WorldWideScience

Sample records for address international health

  1. Ethics in occupational health: deliberations of an international workgroup addressing challenges in an African context

    2014-01-01

    Background International codes of ethics play an important role in guiding professional practice in developing countries. In the occupational health setting, codes developed by international agencies have substantial import on protecting working populations from harm. This is particularly so under globalisation which has transformed processes of production in fundamental ways across the globe. As part of the process of revising the Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health, an Africa Working Group addressed key challenges for the relevance and cogency of an ethical code in occupational health for an African context through an iterative consultative process. Discussion Firstly, even in the absence of strong legal systems of enforcement, and notwithstanding the value of legal institutionalisation of ethical codes, guidelines alone may offer advantageous routes to enhancing ethical practice in occupational health. Secondly, globalisation has particularly impacted on health and safety at workplaces in Africa, challenging occupational health professionals to be sensitive to, and actively redress imbalance of power. Thirdly, the different ways in which vulnerability is exemplified in the workplace in Africa often places the occupational health professional in invidious positions of Dual Loyalty. Fourth, the particular cultural emphasis in traditional African societies on collective responsibilities within the community impacts directly on how consent should be sought in occupational health practice, and how stigma should be dealt with, balancing individual autonomy with ideas of personhood that are more collective as in the African philosophy of ubuntu. To address stigma, practitioners need to be additionally sensitive to how power imbalances at the workplace intersect with traditional cultural norms related to solidarity. Lastly, particularly in the African context, the inseparability of workplace and community means that efforts to address

  2. Strengthening Indonesia's Field Epidemiology Training Programme to address International Health Regulations requirements

    I Nyoman Kandun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available PROBLEM: According to the International Health Regulations (IHR, countries need to strengthen core capacity for disease surveillance and response systems. Many countries are establishing or enhancing their field epidemiology training programmes (FETPs to meet human resource needs but face challenges in sustainability and training quality. Indonesia is facing these challenges, which include limited resources for field training and limited coordination in a newly decentralized health system. APPROACH: A national FETP workplan was developed based on an evaluation of the existing programme and projected human resource needs. A Ministry of Health Secretariat linking universities, national and international partners was established to oversee revision and implementation of the FETP. LOCAL SETTING: The FETP is integrated into the curriculum of Indonesian universities and field training is conducted in district and provincial health offices under the coordination of the universities and the FETP Secretariat. RELEVANT CHANGES: The FETP was included in the Ministry of Health workforce development strategy through governmental decree. Curricula have been enhanced and field placements strengthened to provide trainees with better learning experiences. To improve sustainability of the FETP, links were established with the Indonesian Epidemiologists' Association, local governments and donors to cultivate future FETP champions and maintain funding. Courses, competitions and discussion forums were established for field supervisors and alumni. These changes have increased the geographic distribution of students, intersectoral and international participation and the quality of student performance. LESSONS LEARNT: The main lesson learnt is that linkages with universities, ministries and international agencies such as the World Health Organization are critical for building a sustainable high-quality programme. The most critical factors were development of trusting

  3. Keynote address at the Fifth Congress of the International Association for Adolescent Health.

    Ransome-Kuti, O

    1992-07-01

    This Nigerian Ministry of Health speech reiterates the importance of focusing on the problems of youth and adolescents which was 1st identified in 1989 at a World Health Assembly. Every stage of the life cycle is important because mental, physical, psychological, and social scars are carried into the future. It is important to make the transition to adulthood as smooth as possible. Of the 30% (1.5 billion) of the World's population that are adolescents 10-24 years old, 80% live in developing countries. 50% of the world population is 25 years. In the preparation for adulthood, age-old customs, culture, and tradition have ensured the stability and survival of societies, but great changes have taken place due to colonialism, modern education, urban migration, rapid travel an communication, tourism, and trade. There is weakening of traditional marriage. Foreign cultural influence has armed youths to challenge community cultural norms and parental authority to direct their development. There is social tension, disruption, an instability. Adults as role models have sometimes failed to represent integrity and honesty. There is a need for sensitive support and guidance from adults. Peer pressure operates for both good or ill. Some will react to this stress to conform in unhealthy ways. The health care system may not fill adolescent needs because they are too old for the pediatrician and too young for the physician. Girls are particularly vulnerable to the problems of premarital pregnancy, induced abortion, out-of-wedlock births, and sexually transmitted diseases. The pressure is to grow up fast, particularly in polygamous societies where the woman has security only in her children. Opportunities for dialogue degenerate into sessions of being "talked at" and forced compliance. Unemployment is very high which can lead to loss of self-esteem, psychological stress, and hopelessness and sometimes street fighting, thuggery, drug pushing, and armed robbery. Attempts worldwide are

  4. International Health

    ... create refugee populations with immediate and long-term health problems. Some of the major diseases currently affecting ... also an international problem which can affect people's health. Many countries and health organizations are working together ...

  5. Addressing Global Health, Development, and Social Inequalities through Research and Policy Analyses: the International Journal of MCH and AIDS

    Romuladus E. Azuine, DrPH, RN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One year after the birth of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA, we continue to share the passion to document, and shine the light on the myriads of global health issues that debilitate developing countries.Although the focus of IJMA is on the social determinants of health and disease as well as on the disparities in the burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases affecting infants, children, women, adults, and families in developing countries, we would like to encourage our fellow researchers and policy makers in both the developing and developed countries to consider submitting work that examines cross-national variations in heath and social inequalities.Such a global focus allows us to identify and understand social, structural, developmental, and health policy determinants underlying health inequalities between nations.Global assessment of health and socioeconomic patterns reaffirms the role of broader societal-level factors such as human development, gender inequality, gross national product, income inequality, and healthcare infrastructure as the fundamental determinants of health inequalities between nations.This is also confirmed by our analysis of the WHO data that shows a strong negative association between levels of human development and infant and maternal mortality rates.Focusing on socioeconomic, demographic, and geographical inequalities within a developing country, on the other hand, should give us a sense of how big the problem of health inequity is within its own borders.Such an assessment, then, could lead to development of policy solutions to tackle health inequalities that are unique to that country.

  6. The 4th Bi-annual international African-Caribbean Cancer Consortium conference: building capacity to address cancer health disparities in populations of African descent.

    Blackman, Elizabeth; Campbell, Jasmine; Bowen, Carlene; Delmoor, Ernestine; Jean-Louis, Gilda; Noumbissi, Raphiatou; O'Garro, Yvonne; Richards-Waritay, Oni; Straughter, Stanley; Tolbert, Vera; Wilson, Barbara; Ragin, Camille

    2014-01-01

    This is a brief summary of the 4(th) International Meeting of the African-Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3), organized and sponsored by Fox Chase Cancer Center (FCCC), and held on July 21-22, 2012 at the Lincoln University Graduate Center, Lincoln Plaza, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. AC3 investigators gathered in Philadelphia, PA to present the results of our ongoing collaborative research efforts throughout the African Diaspora. The general theme addressed cancer health disparities and presentations represented all cancer types. However, there was particular emphasis on women's cancers, related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. PMID:26422007

  7. International Health

    ... create refugee populations with immediate and long-term health problems. Some of the major diseases currently affecting ... pandemic/avian flu, and tuberculosis. Many countries and health organizations are working together and sharing information on ...

  8. Addressing verification challenges [International safeguards symposium on addressing verification challenges

    In his welcome address the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Mr. M. ElBaradei, stated that safeguards activities are probably the most difficult task entrusted to an international organization and to determine all the details of a country's nuclear programme is a daunting challenge that raises a number of questions. There is an increase in nuclear power around the globe as a result of shortages of energy and concerns about energy independence and climate change. On the one hand, this is good, because without energy there is no hope for development on the other hand, however, it means that nuclear know-how and nuclear technology will continue to spread to more and more countries. There is also an increase in the number of countries interested in developing nuclear fuel cycle capabilities: sensitive fuel cycle activities, reprocessing and above all uranium enrichment. It even seems that some countries might be hedging their bets in order to have the know-how should they need to develop their own deterrence. Verifying enrichment or reprocessing facilities is quite difficult, and the so-called conversion time is extremely short. Thus, the IAEA is dealing with what is called 'virtual nuclear weapon States'. The IAEA has been talking for a number of years about the need to develop a new international or multinational approach to the fuel cycle in order to avoid a situation with nine nuclear weapon States and another 20 or 30 States having the capacity to develop nuclear weapons in a very short period of time. There is a need to remember that there is a linkage between nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. Furthermore safeguards activities, though fundamentally technical in nature, are carried out in a political charged environment. The security dimension - that is, nuclear terrorism - also presents a new challenge, because State systems of accounting for and control of nuclear material are no longer simply tools for safeguards, but

  9. Addressing Inequities in Urban Health: Do Decision-Makers Have the Data They Need? Report from the Urban Health Data Special Session at International Conference on Urban Health Dhaka 2015.

    Elsey, H; Thomson, D R; Lin, R Y; Maharjan, U; Agarwal, S; Newell, J

    2016-06-01

    Rapid and uncontrolled urbanisation across low and middle-income countries is leading to ever expanding numbers of urban poor, defined here as slum dwellers and the homeless. It is estimated that 828 million people are currently living in slum conditions. If governments, donors and NGOs are to respond to these growing inequities they need data that adequately represents the needs of the urban poorest as well as others across the socio-economic spectrum.We report on the findings of a special session held at the International Conference on Urban Health, Dhaka 2015. We present an overview of the need for data on urban health for planning and allocating resources to address urban inequities. Such data needs to provide information on differences between urban and rural areas nationally, between and within urban communities. We discuss the limitations of data most commonly available to national and municipality level government, donor and NGO staff. In particular we assess, with reference to the WHO's Urban HEART tool, the challenges in the design of household surveys in understanding urban health inequities.We then present two novel approaches aimed at improving the information on the health of the urban poorest. The first uses gridded population sampling techniques within the design and implementation of household surveys and the second adapts Urban HEART into a participatory approach which enables slum residents to assess indicators whilst simultaneously planning the response. We argue that if progress is to be made towards inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable cities, as articulated in Sustainable Development Goal 11, then understanding urban health inequities is a vital pre-requisite to an effective response by governments, donors, NGOs and communities. PMID:27184570

  10. Road Map to Address Cognitive Health

    2014-06-09

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Lynda Anderson highlights the important roles that states and communities can play in addressing cognitive health as part of overall health.  Created: 6/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/9/2014.

  11. International partnership in lunar missions: Inaugural address

    Dr A P J Abdul Kalam

    2005-12-01

    I am delighted to participate in the 6th International Conference on Exploration and Utilization of the Moon organized by the Physical Research Laboratory,Ahmedabad.I greet the organizers, eminent planetary exploration and space scientists from India and abroad,academicians,industrialists,engineers,entrepreneurs and distinguished guests.I understand that the International Lunar Conference is a forum to discuss scienti fic results of the ongoing and future space missions related to lunar exploration.This conference will also be utilized to develop understanding on various strategies,initiatives and missions leading to a permanent human presence on our Moon as the future objective.I am happy to note that interactions that took place in the earlier conferences have been bene ficial to participating countries through the intense sharing of scientific knowledge,data and hands-on mission experiences of various space agencies pursuing lunar exploration programmes.I find that nearly 100 scientific papers are being presented in this conference and that the Moon missions being planned and conducted by all the space faring nations of the world are being presented,reviewed and discussed.I note with excitement that many key issues related to space science and Moon missions are being addressed in this conference.These deliberations are important for the world space science community.This will enable you to obtain a comprehensive picture of the goals and policies of all nations striving towards a common vision of space research,being made available for the bene fit of all mankind.Indeed this augurs well for progress towards universal peace and harmony that is a cherished goal of the people of the world as a whole.

