, TB rates are heavily influenced by the social, environmental and epidemiologic context, emphasizing that treatment is not enough and that socio-economic factors may be more important determinants of epidemiologic trends than treatment programs. TB control is effective when it combines two essential components: a practical, implementable, proven technical package, and political commitment. Political commitment is also essential to implement other interventions that can improve health, including healthier air, water and food, as well as programs to prevent or reduce tobacco smoking, cardiovascular disease, cancer, obesity and other growing public health problems. By implementing evidence-based practices, ensuring operational excellence, using information systems that facilitate accountability and evaluation, and obtaining and maintaining political support, we can address the public health challenges of the twenty-first century. PMID:19335945

  10. PM₂.₅ opened a door to public participation addressing environmental challenges in China.

    Huang, Ganlin

    2015-02-01

    China has long been regarded as a centralized society where the public has little influence on decision-making. Such a top-down management scheme is perceived as a major obstacle to address complicated environment issues. The recent public campaign in China to urge creation of a nationwide PM₂.₅ monitoring network and mitigation plan provides an unprecedented case of how the public participated and influenced policy-making in a centralized society. This paper reviews key incidents in the campaign chronologically. Here we identify information technology, public awareness of air quality's health impacts and the fact air quality affects everyone as public goods as the major factors promoting public participation. This case demonstrates that public participation can happen in a centralized, top-down society such as China. Continued environmental deterioration may stimulate similar campaigns for other issues. We anticipate this essay to be a starting point for more studies on how environmental issues stimulate incremental social change by making people involved in decision-making process, especially in societies where they are rarely able to do so. PMID:25499795

  11. Zoological medicine and public health.

    Chomel, Bruno B; Osburn, Bennie I

    2006-01-01

    Public-health issues regarding zoological collections and free-ranging wildlife have historically been linked to the risk of transmission of zoonotic diseases and accidents relating to bites or injection of venom or toxins by venomous animals. It is only recently that major consideration has been given worldwide to the role of the veterinary profession in contributing to investigating zoonotic diseases in free-ranging wildlife and integrating the concept of public health into the management activities of game preserves and wildlife parks. At the veterinary undergraduate level, courses in basic epidemiology, which should include outbreak investigation and disease surveillance, but also in population medicine, in infectious and parasitic diseases (especially new and emerging or re-emerging zoonoses), and in ecology should be part of the core curriculum. Foreign diseases, especially dealing with zoonotic diseases that are major threats because of possible agro-terrorism or spread of zoonoses, need to be taught in veterinary college curricula. Furthermore, knowledge of the principles of ecology and ecosystems should be acquired either during pre-veterinary studies or, at least, at the beginning of the veterinary curriculum. At the post-graduate level, master's degrees in preventive veterinary medicine, ecology and environmental health, or public health with an emphasis on infectious diseases should be offered to veterinarians seeking job opportunities in public health and wildlife management. PMID:17035205

  12. Challenges created by data dissemination and access restrictions when attempting to address community concerns: individual privacy versus public wellbeing

    Amy Colquhoun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population health data are vital for the identification of public health problems and the development of public health strategies. Challenges arise when attempts are made to disseminate or access anonymised data that are deemed to be potentially identifiable. In these situations, there is debate about whether the protection of an individual's privacy outweighs potentially beneficial public health initiatives developed using potentially identifiable information. While these issues have an impact at planning and policy levels, they pose a particular dilemma when attempting to examine and address community concerns about a specific health problem. Methods: Research currently underway in northern Canadian communities on the frequency of Helicobacter pylori infection and associated diseases, such as stomach cancer, is used in this article to illustrate the challenges that data controls create on the ability of researchers and health officials to address community concerns. Results: Barriers are faced by public health professionals and researchers when endeavouring to address community concerns; specifically, provincial cancer surveillance departments and community-driven participatory research groups face challenges related to data release or access that inhibit their ability to effectively address community enquiries. The resulting consequences include a limited ability to address misinformation or to alleviate concerns when dealing with health problems in small communities. Conclusions: The development of communication tools and building of trusting relationships are essential components of a successful investigation into community health concerns. It may also be important to consider that public wellbeing may outweigh the value of individual privacy in these situations. As such, a re-evaluation of data disclosure policies that are applicable in these circumstances should be considered.

  13. Using public relations to promote health: a framing analysis of public relations strategies among health associations.

    Park, Hyojung; Reber, Bryan H

    2010-01-01

    This study explored health organizations' public relations efforts to frame health issues through their press releases. Content analysis of 316 press releases from three health organizations-the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, and the American Diabetes Association-revealed that they used the medical research frame most frequently and emphasized societal responsibility for health issues. There were differences, however, among the organizations regarding the main frames and health issues: the American Diabetes Association was more likely to focus on the issues related to social support and education, while the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society were more likely to address medical research and scientific news. To demonstrate their initiatives for public health, all the organizations employed the social support/educational frame most frequently. Researchers and medical doctors frequently were quoted as trusted sources in the releases. PMID:20390976

  14. Applied social and behavioral science to address complex health problems.

    Livingood, William C; Allegrante, John P; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Clark, Noreen M; Windsor, Richard C; Zimmerman, Marc A; Green, Lawrence W

    2011-11-01

    Complex and dynamic societal factors continue to challenge the capacity of the social and behavioral sciences in preventive medicine and public health to overcome the most seemingly intractable health problems. This paper proposes a fundamental shift from a research approach that presumes to identify (from highly controlled trials) universally applicable interventions expected to be implemented "with fidelity" by practitioners, to an applied social and behavioral science approach similar to that of engineering. Such a shift would build on and complement the recent recommendations of the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research and require reformulation of the research-practice dichotomy. It would also require disciplines now engaged in preventive medicine and public health practice to develop a better understanding of systems thinking and the science of application that is sensitive to the complexity, interactivity, and unique elements of community and practice settings. Also needed is a modification of health-related education to ensure that those entering the disciplines develop instincts and capacities as applied scientists. PMID:22011425

  15. [National public health information system].

    Erceg, Marijan; Stevanović, Ranko; Babić-Erceg, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Information production and its communication being a key public health activity, developing modern information systems is a precondition for its fulfilling these assignments. A national public health information system (NPHIS) is a set of human resources combined with computing and communication technologies. It enables data linkage and data coverage as well as undertaking information production and dissemination in an effective, standardized and safe way. The Croatian Institute of Public Health LAN/WAN modules are under development. Health Safety System, Health Workers Registry, and Digital Library are among the Institute's developmental priorities. Communication between NPHIS participants would unfold over the Internet by using every relevant data protection method. Web technology-based applications would be run on special servers. Between individual applications, use would be made of the transaction module of communication through an exchange of the HL7 standard-based xml messages. In the conditions of transition, the health system must make an optimal use of the resources, which is not feasible without applying modern information and communication technologies. PMID:16095199

  16. Addressing social determinants of health inequities through settings: a rapid review.

    Newman, Lareen; Baum, Fran; Javanparast, Sara; O'Rourke, Kerryn; Carlon, Leanne

    2015-09-01

    Changing settings to be more supportive of health and healthy choices is an optimum way to improve population health and health equity. This article uses the World Health Organisation's (1998) (WHO Health Promotion Glossary. WHO Collaborating Centre for Health Promotion, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Sydney, NSW) definition of settings approaches to health promotion as those focused on modifying settings' structure and nature. A rapid literature review was undertaken in the period June-August 2014, combining a systematically conducted search of two major databases with targeted searches. The review focused on identifying what works in settings approaches to address the social determinants of health inequities, using Fair Foundations: the VicHealth framework for health equity. This depicts the social determinants of health inequities as three layers of influence, and entry points for action to promote health equity. The evidence review identified work in 12 settings (cities; communities and neighbourhoods; educational; healthcare; online; faith-based; sports; workplaces; prisons; and nightlife, green and temporary settings), and work at the socioeconomic, political and cultural context layer of the Fair Foundations framework (governance, legislation, regulation and policy). It located a relatively small amount of evidence that settings themselves are being changed in ways which address the social determinants of health inequities. Rather, many initiatives focus on individual behaviour change within settings. There is considerable potential for health promotion professionals to focus settings work more upstream and so replace or integrate individual approaches with those addressing daily living conditions and higher level structures, and a significant need for programmes to be evaluated for differential equity impacts and published to provide a more solid evidence base. PMID:26420808

  17. Supplementing Public Health Inspection via Social Media.

    Schomberg, John P; Haimson, Oliver L; Hayes, Gillian R; Anton-Culver, Hoda

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illness is prevented by inspection and surveillance conducted by health departments across America. Appropriate restaurant behavior is enforced and monitored via public health inspections. However, surveillance coverage provided by state and local health departments is insufficient in preventing the rising number of foodborne illness outbreaks. To address this need for improved surveillance coverage we conducted a supplementary form of public health surveillance using social media data: Yelp.com restaurant reviews in the city of San Francisco. Yelp is a social media site where users post reviews and rate restaurants they have personally visited. Presence of keywords related to health code regulations and foodborne illness symptoms, number of restaurant reviews, number of Yelp stars, and restaurant price range were included in a model predicting a restaurant's likelihood of health code violation measured by the assigned San Francisco public health code rating. For a list of major health code violations see (S1 Table). We built the predictive model using 71,360 Yelp reviews of restaurants in the San Francisco Bay Area. The predictive model was able to predict health code violations in 78% of the restaurants receiving serious citations in our pilot study of 440 restaurants. Training and validation data sets each pulled data from 220 restaurants in San Francisco. Keyword analysis of free text within Yelp not only improved detection of high-risk restaurants, but it also served to identify specific risk factors related to health code violation. To further validate our model we applied the model generated in our pilot study to Yelp data from 1,542 restaurants in San Francisco. The model achieved 91% sensitivity 74% specificity, area under the receiver operator curve of 98%, and positive predictive value of 29% (given a substandard health code rating prevalence of 10%). When our model was applied to restaurant reviews in New York City we achieved 74% sensitivity

  18. Sex education for local tourism/hospitality employees: addressing a local health need.

    Bauer, Irmgard L

    2009-11-01

    Health concerns arising from sexual relationships between tourists and locals usually focus on the travelling public. The local sex partners' health, and their impact on their communities' health, seem far less acknowledged. This paper describes a local health education session which implemented recommendations based on a study in Cuzco/Peru on tourists' and locals' views, knowledge, attitudes and experiences relating to sexual relationships between them. On location, fifteen discotheque employees received a health education session at the establishment's owner's request. Concluding from the positive experience, it is argued that researchers should, where possible, respond to requests to deliver ad hoc health education sessions while on location to address an identified local health need. PMID:19945015

  19. Competencies for public health finance: an initial assessment and recommendations.

    Gillespie, Kathleen N; Kurz, Richard S; McBride, Timothy; Schmitz, Homer H

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study in this article was to identify The needs of public health managers with regard to public health finance. A survey of public health practitioners regarding competencies was conducted and a review of course offerings in finance among schools of public health was performed. Most public health practitioners surveyed believe that a broad array of management competencies are required to administer the finances of a public health facility or department. Respondents added 35 competencies to those initially given to them for review. Most added competencies that were more specific than the original competencies or could be viewed as subpoints of the original competencies. Many schools offered no courses specifically addressing public health care finance, with a few offering at most only one public health finance course. All schools offered at least one corporate finance course, and the majority offered two or more courses. We conclude with a number of recommendations for education and competency development, suggesting several next steps that can advance the field of public health's understanding of what managers need to master in public health finance to effectively function as public health managers. PMID:15552772

  20. A Poverty Simulation to Inform Public Health Practice

    Strasser, Sheryl; Smith, Megan O.; Pendrick Denney, Danielle; Jackson, Matt C.; Buckmaster, Pam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Poverty is a pervasive condition linked to a myriad of health conditions and severe health outcomes. Public health professionals are at the forefront of addressing poverty-related issues and require education that enhances their understanding and cultural competence. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impacts of…

  1. Public health capacity in the provision of health care services.

    Valdmanis, Vivian; DeNicola, Arianna; Bernet, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we assess the capacity of Florida's public health departments. We achieve this by using bootstrapped data envelopment analysis (DEA) applied to Johansen's definition of capacity utilization. Our purpose in this paper is to measure if there is, theoretically, enough excess capacity available to handle a possible surge in the demand for primary care services especially after the implementation of the Affordable Care Act that includes provisions for expanded public health services. We measure subunit service availability using a comprehensive data source available for all 67 county health departments in the provision of diagnostic care and primary health care. In this research we aim to address two related research questions. First, we structure our analysis so as to fix budgets. This is based on the assumption that State spending on social and health services could be limited, but patient needs are not. Our second research question is that, given the dearth of primary care providers in Florida if budgets are allowed to vary is there enough medical labor to provide care to clients. Using a non-parametric approach, we also apply bootstrapping to the concept of plant capacity which adds to the productivity research. To preview our findings, we report that there exists excess plant capacity for patient treatment and care, but question whether resources may be better suited for more traditional types of public health services. PMID:24687803

  2. Public Library Training Program for Older Adults Addresses Their Computer and Health Literacy Needs. A Review of: Xie, B. (2011. Improving older adults’ e-health literacy through computer training using NIH online resources. Library & Information Science Research, 34, 63-71. doi: /10.1016/j.lisr.2011.07.006

    Cari Merkley

    2012-12-01

    – Participants showed significant decreases in their levels of computer anxiety, and significant increases in their interest in computers at the end of the program (p>0.01. Computer and web knowledge also increased among those completing the knowledge tests. Most participants (78% indicated that something they had learned in the program impacted their health decision making, and just over half of respondents (55% changed how they took medication as a result of the program. Participants were also very satisfied with the program’s delivery and format, with 97% indicating that they had learned a lot from the course. Most (68% participants said that they wished the class had been longer, and there was full support for similar programming to be offered at public libraries. Participants also reported that they found the NIHSeniorHealth website more useful, but not significantly more usable, than MedlinePlus.Conclusion – The intervention as designed successfully addressed issues of computer and health literacy with older adult participants. By using existing resources, such as public library computer facilities and curricula developed by the National Institutes of Health, the intervention also provides a model that could be easily replicated in other locations without the need for significant financial resources.

  3. Measuring and Monitoring Progress Toward Health Equity: Local Challenges for Public Health

    Shah, Snehal N.; Russo, Elizabeth T; Earl, Tara R.; Kuo, Tony

    2014-01-01

    To address health disparities, local health departments need high-resolution data on subpopulations and geographic regions, but the quality and availability of these data are often suboptimal. The Boston Public Health Commission and the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health faced challenges in acquiring and using community-level data essential for the design and implementation of programs that can improve the health of those who have social or economic disadvantages. To overcome thes...

  4. Public health response to the nuclear accident

    The Act on Special Measures Concerning Nuclear Emergency Preparedness was established in 2000 as a specific act within the broader Disaster Control Measures and Reactor Regulation Act which was written in response to the JCO Criticality Accident of 1999. However, this regulatory system did not address all aspects of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. This was especially evident with public health issues. For example, radioactive screening, prophylactic use of potassium iodide, support for vulnerable people, and management of contaminated dead bodies were all requested immediately after the occurrence of the nuclear power plant accident but were not included in these regulatory acts. Recently, the regulatory system for nuclear accidents has been revised in response to this reactor accident. Herein we review the revised plan for nuclear reactor accidents in the context of public health. (author)

  5. [Social marketing and public health].

    Arcaro, P; Mannocci, A; Saulle, R; Miccoli, S; Marzuillo, C; La Torre, G

    2013-01-01

    Social marketing uses the principles and techniques of commercial marketing by applying them to the complex social context in order to promote changes (cognitive; of action; behavioral; of values) among the target population in the public interest. The advent of Internet has radically modified the communication process, and this transformation also involved medical-scientific communication. Medical journals, health organizations, scientific societies and patient groups are increasing the use of the web and of many social networks (Twitter, Facebook, Google, YouTube) as channels to release scientific information to doctors and patients quickly. In recent years, even Healthcare in Italy reported a considerable application of the methods and techniques of social marketing, above all for health prevention and promotion. Recently the association for health promotion "Social marketing and health communication" has been established to promote an active dialogue between professionals of social marketing and public health communication, as well as among professionals in the field of communication of the companies involved in the "health sector". In the field of prevention and health promotion it is necessary to underline the theme of the growing distrust in vaccination practices. Despite the irrefutable evidence of the efficacy and safety of vaccines, the social-cultural transformation together with the overcoming of compulsory vaccination and the use of noninstitutional information sources, have generated confusion among citizens that tend to perceive compulsory vaccinations as needed and safe, whereas recommended vaccinations as less important. Moreover, citizens scarcely perceive the risk of disease related to the effectiveness of vaccines. Implementing communication strategies, argumentative and persuasive, borrowed from social marketing, also for the promotion of vaccines is a priority of the health system. A typical example of the application of social marketing, as

  6. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  7. Public health interventions: evaluating the economic evaluations

    Martin Forster

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed much progress in the incorporation of economic considerations into the evaluation of public health interventions. In England, the Centre for Public Health Excellence within the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence works to develop guidance for preventing illness and assessing which public health interventions are most effective and provide best value for money...

  8. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    2010-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  9. Public health reasoning: much more than deduction

    Cummings, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The deductive paradigm has produced notable successes in epidemiology and public health. But while deductive logic has made a substantial contribution to the public health field, it must be recognized that there are also limits to that contribution. This report examines one such limit: the need for non-deductive models in public health reasoning. The findings of a study of public health reasoning in 879 members of the public are reported. Four non-deductive strategies were chosen for their ca...

  10. A Student-Led Health Education Initiative Addressing Health Disparities in a Chinatown Community

    Lee, Benjamin J.; Wang, Sheila K.; So, Chunkit; Chiu, Brandon G.; Wang, Wesley Y.; Polisetty, Radhika; Quiñones-Boex, Ana; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Together with community advocates, professional student organizations can help improve access to health care and sustain services to address the health disparities of a community in need. This paper examines the health concerns of an underserved Chinese community and introduces a student-led health education initiative that fosters service learning and student leadership. The initiative was recognized by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) and received the 2012-2013 Studen...

  11. A Student-Led Health Education Initiative Addressing Health Disparities in a Chinatown Community.

    Lee, Benjamin J; Wang, Sheila K; So, Chunkit; Chiu, Brandon G; Wang, Wesley Y; Polisetty, Radhika; Quiñones-Boex, Ana; Liu, Hong

    2015-11-25

    Together with community advocates, professional student organizations can help improve access to health care and sustain services to address the health disparities of a community in need. This paper examines the health concerns of an underserved Chinese community and introduces a student-led health education initiative that fosters service learning and student leadership. The initiative was recognized by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) and received the 2012-2013 Student Community Engaged Service Award. PMID:26839422

  12. History and evolution of surveillance in public health

    Varun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern concept of surveillance has evolved over the centuries. Public health surveillance provides the scientific database essential for decision making and appropriate public health action. It is considered as the best public health tool to prevent the occurrence of epidemics and is the backbone of public health programs and provides information so that effective action can be taken in controlling and preventing diseases of public health importance. This article reviews the history of evolution of public health surveillance from historical perspective: from Hippocrates, Black Death and quarantine, recording of vital events for the first time, first field investigation, legislations that were developed over time and modern concepts in public health surveillance. Eradication of small pox is an important achievement in public health surveillance but the recent Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS and Influenza pandemics suggest still there is a room for improvement. Recently new global disease surveillance networks like FluNet and DengueNet were developed as internet sites for monitoring influenza and dengue information. In spite of these developments, global public health surveillance still remains unevenly distributed. There is a need for increased international cooperation to address the global needs of public health surveillance.

  13. National Institutes of Health addresses the science of diversity.

    Valantine, Hannah A; Collins, Francis S

    2015-10-01

    The US biomedical research workforce does not currently mirror the nation's population demographically, despite numerous attempts to increase diversity. This imbalance is limiting the promise of our biomedical enterprise for building knowledge and improving the nation's health. Beyond ensuring fairness in scientific workforce representation, recruiting and retaining a diverse set of minds and approaches is vital to harnessing the complete intellectual capital of the nation. The complexity inherent in diversifying the research workforce underscores the need for a rigorous scientific approach, consistent with the ways we address the challenges of science discovery and translation to human health. Herein, we identify four cross-cutting diversity challenges ripe for scientific exploration and opportunity: research evidence for diversity's impact on the quality and outputs of science; evidence-based approaches to recruitment and training; individual and institutional barriers to workforce diversity; and a national strategy for eliminating barriers to career transition, with scientifically based approaches for scaling and dissemination. Evidence-based data for each of these challenges should provide an integrated, stepwise approach to programs that enhance diversity rapidly within the biomedical research workforce. PMID:26392553

  14. Defining and Developing Global Public Health Course for Public Health Graduates

    Rajendra eKarkee; Jude eComfort; Helman eAlfonso

    2015-01-01

    Global Public Health is increasingly being seen as a speciality field within the university education of Public Health. However, the exact meaning of Global Public Health is still unclear resulting in varied curricula and teaching units among universities. The contextual differences between high and low and middle income countries, and the process of globalisation need to be taken into account while developing any global public health course.Global Public Health and Public Health are not sepa...

  15. Public mental health: the time is ripe for translation of evidence into practice

    Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Public mental health deals with mental health promotion, prevention of mental disorders and suicide, reducing mental health inequalities, and governance and organization of mental health service provision. The full impact of mental health is largely unrecognized within the public health sphere, despite the increasing burden of disease attributable to mental and behavioral disorders. Modern public mental health policies aim at improving psychosocial health by addressing determinants of mental ...

  16. Rethinking schools of public health: a strategic alliance model.

    Moloughney, Brent W; Skinner, Harvey A

    2006-01-01

    Canada is in the midst of rejuvenation of public health organizations, mandates and infrastructure. Major planning exercises are underway regarding public health human resources, where academic institutions have a key role to play. To what extent could schools of public health be part of the solution? Many universities across Canada are considering or in the process of implementing MPH programs (some 17 programs planned and/or underway) and possible schools of public health. However, concerns are raised about critical mass, quality and standards. We encourage innovation and debate about ways to enhance collaborative and structural arrangements for education programs. A school of public health model might emerge from this, but so too might other models. Also, novel types of organizational structure need consideration. One example is a "strategic alliance" model that is broad-based, integrative and adaptive--building on the interdisciplinary focus needed for addressing public health concerns in the 21st century. From our perspective, the central question is: what (new) types of organizational structures and, equally important, collaborative networks will enable Canada to strengthen its public health workforce so that it may better address local and global challenges to public health? PMID:16827419

  17. Public health and demographic statistics

    The purpose of this program is to assess the methodology and available data sources appropriate for use in analytical studies and environmental impact statements concerning the health effects of nuclear power plants. The techniques developed should be applicable as well to evaluation of the known risks of high levels of radiation exposure and of conflicting evidence on low-level effects, such as those associated with the normal operations of nuclear power plants. To accomplish this purpose, a two-pronged approach has been developed. The first involves a determination of the public health and demographic data sources of local, state, and federal origin that are available for use in analyses of health effects and environmental impact statements. The second part involves assessment of the methods used by epidemiologists, biostatisticians, and other scientists as found in the literature on health effects. This two-pronged approach provides a means of assessing the strength and shortcomings of studies of the impact of nuclear facilities on the health of the general population in a given locality

  18. Refining estimates of public health spending as measured in national health expenditure accounts: the Canadian experience.

    Ballinger, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    The recent focus on public health stemming from, among other things, severe acute respiratory syndrome and avian flu has created an imperative to refine health-spending estimates in the Canadian Health Accounts. This article presents the Canadian experience in attempting to address the challenges associated with developing the needed taxonomies for systematically capturing, measuring, and analyzing the national investment in the Canadian public health system. The first phase of this process was completed in 2005, which was a 2-year project to estimate public health spending based on a more classic definition by removing the administration component of the previously combined public health and administration category. Comparing the refined public health estimate with recent data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development still positions Canada with the highest share of total health expenditure devoted to public health than any other country reporting. The article also provides an analysis of the comparability of public health estimates across jurisdictions within Canada as well as a discussion of the recommendations for ongoing improvement of public health spending estimates. The Canadian Institute for Health Information is an independent, not-for-profit organization that provides Canadians with essential statistics and analysis on the performance of the Canadian health system, the delivery of healthcare, and the health status of Canadians. The Canadian Institute for Health Information administers more than 20 databases and registries, including Canada's Health Accounts, which tracks historically 40 categories of health spending by 5 sources of finance for 13 provincial and territorial jurisdictions. Until 2005, expenditure on public health services in the Canadian Health Accounts included measures to prevent the spread of communicable disease, food and drug safety, health inspections, health promotion, community mental health programs, public

  19. New directions in European public health research: report of a workshop

    Clarke, A; McCarthy, M; Alvarez-Dardet, C.; Sogoric, S.; Groenewegen, P.; Groot, W.; Delnoij, D.

    2007-01-01

    Public health draws from a range of academic disciplines, social, medical and statistical, and answers questions relevant to improving the health of populations. We have initiated a Europe-wide study, Strengthening Public Health Research in Europe, to assess the development and use of public health research in both public policy and local decision making. The contemporary challenge for public health research is to integrate the capabilities of different academic disciplines to address policie...

  20. Periodontal health through public health - the case for oral health promotion

    Watt, Richard G; Petersen, Poul E

    2012-01-01

    inequalities in periodontal status. Public health measures need to focus on the underlying determinants of periodontal diseases. Poor hygiene, tobacco use, psychosocial factors and related systemic diseases are the main risk factors for periodontal diseases. Public health interventions need to tackle these...... world clinical care and chairside prevention are both unaffordable and inappropriate for the control of periodontal diseases. A paradigm shift away from the individualized treatment approach to a population public health model is needed to promote periodontal health and, in particular to address social...... factors but also must recognize and act upon the distal underlying influences that determine and pattern these identified risks. Recognition also needs to be placed on the interlinking and common risk factors shared by periodontal diseases and other chronic conditions. A complementary range of public...

  1. Swimming upstream: the challenges and rewards of evaluating efforts to address inequities and reduce health disparities.

    Hughes, Dana; Docto, Lindsay; Peters, Jessica; Lamb, Anne Kelsey; Brindis, Claire

    2013-06-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in the health of Americans are widespread and persistent in the United States despite improvements in the health of Americans overall. Increasingly, strategies for reducing disparities have focused on addressing the factors that contribute to - if not fundamentally underlie - health disparities: social, economic, and environmental inequities, which limit access to resources and cause unhealthy exposures. As public health shifts to interventions that seek to improve the circumstances of disproportionately affected populations and achieve equity through policy change, alternative methods to evaluate these efforts are also required. This paper presents an example of such approaches to addressing asthma disparities through Regional Asthma Management and Prevention's (RAMP) programmatic efforts and an evaluation of these activities. The paper describes RAMP's targets and strategies, as well as the specific evaluation methods applied to each, including activity tracking, observations, surveys, key informant interviews, and case studies. Preliminary evaluation findings are presented, as are lessons learned about the efficacy of the evaluation design features - both its strengths and shortcomings. Findings discussed are intended to contribute to the growing literature that provides evidence for the application of emerging approaches to evaluation that reflect non-traditional public health and support others interested in expanding or replicating this work. PMID:23416287

  2. 77 FR 35683 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Public Health...

    2012-06-14

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Public Health Service Guideline on Infectious Disease Issues in... contained in the Public Health Service (PHS) guideline entitled ``PHS Guideline on Infectious Disease Issues... product recipient and to the general public. The PHS guideline is intended to address public health...

  3. Constructing public oral health policies in Brazil: issues for reflection

    Catharina Leite Matos Soares

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the construction of public oral health policies in Brazil by reviewing the available literature. It includes a discussion of the social responses given by the Brazilian State to oral health policies and the relationship of these responses with the ideological oral health movements that have developed globally, and that have specifically influenced oral health policies in Brazil. The influence of these movements has affected a series of hegemonic practices originating from...

  4. Challenges and Opportunities for Advancing Work on Climate Change and Public Health

    Solange Gould; Linda Rudolph

    2015-01-01

    Climate change poses a major threat to public health. Strategies that address climate change have considerable potential to benefit health and decrease health inequities, yet public health engagement at the intersection of public health, equity, and climate change has been limited. This research seeks to understand the barriers to and opportunities for advancing work at this nexus. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 113) with public health and climate change professionals a...

  5. Director of Public Health Annual Report 2010 and associated core tables 2009

    Public Health Agency

    2011-01-01

    Thissecond annual report of the Director of Public Health highlights the many public health challenges that affect people in Northern Ireland. It demonstrates how the public health team tackles this complex agenda by working with many statutory, community and voluntary partner organisations across health, local government, education, housing and other sectors. It shows a wealth of innovative work to address the main public health challenges facing communities, health inequality, preventin...

  6. Public Health, Advertising and Reality

    Tim Ambler

    2009-01-01

    Advertising is often blamed as the, or a, cause of public health problems such as misuse of alcohol or obesity. This paper suggests that the conclusions drawn by researchers owe more to their a priori attitudes than to an even-handed review of the evidence from both sides of the argument. The British Medical Association Science Committee’s 2009 call to ban alcohol advertising and promotion in the UK is taken as a case study. It is characterised by sweeping unsupported assertions, selective ...

  7. Improving Public Health in France

    Bourdelais, Patrice

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the French improvement of life expectancy, especially during the 19th century. A precise analysis of an industrial town (Le Creusot gives some elements about the importance of the urban penalty in mortality and also on the factors able to compensate the new bad conditions linked to the sudden increase of the population in these cities. It also emphasise the importance of the municipal level in the public health field.For the Republican, after 1871, often non active catholic elite, the social justice in the attribution of relief was linked to transparency of procedures. That led to a reflection about the objectiveness of the criterion chosen to decide who will be relieved. The reason why the nuns were dismissed and left place to municipal employees and professionnalization. Introduced to compensate the uncertainty of workers revenues, the system was rapidly linked to health perspectives and medical cares, even to preventive medicine.

  8. Food safety informatics: a public health imperative.

    Tucker, Cynthia A; Larkin, Stephanie N; Akers, Timothy A

    2011-01-01

    To date, little has been written about the implementation of utilizing food safety informatics as a technological tool to protect consumers, in real-time, against foodborne illnesses. Food safety outbreaks have become a major public health problem, causing an estimated 48 million illnesses, 128,000 hospitalizations, and 3,000 deaths in the U.S. each year. Yet, government inspectors/regulators that monitor foodservice operations struggle with how to collect, organize, and analyze data; implement, monitor, and enforce safe food systems. Currently, standardized technologies have not been implemented to efficiently establish "near-in-time" or "just-in-time" electronic awareness to enhance early detection of public health threats regarding food safety. To address the potential impact of collection, organization and analyses of data in a foodservice operation, a wireless food safety informatics (FSI) tool was pilot tested at a university student foodservice center. The technological platform in this test collected data every six minutes over a 24 hour period, across two primary domains: time and temperatures within freezers, walk-in refrigerators and dry storage areas. The results of this pilot study briefly illustrated how technology can assist in food safety surveillance and monitoring by efficiently detecting food safety abnormalities related to time and temperatures so that efficient and proper response in "real time" can be addressed to prevent potential foodborne illnesses. PMID:23569605

  9. Health Insurance Marketplace Public Use Files

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A set of seven (7) public use files containing information on health insurance issuers participating in the Health Insurance Marketplace and certified qualified...

  10. Shaping and authorising a public health profession

    Katarzyna Czabanowska

    2015-12-01

    doctors, nurses, lawyers, and architects can enjoy the benefits of the 2005/36/EC Directive amended by 2013/55/EU Directive on the recognition of professional qualifications, public health professionals are left out from these influential (elite professions. Firstly, we use the profession traits theory as a framework in arguing whether public health can be a legitimate profession in itself; secondly, we explain who public health professionals are and what usually is required for shaping the public health profession; and thirdly, we attempt to sketch the road to the authorisation or licensing of public health professionals. Finally, we propose some recommendations.

  11. Undergraduate Public Health Majors: Why They Choose Public Health or Medicine?

    Hilton, Warren

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the relationship between the motivations for attending college of undergraduate students with a focus on students with a public health major, and their desire to pursue graduate training in public health and subsequently, public health careers. The study highlighted the current public health workforce shortage and…

  12. Public health education for emergency medicine residents.

    Betz, Marian E; Bernstein, Steven L; Gutman, Deborah C; Tibbles, Carrie D; Joyce, Nina R; Lipton, Robert I; Schweigler, Lisa M; Fisher, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) has an important role in public health, but the ideal approach for teaching public health to EM residents is unclear. As part of the national Regional Public Health-Medicine Education Centers-Graduate Medical Education initiative from the CDC and the American Association of Medical Colleges, three EM programs received funding to create public health curricula for EM residents. Curricula approaches varied by residency. One program used a modular, integrative approach to combine public health and EM clinical topics during usual residency didactics, one partnered with local public health organizations to provide real-world experiences for residents, and one drew on existing national as well as departmental resources to seamlessly integrate more public health-oriented educational activities within the existing residency curriculum. The modular and integrative approaches appeared to have a positive impact on resident attitudes toward public health, and a majority of EM residents at that program believed public health training is important. Reliance on pre-existing community partnerships facilitated development of public health rotations for residents. External funding for these efforts was critical to their success, given the time and financial restraints on residency programs. The optimal approach for public health education for EM residents has not been defined. PMID:21961671

  13. Collaboration, Competencies and the Classroom: A Public Health Approach

    Lauren E. Wallar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The University of Guelph Master of Public Health program is a professional degree program that seeks to prepare graduates to meet complex public health needs by developing their proficiency in the 36 public health core competencies. Provision of experiential learning opportunities, such as a semester-long practicum, is part of student development. In the Fall 2013 semester, a new opportunity was introduced in which small groups of students were paired with local public health professionals to complete a capstone business plan assignment that addressed a current public health issue. However, the impact of this external collaboration on the student learning experience was unknown. To address this, quantitative and qualitative information about students’ perceived proficiency in the core competencies and their learning experiences was collected using a pre/post survey and focus groups, respectively. A post-assignment survey was also administered to participating local public health professionals in which they assessed their group’s proficiency in the core competencies, and provided additional feedback. The results of this study showed that students had unique learning experiences with enhanced proficiency in different areas including policy and program planning, implementation and evaluation, assessment and analysis, and partnerships, collaboration and advocacy. Managing and communicating expectations was important throughout the learning experience. By using realistic community-based assignments, graduate public health programs can enrich students’ learning experiences by creating an environment for students to apply their classroom knowledge and gain practical knowledge and skills.

  14. Public Health Education for Emergency Medicine Residents

    Betz, Marian E.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Gutman, Deborah; Tibbles, Carrie D.; Joyce, Nina; Lipton, Robert; Schweigler, Lisa; Fisher, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) has an important role in public health, but the ideal approach for teaching public health to EM residents is unclear. As part of the national regional public health–medicine education centers-graduate medical education (RPHMEC-GM) initiative from the CDC and the American Association of Medical Colleges, three EM programs received funding to create public health curricula for EM residents. Curricula approaches varied by residency. One program used a modular, integrative...

  15. Linking public health agencies and hospitals for improved emergency preparedness: North Carolina's public health epidemiologist program

    Markiewicz Milissa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, 11 public health epidemiologists were placed in North Carolina's largest hospitals to enhance communication between public health agencies and healthcare systems for improved emergency preparedness. We describe the specific services public health epidemiologists provide to local health departments, the North Carolina Division of Public Health, and the hospitals in which they are based, and assess the value of these services to stakeholders. Methods We surveyed and/or interviewed public health epidemiologists, communicable disease nurses based at local health departments, North Carolina Division of Public Health staff, and public health epidemiologists' hospital supervisors to 1 elicit the services provided by public health epidemiologists in daily practice and during emergencies and 2 examine the value of these services. Interviews were transcribed and imported into ATLAS.ti for coding and analysis. Descriptive analyses were performed on quantitative survey data. Results Public health epidemiologists conduct syndromic surveillance of community-acquired infections and potential bioterrorism events, assist local health departments and the North Carolina Division of Public Health with public health investigations, educate clinicians on diseases of public health importance, and enhance communication between hospitals and public health agencies. Stakeholders place on a high value on the unique services provided by public health epidemiologists. Conclusions Public health epidemiologists effectively link public health agencies and hospitals to enhance syndromic surveillance, communicable disease management, and public health emergency preparedness and response. This comprehensive description of the program and its value to stakeholders, both in routine daily practice and in responding to a major public health emergency, can inform other states that may wish to establish a similar program as part of their larger public

  16. PERCC Tools: Public Health Preparedness for Clinicians

    2011-08-29

    CDC’s Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response funds Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers (PERRCs) to examine components of the public health system. This podcast is an overview of mental and behavioral health tools developed by the Johns Hopkins PERRC.  Created: 8/29/2011 by Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 8/30/2011.

  17. Leishmaniasis and textbook: how are endemic diseases addressed in public education?

    Débora Batista Reis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Visceral Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonosis, considered a public health problem in Brazil, because of their magnitude, geographic expansion and lethality. The disease is the etiologic agent trypanosamatid Leishmania infantum, is transmitted by the bite of Lutzomyia longipalpis, an insect of the order Diptera that has hematophagous habits. Typically considered rural, the disease emerged in the urban scene in Teresina, Piauí state, in the 80´s, reaching the other urban producing several epidemiological outbreaks. Control of the disease, based on the slaughter of seropositive dogs, chemical vector control and treatment of human patients as strategies recommended by the Ministry of Health, do not have satisfactory results, it is imperative to integrate these strategies to the actions of health education. Considering the role of the school in the dissemination of knowledge and the promotion of health education actions and, above all, the importance of the textbook as an important educational tool for the teaching-learning process, this study aimed to analyze the books as they are atopted by public schools of the city of Floriano, Piauí state, address endemic diseases, particularly leishmaniasis. Physical criteria, as aspects of the brochure and binding aspects and the contents were used in the analyzes. The selection of books was made by teachers and managers of schools based on the National Textbook Program (PNLD tab and then were approved in the pedagogical evaluation of the Ministry of Education. Copies of each level of education (primary and secondary were analyzed according to conceptual and physical aspects. The analysis of conceptual and methodological aspects was based on the literature and a thorough observation of the images that complement the content. The physical aspects were evaluated according to the type of binding, size, font size and spacing employ, didactic presentation order of the content and illustrations. It was found

  18. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander public health: online and integrated into core Master of Public Health subjects

    Lynnell Angus

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Master of Public Health (MPH is an internationally recognised post-graduate qualification for building the public health workforce. In Australia, MPH graduate attributes include six Indigenous public health (IPH competencies. The University of Melbourne MPH program includes five core subjects and ten specialisation streams, of which one is Indigenous health. Unless students complete this specialisation or electives in Indigenous health, it is possible for students to graduate without attaining the IPH competencies. To address this issue in a crowded and competitive curriculum an innovative approach to integrating the IPH competencies in core MPH subjects was developed. Five online modules that corresponded with the learning outcomes of the core public health subjects were developed, implemented and evaluated in 2015. This brief report outlines the conceptualisation, development, and description of the curriculum content; it also provides preliminary student evaluation and staff feedback on the integration project.

  19. Radiotherapy in a public health

    The aim of our publication is to evaluate the state of radiotherapy, its role and place in oncology and in the public health system, in order to plan necessities. The cost and economical effectiveness are objectives of the current evaluation. Radiotherapy is strongly dependant of introducing new technologies and the need of gross capital investments. However, their relative cost is reduced due to their long-term use. Because of the serious delay of Bulgaria from the world standards in radiotherapy, the analysis is based on the data published in the scientific literature. The main tendencies and ideas for development are based on the analysis of The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU) and the ESTRO QUARTS project. We use Swedish model for estimating the expenses, having in mind the conditions in Bulgaria (salary, management, patient cares). The main conclusions are: 1) Radiotherapy is basic curative and palliative method in oncology; 2) Bulgarian radiotherapy is at one of the last places in Europe (therapeutic units are 30 years old average, despite their recommended exploitation of 12-20 years); 3) In contradiction to the world tendencies delay grows during the last 10 years; 4) In countries with low or average GDP radiotherapy should be prioritized, due to its low cost in comparison to the other treatment methods in oncology; 5) The need of radiotherapy will continue to grow, this necessitate not only replacement of the old machines but increasing their number 3 times during the next few years; 6) It is necessary to form a modern radiotherapy centers, equipped with at least two compatible units, based on the currently existing radiotherapy departments. (authors)

  20. Assuring public health professionals are prepared for the future: the UAB public health integrated core curriculum.

    Petersen, Donna J.; Hovinga, Mary E.; Pass, Mary Ann; Kohler, Connie; Oestenstad, R. Kent; Katholi, Charles

    2005-01-01

    In response to calls to improve public health education and our own desire to provide a more relevant educational experience to our Master of Public Health students, the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Public Health designed, developed, and instituted a fully integrated public health core curriculum in the fall of 2001. This curriculum combines content from discipline-specific courses in biostatistics, environmental health, epidemiology, health administration, and the soci...

  1. Injury prevention and public health

    David A. Sleet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  2. Public Health Interventions for School Nursing Practice.

    Schaffer, Marjorie A; Anderson, Linda J W; Rising, Shannon

    2016-06-01

    School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic survey on their use of public health interventions as defined by the wheel. Although 67% of the participants were not familiar with the Public Health Intervention Wheel, respondents reported conducting activities that were consistent with the Wheel interventions. Screening, referral and follow-up, case management, and health teaching were the most frequently performed interventions. Intervention use varied by educational level, age of nurse, years of practice, and student population. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a relevant and useful framework that provides a language to explain population-based school nursing practice. PMID:26404552

  3. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations. PMID:23586767

  4. Managing a scarce resource: addressing critical health workforce challenges.

    Giepmans. P.; Dussault, G.; Batenburg, R.; Frich, J.; Olivers, R.; Sermeus, W.

    2013-01-01

    With health care services significantly changing, the challenge is to initiate innovative, situational and integrated workforce forecasting and planning. Many health systems require a shift in mindset to move to the planning of skill mixes for health care professionals. This implies great challenges

  5. Developing Social Marketing Capacity to Address Health Issues

    Whitelaw, S.; Smart, E.; Kopela, J.; Gibson, T.; King, V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Social marketing is increasingly being seen as a potentially effective means of pursuing health education practice generally and within various specific areas such as mental health and wellbeing and more broadly in tackling health inequalities. This paper aims to report and reflect on the authors' experiences of undertaking a health…

  6. Mapping student response team activities to public health competencies: are we adequately preparing the next generation of public health practitioners?

    Montgomery, JoLynn P; Durbeck, Heidi; Thomas, Dana; Beck, Angela J; Sarigiannis, Amy N; Boulton, Matthew L

    2010-01-01

    This article compares activities of the University of Michigan School of Public Health Public Health Action Support Team (PHAST) to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists Applied Epidemiology Competencies (AECs) to determine the utility of using the competencies to assess extracurricular student training. We mapped the activities from eight PHAST trips occurring from 2006 to 2009 to the 34 AECs for Tier 1 epidemiologists by examining project activities to determine how closely they aligned with the AECs. PHAST trips provided students with opportunities to address 65% of the AECs; 29% of the AECs were addressed by all eight trips. The domains of AECs most often addressed by PHAST trips were leadership and systems thinking, cultural competency, and community dimensions of practice. Mapping PHAST trips to the AECs was useful for all public health students, not just epidemiologists in training. PMID:21133064

  7. Public health genomics: origins and basic concepts

    Ron Zimmern

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and technologies arising from the Human Genome Project promise in time to offer new opportunities for the treatment and prevention of disease. The enterprise of public health genomics aims to bridge the gap between advances in basic research and their responsible and effective implementation in clinical services and public health programmes. Public health genomics stresses the importance of understanding how genes and environment act together to influence health; avoiding genetic exceptionalism; appreciating the social and political context of genomic advances; and encouraging critical evaluation of proposed new tests and interventions. New international networks and collaborations are being established to develop public health genomics and further its aims.

  8. Defining quality improvement in public health.

    Riley, William J; Moran, John W; Corso, Liza C; Beitsch, Leslie M; Bialek, Ronald; Cofsky, Abbey

    2010-01-01

    Many industries commonly use quality improvement (QI) techniques to improve service delivery and process performance. Yet, there has been scarce application of these proven methods to public health settings and the public health field has not developed a set of shared principles or a common definition for quality improvement. This article discusses a definition of quality improvement in public health and describes a continuum of quality improvement applications for public health departments. Quality improvement is a distinct management process and set of tools and techniques that are coordinated to ensure that departments consistently meet the health needs of their communities. PMID:20009636

  9. On your time: online training for the public health workforce.

    Kenefick, Hope Worden; Ravid, Sharon; MacVarish, Kathleen; Tsoi, Jennifer; Weill, Kenny; Faye, Elizabeth; Fidler, Anne

    2014-03-01

    The need for competency-based training for the public health workforce is well documented. However, human and financial resource limitations within public health agencies often make it difficult for public health practitioners to attend classroom-based training programs. The Internet is an increasingly popular way of extending training beyond the workforce. Although research describes attributes of effective online learning modules, much of the available training delivered via the Internet does not incorporate such attributes. The authors describe the On Your Time training series, an effective distance education program and training model for public health practitioners, which includes a standardized process for development, review, evaluation, and continuous quality improvement. On Your Time is a series of awareness-level (i.e., addressing what practitioners should know), competency-based training modules that address topics related to regulatory responsibilities of public health practitioners (e.g., assuring compliance with codes and regulations governing housing, retail food safety, private water supplies, hazardous and solid waste, on-site wastewater systems, etc.), public health surveillance, case investigation, disease prevention, health promotion, and emergency preparedness. The replicable model incorporates what is known about best practices for online training and maximizes available resources in the interests of sustainability. PMID:24578365

  10. Public health in a rapidly changing world

    Tatiana I. Andreeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several months in 2013 and 2014 have been a hardly predictable time in Ukraine, and the situation is still far from being stable. This made the editorial team of TCPHEE based in Ukraine postpone publishing consecutive issues. However, while the situation still requires practical steps, many aspects including those related to public health require analysis and debate. Thus we invite opinion pieces and studies addressing all different spheres of how public health should function under changing social circumstances. There might be a wide range of such related topics. The most obvious ones are those linked to changing living conditions. Many studies have been undertaken and published with regard to health threats to refugees, people involved in natural or technical disasters (Noji, 2005. Along with environmental health threats, there might be mental health disturbances (World Health Organization, 1992 resulting from long-term strain, losses et cetera. Another important focus is related to changes in health services provision. Crimea, which is a former Ukrainian territory now occupied by the Russian Federation, was among those in Ukraine highly affected with HIV (Dehne, Khodakevich, Hamers, & Schwartlander, 1999. This was responded by several NGOs actively providing harm reduction services to high-risk groups along with methadone substitution therapy to opiate users and antiretroviral medicines to those HIV-infected (Curtis, 2010. However, there are news reports that Russia is going to stop provision of methadone (kommersant.ru, 2014. As opiate substitution programs have been shown an effective approach towards preventing HIV transmission among people who inject drugs (MacArthur et al., 2012, such change in public health policies might affect not only most at risk populations but their partners and population as a whole as well resulting in a rapid spread of HIV. Yet another related topic is that of how health services can be organized at times of

  11. Public Health and Medicine: Paradox or Complimentary?

    Anne Marie Plass

    2011-01-01

    I warmly welcome you to this second issue of the International Journal of Medicine and Public Health. I feel that it is great that the need for Public Health: health promotion and disease prevention, is now being recognized within Medicine.Read more.....

  12. Conflicts of Interest: Manipulating Public Health

    Stein, Richard; Davis, Devra Lee

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the potential health impacts of chemical, physical, and biological environmental factors represents a challenging task with profound medical, public health, and historical implications. The history of public health is replete with instances, ranging from tobacco to lead and asbestos, where the ability to obtain evidence on potential…

  13. Health Reforms and Public Health in Georgia

    Raminashvili, D.; Zarnadze, I.; Zarnadze, Sh; Lomtadze, L.; Kitovani, D.; Kajrishvili, M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Starting from 90'th, the Government of Georgia (GoG) made several attempts to transform Georgian health care system into one with improved efficiency, accessibility, and quality services. Mandatory social health insurance which was introduced in the 1990s was abolished and private health insurance has been promoted as its replacement. The main principle of health care reform since 2006 was the transition towards complete marketization of the health care sector: private provision, ...

  14. Addressing social and gender inequalities in health among seniors in Canada

    Plouffe Louise A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Although canadian seniors enjoy economic security and good health and have made substantial gains in recent decades, this well-being is not equally shared among socioeconomic groups and between men and women. As for younger age groups, income predicts health status in later life, but less powerfully. Potential alternative explanations include an overriding influence of the aging process, the subjective effects of income loss at retirement and the attenuation of the poverty gap owing to public retirement income. Older women are more likely to age in poverty than men, to live alone and to depend on inadequately resourced chronic health care and social services. These differences will hold as well for the next cohort of seniors in Canada. Addressing these disparities in health requires a comprehensive, multisectoral approach to health that is embodied in Canada's population health model. Application of this model to reduce these disparities is described, drawing upon the key strategies of the population health approach, recent federal government initiatives and actions recommended to the government by federal commissions.

  15. Infusing Oral Health Care into Nursing Curriculum: Addressing Preventive Health in Aging and Disability

    Joan Earle Hahn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Access to oral health care is essential for promoting and maintaining overall health and well-being, yet oral health disparities exist among vulnerable and underserved populations. While nurses make up the largest portion of the health care work force, educational preparation to address oral health needs of elders and persons with disabilities is limited across nursing curricula. This descriptive study reports on the interdisciplinary development, implementation, and testing of an oral health module that was included and infused into a graduate nursing curriculum in a three-phase plan. Phase 1 includes evaluation of a lecture presented to eight gerontological nurse practitioner (GNP students. Phase 2 includes evaluation of GNP students’ perceptions of learning, skills, and confidence following a one-time 8-hour practicum infused into 80 required practicum hours. The evaluation data show promise in preparing nurse practitioner students to assess and address preventive oral health needs of persons aging with disabilities such that further infusion and inclusion in a course for nurse practitioners across five specialties will implemented and tested in Phase 3.

  16. Are equity aspects communicated in Nordic public health documents?

    Povlsen, Lene; Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Regber, Susann;

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To explore if the term equity was applied and how measures for addressing social inequalities in health and reducing inequity were communicated in selected Nordic documents concerning public health. Methods: Documents from Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden were collected and analysed by...... on the population in general but paid special attention to vulnerable groups. The latest Danish and Finnish documents communicate a clearer commitment to address social inequalities in health. They emphasise the social gradient and the need to address the social determinants in order to improve the...... position of disadvantaged groups. Norwegian authorities have paid increasing attention to inequity/social inequalities in health and initiated a new law in 2012 which aims to address the social gradient in a more clear way than seen elsewhere in the Nordic countries. Conclusions: In the Nordic countries...

  17. Addressing the changing sources of health information in Iran

    Amir Alishahi Tabriz; Mohammad Reza Sohrabi; Nazanin Kiapour; Nina Faramarzi

    2013-01-01

    Background : Following the entrance of new technologies in health information era, this study aimed to assess changes in health information sources of Iranian people during past decade. Methods : Totally 3000 people were asked about their main sources of health information. They were selected as two community-based samples of 1500 people of more than 18-years-old in two different periods of time in August 2002 and August 2010 from the same locations in Tehran, the capital of Iran. Data ana...

  18. Microbiological risk assessment and public health

    Despite the advances made in risk assessment i the past twenty years, in areas as diverse as toxicology and offshore engineering, the risk assessment approach has made little impact on those addressing the microbiological aspects of public health. In this paper the advances which have been made are discussed and the difficulties preventing the wider application of microbiological risk assessment (MRA) to public health are considered. The term microbiological risk is used here to mean the probability of contracting a disease caused by a microorganism. I intend to demonstrate that the dynamic nature of microorganisms and the unique nature of the relationship between a pathogen (a microorganism which causes disease) and its host create special challenges for those involved in MRA. Although these problems are difficult they are not intractable. Indeed in some cases partial solutions have already been found and applied. It is hoped that this paper will help stimulate further thought and consideration in a variety of disciplines so that these challenges can be met, thereby allowing MRA to fulfil its potential

  19. Human resources for health challenges of public health system reform in Georgia

    Mataradze George

    2008-05-01

    for re-training and training programs and development of conducive policy environment with sufficient resources to address these problems and assure adequate functionality of public health programs.

  20. [Maternal and infant health services and the public health clinic].

    Urasaki, S

    1986-11-01

    The public health clinic under the jurisdiction of prefectural government should continue to play a major role in maternal-child health services. Ministry of Health's revision plan for Maternal-child Health Law, according to which maternal-child health services are to be transferred totally to municipal (city-town-village) government, is strongly opposed by public health nurses and others. The plan goes against the current movement and effort to revitalize public health clinics, where more 50% of services rendered are maternal-child health related. Secondly, municipal health centers would have much more difficulty providing quality services than prefectural public health clinics which receive annual federal aid for their operation. Federal funding for maternal-child health care, regardless of jurisdictions, is currently 1/3 of standard unit cost. Extreme financial strain on municipal governments would result in regional differences in the quality of services and/or eventual financial burden on the patients. While the national government is trying to emphasize administrative aspects of the public health clinic, it is ordinary citizens' day to day health problems that people expect the clinic to deal with, individually, via check-ups, health counseling, home visits, public health education and telephone health hot line. PMID:3642046

  1. Wind versus Biofuels for Addressing Climate, Health, and Energy

    The favored approach today for addressing global warming is to promote a variety of options: biofuels, wind, solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, geothermal, hydroelectric, and nuclear energy and to improve efficiency. However, by far, most emphasis has been on biofuels. It is shown here, though, that current-technology biofuels cannot address global warming and may slightly increase death and illness due to ozone-related air pollution. Future biofuels may theoretically slow global warming, but only temporarily and with the cost of increased air pollution mortality. In both cases, the land required renders biofuels an impractical solution. Recent measurements and statistical analyses of U.S. and world wind power carried out at Stanford University suggest that wind combined with other options can substantially address global warming, air pollution mortality, and energy needs simultaneously.

  2. The Problem With Estimating Public Health Spending.

    Leider, Jonathon P

    2016-01-01

    Accurate information on how much the United States spends on public health is critical. These estimates affect planning efforts; reflect the value society places on the public health enterprise; and allows for the demonstration of cost-effectiveness of programs, policies, and services aimed at increasing population health. Yet, at present, there are a limited number of sources of systematic public health finance data. Each of these sources is collected in different ways, for different reasons, and so yields strikingly different results. This article aims to compare and contrast all 4 current national public health finance data sets, including data compiled by Trust for America's Health, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO), and the Census, which underlie the oft-cited National Health Expenditure Account estimates of public health activity. In FY2008, ASTHO estimates that state health agencies spent $24 billion ($94 per capita on average, median $79), while the Census estimated all state governmental agencies including state health agencies spent $60 billion on public health ($200 per capita on average, median $166). Census public health data suggest that local governments spent an average of $87 per capita (median $57), whereas NACCHO estimates that reporting LHDs spent $64 per capita on average (median $36) in FY2008. We conclude that these estimates differ because the various organizations collect data using different means, data definitions, and inclusion/exclusion criteria--most notably around whether to include spending by all agencies versus a state/local health department, and whether behavioral health, disability, and some clinical care spending are included in estimates. Alongside deeper analysis of presently underutilized Census administrative data, we see harmonization efforts and the creation of a standardized expenditure reporting system as a way to

  3. Public health finance: a conceptual framework.

    Moulton, Anthony D; Halverson, Paul K; Honoré, Peggy A; Berkowitz, Bobbie

    2004-01-01

    In an attempt to stimulate development of public health finance as a field of practice, policy, and scholarship, this article proposes a working definition of the term "public health finance," embeds it in the context of the maturing literature on the public health system and its infrastructure, and proposes a four-part typology that spans both public-sector and private-sector contributions to the financing of prevention and health promotion. A developmental strategy for the field--in applied research, training and education, and performance standards--is outlined as well. PMID:15552760

  4. Public health aspects of radiation

    The sources and levels of natural and manmade radiation are discussed in this report, and the resulting risks of radiation-induced cancer and hereditary diseases are estimated. The medical uses of X-rays currently increase the average population exposure by something like 35 per cent above natural background radiation. At a future time when nuclear generators will produce one kilowatt of electricity per person it is expected that the additional exposure from this source will not exceed 6 per cent of that from natural background. Acceptability of the risks that these exposures represent must depend upon the benefits with which they are associated, and upon the risks associated with other options open to society including alternative ways of obtaining similar benefits. The public health impact of the radiation from nuclear power generation, for example, is believed to be considerably less than that from the combustion products associated with the production of an equivalent amount of electrical power by conventional coal-fired stations. (author)

  5. [Public health ethics and reproduction].

    Alexandrova-Yankulovska, S; Bozhinov, P; Bojinova, S

    2014-01-01

    Medical progress has enabled achievements that were not even thinkable earlier but at the same time society and public health have had to face new challenges. What are we ready to accept in the area of human reproduction? This paper aims at ethical analysis of Bulgarian laws on reproduction. The abortion debate nowadays has got new dimiension focusing not that much on its moral acceptability but rather on the acceptable indications for its performance. Is it ethical to perform abortion in case of undesired gender of the embryo or genetic malformations? Lots of moral issues mark the area of assisted reproduction which is due to the separation of the reproductive functions (ova, sperm and embryo donation, surrogacy), fragmentation of motherhood and fatherhood, differentiation of biological and social parenthood. Defining limits of acceptable interference or non-interference in human reproduction will never be easy, but dynamics of moral judgment shouldn't bother us. The rigidity of moral norms is what should be alarming because it threatens procreative autonomy. PMID:24919342

  6. Comprehensive effective and efficient global public health surveillance

    McNabb Scott JN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract At a crossroads, global public health surveillance exists in a fragmented state. Slow to detect, register, confirm, and analyze cases of public health significance, provide feedback, and communicate timely and useful information to stakeholders, global surveillance is neither maximally effective nor optimally efficient. Stakeholders lack a globa surveillance consensus policy and strategy; officials face inadequate training and scarce resources. Three movements now set the stage for transformation of surveillance: 1 adoption by Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]; 2 maturation of information sciences and the penetration of information technologies to distal parts of the globe; and 3 consensus that the security and public health communities have overlapping interests and a mutual benefit in supporting public health functions. For these to enhance surveillance competencies, eight prerequisites should be in place: politics, policies, priorities, perspectives, procedures, practices, preparation, and payers. To achieve comprehensive, global surveillance, disparities in technical, logistic, governance, and financial capacities must be addressed. Challenges to closing these gaps include the lack of trust and transparency; perceived benefit at various levels; global governance to address data power and control; and specified financial support from globa partners. We propose an end-state perspective for comprehensive, effective and efficient global, multiple-hazard public health surveillance and describe a way forward to achieve it. This end-state is universal, global access to interoperable public health information when it’s needed, where it’s needed. This vision mitigates the tension between two fundamental human rights: first, the right to privacy, confidentiality, and security of personal health information combined with the right of sovereign, national entities

  7. Lessons from Lithuania: rethinking public health training.

    Moore, L.; Dixon, J

    1993-01-01

    Lithuania faces stark problems that are familiar to most countries in the former Soviet Union: high morbidity and mortality rates, pollution, an unstable economy, and rapid changes in the financing and organisation of health care. In this environment Moore and Dixon visited Kaunas Medical Academy to help identify how training in public health medicine could contribute towards improving the health of the population. Although over 200 hours are devoted to public health training for medical unde...

  8. Director of Public Health annual report 2009

    Public Health Agency

    2010-01-01

    This first annual report of the Director of Public Health highlights the many public health challenges that affect people in Northern Ireland and how thepublic health team tackles this complex agenda by working with many statutory, community and voluntary partner organisations across health, local government, education, housing and other sectors. The report refers to core tables throughout, these tables provide key statistical data on population, birth and death rates, mortality by cause, l...

  9. Addressing the changing sources of health information in Iran

    Amir Alishahi Tabriz

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion : Although during 8 years of study radio and television remained as main source of health information but there is an increasing tendency to use internet especially in men. Policymakers should revise their broadcasting strategies based on people demand.

  10. Addressing the Mental Health Needs of Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents

    Hodgkinson, Stacy; Beers, Lee; Southammakosane, Cathy; Lewin, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent parenthood is associated with a range of adverse outcomes for young mothers, including mental health problems such as depression, substance abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Teen mothers are also more likely to be impoverished and reside in communities and families that are socially and economically disadvantaged. These circumstances can adversely affect maternal mental health, parenting, and behavior outcomes for their children. In this report, we provide an overview of th...

  11. Addressing the Changing Sources of Health Information in Iran

    Alishahi-Tabriz, Amir; Sohrabi, Mohammad-Reza; Kiapour, Nazanin; Faramarzi, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Following the entrance of new technologies in health information era, this study aimed to assess changes in health information sources of Iranian people during past decade. Methods: Totally 3000 people were asked about their main sources of health information. They were selected as two community-based samples of 1500 people of more than 18-years-old in two different periods of time in August 2002 and August 2010 from the same locations in Tehran, the capital of Iran. Data analyzed based on age group, sex, educational level and household income in two different periods of time using Chi-square. Odds ratios associated with each basic characteristic were calculated using logistic regression. Results: Most common sources of health information in 2002 were radio and television (17.7%), caregivers (14.9%) and internet (14.2%) and in 2010 were radio and television (19.3%), internet (19.3%) and caregivers (15.8%) (P 0.05). Conclusion: Although during 8 years of study radio and television remained as main source of health information but there is an increasing tendency to use internet especially in men. Policymakers should revise their broadcasting strategies based on people demand. PMID:23412519

  12. Bureau of Radiological Health publications index

    The Key Word in Context (KWIC) index to the publications of the Bureau of Radiological Health was prepared to aid in the retrieval and identification of publications originated or authored by Bureau staff or published by the Bureau. These publications include journal articles, government publications and technical reports, selected staff papers, and Bureau news releases issued by HEW. For convenience, the document is divided into four sections, KWIC Index, Author Index, Bibliography Index, and BRH Publications Subject Index

  13. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility Public Address System Review Findings

    Public address system operation at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility was reviewed. The review was based on an Operational Readiness Review finding that public address performance was not adequate in parts of the WRAP facility. Several improvements were made to the WRAP Public Address (PA) system to correct the deficiencies noted. Speaker gain and position was optimized. A speech processor was installed to boost intelligibility in high noise areas. Additional speakers were added to improve coverage in the work areas. The results of this evaluation indicate that further PA system enhancements are not warranted. Additional speakers cannot compensate for the high background sound and high reverberation levels found in the work areas. Recommendations to improve PA system intelligibility include minor speaker adjustments, enhanced PA announcement techniques, and the use of sound reduction and abatement techniques where economically feasible

  14. Keeping Current. Library Media Specialists: Addressing the Student Health Epidemic

    Buddy, Juanita

    2005-01-01

    Health and educational leaders are sounding the alarm about the unhealthy condition of many students in America's K-12 schools. Each day, new scientific studies confirm that "The majority of American youth are sedentary and do not eat well. Sixteen percent of school-aged children and adolescents--or nine million--are overweight, a figure that has…

  15. Making a difference through veterinary public health.

    2016-06-11

    More than 100 people gathered in Birmingham on April 23 for the third joint conference of the Veterinary Public Health Association and the Association of Government Vets. With the theme of 'VPH hands on - making a difference together', the meeting considered the role vets play in society through their work on public health and sustainability. Kathryn Clark reports. PMID:27288163

  16. Bullying Prevention for Public Health Practitioners

    2012-01-19

    This podcast discusses bullying as a public health problem, and provides information and resources for public health practitioners.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  17. Latest OECD figures confirm Canada as a public health laggard.

    Raphael, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Despite the Canadian public health community's commitments to promoting public policy that supports health, evidence indicates that Canada's public health picture continues to decline. This may be due in part to the failure of public health agencies and local public health units to engage in public policy advocacy and public education about the social determinants of health. Examples of such activities by local public health units are now available and provide a model for such activity. PMID:23618021

  18. A Framework for Addressing the Global Obesity Epidemic Locally: The Child Health Ecological Surveillance System (CHESS)

    Ronald C. Plotnikoff, PhD; Penny Lightfoot, MHSA; Linda Barrett, MSc; Carla Spinola, MA; Gerry Predy, MD, FRCPC

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in the developed world. Recent research and commentary suggest that an ecological approach is required to address childhood obesity, given the multidimensional nature of the problem. We propose a Canadian prototype, the Child Health Ecological Surveillance System, for a regional health authority to address the growing obesity epidemic. This prototype could potentially be used in other jurisdictions to address other child health issues. We present ...

  19. Mobile Technologies and Public Health

    2008-09-05

    In this podcast, Erin Edgerton, CDC, and Eric Holman, President of SmartReply, discuss why mobile technologies are an important communications tool for disseminating health messages.  Created: 9/5/2008 by National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM), Division of eHealth Marketing (DeHM).   Date Released: 1/12/2009.

  20. Public health research: between science and action?

    Gérard de Pouvourville

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available In this text, we first propose a concept of public health research as a multidisciplinary endeavor whose aim is to identify the main determinants of people's health status, analyzed at the collective level. The public's health is thus envisioned as a socially determined reality, in which risk factors include biological phenomena as well as a given community's social and economic environment. Second, we argue that public health research should be applicable research, i.e. that it should be useful to decision-makers. But since the relationship between science and action is conflicting, it is necessary to invent mediatory practices to facilitate interaction between researchers and decision-makers.

  1. Legitimacy and Global Governance in Managing Global Public Health

    Huckel Schneider, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with health governance on the global level, where over the past fifteen years a number of new organisations have emerged that address major global public health issues. Three examples are the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, (GFATM), the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI Alliance), and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), each of which are examined in depth in the dissertation. These organisations differ ...

  2. Public health policies to encourage healthy eating habits: recent perspectives

    Gorski MT; Roberto CA

    2015-01-01

    Mary T Gorski,1 Christina A Roberto2,3 1Interfaculty Initiative in Health Policy, Harvard University, Cambridge, 2Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 3Department of Nutrition, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: There is an urgent need to address unhealthy dietary patterns at the population level. Poor diet and physical inactivity are key drivers of the obesity pandemic, and they are among the leading causes of preventable death and disability in nearl...

  3. Applications of health information exchange information to public health practice

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R.

    2014-01-01

    as an important justification for the US’ investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different......Health information exchange (HIE) can support several aspects of public health practice by increasing the availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness individual-level patient information. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served...... exchanges. Using qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. We derived the codes for the template analysis through a literature review. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the...

  4. Role of the Public Health Service

    The Public Health Service must assume the role of the overall Public Health Coordinator, seeking to afford the highest level of health protection both to the nearby population as well as to the more distant groups. Data will be given relative to the limited experience the PHS has had in the removal of populations from areas of suspected hazards. Problems inherent in the evacuation of civilians of all ages will be discussed. (author)

  5. Science and social responsibility in public health.

    Weed, Douglas L.; Mckeown, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologists and environmental health researchers have a joint responsibility to acquire scientific knowledge that matters to public health and to apply the knowledge gained in public health practice. We examine the nature and source of these social responsibilities, discuss a debate in the epidemiological literature on roles and responsibilities, and cite approaches to environmental justice as reflective of them. At one level, responsibility refers to accountability, as in being responsib...

  6. Sarcopenia: burden and challenges for public health

    Beaudart, Charlotte; Rizzoli, René; Bruyère, Olivier; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Biver, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Sarcopenia, operationally defined as the loss of muscle mass and muscle function, is a major health condition associated with ageing, and contributes to many components of public health at both the patient and the societal levels. Currently, no consensual definition of sarcopenia exists and therefore it is still a challenge to establish the actual prevalence of sarcopenia or to establish the direct and indirect impacts of sarcopenia on public health. Anyway, this geriatric syndrome represents...

  7. Public health, GIS, and the internet.

    Croner, Charles M

    2003-01-01

    Internet access and use of georeferenced public health information for GIS application will be an important and exciting development for the nation's Department of Health and Human Services and other health agencies in this new millennium. Technological progress toward public health geospatial data integration, analysis, and visualization of space-time events using the Web portends eventual robust use of GIS by public health and other sectors of the economy. Increasing Web resources from distributed spatial data portals and global geospatial libraries, and a growing suite of Web integration tools, will provide new opportunities to advance disease surveillance, control, and prevention, and insure public access and community empowerment in public health decision making. Emerging supercomputing, data mining, compression, and transmission technologies will play increasingly critical roles in national emergency, catastrophic planning and response, and risk management. Web-enabled public health GIS will be guided by Federal Geographic Data Committee spatial metadata, OpenGIS Web interoperability, and GML/XML geospatial Web content standards. Public health will become a responsive and integral part of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure. PMID:12543872

  8. North and South addressing the English health divide.

    Bambra, C; Barr, B.; Milne, E.

    2014-01-01

    The North South divide in England has been a popular trope from the mid-19th century novels of Charles Dickens (Hard Times, 1854) and Elizabeth Gaskell (North and South, 1855) through to TV and radio documentaries of 2014.1,2 These often focus on culture and the economy, but it is also well known that there are large and longstanding geographical inequalities in health in England.3 Between 2009 and 2011 people in Manchester were more than twice as likely to die early (455 deaths per 100 000) ...

  9. [Canton Hospital and public health in Canton].

    Li, Jichou; Guo, Qiang

    2015-07-01

    Canton Hospital was not only the most influential missionary hospital in South China, but also the first one brought the concept and practice of public health to Guangzhou. In the late Qing Dynasty, it conducted free vaccination, plague treatment, health education and so on, demonstrating the importance of public health to the people. In the period of the Republic of China, it extensively cooperated with the government and social organizations in developing school health, maternal and child health, communicable disease control and epidemiological investigations to actively serve the social group. In the 1930s, its public health activities extended towards the rural areas of Guangzhou, and promoted the convergence of rural and urban medical and health services. The three-level medical system that it built provided demonstration model for the establishment of Chinese rural medical system. PMID:26815022

  10. Political Science Theory for Public Health Practice

    Watson, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…

  11. Blogging, Mobile Phones, and Public Health

    2009-05-15

    In this podcast, Erin Edgerton, CDC, and Craig Lefebvre, George Washington University discuss social media, blogs, and mobile technologies and how they can be used for public health.  Created: 5/15/2009 by National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM), Division of eHealth Marketing (DeHM).   Date Released: 6/30/2009.

  12. Public Health in the Americas

    Ross Duncan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In this special issue the four articles focus on population health in terms of primary care and preventive medicine. This critical area of health often receives less attention than health care issues (more so in the popular press but also in academic analyses.Upon reviewing these very interesting and illuminating articles it was striking that despite significant cultural, economic, geographic and historical differences there are many commonalities which exist throughout the Americas.

  13. Reducing Food Loss And Waste While Improving The Public's Health.

    Neff, Roni A; Kanter, Rebecca; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2015-11-01

    An estimated 30 percent of the global food supply is lost or wasted, as is about 40 percent of the US food supply. There are valuable synergies between efforts to reduce food loss and waste and those promoting public health. To demonstrate the potential impact of building upon these synergies, we present an analysis of policies and interventions addressing food loss and waste, food security, food safety, and nutrition. We characterize as opportunities the policies and interventions that promote synergistic relationships between goals in the fields of food loss and waste and of public health. We characterize as challenges the policies and interventions that may reduce food loss and waste but compromise public health, or improve public health but increase food loss and waste. Some interventions are both opportunities and challenges. With deliberate planning and action, challenges can often be addressed and turned into opportunities. In other cases, it may be necessary to strike a balance between potential benefit in one area and risk of harm in the other. To help policy makers make the best use of the opportunities while tackling the challenges, it is essential to consider public health in efforts to reduce food loss and waste. PMID:26526239

  14. Constructing public oral health policies in Brazil: issues for reflection

    Catharina Leite Matos Soares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the construction of public oral health policies in Brazil by reviewing the available literature. It includes a discussion of the social responses given by the Brazilian State to oral health policies and the relationship of these responses with the ideological oral health movements that have developed globally, and that have specifically influenced oral health policies in Brazil. The influence of these movements has affected a series of hegemonic practices originating from both Market Dentistry and Preventive and Social Dentistry in Brazil. Among the state activities that have been set into motion, the following stand out: the drafting of a law to regulate the fluoridation of the public water supply, and the fluoridation of commercial toothpaste in Brazil; epidemiological surveys to analyze the status of the Brazilian population's oral health; the inclusion of oral health in the Family Health Strategy (Estratégia de Saúde da Família - ESF; the drawing up of the National Oral Health Policy, Smiling Brazil (Brasil Sorridente. From the literature consulted, the progressive expansion of state intervention in oral health policies is observed. However, there remains a preponderance of hegemonic "dental" practices reproduced in the Unified Public Health Service (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS and the Family Health Strategy.