  12. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding travel health among Muscat International Airport travelers in Oman: Identifying the gaps and addressing the challenges.

    Al-Abri, Seif S; Abdel-Hady, Doaa M; Al-Abaidani, Idris S

    2016-06-01

    Although the majority of travel-associated communicable diseases can be prevented, the public health burden of these diseases remains significant. Relatively little is known about how travelers know and perceive the health risks associated with travel and how they utilize preventive measures before and while traveling abroad. This study was conducted to determine the level of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of Muscat International Airport travelers about travel health in order to assess the knowledge gap and the need for travel health services in Oman. A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 1week using a self-administered questionnaire. The overall level of knowledge about vaccine-preventable diseases, food safety, and preventive measures against insect bites of the participants was inadequate. The practice concerning preventive travel health measures, such as the use of specific immunizations and antimalarial prophylaxis, was very limited, and influenced by some personal and travel-related factors. The inadequate level of travelers' knowledge and poor utilization of travel medicine services highlights the need for the provisions of specialized travel medicine services at the national level and to develop educational materials promoting the importance of pre-travel health advice. PMID:26948720

  13. Health Care International

    2006-01-01

    This is an interactive quiz for the team representing the Health Care International (HCI) in an educational game to clarify its role and relationship with other provincial reconstruction teams (PRTs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and international organizations (IOs) involved in the broad area of humanitarian assistance, relief operations, development and reconstruction in Afghanistan. The educational game involves the following organizations: Health Care International (HCI), Afghan...

  14. The role of health education in addressing the health divide

    Simovska, Venka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to argue that an approach to health education, consistent with critical education theory echoing Freire’s ideas, has the potential to play a significant role in addressing determinants of health by, first and foremost, providing children and young people with...

  15. Addressing Maternal and Newborn Health: A Leadership Perspective.

    Mancuso, Leslie; Johnson, Peter; Hart, Leah; Austin, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Globally, each year 289,000 mothers die in childbirth and three million infants die in the first four weeks of life. The shortcomings in maternal and newborn health are particularly devastating in low-resource countries. This qualitative study describes the experience of an international nongovernmental organization, Jhpiego, which has been implementing public health programs to address maternal and newborn health outcomes for more than 40 years. Themes emerged from interviews with leaders of offices in a variety of countries with unique challenges related to health systems, human resources and infrastructure. Results emphasized the importance of partnerships with governments and international agencies for long-term program impact, as well as the recruitment of local talent for improving health systems to address problems that are best understood by the people who live and work in these countries. The discussion of program successes and challenges may inform best practices for promoting the health and wellness of women and families around the world. PMID:26860758

  16. International child health

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato......International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...

  17. Enhancing Written Communications to Address Health Literacy

    Gloria Mayer; Michael Villaire

    2009-01-01

    Health literacy is defined as the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions. Poor health literacy affects nearly one in two United States adults and greatly increases the cost of healthcare. Most patient education materials are written at a grade level too high to understand. This article describes how to write and design printed patient education materials to make them mor...

  18. Radiation and occupational health: opening address

    The part of address discusses the following issue: benefits of radiological protection in Malaysia, traceability and accountability as assurance of the validity of radiation measurement, Laboratory Accreditation Scheme, Atomic Energy Licensing Act

  19. International health care spending.

    Schieber, G J; Puollier, J P

    1986-01-01

    Trends in health are reviewed for the member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) covering the following: the basic difficulties inherent in international comparative studies; the absolute levels of health expenditures in 1984; the levels and rates of growth of the health share in the gross domestic product (GDP) and the public share of total health expenditures; the elasticities of real health expenditures to real GDP for the 1960-75, 1975-84, and 1960-84 time periods; growth in health expenditures for the largest 7 OECD countries in terms of growth in population, health prices, health care prices in excess of overall prices, and utilization/intensity of services per person. International comparisons are a problem due to differences in defining the boundaries of the health sector, the heterogeneity of data, and methodological problems arising from comparing different economic, demographic, cultural, and institutional structures. The most difficult problem in international comparisons of health expenditures is lack of appropriate measures of health outcome. Exhibit 1 contains per capita health expenditures denominated in US dollars based on GDP purchasing power parities for 21 OECD countries for 1984. Per capita health expenditures ranged from less than $500 in Greece, Portugal, and Spain to over $1400 in Sweden and the US, with an OECD average of $871. After adjusting for price level differences, there still appears to be a greater than 3-fold difference in the "volume" of services consumed across the OECD countries. To determine if per capita health expenditures are related to a country's wealth as measured by its per capita GDP, the relationship between per capita health expenditures and per capita GDP for the 21 countries were examined for 1984. The data points and the "best fitting" trend line indicate a statistically significant relationship in which each $100 difference in per capita GDP is associated with a $10

  20. Addressing health literacy in patient decision aids

    McCaffery, K; Holmes-Rovner, M.; S. Smith; Rovner, D.; Nutbeam, Don; Clayman, M.L.; Kelly-Blake, K.; Wolf, M.(University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, USA); Stacey, S

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective use of a patient decision aid (PtDA) can be affected by the user’s health literacy and the PtDA’s characteristics. Systematic reviews of the relevant literature can guide PtDA developers to attend to the health literacy needs of patients. The reviews reported here aimed to assess: 1. a) the effects of health literacy / numeracy on selected decision-making outcomes, and b) the effects of interventions designed to mitigate the influence of lower health literacy on decision-...

  1. Notation for national and international telephone numbers, e-mail addresses and Web addresses

    International Telecommunication Union. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Recommendation E.123 defines a standard way to write telephone numbers, e-mail addresses, and web addresses. It recommends the following formats (when dialing the area code is optional for local calling): Telephone number: National notation (042) 123 4567 International notation +31 (0)42 123 4567 E-mail address: name@provider.com Internet address / URL: www.company.com It also recommends that a hypen (-), space ( ), or period (.) can be used to visually separate groups of numbers. The parentheses are used to indicate digits that are sometimes not dialed. a slash (/) is used to indicate alternate numbers. This information is important if you want to make sure people know how to dail a phone number in a specific country.

  2. Community Changes Address Common Health Threat

    2013-09-30

    This podcast helps residents living in multiunit housing, like apartments and condos, understand the threat of secondhand smoke. It also helps residents understand what steps they can take to breathe a little easier if involuntarily exposed to secondhand smoke.  Created: 9/30/2013 by Division of Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 9/30/2013.

  3. Welcoming address of the World Health Organization [International conference on safety and security of radioactive sources: Towards a global system for the continuous control of sources throughout their life cycle

    WHO's (World Health Organization) mandate is to develop and implement evidence based policy for Member States aimed at reducing risks and protecting human health from exposure to ionizing radiation of any nature. Furthermore, preparedness and response to events involving such risks are among the topics addressed by both the conference and the WHO Radiation and Environmental Health Programme. A sustainable global safety and security system for the future can only be achieved through capacity building, partnership development and up-to-date information available to all stakeholders. One of the key activities of the WHO Radiation and Environmental Health Programme is medical assistance to Member States in the event of a radionuclear emergency, implemented through WHO's Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network (REMPAN). In this field, WHO works in close collaboration with the IAEA. Under the leadership of the IAEA, WHO recently participated in a nuclear emergency exercise, CONVEX (3) 2005, to test the readiness of REMPAN, WHO's responses and communications with the press. WHO collaborates with various agencies in the field of radiation safety. For example, through the Inter-Agency Committee on Radiation Safety, WHO is involved in the review and revision of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, and has co-sponsored the IAEA's Safety Guide on the Regulatory Control of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-1.5). Beyond these activities, WHO has also looked into the issue of radioactivity levels in food and water. For example, WHO has developed Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, and has worked with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations on the updating of recommendations of the Codex Alimentarius concerning radionuclides in foods following a release of radioactive materials

  4. Ubiquitous Health Monitoring Systems: Addressing Security Concerns

    Mahmoud Elkhodr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: It is important to secure the transmission of patient’s EHR in remote health monitoring systems. Security is among the main issues that need to be realized for the adaption of this monitoring technology. The face of healthcare is changing as ubiquitous computing technologies are being incorporated into the existing infrastructure. We specify the requirements, needed security mechanism, outstanding issues and the future challenges as well as the open problems that need to be achieved. Approach: Although there were benefits to technology, approaches that offer reliable privacy and security features must be presented to users in order to make these systems socially accepted. Results: We investigated the privacy and security implications generated from the deployment of remote health monitoring technology. To achieve these security requirements, building on the strengths of Transport Layer Security (TLS protocol, a trust negotiation approach was proposed. The application of this approach results in significant improvements in overcoming security related concerns compared to the traditional identity-based only access control techniques. Conclusion: We believe these considerations will eventually contribute toward an efficient and practical deployment of remote monitoring systems.

  5. Actions States and Communities Can Take to Address Cognitive Health

    2014-06-09

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Lynda Anderson highlights the important roles that states and communities can play in addressing cognitive health as part of overall health.  Created: 6/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/9/2014.

  6. Addressing verification challenges. Proceedings of an international safeguards symposium

    The symposium on international safeguards, Addressing Verification Challenges, was held in Vienna from 16 to 20 October 2006, with the aim of assessing the challenges to the IAEA safeguards system that have emerged, or intensified, since the previous IAEA safeguards symposium in 2001. Some 500 nuclear safeguards and verification experts from more than 60 countries and international organizations attended the event. In all, 129 papers were presented in 21 sessions. There were 14 keynote speeches and 110 oral presentations. A total of 65 papers were presented as posters. In addition, 16 commercial suppliers of safeguards relevant equipment and technology presented their wares and capabilities. The symposium was organized by the IAEA in cooperation with the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) and the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA). The symposium provided an important forum at which related issues could be discussed, the IAEA could showcase some of its ongoing work and the experts present could provide inputs of fresh thinking. The IAEA Safeguards Symposium 2006 was developed to cover five topics: current challenges to the safeguards system, further strengthening of safeguards practices and approaches, improving the collection and analysis of safeguards information, advances in safeguards techniques and technology, and future challenges. These proceedings contain the addresses given at the opening session, the technical plenary session and the closing session. The summary provides an overview of the oral presentations at the 21 sessions of the symposium. Each individual paper is indexed separately

  7. Nursing leadership in addressing the social determinants of health.

    Lathrop, Breanna

    2013-02-01

    Social determinants of health have a profound impact on health status and the prevalence of health disparities in the United States. Significant improvements in national health indices are not possible without addressing social determinants of health. Drawing on their historical legacy as patient advocates, patient care expertise, and community focused education, nurses are ideally positioned to lead the nation in strategies to promote health equity. Nurses can embrace this new leadership role through the use of interdisciplinary collaboration, advocacy, political involvement, and community partnerships. PMID:23793135

  8. International joint efforts to address training needs in nuclear security

    Full text: Working within the framework of coordinated international efforts to combat nuclear and radiological illicit trafficking, three main donor organizations have recognized the training needs of the recipient institutions and in particular the Front Line Officers (FLO's). Given the tremendous demand for training and the limited resources available to each organization, a pilot joint training session was held in Ukraine whereby the United States' Second Line of Defense (SLD) program, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) brought their complementary expertise. The synergy of the individual training programs paved the way to a successful session, as reflected in the satisfaction of the participants. The evaluation showed that these courses can be brought closer together to become more effective. A clear strength of the joint approach was in allowing the participants to address the three organizations at the same time. Additional joint training sessions will be planned, based on the success of this coordinated approach. The first part of the paper will report on the content of the training activity hold in the Ukraine in 2008. A range of topics on detection and response based on the competences of the three supporting organizations have been covered. The follow-up and future efforts will subsequently be discussed in the second part of the paper, building on the successful Ukrainian experience. In particular, expanding the available training and strengthening the coordination and cooperation at an international level will be addressed, given that the increasing need for a wide range of training will continue to be a key issue worldwide. (author)

  9. International Journal of Circumpolar Health

    Production, Co-Action Publishing

    2012-01-01

    Scope and purpose. The International Journal of Circumpolar Health is published by the International Association of Circumpolar Health Publishers. The journal follows the tradition initiated by its predecessor, Arctic Medical Research. The journal specializes in circumpolar health. It provides a forum for many disciplines, including the biomedical sciences, social sciences, and humanities as they relate to human health in high latitude environments. The journal has a particular interest in th...