  15. Constructing public oral health policies in Brazil: issues for reflection.

    Soares, Catharina Leite Matos

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the construction of public oral health policies in Brazil by reviewing the available literature. It includes a discussion of the social responses given by the Brazilian State to oral health policies and the relationship of these responses with the ideological oral health movements that have developed globally, and that have specifically influenced oral health policies in Brazil. The influence of these movements has affected a series of hegemonic practices originating from both Market Dentistry and Preventive and Social Dentistry in Brazil. Among the state activities that have been set into motion, the following stand out: the drafting of a law to regulate the fluoridation of the public water supply, and the fluoridation of commercial toothpaste in Brazil; epidemiological surveys to analyze the status of the Brazilian population's oral health; the inclusion of oral health in the Family Health Strategy (Estratégia de Saúde da Família - ESF); the drawing up of the National Oral Health Policy, Smiling Brazil (Brasil Sorridente). From the literature consulted, the progressive expansion of state intervention in oral health policies is observed. However, there remains a preponderance of hegemonic "dental" practices reproduced in the Unified Public Health Service (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS) and the Family Health Strategy. PMID:23318750

  16. Public Health and Solitary Confinement in the United States.

    Cloud, David H; Drucker, Ernest; Browne, Angela; Parsons, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The history of solitary confinement in the United States stretches from the silent prisons of 200 years ago to today's supermax prisons, mechanized panopticons that isolate tens of thousands, sometimes for decades. We examined the living conditions and characteristics of the populations in solitary confinement. As part of the growing movement for reform, public health agencies have an ethical obligation to help address the excessive use of solitary confinement in jails and prisons in accordance with established public health functions (e.g., violence prevention, health equity, surveillance, and minimizing of occupational and psychological hazards for correctional staff). Public health professionals should lead efforts to replace reliance on this overly punitive correctional policy with models based on rehabilitation and restorative justice. PMID:25393185

  17. Public health and health promotion capacity at national and regional level: a review of conceptual frameworks

    Christoph Aluttis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of capacity building for public health has gained much attention during the last decade. National as well as international organizations increasingly focus their efforts on capacity building to improve performance in the health sector. During the past two decades, a variety of conceptual frameworks have been developed which describe relevant dimensions for public health capacity. Notably, these frameworks differ in design and conceptualization. This paper therefore reviews the existing conceptual frameworks and integrates them into one framework, which contains the most relevant dimensions for public health capacity at the country or regional level. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify frameworks addressing public health capacity building at the national or regional level. We content-analysed these frameworks to identify the core dimensions of public health capacity. The dimensions were subsequently synthesized into a set of thematic areas to construct a conceptual framework which describes the most relevant dimensions for capacities at the national or regional level. The systematic review resulted in the identification of seven core domains for public health capacity: resources, organizational structures, workforce, partnerships, leadership and governance, knowledge development and country specific context. Accordingly, these dimensions were used to construct a framework, which describes these core domains more in detail. Our research shows that although there is no generally agreed upon model of public health capacity, a number of key domains for public health and health promotion capacity are consistently recurring in existing frameworks, regardless of their geographical location or thematic area. As only little work on the core concepts of public health capacities has yet taken place, this study adds value to the discourse by identifying these consistencies across existing frameworks and by synthesising

  18. Comparing the health impacts of different sources of energy. Keynote address

    Assessing health impacts of different energy sources requires synthesis of research results from any different disciplines into a rational framework. Information is often scanty; qualitatively different risks, or energy systems with substantially different end uses, must be put on a common footing. Historically institutional constraints have inhibited agencies from making incisive comparisons necessary for formulating energy policy; this has exacerbated public controversy over appropriate energy sources. Risk assessment methods reviewed include examples drawn from work of the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere. Uncertainty over the mechanism and size of air pollution health damage is addressed through a probabilistic health-damage function, using sulfate-particle exposure as an indicator. This facilitates intercomparison through analysis of each step in the whole fuel cycle between a typical coal and nuclear powerplant. Occupational health impacts, a significant fraction of overall damage, are illustrated by accident trends in coal mining. In broadening comparisons to include new technologies, one must include the impact of manufacturing the energy-producing device as part of an expanded fuel cycle, via input/output methods. Throughout the analysis, uncertainties must be made explicit in the results, including uncertainty of data and uncertainty in choice of appropriate models and methods. No single method of comparative risk assessment is fully satisfactory; each has its limitations. One needs to compare several methods if decision-making is to be realistic

  19. Comparing the health impacts of different sources of energy. Keynote address

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    Assessing health impacts of different energy sources requires synthesis of research results from any different disciplines into a rational framework. Information is often scanty; qualitatively different risks, or energy systems with substantially different end uses, must be put on a common footing. Historically institutional constraints have inhibited agencies from making incisive comparisons necessary for formulating energy policy; this has exacerbated public controversy over appropriate energy sources. Risk assessment methods reviewed include examples drawn from work of the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere. Uncertainty over the mechanism and size of air pollution health damage is addressed through a probabilistic health-damage function, using sulfate-particle exposure as an indicator. This facilitates intercomparison through analysis of each step in the whole fuel cycle between a typical coal and nuclear powerplant. Occupational health impacts, a significant fraction of overall damage, are illustrated by accident trends in coal mining. In broadening comparisons to include new technologies, one must include the impact of manufacturing the energy-producing device as part of an expanded fuel cycle, via input/output methods. Throughout the analysis, uncertainties must be made explicit in the results, including uncertainty of data and uncertainty in choice of appropriate models and methods. No single method of comparative risk assessment is fully satisfactory; each has its limitations. One needs to compare several methods if decision-making is to be realistic.

  20. 76 FR 45268 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to Addressing Drug Shortage; Public Workshop

    2011-07-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to... approach of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) to addressing drug shortages. This public... Benner, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire...

  1. Prediction of speech intelligibility for public address systems in traffic tunnels

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van; Verhave, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Traffic tunnels are generally hostile acoustic environments, both in terms of reverberation and ambient noise levels. Public address (PA) systems used to convey spoken warnings must meet stringent design requirements in order to produce sufficiently intelligible speech. To be able to predict PA syst

  2. School Nurses' Perceived Prevalence and Competence to Address Student Mental Health Problems

    Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…

  3. Innovative statistical methods for public health data

    Wilson, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The book brings together experts working in public health and multi-disciplinary areas to present recent issues in statistical methodological development and their applications. This timely book will impact model development and data analyses of public health research across a wide spectrum of analysis. Data and software used in the studies are available for the reader to replicate the models and outcomes. The fifteen chapters range in focus from techniques for dealing with missing data with Bayesian estimation, health surveillance and population definition and implications in applied latent class analysis, to multiple comparison and meta-analysis in public health data. Researchers in biomedical and public health research will find this book to be a useful reference, and it can be used in graduate level classes.

  4. The stigmatization dilemma in public health policy

    Ploug, Thomas; Holm, Søren; Gjerris, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    Background Multi-resistant bacteria pose an increasing and significant public health risk. As awareness of the severity of the problem grows, it is likely that it will become the target for a range of public health interventions. Some of these can intentionally or unintentionally lead to...... behaviours e.g. smoking. Moreover it discusses stigmatization as an unintended albeit expected side effect of public health instruments potentially used to counter the challenge of multi-resistant bacteria with particular reference to the Danish case of the growing problems with Methicillin...... stigmatization of groups of citizens. Discussion The article describes the phenomenon of stigmatization within the health care area by discussing the concept in relation to AIDS and psychiatric diagnosis. It unfolds the ethical aspects of using stigmatization as a public health instrument to affect unwanted...

  5. Prenatal screening, reproductive choice, and public health.

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    One widely held view of prenatal screening (PNS) is that its foremost aim is, or should be, to enable reproductive choice; this is the Pure Choice view. The article critiques this position by comparing it with an alternative: Public Health Pluralism. It is argued that there are good reasons to prefer the latter, including the following. (1) Public Health Pluralism does not, as is often supposed, render PNS more vulnerable to eugenics-objections. (2) The Pure Choice view, if followed through to its logical conclusions, may have unpalatable implications, such as extending choice well beyond health screening. (3) Any sensible version of Public Health Pluralism will be capable of taking on board the moral seriousness of abortion and will advocate, where practicable, alternative means of reducing the prevalence of disease and disability. (4) Public Health Pluralism is at least as well-equipped as the Pure Choice model to deal with autonomy and consent issues. PMID:25521971

  6. Realizing the promise of social psychology in improving public health.

    Klein, William M P; Shepperd, James A; Suls, Jerry; Rothman, Alexander J; Croyle, Robert T

    2015-02-01

    The theories, phenomena, empirical findings, and methodological approaches that characterize contemporary social psychology hold much promise for addressing enduring problems in public health. Indeed, social psychologists played a major role in the development of the discipline of health psychology during the 1970s and 1980s. The health domain allows for the testing, refinement, and application of many interesting and important research questions in social psychology, and offers the discipline a chance to enhance its reach and visibility. Nevertheless, in a review of recent articles in two major social-psychological journals (Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology), we found that only 3.2% of 467 studies explored health-related topics. In this article, we identify opportunities for research at the interface of social psychology and health, delineate barriers, and offer strategies that can address these barriers as the discipline continues to evolve. PMID:24981514

  7. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Public Health: Online and Integrated into Core Master of Public Health Subjects

    Angus, Lynnell; Ewen, Shaun; Coombe, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    The Master of Public Health (MPH) is an internationally recognised post-graduate qualification for building the public health workforce. In Australia, MPH graduate attributes include six Indigenous public health (IPH) competencies. The University of Melbourne MPH program includes five core subjects and ten specialisation streams, of which one is Indigenous health. Unless students complete this specialisation or electives in Indigenous health, it is possible for students to graduate without attaining the IPH competencies. To address this issue in a crowded and competitive curriculum an innovative approach to integrating the IPH competencies in core MPH subjects was developed. Five online modules that corresponded with the learning outcomes of the core public health subjects were developed, implemented and evaluated in 2015. This brief report outlines the conceptualisation, development, and description of the curriculum content; it also provides preliminary student evaluation and staff feedback on the integration project. Significance for public health This approach to a comprehensive, online, integrated Indigenous public health (IPH) curriculum is significant, as it ensures that all University of Melbourne Master of Public Health (MPH) graduates will have the competencies to positively contribute to Indigenous health status. A workforce that is attuned not only to the challenges of IPH, but also to the principles of self-determination, Indigenous agency and collaboration is better equipped to be comprised of ethical and judgment-safe practitioners. Additionally, the outlined approach of utilizing IPH content and examples into core MPH subjects ensures both the Australian relevance for an Australian-based health professional course and international appeal through the modules inclusion of International Indigenous case-studies and content. Furthermore, approaches learned in a challenging Indigenous Australian context are transferable and applicable to other IPH

  8. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Public Health: Online and Integrated into Core Master of Public Health Subjects.

    Angus, Lynnell; Ewen, Shaun; Coombe, Leanne

    2016-04-26

    The Master of Public Health (MPH) is an internationally recognised post-graduate qualification for building the public health workforce. In Australia, MPH graduate attributes include six Indigenous public health (IPH) competencies. The University of Melbourne MPH program includes five core subjects and ten specialisation streams, of which one is Indigenous health. Unless students complete this specialisation or electives in Indigenous health, it is possible for students to graduate without attaining the IPH competencies. To address this issue in a crowded and competitive curriculum an innovative approach to integrating the IPH competencies in core MPH subjects was developed. Five online modules that corresponded with the learning outcomes of the core public health subjects were developed, implemented and evaluated in 2015. This brief report outlines the conceptualisation, development, and description of the curriculum content; it also provides preliminary student evaluation and staff feedback on the integration project. Significance for public healthThis approach to a comprehensive, online, integrated Indigenous public health (IPH) curriculum is significant, as it ensures that all University of Melbourne Master of Public Health (MPH) graduates will have the competencies to positively contribute to Indigenous health status. A workforce that is attuned not only to the challenges of IPH, but also to the principles of self-determination, Indigenous agency and collaboration is better equipped to be comprised of ethical and judgment-safe practitioners. Additionally, the outlined approach of utilizing IPH content and examples into core MPH subjects ensures both the Australian relevance for an Australian-based health professional course and international appeal through the modules inclusion of International Indigenous case-studies and content. Furthermore, approaches learned in a challenging Indigenous Australian context are transferable and applicable to other IPH

  9. Risk tradeoffs and public health protection

    Full text of publication follows: over the last 25 years, the traditional command-and-control, chemical-by-chemical environmental medium-by-environmental medium, risk-by-risk approach to protecting public health from environmental risks has worked well to greatly improve the quality of our food, air, water, and workplaces, but we are now left with the more complex problems, like urban air pollution or personal dietary behavior, that a chemical-by-chemical approach is not going to solve. Because current environmental regulatory programs have curbed the 'low-hanging fruit' and because of today's emphasis on achieving risk reductions cost-effectively, new and creative public health-based approaches to risk management are needed. Since public concern about pollution-related disease become serious in the 1960's and 1970's and regulatory agencies and laws began to proliferate, the public health goals of environmental protection have been obscured. As a society, we have made a tradeoff between environmental health and public health. The public health foundation of environmental health protection has been obscured by legalistic, technical, centralized decision-making processes that have often mistaken hazard for risk. A greater focus on public health would help us to assess aggregate risks and to target risk management resources by focusing on a problem and then identifying what is causing the problem as a guide to determining how best to solve it. Most of our current approaches start with a cause and then try to eliminate it without determining the extent to which it actually may contribute to a problem, making it difficult to set priorities among risks or to evaluate the impact of risk management actions on public health. (author)

  10. Pedagogical promise and problems: teaching public health law.

    Syrett, K; Quick, O

    2009-03-01

    This article considers the case for teaching public health law as a distinct subject of study within the academic curriculum. It offers proposals on syllabus design, assessment and objectives by reference to the authors' own teaching experience, and also seeks to serve as a resource for those considering the introduction of a course in this field. There is consideration of the conceptual analysis of public health law, and an exploration of the obstacles and opportunities involved in teaching public health law in higher education. To date, issues of public health law have received coverage, if at all, almost exclusively in the context of existing medical or healthcare law modules. Although difficult obstacles remain to be surmounted before the subject can be fully embraced, its marginalization appears to be increasingly misplaced in light of growing awareness of the policy challenges presented by public health and the potential for law to function as a valuable tool to assist in addressing such challenges. There are also potent pedagogical arguments for the teaching of public health law on a liberal academic curriculum. PMID:19243797

  11. Global public health and the information superhighway.

    LaPorte, R E

    1994-06-25

    Applications of networking to health care have focused on the potential of networking to transmit data and to reduce the cost of health care. In the early 198Os networks began forming among academic institutions; one of them was Bitnet. During the 1980s Internet evolved, which joined diverse networks, including those of governments and industry. The first step is to connect public health organizations such as ministries of health, the World Health Organization, the Pan-American Health Organization, and the United Nations. Computer-based telecommunication will vastly increase effective transmission of information. Networking public health workers in local health departments, academia, governments, industry, and private agencies, will bring great benefits. One is global disease telemonitoring: with new epidemiological techniques such as capture-recapture, accurate estimates of incidences of important communicable and non-communicable diseases can now be obtained. Currently all countries in the Americas except Haiti are connected through Internet. No systematic integration of telecommunication and public health systems across countries has occurred yet. On-line vital statistics could be usable almost instantaneously to facilitate monitoring and forecasting of population growth and the health needs of mothers and children. Linking global disease telemonitoring (morbidity data for non-communicable diseases) with environmental data systems would considerably improve understanding of the environmental determinants of disease. Internet is already linked to the National Library of Medicine through Bitnis. Computer based distance education is rapidly improving through E-mail searches. Reading materials, video, pictures, and sound could be transmitted across huge distances for low costs. Hundreds of schools are already networked together. On-line electronic journals and books have the potential for instantaneous dissemination of free information through gopher servers. Global

  12. PUBLIC HEALTH: Grand Challenges in Global Health

    Varmus, H.; Klausner, R; Zerhouni, E.; Acharya, T.; Daar, A S; Singer, P A

    2003-01-01

    This week an international panel announces a list of 14 Grand Challenges in Global Health, and scientists throughout the world will be invited to submit grant proposals to pursue them with funds provided by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. We describe the characteristics of these challenges and the process by which they were formulated and selected after receiving over 1000 responses to a "call for ideas" from the scientific community.

  13. Public-Private Partnerships for Health Promotion: The Experiences of the S[superscript 5] Project

    Gold, J.; Hellard, M. E.; Lim, M. S.; Dixon, H.; Wakefield, M.; Aitken, C. K.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis on involving the private sector in public health to harness the considerable resources and skills of the business world to address significant health issues. While such collaboration should be encouraged, the involvement of business in public health campaigns can raise unexpected challenges when the approaches and…

  14. Health education teaching,interdisciplinarity and public health policies

    Maria Grasiela Teixeira Barroso; Neiva Francenely Cunha Vieira; Zulene Maria de Vasconcelos Varela

    2006-01-01

    The national curriculum directives of health area graduation courses and texts about interdisciplinary,health promotion/education and public policies framed the discussion about health education,which,in this context,is an area of political pedagogical knowledge, considering that its knowing and doing have been historically determined by social and economical conditions that guide public policies.This work aimed at motivating readers to open up psycho-pedagogical,cultural and operational scen...

  15. Public-Private Partnerships In Health

    khalid BOUTI; Rajae BORKI

    2015-01-01

    Extract:The current importance of public debt requires governments to increasingly shift towards Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs). They are long-term contracts of private financing method providing or contributing to public service. The payment is made by the public partner and/or users of the service.The World Health Organization (WHO) defines this type of partnership as ‘‘a means to bring together a set of actors for the common goal of improving the health of populations based on mutually...

  16. International environmental law and global public health.

    2002-01-01

    The environment continues to be a source of ill-health for many people, particularly in developing countries. International environmental law offers a viable strategy for enhancing public health through the promotion of increased awareness of the linkages between health and environment, mobilization of technical and financial resources, strengthening of research and monitoring, enforcement of health-related standards, and promotion of global cooperation. An enhanced capacity to utilize intern...

  17. Crime is a public health problem.

    Middleton, J

    1998-01-01

    Crime is a public health issue. It shares common causes with ill health, particularly poverty, and fear of violent crime is itself a major cause of anxiety. Community development in pre-school education, parental education, and among ethnic minorities, both reduces crime and promotes better health, for example in reducing the effects of alcohol and illicit drugs. Health workers should contribute in full to community development. PMID:9532958

  18. Addressing Health Workforce Distribution Concerns: A Discrete Choice Experiment to Develop Rural Retention Strategies in Cameroon

    Paul Jacob Robyn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Nearly every nation in the world faces shortages of health workers in remote areas. Cameroon is no exception to this. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH is currently considering several rural retention strategies to motivate qualified health personnel to practice in remote rural areas. Methods To better calibrate these mechanisms and to develop evidence-based retention strategies that are attractive and motivating to health workers, a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE was conducted to examine what job attributes are most attractive and important to health workers when considering postings in remote areas. The study was carried out between July and August 2012 among 351 medical students, nursing students and health workers in Cameroon. Mixed logit models were used to analyze the data. Results Among medical and nursing students a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary (aOR= 8.27, 95% CI: 5.28-12.96, P< 0.001 and improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.54, 95% CI: 2.73-4.58 respectively were the attributes with the largest effect sizes. Among medical doctors and nurse aides, a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary was the attribute with the largest effect size (medical doctors aOR= 5.60, 95% CI: 4.12-7.61, P< 0.001; nurse aides aOR= 4.29, 95% CI: 3.11-5.93, P< 0.001. On the other hand, improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.56, 95% CI: 2.75-4.60, P< 0.001, was the attribute with the largest effect size among the state registered nurses surveyed. Willingness-to-Pay (WTP estimates were generated for each health worker cadre for all the attributes. Preference impact measurements were also estimated to identify combination of incentives that health workers would find most attractive. Conclusion Based on these findings, the study recommends the introduction of a system of substantial monetary bonuses for rural service along with ensuring adequate and functional equipment and uninterrupted supplies. By focusing on

  19. Public health system partnerships: role for local boards of health in preparing the future public health workforce.

    Caron, Rosemary M; Hiller, Marc D; Wyman, William J

    2014-02-01

    The Institute of Medicine's report, Who Will Keep the Public Healthy? Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century, recommended that public health education be accessible to undergraduate students. Promoting access to public health education will ideally contribute to a well-educated public health workforce, thus assuring the fulfillment of the public health mission. In response to this call to action, the authors examined the current practice, feasibility, and value in developing a functional partnership between academic institutions and local boards of health in preparing future public health professionals. Local boards of health in New England were surveyed to: (1) establish a baseline of existing working relationships between them and nearby academic institutions; (2) examine the barriers that inhibit the development of their collaborations with academic partners; and (3) assess how they jointly advance public health workforce development. Despite the main barriers of a lack of time, staff, and funding that are often cited for the absence of collaborations between institutions, one New England state, in particular, reported that their academic institution and local board of health partnerships were important and effective. The authors discuss how academic-practice collaborations hold the potential to combine basic public health principles with leadership and governance experience offered by local boards of health. Such partnerships are underutilized and have the potential to integrate core public health concepts while facilitating applied experiential learning opportunities in a professional public health setting, thus contributing to the development of the future public health workforce. PMID:23897268

  20. New smart materials to address issues of structural health monitoring.

    Chaplya, Pavel Mikhail

    2004-12-01

    Nuclear weapons and their storage facilities may benefit from in-situ structural health monitoring systems. Appending health-monitoring functionality to conventional materials and structures has been only marginally successful. The purpose of this project was to evaluate feasibility of a new smart material that includes self-sensing health monitoring functions similar to that of a nervous system of a living organism. Reviews of current efforts in the fields of heath-monitoring, nanotechnology, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), and wireless sensor networks were conducted. Limitations of the current nanotechnology methods were identified and new approaches were proposed to accelerate the development of self-sensing materials. Wireless networks of MEMS sensors have been researched as possible prototypes of self-sensing materials. Sensor networks were also examined as enabling technologies for dense data collection techniques to be used for validation of numerical methods and material parameter identification. Each grain of the envisioned material contains sensors that are connected in a dendritic manner similar to networks of neurons in a nervous system. Each sensor/neuron can communicate with the neighboring grains. Both the state of the sensor (on/off) and the quality of communication signal (speed/amplitude) should indicate not only a presence of a structural defect but the nature of the defect as well. For example, a failed sensor may represent a through-grain crack, while a lost or degraded communication link may represent an inter-granular crack. A technology to create such material does not exist. While recent progress in the fields of MEMS and nanotechnology allows to envision these new smart materials, it is unrealistic to expect creation of self-sensing materials in the near future. The current state of MEMS, nanotechnology, communication, sensor networks, and data processing technologies indicates that it will take more than ten years for the

  1. Public health communications for safe motherhood.

    Kessel, E

    1994-03-30

    Public health communication aims to influence health practices of large populations, including maternal health care providers (traditional birth attendants, (TBAs), nurse-midwives, other indigenous practitioners, and physicians). A quality assurance process is needed to give public sector health providers feedback. Computerized record keeping is needing for quality assurance of maternal health programs. The Indian Rural Medical Association has trained more than 20,000 rural indigenous practitioners in West Bengal. Training of TBAs is expensive and rarely successful. However, trained health professional leading group discussions of TBAs is successful at teaching them about correct maternity care. Health education messages integrated into popular songs and drama is a way to reach large illiterate audiences. Even though a few donor agencies and governments provide time and technical assistance to take advantage of the mass media as a means to communicate health messages, the private sector has most of the potential. Commercial advertisements pay for Video on Wheels, which, with 100 medium-sized trucks each fitted with a 100-inch screen, plays movies for rural citizens of India. They are exposed to public and family planning messages. Jain Satellite Television (JST) broadcasts 24 hours a day and plans to broadcast programs on development, health and family planning, women's issues, and continuing education for all health care providers (physicians, nurses, TBAs, community workers, and indigenous practitioners). JST and the International Federation for Family Health plan to telecast courses as part of an Open University of Health Sciences. PMID:12179179

  2. Project management educational curriculum for public health professionals: development and evaluation

    David Sabapathy; David Strong; Hude Quan

    2011-01-01

    Successful completion of public health projects is critical to achieving population health objectives. However project execution can be challenging due to scarce time and resources, rapidly changing environments and complex stakeholder requirements. To address these challenges physicians and other professionals working in public health need to learn the practical skills of project management. However curricula tailored to project management skill development for public health professionals is...

  3. Defining and Developing Global Public Health Course for Public Health Graduates

    Rajendra eKarkee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Global Public Health is increasingly being seen as a speciality field within the university education of Public Health. However, the exact meaning of Global Public Health is still unclear resulting in varied curricula and teaching units among universities. The contextual differences between high and low and middle income countries, and the process of globalisation need to be taken into account while developing any global public health course.Global Public Health and Public Health are not separable and Global Public Health often appears as an extension of Public Health in the era of globalisation and interdependence. Though Global Public Health is readily understood as health of global population, it is mainly practised as health problems and their solutions set within low and middle income countries. Additional specialist competencies relevant to the context of low and middle income countries are needed to work in this field. Although there can be a long list of competencies relevant to this broad topic, available literature suggests that knowledge and skills related with ethics and vulnerable groups/issues; globalisation and its impact on health; disease burden; culture, society and politics; and management are important.

  4. Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine Friends of the ... a Distinguished Medical Science Award for his global leadership in cancer research and the development of combination ...

  5. Public Health Information Retrieval from Non-health Databases

    Thumeka Mgwigwi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the extent to which non-health databases index public health and healthcare related journals. The field of public health and healthcare is unique and multidisciplinary and therefore presents some challenges for researchers looking for published literature in the field. This challenge forces researchers to look beyond databases like Medline and search a wide array of databases in various fields. A list of journal titles from non-health databases in various fields was used to compare title coverage in Medline (Ovid. Databases used in this study are Canadian Business & Current Affairs (CBCA Complete, which is a multidisciplinary database; ABI/Inform covering business literature; Public Affairs Information Services (PAIS; EconLit; PsycInfo focusing only on public health journals and eliminating psychology specific journals; Sociological Abstracts; and Women’s Studies international.

  6. Metagenomics for pathogen detection in public health

    Miller, Ruth R.; Montoya, Vincent; Gardy, Jennifer L; Patrick, David M.; Tang, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Traditional pathogen detection methods in public health infectious disease surveillance rely upon the identification of agents that are already known to be associated with a particular clinical syndrome. The emerging field of metagenomics has the potential to revolutionize pathogen detection in public health laboratories by allowing the simultaneous detection of all microorganisms in a clinical sample, without a priori knowledge of their identities, through the use of next-generation DNA sequ...

  7. Prenatal Screening, Reproductive Choice, and Public Health

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    One widely held view of prenatal screening (PNS) is that its foremost aim is, or should be, to enable reproductive choice; this is the Pure Choice view. The article critiques this position by comparing it with an alternative: Public Health Pluralism. It is argued that there are good reasons to prefer the latter, including the following. (1) Public Health Pluralism does not, as is often supposed, render PNS more vulnerable to eugenics-objections. (2) The Pure Choice view, if followed through t...

  8. Zur Ausreifung des Politikfeldes Public Health

    Noweski, Michael

    2010-01-01

    "Der Begriff Public Health bezeichnet die Wissenschaft und die Praxis der Primärprävention, also einen spezifischen Bereich der Gesundheitswissenschaften, sowie ein neu entstehendes Versorgungssystem neben der Kuration, der Rehabilitation und der Pflege. Diese neuen Strukturen konsolidieren sich schrittweise. Der vorliegende Aufsatz plädiert dafür, Public Health als ein werdendes Politikfeld wahrzunehmen, dessen Aufbau systematisch voranzutreiben ist." (Autorenreferat)

  9. Public health preparedness evaluation and measurement

    Elena Savoia; Jamie Morano; David Cote; Sanjay Rampal; Diego Villa; Marcia Testa

    2004-01-01

    Dear Sir;
    Public health preparedness refers to the ability of different local, state, and federal entities to carry out a prompt,effective response to any public health threat.[1] Indeed,it is clear that the term “threat”could embrace
    a myriad of elements. Recently, the main focus has been on bioterrorism, defined as the terrorist use of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive weapons of mass destruction.

    However, preparedness ...

  10. Indoor air pollution: a public health perspective

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms, and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  11. Applying Behavioral Economics to Public Health Policy

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Cawley, John H.; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M.; Yokum, David V.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of public health policy at low cost. Although incorporating insights from behavioral economics into public health policy has the potential to improve population health, its integration into government public health programs and policies requires careful design and continual evaluation of such interventions. Limitations and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. PMID:27102853

  12. Human rights, transitional justice, public health and social reconstruction.

    Pham, Phuong Ngoc; Vinck, Patrick; Weinstein, Harvey M

    2010-01-01

    Mass violence, armed conflict, genocide, and complex humanitarian emergencies continue to create major social and public health disasters at the dawn of the 21st Century. Transitional justice, a set of policies designed to address the effects of war on traumatized communities and bring justice, lies at the nexus of public health, conflict, and social reconstruction. Despite the paucity of empirical evidence, advocates of transitional justice have claimed that it can alleviate the effects of trauma, deter future violence, and bring about social reconstruction in war-affected communities. Empirical evidence--including new data and analyses presented in this article--suggests a link between trauma, mental health and attitudes towards and responses to transitional justice programs, but there has been little theoretical discussion about the intersection between public health and transitional justice, and even less empirical research to generate discussion between these two fields. Yet, public health professionals have an important role to play in assessing the impact of transitional justice on communities affected by mass violence. In this paper, we offer a conceptual model for future research that seeks to examine the relationship between transitional justice programs and their potential value to the fields of medicine and public health and discuss the methodological issues and challenges to a comprehensive evaluation of this relationship. To illustrate the discussion, we examine new data and analyses from two cases of contemporary conflicts, eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and northern Uganda. PMID:19833426

  13. Public health policies to encourage healthy eating habits: recent perspectives

    Gorski MT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mary T Gorski,1 Christina A Roberto2,3 1Interfaculty Initiative in Health Policy, Harvard University, Cambridge, 2Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 3Department of Nutrition, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: There is an urgent need to address unhealthy dietary patterns at the population level. Poor diet and physical inactivity are key drivers of the obesity pandemic, and they are among the leading causes of preventable death and disability in nearly every country in the world. As countries grapple with the growing obesity prevalence, many innovative policy options to reduce overeating and improve diet quality remain largely unexplored. We describe recent trends in eating habits and consequences for public health, vulnerabilities to unhealthy eating, and the role for public health policies. We reviewed recent public health policies to promote healthier diet patterns, including mandates, restrictions, economic incentives, marketing limits, information provision, and environmental defaults. Keywords: food policy, diet, obesity, public health

  14. Development of Systematic Knowledge Management for Public Health: A Public Health Law Ontology

    Keeling, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has stated that legal structures and the authority vested in health agencies and other partners within the public health system are essential to improving the public's health. Variation between the laws of different jurisdictions within the United States allows for natural experimentation and research into their…

  15. Political Economy of Public Health

    Judith W. Leavitt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Launching Global Health: The Caribbean Odyssey of the Rockefeller Foundation. Steven Palmer. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2010. xi + 301 pp. (Cloth US$ 70.00 Partner to the Poor: A Paul Farmer Reader. Paul Farmer, edited by Haun Saussy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010. xii + 660 pp. (Paper US$ 27.50

  16. Corporate philanthropy, lobbying, and public health policy.

    Tesler, Laura E; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-12-01

    To counter negative publicity about the tobacco industry, Philip Morris has widely publicized its philanthropy initiatives. Although corporate philanthropy is primarily a public relations tool, contributions may be viewed as offsetting the harms caused by corporate products and practices. That such donations themselves have harmful consequences has been little considered. Drawing on internal company documents, we explored the philanthropy undertaken as part of Philip Morris's PM21 image makeover. Philip Morris explicitly linked philanthropy to government affairs and used contributions as a lobbying tool against public health policies. Through advertising, covertly solicited media coverage, and contributions to legislators' pet causes, Philip Morris improved its image among key voter constituencies, influenced public officials, and divided the public health field as grantees were converted to stakeholders. PMID:18923118

  17. Barriers to partnership working in public health: a qualitative study.

    David Carlton Taylor-Robinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Public health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 70 participants took part in an in-depth qualitative study involving 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were senior and middle grade public health decision makers working in Primary Care Trusts, Local Authorities, Department of Health, academia, General Practice and Hospital Trusts and the third sector in England. Despite mature arrangements for partnership working in many areas, and much support for joint working in principle, many important barriers exist. These include cultural issues such as a lack of shared values and language, the inherent complexity of intersectoral collaboration for public health, and macro issues including political and resource constraints. There is particular uncertainty and anxiety about the future of joint working relating to the availability and distribution of scarce and diminishing financial resources. There is also the concern that existing effective collaborative networks may be completely disrupted as the proposed changes unfold. The extent to which the proposed reforms might mitigate or potentiate these issues remains unclear. However the threats currently remain more salient than opportunities. CONCLUSIONS: The current re-organisation of public health offers real opportunity to address some of the barriers to partnership working identified in this study. However, significant threats exist. These include the breakup of established networks, and the risk of cost cutting on effective public health interventions.

  18. Algal blooms and public health

    Epstein, P.R. (Cambridge Hospital, MA (United States). Harvard Medical School)

    1993-06-01

    Alterations in coastal ecology are expanding the geographic extent, frequency, magnitude, and species complexity'' of algal blooms throughout the world, increasing the threat of fish and shellfish poisonings, anoxia in marine nurseries, and of cholera. The World Health Organization and members of the medical profession have described the potential health effects of global climate change. They warn of the consequences of increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) rays and of warming: the possible damage to agriculture and nutrition, and the impact on habitats which may alter the distribution of vector-borne and water-based infectious diseases. Algal growth due to increased nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and warming are already affecting marine microflora and aquatic plants; and there is now clear evidence that marine organisms are a reservoir for enteric pathogens. The pattern of cholera in the Western Hemisphere suggests that environmental changes have already begun to influence the epidemiology of this infectious disease. 106 refs.

  19. Radiological protection and public health: crossbreeding

    Full text: This paper summarizes the scope of activities, ongoing experience and current results of the Expert Group on the Public Health Perspective in Radiological Protection (EGPH) of the Committee of Radiological Protection and Public Health, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. While the prime and general task of the EGPH group is looking at how the public health and radiation protection can better take an advantage of their respective perspectives, the following four areas have been explored in detail: a) Exposure to radon; b) Justification of medical exposures; c) Public health judgement and decision making based on new scientific evidence; and d) Management of individual differences. In most of these areas, a targeted telephone survey on public policies in selected countries was used for collecting information from stake holders (public, consumers groups, public health and radiation protection regulators, governmental bodies, medical practitioners, patients, scientific communities, NGOs, etc.). The presented paper also highlights key issues of collected information and summarises existing approaches and policies. The case study on exposure to radon collects national information on approaches to the management of domestic radon risks, focusing on the integration of radiation protection and public health aspects (quality of dwellings, overall quality of indoor air, perception of radon levels, position of radon risk in the pool of other risks). In the case of justification of medical exposures, the Group studies the applications of the justification principle in opportunistic screenings (responsibilities, management of the situation, risk assessment). The precautionary principle and its impact on policy judgement in the light of significant scientific uncertainties can have a large influence on radiological-protection decision making. The case study on public health judgement and decision making based on new scientific evidence is exploring how these uncertainties and

  20. Peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Address at the regional public information seminar, Bangkok, 1 February 2000

    In his address at the Regional Public Information Seminar (Bangkok, 1 February 2000), the Director General of the IAEA offered a global perspective on the development of nuclear energy at the beginning of the 21st century. The views expressed are from the vantage point of the IAEA, and are structured around the three pillars of Agency's work: nuclear technology, nuclear and radiation safety, and security of material and safeguards

  1. Violence a global public health problem

    Linda L. Dahlberg; Etienne G. Krug

    2006-01-01

    This article is a version of the Introduction to the World Report on Violence and Health, published by the World Health Organization (WHO). It presents a general description about this phenomenon and points some basic questions: concepts and definitions about the theme; the state of knowledge about it; nature and typology on violence; proposal of a quantitative and qualitative approach of an ecological model; responsibilities and functions of the public health sector and its potentiality to p...

  2. Public Spending on Health as Political Instrument?

    Fielding, David; Freytag, Andreas; Münch, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The paper argues that the type of the political regime does not only drive public spending on health, but that dependent on the type of regime inequality in health status within its population is fostered by applying selective strategies. An empirical analysis is conducted for 132 low- and middle...... income states for the years 1995-2010. A simple political economic framework is implemented in order to analyse the rational of policy makers in implementing effective health care provision....

  3. A Framework for Addressing the Global Obesity Epidemic Locally: The Child Health Ecological Surveillance System (CHESS

    Ronald C. Plotnikoff, PhD

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in the developed world. Recent research and commentary suggest that an ecological approach is required to address childhood obesity, given the multidimensional nature of the problem. We propose a Canadian prototype, the Child Health Ecological Surveillance System, for a regional health authority to address the growing obesity epidemic. This prototype could potentially be used in other jurisdictions to address other child health issues. We present 8 guiding principles for the development and implementation of a regional framework for action.

  4. Remote Sensing, Air Quality, and Public Health

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Douglas; Mohammad, Al-Hamdan; Crosson, William; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Limaye, Ashutosh; Qualters, Judith

    2008-01-01

    HELIX-Atlanta was developed to support current and future state and local EPHT programs to implement data linking demonstratio'n projects which could be part of the EPHT Network. HELIX-Atlanta is a pilot linking project in Atlanta for CDC to learn about the challenges the states will encounter. NASA/MSFC and the CDC are partners in linking environmental and health data to enhance public health surveillance. The use of NASA technology creates value - added geospatial products from existing environmental data sources to facilitate public health linkages. Proving the feasibility of the approach is the main objective

  5. Public Health Action Model for Cancer Survivorship.

    Moore, Angela R; Buchanan, Natasha D; Fairley, Temeika L; Lee Smith, Judith

    2015-12-01

    Long-term objectives associated with cancer survivors have been suggested by Healthy People 2020, including increasing the proportion of survivors living beyond 5 years after diagnosis and improving survivors' mental and physical health-related quality of life. Prior to reaching these objectives, several intermediate steps must be taken to improve the physical, social, emotional, and financial well-being of cancer survivors. Public health has a role in developing strategic, actionable, and measurable approaches to facilitate change at multiple levels to improve the lives of survivors and their families. The social ecological model has been used by the public health community as the foundation of multilevel intervention design and implementation, encouraging researchers and practitioners to explore methods that promote internal and external changes at the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy levels. The survivorship community, including public health professionals, providers, policymakers, survivors, advocates, and caregivers, must work collaboratively to identify, develop, and implement interventions that benefit cancer survivors. The National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship highlights public health domains and associated strategies that can be the impetus for collaboration between and among the levels in the social ecological model and are integral to improving survivor outcomes. This paper describes the Public Health Action Model for Cancer Survivorship, an integrative framework that combines the National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship with the social ecological model to demonstrate how interaction among the various levels may promote better outcomes for survivors. PMID:26590641

  6. A Critical Examination and Revisioning of Minority Health Frameworks, Research Methodologies, and Intervention Models Addressing South Asian American Health Disparities

    Mukherjea, Arnab

    2010-01-01

    Public health focuses on promoting health and preventing disease at the population level. More recently, the enterprise of public health in the United States has emphasized the importance of understanding and eliminating disparities in health indicators among racial and ethnic minority populations. Federal surveillance systems often aggregate all ethnic groups originating from Asia into a singular category, despite tremendous diversity of cultural features, demographic characteristics, and ...