  10. 75 FR 51831 - Request for Measures of Health Plan Efforts To Address Health Plan Members' Health Literacy Needs

    2010-08-23

    ... Address Health Plan Members' Health Literacy Needs AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality... health providers address health plan enrollees' health literacy needs and how well they communicate with... supplemental item set (the ``new instrument'') for addressing health literacy for the CAHPS Health Plan...

  11. Public Health Events and International Health Regulations

    2012-06-21

    Dr. Katrin Kohl, a medical officer at the CDC, discusses the World Health Organization’s International Health Regulations for assessing and reporting on public health events across the world.  Created: 6/21/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/21/2012.

  12. Travelers' Health: International Adoption

    ... any child with fever and bloody diarrhea. Unlike refugees, internationally adopted children are not treated for parasites ... disease is endemic throughout much of Mexico, Central America, and South America (Chapter 3, Trypanosomiasis, American (Chagas ...

  13. Redesigning Health Care Practices to Address Childhood Poverty.

    Fierman, Arthur H; Beck, Andrew F; Chung, Esther K; Tschudy, Megan M; Coker, Tumaini R; Mistry, Kamila B; Siegel, Benjamin; Chamberlain, Lisa J; Conroy, Kathleen; Federico, Steven G; Flanagan, Patricia J; Garg, Arvin; Gitterman, Benjamin A; Grace, Aimee M; Gross, Rachel S; Hole, Michael K; Klass, Perri; Kraft, Colleen; Kuo, Alice; Lewis, Gena; Lobach, Katherine S; Long, Dayna; Ma, Christine T; Messito, Mary; Navsaria, Dipesh; Northrip, Kimberley R; Osman, Cynthia; Sadof, Matthew D; Schickedanz, Adam B; Cox, Joanne

    2016-04-01

    Child poverty in the United States is widespread and has serious negative effects on the health and well-being of children throughout their life course. Child health providers are considering ways to redesign their practices in order to mitigate the negative effects of poverty on children and support the efforts of families to lift themselves out of poverty. To do so, practices need to adopt effective methods to identify poverty-related social determinants of health and provide effective interventions to address them. Identification of needs can be accomplished with a variety of established screening tools. Interventions may include resource directories, best maintained in collaboration with local/regional public health, community, and/or professional organizations; programs embedded in the practice (eg, Reach Out and Read, Healthy Steps for Young Children, Medical-Legal Partnership, Health Leads); and collaboration with home visiting programs. Changes to health care financing are needed to support the delivery of these enhanced services, and active advocacy by child health providers continues to be important in effecting change. We highlight the ongoing work of the Health Care Delivery Subcommittee of the Academic Pediatric Association Task Force on Child Poverty in defining the ways in which child health care practice can be adapted to improve the approach to addressing child poverty. PMID:27044692

  14. Ethnocentric approach to address South Asian health issues.

    Sharif, A

    2012-09-01

    South Asian populations have distinct healthcare requirements to other ethnic demographics. Epidemiologically they constitute a high-risk group for many public health diseases such as cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus. Despite individuals of South Asian backgrounds encompassing many individual countries, cultures, religions and backgrounds they share many common health concerns that are poorly tackled in established models of healthcare delivery. To successfully address this burgeoning public health burden, it is important for healthcare professionals and providers to appreciate the need for an ethnocentric approach to South Asian health requirements. Key stakeholders need to understand the need for an integrated ethnocentric approach to challenge the poor health status of this population. Appreciation of the socio-cultural dimension to South Asian healthcare requirements should help guide targeted and focused strategies to improve the outlook for this unique population at high public health risk. PMID:22753671

  15. International Conference on Health Informatics

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the International Conference on Health Informatics (ICHI). The conference was a new special topic conference initiative by the International Federation of Medical and Biological Engineering (IFMBE), held in Vilamoura, Portugal on 7-9 November, 2013. The main theme of the ICHI2013 was “Integrating Information and Communication Technologies with Biomedicine for Global Health”. The proceedings offer a unique forum to examine enabling technologies of sensors, devices and systems that optimize the acquisition, transmission, processing, storage, retrieval of biomedical and health information as well as to report novel clinical applications of health information systems and the deployment of m-Health, e-Health, u-Health, p-Health and Telemedicine.

  16. Linking Obesity Prevention and Mental Health Promotion to Address Health Disparities.

    Claydon, Elizabeth; Austin, Anna; Smith, Megan V

    2016-05-01

    Considerable racial health disparities exist, especially in mental health and obesity. However, few approaches exist to address obesity and mental health simultaneously in minority groups. An intervention to address mental health in a low-income, minority group of urban mothers was designed using results from a needs assessment. Participating women were asked to rank their top health concerns and personal goals. Along with mental health concerns and basic needs, the majority of mothers desired assistance with improving their physical well-being. These results are surprising, but lend credence to creating interventions that aim to address both mental health and obesity concerns simultaneously. PMID:26303902

  17. Challenges in Diabetes Care: Can Digital Health Help Address Them?

    Iyengar, Varun; Wolf, Alexander; Brown, Adam; Close, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    In Brief There is great enthusiasm for the potential of digital health solutions in medicine and diabetes to address key care challenges: patient and provider burden, lack of data to inform therapeutic decision-making, poor access to care, and costs. However, the field is still in its nascent days; many patients and providers do not currently engage with digital health tools, and for those who do, the burden is still often high. Over time, digital health has excellent potential to collect data more seamlessly, make collected data more useful, and drive better outcomes at lower costs in less time. But there is still much to prove. This review offers key background information on the current state of digital health in diabetes, six of the most promising digital health technologies and services, and the challenges that remain. PMID:27621530

  18. International Students and Mental Health

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…

  19. Addressing the Illicit Trafficking Threat - International Cooperation Framework for Law Enforcement

    The criminal dispersal of radioactive material by terrorists, or worse, the detonation of an improvised nuclear device remains a real and present threat to world peace. Prevention of crime is the most effective way for law enforcement to tackle the problem, although it needs to be prepared to deal with the consequences of an attack taking place as well as conducting a detailed and thorough investigation to prevent further attacks and bring perpetrators to justice. INTERPOL’s Operation Fail Safe and its programme of developing and training counter nuclear smuggling teams provides an effective way of assisting the international law enforcement community with this. It’s ongoing partnership with the IAEA, its collaborative work in training & preparing the law enforcement, scientific, health and other public sector communities, together with its long standing information sharing agreements, will go a long way to achieve the shared goals of these two international agencies in addressing the illicit trafficking threat

  20. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  1. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response. International Experiences and Practices

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ghatikar, Girish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dudley, Junqiao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Martin, Phil [Enernoc, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Wikler, Greg

    2012-06-01

    Demand response (DR) is a load management tool which provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional supply-side solutions to address the growing demand during times of peak electrical load. According to the US Department of Energy (DOE), demand response reflects “changes in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high wholesale market prices or when system reliability is jeopardized.” 1 The California Energy Commission (CEC) defines DR as “a reduction in customers’ electricity consumption over a given time interval relative to what would otherwise occur in response to a price signal, other financial incentives, or a reliability signal.” 2 This latter definition is perhaps most reflective of how DR is understood and implemented today in countries such as the US, Canada, and Australia where DR is primarily a dispatchable resource responding to signals from utilities, grid operators, and/or load aggregators (or DR providers).

  2. A Student-Led Health Education Initiative Addressing Health Disparities in a Chinatown Community

    Lee, Benjamin J.; Wang, Sheila K.; So, Chunkit; Chiu, Brandon G.; Wang, Wesley Y.; Polisetty, Radhika; Quiñones-Boex, Ana; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Together with community advocates, professional student organizations can help improve access to health care and sustain services to address the health disparities of a community in need. This paper examines the health concerns of an underserved Chinese community and introduces a student-led health education initiative that fosters service learning and student leadership. The initiative was recognized by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) and received the 2012-2013 Studen...

  3. A Student-Led Health Education Initiative Addressing Health Disparities in a Chinatown Community.

    Lee, Benjamin J; Wang, Sheila K; So, Chunkit; Chiu, Brandon G; Wang, Wesley Y; Polisetty, Radhika; Quiñones-Boex, Ana; Liu, Hong

    2015-11-25

    Together with community advocates, professional student organizations can help improve access to health care and sustain services to address the health disparities of a community in need. This paper examines the health concerns of an underserved Chinese community and introduces a student-led health education initiative that fosters service learning and student leadership. The initiative was recognized by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) and received the 2012-2013 Student Community Engaged Service Award. PMID:26839422

  4. National Institutes of Health addresses the science of diversity.

    Valantine, Hannah A; Collins, Francis S

    2015-10-01

    The US biomedical research workforce does not currently mirror the nation's population demographically, despite numerous attempts to increase diversity. This imbalance is limiting the promise of our biomedical enterprise for building knowledge and improving the nation's health. Beyond ensuring fairness in scientific workforce representation, recruiting and retaining a diverse set of minds and approaches is vital to harnessing the complete intellectual capital of the nation. The complexity inherent in diversifying the research workforce underscores the need for a rigorous scientific approach, consistent with the ways we address the challenges of science discovery and translation to human health. Herein, we identify four cross-cutting diversity challenges ripe for scientific exploration and opportunity: research evidence for diversity's impact on the quality and outputs of science; evidence-based approaches to recruitment and training; individual and institutional barriers to workforce diversity; and a national strategy for eliminating barriers to career transition, with scientifically based approaches for scaling and dissemination. Evidence-based data for each of these challenges should provide an integrated, stepwise approach to programs that enhance diversity rapidly within the biomedical research workforce. PMID:26392553

  5. First International One Health congress

    Martyn H. Jeggo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available More than 650 people from around 60 countries attended the 1st International One Health Conference, held in Melbourne from 14 to 16 February 2011. Scientists, clinicians, government and community members from a range of disciplines came together to discuss the benefits of working together to promote a One Health approach to human, animal and environmental health. One Health embraces systems thinking and recognising the interdependence of people, animals and environment. The conference was hosted by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO and was supported by international agencies, the Australian and Canadian governments, and industry.The Organising Committee recognised from the outset, the need to provide a forum not just for scientific presentation, but for open discussion and dialogue around the policy and political issues, as well as the science that drives the One Health agenda. The Committee was also cognizant of the need to embrace a definition of One Health that includes food security and food safety and included the social and economic pressures that shapes this area. The meeting was therefore organised under four themes with plenary sessions followed by breakout parallel sessions for each of these. The themes covered Disease Emergence, Environmental Drivers, Trade, Food Security and Food Safety, and Science Policy and Political Action. The plenary session commenced with one or two keynote presentations by world leaders on the topic being covered, followed by panel discussions involving six to eight experts and involving all participants at the congress. Each of the panel members spoke briefly on the topic covered by the keynote speaker and were asked to be as provocative as possible. The discussions that followed allowed debate and discussion on the keynote presentations and the panel members comments. This was followed by six to eight parallel breakout sessions involving in depth papers on the session

  6. Post-Polio Health International including International Ventilator Users Network

    ... at PHI Want to be a sponsor? Contact director@post-polio.org. Check out International Ventilator Users Network Post-Polio Health International's mission is to enhance the lives and independence of polio survivors and home ventilator users through ...

  7. Addressing domestic violence through antenatal care in Sri Lanka's plantation estates: Contributions of public health midwives.

    Infanti, Jennifer J; Lund, Ragnhild; Muzrif, Munas M; Schei, Berit; Wijewardena, Kumudu

    2015-11-01

    Domestic violence in pregnancy is a significant health concern for women around the world. Globally, much has been written about how the health sector can respond effectively and comprehensively to domestic violence during pregnancy via antenatal services. The evidence from low-income settings is, however, limited. Sri Lanka is internationally acknowledged as a model amongst low-income countries for its maternal and child health statistics. Yet, very little research has considered the perspectives and experiences of the key front line health providers for pregnant women in Sri Lanka, public health midwives (PHMs). We address this gap by consulting PHMs about their experiences identifying and responding to pregnant women affected by domestic violence in an underserved area: the tea estate sector of Badulla district. Over two months in late 2014, our interdisciplinary team of social scientists and medical doctors met with 31 estate PHMs for group interviews and a participatory workshop at health clinics across Badulla district. In the paper, we propose a modified livelihoods model to conceptualise the physical, social and symbolic assets, strategies and constraints that simultaneously enable and limit the effectiveness of community-based health care responses to domestic violence. Our findings also highlight conceptual and practical strategies identified by PHMs to ensure improvements in this complex landscape of care. Such strategies include estate-based counselling services; basic training in family counselling and mediation for PHMs; greater surveillance of abusive men's behaviours by male community leaders; and performance evaluation and incentives for work undertaken to respond to domestic violence. The study contributes to international discussions on the meanings, frameworks, and identities constructed at the local levels of health care delivery in the global challenge to end domestic violence. In turn, such knowledge adds to international debates on the roles

  8. Influenza virus samples, international law, and global health diplomacy.

    Fidler, David P

    2008-01-01

    Indonesia's decision to withhold samples of avian influenza virus A (H5N1) from the World Health Organization for much of 2007 caused a crisis in global health. The World Health Assembly produced a resolution to try to address the crisis at its May 2007 meeting. I examine how the parties to this controversy used international law in framing and negotiating the dispute. Specifically, I analyze Indonesia's use of the international legal principle of sovereignty and its appeal to rules on the protection of biological and genetic resources found in the Convention on Biological Diversity. In addition, I consider how the International Health Regulations 2005 applied to the controversy. The incident involving Indonesia's actions with virus samples illustrates both the importance and the limitations of international law in global health diplomacy. PMID:18258086

  9. International strategies in children's environmental health.

    van den Hazel, P J

    2007-10-01

    In recent years the fact that children need to be protected against environmental stressors has been widely accepted by decision- and policy-makers. However, there is not yet a good or unified strategy to improve children's health by improving their environment. The Policy Interpretation Network on Children's Health and Environment (PINCHE) network suggested a range of recommendations to support the development of a strategy on children's environmental health on different levels of authority: international, national, regional, and local. There clearly are indicated bottlenecks in the thematic network approach. Three main challenges for success have been identified; first is data comparability. PINCHE identified the need for standardisation of environmental assessments, classification of childhood respiratory diseases and symptoms, and a format for defining diagnostic groups and presentation of data. Second, data accessibility must be addressed. Accessibility of the scientific data to the general public, including health professionals and policy makers, is important and requires translation that is often lacking. Third there is a requirement to harmonise definitions and methods to ensure that scientists and authorities speak the same language. Obstacles are the subsidiarity principle, fragmentation of available knowledge or lack of expertise and purpose at various levels, the lack of political commitment or input and economic issues. PMID:17452127

  10. Oral health in Libya: addressing the future challenges

    Peeran, Syed Wali; Altaher, Omar Basheer; Peeran, Syed Ali; Alsaid, Fatma Mojtaba; Mugrabi, Marei Hamed; Ahmed, Aisha Mojtaba; Grain, Abdulgader

    2014-01-01

    Libya is a vast country situated in North Africa, having a relatively better functioning economy with a scanty population. This article is the first known attempt to review the current state of oral health care in Libya and to explore the present trends and future challenges. Libyan health system, oral health care, and human resources with the present status of dental education are reviewed comprehensively. A bibliographic study of oral health research and publications has been carried out. T...

  11. Managing a scarce resource: addressing critical health workforce challenges.

    Giepmans. P.; Dussault, G.; Batenburg, R.; Frich, J.; Olivers, R.; Sermeus, W.

    2013-01-01

    With health care services significantly changing, the challenge is to initiate innovative, situational and integrated workforce forecasting and planning. Many health systems require a shift in mindset to move to the planning of skill mixes for health care professionals. This implies great challenges

  12. Developing Social Marketing Capacity to Address Health Issues

    Whitelaw, S.; Smart, E.; Kopela, J.; Gibson, T.; King, V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Social marketing is increasingly being seen as a potentially effective means of pursuing health education practice generally and within various specific areas such as mental health and wellbeing and more broadly in tackling health inequalities. This paper aims to report and reflect on the authors' experiences of undertaking a health…

  13. International Cooperation to Address the Radioactive Legacy in States of the Former Soviet Union

    The end of the Cold War allows a comprehensive assessment of the nature and extent of the residual contamination derivative from the atomic defense and nuclear power enterprise in the former Soviet Union. The size of the problem is considerable; some 6.3 x 107 TBq (6.4 x 108 m3) of radioactive waste from the Soviet Union weapons and power complex was produced throughout all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. The resulting contamination occurs at sites throughout the former Soviet Union where nuclear fuels were mined, milled, enriched, fabricated, and used in defense and power reactors. In addition, liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear reprocessing have been discharged to lakes, rivers, reservoirs and other surface impoundments; military and civilian naval reactor effluents were released to sea as well as stabilized on land. Finally, nuclear testing residuals from atmospheric and underground nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk and Novaya Zemlya test sites and peaceful nuclear tests conducted throughout the area of the former Soviet Union pose risks to human health and the environment. Through a program of international scientific exchange, cooperative approaches to address these threats provide former Soviet scientists with expertise and technologies developed in the United States, Europe, and elsewhere to design comprehensive and long term remedial solutions. The role of the international community to address these challenges is essential because the emerging states of the former Soviet Union share common nuclear residuals that cross newly established national borders. In addition, the widespread post-Soviet radioactive contamination hampers economic recovery and--in some cases--poses proliferation concerns. Also important is the widespread perception throughout these countries that the Soviet nuclear legacy poses a grave threat to the human population. A new paradigm of ''national security'' encompasses more than the historical activities of nuclear weapon

  14. [International and Israeli physicians' health--information and action plan].

    Reis, Shmuel; Sayag, Shlomit; Karkabi, Khalid; Alroi, Gideon

    2008-03-01

    Physician health is a matter of interest for patients' physicians and their teams, managers and policy-makers. It has an impact on public health, physician impairment, patient safety, resource allocation and malpractice litigation. International medical literature, unlike Israel publications, is extensively preoccupied with the domain. Based on 2 MD thesis dissertations, Ministry of Health data and a literature search, the present review addresses many issues. It deals with: physicians' physical and mental health internationally and in Israel, prevention and health promotion, burn-out, the professional lifespan and career, health services utilization, legal and administrative aspects, boundaries, physicians' characteristics and vulnerability, interpersonal relations, care provided by physicians, physicians as patients and finally the impaired physician. International recommendations as well as a proposal for a local action plan are presented. PMID:18488866

  15. Infusing Oral Health Care into Nursing Curriculum: Addressing Preventive Health in Aging and Disability

    Joan Earle Hahn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Access to oral health care is essential for promoting and maintaining overall health and well-being, yet oral health disparities exist among vulnerable and underserved populations. While nurses make up the largest portion of the health care work force, educational preparation to address oral health needs of elders and persons with disabilities is limited across nursing curricula. This descriptive study reports on the interdisciplinary development, implementation, and testing of an oral health module that was included and infused into a graduate nursing curriculum in a three-phase plan. Phase 1 includes evaluation of a lecture presented to eight gerontological nurse practitioner (GNP students. Phase 2 includes evaluation of GNP students’ perceptions of learning, skills, and confidence following a one-time 8-hour practicum infused into 80 required practicum hours. The evaluation data show promise in preparing nurse practitioner students to assess and address preventive oral health needs of persons aging with disabilities such that further infusion and inclusion in a course for nurse practitioners across five specialties will implemented and tested in Phase 3.

  16. The World Health Organization Addressing Violence Against Women

    Claudia Garcia-Moreno

    2001-01-01

    Claudia Garcia-Moreno describes the approach of the World Health Organization to violence against women as a major public health issue. She explains how the focus of WHO's work is on building the knowledge base for policy and action and identifying the role of the health sector in the prevention of violence against women and in providing care for those experiencing abuse. Development (2001) 44, 129–132. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1110280

  17. Addressing the changing sources of health information in Iran

    Amir Alishahi Tabriz; Mohammad Reza Sohrabi; Nazanin Kiapour; Nina Faramarzi

    2013-01-01

    Background : Following the entrance of new technologies in health information era, this study aimed to assess changes in health information sources of Iranian people during past decade. Methods : Totally 3000 people were asked about their main sources of health information. They were selected as two community-based samples of 1500 people of more than 18-years-old in two different periods of time in August 2002 and August 2010 from the same locations in Tehran, the capital of Iran. Data ana...

  18. International Students, University Health Centers, and Memorable Messages about Health

    Carmack, Heather J.; Bedi, Shireen; Heiss, Sarah N.

    2016-01-01

    International students entering US universities often experience a variety of important socialization messages. One important message is learning about and using the US health system. International students often first encounter the US health system through their experiences with university health centers. The authors explore the memorable…

  19. Wind versus Biofuels for Addressing Climate, Health, and Energy

    The favored approach today for addressing global warming is to promote a variety of options: biofuels, wind, solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, geothermal, hydroelectric, and nuclear energy and to improve efficiency. However, by far, most emphasis has been on biofuels. It is shown here, though, that current-technology biofuels cannot address global warming and may slightly increase death and illness due to ozone-related air pollution. Future biofuels may theoretically slow global warming, but only temporarily and with the cost of increased air pollution mortality. In both cases, the land required renders biofuels an impractical solution. Recent measurements and statistical analyses of U.S. and world wind power carried out at Stanford University suggest that wind combined with other options can substantially address global warming, air pollution mortality, and energy needs simultaneously.

  20. International environmental law and global public health.

    2002-01-01

    The environment continues to be a source of ill-health for many people, particularly in developing countries. International environmental law offers a viable strategy for enhancing public health through the promotion of increased awareness of the linkages between health and environment, mobilization of technical and financial resources, strengthening of research and monitoring, enforcement of health-related standards, and promotion of global cooperation. An enhanced capacity to utilize intern...

  1. Education and Sexuality: Towards Addressing Adolescents’ Reproductive Health Needs in Nigeria

    James Godswill

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the crucial role of sexuality education in addressing adolescents’ reproductive health needs within the backdrops of immense challenges in Nigerian environment. Young people have been well documented as a special need group in the area of reproductive health. Adolescent sexuality and reproductive health are important contemporary concerns especially for reproductive health problems such as early marriage, unintended/unwanted pregnancy, maternal mortality and sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS. A large number of adolescents in Nigeria decide to be more sexually active without access to preventive measure, such as condoms or family planning devices and thus face undesired consequences, including unwanted pregnancies, Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs, including the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS and the social consequences of both. In fact, adolescents have a higher prevalence of most reproductive health problems because of lack of information and poor access to service. However, one of the 2004 Nigerian National Population Policy objectives is increasing the integration of adolescents and young people into development efforts and effectively addressing their reproductive health and related needs. The study, which relies mainly on secondary data, examines the crucial role and benefits of sexuality education against the backdrops of the challenges including reaching the youths with sexuality and reproductive information and service, or motivating them to change behavior in the light of new information and awareness, more institutional support and creating the social and economic climate, which will make the desired changes possible and sustainable. The author contends that it is a violation of ones fundamental human rights and freedom guaranteed by numerous international, regional and national policies as well as legal instruments when attempts are made to control rather than educate

  2. Addressing the changing sources of health information in Iran

    Amir Alishahi Tabriz

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion : Although during 8 years of study radio and television remained as main source of health information but there is an increasing tendency to use internet especially in men. Policymakers should revise their broadcasting strategies based on people demand.