  7. Public Health Service Safety Program

    Off-Site Radiological Safety Programs conducted on past Plowshare experimental projects by the Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory for the AEC will be presented. Emphasis will be placed on the evaluation of the potential radiation hazard to off-site residents, the development of an appropriate safety plan, pre- and post-shot surveillance activities, and the necessity for a comprehensive and continuing community relations program. In consideration of the possible wide use of nuclear explosives in industrial applications, a new approach to off-site radiological safety will be discussed. (author)

  8. Epidemiology, Etiology, and Public Health

    Weller, Richard E.

    2000-02-23

    Veterinary oncology has seen tremendous growth since the first textbook devoted to the subject in the late 1970s. Cancer is usually at the top of the list when owners ask about health concerns for their pets (and it remains the leading cause of death among dogs and cats). The volume, Veterinary Oncology Secrets, joins others in the series by presenting in question and answer format the type of information so important to veterinary students, interns and residents, general practitioners, and specialists in a number of clinical fields.

  9. Mapping the health indicators of Chhattisgarh: A public health perspective

    Abhiruchi Galhotra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The state of Chhattisgarh today faces several challenges in improving the health status of its people. The on-going problems of maternal and child mortality, communicable diseases, and HIV/AIDS pandemic still need greater interventions/support from the already overburdened health systems. In addition, the public health challenges include the escalating burden of chronic noncommunicable diseases. Keeping all these things in mind a study was carried out to have an overview of the public health scenario of Chhattisgarh. Aim: This paper aims to review the different public health indicators of Chhattisgarh. Materials and Methods: This study comprised of reviewing different health indicators of Chhattisgarh adopting three different methods during the period March-April 2013. The methods were: (i extensive online search, (ii reviewing the related literatures from different journals and other authentic printed materials, and (iii information collected from public health experts through e-mail, telephone, or direct interaction. Results: Out of 2.55 crore populations in the state (as per Census 2011, 78% lives in rural areas and 37% of the population is tribal. The sex ratio is 968 and the literacy rate is 65.5% in population above 7 years of age. There is a shortage of trained health care providers in Chhattisgarh. The crude birth rate is 23.5 per 1000 (population Annual Health Survey [AHS] 2011-2012. The infant mortality rate is 48 per 1000 live births (SRS 2012. Malnutrition, anemia, sickle cell hemoglobinopathy, Beta thalassemia trait, and G6 PD enzyme deficiency are very high among the tribes of Chhattisgarh. Malaria has been a major health problem. Chhattisgarh is one of the states with annual parasite index >5 (MRC report. The other states are Rajasthan, Gujarat, Karnataka, Goa, Southern Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Odisha, and Northeastern states. Conclusion: From a public health point of view, most of the health indicators are below

  10. Developing public health work in local health systems

    Popay, Jennie; Mallinson, Sara; Kowarzik, Ute; Mackian, Sara; Busby, Helen; Elliot, Heather

    2004-01-01

    Current government policy aims to create a wider ‘community of public health practice’ within local systems, working in a coherent and coordinated way in partnership with local people to reduce health inequalities. However, for this to happen policymakers and practitioners across the public sector have to reconsider boundaries, role definitions, professional identities and responsibilities. On the basis of documentary analysis and fieldwork involving interviews with individuals from various s...

  11. 25 years of public health leadership in Africa: the Ethiopian Public Health Association.

    Mariam, Damen Haile; Asnake, Mengistu

    2010-01-01

    This commentary discusses the historical development, organization and activities of the Ethiopian Public Health Association (EPHA), a professional civil society organization that operates on the principles of protection of public interest and professional standards in health in areas of health development in Ethiopia. The important roles played by the EPHA in health training, research and policy advocacy have been highlighted. Some of the important health system interventions that have been effected in the country through the influence and active participation of the Association have also been pointed out. As an active member of the Executive Board of the World Federation of Public Health Associations, EPHA serves as a role model for public health professional associations in the African Region with regard to increasing their influence in health policy and interventions within their respective countries. PMID:21370778

  12. Public engagement on global health challenges

    Minhas Gunjeet S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experience with public engagement activities regarding the risks and benefits of science and technology (S&T is growing, especially in the industrialized world. However, public engagement in the developing world regarding S&T risks and benefits to explore health issues has not been widely explored. Methods This paper gives an overview about public engagement and related concepts, with a particular focus on challenges and benefits in the developing world. We then describe an Internet-based platform, which seeks to both inform and engage youth and the broader public on global water issues and their health impacts. Finally, we outline a possible course for future action to scale up this and similar online public engagement platforms. Results The benefits of public engagement include creating an informed citizenry, generating new ideas from the public, increasing the chances of research being adopted, increasing public trust, and answering ethical research questions. Public engagement also fosters global communication, enables shared experiences and methodology, standardizes strategy, and generates global viewpoints. This is especially pertinent to the developing world, as it encourages previously marginalized populations to participate on a global stage. One of the core issues at stake in public engagement is global governance of science and technology. Also, beyond benefiting society at large, public engagement in science offers benefits to the scientific enterprise itself. Conclusion Successful public engagement with developing world stakeholders will be a critical part of implementing new services and technologies. Interactive engagement platforms, such as the Internet, have the potential to unite people globally around relevant health issues.

  13. Soils and public health: the vital nexus

    Pachepsky, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Soils sustain life. They affect human health via quantity, quality, and safety of available food and water, and via direct exposure of individuals to soils. Throughout the history of civilization, soil-health relationships have inspired spiritual movements, philosophical systems, cultural exchanges, and interdisciplinary interactions, and provided medicinal substances of paramount impact. Given the climate, resource, and population pressures, understanding and managing the soil-health interactions becomes a modern imperative. We are witnessing a paradigm shift from recognizing and yet disregarding the 'soil-health' nexus complexity to parameterizing this complexity and identifying reliable controls. This becomes possible with the advent of modern research tools as a source of 'big data' on multivariate nonlinear soil systems and the multiplicity of health metrics. The phenomenon of suppression of human pathogens in soils and plants presents a recent example of these developments. Evidence is growing about the dependence of pathogen suppression on the soil microbial community structure which, in turn, is affected by the soil-plant system management. Soil eutrophication appears to create favorable conditions for pathogen survival. Another example of promising information-rich research considers links and feedbacks between the soil microbial community structure and structure of soil physical pore space. The two structures are intertwined and involved in the intricate self-organization that controls soil services to public health. This, in particular, affects functioning of soils as a powerful water filter and the capacity of this filter with respect to emerging contaminants in both 'green' and 'blue' waters. To evaluate effects of soil services to public health, upscaling procedures are needed for relating the fine-scale mechanistic knowledge to available coarse-scale information on soil properties and management. More needs to be learned about health effects of soils

  14. "Outstanding Services to Negro Health": Dr. Dorothy Boulding Ferebee, Dr. Virginia M. Alexander, and Black Women Physicians' Public Health Activism.

    Gamble, Vanessa Northington

    2016-08-01

    An examination of the lives and careers of physician-activists Dorothy Boulding Ferebee (1898-1972) and Virginia M. Alexander (1899-1949) demonstrates how Black physicians in the first half of the 20th century used public health to improve the health of Black Americans and provides insights into the experiences of Black women physicians. I discuss their professional and personal backgrounds and analyze their divergent strategies to address health inequities. Ferebee used her leadership in Black women's organizations to develop public health programs and become a national advocate for Black health. Alexander, a Quaker, used her religious connections to urge Whites to combat racism in medicine. She also conducted public health research and connected it to health activism. Both were passionate advocates of health equity long before it gained prominence as a major public health issue. An analysis of their work illuminates past efforts to improve the health of Black Americans. PMID:27310348

  15. Assessment of public health impact of work-related asthma

    Jaakkola Maritta S; Jaakkola Jouni JK

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Asthma is among the most common chronic diseases in working-aged populations and occupational exposures are important causal agents. Our aims were to evaluate the best methods to assess occurrence, public health impact, and burden to society related to occupational or work-related asthma and to achieve comparable estimates for different populations. Methods We addressed three central questions: 1: What is the best method to assess the occurrence of occupational asthma? We ...

  16. Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health

    ... Search Find an Academic Program Discover Discover Overview Public health protects and improves the health of individuals, families, ... Services and Natural Disasters Health Disparities Profiles in Public Health Study Study Overview Graduates of CEPH-accredited schools ...

  17. Programmes and calls for public health research in European countries

    Conceição, Claúdia; Grimaud, Olivier; McCarthy, Mark; Barnhoorn, Floris; Sammut, Marvic; Saliba, Amanda; Katreniakova, Zuzana; Narkauskaite, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Public health research, at population and organizational level, needs to be identified independently within 'health' research from biomedicine and life sciences. In PHIRE (Public Health Innovation and Research in Europe), we investigated the extent and character of public health research calls and programmes in European countries. METHODS: Country respondents, identified through national member associations of the European Public Health Association completed a standardi...

  18. Undergraduate Public Health Capstone Course: Teaching Evidence-Based Public Health

    Veronica Eileen Fitzpatrick

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The University at Albany School of Public Health has offered a bachelor of science in public health (BSPH degree for the past seven years. The final requirement of the BSPH degree is a capstone evidence-based public health class designed to cumulate the degree program. This capstone course is framed by identifying a public health problem and creating a literature review based on this problem. The issues are selected through collaboration between the students and instructors. Developmental and analytical tools necessary to complete the literature review are provided throughout the semester. By the end of the course students achieved the necessary competencies and skills to identify a public health problem, analyze information from peer-reviewed literature and synthesize the relationship between a health issue and its correlated outcome. Successes were measured through achievement of core BSPH competencies, quality of final paper and presentation, and qualitative data gleaned from end of semester self-reported student surveys.

  19. Undergraduate Public Health Capstone Course: Teaching Evidence-Based Public Health.

    Fitzpatrick, Veronica Eileen; Mayer, Christen; Sherman, Barry R

    2016-01-01

    The University at Albany School of Public Health has offered a Bachelor of Science in Public Health (BSPH) degree for the past 7 years. The final requirement of the BSPH degree is a capstone evidence-based public health class designed to culminate the degree program. This capstone course is framed by identifying a public health problem and creating a literature review based on this problem. The issues are selected through collaboration between the students and instructors. Developmental and analytical tools necessary to complete the literature review are provided throughout the semester. By the end of the course, students achieve the necessary competencies and skills to identify a public health problem, analyze information from peer-reviewed literature, and synthesize the relationship between a health issue and its correlated outcome. Successes were measured through achievement of core BSPH competencies, quality of final paper and presentation, and qualitative data gleaned from end of semester self-reported student surveys. PMID:27148516

  20. Undergraduate Public Health Capstone Course: Teaching Evidence-Based Public Health

    Fitzpatrick, Veronica Eileen; Mayer, Christen; Sherman, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    The University at Albany School of Public Health has offered a Bachelor of Science in Public Health (BSPH) degree for the past 7 years. The final requirement of the BSPH degree is a capstone evidence-based public health class designed to culminate the degree program. This capstone course is framed by identifying a public health problem and creating a literature review based on this problem. The issues are selected through collaboration between the students and instructors. Developmental and analytical tools necessary to complete the literature review are provided throughout the semester. By the end of the course, students achieve the necessary competencies and skills to identify a public health problem, analyze information from peer-reviewed literature, and synthesize the relationship between a health issue and its correlated outcome. Successes were measured through achievement of core BSPH competencies, quality of final paper and presentation, and qualitative data gleaned from end of semester self-reported student surveys. PMID:27148516

  1. Prevention of non-communicable diseases in Australia: What role should public health law play?

    Mulvany, Kate

    2015-09-01

    This article explores the role of public health law in the prevention of non-communicable diseases in Australia. The growing urgency to address these diseases is acknowledged and the definition of public health law explored. It is argued that a broad definition of public health law would allow greater recognition of the numerous ways that law can positively influence health outcomes at the population level. Far from substantiating claims of over-reaching state intervention, public health law in the 21st century in Australia should be viewed as a more nuanced and protective strategy in promoting better public health. Adopting this approach offers a way forward towards addressing rising rates of non-communicable diseases, as well as significant health inequities, but it will require greater political will and leadership. PMID:26554201

  2. [Transsexuality and public health in Brazil].

    Arán, Márcia; Murta, Daniela; Lionço, Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    The article aims to discuss transsexuality in the context of the Brazilian public health policies. Firstly, it questions the necessity of the diagnosis of Gender Identity Disorder as a condition of access to treatment in the public health service, searching to understand the historical construction of transsexuality as a pathological phenomenon. After that, it analyzes the debate on public health policies for transsexuals, considering the process of legalization of the reassignment surgery in the country, the resolutions of the Federal Council of Medicine and the constitution of representative forums of the Health Ministry, as well as professionals of the area and representatives of the social movement. Finally, considering the references available that emphasizes the critics on the analysis of transsexuality as a pathological phenomenon in the areas of the Public Health and Social Sciences, it intends to emphasize the importance of understanding the diversity of subjectivity's forms and genders construction considering transsexuality. In this context, it discusses the question of transsexuals autonomy and suggests public policies that, even following an assistance protocol, do not have as its only therapeutical reference the accomplishment of the diagnosis and the reassignment surgery. PMID:19721954

  3. The changing global context of public health.

    McMichael, A J; Beaglehole, R

    2000-08-01

    Future health prospects depend increasingly on globalisation processes and on the impact of global environmental change. Economic globalisation--entailng deregulated trade and investment--is a mixed blessing for health. Economic growth and the dissemination of technologies have widely enhanced life expectancy. However, aspects of globalisation are jeopardising health by eroding social and environmental conditions, exacerbating the rich-poor gap, and disseminating consumerism. Global environmental changes reflect the growth of populations and the intensity of economic activity. These changes include altered composition of the atmosphere, land degradation, depletion of terrestrial aquifers and ocean fisheries, and loss of biodiversity. This weakening of life-supporting systems poses health risks. Contemporary public health must therefore encompass the interrelated tasks of reducing social and health inequalities and achieving health-sustaining environments. PMID:10981904

  4. Realising social justice in public health law.

    Fox, Marie; Thomson, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Law has played an important, but largely constitutive, role in the development of the public health enterprise. Thus, law has been central to setting up the institutions and offices of public health. The moral agenda has, however, been shaped to a much greater extent by bioethics. While social justice has been placed at the heart of this agenda, we argue that there has been little place within dominant conceptions of social justice for gender equity and women's interests which we see as crucial to a fully realised vision of social justice. We argue that, aside from particular interventions in the field of reproduction, public health practice tends to marginalise women-a claim we support by critically examining strategies to combat the HIV pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. To counter the marginalisation of women's interests, this article argues that Amartya Sen's capabilities approach has much to contribute to the framing of public health law and policy. Sen's approach provides an evaluative and normative framework which recognises the importance of both gender and health equity to achieving social justice. We suggest that domestic law and international human rights provisions, in particular the emerging human right to health, offer mechanisms to promote capabilities, and foster a robust and inclusive conception of social justice. PMID:23118470

  5. Violence a global public health problem

    Linda L. Dahlberg

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a version of the Introduction to the World Report on Violence and Health, published by the World Health Organization (WHO. It presents a general description about this phenomenon and points some basic questions: concepts and definitions about the theme; the state of knowledge about it; nature and typology on violence; proposal of a quantitative and qualitative approach of an ecological model; responsibilities and functions of the public health sector and its potentiality to prevent and reduce violence in the world; the responsibilities of the nations and the policy makers in a intersetorial point of view; difficulties and obstacles for actuation and challenges for the health sector.

  6. Mapping the health indicators of Chhattisgarh: A public health perspective

    Abhiruchi Galhotra; Gouri Ku Padhy; Anjali Pal; Giri, Anjan K.; Nitin M Nagarkar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The state of Chhattisgarh today faces several challenges in improving the health status of its people. The on-going problems of maternal and child mortality, communicable diseases, and HIV/AIDS pandemic still need greater interventions/support from the already overburdened health systems. In addition, the public health challenges include the escalating burden of chronic noncommunicable diseases. Keeping all these things in mind a study was carried out to have an overview of the ...

  7. Social marketing: its place in public health.

    Ling, J C; Franklin, B A; Lindsteadt, J F; Gearon, S A

    1992-01-01

    This review of the public health role of social marketing begins by tracing the history of social marketing and noting that social marketing adopts the traditional marketing framework of product, price, place, and promotion and embraces several methods of commercial marketing as well as consumer research. However, no universally acknowledged definition exists. A review of the literature is divided into three time periods representing early theoretical development, the evaluation of experiences, and increasing acceptance. Concerns about social marketing are discussed in terms of ethics, disempowerment, and the commercialization of health information. Examples of social marketing are then provided from developing countries and are analyzed in groupings defined as tangible products, sustained health practices, and service utilization. Practitioners' views and concerns are also reviewed. The strengths of social marketing include knowledge of the audience, systematic use of qualitative methods, use of incentives, closer monitoring, strategic use of the mass media, realistic expectations, aspiring to high standards, and recognition of price. Weaknesses of social marketing include its time, money, and human requirements; the fact that marketing elements are missing (public health lacks the flexibility to adjust products and services to clients' interests and preferences); and the potential serious impact on the future of Public Service Announcements, which may die out because social marketers pay for air time. After placing social marketing in context with other practices designed to achieve social change, the review ends with the prediction that the public health role of social marketing is likely to increase. The World Health Organization's recent call for health promotion and the UN Children's Fund's social mobilization actions are provided as examples of this increased role. It is noted, however, that social marketing alone cannot solve public health problems. PMID

  8. A Conceptual Framework of Organizational Capacity for Public Health Equity Action (OC-PHEA).

    Cohen, Benita E; Schultz, Annette; McGibbon, Elizabeth; VanderPlaat, Madine; Bassett, Raewyn; GermAnn, Kathy; Beanlands, Hope; Fuga, Lesley Anne

    2013-01-01

    The Canadian public health sector's foundational values of social justice and equity, and its mandate to promote population health, make it ideally situated to take a strong lead in addressing persistent and unacceptable inequities in health between socially disadvantaged, marginalized or excluded groups and the general population. There is currently much attention paid to improving understanding of pathways to health equity and development of effective population health interventions to reduce health inequities. Strengthening the capacity of the public health sector to develop, implement and sustain equity-focused population health initiatives - including readiness to engage in a social justice-based equity framework for public health - is an equally essential area that has received less attention. Unfortunately, there is evidence that current capacity of the Canadian public health sector to address inequities is highly variable. The first step in developing a sustained approach to improving capacity for health equity action is the identification of what this type of capacity entails. This paper outlines a Conceptual Framework of Organizational Capacity for Public Health Equity Action (OC-PHEA), grounded in the experience of Canadian public health equity champions, that can guide research, dialogue, reflection and action on public health capacity development to achieve health equity goals. PMID:23823893

  9. Project management educational curriculum for public health professionals: development and evaluation

    David Sabapathy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Successful completion of public health projects is critical to achieving population health objectives. However project execution can be challenging due to scarce time and resources, rapidly changing environments and complex stakeholder requirements. To address these challenges physicians and other professionals working in public health need to learn the practical skills of project management. However curricula tailored to project management skill development for public health professionals is not widely available. A one-week curriculum on project management for public health professionals has been developed enabling participants to independently lead small-scale public health projects. This course adapts a private-sector curriculum for use in public health practice and incorporates a unique skill-building teaching method. Evaluation of the initial curriculum delivery at the Weill-Bugando University, Tanzania indicated the majority of students intended to use project management upon return to their positions in public health. Students indicated a lack of a critical mass of public health professionals with required knowledge and skills represents the greatest barrier to integration of project management into public health practice. A unique one-week curriculum in project management has been developed and is being made publicly available. The course will enable physicians and other professionals working in public health to rapidly learn and apply the methodology to the front lines of public health.

  10. Traditional vs. Contemporary Management Control Practices for Developing Public Health Policies

    Naranjo-Gil, David; Sánchez-Expósito, María Jesús; Gómez-Ruiz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Public health policies must address multiple goals and complex community health needs. Recently, management control practices have emerged to provide a broader type of information for evaluating the effectiveness of healthcare policies, and relate activities and processes to multiple strategic outcomes. This study compares the effect of traditional and contemporary management control practices on the achievement of public health policies. It is also analyzed how two different uses of such practices (enabling vs. coercive) facilitate the achievement of public health policies. Relationships are explored using data collected from managers from public health agencies and public hospitals in Spain. The findings show that contemporary management control practices are more suitable than traditional practices to achieve public health policies. Furthermore, results show that public health policies are better achieved when managers use management control practices in an enabling way rather than in a coercive way. PMID:27428985

  11. Traditional vs. Contemporary Management Control Practices for Developing Public Health Policies

    David Naranjo-Gil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Public health policies must address multiple goals and complex community health needs. Recently, management control practices have emerged to provide a broader type of information for evaluating the effectiveness of healthcare policies, and relate activities and processes to multiple strategic outcomes. This study compares the effect of traditional and contemporary management control practices on the achievement of public health policies. It is also analyzed how two different uses of such practices (enabling vs. coercive facilitate the achievement of public health policies. Relationships are explored using data collected from managers from public health agencies and public hospitals in Spain. The findings show that contemporary management control practices are more suitable than traditional practices to achieve public health policies. Furthermore, results show that public health policies are better achieved when managers use management control practices in an enabling way rather than in a coercive way.

  12. Traditional vs. Contemporary Management Control Practices for Developing Public Health Policies.

    Naranjo-Gil, David; Sánchez-Expósito, María Jesús; Gómez-Ruiz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Public health policies must address multiple goals and complex community health needs. Recently, management control practices have emerged to provide a broader type of information for evaluating the effectiveness of healthcare policies, and relate activities and processes to multiple strategic outcomes. This study compares the effect of traditional and contemporary management control practices on the achievement of public health policies. It is also analyzed how two different uses of such practices (enabling vs. coercive) facilitate the achievement of public health policies. Relationships are explored using data collected from managers from public health agencies and public hospitals in Spain. The findings show that contemporary management control practices are more suitable than traditional practices to achieve public health policies. Furthermore, results show that public health policies are better achieved when managers use management control practices in an enabling way rather than in a coercive way. PMID:27428985

  13. Chernobyl: the effects on public health?

    Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Dept. Nucleaire Medecine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  14. Chernobyl: the effects on public health?

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  15. Integrated Approaches for the Public Health Prioritization of Foodborne and Zoonotic Pathogens

    Mangen, Marie-Josée; Batz, Mike; Kassbohrer, Annemarie;

    2010-01-01

    To address the persistent problems of foodborne and zoonotic disease, public health officials worldwide face difficult choices about how to best allocate limited resources and target interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality. Data-driven approaches to informing these decisions have been...... potential use for priority setting of foodborne and zoonotic pathogens in public health policy....

  16. 75 FR 76393 - Notice of Request for a New Information Collection (Public Health Information System)

    2010-12-08

    ... Collection (Public Health Information System) AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... Information System. DATES: Comments on this notice must be received on or before February 7, 2011. ADDRESSES...: Public Health Information System (PHIS). Type of Request: New information collection. Abstract: FSIS...

  17. Public perception of mental health in Iraq

    Al-Hasoon Saad; Bradley Marie; Sadik Sabah; Jenkins Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background People who suffer from mental illness, the professionals who treat them, and indeed the actual concept of mental illness are all stigmatised in public perception and often receive very negative publicity. This paper looks at Iraq, which has a population of 30 million who are mainly Moslem. Mental health services and professionals have historically been sparse in Iraq with 1 psychiatrist per 300,000 before 2003 falling to 1 per million until recently and 1 primary care cent...

  18. Multisectoral studies in Public Health in Ukraine

    Andreeva, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    The second issue of the TCPHEE contains materials presented at the conference ‘Economics, sociology, theory and practice of public health’ conducted in Kiev on April 12-15, 2011. Conference participants were the faculty, doctoral and master students of the School of Public Health (SPH) at the National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy (NaUKMA). Reports were first discussed during the conference and then submitted as conference abstracts for the editorial review. The revised versions were then...

  19. Public trust in Dutch health care.

    Straten, G.F.M.; Friele, R.D.; Groenewegen, P. P.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the development of a valid and reliable instrument to measure different dimensions of public trust in health care in the Netherlands. This instrument is needed because the concept was not well developed,or operationalized in earlier research. The new instrument will be used in a research project to monitor trust and to predict behaviour of people such as consulting ‘‘alternative practitioners’’. The idea for the research was suggested by economic research into public tr...

  20. Postgraduate training in public health medicine: St George's Hospital Medical School Library public health information service.

    Rook, R; Adshead, F

    2001-03-01

    This article examines the development of the St George's Hospital Medical School Library public health information service. Begun in 1997 as a pilot project to support Public Health Specialist Registrars in South Thames West, it is now an established part of postgraduate training in the region. An outline of the service is described, including the evolution of the post of Public Health Librarian. Issues influencing the development of the service, and the establishment of the Librarian as part of the public health network are discussed. This is a transferable model of public health information provision, which as a centralized resource makes best use of available funding. As a LIS model it is an effective and efficient way of maximizing resources, and delivering a service to a specialist user group that is spread across a wide geographical area. PMID:11260291

  1. [Concepts of health education by public health nurses].

    Coscrato, Gisele; Bueno, Sonia Maria Villela

    2013-06-01

    This qualitative study identifies the ideas regarding health education of 12 nurses who are part of the public health service of a city in the São Paulo countryside, and proposes a corresponding educational action. In this study, we used the methodology of action research. Data collection occurred in the second half of 2009 in the public health units of the mentioned municipality. Participant observation and interviews were implemented. The analysis and interpretation of data were conducted through categorization, based on the theory by Paulo Freire. As a result, the reductionism of health education in the pedagogical approach involving the transmission of knowledge was exposed, envisioning a biologicist tendency of academic training. However, in discussion circles, the awakening of political awareness related to the theme and the promotion of health was assumed. In conclusion, there is a need for changes in such training and for the facilitation of new modes of scientific production in the quest for social transformation. PMID:24601151

  2. Acute pesticide poisoning--a global public health problem

    Konradsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning has become a major public health problem worldwide, following the intensification of agriculture and the promotion of agro-chemicals in low and middle income countries, with more than 300,000 deaths each year. The easy availability of highly toxic pesticides in the homes...... of farming communities has made pesticides the preferred means of suicide with an extremely high case fatality. Similarly, the extensive use of pesticides exposes the community to both long-term and acute occupational health problems. A concerted effort is urgently needed to address the situation....

  3. Challenges created by data dissemination and access restrictions when attempting to address community concerns: individual privacy versus public wellbeing

    Colquhoun, Amy; Aplin, Laura; Geary, Janis; Goodman, Karen J; Hatcher, Juanita

    2012-01-01

    Background: Population health data are vital for the identification of public health problems and the development of public health strategies. Challenges arise when attempts are made to disseminate or access anonymised data that are deemed to be potentially identifiable. In these situations, there is debate about whether the protection of an individual’s privacy outweighs potentially beneficial public health initiatives developed using potentially identifiable information. While these issues ...

  4. Childhood obesity: A global public health crisis

    Sameera Karnik; Amar Kanekar

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Childhood obesity is a major public health crisis nationally and internationally. The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased over few years. It is caused by imbalance between calorie intake and calories utilized. One or more factors (genetic, behavioral, and environmental) cause obesity in children. Physical, psychological, and social health problems are caused due to childhood obesity. Hence, effective intervention strategies are being used to prevent and control obesity...

  5. Providing Inclusive Sex Education in Schools Will Address the Health Needs of LGBT Youth

    Sanchez, Marisol

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of programs that incorporate and address the health needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth will help reduce risky behaviors and negative health effects and create safer, more supportive, and more inclusive environments in the nation’s schools.

  6. Climate Services to Improve Public Health

    Michel Jancloes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A high level expert panel discussed how climate and health services could best collaborate to improve public health. This was on the agenda of the recent Third International Climate Services Conference, held in Montego Bay, Jamaica, 4–6 December 2013. Issues and challenges concerning a demand led approach to serve the health sector needs, were identified and analysed. Important recommendations emerged to ensure that innovative collaboration between climate and health services assist decision-making processes and the management of climate-sensitive health risk. Key recommendations included: a move from risk assessment towards risk management; the engagement of the public health community with both the climate sector and development sectors, whose decisions impact on health, particularly the most vulnerable; to increase operational research on the use of policy-relevant climate information to manage climate- sensitive health risks; and to develop in-country capacities to improve local knowledge (including collection of epidemiological, climate and socio-economic data, along with institutional interaction with policy makers.

  7. Governance of Public Benefit Funds to Promote Innovation in Energy by Addressing Early Adopter Risks

    Paterson, Andrew; Oppenheim, Jerrold; Dubravka Pineda, Maria

    2010-09-15

    Building a better energy future will be expensive, in part, because it will require modernizing energy infrastructure and bringing more innovative technologies to deliver energy more efficiently to consumers with less environmental impact. With the extended recession and turmoil in credit markets in 2008, some states have turned to public benefit funds to address critical risks in adopting innovative energy technologies and systems. This paper updates valuable observations for governing PBFs to promote wider adoption of innovative energy technologies enabling a better balance of risk and return in concert with other policy tools by negotiating mitigation of early adopter risks.

  8. Public health problems in the medieval statutes of Croatian Adriatic coastal towns: from public morality to public health.

    Petaros, Anja; Skrobonja, Ante; Culina, Tatjana; Bosnar, Alan; Frkovic, Vedran; Azman, Josip

    2013-06-01

    The article seeks out the regulations about public health in the oldest medieval statutes of fourteen cities of the eastern Croatian Adriatic coast, between the thirteenth and sixteenth century. The research revealed numerous examples of direct or indirect ways of protecting public health. Through the analyzed documents, a noteworthy relationship between public morality and public health can be noted. The described rules are important as a reflection of awareness about public health as a condition of survival and progress in the past. They witness a progressive transition from an original common law into a written law as well as the impact that religion had in influencing people's general opinion and lifestyle in light of public health problems. PMID:21674275

  9. Genomics in Public Health: Perspective from the Office of Public Health Genomics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC

    Ridgely Fisk Green

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The national effort to use genomic knowledge to save lives is gaining momentum, as illustrated by the inclusion of genomics in key public health initiatives, including Healthy People 2020, and the recent launch of the precision medicine initiative. The Office of Public Health Genomics (OPHG at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC partners with state public health departments and others to advance the translation of genome-based discoveries into disease prevention and population health. To do this, OPHG has adopted an “identify, inform, and integrate” model: identify evidence-based genomic applications ready for implementation, inform stakeholders about these applications, and integrate these applications into public health at the local, state, and national level. This paper addresses current and future work at OPHG for integrating genomics into public health programs.

  10. The effects of a public address system on the off-task behavior of elementary physical education students.

    Ryan, Stu; Ormond, Tom; Imwold, Charles; Rotunda, Rob J

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of teacher feedback delivered via a public address system on the off-task behavior of elementary-school physical education students. A multiple baseline design across three classes was used in this investigation. Results indicated a consistent decline in off-task behavior when the public address feedback system was used.

  11. Updating the definition and role of public health nursing to advance and guide the specialty.

    Bekemeier, Betty; Walker Linderman, Tessa; Kneipp, Shawn; Zahner, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    National changes in the context for public health services are influencing the nature of public health nursing practice. Despite this, the document that defines public health nursing as a specialty--The Definition and Role of Public Health Nursing--has remained in wide use since its publication in 1996 without a review or update. With support from the American Public Health Association (APHA) Public Health Nursing Section, a national Task Force, was formed in November 2012 to update the definition of public health nursing, using processes that reflected deliberative democratic principles. A yearlong process was employed that included a modified Delphi technique and various modes of engagement such as online discussion boards, questionnaires, and public comment to review. The resulting 2013 document consisted of a reaffirmation of the one-sentence 1996 definition, while updating supporting documentation to align with the current social, economic, political, and health care context. The 2013 document was strongly endorsed by vote of the APHA Public Health Nursing Section elected leadership. The 2013 definition and document affirm the relevance of a population-focused definition of public health nursing to complex systems addressed in current practice and articulate critical roles of public health nurses (PHN) in these settings. PMID:25284433

  12. Exploring the potential of Web 2.0 to address health disparities.

    Gibbons, M Chris; Fleisher, Linda; Slamon, Rachel E; Bass, Sarah; Kandadai, Venk; Beck, J Robert

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses use of the Internet and Web 2.0 technologies by racial and ethnic minorities and explores the potential opportunities and challenges in leveraging Web 2.0 approaches to impact health disparities. These opportunities and challenges include developing approaches and methods to (a) identify strategies for integrating social media into health promotion interventions focused on major health-related issues that affect members of medically underserved groups; (b) amalgamate techniques to leverage and connect social-media technologies to other evidence-informed online resources; (c) integrate health communication best practices, including addressing health literacy issues; (d) capitalize on social networking to enhance access and communication with health care providers; and (e) advance current efforts and ongoing expansion of research participation by individuals from underserved communities. PMID:21843097

  13. Canada: a land of missed opportunity for addressing the social determinants of health.

    Bryant, Toba; Raphael, Dennis; Schrecker, Ted; Labonte, Ronald

    2011-06-01

    The first 25 years of universal public health insurance in Canada saw major reductions in income-related health inequalities related to conditions most amenable to medical treatment. While equity issues related to health care coverage and access remain important, the social determinants of health (SDH) represent the next frontier for reducing health inequalities, a point reinforced by the work of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health. In this regard, Canada's recent performance suggests a bleak prognosis. Canada's track record since the 1980s in five respects related to social determinants of health: (a) the overall redistributive impact of tax and transfer policies; (b) reduction of family and child poverty; (c) housing policy; (d) early childhood education and care; and (e) urban/metropolitan health policy have reduced Canada's capacity to reduce existing health inequalities. Reasons for this are explored and means of advancing this agenda are outlined. PMID:20888059

  14. Beyond the Golden Era of public health: charting a path from sanitarianism to ecological public health.

    Lang, Tim; Rayner, Geof

    2015-10-01

    The paper considers the long-term trajectory of public health and whether a 'Golden Era' in Public Health might be coming to an end. While successful elements of the 20th century policy approach need still to be applied in the developing world, two significant flaws are now apparent within its core thinking. It assumes that continuing economic growth will generate sufficient wealth to pay for the public health infrastructure and improvement needed in the 21st century when, in reality, externalised costs are spiralling. Secondly, there is evidence of growing mismatch between ecosystems and human progress. While 20th century development has undeniably improved public health, it has also undermined the capacity to maintain life on a sustainable basis and has generated other more negative health consequences. For these and other reasons a rethink about the role, purpose and direction of public health is needed. While health has to be at the heart of any viable notion of progress the dominant policy path offers new versions of the 'health follows wealth' position. The paper posits ecological public health as a radical project to reshape the conditions of existence. Both of these broad paths require different functions and purposes from their institutions, professions and politicians. The paper suggests that eco-systems pressures, including climate change, are already adding to pressure for a change of course. PMID:26427314

  15. Workplace health promotion in the context of public health

    Giuseppe M. Masanotti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In modern societies, work is the source of most individual, corporate and community wealth. The level of each society’s health is therefore particularly vulnerable to disruption caused by employee illness. Today healthy workplaces are one of the most important determinants of health. However, public health has tended to completely ignore health in the workplace and occupational medicine has tended to ignore it in part. This article refers to the Italian and European context and, through a review of international recommendations, research and direct field experiences, presents workplace health promotion as an important tool in the field of public health.

    Through the years, several initiatives have been tested. One of the platforms that has demonstrated to be cost effective is based on the principles included in the Ottawa Charter which, when applied to the workplace, define workplace health promotion. In the last twelve years, the European Commission has recognized the workplace as a key determinant of health and has outlined a methodology of workplace health promotion as defined in the Luxemburg Declaration. The basis of this methodology is planning. Without correct strategy and policy development it will not be possible to create a sustainable society. The enforcement of Lisbon treaty seems to be a substantial step forward for Europe.

  16. Five Critical Challenges for Public Health

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents comments and observations given by Dr. Shiriki K. Kumanyika as the Lautenberg Award Lecture at the commencement of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Rutgers School of Public Health, May 20, 2013. The award is named after Senator Frank Lautenberg, who served as a U.S. Senator from New Jersey during 1982 to…

  17. [The interface between public health and cyberculture].

    Honorato, Eduardo Jorge Sant Ana

    2014-02-01

    This is an opinion piece that proposes a reflection on the current status of the interface between cyberculture and public health and its use as a means for research, not as a mere tool. Cyberculture thus represents a new form of interface between people. And it is precisely "through" and "by means of" social relations that individuals acquire skills and communication techniques. The forms and the means of the relationship alters, but the ends remain unchanged, namely to be in contact with other humans. In recent decades, with the advent of computers, the Internet and all the technological apparatus, human relationships are dependent on them, which is the modern so-called cyberculture. This now affects all areas of activity, and public health cannot be left behind, taking advantage of it and its benefits for its development. It is necessary to keep abreast of these changes and raise them from the theoretical to the practical plane, not only implementing public health policies but also taking the socio-virtual aspects into consideration. It is also necessary for the professionals involved to be updated on new forms of communication, interaction, research methodology, preparation of instruments, sampling approaches and all other phenomena arising from cyberculture that will work in partnership with public health. PMID:24863825

  18. East Africa Public Health Laboratory Networking Project

    Kumar, Meghan; Lehmann, Joel; Rucogoza, Aniceth; Kayobotsi, Claver; Das, Ashis; Schneidman, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the main findings from the application of performance based incentives linked to progress on a standardized, globally recognized metric - the stepwise laboratory improvement process towards accreditation (SLIPTA) checklist - under the East Africa Public Health Laboratory Networking Project (EAPHLNP) in Rwanda. The lab performance-based financing (PBF) pilot was intro...

  19. Public Health Pest Control Category Manual.

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. It presents pest control guidelines for those organisms of public health significance. Fact sheets with line drawings discuss pests such as cockroaches, bedbugs, lice, ants, beetles, bats, birds, and rodents. (CS)

  20. Genetics in public health: Rarely explored

    Aswini Y

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability and the integration of genetic information into our understanding of normal and abnormal growth and development are driving important changes in health care. These changes have fostered the hope that the availability of genetic information will promote a better understanding of disease etiology and permit early, even pre-symptomatic diagnosis and preventive intervention to avoid disease onset. Hence, our aim was to review and provide the insight into the role of genetics in public health and its scope as well as barriers. The use of genetics along with their goals and essential public health functions are discussed. From the era of eugenics to the present era, this area has seen many turns in which geneticists have put through their effort to tie together the strings of both molecular genetics and public health. Though still the dark clouds of eugenics, the predictive power of genes, genetic reductionism, non-modifiable risk factors, individuals or populations, resource allocation, commercial imperative, discrimination and understanding and education are hanging above. The technological and scientific advances that have fundamentally changed our perception of human diseases fuel the expectations for this proactive health.

  1. Public-Private Partnerships In Health

    khalid BOUTI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Extract:The current importance of public debt requires governments to increasingly shift towards Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs. They are long-term contracts of private financing method providing or contributing to public service. The payment is made by the public partner and/or users of the service.The World Health Organization (WHO defines this type of partnership as ‘‘a means to bring together a set of actors for the common goal of improving the health of populations based on mutually agreed roles and principles.’’Historically, the principle of PPP was established by the Private Finance Initiative (PFI, launched by the conservative government of John Major in 1992. It was from this moment that this model quickly spread to the rest of the world. In the mid-90s and from Australia, PPP agreement began to become part of the language of governments. In 1997, Labour with Tony Blair leading, strongly developed this management method, first and particularly in hospitals and then, in the entire public sector and spreading to the Royal Navy. Today, 10-15% of British public investments are made using PFI method....

  2. Education Improves Public Health and Promotes Health Equity

    Hahn, Robert A.; Truman, Benedict I.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a framework and empirical evidence to support the argument that educational programs and policies are crucial public health interventions. Concepts of education and health are developed and linked, and we review a wide range of empirical studies to clarify pathways of linkage and explore implications. Basic educational expertise and skills, including fundamental knowledge, reasoning ability, emotional self-regulation, and interactional abilities, are critical components...

  3. History and evolution of surveillance in public health

    Varun Kumar; Deepak Raut

    2014-01-01

    The modern concept of surveillance has evolved over the centuries. Public health surveillance provides the scientific database essential for decision making and appropriate public health action. It is considered as the best public health tool to prevent the occurrence of epidemics and is the backbone of public health programs and provides information so that effective action can be taken in controlling and preventing diseases of public health importance. This article reviews the history of ev...

  4. Paving Pathways: shaping the Public Health workforce through tertiary education

    Bennett, Catherine M; Lilley, Kathleen; Yeatman, Heather; Parker, Elizabeth; Geelhoed, Elizabeth; Hanna, Elizabeth G.; Robinson, Priscilla

    2010-01-01

    Public health educational pathways in Australia have traditionally been the province of Universities, with the Master of Public Health (MPH) recognised as the flagship professional entry program. Public health education also occurs within the fellowship training of the Faculty of Public Health Medicine, but within Australia this remains confined to medical graduates. In recent years, however, we have seen a proliferation of undergraduate degrees as well as an increasing public health presence...

  5. Distributed data processing for public health surveillance

    Yih Katherine

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many systems for routine public health surveillance rely on centralized collection of potentially identifiable, individual, identifiable personal health information (PHI records. Although individual, identifiable patient records are essential for conditions for which there is mandated reporting, such as tuberculosis or sexually transmitted diseases, they are not routinely required for effective syndromic surveillance. Public concern about the routine collection of large quantities of PHI to support non-traditional public health functions may make alternative surveillance methods that do not rely on centralized identifiable PHI databases increasingly desirable. Methods The National Bioterrorism Syndromic Surveillance Demonstration Program (NDP is an example of one alternative model. All PHI in this system is initially processed within the secured infrastructure of the health care provider that collects and holds the data, using uniform software distributed and supported by the NDP. Only highly aggregated count data is transferred to the datacenter for statistical processing and display. Results Detailed, patient level information is readily available to the health care provider to elucidate signals observed in the aggregated data, or for ad hoc queries. We briefly describe the benefits and disadvantages associated with this distributed processing model for routine automated syndromic surveillance. Conclusion For well-defined surveillance requirements, the model can be successfully deployed with very low risk of inadvertent disclosure of PHI – a feature that may make participation in surveillance systems more feasible for organizations and more appealing to the individuals whose PHI they hold. It is possible to design and implement distributed systems to support non-routine public health needs if required.

  6. The public health leadership certificate: a public health and primary care interprofessional training opportunity.

    Matson, Christine C; Lake, Jeffrey L; Bradshaw, R Dana; Matson, David O

    2014-03-01

    This article describes a public health leadership certificate curriculum developed by the Commonwealth Public Health Training Center for employees in public health and medical trainees in primary care to share didactic and experiential learning. As part of the program, trainees are involved in improving the health of their communities and thus gain a blended perspective on the effectiveness of interprofessional teams in improving population health. The certificate curriculum includes eight one-credit-hour didactic courses offered through an MPH program and a two-credit-hour, community-based participatory research project conducted by teams of trainees under the mentorship of health district directors. Fiscal sustainability is achieved by sharing didactic courses with MPH degree students, thereby enabling trainees to take advantage of a reduced, continuing education tuition rate. Public health employee and primary care trainees jointly learn knowledge and skills required for community health improvement in interprofessional teams and gain an integrated perspective through opportunities to question assumptions and broaden disciplinary approaches. At the same time, the required community projects have benefited public health in Virginia. PMID:24578368

  7. Animal diseases of public health importance.

    Orriss, G. D.

    1997-01-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) interest in emerging diseases caused by foodborne pathogens derives from its role as the leading United Nations agency with a mandate for food quality and safety matters. The Food Quality and Standards Service of FAO's Food and Nutrition Division is active in all areas related to food safety and implements the FAO/World Health Organization Food Standards Program. Its activities include providing assistance to FAO's member nations in addressing pro...

  8. ABORTION IN BRAZIL: IMPACTS OF ILLEGALITY IN PUBLIC HEALTH

    Vanessa Cruz Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abortion in Brazil provides public health impacts, mainly due to the high rate of maternal morbidity and mortality, because it most often occurs in an illegal practice and / or unsafe, because of the illegality of abortion in certain situations in the country. Therefore, it is an issue that refers to the various reflections, such as legal, moral, cultural, socio-economic and bioethical. Given the above, the study aims to address about abortion in Brazil and the impacts of illegality in public health. Study of literature review, descriptive and discursive, held in the database SciELO sites and governmental and non-governmental organizations. It was evident that the illegality of abortion in Brazil is harmful to the health of women who resort to unsafe practices and / or illegal, a violation of human rights, the women’s autonomy, as well as providing public health impacts, and sometimes this actually happens because the deficit in quality of care, specifically to sexual and reproductive health, as the actions of Family Planning. It is considered that the way of abortion in Brazil requires modifications, especially with regard to legislative and bioethics conflicts.

  9. Application of GIS technology in public health: successes and challenges.

    Fletcher-Lartey, Stephanie M; Caprarelli, Graziella

    2016-04-01

    The uptake and acceptance of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology has increased since the early 1990s and public health applications are rapidly expanding. In this paper, we summarize the common uses of GIS technology in the public health sector, emphasizing applications related to mapping and understanding of parasitic diseases. We also present some of the success stories, and discuss the challenges that still prevent a full scope application of GIS technology in the public health context. Geographical analysis has allowed researchers to interlink health, population and environmental data, thus enabling them to evaluate and quantify relationships between health-related variables and environmental risk factors at different geographical scales. The ability to access, share and utilize satellite and remote-sensing data has made possible even wider understanding of disease processes and of their links to the environment, an important consideration in the study of parasitic diseases. For example, disease prevention and control strategies resulting from investigations conducted in a GIS environment have been applied in many areas, particularly in Africa. However, there remain several challenges to a more widespread use of GIS technology, such as: limited access to GIS infrastructure, inadequate technical and analytical skills, and uneven data availability. Opportunities exist for international collaboration to address these limitations through knowledge sharing and governance. PMID:26831619

  10. Using GIS to establish a public library consumer health collection.

    Larue, Elizabeth M

    2004-11-18

    BACKGROUND: Learning the exact demographic characteristics of a neighborhood in which a public library serves, assists the collection development librarian in building an appropriate collection. Gathering that demographic information can be a lengthy process, and then formatting the information for the neighborhood in question becomes arduous.As society ages and the methods for health care evolve, people may take charge of their own health. With this prospectus, public libraries should consider creating a consumer health collection to assist the public in their health care needs. Using neighborhood demographic information can inform the collection development librarians as to the dominant age groups, sex, and races within the neighborhood. With this information, appropriate consumer health materials may be assembled in the public library. METHODS: In order to visualize the demographics of a neighborhood, the computer program ArcView GIS (geographic information systems) was used to create maps for specified areas. The neighborhood data was taken from the U.S. Census Department's annual census and library addresses were accumulated through a free database. After downloading the census block information from http://www.census.gov/geo/www/tiger/ the data was manipulated with ArcView GIS and queried to produce maps displaying the requested neighborhood demographics to view in respect to libraries. RESULTS: ArcView GIS produced maps displaying public libraries and requested demographics. After viewing the maps the collection development librarian can see exactly what populations are served by the library and adjust the library's collection accordingly. CONCLUSIONS: ArcView GIS can be used to produce maps displaying the communities that libraries serve, spot boundaries, be it "man-made or natural," that exist prohibiting customer service, and assist collection development librarians in justifying their purchases for a dedicated consumer health collection or resources in

  11. The right to health, health systems development and public health policy challenges in Chad

    Azétsop, Jacquineau; Ochieng, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background There is increasing consensus that the right to health can provide ethical, policy and practical groundings for health systems development. The goals of the right to health are congruent with those of health systems development, which are about strengthening health promotion organizations and actions so as to improve public health. The poor shape and performance of health systems in Chad question the extent of realization of the right to health. Due to its comprehensiveness and inc...

  12. Health promoting factors in public work places

    Ylva Fjell

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Objectives: The main objective of this study was to explore potential health-promoting work factors and their specific associations with self-rated general and mental health, life satisfaction, and low levels of musculoskeletal pain among women and men employed in the public sector.

    Methods: A questionnaire based survey was conducted among 2523 public employees (87% women in 124 work places. The workplaces were distributed between five occupational sectors: the provincial hospital, schools, home care services, domestic/catering, and administrative services. The response rate was 92%. Analyses of variance were used to compare the mean scores of the groups. Spearman’s rank correlation test was used to assess the associations between the work factors and the health measures.

    Results:Many of the potential health promoting work factors were associated with the measures of self-rated health. However the correlations differed according to both gender and occupational sector. The main differences between the sectors were the characteristics of decision latitude-influence and learningdevelopment with the best conditions in the administrative services and schools, and the worst in home care services. Men rated higher in decision latitude-influence than women and had significantly better “opportunities to learn new and to develop in the profession”. Having enough time to complete the work tasks had the highest overall correlation with good health. In addition good relations with and support of supervisors were crucial for well-being among the employees.

    Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of high levels of decision latitude-influence, learningdevelopment, and a fair and impartial attitude among supervisors for the promotion of good health in public work places.

  13. Understanding public health informatics competencies for mid-tier public health practitioners: a web-based survey.

    Hsu, Chiehwen Ed; Dunn, Kim; Juo, Hsin-Hsuan; Danko, Rick; Johnson, Drew; Mas, Francisco Soto; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye

    2012-03-01

    literature indicating that there exists an expressed need for clarification of the public health practitioner's job-specific informatics competency. Findings of expressed needs for basic computer literacy training and community-based practice were consistent with those of the literature. Additional training and resources should be allocated to address the competency of leadership, management, community-based practice and policy advocacy skills for mid-tier public health practitioners to perform their jobs more effectively. Only when healthcare organizations properly identify PHI competency needs will public health practitioners likely improve their overall informatics skills while improving diversification for contribution across multiple settings. PMID:22447878

  14. GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD CROPS AND PUBLIC HEALTH

    Acosta Orlando

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The progress made in plant biotechnology has provided an opportunity to new food crops being developed having desirable traits for improving crop yield, reducing the use of agrochemicals and adding nutritional properties to staple crops. However, genetically modified (GM crops have become a subject of intense debate in which opponents argue that GM crops represent a threat to individual freedom, the environment, public health and traditional economies. Despite the advances in food crop agriculture, the current world situation is still characterised by massive hunger and chronic malnutrition, representing a major public health problem. Biofortified GM crops have been considered an important and complementary strategy for delivering naturally-fortified staple foods to malnourished populations. Expert advice and public concern have led to designing strategies for assessing the potential risks involved in cultivating and consuming GM crops. The present critical review was aimed at expressing some conflicting points of view about the potential risks of GM crops for public health. It was concluded that GM food crops are no more risky than those genetically modified by conventional methods and that these GM crops might contribute towards reducing the amount of malnourished people around the world. However, all this needs to be complemented by effective political action aimed at increasing the income of people living below the poverty-line.

  15. Disasters and their consequences for public health.

    Giorgadze, T; Maisuradze, I; Japaridze, A; Utiashvili, Z; Abesadze, G

    2011-05-01

    Humanitarian emergencies, including natural and human-made disasters, conflicts and complex emergencies, constitute what has traditionally been considered the main threat to health security worldwide. Each year millions of people are affected by natural and man-made disasters around the world. Tornados, hurricanes, heavy rains and earthquakes resulted in tens of thousands of deaths and many more affected. Indeed, disasters would not be disastrous if it were not for their effect on the human population. Links between the natural environment and human health have been suggested for centuries. Disasters throughout history have had significant impact on the numbers, health status and life style of populations. It induce: Deaths, Severe injuries, requiring extensive treatments, Increased risk of communicable diseases, Damage to the health facilities, Damage to the water systems, Food shortage, Population movements. The authors focused on the natural disasters, caused by natural forces rather than by acts associated with human behavior and that affect a large population in a widespread geographic region. Describing the general effects of disasters on health, it does not pretend to cover every contingency. Review of recent literature on humanitarian emergencies has shown that the public health consequences of natural disasters are complex. Disasters directly impact the health of the population resulting in physical trauma, acute disease and emotional trauma. In addition, disasters may increase the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic disease and infectious disease through the impact on the health care system. PMID:21685525

  16. 75 FR 33983 - Establishing the National Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public Health Council

    2010-06-16

    ... National Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public Health Council By the authority vested in me as President... National Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public Health Council (Council). Sec. 2. Membership. (a) The..., wellness, and health promotion practices, the public health system, and integrative health care in...

  17. Public school teachers’ perceptions about mental health

    Amanda Gonçalves Simões Soares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To examine public school teachers’ perceptions about general health and mental health, and the way in which they obtained this information. METHODS Qualitative research was conducted with 31 primary and secondary school teachers at a state school in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The teachers responded to a questionnaire containing open-ended questions about mental health and general health. The following aspects were evaluated: Teachers’ understanding of the terms “health and “mental health,” the relevance of the need for information on the subject, the method preferred for obtaining information, their experience with different media regarding such matters, and perceptions about the extent to which this available information is sufficient to support their practice. The data were processed using the Qualiquantisoft software and analyzed according to the Discourse of the Collective Subject technique. RESULTS From the teachers’ perspective, general health is defined as the proper physiological functioning of the body and mental health is related to the balance between mind and body, as a requirement for happiness. Most of the teachers (80.6% showed great interest in acquiring knowledge about mental health and receiving educational materials on the subject. For these teachers, the lack of information creates insecurity and complicates the management of everyday situations involving mental disorders. For 61.3% of the teachers, television is the medium that provides the most information on the topic. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that there is little information available on mental health for teachers, showing that strategies need to be developed to promote mental health in schools.

  18. Procedures for the ethical review of public health surveillance protocols

    Carlo Petrini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present commentary is based on the following considerations: 1 for the purposes of authorisation, a distinction is drawn between "research" and "intervention". The procedures for authorising the former are more complex, the relevant controls are stricter and approval has to be granted by a Research Ethics Committee (REC; 2 although the debate is still open, it is barely credible to claim that public health surveillance is not a form of research. It should, therefore, be subject to rigorous ethical assessment; 3 when addressing specifically the issue of surveillance, it would be appropriate to shift the focus of attention from the type of procedure (research/intervention to the risk implied in that procedure; 4 much emphasis has hitherto been placed on the risks that public health surveillance may imply for the protection of personal data; 5 the emphasis on the protection of personal data is frequently excessive and the risks should be examined in a broader context.

  19. Multisectoral studies in Public Health in Ukraine

    Andreeva, Tatiana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The second issue of the TCPHEE contains materials presented at the conference ‘Economics, sociology, theory and practice of public health’ conducted in Kiev on April 12-15, 2011. Conference participants were the faculty, doctoral and master students of the School of Public Health (SPH at the National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy (NaUKMA. Reports were first discussed during the conference and then submitted as conference abstracts for the editorial review. The revised versions were then peer-reviewed and were subject to editorial approval again.

  20. Enlightened publics for public health: assessing disease in colonial Mexico.

    Ramírez, Paul

    2013-03-01

    In the eighteenth century, a new genre of periodical literature appeared from Mexico City's presses that focused on disseminating scientific and medical knowledge to the colonial public. In part a natural extension of the healing manuals published for laypeople in previous centuries, the journals sought to introduce quantitative methods of environmental study and control and to expand the sphere of those residents who would take responsibility for their health. This article examines the content and format of these journals before turning to the response of urban publics during outbreaks of epidemics, when the broader social participation envisioned by enlightenment men of letters came to fruition through pasquinades and rumors conveying dissent, skepticism, and protest. PMID:23369446

  1. Urban planning and public health at CDC.

    Kochtitzky, Chris S; Frumkin, H; Rodriguez, R; Dannenberg, A L; Rayman, J; Rose, K; Gillig, R; Kanter, T

    2006-12-22

    Urban planning, also called city and regional planning, is a multidisciplinary field in which professionals work to improve the welfare of persons and communities by creating more convenient, equitable, healthful, efficient, and attractive places now and for the future. The centerpiece of urban planning activities is a "master plan," which can take many forms, including comprehensive plans, neighborhood plans, community action plans, regulatory and incentive strategies, economic development plans, and disaster preparedness plans. Traditionally, these plans include assessing and planning for community needs in some or all of the following areas: transportation, housing, commercial/office buildings, natural resource utilization, environmental protection, and health-care infrastructure. Urban planning and public health share common missions and perspectives. Both aim to improve human well-being, emphasize needs assessment and service delivery, manage complex social systems, focus at the population level, and rely on community-based participatory methods. Both fields focus on the needs of vulnerable populations. Throughout their development, both fields have broadened their perspectives. Initially, public health most often used a biomedical model (examining normal/abnormal functioning of the human organism), and urban planning often relied on a geographic model (analysis of human needs or interactions in a spatial context). However, both fields have expanded their tools and perspectives, in part because of the influence of the other. Urban planning and public health have been intertwined for most of their histories. In 1854, British physician John Snow used geographic mapping of an outbreak of cholera in London to identify a public water pump as the outbreak's source. Geographic analysis is a key planning tool shared by urban planning and public health. In the mid-1800s, planners such as Frederick Law Olmsted bridged the gap between the fields by advancing the concept

  2. Evaluation of Public Health Response to Hurricanes Finds North Carolina Better Prepared for Public Health Emergencies

    Mary, V. Davis

    2007-01-01

    Reviews of state public health preparedness improvements have been primarily limited to measuring funds expenditures and achievement of cooperative agreement benchmarks. Such reviews fail to assess states' actual capacity for meeting the challenges they may face during an emergency, as evidenced by activities undertaken during the various phases of a disaster. This article examines North Carolina's public health preparedness and response performance during two hurricanes, Hurricane Floyd in 1...

  3. Returns on investment in public health: effect of public health expenditures on infant health, 1983-1990.

    Becker, E R; Principe, K; Adams, E K; Teutsch, S M

    1998-01-01

    In this study, we developed a broad conceptual framework focusing on how public health expenditures impact the nation's health. We then applied this framework to infant health outcomes and, using an eight-year state panel database, empirically analyzed how state public health expenditures, ceteris paribus, impact a state's level of teenage births and the receipt of prenatal care. Two hypotheses were tested. Hypothesis 1 states that over time, public health expenditures and public health activities, ceteris paribus, significantly decrease births to mothers less than 20 years of age. Hypothesis 2 states that over time, public health expenditures and public health activities, ceteris paribus, significantly decrease the number of infants whose mothers received late or no prenatal care. We find support for both hypotheses but observe that the way public health expenditures are measured has an impact on the findings. Other important implications of the study are noted. To our knowledge, this is the first article that has taken an aggregate state perspective over time and applied it to specific measures of infant health. PMID:9718507

  4. Zika Virus: Implications for Public Health.

    Focosi, Daniele; Maggi, Fabrizio; Pistello, Mauro

    2016-07-15

    The World Health Organization has declared the current Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic a public health emergency of international concern. Lack of vaccines and reliable diagnostic tests, broad geographical distribution of mosquito species that can transmit the virus, and absence of population immunity in newly affected countries are causes for concern. Although most infected persons are asymptomatic, ZIKV has been associated with a rise in cases of neurological complications and fetal central nervous system malformations. This defines such an arbovirus as something whose transmission should be prevented. This review summarizes the current understanding of ZIKV biology and epidemiology, as well as possible interventions to prevent contagion and transmission. PMID:27048745

  5. Social Media in Public Health Care

    Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony; Zinner Henriksen, Helle

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impacts of social media use in Danish public health care with respect to capabilities, interactions, orientations, and value distribution. Taking an exploratory approach, the paper draws on an array of quantitative and qualitative data, and puts forward four propositions......: social media transform the access to health-related information for patients and general practitioners, the uptake of social media can be a cost driver rather than a cost saver, social media provide empowerment to patients, and the uptake of social media is hindered by legal and privacy concerns....

  6. Obesity - an acknowledged public health challenge

    Public Health Agency

    2011-01-01

    As we face a difficult economic climate, in which inequalities may worsen, the PHA faces many challenges in its efforts to improve the health of the population. One such challenge is the issue of obesity. Recently, in the Draft Programme for Government and, again today, in anticipation of the publication of the Consultation on the Review of Health and Social Care Services in Northern Ireland, the specific issue of obesity has been highlighted in the media.The PHA is committed to playing a lea...

  7. [The ALANAM statement on public health policy].

    Goic, Alejando; Armas, Rodolfo

    2010-12-01

    The ALANAM (Association of Latin American National Academies of Medicine) statement on public health policy, issued following its 19th Congress, held October 28–30, 2010, in Santiago, Chile, declares that cardiovascular diseases, cancer, accidents and violence are the leading causes of death in the region, while in several of its member nations, emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases, malnutrition, and mother-child illnesses remain prevalent. The statement calls attention to the lack of functioning water supply and sewage systems in many villages and rural areas. After describing the social causes of the present state of public health in Latin America (poverty levels reaching upwards of 44% of the total population, or some 110 million people), it calls on governments, first, to spare no efforts in the task of eradicating extreme poverty in the short-term, and poverty in the long-term. Second, considering that about 15 million 3-to-6 year-olds have no access to education, it recommends extending educational services to these children, and to improve the quality of existing pre-school and primary education. Third, the statement calls for universal health care coverage and for equal access to good quality medical care for everyone, and for programs aimed at promoting healthy personal habits and self-care. In this regard, it also recommends that disease prevention programs be sustained over time, that national sanitary objectives be defined, and that its results be periodically reviewed. Fourth, it recommends that primary health care be extended to everyone, and that it be enhanced by improving coverage and coordination with secondary and tertiary level health care institutions. The statement lays special stress on the need for adopting public health policies aimed at lowering the cost of medicines; to this end, it calls for the creation of an official list of generic drugs. The statement ends by calling on governments to support public health research as a

  8. Vaccinations: A public health triumph and a public relations tragedy.

    Jacobson, Robert M

    2012-08-01

    Routine vaccination has been hailed as one of the top public health achievements of the last century. However, despite the reduced number of cases of and deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases such as pertussis and measles, outbreaks continue to occur as more parents fail to adequately vaccinate their children because of misinformation about immunizations. This article describes the challenges of making sure all children in the United States are fully immunized and what physicians need to know to effectively work with parents who may be hesitant to vaccinate their children. PMID:22953473

  9. Politics Related to the Strategy for Public Health Decentralization in Romania

    Valentina Alina DOBREA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article “Policy proposals for public health decentralization in Romania” presents a briefing of the conceptual framework for public health (PH decentralization and formulates certain recommendations regarding policy alternatives for PH decentralization in Romania. Mainly addressed to health decision makers and PH professionals; the issue is approached through the following: PH core functions; conceptual framework for decentralization; proposals and concludingremarks for PH decentralization in Romania.

  10. Security and Health Research Databases: The Stakeholders and Questions to Be Addressed

    Stewart, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Health research database security issues abound. Issues include subject confidentiality, data ownership, data integrity and data accessibility. There are also various stakeholders in database security. Each of these stakeholders has a different set of concerns and responsibilities when dealing with security issues. There is an obvious need for training in security issues, so that these issues may be addressed and health research will move on without added obstacles based on misunderstanding s...

  11. Enhancing readiness of health profession students to address tobacco cessation with patients through online training

    Anne Maynard; Maripat Metcalf; Lyla Hance

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate effectiveness of an online training program in preparing health care students to address tobacco use with patients. Methods: The program was evaluated on knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, intended behavior, and user satisfaction. Participants consisted of 4,180 medical, nursing, dentistry, pharmacy, and other allied health professions students. Multiple choice questions assessed knowledge before and after the educational experience. Likert scales were used for self-r...

  12. Massive Open Online Courses in Public Health

    Gooding, Ira; Klaas, Brian; Yager, James D.; Kanchanaraksa, Sukon

    2013-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) represent a new and potentially transformative model for providing educational opportunities to learners not enrolled in a formal educational program. The authors describe the experience of developing and offering eight MOOCs on a variety of public health topics. Existing institutional infrastructure and experience with both for-credit online education and open educational resources mitigated the institutional risk and resource requirements. Although learners are able to enroll easily and freely and do so in large numbers, there is considerable variety in the level of participation and engagement among enrollees. As a result, comprehensive and accurate assessment of meaningful learning progress remains a major challenge for evaluating the effectiveness of MOOCs for providing public health education. PMID:24350228

  13. Massive open online courses in public health.

    Gooding, Ira; Klaas, Brian; Yager, James D; Kanchanaraksa, Sukon

    2013-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) represent a new and potentially transformative model for providing educational opportunities to learners not enrolled in a formal educational program. The authors describe the experience of developing and offering eight MOOCs on a variety of public health topics. Existing institutional infrastructure and experience with both for-credit online education and open educational resources mitigated the institutional risk and resource requirements. Although learners are able to enroll easily and freely and do so in large numbers, there is considerable variety in the level of participation and engagement among enrollees. As a result, comprehensive and accurate assessment of meaningful learning progress remains a major challenge for evaluating the effectiveness of MOOCs for providing public health education. PMID:24350228

  14. Public Health, Embodied History, and Social Justice: Looking Forward.

    Krieger, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    This essay was delivered as a commencement address at the University of California-Berkeley School of Public Health on May 17, 2015. Reflecting on events spanning from 1990 to 1999 to 2015, when I gave my first, second, and third commencement talks at the school, I discuss four notable features of our present era and offer five insights for ensuring that health equity be the guiding star to orient us all. The four notable features are: (1) growing recognition of the planetary emergency of global climate change; (2) almost daily headlines about armed conflicts and atrocities; (3) growing public awareness of and debate about epic levels of income and wealth inequalities; and (4) growing activism about police killings and, more broadly, "Black Lives Matter." The five insights are: (1) public health is a public good, not a commodity; (2) the "tragedy of the commons" is a canard; the lack of a common good is what ails us; (3) good science is not enough, and bad science is harmful; (4) good evidence--however vital--is not enough to change the world; and (5) history is vital, because we live our history, embodied. Our goal: a just and sustainable world in which we and every being on this planet may truly thrive. PMID:26182941

  15. Heat Waves: The Intersection of Climate and Public Health

    Schindler, J. V.; Grant, F.

    2011-12-01

    Heat waves are deadly weather-related exposures in the U.S. and account for more deaths annually than hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, and earthquakes combined. From a public health perspective, all morbidity and mortality associated with extreme heat events are completely preventable. Related environmental events that can impact health-poor air quality, concentrations of greenhouse gases, and the inability to cool at night-are all expected to increase in severity and frequency over this next century. Northrop Grumman's active program of climate science combines inputs from public health, population health analytics, advanced agent-based modeling and simulation, and high performance computing to assist the characterization of how climate change impacts human health in specific geographies. In this study, we defined heat waves as 3+ consecutive days when the high temperature is 10+ degrees (Fahrenheit) higher than the mean summer high temperature. To address current deficiencies in local planning and decision making with respect to regional climate change and its effect on human health, our research focused on performing a dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to develop decision aids that translate the regional climate data into actionable information for users. WRF was run in nested mode at spatial resolution of 108 km, 36 km and 12 km and 28 vertical levels. We used WRF simulated temperatures at 2 meters above the surface to calculate the annual average number of days spent in heat waves. Our results indicated a significant increase in heat wave episodes-a direct consequence of steadily increasing maximum temperatures in the future. Our discussion continues with clarification of how public health must become integral to future community, civic, healthcare, and emergency preparedness planning. While continued growth in the number of persons living in urban areas will result in increased exposure to heat-related health risks

  16. Zika Virus: An Emerging Public Health Challenge

    Sumeena Basundra; Hiremath, Ravishekar N; Rakesh Khajuria; Sandhya Ghodke

    2016-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases comprise a substantial proportion of global morbidity and mortality. The world has been hit by Zika virus (ZIKV) after it was able to surmount an effective public health response for its control. ZIKV disease is an emerging mosquitoborne disease which occurred as large outbreaks in Yap since 2007, Polynesia in 2013 and Brazil in 2015. ZIKV infection in pregnant women has been observed to be associated with congenital microcephaly with ne...

  17. Genetically modified food crops and public health

    Acosta Orlando; Chaparro Giraldo Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    The progress made in plant biotechnology has provided an opportunity to new food crops being developed having desirable traits for improving crop yield, reducing the use of agrochemicals and adding nutritional properties to staple crops. However, genetically modified (GM) crops have become a subject of intense debate in which opponents argue that GM crops represent a threat to individual freedom, the environment, public health and traditional economies. Despite the advances in food crop agric...

  18. Air pollution, public health, and inflation

    Ostro, Bart David

    1980-01-01

    Since the passage of the environmental legislation in the early 1970's, critics have attacked these laws as being unnecessary and for contributing significantly to the problem of inflation in the United States. This paper is an attempt to put the inflationary costs of air pollution into perspective by considering them in light of the cost, especially to public health, of not proceeding with pollution control. There is now a great deal of evidence that the concentration of certain pollutants i...

  19. Five Classic Articles in Public Health

    Borak, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    In this brief review, Dr. Jonathan Borak comments on five seminal papers that helped shape the fields of epidemiology and public health. These papers include Hill’s criteria for inferring causality; the first proof of the multistage theory of cancer; the first evidence that subclinical lead exposures can cause neurobehavioral impairment in children; a simple yet robust study that had a major influence on setting current air pollution policies; and a landmark review of the general public’s per...

  20. Glossary of terms for public health genomics

    Nicole Rosenkötter

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In this Glossary the secretariat of PHGEN has compiled some of the terms relevant to Public Health Genomics. A more extensive version of this glossary can be found on the PHGEN-website www.phgen.eu.

  1. Food Safety Informatics: A Public Health Imperative

    Tucker, Cynthia A.; Larkin, Stephanie N.; Akers, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    To date, little has been written about the implementation of utilizing food safety informatics as a technological tool to protect consumers, in real-time, against foodborne illnesses. Food safety outbreaks have become a major public health problem, causing an estimated 48 million illnesses, 128,000 hospitalizations, and 3,000 deaths in the U.S. each year. Yet, government inspectors/regulators that monitor foodservice operations struggle with how to collect, organize, and analyze data; impleme...

  2. Massive Open Online Courses in Public Health

    Gooding, Ira; Klaas, Brian; Yager, James D.; Kanchanaraksa, Sukon

    2013-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) represent a new and potentially transformative model for providing educational opportunities to learners not enrolled in a formal educational program. The authors describe the experience of developing and offering eight MOOCs on a variety of public health topics. Existing institutional infrastructure and experience with both for-credit online education and open educational resources mitigated the institutional risk and resource requirements. Although learne...

  3. Who Pays for Public Employee Health Costs?

    Jeffrey Clemens; Cutler, David M.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the incidence of public-employee health benefits. Because these benefits are negotiated through the political process, relevant labor market institutions deviate significantly from the competitive, private-sector benchmark. Empirically, we find that roughly 15 percent of the cost of recent benefit growth was passed onto school district employees through reductions in wages and salaries. Strong teachers' unions were associated with relatively strong linkages between benefit growth a...

  4. Child Homicide: A Global Public Health Concern

    Naeemah Abrahams; Shanaaz Mathews; Martin, Lorna J.; Carl Lombard; Nadine Nannan; Rachel Jewkes

    2016-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Child mortality (death) is a global public health concern. In 2015, 5.9 million children (43 out of every 1,000 children born alive) died before their fifth birthday. Nearly half of these deaths occurred among neonates (babies 28 days old or younger); three-quarters of them occurred among infants (children less than one year old). Most of these deaths happened in resource-limited countries following delivery complications, infections, and other natural causes. Some...

  5. Radiation and occupational health: keynote address: the impact of radiation on health

    The part of address discusses the following issue: sources of exposure, effects of ionizing radiations, deterministic effects, stochastic effects, in utero exposure, recommendations of radiation protection: principles, practices, intervention, radiation protection in practices

  6. A public health physician named Walter Leser.

    Mello, Guilherme Arantes; Bonfim, José Ruben de Alcântara

    2015-09-01

    A brief review of the career of the public health physician Walter Sidney Pereira Leser, who died in 2004 aged 94. Self-taught, from his 1933 doctoral thesis he became a country reference in the field of statistics and epidemiology, with dozens of studies and supervisions. In the clinical field he is one of the founders of Fleury Laboratory, and participates in the creation of CREMESP. As an academic, Leser was a professor at the Escola de Sociologia e Política de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina e Faculdade de Farmácia e Odontologia da USP. Also, Leser introduced objective tests in the college entrance examination, and led the creation of CESCEM and Carlos Chagas Foundation. In the Escola Paulista de Medicina he created the first Preventive Medicine Department of the country. As a public official, he was secretary of the State Department of Health of São Paulo between 1967 and 1971 and between 1975 and 1979, responsible for extensive reforms and innovations. Among the most remembered, the creation of sanitary medical career. Throughout this legacy, he lent his name to the "Medal of Honor and Merit Public Health Management" of the State of São Paulo. PMID:26331506

  7. Impact of leishmaniasis on public health

    L. B Camargo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania transmitted by insects known as phlebotomines, which are found in wild or urban environments. It affects domestic and wild animals and transmission to man happens by accident. The disease occurs in tropical and sub-tropical areas, mainly in Asia, Europe, Africa, and the Americas. There are two forms that affect man: American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL and American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL. The latter is caused by three species of Leishmania: Leishmania (Leishmania donovani, Leishmania (Leishmania infantum, and Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi, which are grouped in the Leishmania (Leishmania donovani complex. Wild reservoir hosts of L. chagasi known so far are foxes and marsupials. In domestic environment, dogs are the most important reservoir hosts and sources of infection to the vectors Lutzomyia longipalpis. Leishmaniasis is difficult to control, causing epidemic outbreaks, thus being an important public health problem. Due to lesions caused by the mucocutaneous type and the severity of those caused by the visceral type in humans, visceral leishmaniasis is one of the main public health concerns. This paper is part of the monograph presented at the end of the residency program in the field of Zoonosis and Public Health at the School of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, São Paulo State University, UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2005.