  3. Addressing the Mental Health Needs of Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents

    Hodgkinson, Stacy; Beers, Lee; Southammakosane, Cathy; Lewin, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent parenthood is associated with a range of adverse outcomes for young mothers, including mental health problems such as depression, substance abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Teen mothers are also more likely to be impoverished and reside in communities and families that are socially and economically disadvantaged. These circumstances can adversely affect maternal mental health, parenting, and behavior outcomes for their children. In this report, we provide an overview of th...

  4. Why public health might address the emerging role of vaccinomics?

    Stefania Boccia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The greatest public health benefit of the advances brought about by the understanding of the human genome, completely sequenced in 2000, will likely occur as genomic medicine expands its focus from rare genetic disorders towards the inclusion of more common diseases also, such as coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer and infectious disease. Advances in Genomics hold the promise of improving the delivery of health care, particularly that of preventive medicine, and of tailoring drug treatment.

  5. Addressing the Changing Sources of Health Information in Iran

    Alishahi-Tabriz, Amir; Sohrabi, Mohammad-Reza; Kiapour, Nazanin; Faramarzi, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Following the entrance of new technologies in health information era, this study aimed to assess changes in health information sources of Iranian people during past decade. Methods: Totally 3000 people were asked about their main sources of health information. They were selected as two community-based samples of 1500 people of more than 18-years-old in two different periods of time in August 2002 and August 2010 from the same locations in Tehran, the capital of Iran. Data analyzed based on age group, sex, educational level and household income in two different periods of time using Chi-square. Odds ratios associated with each basic characteristic were calculated using logistic regression. Results: Most common sources of health information in 2002 were radio and television (17.7%), caregivers (14.9%) and internet (14.2%) and in 2010 were radio and television (19.3%), internet (19.3%) and caregivers (15.8%) (P 0.05). Conclusion: Although during 8 years of study radio and television remained as main source of health information but there is an increasing tendency to use internet especially in men. Policymakers should revise their broadcasting strategies based on people demand. PMID:23412519

  6. [Pitfalls in international comparisons of health data and indices].

    Rotstein, Z; Shani, M

    1991-05-01

    Comparison of published data and health indices from different countries with different health systems is subject to many pitfalls. Comparison of national expenditure for health care based on purchasing power of the currency may be misleading if the purchasing power of the health services is ignored. Comparisons may also be misleading if they ignore national geographic and demographic structures. Government and health authorities often quote different sets of data and use different terminology and definitions. This article stresses the disparity in the definition of medical manpower and points out differences relating to ratios of manpower to population and to per capita spending. Also addressed is the importance of the qualitative and value aspects of health systems not usually involved in comparison of international health indices. In conclusion, safety measures and precautions such as choosing the right index for the right purpose, adjustment of indices to the purchasing power parity of health, demographics, etc., should be used when conducting health care analyses. PMID:1937228

  7. Keeping Current. Library Media Specialists: Addressing the Student Health Epidemic

    Buddy, Juanita

    2005-01-01

    Health and educational leaders are sounding the alarm about the unhealthy condition of many students in America's K-12 schools. Each day, new scientific studies confirm that "The majority of American youth are sedentary and do not eat well. Sixteen percent of school-aged children and adolescents--or nine million--are overweight, a figure that has…

  8. Applied social and behavioral science to address complex health problems.

    Livingood, William C; Allegrante, John P; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Clark, Noreen M; Windsor, Richard C; Zimmerman, Marc A; Green, Lawrence W

    2011-11-01

    Complex and dynamic societal factors continue to challenge the capacity of the social and behavioral sciences in preventive medicine and public health to overcome the most seemingly intractable health problems. This paper proposes a fundamental shift from a research approach that presumes to identify (from highly controlled trials) universally applicable interventions expected to be implemented "with fidelity" by practitioners, to an applied social and behavioral science approach similar to that of engineering. Such a shift would build on and complement the recent recommendations of the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research and require reformulation of the research-practice dichotomy. It would also require disciplines now engaged in preventive medicine and public health practice to develop a better understanding of systems thinking and the science of application that is sensitive to the complexity, interactivity, and unique elements of community and practice settings. Also needed is a modification of health-related education to ensure that those entering the disciplines develop instincts and capacities as applied scientists. PMID:22011425

  9. International research collaboration in maritime health

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2011-01-01

    The new ILO-2006-convention and the EU Commission's strategic objectives for the EU maritime transport policy 2008-2018, mentions the necessity of a modern health and safety system for maritime transportation. However, there is no specific strategy for the development of maritime health and safety....... The area is regulated by international standards based on international research-based knowledge on health and safety. Moreover, many of the world's seafarers come from developing countries with specific disease problems like HIV and no possibility of independent maritime health research. The...... international maritime health research is sparse, and an increase in such research is necessary to help benefit needed shipping as a highly globalized industry. This paper presents an example of such research, accompanied by a discussion of methods and opportunities to increase international maritime health...

  10. A Framework for Addressing the Global Obesity Epidemic Locally: The Child Health Ecological Surveillance System (CHESS)

    Ronald C. Plotnikoff, PhD; Penny Lightfoot, MHSA; Linda Barrett, MSc; Carla Spinola, MA; Gerry Predy, MD, FRCPC

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in the developed world. Recent research and commentary suggest that an ecological approach is required to address childhood obesity, given the multidimensional nature of the problem. We propose a Canadian prototype, the Child Health Ecological Surveillance System, for a regional health authority to address the growing obesity epidemic. This prototype could potentially be used in other jurisdictions to address other child health issues. We present ...

  11. European health systems and the internal market: reshaping ideology?

    da Costa Leite Borges, Danielle

    2011-12-01

    Departing from theories of distributive justice and their relation with the distribution of health care within society, especially egalitarianism and libertarianism, this paper aims at demonstrating that the approach taken by the European Court of Justice regarding the application of the Internal Market principles (or the market freedoms) to the field of health care services has introduced new values which are more concerned with a libertarian view of health care. Moreover, the paper also addresses the question of how these new values introduced by the Court may affect common principles of European health systems, such as equity and accessibility. PMID:21082357

  12. Equity-focused health impact assessment: A tool to assist policy makers in addressing health inequalities

    In Australasia (Australia and New Zealand) the use of health impact assessment (HIA) as a tool for improved policy development is comparatively new. The public health workforce do not routinely assess the potential health and equity impacts of proposed policies or programs. The Australasian Collaboration for Health Equity Impact Assessment was funded to develop a strategic framework for equity-focused HIA (EFHIA) with the intent of strengthening the ways in which equity is addressed in each step of HIA. The collaboration developed a draft framework for EFHIA that mirrored, but modified the commonly accepted steps of HIA; tested the draft framework in six different health service delivery settings; analysed the feedback about application of the draft EFHIA framework and modified it accordingly. The strategic framework shows promise in providing a systematic process for identifying potential differential health impacts and assessing the extent to which these are avoidable and unfair. This paper presents the EFHIA framework and discusses some of the issues that arose in the case study sites undertaking equity-focused HIA

  13. Leprosy: International Public Health Policies and Public Health Eras

    Niyi Awofeso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Public health policies continue to play important roles in national and international health reforms. However, the influence and legacies of the public health eras during which such policies are formulated remain largely underappreciated. The limited appreciation of this relationship may hinder consistent adoption of public health policies by nation-states, and encumber disinvestment from ineffective or anachronistic policies. This article reviews seven public health eras and highlights how each era has influenced international policy formulation for leprosy control—“the fertile soil for policy learning”. The author reiterates the role of health leadership and health activism in facilitating consistency in international health policy formulation and implementation for leprosy control.

  14. North and South addressing the English health divide.

    Bambra, C; Barr, B.; Milne, E.

    2014-01-01

    The North South divide in England has been a popular trope from the mid-19th century novels of Charles Dickens (Hard Times, 1854) and Elizabeth Gaskell (North and South, 1855) through to TV and radio documentaries of 2014.1,2 These often focus on culture and the economy, but it is also well known that there are large and longstanding geographical inequalities in health in England.3 Between 2009 and 2011 people in Manchester were more than twice as likely to die early (455 deaths per 100 000) ...

  15. mHealth information for migrants: an e-health intervention for internal migrants in Vietnam

    Vu, Lan Thi Hoang; Nguyen, Ngan Thi Kim; Tran, Hanh Thi Duc; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2016-01-01

    Background Socio-economic development in Vietnam has resulted in increased internal migration particularly among young women seeking employment opportunities in cities. Vietnamese female migrants who enter new environments often encounter the loss or neglect of their right to access sexual and reproductive health services. To address this, a mobile health (mHealth) intervention model was implemented over 12 months (2013–2014) in a factory in the Long Bien industrial zone of Hanoi, Vietnam. Me...

  16. Ethical concerns in international occupational health and safety.

    London, Leslie; Kisting, Sophia

    2002-01-01

    The number of preventable occupational health and safety (OHS) tragedies that occur yearly requires a deeper examination of the ethics that inform health and safety policies and practices. This article selects a few industrial sectors for closer examination to illustrate challenges and opportunities. Topics addressed include: equitable distribution of resources, ethically acceptable global standards for OHS for all workers, and international use of pesticides and the export of banned chemicals. The authors focus on the relationship between less developed and developed countries and attempt to identify areas of collaboration and potentially positive channels for addressing shortcomings. The agricultural sector is examined in particular because of the major role this sector plays in developing countries. Finally, the authors examine the impact of globalization on the international ethical practice of OHS, especially in relation to vulnerable and marginalized groups such as women, children, and informal sector workers, and conclude with recommendations for working towards more equitable global ethical standards in international OHS. PMID:12225928

  17. School Nurses' Perceived Prevalence and Competence to Address Student Mental Health Problems

    Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…

  18. Swasti: An International Health Resource Centre

    N. S. Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Swasti, an International Health Resource Centre was established in 2002 in India. The objective was to enhance the health and well-being of communities, particularly the marginalized. Swasti’s main focus lies in the areas of primary health, sexual and reproductive health including HIV, communicable and non-communicable diseases, water, sanitation and hygiene and gender based violence. The organization, during the last decade has grown in leaps and bounds reaching out to the most affected comm...