  8. Public health implications of wireless technologies.

    Sage, Cindy; Carpenter, David O

    2009-08-01

    Global exposures to emerging wireless technologies from applications including mobile phones, cordless phones, DECT phones, WI-FI, WLAN, WiMAX, wireless internet, baby monitors, and others may present serious public health consequences. Evidence supporting a public health risk is documented in the BioInitiative Report. New, biologically based public exposure standards for chronic exposure to low-intensity exposures are warranted. Existing safety standards are obsolete because they are based solely on thermal effects from acute exposures. The rapidly expanding development of new wireless technologies and the long latency for the development of such serious diseases as brain cancers means that failure to take immediate action to reduce risks may result in an epidemic of potentially fatal diseases in the future. Regardless of whether or not the associations are causal, the strengths of the associations are sufficiently strong that in the opinion of the authors, taking action to reduce exposures is imperative, especially for the fetus and children. Such action is fully compatible with the precautionary principle, as enunciated by the Rio Declaration, the European Constitution Principle on Health (Section 3.1) and the European Union Treaties Article 174. PMID:19285839

  9. Dementia and Its Implications for Public Health

    Robert F. Anda, MD, MS

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionWith the aging of the U.S. population, a better understanding of the presentation and impact of dementia is essential to the future of public health. Dementia refers not to a single disorder but to a number of syndromes characterized by diverse behavioral, cognitive, and emotional impairments. Because dementia is costly in terms of both personal suffering and economic loss, an understanding of its prevalence, risk factors, and potential interventions is emerging as an increasingly important facet of public health and health care delivery. Recent advances in the understanding of its presentation, course, and relevant interventions have taken place.MethodsWe identified articles for review primarily by conducting a Medline search using the subject headings dementia, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and Lewy body dementia. Other relevant studies were elicited through a Medline search using the subject headings mental disorders and stigma. ResultsDementia represents a diverse category of syndromes characterized by deficits in memory, cognitive function, and behavior. Symptoms associated with dementia appear to be distributed along a continuum, with even subsyndromal presentations affecting the health of older adults and meriting intervention. To promote cognitive functioning and independence among older adults, public health interventions need to facilitate both early detection and treatment of dementia. The availability of adult day care and respite services is important in maintaining the health and quality of life of individuals caring for older adults with dementia. Recent advances in the treatment of dementia may slow the course of cognitive decline, thereby enhancing the quality of life of older individuals as well as decreasing costs associated with institutional care.ConclusionDespite the growing availability of pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions that are

  10. Climate change and Public health: vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation

    Guzzone, F.; Setegn, S.

    2013-12-01

    Climate Change plays a significant role in public health. Changes in climate affect weather conditions that we are accustomed to. Increases in the frequency or severity of extreme weather events such as storms could increase the risk of dangerous flooding, high winds, and other direct threats to people and property. Changes in temperature, precipitation patterns, and extreme events could enhance the spread of some diseases. According to studies by EPA, the impacts of climate change on health will depend on many factors. These factors include the effectiveness of a community's public health and safety systems to address or prepare for the risk and the behavior, age, gender, and economic status of individuals affected. Impacts will likely vary by region, the sensitivity of populations, the extent and length of exposure to climate change impacts, and society's ability to adapt to change. Transmissions of infectious disease have been associated with social, economic, ecological, health care access, and climatic factors. Some vector-borne diseases typically exhibit seasonal patterns in which the role of temperature and rainfall is well documented. Some of the infectious diseases that have been documented by previous studies, include the correlation between rainfall and drought in the occurrence of malaria, the influence of the dry season on epidemic meningococcal disease in the sub-Saharan African, and the importance of warm ocean waters in driving cholera occurrence in the Ganges River delta in Asia The rise of climate change has been a major concern in the public health sector. Climate change mainly affects vulnerable populations especially in developing countries; therefore, it's important that public health advocates are involve in the decision-making process in order to provide resources and preventative measures for the challenges that are associated with climate change. The main objective of this study is to assess the vulnerability and impact of climate change

  11. Full-Range Public Health Leadership, Part 1: Quantitative Analysis

    Carlton, Erik L.; Holsinger, James W.; Riddell, Martha; Bush, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Background Workforce and leadership development are central to the future of public health. However, public health has been slow to translate and apply leadership models from other professions and to incorporate local perspectives in understanding public health leadership. Purpose This study utilized the full-range leadership model in order to examine public health leadership. Specifically, it sought to measure leadership styles among local health department directors and to unders...

  12. Full-Range Public Health Leadership, Part 1: Quantitative Analysis

    Carlton, Erik L.; Holsinger, James W.; Martha eRiddell; Heather eBush

    2015-01-01

    Background. Workforce and leadership development are central to the future of public health. However, public health has been slow to translate and apply leadership models from other professions and to incorporate local perspectives in understanding public health leadership. Purpose. This study utilized the full-range leadership model in order to examine public health leadership. Specifically, it sought to measure leadership styles among local health department directors and to understand the ...

  13. Addressing Agricultural Issues in Health Care Education: An Occupational Therapy Curriculum Program Description

    Smallfield, Stacy; Anderson, Angela J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Medical and allied health professionals who work in agricultural states frequently address the needs of clients who live and work in rural and frontier environments. The primary occupations of those living in rural areas include farming, ranching, or other agriculture-related work. Farming is consistently ranked as one of the most…

  14. Proceedings of the public meeting to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda. Volume 2. Science projection papers

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 14 science projection papers presented at a public meeting on March 10-11, 1980 to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda into the biological effects of ionizing radiation

  15. Soil: A Public Health Threat or Savior

    IL Pepper; CP Gerba; DT Newby; CW Rice

    2009-05-01

    Soil is the most complicated biomaterial on the planet due to complex soil architecture and billions of soil microbes with extreme biotic diversity. Soil is potentially a source of human pathogens, which can be defined as geo-indigenous, geo-transportable, or geotreatable. Such pathogens cumulatively can and do result in multiple human fatalities annually. A striking example is Helminths, with current infections worldwide estimated to be around two billion. However, soil can also be a source of antibiotics and other natural products that enhance human health. Soilborne antibiotics are used to treat human infections, but can also result in antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Natural products isolated from soil resulted in 60% of new cancer drugs between the period 1983–1994. Soils are also crucial to human health through their impact on human nutrition. Finally, from a global perspective, soils are vital to the future well-being of nations through their impact on climate change and global warming. A critical review of soil with respect to public health leads to the conclusion that overall soil is a public health savior. The value of soil using a systems approach is estimated to be $20 trillion, and is by far the most valuable ecosystem in the world.

  16. Public health aspects of food irradiation

    Kaferstein, F. [Director, Programme of Food Safety and Food Aid, WHO, CH-1211, Geneva 27, (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    Post-harvest losses due to sprouting, insect infestation and spoilage by microorganisms is a serious problem in many countries and commonly aggravates the problem of food shortages. In addition, many developing countries also depend largely on agricultural produce, such as grain, tuber and tropical fruit, as major export crops to earn foreign exchange. The use of ionizing radiation as an effective means of disinfecting and/or prolonging the self-life of several food products has been well documented in a number of developing countries. The World health organization (WHO) encourages its Member States to consider all measures to eliminate or reduce food borne pathogens in food and improve their supplies of safe and nutritious food. In regard to its contribution to food safety, food irradiation may be one of the most significant contributions to public health to be made by food science and technology since the introduction of pasteurization. Because the promotion of a safe, nutritious and adequate food supply is an essential component of its primary health care strategy, WHO is concerned that the unwarranted rejection or limitation of this process may endanger public health and deprive consumers of the choice of foods processed for safety. (Author)

  17. Public health aspects of food irradiation

    Post-harvest losses due to sprouting, insect infestation and spoilage by microorganisms is a serious problem in many countries and commonly aggravates the problem of food shortages. In addition, many developing countries also depend largely on agricultural produce, such as grain, tuber and tropical fruit, as major export crops to earn foreign exchange. The use of ionizing radiation as an effective means of disinfecting and/or prolonging the self-life of several food products has been well documented in a number of developing countries. The World health organization (WHO) encourages its Member States to consider all measures to eliminate or reduce food borne pathogens in food and improve their supplies of safe and nutritious food. In regard to its contribution to food safety, food irradiation may be one of the most significant contributions to public health to be made by food science and technology since the introduction of pasteurization. Because the promotion of a safe, nutritious and adequate food supply is an essential component of its primary health care strategy, WHO is concerned that the unwarranted rejection or limitation of this process may endanger public health and deprive consumers of the choice of foods processed for safety. (Author)

  18. Health care voluntourism: addressing ethical concerns of undergraduate student participation in global health volunteer work.

    McCall, Daniel; Iltis, Ana S

    2014-12-01

    The popularity and availability of global health experiences has increased, with organizations helping groups plan service trips and companies specializing in "voluntourism," health care professionals volunteering their services through different organizations, and medical students participating in global health electives. Much has been written about global health experiences in resource poor settings, but the literature focuses primarily on the work of health care professionals and medical students. This paper focuses on undergraduate student involvement in short term medical volunteer work in resource poor countries, a practice that has become popular among pre-health professions students. We argue that the participation of undergraduate students in global health experiences raises many of the ethical concerns associated with voluntourism and global health experiences for medical students. Some of these may be exacerbated by or emerge in unique ways when undergraduates volunteer. Guidelines and curricula for medical student engagement in global health experiences have been developed. Guidelines specific to undergraduate involvement in such trips and pre-departure curricula to prepare students should be developed and such training should be required of volunteers. We propose a framework for such guidelines and curricula, argue that universities should be the primary point of delivery even when universities are not organizing the trips, and recommend that curricula should be developed in light of additional data. PMID:25079381

  19. [Perspectives on veterinary public health, food security, and the "One Health" joint initiative].

    Cartín-Rojas, Andrés

    2014-09-01

    Veterinarians play a key role in food security. The health of millions of people, stimulation of national economies, development of sustainable livestock production related to this food source, and the different agricultural production systems that compose value chains, and access to more profitable international markets all depend on their efficient and transparent work. Shifting nutritional patterns globally, along with expected population growth, and the increase in marketable food commodity routes and volumes, forecast that demand for animal source food will steadily intensify over the coming decades. To successfully address these challenges, the veterinary profession should establish more practical and up-to-date conceptual and methodological frameworks for academic and professional profiles, focusing the profession on the different public health subject areas, in undergraduate and graduate courses. Furthermore, interdisciplinary alliances should also be developed--such as the "One Health" approach proposed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and the World Health Organization (WHO)--to establish frameworks for joint work and public policies more in line with the domestic conditions of Latin American countries, using a collaborative, sustainable, and comprehensive approach to animal health, food security, and public health policy. PMID:25418770

  20. Regional Climate Change and Development of Public Health Decision Aids

    Hegedus, A. M.; Darmenova, K.; Grant, F.; Kiley, H.; Higgins, G. J.; Apling, D.

    2011-12-01

    According to the World Heath Organization (WHO) climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health, and changes the way we must look at protecting vulnerable populations. Worldwide, the occurrence of some diseases and other threats to human health depend predominantly on local climate patterns. Rising average temperatures, in combination with changing rainfall patterns and humidity levels, alter the lifecycle and regional distribution of certain disease-carrying vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks and rodents. In addition, higher surface temperatures will bring heat waves and heat stress to urban regions worldwide and will likely increase heat-related health risks. A growing body of scientific evidence also suggests an increase in extreme weather events such as floods, droughts and hurricanes that can be destructive to human health and well-being. Therefore, climate adaptation and health decision aids are urgently needed by city planners and health officials to determine high risk areas, evaluate vulnerable populations and develop public health infrastructure and surveillance systems. To address current deficiencies in local planning and decision making with respect to regional climate change and its effect on human health, our research is focused on performing a dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to develop decision aids that translate the regional climate data into actionable information for users. WRF model is initialized with the Max Planck Institute European Center/Hamburg Model version 5 (ECHAM5) General Circulation Model simulations forced with the Special Report on Emissions (SRES) A1B emissions scenario. Our methodology involves development of climatological indices of extreme weather, quantifying the risk of occurrence of water/rodent/vector-borne diseases as well as developing various heat stress related decision aids. Our results indicate that the downscale simulations provide the necessary

  1. The Imperative of Public Health Education: A Global Perspective.

    White, Franklin

    2013-01-01

    This review positions public health as an endeavour that requires a high order of professionalism in addressing the health of populations; this requires investment in an educational capacity that is designed to meet this need. In the global context, the field has evolved enormously over the past half century, supported by institutions such as the World Bank, the World Health Organization and the Institute of Medicine. Operational structures are formulated by strategic principles, with educational and career pathways guided by competency frameworks, all requiring modulation according to local, national and global realities. Talented and well-motivated individuals are attracted by its multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary environment, and the opportunity to achieve interventions that make real differences to people's lives. The field is globally competitive and open to many professional backgrounds based on merit. Its competencies correspond with assessments of population needs, and the ways in which strategies and services are formulated. Thus, its educational planning is needs-based and evidence-driven. This review explores four public health education levels: graduate, undergraduate, continuing professional education and promotion of health literacy for general populations. The emergence of accreditation schemes is examined, focusing on their relative merits and legitimate international variations. The role of relevant research policies is recognized, along with the need to foster professional and institutional networks in all regions of the world. It is critically important for the health of populations that nations assess their public health human resource needs and develop their ability to deliver this capacity, and not depend on other countries to supply it. PMID:23969636

  2. 77 FR 28883 - Draft Public Health Action Plan-A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...

    2012-05-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Draft Public Health Action Plan--A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection, Prevention, and Management of Infertility AGENCY: Centers... requesting public comment on the draft National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection, Prevention,...

  3. Policy Options for Addressing Health System and Human Resources for Health Crisis in Liberia Post-Ebola Epidemic

    Fidel C.T. Budy, MPH

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualified healthcare workers within an effective health system are critical in promoting and achieving greater health outcomes such as those espoused in the Millennium Development Goals. Liberia is currently struggling with the effects of a brutal 14-year long civil war that devastated health infrastructures and caused most qualified health workers to flee and settle in foreign countries. The current output of locally trained health workers is not adequate for the tasks at hand. The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD exposed the failings of the Liberian healthcare system. There is limited evidence of policies that could be replicated in Liberia to encourage qualified diaspora Liberian health workers to return and contribute to managing the phenomenon. This paper reviews the historical context for the human resources for health crisis in Liberia; it critically examines two context-specific health policy options to address the crisis, and recommends reverse brain drain as a policy option to address the immediate and critical crisis facing the health care sector in Liberia.

  4. The current state of public health in China.

    Lee, Liming

    2004-01-01

    In the past 50 years, China has made great achievements in controlling infectious diseases and improving the public's health and hygiene. However, in the twenty-first century, owing to the negative effects brought on by aging of the population and the burdens of diseases, urbanization, industrialization, and globalization, Chinese public health officials are encountering greater difficulties than ever. Old operating models of public health cannot meet present requirements. The main problems are poor capacity to respond to public health emergencies, severe inequality of health care services, and lagging development of public health information systems. Public health in China can gradually meet the requirements of social development and the increasing public demand for health care services only when the public health is directed by informatization, globalization, technification, and humanization. PMID:15015923

  5. Public health approach to birth defects: the Argentine experience.

    Bidondo, María Paz; Groisman, Boris; Barbero, Pablo; Liascovich, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    Birth defects are a global problem, but their impact is particularly severe in low and middle income countries, where the conditions for prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation are more critical. The epidemiological transition in the infant mortality causes, and the concern of the community and the mass media about the teratogenic risk of environmental pollutants, has made health authorities aware of the importance of birth defects in Argentina. The objective of this paper is to outline those actions specifically taken in Argentina aimed at the prevention of birth defects at a national level. Firstly, we focus on birth defects in Argentina on a general basis, and then we present different laws and actions taken in terms of surveillance and public health programs, primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Finally, we present the Teratology Information Service "Fetal Health Line", and the genetic services organization and health professionals training by the National Center of Medical Genetics and the National Program of Genetics Network. In conclusion, in the country, several programs focus on different approaches to the problem, and the challenge is to coordinate the teamwork between them. Finally, we list tips to address birth defects from the public health perspective. PMID:25564015

  6. Spatial and spatio-temporal methods for public health surveillance

    Moraga Serrano, Paula Esther

    2012-01-01

    Public health surveillance provides information to identify public health problems and respond appropriately when they occur. This information is crucial to prevent and control a variety of health conditions such as infectious diseases, chronic diseases, injuries, or health-related behaviors. Quality surveillance is needed to understand the true health status of the population and to guide the use of limited public health resources. Under inadequate surveillance systems, leaders are grossly m...

  7. Public perception of mental health in Iraq

    Al-Hasoon Saad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who suffer from mental illness, the professionals who treat them, and indeed the actual concept of mental illness are all stigmatised in public perception and often receive very negative publicity. This paper looks at Iraq, which has a population of 30 million who are mainly Moslem. Mental health services and professionals have historically been sparse in Iraq with 1 psychiatrist per 300,000 before 2003 falling to 1 per million until recently and 1 primary care centre (40 Healthcare Workers including 4 General Practitioners to 35,000 population, compared with 1 GP per 1700 population in the UK. Methods We aimed to assess public attitudes and perceptions to mental illness. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire (additional file 1, which was designed specifically for Iraqi contexts and was made available in 2 languages. The survey was carried out in 500 participants' homes across 2 districts of Baghdad. Additional file 1 Public Perception of Mental Illness Questionnaire. Click here for file Results The response rate of the survey was 86.4%. The paper shows respondents views on the aetiology of mental illness, perceptions of people with mental illness and attitudes towards care and treatment of people with mental illness. Conclusions This survey of public attitudes towards mental illness in Iraq has shown that community opinion about the aetiology of mental illness is broadly compatible with scientific evidence, but understanding of the nature of mental illness, its implications for social participation and management remains negative in general.

  8. Who gets how much: funding formulas in federal public health programs.

    Buehler, James W; Holtgrave, David R

    2007-01-01

    Federal public health programs use a mix of formula-based and competitive methods to allocate funds among states and other constituent jurisdictions. Characteristics of formula-based allocations used by a convenience sample of four programs, three from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and one from the Health Resources and Services Administration, are described to illustrate formula-based allocation methods in public health. Data sources in these public health formulas include population counts and funding proportions based on historical precedent. None include factors that adjust allocations based on variations in the availability of local resources or the cost of delivering services. Formula-funded activities are supplemented by programs that target specific prevention needs or encourage development of innovative methods to address emerging problems, using set-aside funds. A public health finance research agenda should address ways to improve the fit between funding allocation formulas and program objectives. PMID:17299318

  9. Promoting Health by Addressing Basic Needs: Effect of Problem Resolution on Contacting Health Referrals

    Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Boyum, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Members of vulnerable populations have heightened needs for health services. One advantage of integrating health risk assessment and referrals into social service assistance systems such as 2-1-1 is that such systems help callers resolve problems in other areas (e.g., housing). Callers to 2-1-1 in Missouri (N = 1,090) with at least one behavioral…

  10. Using NASA Environmental Data to Enhance Public Health Decision Making

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Economou, Sigrid; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Estes, Sue; Hemmings, Sarah; Kent, Shia; Puckett, Mark; Quattrochi, Dale; Wade, Gina; McClure, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is collaborating with the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to address issues of environmental health and enhance public health decision making by utilizing NASA remotely sensed data and products. The objectives of this collaboration are to develop high-quality spatial data sets of environmental variables, and deliver the data sets and associated analyses to local, state and federal end-user groups. These data can be linked spatially and temporally to public health data, such as mortality and disease morbidity, for further analysis and decision making. Three daily environmental data sets have been developed for the conterminous U.S. on different spatial resolutions for the time period 2003-2008: (1) spatial surfaces of estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures on a 10-km grid utilizing the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observations and NASA s MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data; (2) a 1-km grid of Land Surface Temperature (LST) using MODIS data; and (3) a 12-km grid of daily Solar Insolation (SI) and maximum and minimum air temperature using the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) forcing data. These environmental data sets will be linked with public health data from the UAB REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether exposures to these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline and other health outcomes. These environmental datasets and public health linkage analyses will be made available to public health professionals, researchers and the general public through the CDC Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system and through peer reviewed publications. To date, two of the data sets have been released to the public in CDC

  11. Multilevel Interventions To Address Health Disparities Show Promise In Improving Population Health.

    Paskett, Electra; Thompson, Beti; Ammerman, Alice S; Ortega, Alexander N; Marsteller, Jill; Richardson, DeJuran

    2016-08-01

    Multilevel interventions are those that affect at least two levels of influence-for example, the patient and the health care provider. They can be experimental designs or natural experiments caused by changes in policy, such as the implementation of the Affordable Care Act or local policies. Measuring the effects of multilevel interventions is challenging, because they allow for interaction among levels, and the impact of each intervention must be assessed and translated into practice. We discuss how two projects from the National Institutes of Health's Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities used multilevel interventions to reduce health disparities. The interventions, which focused on the uptake of the human papillomavirus vaccine and community-level dietary change, had mixed results. The design and implementation of multilevel interventions are facilitated by input from the community, and more advanced methods and measures are needed to evaluate the impact of the various levels and components of such interventions. PMID:27503968

  12. A Strategic Framework for Utilizing Late-Stage (T4) Translation Research to Address Health Inequities.

    Lopez-Class, Maria; Peprah, Emmanuel; Zhang, Xinzhi; Kaufmann, Peter G; Engelgau, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Achieving health equity requires that every person has the opportunity to attain their full health potential and no one is disadvantaged from achieving this potential because of social position or other socially determined circumstances. Inequity experienced by populations of lower socioeconomic status is reflected in differences in health status and mortality rates, as well as in the distribution of disease, disability and illness across these population groups. This article gives an overview of the health inequities literature associated with heart, lung, blood and sleep (HLBS) disorders. We present an ecological framework that provides a theoretical foundation to study late-stage T4 translation research that studies implementation strategies for proven effective interventions to address health inequities. PMID:27440979

  13. An approach to addressing governance from a health system framework perspective

    Mikkelsen-Lopez Inez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As countries strive to strengthen their health systems in resource constrained contexts, policy makers need to know how best to improve the performance of their health systems. To aid these decisions, health system stewards should have a good understanding of how health systems operate in order to govern them appropriately. While a number of frameworks for assessing governance in the health sector have been proposed, their application is often hindered by unrealistic indicators or they are overly complex resulting in limited empirical work on governance in health systems. This paper reviews contemporary health sector frameworks which have focused on defining and developing indicators to assess governance in the health sector. Based on these, we propose a simplified approach to look at governance within a common health system framework which encourages stewards to take a systematic perspective when assessing governance. Although systems thinking is not unique to health, examples of its application within health systems has been limited. We also provide an example of how this approach could be applied to illuminate areas of governance weaknesses which are potentially addressable by targeted interventions and policies. This approach is built largely on prior literature, but is original in that it is problem-driven and promotes an outward application taking into consideration the major health system building blocks at various levels in order to ensure a more complete assessment of a governance issue rather than a simple input-output approach. Based on an assessment of contemporary literature we propose a practical approach which we believe will facilitate a more comprehensive assessment of governance in health systems leading to the development of governance interventions to strengthen system performance and improve health as a basic human right.

  14. Frailty: An Emerging Public Health Priority.

    Cesari, Matteo; Prince, Martin; Thiyagarajan, Jotheeswaran Amuthavalli; De Carvalho, Islene Araujo; Bernabei, Roberto; Chan, Piu; Gutierrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; Michel, Jean-Pierre; Morley, John E; Ong, Paul; Rodriguez Manas, Leocadio; Sinclair, Alan; Won, Chang Won; Beard, John; Vellas, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    The absolute and relative increases in the number of older persons are evident worldwide, from the most developed countries to the lowest-income regions. Multimorbidity and need for social support increase with age. Age-related conditions and, in particular, disabilities are a significant burden for the person, his or her family, and public health care systems. To guarantee the sustainability of public health systems and improve the quality of care provided, it is becoming urgent to act to prevent and delay the disabling cascade. Current evidence shows that too large a proportion of community-dwelling older people present risk factors for major health-related events and unmet clinical needs. In this scenario, the "frailty syndrome" is a condition of special interest. Frailty is a status of extreme vulnerability to endogenous and exogenous stressors exposing the individual to a higher risk of negative health-related outcomes. Frailty may represent a transition phase between successful aging and disability, and a condition to target for restoring robustness in the individual at risk. Given its syndromic nature, targeting frailty requires a comprehensive approach. The identification of frailty as a target for implementing preventive interventions against age-related conditions is pivotal. Every effort should be made by health care authorities to maximize efforts in this field, balancing priorities, needs, and resources. Raising awareness about frailty and age-related conditions in the population is important for effective prevention, and should lead to the promotion of lifelong healthy behaviors and lifestyle. PMID:26805753

  15. Exploring the international arena of global public health surveillance.

    Calain, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Threats posed by new, emerging or re-emerging communicable diseases are taking a global dimension, to which the World Health Organization (WHO) Secretariat has been responding with determination since 1995. Key to the global strategy for tackling epidemics across borders is the concept of global public health surveillance, which has been expanded and formalized by WHO and its technical partners through a number of recently developed instruments and initiatives. The adoption by the 58th World Health Assembly of the revised (2005) International Health Regulations provides the legal framework for mandating countries to link and coordinate their action through a universal network of surveillance networks. While novel environmental threats and outbreak-prone diseases have been increasingly identified during the past three decades, new processes of influence have appeared more recently, driven by the real or perceived threats of bio-terrorism and disruption of the global economy. Accordingly, the global surveillance agenda is being endorsed, and to some extent seized upon by new actors representing security and economic interests. This paper explores external factors influencing political commitment to comply with international health regulations and it illustrates adverse effects generated by: perceived threats to sovereignty, blurred international health agendas, lack of internationally recognized codes of conduct for outbreak investigations, and erosion of the impartiality and independence of international agencies. A companion paper (published in this issue) addresses the intrinsic difficulties that health systems of low-income countries are facing when submitted to the ever-increasing pressure to upgrade their public health surveillance capacity. PMID:17237489

  16. Bioterrorism preparedness and response in European public health institutes.

    Coignard, B

    2001-11-01

    The terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 and the deliberate release of anthrax in the United States had consequences for public health not only there, but also in Europe. Europe's public health systems had to manage numerous postal materials possibly contaminated with anthrax. Our survey aimed to document the response of European public health institutes to recent bioterrorist events to identify the gaps that need to be addressed; 18 institutes from 16 countries participated in this Euroroundup. Bioterrorist threats in Europe were hoaxes only, and should be considered as a "preparedness exercise" from which three lessons can be drawn. Firstly, because of inadequate preparedness planning and funding arrangements, Europe was not ready in October 2001 to respond to bioterrorism. Secondly, although European institutes reacted quickly and adapted their priorities to a new type of threat, they need adequate and sustained support from national governments to maintain their overall capacity. Thirdly, the recent crisis demonstrated the need for increased investment in epidemiology training programmes and the establishment of a technical coordination unit for international surveillance and outbreak response in the European Union. PMID:11891386

  17. Understanding and managing organizational change: implications for public health management.

    Thompson, Jon M

    2010-01-01

    Managing organizational change has become a significant responsibility of managers. Managing the change process within public health organizations is important because appropriately and systematically managing change is linked to improved organizational performance. However, change is difficult and the change process poses formidable challenges for managers. Managers themselves face increased pressure to respond to environmental influences and provide the necessary leadership to their organizations in the change process. In fact, managing organizational change has become a key competency for healthcare managers. This article addresses the important topic of organizational change in public health organizations. It provides a conceptual foundation for understanding organizational change and its relationship to healthcare organizational performance, and then discusses the types and nature of change, using some examples and evidence from those organizations that have successfully managed change. A framework for guiding public health managers in the change management process is provided. The article concludes with suggested management competencies to establish a change-oriented organization with the culture and capacity for change. PMID:20150801

  18. Labour market outcomes of public health graduates: evidence from Australia.

    Li, Ian W; Awofeso, Niyi

    2014-09-01

    Little information is available on the public health workforce. This study contributes to the gap in the literature and examines the demographic characteristics, career destinations and earnings of Masters in Public Health (MPH) graduates in Australia, using data from the 1999-2009 waves of the Graduate Destination Survey. It was found that public health graduates had a high amount of female representation and very low proportions of indigenous representation. Public health graduates experienced a relatively low unemployment rate and 85% were employed within 120 days of graduation. However, close to half of the graduates did not work in the health industry or in health-related roles. The mean salaries of public health graduates working in public health roles were relatively low compared to those in other occupations, but they had a range comparable to that observed for public health professionals in the USA and were higher than those of other Masters graduates in some other health fields. The results indicate strong demand and positive employment prospects for public health graduates in Australia. Strategies to target recruitment and/or retention of female or indigenous graduates in the public health workforce should be a priority. Mapping of public health graduate destinations and employment prospects should might be prioritised, given its strong potential to facilitate workforce planning and provide potential public health workers with more comprehensive career trajectories. PMID:23782503

  19. Health-related safety: a framework to address barriers to aging in place.

    Lau, Denys T; Scandrett, Karen Glasser; Jarzebowski, Mary; Holman, Kami; Emanuel, Linda

    2007-12-01

    Maintaining safety in the home and community is a national public health concern, especially for older adults who "age in place." In this article, we introduce a multicausal concept called "health-related safety," which is defined as the minimization of the probability of preventable, unintended harm in community-dwelling individuals. Derived from the modern patient safety movement, health-related safety attributes adverse health events in the home and community to systematic breakdowns in the societal system, not to the commission of errors by particular individuals. Extending beyond health care institutions, the health-related safety framework is composed of multiple levels: micro (consumers and providers); mezzo (homes and communities); and macro (policies). Because the societal system is complex with inherent risks, health-related safety will require a culture shift and system redesign, new tools of risk assessments and management, and continuous safety improvement. We propose a research agenda to further refine the health-related safety framework by using empirical evidence and to develop appropriate mathematical and practical models from safety sciences to support this initiative. This article moves the field forward by applying systems thinking and safety sciences to health-related safety in the home and community, thereby paralleling what researchers have begun to do with patient safety in health care systems. PMID:18192636

  20. The Importance of Computer Science for Public Health Training: An Opportunity and Call to Action

    Kunkle, Sarah; Christie, Gillian Pepall; Yach, Derek; El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M.

    2016-01-01

    A century ago, the Welch-Rose Report established a public health education system in the United States. Since then, the system has evolved to address emerging health needs and integrate new technologies. Today, personalized health technologies generate large amounts of data. Emerging computer science techniques, such as machine learning, present an opportunity to extract insights from these data that could help identify high-risk individuals and tailor health interventions and recommendations...

  1. Full-Range Public Health Leadership, Part 2: Qualitative Analysis and Synthesis

    Erik L. Carlton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Public health leadership is an important topic in the era of U. S. health reform, population health innovation, and health system transformation. This study utilized the full-range leadership model in order to examine public health leadership. We sought to understand local public health leadership from the perspective of local health department leaders and those who work with and for them. Public health leadership was explored through interviews and focus groups with directors (n=4 and staff (n=33 from local health departments. Qualitative analytic methods included reflexive journals, code-recode procedures, and member checking, with analysis facilitated by Atlas.ti v.6.0. Qualitative results supported and expanded upon previously reported quantitative findings. Leading by example and providing individual consideration to followers were found to be more important than other leader factors such as intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, or idealized attributes of leaders. Having a clear and competent vision of public health, being able to work collaboratively with other community agencies, and addressing the current challenges to public health with creativity and innovation were also important findings. Idealized leadership behaviors and individual consideration should be the focus of student and professional development. Models that incorporate contextual considerations, such as the situational leadership model, should be utilized and instruction in basic interpersonal skills may prove useful. The development of a detailed leadership assessment and development process for public health practitioners is indicated.

  2. Adoption and use of social media among public health departments

    Thackeray Rosemary; Neiger Brad L; Smith Amanda K; Van Wagenen Sarah B

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Effective communication is a critical function within any public health system. Social media has enhanced communication between individuals and organizations and has the potential to augment public health communication. However, there is a lack of reported data on social media adoption within public health settings. The purposes of this study were to assess: 1) the extent to which state public health departments (SHDs) are using social media; 2) which social media applicat...

  3. Environment and public health; Environnement et sante publique

    Escande, J.P. [Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France); Cicolella, A. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques, 60 - Verneuil en Halatte (INERIS) (France); Hemon, D. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    1999-06-01

    These fourteen presentations on the public health effects of the pollution, showed the environment and life style modifications effects on the public health but also the difficulty to evaluate the risk assessment. This analysis brings information and opinion on the environment, the public health, the scientific representation, the evaluation paradigm, the press amplification, the public health policy choices and the risks of too severe regulations. (A.L.B.)

  4. Retrieval of Publications Addressing Shared Decision Making: An Evaluation of Full-Text Searches on Medical Journal Websites

    Blanc, Xavier; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Auer, Reto; Iriarte, Pablo; Krause, Jan; Légaré, France; Cornuz, Jacques; Clair, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Background Full-text searches of articles increase the recall, defined by the proportion of relevant publications that are retrieved. However, this method is rarely used in medical research due to resource constraints. For the purpose of a systematic review of publications addressing shared decision making, a full-text search method was required to retrieve publications where shared decision making does not appear in the title or abstract. Objective The objective of our study was to assess th...

  5. Addressing Geriatric Oral Health Concerns through National Oral Health Policy in India

    Abhinav Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an escalating demand for geriatric oral healthcare in all developed and developing countries including India. Two-thirds of the world’s elderly live in developing countries. This is a huge population that must receive attention from policy-makers who will be challenged by the changing demands for social and health services including oral health services. Resources are limited thus rather than being aspirational in wanting to provide all treatment needed for everybody, this critique presents a road map of how we might answer the present and future geriatric oral health concerns in a most efficient manner in a developing country. Viewing the recent Indian demographic profile and the trends in oral health, pertinent policy subjects have been discussed concerning the oral health needs of the elderly and also the associated challenges which include strategies to improve quality of life, strategies to train and educate the dental workforce and above all the role of healthcare systems towards realization of better aged society in India and other developing countries

  6. Council of public health. Report of 1978

    Following a general introduction over the organisation and function of the Council of Public Health, of the work carried out by two philosophy committees, two deliberation groups and 60 general committees, during 1978, are presented. Included are reports from the philosophy committee for radiation hygiene and committees for food irradiation, disposal of radioactive waste and categorised radionuclide laboratories, guide-lines for radiation safety in hospitals and clinics, isotope laboratories, legal responsibility of radiation accidents, computer tomography, supplementary advice for nuclear energy, combustion furnace for radioactive waste, experiments on subjects with radioactive materials and systematic dental X-ray examination. (C.F.)

  7. Applications of remote sensing in public health.

    Barnes, C. M.; Fuller, C. E.; Schneider, H. J.; Kennedy, E. E.; Jones, H. G.; Morrison, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Current research concerning the determination of the habitat of mosquito vectors of disease is discussed. It is shown how advanced interpretative processes have enabled recognition of the breeding areas of salt marsh mosquitoes and the breeding sites of the mosquito responsible for the transmission of St. Louis strain of encephalitis and of human filariasis. In addition, remote sensing data have also been useful in the study of the habitat of endemic strains of Venezuelan encephalitis virus in Florida. The beginning of the application of remote sensing to such public health aspects as air, water, and urban degradation is noted.

  8. Public health research systems in the European union

    McCarthy Mark

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strengthening health research is an important objective for international health organisations, but there has been less attention to support for health research in Europe. We describe the public-health (population and organisational level research systems in the 27 European Union countries. Methods We developed a typology for describing health research structures based on funding streams and strategies. We drew data from internet sources and asked country informants to review these for consistency and completeness. The structures were described as organograms and narratives in country profiles for each of the 27 EU member states. National public-health research structures included public and independent funding organisations, 'mixed' institutions (which receive funds, and both use and allocate them and provider institutions. Results Most health research is funded through ministries of science or science councils (and sometimes foundations, while parliaments and regions may also contribute. National institutes of public health are usually funded by ministries of health. Many national research organisations both determine research programmes and undertake health research, but there is a move towards public-health sciences within the universities, and a transition from internal grants to competitive funding. Of 27 national research strategies, 17 referred to health and 11 to public health themes. Although all countries had strategies for public health itself, we found little coherence in public-health research programmes. The European Commission has country contact points for both EU research and health programmes, but they do not coordinate with national health-research programmes. Conclusions Public-health research is broadly distributed across programmes in EU countries. Better understanding of research structures, programmes and results would improve recognition for public health in Europe, and contribute to practice. EU

  9. Integrating Weight Bias Awareness and Mental Health Promotion Into Obesity Prevention Delivery: A Public Health Pilot Study

    McVey, Gail L.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Beyers, Joanne; Harrison, Heather L.; Simkins, Sari W.; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Promoting healthy weight is a top priority in Canada. Recent federal guidelines call for sustained, multisectoral partnerships that address childhood obesity on multiple levels. Current healthy weight messaging does not fully acknowledge the influence of social determinants of health on weight. Methods An interactive workshop was developed and implemented by a team of academic researchers and health promoters from the psychology and public health disciplines to raise awareness ab...