  19. New smart materials to address issues of structural health monitoring.

    Chaplya, Pavel Mikhail

    2004-12-01

    Nuclear weapons and their storage facilities may benefit from in-situ structural health monitoring systems. Appending health-monitoring functionality to conventional materials and structures has been only marginally successful. The purpose of this project was to evaluate feasibility of a new smart material that includes self-sensing health monitoring functions similar to that of a nervous system of a living organism. Reviews of current efforts in the fields of heath-monitoring, nanotechnology, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), and wireless sensor networks were conducted. Limitations of the current nanotechnology methods were identified and new approaches were proposed to accelerate the development of self-sensing materials. Wireless networks of MEMS sensors have been researched as possible prototypes of self-sensing materials. Sensor networks were also examined as enabling technologies for dense data collection techniques to be used for validation of numerical methods and material parameter identification. Each grain of the envisioned material contains sensors that are connected in a dendritic manner similar to networks of neurons in a nervous system. Each sensor/neuron can communicate with the neighboring grains. Both the state of the sensor (on/off) and the quality of communication signal (speed/amplitude) should indicate not only a presence of a structural defect but the nature of the defect as well. For example, a failed sensor may represent a through-grain crack, while a lost or degraded communication link may represent an inter-granular crack. A technology to create such material does not exist. While recent progress in the fields of MEMS and nanotechnology allows to envision these new smart materials, it is unrealistic to expect creation of self-sensing materials in the near future. The current state of MEMS, nanotechnology, communication, sensor networks, and data processing technologies indicates that it will take more than ten years for the

  20. International Initiatives Addressing the Safety and Security of Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources

    International initiatives, aimed at improving the safety and security of disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRSs), that have been carried out during the last number of years are described in the paper. Issues to be addressed will include sustainability of current efforts, accidents and incidents, international standards and guidance, assistance provided to IAEA Member States, technologies developed for disused sealed source management and a description the development of the borehole disposal concept is given. New initiatives with regard to disposing of high activity DSRSs are elaborated. (author)

  1. [Undergraduate and postgraduate education in international health].

    Christensen, Vibeke Brix; Nørredam, Marie Louise; Karle, Hans; Hemmingsen, Ralf P

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this article is to provide information about possibilities for medical students and doctors to obtain knowledge about international health. Increasing globalisation requires knowledge about international health in such way that Danish doctors are able to diagnose and treat patients, regardless of the patient's nationality and ethnic background. Denmark has a global responsibility towards low and middle income countries to increase the standard of health. Increased knowledge and research in these countries is important both at an undergraduate and postgraduate level. PMID:16999892

  2. A Framework for Addressing the Global Obesity Epidemic Locally: The Child Health Ecological Surveillance System (CHESS

    Ronald C. Plotnikoff, PhD

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in the developed world. Recent research and commentary suggest that an ecological approach is required to address childhood obesity, given the multidimensional nature of the problem. We propose a Canadian prototype, the Child Health Ecological Surveillance System, for a regional health authority to address the growing obesity epidemic. This prototype could potentially be used in other jurisdictions to address other child health issues. We present 8 guiding principles for the development and implementation of a regional framework for action.

  3. Human resources for health in southeast Asia: shortages, distributional challenges, and international trade in health services.

    Kanchanachitra, Churnrurtai; Lindelow, Magnus; Johnston, Timothy; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Lorenzo, Fely Marilyn; Huong, Nguyen Lan; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; dela Rosa, Jennifer Frances

    2011-02-26

    In this paper, we address the issues of shortage and maldistribution of health personnel in southeast Asia in the context of the international trade in health services. Although there is no shortage of health workers in the region overall, when analysed separately, five low-income countries have some deficit. All countries in southeast Asia face problems of maldistribution of health workers, and rural areas are often understaffed. Despite a high capacity for medical and nursing training in both public and private facilities, there is weak coordination between production of health workers and capacity for employment. Regional experiences and policy responses to address these challenges can be used to inform future policy in the region and elsewhere. A distinctive feature of southeast Asia is its engagement in international trade in health services. Singapore and Malaysia import health workers to meet domestic demand and to provide services to international patients. Thailand attracts many foreign patients for health services. This situation has resulted in the so-called brain drain of highly specialised staff from public medical schools to the private hospitals. The Philippines and Indonesia are the main exporters of doctors and nurses in the region. Agreements about mutual recognition of professional qualifications for three groups of health workers under the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Framework Agreement on Services could result in increased movement within the region in the future. To ensure that vital human resources for health are available to meet the needs of the populations that they serve, migration management and retention strategies need to be integrated into ongoing efforts to strengthen health systems in southeast Asia. There is also a need for improved dialogue between the health and trade sectors on how to balance economic opportunities associated with trade in health services with domestic health needs and equity issues. PMID:21269674

  4. International trade agreements: hazards to health?

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Brenner, Joseph E

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1980s, neoliberal policies have prescribed reducing the role of governments, relying on market forces to organize and provide health care and other vital human services. In this context, international trade agreements increasingly serve as mechanisms to enforce the privatization, deregulation, and decentralization of health care and other services, with important implications for democracy as well as for health. Critics contend that social austerity and "free" trade agreements contribute to the rise in global poverty and economic inequality and instability, and therefore to increased preventable illness and death. Under new agreements through the World Trade Organization that cover vital human services such as health care, water, education, and energy, unaccountable, secret trade tribunals could overrule decisions by democratically elected officials on public financing for national health care systems, licensing and training standards for health professionals, patient safety and quality regulations, occupational safety and health, control of hazardous substances such as tobacco and alcohol, the environment, and affordable access to safe water and sanitation. International negotiations in 2003 in Cancun and in Miami suggested that countervailing views are developing momentum. A concerned health care community has begun to call for a moratorium on trade negotiations on health care and water, and to reinvigorate an alternative vision of universal access to vital services. PMID:15346681

  5. Exploring the international arena of global public health surveillance.

    Calain, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Threats posed by new, emerging or re-emerging communicable diseases are taking a global dimension, to which the World Health Organization (WHO) Secretariat has been responding with determination since 1995. Key to the global strategy for tackling epidemics across borders is the concept of global public health surveillance, which has been expanded and formalized by WHO and its technical partners through a number of recently developed instruments and initiatives. The adoption by the 58th World Health Assembly of the revised (2005) International Health Regulations provides the legal framework for mandating countries to link and coordinate their action through a universal network of surveillance networks. While novel environmental threats and outbreak-prone diseases have been increasingly identified during the past three decades, new processes of influence have appeared more recently, driven by the real or perceived threats of bio-terrorism and disruption of the global economy. Accordingly, the global surveillance agenda is being endorsed, and to some extent seized upon by new actors representing security and economic interests. This paper explores external factors influencing political commitment to comply with international health regulations and it illustrates adverse effects generated by: perceived threats to sovereignty, blurred international health agendas, lack of internationally recognized codes of conduct for outbreak investigations, and erosion of the impartiality and independence of international agencies. A companion paper (published in this issue) addresses the intrinsic difficulties that health systems of low-income countries are facing when submitted to the ever-increasing pressure to upgrade their public health surveillance capacity. PMID:17237489

  6. Migration and health-the international perspective.

    Siem, H

    1997-05-01

    Mass movement of people is not a new phenomenon. There are significant differences, however, between contemporary migration and that of yesterday. Modern communication and transportation makes it possible for people and their health problems to travel further and more quickly than ever before. The Plan of Action produced by the 1994 International Conference on Population in Cairo estimates that there are 125 million migrants world-wide. The cause of concern is not only linked to the numbers, but also to the new patterns and categories of migrants that give the strong feeling that the problem is getting out of control. This presents a challenge which urgently asks for response and action on various levels including health and social services. European states started to develop policies that would link immigration to health care policies. "Health for All" strategies, only towards the end of the 1980s, if at all. There are six areas, where health policies and programmes explicitly should take the needs of the immigrants into consideration: (1) communication and understanding, (2) control of infectious diseases, (3) mother and child care, (4) occupational health, (5) violence and (6) health indicators among migrants. To improve the health status of migrant families immigrant receiving countries need to put ethnic policies high on the public health agenda, they need to provide adequate health services to immigrants and there is a crucial need for training and preparing health professionals to understanding perspectives that differ from their own ethnic orientation, and to provide adequate and effective responses. PMID:9184032

  7. International Child Health Elective for Pediatric Residents

    Da Dalt, Liviana; Putoto, Giovanni; Carraro, Dante; Gatta, Alessandra; Baraldi, Eugenio; Perilongo, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Background There are increasing evidence highlighting the importance of incorporating issues of global health into pre- and post-graduate medical curricula. Medical international cooperation is a fundamental component of strategies to include global health issues in post-graduate medical curricula. Methods Here we describe a seven-year cooperation between the Non Governmental Organization (NGO) “Doctors for Africa CUAMM” and the Pediatric Residency Program (PRP) of the University of Padua (It...

  8. Providing Inclusive Sex Education in Schools Will Address the Health Needs of LGBT Youth

    Sanchez, Marisol

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of programs that incorporate and address the health needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth will help reduce risky behaviors and negative health effects and create safer, more supportive, and more inclusive environments in the nation’s schools.

  9. Addressing social determinants of health inequities through settings: a rapid review.

    Newman, Lareen; Baum, Fran; Javanparast, Sara; O'Rourke, Kerryn; Carlon, Leanne

    2015-09-01

    Changing settings to be more supportive of health and healthy choices is an optimum way to improve population health and health equity. This article uses the World Health Organisation's (1998) (WHO Health Promotion Glossary. WHO Collaborating Centre for Health Promotion, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Sydney, NSW) definition of settings approaches to health promotion as those focused on modifying settings' structure and nature. A rapid literature review was undertaken in the period June-August 2014, combining a systematically conducted search of two major databases with targeted searches. The review focused on identifying what works in settings approaches to address the social determinants of health inequities, using Fair Foundations: the VicHealth framework for health equity. This depicts the social determinants of health inequities as three layers of influence, and entry points for action to promote health equity. The evidence review identified work in 12 settings (cities; communities and neighbourhoods; educational; healthcare; online; faith-based; sports; workplaces; prisons; and nightlife, green and temporary settings), and work at the socioeconomic, political and cultural context layer of the Fair Foundations framework (governance, legislation, regulation and policy). It located a relatively small amount of evidence that settings themselves are being changed in ways which address the social determinants of health inequities. Rather, many initiatives focus on individual behaviour change within settings. There is considerable potential for health promotion professionals to focus settings work more upstream and so replace or integrate individual approaches with those addressing daily living conditions and higher level structures, and a significant need for programmes to be evaluated for differential equity impacts and published to provide a more solid evidence base. PMID:26420808

  10. Exploring the potential of Web 2.0 to address health disparities.

    Gibbons, M Chris; Fleisher, Linda; Slamon, Rachel E; Bass, Sarah; Kandadai, Venk; Beck, J Robert

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses use of the Internet and Web 2.0 technologies by racial and ethnic minorities and explores the potential opportunities and challenges in leveraging Web 2.0 approaches to impact health disparities. These opportunities and challenges include developing approaches and methods to (a) identify strategies for integrating social media into health promotion interventions focused on major health-related issues that affect members of medically underserved groups; (b) amalgamate techniques to leverage and connect social-media technologies to other evidence-informed online resources; (c) integrate health communication best practices, including addressing health literacy issues; (d) capitalize on social networking to enhance access and communication with health care providers; and (e) advance current efforts and ongoing expansion of research participation by individuals from underserved communities. PMID:21843097

  11. Ranking health between countries in international comparisons

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Cross-national comparisons and ranking of summary measures of population health sometimes give rise to inconsistent and diverging conclusions. In order to minimise confusion, international comparative studies ought to be based on well-harmonised data with common standards of definitions and...

  12. 10th International Conference on Health Informatics

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the International Conference on Health Informatics is to bring together researchers and practitioners interested in the application of information and communication technologies (ICT) to healthcare and medicine in general and to the support of persons with special needs in particular.

  13. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health

    Martinez Valle, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and comp...

  14. COOP+ project: Promoting the cooperation among international Research Infrastructures to address global environmental challenges.