  10. How public health should accept nuclear disaster

    Nuclear disaster differed from former pollution in greatness and width of disaster and its effects and characterized by seven points: (1) dispersal of large amount of radioactive materials in the environment and wide contamination of soils, atmosphere, river and ocean, (2) 160000 affected population moved with fear of radiation health effects, (3) enormous effects on life and quality of life, (4) more than one generation taken for final completion of reactor decommissioning, (5) immense impacts on local economy due to contamination of agriculture and fishery products, (6) giant cost of decontamination and (7) doubts on national energy policy, and science and technology. Public health should be responsible not only for risk assessment and countermeasures but also for regulation of contamination level. Predicted accumulated dose rates for 30 years were evaluated dependent on regional area with decay and decontamination scenario. (T. Tanaka)

  11. Undergraduate Public Health Education: Alternative Choices within the BSPH Degree

    Perrin, Karen; Merrell, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The University of South Florida’s College of Public Health has been in existence since 1984. After many years of only offering a public health minor, a Bachelors of Science in Public Health was offered. This article explores the creation, development, scheduling, and lessons learned of this degree.

  12. 38 CFR 3.753 - Public Health Service.

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public Health Service. 3... Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Retirement § 3.753 Public Health Service... of the Public Health Service, who was receiving disability compensation on December 31, 1956,...

  13. Development of indicators for quality assurance in public health medicine.

    Johnston, N H; K.M. Narayan; Ruta, D A

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To develop structure, process, and outcome indicators within a quality rating index for audit of public health medicine. DESIGN--Development of an audit matrix and indicator of quality through a series of group discussions with public health physicians, from which self administered weighted questionnaires were constructed by a modified Delphi technique. SETTING--Five Scottish health boards. SUBJECTS--Public health physicians in the five health boards. MAIN MEASURES--Indicators of ...

  14. Education for public health in Europe and its global outreach

    Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Vesna; Jovic-Vranes, Aleksandra; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Otok, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: At the present time, higher education institutions dealing with education for public health in Europe and beyond are faced with a complex and comprehensive task of responding to global health challenges.Review: Literature reviews in public health and global health and exploration of internet presentations of regional and global organisations dealing with education for public health were the main methods employed in the work presented in this paper. Higher academic institutions a...

  15. Evaluating the evidence base: policies and interventions to address socioeconomic status gradients in health.

    Dow, William H; Schoeni, Robert F; Adler, Nancy E; Stewart, Judith

    2010-02-01

    This chapter discusses the current evidence base for policies that could address socioeconomic status (SES) health gradients in the United States. The present volume has documented an enormous amount of research on the linkages between SES and health, but there are still relatively few studies that rigorously establish the effectiveness of particular policies or interventions in reducing those gradients. Given the difficulty in developing randomized evidence for many types of interventions related to social determinants of health, we argue for conducting policy analysis from a Bayesian perspective. This Bayesian approach combines information on best available theory and evidence regarding probable health benefits and costs of an intervention, providing a framework that also incorporates the probable costs of inaction. The second half of the chapter adopts a ladder metaphor to classify policies and interventions that could reduce SES gradients in population health. Using this framework, we consider the evidence base for various types of policies, focusing primarily on the social determinants of health, under the rubric that "all policy is health policy." We conclude by discussing promising strategies for future strengthening of the evidence base for policy, including the role of health impact assessment. PMID:20201876

  16. Advances in Mycotoxin Research: Public Health Perspectives.

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Ryu, Dojin

    2015-12-01

    Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone are of significant public health concern as they can cause serious adverse effects in different organs including the liver, kidney, and immune system in humans. These toxic secondary metabolites are produced by filamentous fungi mainly in the genus Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium. It is challenging to control the formation of mycotoxins due to the worldwide occurrence of these fungi in food and the environment. In addition to raw agricultural commodities, mycotoxins tend to remain in finished food products as they may not be destroyed by conventional processing techniques. Hence, much of our concern is directed to chronic health effects through long-term exposure to one or multiple mycotoxins from contaminated foods. Ideally risk assessment requires a comprehensive data, including toxicological and epidemiological studies as well as surveillance and exposure assessment. Setting of regulatory limits for mycotoxins is considered necessary to protect human health from mycotoxin exposure. Although advances in analytical techniques provide basic yet critical tool in regulation as well as all aspects of scientific research, it has been acknowledged that different forms of mycotoxins such as analogs and conjugated mycotoxins may constitute a significant source of dietary exposure. Further studies should be warranted to correlate mycotoxin exposure and human health possibly via identification and validation of suitable biomarkers. PMID:26565730

  17. Public Ends, Private Means : Strategic Purchasing of Health Services

    Alexander S. Preker; Liu, Xingzhu; Velenyi, Edit V.; Baris, Enis

    2007-01-01

    Public Ends, Private Means: Strategic purchasing of value for money in health services is part of a series of World Bank publications on ways to make public spending on health care more efficient and equitable in developing countries. It reviews the underlying economics in terms of agency theory, behavioral science, contract theory, transaction costs, and public choice theory. It provides a ...

  18. Equity in public health standards: a qualitative document analysis of policies from two Canadian provinces

    Pinto Andrew D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Promoting health equity is a key goal of many public health systems. However, little is known about how equity is conceptualized in such systems, particularly as standards of public health practice are established. As part of a larger study examining the renewal of public health in two Canadian provinces, Ontario and British Columbia (BC, we undertook an analysis of relevant public health documents related to equity. The aim of this paper is to discuss how equity is considered within documents that outline standards for public health. Methods A research team consisting of policymakers and academics identified key documents related to the public health renewal process in each province. The documents were analyzed using constant comparative analysis to identify key themes related to the conceptualization and integration of health equity as part of public health renewal in Ontario and BC. Documents were coded inductively with higher levels of abstraction achieved through multiple readings. Sets of questions were developed to guide the analysis throughout the process. Results In both sets of provincial documents health inequities were defined in a similar fashion, as the consequence of unfair or unjust structural conditions. Reducing health inequities was an explicit goal of the public health renewal process. In Ontario, addressing “priority populations” was used as a proxy term for health equity and the focus was on existing programs. In BC, the incorporation of an equity lens enhanced the identification of health inequities, with a particular emphasis on the social determinants of health. In both, priority was given to reducing barriers to public health services and to forming partnerships with other sectors to reduce health inequities. Limits to the accountability of public health to reduce health inequities were identified in both provinces. Conclusion This study contributes to understanding how health equity is

  19. The Perceived and Real Value of Health Information Exchange in Public Health Surveillance

    Dixon, Brian Edward

    2011-01-01

    Public health agencies protect the health and safety of populations. A key function of public health agencies is surveillance or the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data about health-related events. Recent public health events, such as the H1N1 outbreak, have triggered increased funding for and…

  20. Alumni survey of Masters of Public Health (MPH training at the Hanoi School of Public Health

    Nguyen Ha

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 1 To elicit the opinions of the Public Health alumni of the MPH program; 2 To assess the applicability of the knowledge and skills acquired; 3 To identify the frequency of the public health competencies that the alumni performed. Methods We requested 187 graduates to complete a self-administered questionnaire and conducted in-depth interviews with 8 alumni as well as a focus group discussion with 14 alumni. Results In total 79.1% (148 of the MPH graduates completed and returned the questionnaire. Most alumni (91% agreed that the MPH curriculum corresponded with the working requirements of public health professionals; and nearly all were satisfied with what they have learnt (96%. Most respondents said that the MPH program enabled them to develop relevant professional skills (95% and that they were satisfied with the curriculum (90%. Notably fewer respondents (73% felt that the MPH program structure was balanced and well designed. Most alumni (64.3% were satisfied with Hanoi School of Public Health (HSPH full-time lecturers; but even more (83% were satisfied with visiting lecturers. The most commonly selected of the 34 pre-identified public health competencies were: applying computer skills (66.4%, planning and managing health programs (47.9%, communicating with the community and/or mobilizing the community to participate in health care (43.2%. Overall, the MPH alumni felt that HSPH emphasized research methods at the expense of some management and operational competencies. The most important challenges at work identified by the alumni were insufficient skills in: data analysis, decision making, inter-sectoral cooperation development, English language and training. Conclusion The training program should be reviewed and revised to meet the needs of its graduates who enter diverse situations and positions. English language skills were identified as top priority for further emphasis. The training program should comply with a more

  1. Ethics in occupational health: deliberations of an international workgroup addressing challenges in an African context

    2014-01-01

    Background International codes of ethics play an important role in guiding professional practice in developing countries. In the occupational health setting, codes developed by international agencies have substantial import on protecting working populations from harm. This is particularly so under globalisation which has transformed processes of production in fundamental ways across the globe. As part of the process of revising the Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health, an Africa Working Group addressed key challenges for the relevance and cogency of an ethical code in occupational health for an African context through an iterative consultative process. Discussion Firstly, even in the absence of strong legal systems of enforcement, and notwithstanding the value of legal institutionalisation of ethical codes, guidelines alone may offer advantageous routes to enhancing ethical practice in occupational health. Secondly, globalisation has particularly impacted on health and safety at workplaces in Africa, challenging occupational health professionals to be sensitive to, and actively redress imbalance of power. Thirdly, the different ways in which vulnerability is exemplified in the workplace in Africa often places the occupational health professional in invidious positions of Dual Loyalty. Fourth, the particular cultural emphasis in traditional African societies on collective responsibilities within the community impacts directly on how consent should be sought in occupational health practice, and how stigma should be dealt with, balancing individual autonomy with ideas of personhood that are more collective as in the African philosophy of ubuntu. To address stigma, practitioners need to be additionally sensitive to how power imbalances at the workplace intersect with traditional cultural norms related to solidarity. Lastly, particularly in the African context, the inseparability of workplace and community means that efforts to address

  2. Changing emphases in public health and medical education in health care reform.

    Patrick, Walter K; Cadman, Edwin C

    2002-01-01

    Globalisation of economies, diseases and disasters with poverty, emerging infectious diseases, ageing and chronic conditions, violence and terrorism has begun to change the face of public health and medical education. Escalating costs of care and increasing poverty have brought urgency to professional training to improve efficiency, cut costs and maintain gains in life expectancy and morbidity reduction. Technology, genetics research and designer drugs have dramatically changed medical practice. Creatively, educational institutions have adopted the use of: (1) New educational and communication technologies: internet and health informatics; (2) Problem based learning approaches; Integrated Practice and Theory Curricula; Research and Problem Solving methodologies and (3) Partnership and networking of institutions to synergise new trends (e.g. core competencies). Less desirably, changes are inadequate in key areas, e.g., Health Economics, Poverty and Health Development, Disaster Management & Bioterrorism and Ethics. Institutions have begun to adjust and develop new programs of study to meet challenges of emerging diseases, design methodologies to better understand complex social and economic determinants of disease, assess the effects of violence and address cost containment strategies in health. Besides redesigning instruction, professional schools need to conduct research to assess the impact of health reform. Such studies will serve as sentinels for the public's health, and provide key indicators for improvements in training, service provision and policy. PMID:12597516

  3. The challenges of iodine supplementation: a public health programme perspective.

    Untoro, Juliawati; Timmer, Arnold; Schultink, Werner

    2010-02-01

    An adequate iodine intake during pregnancy, lactation and early childhood is particularly critical for optimal brain development of the foetus and of children 7-24 months of age. While the primary strategy for sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency remains universal salt iodisation, the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund recommend a complementary strategy of iodine supplements as a temporary measure when salt iodisation could not be implemented. This article aims to review current evidence on efficacy and implications of implementing iodine supplementation as a public health measure to address iodine deficiency. Iodine supplementation seems unlikely to reach high coverage in a rapid, equitable and sustained way. Implementing the programme requires political commitment, effective and efficient supply, distribution and targeting, continuous education and communication and a robust monitoring system. Thus, universal salt iodisation should remain the primary strategy to eliminate iodine deficiency. PMID:20172473

  4. Assessing correlations between geological hazards and health outcomes: addressing complexity in medical geology

    Wardrop, Nicola A.; Le Blond, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    Background: The field of medical geology addresses the relationships between exposure to specific geological characteristics and the development of a range of health problems: for example, long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking water can result in the development of skin conditions and cancers. While these relationships are well characterised for some examples, in others there is a lack of understanding of the specific geological component(s) triggering disease onset, necessitating further...

  5. Elite Sport, Doping and Public Health

    The issue of doping in sport was once of interest only to aficionados of elite sports.  Nowadays, it is a matter of intense public scrutiny thatspans the worlds of health, medicine, sports, politics, technology, andbeyond.  In keeping with this territorial expansion, the aim of this book is...... toillustrate how the issue of doping has evolved beyond the world of elite sport into an arena of public health.  In so doing, the book drawsupon multi-disciplinary perspectives from applied and professionalethics, biomedical science, history, philosophy, policy studies, andsociology.  The essays, written by a...

  6. MELATONIN: POTENTIAL UTILITY FOR IMPROVING PUBLIC HEALTH

    Russel J REITER; Fatih GULTEKIN; Luis J FLORES; Ma Pilar TERRON; Dun-Xian TAN

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the beneficial actions of melatonin in various experimental conditions/diseases and identifies where the use of melatonin may be helpful in improving public health. The nightly use of melatonin supplements by humans often improves their sleep and helps correct the circadian dyssynchronization associated with “jet lag”. Additionally, melatonin has been found effective in curtailing the growth of a variety of experimental cancers. Mechanistically, this is achieved by melatonin’s ability to limit fatty acid uptake, especially linoleic acid, by tumor cells. Fatty acids are growth factors for many tumors. Additionally, melatonin inhibits the elevated telomerase activity of tumor cells thus making them more fragile and vulnerable to chemotherapies. Melatonin also may inhibit angiogenesis in tumors by suppressing endothelin-1 production and the indole interferes with the stimulatory action of steroids on hormone-responsive tumors. As an ubiquitously-acting antioxidant, melatonin reduces cardiac damage during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury (heart attack and during I/R to the brain (stroke. Melatonin also limits the toxicity of amyloid  peptide and of neurofibrillary tangles, two of the cardinal signs of Alzheimer’s disease. Collectively, these data suggest supplementation with melatonin, whose endogenous levels decrease with age, may improve the quality of life in the aged and, as a consequence, be beneficial for public health generally. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(2.000: 131-158

  7. CDC National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (Tracking Network)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is a system of integrated health, exposure, and hazard information and data from a variety of national,...

  8. Challenges of Public Health Education in the former Soviet Union: Example of Ukraine

    Anna Piekkala

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many former Soviet Union (fSU countries face a high burden of disease and a much lower life expectancy compared to western countries. Many of the underlying causes are amenable to public health interventions, but the prevailing Soviet approach to prevention has largely failed to address the new and more complex public health issues these countries face. This study looks at public health challenges in Ukraine, in particular at those related to public health education. METHODS: The research is based on a small-scale, qualitative analysis of information collected through i review of literature related to public health and public health education in the former Soviet Union and Ukraine, as well as curricula and training material for epidemiology students in Ukrainian medical schools, ii observations during workshops for epidemiology students and teachers from Ukrainian medical schools and iii semi-structured interviews with epidemiology students and teachers from Ukrainian medical schools. The collected data was interpreted using the method of thematic discourse analysis, which allowed identifying major areas challenging public health education in the country. RESULTS: The main challenges identified were seen in the outdated conceptual understanding of public health, particularly in epidemiology. These challenges underlie further problems including limited hours and narrow content of epidemiology training, lack of training in research skills, inadequate training material and conservative attitudes among teachers and students towards prevailing ideas and development. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: There is urgent need for a wider definition of public health, moving towards the “New Public Health” approach and subsequently a series of changes to education curricula and materials. Curricula reform should provide additional hours for covering non-communicable diseases, non-medical topics such as health policy and health promotion and ensure

  9. Consumer-Involved Participatory Research to Address General Medical Health and Wellness in a Community Mental Health Setting.

    Iyer, Sharat P; Pancake, Laura S; Dandino, Elizabeth S; Wells, Kenneth B

    2015-12-01

    Barriers to sustainably implementing general medical interventions in community mental health (CMH) settings include role uncertainty, consumer engagement, workforce limitations, and sustainable reimbursement. To address these barriers, this project used a community-partnered participatory research framework to create a stakeholder-based general medical and wellness intervention in a large CMH organization, with consumers involved in all decision-making processes. Consumers faced practical barriers to participating in organizational decision making, but their narratives were critical in establishing priorities and ensuring sustainability. Addressing baseline knowledge and readiness of stakeholders and functional challenges to consumer involvement can aid stakeholder-based approaches to implementing general medical interventions in CMH settings. PMID:26174950

  10. New dialogue for the way forward in maternal health: addressing market inefficiencies.

    McCarthy, Katharine; Ramarao, Saumya; Taboada, Hannah

    2015-06-01

    Despite notable progress in Millennium Development Goal (MDG) five, to reduce maternal deaths three-quarters by 2015, deaths due to treatable conditions during pregnancy and childbirth continue to concentrate in the developing world. Expanding access to three effective and low-cost maternal health drugs can reduce preventable maternal deaths, if available to all women. However, current failures in markets for maternal health drugs limit access to lifesaving medicines among those most in need. In effort to stimulate renewed action planning in the post-MDG era, we present three case examples from other global health initiatives to illustrate how market shaping strategies can scale-up access to essential maternal health drugs. Such strategies include: sharing intelligence among suppliers and users to better approximate and address unmet need for maternal health drugs, introducing innovative financial strategies to catalyze otherwise unattractive markets for drug manufacturers, and employing market segmentation to create a viable and sustainable market. By building on lessons learned from other market shaping interventions and capitalizing on opportunities for renewed action planning and partnership, the maternal health field can utilize market dynamics to better ensure sustainable and equitable distribution of essential maternal health drugs to all women, including the most marginalized. PMID:25467178

  11. Health inequalities as a foundation for embodying knowledge within public health teaching: a qualitative study

    Mabhala, Mzwandile A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Recent UK health policies identified nurses as key contributors to the social justice agenda of reducing health inequalities, on the assumption that all nurses understand and wish to contribute to public health. Following this policy shift, public health content within pre-registration nursing curricula increased. However, public health nurse educators (PHNEs) had various backgrounds, and some had limited formal public health training, or involvement in or understanding of policy...

  12. Legal Considerations in Cross-Jurisdictional Sharing of Public Health Laboratory Services

    Berkery, Molly R.; Penn, Matthew S.

    2013-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Association of Public Health Laboratories initiated the Laboratory Efficiencies Initiative in 2011 to help address issues related to public health laboratory (PHL) capacity to perform critically needed tests and services. One approach to improving capacity and efficiency is sharing PHL services with other states or jurisdictions. Cross-jurisdictional sharing implicates numerous federal and state laws, including federal and state privacy l...

  13. Education and Sexuality: Towards Addressing Adolescents’ Reproductive Health Needs in Nigeria

    James Godswill

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the crucial role of sexuality education in addressing adolescents’ reproductive health needs within the backdrops of immense challenges in Nigerian environment. Young people have been well documented as a special need group in the area of reproductive health. Adolescent sexuality and reproductive health are important contemporary concerns especially for reproductive health problems such as early marriage, unintended/unwanted pregnancy, maternal mortality and sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS. A large number of adolescents in Nigeria decide to be more sexually active without access to preventive measure, such as condoms or family planning devices and thus face undesired consequences, including unwanted pregnancies, Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs, including the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS and the social consequences of both. In fact, adolescents have a higher prevalence of most reproductive health problems because of lack of information and poor access to service. However, one of the 2004 Nigerian National Population Policy objectives is increasing the integration of adolescents and young people into development efforts and effectively addressing their reproductive health and related needs. The study, which relies mainly on secondary data, examines the crucial role and benefits of sexuality education against the backdrops of the challenges including reaching the youths with sexuality and reproductive information and service, or motivating them to change behavior in the light of new information and awareness, more institutional support and creating the social and economic climate, which will make the desired changes possible and sustainable. The author contends that it is a violation of ones fundamental human rights and freedom guaranteed by numerous international, regional and national policies as well as legal instruments when attempts are made to control rather than educate

  14. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander public health: online and integrated into core Master of Public Health subjects

    Lynnell Angus; Shaun Ewen; Leanne Coombe

    2016-01-01

    The Master of Public Health (MPH) is an internationally recognised post-graduate qualification for building the public health workforce. In Australia, MPH graduate attributes include six Indigenous public health (IPH) competencies. The University of Melbourne MPH program includes five core subjects and ten specialisation streams, of which one is Indigenous health. Unless students complete this specialisation or electives in Indigenous health, it is possible for students to graduate without at...

  15. Report of the Independent Expert Group on the Future of European Public Health Research

    Olsen, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    The next EU research and innovation framework programme 'Horizon 2020' will address a number of important societal challenges including health, demographic changes and well-being. To prepare the work in these areas, the Health Directorate of the European Commission's Research & Innovation...... following four questions: What should the thematic priorities for EU funded public health research under Horizon 2020 be? How to best structure European Public Health Research in the future? How to develop stronger links and synergies between EU funded research and national research activities, EU policy...... agendas and national policy agendas? How to improve the uptake of evidence generated from public health research in the development of public health policy? This report summarises the recommendations from Subgroup 2....

  16. Mobilizing Local Authorities Around Public Health Priorities.

    Lévesque, Benoit; Huppé, Vicky; Tourigny, André

    2016-07-01

    Large Analysis and Review of European Housing and Health Status (LARES) was conducted in Europe in 2002 to 2003 to study the relationship between citizens' health and built environments. One of its objectives was to put public health priorities on the agenda of local decision-makers to implement solutions for the community. We adapted the LARES protocol as a pilot project in a small French-Canadian town in Quebec Province in 2012. The distinguishing feature of this project was the collaborative approach taken with local actors, especially the municipality, which was committed a priori to using survey data from an urban planning perspective. The project produced interesting results that were used to motivate actions concerning people living in bad sanitary conditions; to draft the urban plan including the development of parks, green spaces, and bicycle paths; and to allow the municipality to meet eligibility criteria for access to renovation programs. If a partnership with the local actors and their commitment to promote and realize the project were obtained at the beginning, then the survey could be replicated in other communities. PMID:27196661

  17. Public Health, Hypertension, and the Emergency Department.

    Brody, Aaron; Janke, Alex; Sharma, Vineet; Levy, Phillip

    2016-06-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is the most common cardiovascular disease worldwide and is associated with severe long-term morbidity when not treated appropriately. Despite this, blood pressure (BP) control remains suboptimal, particularly among underserved populations and those who rely on emergency departments (EDs) as a source of primary care. ED providers encounter patients with severely elevated BP daily, and yet adherence to minimal standards of BP reassessment and referral to outpatient medical care, as recommended by the American College of Emergency Physicians, is limited. Barriers such as provider knowledge deficits, resource constraints, and negative attitudes towards patients who utilize EDs for nonurgent complaints are compounded by perceptions of HTN as a condition that can only be addressed in a primary care setting to contribute to this. Efforts to reduce this gap must go beyond government mandates to address systemic issues including access to care and payment models to encourage health promotion. Additionally, individual physician behavior can be shifted through targeted education, financial incentives, and the accumulation of high-quality evidence to encourage more proactive approaches to the management of uncontrolled HTN in the ED. PMID:27165429

  18. What do public health officials expect from modelers during a response to an epidemic or outbreak?

    Washington, Michael

    Since 2009, the CDC has participated in emergency responses ranging from small domestic outbreaks involving a few hundred people, to international public health emergencies affecting millions of individuals from around the world. Each response required unique skills from the CDC'S Modeling Task Force to address public health officials' questions and to help them make informed decisions. This presentation will discuss the roll of the Modeling Task Forces in the CDC's Incident Management structure and some of the models used to assist officials in making decisions about the potential size of the public health crisis, how effective interventions could be, and what resources are required.

  19. Exercise — Exploring Mutuality and Discordance(s Between Sport and Public Health

    Eling D. de Bruin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sports is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that revolves around the interdisciplinary area of exercise sciences applied in sport and public health. The intention of Sports is to link several scientific disciplines in an integrated fashion in order to address critical issues related to exercise science, sports and public health. As the first Editor-in-Chief of Sports, I would like to share a few comments about this interdisciplinary field of research by discussing the mutuality and discordances between exercise as it is applied in sports and public health.

  20. The public sector and mental health parity: time for inclusion.

    Hogan, Michael F.

    1998-12-01

    localities, it is now possible to consider the implications of public and private integration. This paper considers such an approach. METHODS: This paper addresses the question of public and private integration, considering the state of Ohio as a case study. Ohio is a large state (population 11.2 million) and shares demographic, cultural and political characteristics with many other states. Ohio's successful experience implementing community mental health reform makes it a good candidate to use in evaluating issues in the potential integration of insurance-paid and public mental health care. RESULTS: The analysis indicates that the resources now used in Ohio's public system may be sufficient to support insurance financing of inpatient and ambulatory mental health treatment (the types of health care usually paid by insurance) while maintaining supportive services (e.g. housing, crisis care) as a residual safety net. DISCUSSION: At the current time, these resources are in state and local mental health budgets, and in the Medicaid program that finances health care for low income and disabled individuals. The analysis indicates that the aggregate level of resources expended on inpatient and ambulatory mental health treatment are substantially greater than expenditures for such care in an insurance plan for Ohio State employees. A substantial limitation of the analysis is that it is not possible to compare the need for care in a relatively healthy employed population versus a poor and disabled population. CONCLUSION: The paper concludes that there are substantial structural, economic and social problems associated with the "two-tiered" system of commercial/employer-paid insurance and public mental health care in the United States. Examining data from one state's public system, the paper further concludes that it might be feasible to finance a single system of acute and ambulatory mental health benefits, if public resources were redeployed and private contributions were continued

  1. New Developments in Undergraduate Education in Public Health: Implications for Health Education and Health Promotion

    Barnes, Michael D.; Wykoff, Randy; King, Laura Rasar; Petersen, Donna J.

    2012-01-01

    The article provides an overview of efforts to improve public health and health education training and on the potential use of Critical Component Elements (CCEs) for undergraduate health education programs toward more consistent quality assurance across programs. Considered in the context of the Galway Consensus Conference, the authors discuss the…

  2. Student assistance program: a new approach for student success in addressing behavioral health and life events.

    Veeser, Peggy Ingram; Blakemore, Carol Warren

    2006-01-01

    College health centers, whether large or small, often find it challenging to provide counseling and supportive services for all students (including remotely located students) 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Student assistance programs (SAPs) are services provided to students through a contractual arrangement to the university or college as a part of student services. The goal is to address psychosocial concerns that may interfere with academic performance within the realm of short-term counseling. These services range from traditional behavioral health concerns about stress and depressive reactions to how to find child care with foreign-speaking services. In this article, the authors describe a method to provide such short-term counseling to a 2,200-student health-science campus. They present data from 1 year of service as well as the benefits and limitations. PMID:16789654

  3. Working for the public health: politics, localism and epistemologies of practice.

    Phillips, Gemma; Green, Judith

    2015-05-01

    The recent move of public health back to English local government has reignited debates about the role of a medicalised public health profession. The explicit policy rationale for the move was that local government is the arena in which the social determinants of health can be addressed, and that public health specialists could provide neutral evidence to support action on these. However, if a discourse of 'evidence-based' policy is in principle (if not practice) relatively unproblematic within the health arena, within the more overtly politicised local government space, rather different policy imperatives come to the fore. Responding to calls for research on evidence in practice, this article draws on ethnographic data of local authorities in the first year of the reorganised public health function. Focusing on alcohol policy, we explore how decisions that affect public health are rationalised and enacted through discourses of localism, empiricism and holism. These frame policy outcomes as inevitably plural and contingent: a framing which sits uneasily with normative discourses of evidence-based policy. We argue that locating public health in local government necessitates a refocusing of how evidence for public health is conceptualised, to incorporate multiple, and political, understandings of health and wellbeing. PMID:25682916

  4. Mind the Gap: Social Media Engagement by Public Health Researchers

    Keller, Brett; Labrique, Alain; Jain, Kriti M; Pekosz, Andrew; Levine, Orin

    2014-01-01

    Background The traditional vertical system of sharing information from sources of scientific authority passed down to the public through local health authorities and clinicians risks being made obsolete by emerging technologies that facilitate rapid horizontal information sharing. The rise of Public Health 2.0 requires professional acknowledgment that a new and substantive forum of public discourse about public health exists on social media, such as forums, blogs, Facebook, and Twitter. Objec...

  5. Future directions for Public Health Education reforms in India

    Sanjay P Zodpey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Health systems globally are experiencing a shortage of competent public health professionals. Public health education across developing countries is stretched by capacity generation and maintaining an adequate ‘standard’ and ‘quality’ of their graduate product. We analyzed the Indian public health education scenario using the institutional and instructional reforms framework advanced by the Lancet Commission report on Education of Health Professionals. The emergence of a new century necessitates a re-visit on the institutional and instructional challenges surrounding public health education. Currently, there is neither an accreditation council nor a formal structure or system of collaboration between academic stakeholders. Health systems have little say in health professional training with limited dialogue between health systems and public health education institutions. Despite a recognized shortfall of public health professionals, there are limited job opportunities for public health graduates within the health system and absence of a structured career pathway for them. Public health institutions need to evolve strategies to prevent faculty attrition. A structured development program in teaching-learning methods and pedagogy is the need of the hour.

  6. The 2011 Presidental Address: Realizing the Promise of Sociology: Going Public and Enriching Community

    Kimberly J. Cook

    2011-01-01

    A program implementing the American Sociological Association's guidelines on public sociology is described. For example, a partnership with the local public housing authority was established. The Community Campus at Hillcrest was the launch site for the public sociology program. Public sociology classes meet at Hillcrest, the students work closely with the residents on their projects and the outcomes of class projects remain in the Hillcrest community.

  7. Consumer Satisfaction with Public Health Care in China

    Linghui Jiang; Christopher Gan; Betty Kao; Yiyun Zhang; Hechuan Zhang; Long Cai

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Consumer satisfaction is regarded as one of the ultimate goals that all health system should strive for (Hsiao, 2003), it reflects the effectiveness of the health system in consumers prospect. Yet public health care services in developing countries including Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) have failed to achieve adequate level of services. China, for example, satisfaction of public health care is considerably low. To improve public participation and effectiveness of the und...

  8. Full-Range Public Health Leadership, Part 2: Qualitative Analysis and Synthesis

    Carlton, Erik L.; Holsinger, James W.; Riddell, Martha C.; Bush, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Public health leadership is an important topic in the era of U.S. health reform, population health innovation, and health system transformation. This study utilized the full-range leadership model in order to examine the public health leadership. We sought to understand local public health leadership from the perspective of local health department leaders and those who work with and for them. Public health leadership was explored through interviews and focus groups with directors (n = 4) and staff (n = 33) from local health departments. Qualitative analytic methods included reflexive journals, code-recode procedures, and member checking, with analysis facilitated by Atlas.ti v.6.0. Qualitative results supported and expanded upon previously reported quantitative findings. Leading by example and providing individual consideration to followers were found to be more important than other leader factors, such as intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, or idealized attributes of leaders. Having a clear and competent vision of public health, being able to work collaboratively with other community agencies, and addressing the current challenges to public health with creativity and innovation were also important findings. Idealized leadership behaviors and individual consideration should be the focus of student and professional development. Models that incorporate contextual considerations, such as the situational leadership model, could be utilized to ensure that optimal individual consideration is given to followers. PMID:26217654

  9. Full-Range Public Health Leadership, Part 2: Qualitative Analysis and Synthesis.

    Carlton, Erik L; Holsinger, James W; Riddell, Martha C; Bush, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Public health leadership is an important topic in the era of U.S. health reform, population health innovation, and health system transformation. This study utilized the full-range leadership model in order to examine the public health leadership. We sought to understand local public health leadership from the perspective of local health department leaders and those who work with and for them. Public health leadership was explored through interviews and focus groups with directors (n = 4) and staff (n = 33) from local health departments. Qualitative analytic methods included reflexive journals, code-recode procedures, and member checking, with analysis facilitated by Atlas.ti v.6.0. Qualitative results supported and expanded upon previously reported quantitative findings. Leading by example and providing individual consideration to followers were found to be more important than other leader factors, such as intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, or idealized attributes of leaders. Having a clear and competent vision of public health, being able to work collaboratively with other community agencies, and addressing the current challenges to public health with creativity and innovation were also important findings. Idealized leadership behaviors and individual consideration should be the focus of student and professional development. Models that incorporate contextual considerations, such as the situational leadership model, could be utilized to ensure that optimal individual consideration is given to followers. PMID:26217654

  10. Improving Coordination of Addiction Health Services Organizations with Mental Health and Public Health Services.

    Guerrero, Erick G; Andrews, Christina; Harris, Lesley; Padwa, Howard; Kong, Yinfei; M S W, Karissa Fenwick

    2016-01-01

    In this mixed-method study, we examined coordination of mental health and public health services in addiction health services (AHS) in low-income racial and ethnic minority communities in 2011 and 2013. Data from surveys and semistructured interviews were used to evaluate the extent to which environmental and organizational characteristics influenced the likelihood of high coordination with mental health and public health providers among outpatient AHS programs. Coordination was defined and measured as the frequency of interorganizational contact among AHS programs and mental health and public health providers. The analytic sample consisted of 112 programs at time 1 (T1) and 122 programs at time 2 (T2), with 61 programs included in both periods of data collection. Forty-three percent of AHS programs reported high frequency of coordination with mental health providers at T1 compared to 66% at T2. Thirty-one percent of programs reported high frequency of coordination with public health services at T1 compared with 54% at T2. Programs with culturally responsive resources and community linkages were more likely to report high coordination with both services. Qualitative analysis highlighted the role of leadership in leveraging funding and developing creative solutions to deliver coordinated care. Overall, our findings suggest that AHS program funding, leadership, and cultural competence may be important drivers of program capacity to improve coordination with health service providers to serve minorities in an era of health care reform. PMID:26350114

  11. From theory to practice: a Canadian case study of the utility of climate change adaptation frameworks to address health impacts

    Clarke, Kaila-Lea; Berry, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective It is now recognized that climate change affects human health. The question is how to adapt. This article examines mainstreaming climate considerations into public health programs and the utility of climate change and health adaptation frameworks, using Ontario, Canada, as a case study. Methods A literature review identified climate change and health adaptation frameworks for comparison with the Ontario Public Health Standards. Key informant interviews gauged the extent to which cli...

  12. Limited liability and the public's health.

    Rutkow, Lainie; Teret, Stephen P

    2007-01-01

    Corporations, through their products and behaviors, exert a strong effect on the well-being of populations. Industries including firearms, motor vehicles, tobacco, and alcohol produce and market products negatively impact public health. All of these industries are composed of corporations, which are legal fictions designed to provide limited exposure to liability, through a variety of mechanisms, for their investors and directors. This means that when actions are taken on behalf of a corporate entity, the individuals responsible generally will not face personal liability for the negative results of those actions. To illustrate this point, this article considers corporate products or practices that have caused harm in varied settings, and analyzes the role that limited liability played in these cases. In addition, the article identifies ways to modify or eliminate some of the principles and practices that accompany limited liability. PMID:18076511

  13. Caffeinated alcohol beverages: a public health concern.

    Attwood, Angela S

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with caffeinated energy drinks is becoming popular, and the number of pre-mixed caffeinated alcohol products on the worldwide market is increasing. There is public health concern and even occasional legal restriction relating to these drinks, due to associations with increased intoxication and harms. The precise nature and degree of the pharmacological relationship between caffeine and alcohol is not yet elucidated, but it is proposed that caffeine attenuates the sedative effects of alcohol intoxication while leaving motor and cognitive impairment unaffected. This creates a potentially precarious scenario for users who may underestimate their level of intoxication and impairment. While legislation in some countries has restricted production or marketing of pre-mixed products, many individuals mix their own energy drink-alcohol 'cocktails'. Wider dissemination of the risks might help balance marketing strategies that over-emphasize putative positive effects. PMID:22645036

  14. Asymptomatic rheumatic heart disease in South African schoolchildren: Implications for addressing chronic health conditions through a school health service.

    Shung-King, Maylene; Zühlke, Liesel; Engel, Mark E; Mayosi, Bongani M

    2016-08-01

    When new evidence comes to light, it compels us to contemplate the implications of such evidence for health policy and practice. This article examines recent research evidence on the prevalence of asymptomatic rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in South Africa and considers the implications for the Integrated School Health Programme (ISHP). RHD is still a major burden of disease in developing countries, and elimination of this preventable condition ranks high among World Heart Federation goals. If left untreated, it becomes a chronic health condition that individuals have to cope with into their adult lives. The ISHP regards the health needs of children with chronic health conditions, which include conditions such as RHD, as a key service component. However, the chronic health component of the ISHP is still poorly developed and can benefit from good evidence to guide implementation. A recent study to ascertain the prevalence of RHD in asymptomatic schoolchildren through mass screening affords an opportunity to reflect on whether, and how, asymptomatic chronic health conditions in schoolchildren could be addressed, and what the implications would be if this were done through a school-based programme such as the ISHP. PMID:27499395

  15. Getting England to be more physically active: are the Public Health Responsibility Deal’s physical activity pledges the answer?