    Bonet-García, Francisco; Materia, Paola; Kutsch, Werner; de Lucas, Jesús Marco; Tjulin, Anders

    2016-04-01

    During the Anthropocene, mankind will face several global environmental challenges. One of the first and more successful responses provided by Science to these challenges is the collecting of long-term series of biophysical variables in order to improve our knowledge of natural systems. The huge amount of information gathered during the last decades by Research Infrastructures (RIs) has helped to understand the structure and functioning of natural systems at local and regional scales. But how can we address the global cross-scale and cross-disciplinary challenges posed by the global environment change? We believe that it will be necessary to observe, model better and understand the whole biosphere using long term data generated by international RIs. RIs play a key role on many of the last advances and discoveries in science, from the observation of the Higgs Boson at CERN to the exploration of the Universe by the telescopes of the European Southern Observatory in Chile. The scale of complexity, instrumentation, computing resources, technological advances, and also of the investments, and the size of research collaborations, do not have precedents in Science. RIs in environmental field are developing fast, but the corresponding communities need yet to further reflect the need for a wider global collaboration because the challenges to tackle are in essence of global nature. This contribution describes how COOP+ project (EU Horizon 2020 Coordination and Support Action) will promote the cooperation among RIs at a global scale to address global environmental challenges. Our project evolves from the experience of the sucessful FP7 COOPEUS project (see http://www.coopeus.eu), which explored the use and access to data from RIs in environmental research in Europe and USA. The general goal of COOP+ is to strengthen the links and coordination of the ESFRI RIs related to Marine Science (EMSO), Arctic and Atmospheric Research (EISCAT), Carbon Observation (ICOS) and Biodiversity

  15. Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research.

    Tchounwou, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    During the past century, environmental hazards have become a major concern, not only to public health professionals, but also to the society at large because of their tremendous health, socio-cultural and economic impacts. Various anthropogenic or natural factors have been implicated in the alteration of ecosystem integrity, as well as in the development of a wide variety of acute and/or chronic diseases in humans. It has also been demonstrated that many environmental agents, acting either independently or in combination with other toxins, may induce a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the role played by the environment in the etiology of human diseases is critical to designing cost-effective control/prevention measures. This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health includes the proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium provided an excellent opportunity to discuss the scientific advances in biomedical, environmental, and public health research that addresses global environmental health issues. PMID:27153079

  16. International Aspects of Mental Health Work with Refugees and Future Directions: A European Perspective.

    Hauff, Edvard

    This paper describes past and present European efforts to address the mental health needs of refugees. It begins with a brief historical survey of mental health services for refugees after the Second World War and delineates the policy recommendations from the 1948 International Congress on Mental Health. The next section describes current…

  17. Visible and Invisible Trends in Black Men's Health: Pitfalls and Promises for Addressing Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Inequities in Health.

    Gilbert, Keon L; Ray, Rashawn; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Shetty, Shivan; Baker, Elizabeth A; Elder, Keith; Griffith, Derek M

    2016-03-18

    Over the past two decades, there has been growing interest in improving black men's health and the health disparities affecting them. Yet, the health of black men consistently ranks lowest across nearly all groups in the United States. Evidence on the health and social causes of morbidity and mortality among black men has been narrowly concentrated on public health problems (e.g., violence, prostate cancer, and HIV/AIDS) and determinants of health (e.g., education and male gender socialization). This limited focus omits age-specific leading causes of death and other social determinants of health, such as discrimination, segregation, access to health care, employment, and income. This review discusses the leading causes of death for black men and the associated risk factors, as well as identifies gaps in the literature and presents a racialized and gendered framework to guide efforts to address the persistent inequities in health affecting black men. PMID:26989830

  18. Increased health care utilisation in international adoptees

    Graff, Heidi Jeannet; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kragstrup, Jakob;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Several studies have documented thatinternational adoptees have an increased occurrence ofhealth problems and contacts to the health-care systemafter arriving to their new country of residence. This maybe explained by pre-adoption adversities, especially for theperiod immediately...... after adoption. Our study aimed to theassess health-care utilisation of international adoptees inprimary and secondary care for somatic and psychiatricdiagnoses in a late post-adoption period. Is there an increaseduse of the health-care system in this period, evenwhen increased morbidity in the group...... of internationaladoptees is taken into consideration? Methods: This was a Danish register-based cohort studyexamining health-care utilisation in a multivariable two-partmodel. The prevalence of selected outcomes and the quantityof use were assessed in a late (year three, four and five)post-adoption period. The cohort...

  19. Time to address gender discrimination and inequality in the health workforce

    Newman, Constance

    2014-01-01

    Gender is a key factor operating in the health workforce. Recent research evidence points to systemic gender discrimination and inequalities in health pre-service and in-service education and employment systems. Human resources for health (HRH) leaders’ and researchers’ lack of concerted attention to these inequalities is striking, given the recognition of other forms of discrimination in international labour rights and employment law discourse. If not acted upon, gender discrimination and in...

  20. Sex education for local tourism/hospitality employees: addressing a local health need.

    Bauer, Irmgard L

    2009-11-01

    Health concerns arising from sexual relationships between tourists and locals usually focus on the travelling public. The local sex partners' health, and their impact on their communities' health, seem far less acknowledged. This paper describes a local health education session which implemented recommendations based on a study in Cuzco/Peru on tourists' and locals' views, knowledge, attitudes and experiences relating to sexual relationships between them. On location, fifteen discotheque employees received a health education session at the establishment's owner's request. Concluding from the positive experience, it is argued that researchers should, where possible, respond to requests to deliver ad hoc health education sessions while on location to address an identified local health need. PMID:19945015

  1. International research needs for improving sleep and health of workers.

    Kogi, Kazutaka

    2005-01-01

    Research needs in identifying preventive measures dealing with working time arrangements and associated sleep problems are reviewed. These needs are based on the recognition of a range of risk factors for health involving disturbed circadian rhythms leading to various levels of sleep deficits. The review takes account of recent joint change approaches that address both working time arrangements and various relevant intervening factors. As examples of such approaches, voluntary industry-based guidelines for improving shift work are examined. Also reviewed is evidence indicating the effects of improved working time arrangements and sleep hygiene on the tolerance of workers working irregular shifts. Trends in action-oriented risk assessment are further discussed as the effects on health and sleep of these workers may be modified by complex aspects related to working situations, family and social conditions, personal characteristics and social support. Generally relevant are not only the relationships between sleep-affecting factors and health, but also advances in taking the various support measures. The effective use of participatory steps is found important in dealing with working time arrangements and associated health and sleep problems together. It is thus considered important to study (a) the efficacy of joint change approaches addressing complex sleep and health factors, (b) effective procedures for action-oriented health risk assessment in various work life situations, and (c) the relevance of innovative participatory steps to improving health and tolerance of workers. Future research topics mentioned by the participants of the international symposium on night and shift work held in Santos in 2003 are presented, and international efforts to promote research into these aspects in field conditions are discussed. Interactive research involving local people appears crucial. PMID:15732307

  2. [External and internal financing in health care].

    Henke, Klaus-Dirk

    2007-05-15

    The objective of this contribution is to characterize the functional and institutional features of the German health-care system. This takes place after a short introduction and examination of the ongoing debate on health care in Germany. External funding describes the form of revenue generation. Regarding external funding of the German health care system, one of the favored alternatives in the current debate is the possibility of introducing per capita payments. After a short introduction to the capitation option, focus is on the so-called health fund that is currently debated on and being made ready for implementation in Germany, actually a mixed system of capitation and contributions based on income. On the other hand, internal funding is the method of how different health-care services are purchased or reimbursed. This becomes a rather hot topic in light of new trends for integrated and networked care to patients and different types of budgeting. Another dominating question in the German health-care system is the liberalization of the contractual law, with its "joint and uniform" regulations that have to be loosened for competition gains. After a discussion of the consequences of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) in Germany, the article is concluded by a note on the political rationality of the current health-care reform for increased competition within the Statutory Health Insurance and its players as exemplified by the health fund. To sum up, it has to be said that the complexity and specific features of how the German system is financed seem to require ongoing reform considerations even after realization of the currently debated health-care reform law which, unfortunately, is dominated by political rationalities rather than objective thoughts. PMID:17497087

  3. Addressing Cultural Competency in Pharmacy Education through International Service Learning and Community Engagement

    Rosemin Kassam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a course in international service learning and community engagement for pharmacy undergraduate students. The course offered students opportunities to cultivate cultural competency in an international setting foreign to their own—Sub-Saharan Africa. The experience consisted of pre-departure preparation seminars followed by subsequent community immersion to experience, explore and confront personal attitudes and perceptions. A key feature of this course was its emphasis on a continuing cycle of learning, community engagement and reflection. Three students participated, a near-maximum cohort. Their daily self-reflections were qualitatively analyzed to document the impact of their cultural learning and experiences and revealed meaningful learning in the domains of self-assessment and awareness of their personal and professional culture, exposure to a participatory health delivery model involving the patient, the community and a multidisciplinary team and opportunities to engage in patient care in a different cultural setting. This proof-of-concept course provided students with experiences that were life-changing on both personal and professional levels and confirmed the viability and relevance of international service learning for the pharmacy field within its university-wide mandate.

  4. Corruption of pharmaceutical markets: addressing the misalignment of financial incentives and public health.

    Gagnon, Marc-André

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains how the current architecture of the pharmaceutical markets has created a misalignment of financial incentives and public health that is a central cause of harmful practices. It explores three possible solutions to address that misalignment: taxes, increased financial penalties, and drug pricing based on value. Each proposal could help to partly realign financial incentives and public health. However, because of the limits of each proposal, there is no easy solution to fixing the problem of financial incentives. PMID:24088147

  5. Security and Health Research Databases: The Stakeholders and Questions to Be Addressed

    Stewart, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Health research database security issues abound. Issues include subject confidentiality, data ownership, data integrity and data accessibility. There are also various stakeholders in database security. Each of these stakeholders has a different set of concerns and responsibilities when dealing with security issues. There is an obvious need for training in security issues, so that these issues may be addressed and health research will move on without added obstacles based on misunderstanding s...

  6. Enhancing readiness of health profession students to address tobacco cessation with patients through online training

    Anne Maynard; Maripat Metcalf; Lyla Hance

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate effectiveness of an online training program in preparing health care students to address tobacco use with patients. Methods: The program was evaluated on knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, intended behavior, and user satisfaction. Participants consisted of 4,180 medical, nursing, dentistry, pharmacy, and other allied health professions students. Multiple choice questions assessed knowledge before and after the educational experience. Likert scales were used for self-r...

  7. Addressing the needs for international training, qualifications, and career development in occupational hygiene.

    Alesbury, Roger J; Bailey, Stephen R

    2014-03-01

    Thirteen member societies of the International Occupational Hygiene Association (IOHA), all 11 national certification bodies, and IOHA itself are now cooperating in a new international training and qualification system. The structure broadens access to occupational hygiene education and training worldwide and complements existing professional accreditation schemes. There are currently 46 Approved Training Providers in the scheme and up to the end of June 2013, approaching 200 courses had been delivered in more than 32 countries, with nearly 2400 examinations taken in 7 languages. This influx of students, particularly in developing countries, is helping to address the worldwide need to combat occupational illness and is creating the foundation for sustainable growth in provision of occupational hygiene globally. The scheme originated in 2006, when the authors were instrumental in bringing together a group of senior hygienists to review the needs of industry. The resulting position paper, reflecting the perspective of major multi-national companies, was subject to widespread consultation with a diverse group of stakeholders from across the world. This led to the formation of the Occupational Hygiene Training Association (OHTA), as a not-for-profit organization, to operate the system. It is accessible through the OHlearning website that provides free downloads of educational materials and details of training events. In this commentary, we outline the needs that brought this about, identify the key stakeholders involved, review what has been done so far, and discuss some plans for the future. PMID:24375869

  8. Radiation and occupational health: keynote address: the impact of radiation on health

    The part of address discusses the following issue: sources of exposure, effects of ionizing radiations, deterministic effects, stochastic effects, in utero exposure, recommendations of radiation protection: principles, practices, intervention, radiation protection in practices

  9. Addressing Agricultural Issues in Health Care Education: An Occupational Therapy Curriculum Program Description

    Smallfield, Stacy; Anderson, Angela J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Medical and allied health professionals who work in agricultural states frequently address the needs of clients who live and work in rural and frontier environments. The primary occupations of those living in rural areas include farming, ranching, or other agriculture-related work. Farming is consistently ranked as one of the most…

  10. Health care voluntourism: addressing ethical concerns of undergraduate student participation in global health volunteer work.