    Knai, C.; Petticrew, M.; Scott, C.; Durand, MA; Eastmure, E.; James, L.; Mehrotra, A; Mays, N.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Public Health Responsibility Deal (RD) in England is a public-private partnership involving voluntary pledges between government, industry, and other organisations to improve public health by addressing alcohol, food, health at work, and physical activity. This paper analyses the RD physical activity (PA) pledges in terms of the evidence of their potential effectiveness, and the likelihood that they have motivated actions among organisations that would not otherwise have taken ...

  16. The first federal budget under Prime Minister Justin Trudeau: Addressing social determinants of health?

    Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    A challenging budget environment during the Harper years has meant that crucial investments in the social determinants of health (SDHs) have increasingly been neglected. The tabling of what is widely considered a more progressive budget with expansionary fiscal elements under the new Prime Minister, Justin Trudeau, raises the question as to what extent this budget invests in policy areas that are crucial for achieving a more equitable distribution in the social determinants of health, as promised in the Liberal party platform. In this commentary, we argue that the first Liberal budget represents a step in the right direction, but that this first step needs to be followed up with a sustained commitment to address the pervasive (and unfair) social inequalities that are the root cause of persistent health inequities in Canada. We conclude that the first Trudeau budget, while moving in the right direction, does not fully embody the sustained policy changes needed to effectively address SDHs, including a more expansive role for the federal government in the redistribution of income and wealth. PMID:27526222

  17. Veterinary education for global animal and public health, D.A. Walsh : book review

    C.M.E. McCrindle

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This 28th annual volume published by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE, addresses the need for a global shift in the way veterinary students are taught veterinary public health (VPH. As well as taking the lead in prevention and control of animal diseases, the OIE develops health and welfare standards to promote food security and equitable international trade in animals and animal products.

  18. Climate Change and Local Public Health in the United States: Preparedness, Programs and Perceptions of Local Public Health Department Directors

    Maibach, Edward W.; Chadwick, Amy; McBride, Dennis; Chuk, Michelle; Ebi, Kristie L; Balbus, John

    2008-01-01

    While climate change is inherently a global problem, its public health impacts will be experienced most acutely at the local and regional level, with some jurisdictions likely to be more burdened than others. The public health infrastructure in the U.S. is organized largely as an interlocking set of public agencies at the federal, state and local level, with lead responsibility for each city or county often residing at the local level. To understand how directors of local public health depart...

  19. Which public and why deliberate?--A scoping review of public deliberation in public health and health policy research.

    Degeling, Chris; Carter, Stacy M; Rychetnik, Lucie

    2015-04-01

    Deliberative methods are of increasing interest to public health researchers and policymakers. We systematically searched the peer-reviewed literature to identify public health and health policy research involving deliberative methods and report how deliberative methods have been used. We applied a taxonomy developed with reference to health policy and science and technology studies literatures to distinguish how deliberative methods engage different publics: citizens (ordinary people who are unfamiliar with the issues), consumers (those with relevant personal experience e.g. of illness) and advocates (those with technical expertise or partisan interests). We searched four databases for empirical studies in English published 1996-2013. This identified 78 articles reporting on 62 distinct events from the UK, USA, Canada, Australasia, Europe, Israel, Asia and Africa. Ten different types of deliberative techniques were used to represent and capture the interests and preferences of different types of public. Citizens were typically directed to consider community interests and were treated as a resource to increase democratic legitimacy. Citizens were preferred in methodological studies (those focused on understanding the techniques). Consumers were directed to focus on personal preferences; thus convened not as a source of policy decisions, but of knowledge about what those affected by the issue would accept. Advocates-who are most commonly used as expert witnesses in juries-were sometimes engaged to deliberate with consumers or citizens. This almost always occurred in projects directly linked to policy processes. This suggests health policymakers may value deliberative methods as a way of understanding disagreement between perspectives. Overall however, the 'type' of public sought was often not explicit, and their role not specified. This review provides new insight into the heterogeneity and rising popularity of deliberative methods, and indicates a need for greater

  20. Aflatoxins, hepatocellular carcinoma and public health

    Arvin Magnussen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide, primarily affecting populations in the developing countries. Aflatoxin, a food contaminant produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is a known human carcinogen that has been shown to be a causative agent in the pathogenesis of HCC. Aflatoxin can affect a wide range of food commodities including corns, oilseeds, spices, and tree nuts as well as milk, meat, and dried fruit. Many factors affect the growth of Aspergillus fungi and the level of aflatoxin contamination in food. Drought stress is one of the factors that increase susceptibility of plants to Aspergillus and thus aflatoxin contamination. A recent drought is thought to be responsible for finding of trace amounts of aflatoxin in some of the corn harvested in the United States. Although it’s too soon to know whether aflatoxin will be a significant problem, since United States is the world’s largest corn producer and exporter, this has raised alarm bells. Strict regulations and testing of finished foods and feeds in the United States should prevent a major health scare, and prevent human exposure to deleterious levels of aflatoxin. Unfortunately, such regulations and testing are not in place in many countries. The purpose of this editorial is to summarize the current knowledge on association of aflatoxin and HCC, encourage future research and draw attention to this global public health issue.

  1. Discretionary Fortification—A Public Health Perspective

    Tarasuk Valerie

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ‘Discretionary fortification’ refers to the addition of vitamins and minerals to foods at the discretion of manufacturers for marketing purposes, but not as part of a planned public health intervention. While the nutrients added may correspond to needs in the population, an examination of novel beverages sold in Toronto supermarkets revealed added nutrients for which there is little or no evidence of inadequacy in the population. This is consistent with the variable effects of manufacturer-driven fortification on nutrient adequacy observed in the US. Nutrient intakes in excess of Tolerable Upper Intake Levels are now observed in the context of supplement use and high levels of consumption of fortified foods. Expanding discretionary fortification can only increase nutrient exposures, but any health risks associated with chronically high nutrient loads from fortification and supplementation remain to be discovered. Regulatory bodies are focused on the establishment of safe levels of nutrient addition, but their estimation procedures are fraught with untested assumptions and data limitations. The task of determining the benefits of discretionary fortification is being left to consumers, but the nutrition information available to them is insufficient to allow for differentiation of potentially beneficial fortification from gratuitous nutrient additions.

  2. Air quality standards must protect public health

    Norman Edelman [American Lung Association (ALA) (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Leading medical and public health organizations are deeply concerned about the proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in December 2005. Led by the American Lung Association (ALA), these groups are fighting to force EPA to finalize stricter standards for fine and coarse particles when the final decision is announced in September 2006. The ALA disagrees strongly with the proposal to exempt coarse particles from agriculture and mining sources, and to exclude communities with populations fewer than 100,000 from protection and monitoring requirements. ALA urges EPA to set the following health-based NAAQS for PM: Annual average PM2.5 standard of 12 {mu}mg/m{sup 3}; 24 hour average PM2.5 standard of 25 {mu}mg.m{sup 3} (99th percentile); 24-hour average PM10-2.5 standard of 25-30 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (99th percentile), applied equally to all areas of the country and to all types of particles. 72 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Social marketing and public health intervention.

    Lefebvre, R C; Flora, J A

    1988-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of community-based health education programs has out-paced the knowledge base of behavior change strategies that are appropriate and effective for public health interventions. However, experiences from a variety of large-scale studies suggest that principles and techniques of social marketing may help bridge this gap. This article discusses eight essential aspects of the social marketing process: the use of a consumer orientation to develop and market intervention techniques, exchange theory as a model from which to conceptualize service delivery and program participation, audience analysis and segmentation strategies, the use of formative research in program design and pretesting of intervention materials, channel analysis for devising distribution systems and promotional campaigns, employment of the "marketing mix" concept in intervention planning and implementation, development of a process tracking system, and a management process of problem analysis, planning, implementation, feedback and control functions. Attention to such variables could result in more cost-effective programs that reach larger numbers of the target audience. PMID:3056876

  4. Urban Public Health: Is There a Pyramid?

    Meirong Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Early ecologists identified a pyramidal trophic structure in terms of number, biomass and energy transfer. In 1943, the psychologist Maslow put forward a pyramid model to describe layers of human needs. It is indicated that the pyramid principle is universally applicable in natural, humanistic and social disciplines. Here, we report that a pyramid structure also exists in urban public health (UPH. Based on 18 indicators, the UPH states of four cities (Beijing, Tokyo, New York, and London are compared from the point of view of five aspects, namely physical health, living conditions, social security, environmental quality, and education and culture. A pyramid structure was found in each city when focusing on 2000–2009 data. The pyramid of Beijing is relatively similar to that of Tokyo, and the pyramids of New York and London are similar to each other. A general development trend in UPH is proposed and represented by different pyramid modes. As a basic conjecture, the UPH pyramid model can be verified and developed with data of more cities over a longer period, and be used to promote healthy urban development.

  5. Public health in New York City, 2002-2007: confronting epidemics of the modern era.

    Frieden, Thomas R; Bassett, Mary T; Thorpe, Lorna E; Farley, Thomas A

    2008-10-01

    Long after the leading causes of death in the United States shifted from infectious diseases to chronic diseases, many public health agencies have not established effective policies and programmes to prevent current health problems. Starting in 2002, the New York City health department, an agency with a long history of innovation, undertook initiatives to address chronic disease prevention and control, as well as to modernize methods to address persistent health problems. All the initiatives relied on an expansive use of epidemiology; actions to prevent disease were based on policy change to create health-promoting environments as well as engagement with the health care system to improve its focus on prevention. Examples of policy-based initiatives are: a multi-component tobacco control programme that included a tax increase, a comprehensive smoke-free air law, hard-hitting anti-tobacco advertising and cessation services; elimination of trans fats from restaurants and a mandate that restaurants post-calorie information on menu boards. Examples of health care initiatives are public health 'detailing' to primary care providers, creation of a city-wide diabetes registry and development of a public health-oriented electronic health record. The infrastructure needed by local health departments to prevent chronic diseases and other modern health problems includes strong information technology systems, skillful epidemiology, expertise in communications using modern media, policy-making authority and, most importantly, political support. PMID:18540026

  6. An integrated public health and criminal justice approach to gangs: What can research tell us?

    Gebo, Erika

    2016-12-01

    There has been a call to better link public health and criminal justice approaches to best address crime problems generally, and youth and gang violence in particular. Importantly, there has yet to be a systematic examination of how criminal justice approaches can be integrated within a public health framework. This paper examines the strengths and challenges with mapping gang research and evidence-informed practices onto a public health approach. Conceptual examination reveals benefits to utilizing an integrated framework, but it also exposes core problems with identification and prediction of gang joining and gang membership. The gang label as a master status is called into question. It is argued that a public health framework can inform public policy approaches as to when the focus should be youth violence versus gangs and gang violence. PMID:27547719

  7. Zika Virus: An Emerging Public Health Challenge

    Sumeena Basundra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases comprise a substantial proportion of global morbidity and mortality. The world has been hit by Zika virus (ZIKV after it was able to surmount an effective public health response for its control. ZIKV disease is an emerging mosquitoborne disease which occurred as large outbreaks in Yap since 2007, Polynesia in 2013 and Brazil in 2015. ZIKV infection in pregnant women has been observed to be associated with congenital microcephaly with neurological and autoimmune sequelae in general population of Brazil. The incubation period of ZIKV varies from few days to weeks. Only 20% of infected cases have symptoms like any other arboviral illness. ZIKV is diagnosed using RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation from blood samples. The treatment comprises of relief of symptoms by conservative management with no specific vaccine being available. The prevention and control of ZIKV is based on reduction of vector density by Integrated Vector Management and personal protection measures. As per Indian scenario, Ministry of Health had issued guidelines based on effective surveillance, risk communication, laboratory and travel regulations. Approaches to such a potential global health security threat should be consistent, proactive, and should involve coordinated, multi-pronged, multilateral collaborative efforts since the concern is at the highest and immediate because of Global epidemic, Rio de Janeiro Olympic Games starting from Aug 5-21, 2016 and strong association with microcephaly. Most importantly the need of the hour is the development of vaccine for protection especially the young women who are in the reproductive age groups. The research for which is ongoing as far as the current situation of global epidemic response is concerned.

  8. Building Interdisciplinary Research Capacity: a Key Challenge for Ecological Approaches in Public Health

    Lindsay P. Galway

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The shortcomings of public health research informed by reductionist and fragmented biomedical approaches and the emergence of wicked problems are fueling a renewed interest in ecological approaches in public health. Despite the central role of interdisciplinarity in the context of ecological approaches in public health research, inadequate attention has been given to the specific challenge of doing interdisciplinary research in practice. As a result, important knowledge gaps exist with regards to the practice of interdisciplinary research. We argue that explicit attention towards the challenge of doing interdisciplinary research is critical in order to effectively apply ecological approaches to public health issues. This paper draws on our experiences developing and conducting an interdisciplinary research project exploring the links among climate change, water, and health to highlight five specific insights which we see as relevant to building capacity for interdisciplinary research specifically, and which have particular relevance to addressing the integrative challenges demanded by ecological approaches to address public health issues. These lessons include: (i the need for frameworks that facilitate integration; (ii emphasize learning-by-doing; (iii the benefits of examining issues at multiple scales; (iv make the implicit, explicit; and (v the need for reflective practice. By synthesizing and sharing experiences gained by engaging in interdisciplinary inquiries using an ecological approach, this paper responds to a growing need to build interdisciplinary research capacity as a means for advancing the ecological public health agenda more broadly.

  9. A Public Health Approach to Prevention: What Will It Take?

    Daro, Deborah

    2016-10-01

    Much of the fabric in today's society is at odds with planning a robust and generative public health response to child maltreatment prevention. A critical component of this problem is the absence of a public policy framework and related infrastructure that can create common ownership of the problem while recognizing the vast differences in individual willingness and capacity to alter their parenting behaviors. To address this challenge, it seems prudent to begin building a universal system of assessment and support that will touch all children and all families at multiple points in the developmental process. Such a system would not simply identify those at highest risk. Rather this system would be built on the premise that all parents have issues and concerns and differ only in the extent to which they have the capacity to address these issues. This commentary outlines the key elements of such a system and its benefits in strengthening both the impacts of interventions and the collective will to support all children. PMID:27580667

  10. Bed Bug Epidemic: A Challenge to Public Health

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Ritzel, Dale O.; Haramis, Linn D.; Bliss, Kadi R.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, reported cases of bed bug infestations in the U.S. and throughout the world have escalated dramatically, posing a global public health problem. Although bed bugs are not known to transmit disease to humans, they pose both direct and indirect public health challenges in terms of health effects, treatment, cost, and resource…

  11. Understanding Evaluation Training in Schools and Programs of Public Health

    Fierro, Leslie A.; Christie, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    This study provides an understanding of how the coursework required for attaining a Masters of Public Health (MPH) degree in epidemiology or health education from accredited schools or programs of public health prepares students to evaluate programs or interventions. Study data were generated using a content analysis of required coursework…

  12. 75 FR 27348 - Public Health Services Act; Delegation of Authority

    2010-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Public Health Services Act; Delegation of Authority Notice is hereby given that I have delegated to the Director, Office of Public Health...

  13. The Public Health Journey: The Meaning and the Moment

    Koh, Howard K.

    2013-01-01

    The public health journey is a remarkable one, filled with twists and turns as well as risks and rewards. Because promoting the health of others represents a mission brimming with meaning, our professional work is also profoundly personal. At this extraordinary moment in our nation's public health history, I reflect on the purpose of the…

  14. [One hundred years' history of public health activities in Korea].

    Meng, K H

    1999-01-01

    In a dictionary of epidemiology, recently edited by John Last, public health was defined as one of the efforts organized by society to protest, promote, and restore the peoples' health. It is the combination of sciences, skills, and beliefs that is directed to the maintenance and improvement of the health of all the people through collective or social action. In most countries, the efforts to protect, promote, and restore the peoples' health are mostly organized by the government, and therefore, the history of public health in the respective countries is closely related to the state of government and its administrative structures. In this article, the history of public health activities in Korea during the last 100 years has been reviewed in four consecutive time periods from the end of Li Dynasty till now. The public health during the first some 50 years from 1897 when the Dae Han Empire began to 1945 when the Japanese colonial period ended can be characterized by enforcement of personal and environmental hygiene by the police. In those days, communicable disease control was the main purpose of such public health measures. Second phase of Korean public health from 1945 to the time of military coup in 1961 is characterized by enactment of various public health laws and the related public health practices. Major health related laws are communicable disease control law, environmental hygiene act, industrial safety and health law, and so on. Important public health practice in this time period was family planning. Third phase of public health history from 1962 to 1992 can be recorded as the time when the actual public health practices were fully developed. Because of well established health center activities throughout the country, basic public health services were provided together with primary medical care services to the people in rural areas. Since 1993, two civilian governments have been trying to change the concept of their health administration from providing

  15. "One Health" or Three? Publication Silos Among the One Health Disciplines.

    Manlove, Kezia R; Walker, Josephine G; Craft, Meggan E; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Joseph, Maxwell B; Miller, Ryan S; Nol, Pauline; Patyk, Kelly A; O'Brien, Daniel; Walsh, Daniel P; Cross, Paul C

    2016-04-01

    The One Health initiative is a global effort fostering interdisciplinary collaborations to address challenges in human, animal, and environmental health. While One Health has received considerable press, its benefits remain unclear because its effects have not been quantitatively described. We systematically surveyed the published literature and used social network analysis to measure interdisciplinarity in One Health studies constructing dynamic pathogen transmission models. The number of publications fulfilling our search criteria increased by 14.6% per year, which is faster than growth rates for life sciences as a whole and for most biology subdisciplines. Surveyed publications clustered into three communities: one used by ecologists, one used by veterinarians, and a third diverse-authorship community used by population biologists, mathematicians, epidemiologists, and experts in human health. Overlap between these communities increased through time in terms of author number, diversity of co-author affiliations, and diversity of citations. However, communities continue to differ in the systems studied, questions asked, and methods employed. While the infectious disease research community has made significant progress toward integrating its participating disciplines, some segregation-especially along the veterinary/ecological research interface-remains. PMID:27100532

  16. Addressing Public Stigma and Disparities Among Persons With Mental Illness: The Role of Federal Policy

    Janet R. Cummings; Lucas, Stephen M.; Druss, Benjamin G.

    2013-01-01

    Stigma against mental illness is a complex construct with affective, cognitive, and behavioral components. Beyond its symbolic value, federal law can only directly address one component of stigma: discrimination.

  17. Using community-based participatory research to address Chinese older women's health needs: Toward sustainability.

    Chang, E-Shien; Simon, Melissa A; Dong, XinQi

    2016-01-01

    Although community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been recognized as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities, less attention is given to how CBPR projects may address gender inequalities in health for immigrant older women. The goal of this article is to share culturally sensitive strategies and lessons learned from the PINE study-a population-based study of U.S. Chinese older adults that was strictly guided by the CBPR approach. Working with Chinese older women requires trust, respect, and understanding of their unique historical, social, and cultural positions. We also discuss implications for developing impact-driven research partnerships that meet the needs of this vulnerable population. PMID:27310870

  18. Applications of electronic health information in public health: uses, opportunities & barriers.

    Tomines, Alan; Readhead, Heather; Readhead, Adam; Teutsch, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Electronic health information systems can reshape the practice of public health including public health surveillance, disease and injury investigation and control, decision making, quality assurance, and policy development. While these opportunities are potentially transformative, and the federal program for the Meaningful Use (MU) of electronic health records (EHRs) has included important public health components, significant barriers remain. Unlike incentives in the clinical care system, scant funding is available to public health departments to develop the necessary information infrastructure and workforce capacity to capitalize on EHRs, personal health records, or Big Data. Current EHR systems are primarily built to serve clinical systems and practice rather than being structured for public health use. In addition, there are policy issues concerning how broadly the data can be used by public health officials. As these issues are resolved and workable solutions emerge, they should yield a more efficient and effective public health system. PMID:25848571

  19. Accountable Care Organizations and Clinical Commissioning Groups face an uncertain challenge for improving public health

    Douglas J. Noble

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Accountable Care Organizations (ACO in the United States of America (USA and Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCG in the United Kingdom (UK are new proposed organizations in health services both tasked with a role which includes improving public health.  Although there are very significant differences between the UK and USA health systems there appears to be a similar confusion as to how ACO and CCG will regard and address public or population health.  The role of ACO in improving population health and evaluating the health needs of their registered and insured patients remains ill-defined and poorly explored.  Likewise, in the current UK National Health Service (NHS reorganisation, control and commissioning of appropriate local health services are passing from Primary Care Trusts (PCT to new cross-organizational structures (CCG.  CCG groups aim to be, like ACO, physician led.  They will also assume a role for public or population health, but this role, like that of the newly-forming ACO, is currently unclear.  Lessons learned from the USA and UK experience of new organizations tasked with a role in improving public health may inform mechanisms for physician led organizations in the UK and the USA to assess health needs, monitor population health information and improve population health outcomes.

  20. Adapting online learning for Canada's Northern public health workforce

    Marnie Bell

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Canada's North is a diverse, sparsely populated land, where inequalities and public health issues are evident, particularly for Aboriginal people. The Northern public health workforce is a unique mix of professional and paraprofessional workers. Few have formal public health education. From 2009 to 2012, the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC collaborated with a Northern Advisory Group to develop and implement a strategy to strengthen public health capacity in Canada's 3 northern territories. Access to relevant, effective continuing education was identified as a key issue. Challenges include diverse educational and cultural backgrounds of public health workers, geographical isolation and variable technological infrastructure across the north. Methods . PHAC's Skills Online program offers Internet-based continuing education modules for public health professionals. In partnership with the Northern Advisory Group, PHAC conducted 3 pilots between 2008 and 2012 to assess the appropriateness of the Skills Online program for Northern/Aboriginal public health workers. Module content and delivery modalities were adapted for the pilots. Adaptations included adding Inuit and Northern public health examples and using video and teleconference discussions to augment the online self-study component. Results . Findings from the pilots were informative and similar to those from previous Skills Online pilots with learners in developing countries. Online learning is effective in bridging the geographical barriers in remote locations. Incorporating content on Northern and Aboriginal health issues facilitates engagement in learning. Employer support facilitates the recruitment and retention of learners in an online program. Facilitator assets included experience as a public health professional from the north, and flexibility to use modified approaches to support and measure knowledge acquisition and application, especially for First Nations, Inuit and

  1. 76 FR 60505 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to Addressing Drug Shortage; Public Workshop...

    2011-09-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to... notice of public workshop published in the Federal Register of July 28, 2011 (76 FR 45268). In that notice, FDA announced a public workshop regarding the approach of the Center for Drug Evaluation...

  2. To privatize or not? Addressing public values in a semiprivatized prison system

    A. Reynaers; H. Paanakker

    2016-01-01

    Through public-private partnerships (PPPs), the Dutch government is experimenting with private sector involvement in its prison system. Although considered a promising alternative to traditional public procurement in terms of efficiency and effectiveness, there is a paucity of empirical data on the

  3. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    HCTT-CHE

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

  4. Public health nurses' primary health care practice: strategies for fostering citizen participation.

    Aston, Megan; Meagher-Stewart, Donna; Edwards, Nancy; Young, Linda M

    2009-01-01

    Citizen participation is heralded as a critical element of community health programs that emphasize empowerment and health promotion strategies. Although there is a growing body of research on public health nurses' primary health care practice, few studies have described how public health nurses foster citizen participation. This article presents findings from an interpretive qualitative study of public health nurses' perceptions of their role in fostering citizen participation in an eastern Canadian province at a time of significant health care restructuring. The findings from this study clearly profile public health nurses as integral to the practice of fostering citizen participation. PMID:19177270

  5. The Role of Labor Unions in Creating Working Conditions That Promote Public Health.

    Hagedorn, Jenn; Paras, Claudia Alexandra; Greenwich, Howard; Hagopian, Amy

    2016-06-01

    We sought to portray how collective bargaining contracts promote public health, beyond their known effect on individual, family, and community well-being. In November 2014, we created an abstraction tool to identify health-related elements in 16 union contracts from industries in the Pacific Northwest. After enumerating the contract-protected benefits and working conditions, we interviewed union organizers and members to learn how these promoted health. Labor union contracts create higher wage and benefit standards, working hours limits, workplace hazards protections, and other factors. Unions also promote well-being by encouraging democratic participation and a sense of community among workers. Labor union contracts are largely underutilized, but a potentially fertile ground for public health innovation. Public health practitioners and labor unions would benefit by partnering to create sophisticated contracts to address social determinants of health. PMID:27077343

  6. Hawai‘i in Public Health

    Ho-Lastimosa, Ilima; Hwang, Phoebe W; Lastimosa, Bob

    2014-01-01

    Historical trauma occurs across generations and is evidenced by indigenous disparities. Efforts made to address this issue commonly utilize European ethnocentric methods. Rather, a community-based approach should be used to empower indigenous communities. God's Country Waimanalo (GCW) is a grassroots organization developed by Native Hawaiians for Native Hawaiians. Its wa‘a (canoe) project, Ho‘omana‘o Mau (everlasting memories; abbreviated Ho‘o) is meant to perpetuate pre-colonial Hawaiian practices by educating Native Hawaiian communities and its partners through hands on experience. Since 2012, GCW has opened its wa‘a curricula to educators, counselors, and students from the University of Hawai‘i at Manoa, Queen Lili‘uokalani Children's Center, Alu Like, Hina Mauka, and the Youth Correctional Facility and contributed to Waimanalo based events such as funeral ash scattering and the papio fishing tournament. As metaphor, Ho‘o is viewed as the catalyst to engage the next generation of Hawaiians to remember where they descend from, the lineage of chiefs and royalty, while establishing a solid foundation of independence and enhancing their ability to become self-sustaining. As a method, Ho‘o is viewed as a classroom, a hands-on learning environment, and an ocean vessel, assembled according to traditional Hawaiian knowledge. Through this knowledge and practice, both indigenous and non-indigenous communities can work together in empowering Native Hawaiians to overcome historical trauma and reduce health disparities. PMID:25628973

  7. Developing a brucellosis public health information and awareness campaign in Iraq.

    Maxwell, John R; Bill, Debra E

    2008-01-01

    U.S. Army civil affairs public health professionals are deployed worldwide in support of current contingency operations to promote and to preserve the public health of the citizens of the occupied territory or host nation. In Iraq, they face the challenge of assisting a health care system plagued by years of neglect and inefficient bureaucracy. Iraqi efforts to track and to control infectious diseases, especially zoonotic diseases, are in their infancy. Brucellosis, a worldwide zoonotic disease of ruminants, is of particular concern in Iraq because of the close proximity of animals to humans and the cultural habits that favor disease dissemination among the population. A public health education and awareness campaign was recently developed in Ninewa Province, Iraq, to educate Iraqi citizens about brucellosis and ways to prevent it. The public health campaign used a two-pronged approach to effect change, i.e., (1) development of a social marketing campaign (public health education) about brucellosis and its prevention, with billboards, flyers, and public service announcements, and (2) mobilization of key veterinary institutions to participate in educating and training the public and farmers about brucellosis. The campaign used culturally relevant messages and was targeted to address local cultural practices, to lower disease transmission. Efforts were made to state messages using local terms and references. This approach may have utility in other public health efforts in Iraq and other postconflict stabilization operations. PMID:18251336

  8. A case for using grid architecture for state public health informatics: the Utah perspective

    Rolfs Robert

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents the rationale for designing and implementing the next-generation of public health information systems using grid computing concepts and tools. Our attempt is to evaluate all grid types including data grids for sharing information and computational grids for accessing computational resources on demand. Public health is a broad domain that requires coordinated uses of disparate and heterogeneous information systems. System interoperability in public health is limited. The next-generation public health information systems must overcome barriers to integration and interoperability, leverage advances in information technology, address emerging requirements, and meet the needs of all stakeholders. Grid-based architecture provides one potential technical solution that deserves serious consideration. Within this context, we describe three discrete public health information system problems and the process by which the Utah Department of Health (UDOH and the Department of Biomedical Informatics at the University of Utah in the United States has approached the exploration for eventual deployment of a Utah Public Health Informatics Grid. These three problems are: i integration of internal and external data sources with analytic tools and computational resources; ii provide external stakeholders with access to public health data and services; and, iii access, integrate, and analyze internal data for the timely monitoring of population health status and health services. After one year of experience, we have successfully implemented federated queries across disparate administrative domains, and have identified challenges and potential solutions concerning the selection of candidate analytic grid services, data sharing concerns, security models, and strategies for reducing expertise required at a public health agency to implement a public health grid.

  9. Educating public health physicians for the future: a current perspective from Aotearoa New Zealand.

    Bullen, Chris; Neuwelt, Pat

    2009-01-01

    Persisting, and in some cases widening, inequalities in health within and between countries present significant challenges to the focus and practice of contemporary public health, and by association, to public health education. As public health physicians and academic educators of medically- and non-medically trained public health practitioners, we call for a radical re-think of current approaches to public health medicine education and training in order to address these challenges. The public health physicians of the future, we argue, require not merely technical knowledge and skills but also a set of values that underpin a commitment to ethical principles, social equity, human rights, compassionate action, advocacy and leadership. Furthermore, while they will need to have their action firmly grounded in local realities they should think, if not speak and act, from an informed awareness of global issues. Drawing from our experience in Aotearoa New Zealand, as well as with marginalised communities overseas, we proffer our suggestions for the process and content of public health physician education and training for the future, with the intention of stimulating debate. PMID:19358712

  10. Public health implications of antiretroviral therapy and HIV drug resistance.

    Wainberg, M A; Friedland, G

    1998-06-24

    Widespread use of antiretroviral agents and increasing occurrence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) strains resistant to these drugs have given rise to a number of important issues. Some of these concerns are distinct from the obvious question of the relationship between drug resistance and treatment failure and have potentially widespread public health implications. The relevant issues include but are not limited to the following: (1) frequency with which drug-resistant virus may be transmitted via sexual, intravenous, or mother-to-child routes; (2) ability of drug-resistant variants to be transmitted, a question that relates, in part, to the relative fitness of such strains; (3) effectiveness of antiviral therapy in diminishing viral burden in both blood and genital secretions, and whether this may be compromised in persons harboring resistant virus; and (4) importance of patient adherence to antiviral therapy and its relationship to sustained reduction in viral load to minimize the appearance in and transmission of drug-resistant virus from both blood and genital secretions. Thus, prevention of both development of HIV drug resistance as well as transmission of drug-resistant variants is a central issue of public health importance. Unless this topic is appropriately addressed, the likelihood is that drug-resistant variants of HIV, if able to successfully replicate, will sustain the epidemic and limit the effectiveness of antiviral therapy. PMID:9643862

  11. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    ORAU' s Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

  12. A model for training public health workers in health policy: the Nebraska Health Policy Academy.

    Brandert, Kathleen; McCarthy, Claudine; Grimm, Brandon; Svoboda, Colleen; Palm, David; Stimpson, Jim P

    2014-01-01

    There is growing recognition that health goals are more likely to be achieved and sustained if programs are complemented by appropriate changes in the policies, systems, and environments that shape their communities. However, the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to create and implement policy are among the major needs identified by practitioners at both the state and local levels. This article describes the structure and content of the Nebraska Health Policy Academy (the Academy), a 9-month program developed to meet the demand for this training. The Academy is a competency-based training program that aims to increase the capacity of Nebraska's state and local public health staff and their community partners to use public health policy and law as a public health tool. Our initiative allows for participation across a large, sparsely populated state; is grounded in adult learning theory; introduces the key principles and practices of policy, systems, and environmental change; and is offered free of charge to the state's public health workforce. Challenges and lessons learned when offering workforce development on public health policy efforts are discussed. PMID:24831286

  13. Community health workers as cultural producers in addressing gender-based violence in rural South Africa.

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    South Africa has been experiencing an epidemic of gender-based violence (GBV) for a long time and in some rural communities health workers, who are trained to care for those infected with HIV, are positioned at the forefront of addressing this problem, often without the necessary support. In this article, we pose the question: How might cultural production through media making with community health workers (CHWs) contribute to taking action to address GBV and contribute to social change in a rural community? This qualitative participatory arts-based study with five female CHWs working from a clinic in a rural district of South Africa is positioned as critical research, using photographs in the production of media posters. We offer a close reading of the data and its production and discuss three data moments: CHWs drawing on insider cultural knowledge; CHWs constructing messages; and CHWs taking action. In our discussion, we take up the issue of cultural production and then offer concluding thoughts on 'beyond engagement' when the researchers leave the community. PMID:27080871

  14. Success of the Undergraduate Public Health at Tulane University

    White, Luann Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine launched the Bachelors of Science in Public Health (BSPH) in 2005. The BSPH has steadily grown and comprises one-third of the total enrollment in the school. A review of the organizational structure demonstrates that direct responsibility for undergraduate education by a school of public health is advantageous to the success of the program. The competency and skills-based curriculum attracts students. Outcome measures show the en...

  15. Public health expenditure in Spain: is there partisan behaviour?

    Clemente, Jesús; Lazaro, Angelina; Montanes, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the disparities in the evolution of Spanish regional public health expenditures from 1991 to 2010. We find that the recent development of the Spanish regional public health system have led the regions to reflect a very heterogeneous pattern of behaviour. These differences depend on economic and demographic factors, but also on the ideology of the regional governments. The longer a region is governed by a right-wing party, the lower the public health expenditure. This resul...

  16. Some public attitudes about health and the environment.

    Baxter, R H

    1990-01-01

    Public opinion is formed both by long-term developments and--at the other extreme--by single unanticipated events. This suggests that readers of opinion survey findings should note field interviewing dates and further determine what the news media have been reporting about relevant developments and events. Personal health and the cost of health care are high on the public's agenda; this is an important backdrop to a review of public attitudes and priorities related to health and the environme...

  17. Epidemiology Core Competencies for Master of Public Health Students

    Moser, Michael; Ramiah, Kalpana; Ibrahim, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Competency-based education for public health professionals has been recommended by the Institute of Medicine. The Association of Schools of Public Health has developed a set of academic core competencies that it recommends that all Master of Public Health (MPH) students should possess prior to graduation. This article discusses the processes and reasoning used by the workgroup that prepared the epidemiology subset of MPH core competencies that appear in the association's 2006 report. These ac...

  18. Energy drinks: an emerging public health hazard for youth.

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Munsell, Christina R; Harris, Jennifer L

    2013-05-01

    Energy drinks are emerging as a public health threat and are increasingly consumed by youth internationally. Energy drinks contain high levels of caffeine, sugar, and novel ingredients, and are often marketed through youth-oriented media and venues. We review these practices and the current inconsistent state of labeling. We also examine international support for regulation of these products, including a survey showing that 85 per cent of United States parents agreed that regulations requiring caffeine content disclosure and warning labels on energy drinks are warranted. We then examine the regulatory structure for energy drinks in the United States, analyzing legal and self-regulatory strategies to protect consumers, especially youth, from these potentially dangerous products. Recommended government interventions include revised labeling requirements, addressing problematic ingredients, and enacting retail restrictions. We conclude by identifying areas for future research. PMID:23486464

  19. Addressing gaps in abortion education: a sexual health elective created by medical students.

    Caro-Bruce, Emily; Schoenfeld, Elizabeth; Nothnagle, Melissa; Taylor, Julie

    2006-05-01

    Medical school curricula frequently contain gaps in the areas of abortion and sexual health. A group of first- and second-year medical students at the authors' institution organized a collaborative, multidisciplinary elective course to address such omissions in the preclinical curriculum. This paper describes the process of creating and implementing the elective. Medical students identified curricular gaps in the areas of abortion, sexual assault, lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender health, and HIV counseling. Clinical faculty and community-based professionals were invited to address these topics in a weekly lecture series organized by students. The course also included a half-day experience shadowing at a local abortion clinic. Collaboration with several student groups helped broaden student interest in and increase financial support for the elective. Some 37% of all first- and second-year students enrolled in the elective and received institutional credit for the course. Written and verbal evaluations confirmed student satisfaction with the lectures and the clinical experience. Dynamic and well-prepared speakers who presented interesting medical content received the highest ratings from students. Student leaders identified several challenges in implementing the elective. Ultimately the elective proved to be a successful collaboration among students, faculty, and healthcare providers, and resulted in permanent changes in the standard medical school curriculum. Challenges for student-initiated electives include difficulty in finding administrative support, securing funding and ensuring sustainability. This paper aims to make this process accessible and applicable to other students and faculty interested in addressing curricular gaps at their respective medical schools. PMID:16753723

  20. Persisting problems related to race and ethnicity in public health and epidemiology research

    Jean-Claude Moubarac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A recent and comprehensive review of the use of race and ethnicity in research that address health disparities in epidemiology and public health is provided. First it is described the theoretical basis upon which race and ethnicity differ drawing from previous work in anthropology, social science and public health. Second, it is presented a review of 280 articles published in high impacts factor journals in regards to public health and epidemiology from 2009-2011. An analytical grid enabled the examination of conceptual, theoretical and methodological questions related to the use of both concepts. The majority of articles reviewed were grounded in a theoretical framework and provided interpretations from various models. However, key problems identified include a a failure from researchers to differentiate between the concepts of race and ethnicity; b an inappropriate use of racial categories to ascribe ethnicity; c a lack of transparency in the methods used to assess both concepts; and d failure to address limits associated with the construction of racial or ethnic taxonomies and their use. In conclusion, future studies examining health disparities should clearly establish the distinction between race and ethnicity, develop theoretically driven research and address specific questions about the relationships between race, ethnicity and health. One argue that one way to think about ethnicity, race and health is to dichotomize research into two sets of questions about the relationship between human diversity and health.