    McCall, Daniel; Iltis, Ana S

    2014-12-01

    The popularity and availability of global health experiences has increased, with organizations helping groups plan service trips and companies specializing in "voluntourism," health care professionals volunteering their services through different organizations, and medical students participating in global health electives. Much has been written about global health experiences in resource poor settings, but the literature focuses primarily on the work of health care professionals and medical students. This paper focuses on undergraduate student involvement in short term medical volunteer work in resource poor countries, a practice that has become popular among pre-health professions students. We argue that the participation of undergraduate students in global health experiences raises many of the ethical concerns associated with voluntourism and global health experiences for medical students. Some of these may be exacerbated by or emerge in unique ways when undergraduates volunteer. Guidelines and curricula for medical student engagement in global health experiences have been developed. Guidelines specific to undergraduate involvement in such trips and pre-departure curricula to prepare students should be developed and such training should be required of volunteers. We propose a framework for such guidelines and curricula, argue that universities should be the primary point of delivery even when universities are not organizing the trips, and recommend that curricula should be developed in light of additional data. PMID:25079381

  11. Policy Options for Addressing Health System and Human Resources for Health Crisis in Liberia Post-Ebola Epidemic

    Fidel C.T. Budy, MPH

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualified healthcare workers within an effective health system are critical in promoting and achieving greater health outcomes such as those espoused in the Millennium Development Goals. Liberia is currently struggling with the effects of a brutal 14-year long civil war that devastated health infrastructures and caused most qualified health workers to flee and settle in foreign countries. The current output of locally trained health workers is not adequate for the tasks at hand. The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD exposed the failings of the Liberian healthcare system. There is limited evidence of policies that could be replicated in Liberia to encourage qualified diaspora Liberian health workers to return and contribute to managing the phenomenon. This paper reviews the historical context for the human resources for health crisis in Liberia; it critically examines two context-specific health policy options to address the crisis, and recommends reverse brain drain as a policy option to address the immediate and critical crisis facing the health care sector in Liberia.

  12. Addressing Challenges to the Design & Test of Operational Lighting Environments for the International Space Station

    Clark, Toni A.

    2014-01-01

    In our day to day lives, the availability of light, with which to see our environment, is often taken for granted. The designers of land based lighting systems use sunlight and artificial light as their toolset. The availability of power, quantity of light sources, and variety of design options are often unlimited. The accessibility of most land based lighting systems makes it easy for the architect and engineer to verify and validate their design ideas. Failures with an implementation, while sometimes costly, can easily be addressed by renovation. Consider now, an architectural facility orbiting in space, 260 miles above the surface of the earth. This human rated architectural facility, the International Space Station (ISS) must maintain operations every day, including life support and appropriate human comforts without fail. The facility must also handle logistics of regular shipments of cargo, including new passengers. The ISS requires accommodations necessary for human control of machine systems. Additionally, the ISS is a research facility and supports investigations performed inside and outside its livable volume. Finally, the facility must support remote operations and observations by ground controllers. All of these architectural needs require a functional, safe, and even an aesthetic lighting environment. At Johnson Space Center, our Habitability and Human Factors team assists our diverse customers with their lighting environment challenges, via physical test and computer based analysis. Because of the complexity of ISS operational environment, our team has learned and developed processes that help ISS operate safely. Because of the dynamic exterior lighting environment, uses computational modeling to predict the lighting environment. The ISS' orbit exposes it to a sunrise every 90 minutes, causing work surfaces to quickly change from direct sunlight to earthshine to total darkness. Proper planning of vehicle approaches, robotics operations, and crewed

  13. Promoting Health by Addressing Basic Needs: Effect of Problem Resolution on Contacting Health Referrals

    Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Boyum, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Members of vulnerable populations have heightened needs for health services. One advantage of integrating health risk assessment and referrals into social service assistance systems such as 2-1-1 is that such systems help callers resolve problems in other areas (e.g., housing). Callers to 2-1-1 in Missouri (N = 1,090) with at least one behavioral…

  14. Multilevel Interventions To Address Health Disparities Show Promise In Improving Population Health.

    Paskett, Electra; Thompson, Beti; Ammerman, Alice S; Ortega, Alexander N; Marsteller, Jill; Richardson, DeJuran

    2016-08-01

    Multilevel interventions are those that affect at least two levels of influence-for example, the patient and the health care provider. They can be experimental designs or natural experiments caused by changes in policy, such as the implementation of the Affordable Care Act or local policies. Measuring the effects of multilevel interventions is challenging, because they allow for interaction among levels, and the impact of each intervention must be assessed and translated into practice. We discuss how two projects from the National Institutes of Health's Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities used multilevel interventions to reduce health disparities. The interventions, which focused on the uptake of the human papillomavirus vaccine and community-level dietary change, had mixed results. The design and implementation of multilevel interventions are facilitated by input from the community, and more advanced methods and measures are needed to evaluate the impact of the various levels and components of such interventions. PMID:27503968

  15. A Review Of Innovative International Financing Mechanisms To Address Noncommunicable Diseases.

    Meghani, Ankita; Basu, Sanjay

    2015-09-01

    Noncommunicable diseases have become prevalent in low- and middle-income countries. A key question that remains unresolved is how to support the development of systems to prevent and treat noncommunicable disease through international financing mechanisms. We conducted a review of articles and grey literature published from 2000 through 2014 on innovative financing models proposed or used for other disease control efforts. We found that the greatest available evidence supported pooled funding models, where funding from multiple groups is combined for a specific investment, with such models previously deployed in vaccine and infectious disease funding areas. Robust evidence also supported the viability of international transactions taxes or levies placed on specific transactions to fund investments in drug procurement and supply, and of the front-loading of development aid through bond sales, particularly to stabilize funding and subsidize drug procurement. Far less compelling evidence was available to support diaspora bonds or debt reduction programs as mechanisms to aid low- and middle-income countries' health systems in financing noncommunicable disease prevention and care services. PMID:26355057

  16. A Strategic Framework for Utilizing Late-Stage (T4) Translation Research to Address Health Inequities.

    Lopez-Class, Maria; Peprah, Emmanuel; Zhang, Xinzhi; Kaufmann, Peter G; Engelgau, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Achieving health equity requires that every person has the opportunity to attain their full health potential and no one is disadvantaged from achieving this potential because of social position or other socially determined circumstances. Inequity experienced by populations of lower socioeconomic status is reflected in differences in health status and mortality rates, as well as in the distribution of disease, disability and illness across these population groups. This article gives an overview of the health inequities literature associated with heart, lung, blood and sleep (HLBS) disorders. We present an ecological framework that provides a theoretical foundation to study late-stage T4 translation research that studies implementation strategies for proven effective interventions to address health inequities. PMID:27440979

  17. Public health at the vicinity of nuclear installations: how to address the raised issues

    This document is proposed by a work-group which gathered the IRSN, public local information commissions and the French Health Survey Institute (InVS). It is designed to be a methodological document on the benefits and limits of health analysis tools with respect to real situations. The first part discusses the implementation of a public health survey, its approach, its modalities and how its results are published. The second part deals with methodological issues for the definition of the specifications of a public health survey, and its protocol. Thus, it discusses how releases in the environment are to be addressed (releases from nuclear installations and from other activities involving radioactivity), the different pathologies to be studied, the existing health data and survey tools (mortality and cancer incidence data, medical-administrative data), and the possible survey types (descriptive or analytical epidemiological surveys) and their limitations

  18. An approach to addressing governance from a health system framework perspective

    Mikkelsen-Lopez Inez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As countries strive to strengthen their health systems in resource constrained contexts, policy makers need to know how best to improve the performance of their health systems. To aid these decisions, health system stewards should have a good understanding of how health systems operate in order to govern them appropriately. While a number of frameworks for assessing governance in the health sector have been proposed, their application is often hindered by unrealistic indicators or they are overly complex resulting in limited empirical work on governance in health systems. This paper reviews contemporary health sector frameworks which have focused on defining and developing indicators to assess governance in the health sector. Based on these, we propose a simplified approach to look at governance within a common health system framework which encourages stewards to take a systematic perspective when assessing governance. Although systems thinking is not unique to health, examples of its application within health systems has been limited. We also provide an example of how this approach could be applied to illuminate areas of governance weaknesses which are potentially addressable by targeted interventions and policies. This approach is built largely on prior literature, but is original in that it is problem-driven and promotes an outward application taking into consideration the major health system building blocks at various levels in order to ensure a more complete assessment of a governance issue rather than a simple input-output approach. Based on an assessment of contemporary literature we propose a practical approach which we believe will facilitate a more comprehensive assessment of governance in health systems leading to the development of governance interventions to strengthen system performance and improve health as a basic human right.

  19. Welcome address to the 26th international meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors

    While the IAEA has been a vigorous supporter of the RERTR programme since its inception. RERTR and the related fresh and spent fuel return efforts have gained new momentum with the launching of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) by U.S. Energy Secretary Abraham here in Vienna on May 25, 2004. All of the activities to be be discussed are included within the framework of the GTRI. The international programmes to qualify high density, LEU, dispersion fuels based on U-Mo alloys have run into unexpected technical difficulties that will delay qualification. A number of the presentations address the problems that have been encountered. At the same time, it is encouraging that the international resolve to reduce and eventually eliminate HEU in international commerce appears to have strengthened. In the past year, fresh HEU at research reactors in different countries have been returned to the country of origin. In all these examples, the return of the fresh fuel was accompanied by plans for conversion of existing reactors or design of new reactors to use LEU, as well as for the repatriation of spent research reactor fuel. The IAEA, particularly the Department of Technical Cooperation and my Department of Nuclear Energy has played an important role in implementing these fresh fuel return activities. In addition, several of the reactor conversion projects will be carried out under the auspices of IAEA technical cooperation projects and with important involvement of the Department of Nuclear Energy. The IAEA has also supported the repatriation of spent fuel to the country of original enrichment. The U.S. spent fuel acceptance programme has been operating for more than eight years, and was originally scheduled to terminate in 2006. Important announcements concerning the extension of the U.S. programme are expected. At the same time, the IAEA has been working hard with the U.S. and Russia to initiate the Russian research reactor spent fuel return programme. We are

  20. Scientific English: a program for addressing linguistic barriers of international research trainees in the United States.

    Cameron, Carrie; Chang, Shine; Pagel, Walter

    2011-03-01

    Within the international research environment, English is indisputably the lingua franca, and thus, the majority of the world's scientists must adapt to a second language. Linguistic barriers in science affect not only researchers' career paths but institutional productivity and efficiency as well. To address these barriers, we designed and piloted a specialized course, Scientific English. The pedagogical approach is based on English for specific purposes methodology in which curriculum and content are driven by the types of daily language used and interactions which occur in the participants' occupation, in this case, cancer research. The 11-week program was organized into three sections: presentation skill, meeting and discussion skills, and writing skills. Effectiveness of the course was measured by the number of participants able to produce the presentations and written products with a score of at least 75 of 100 possible points. From January to December 2008, participant scores averaged 90.4 for presentation and 86.8 for written products. The authors provide insights and recommendations on the development and delivery of the program. PMID:20623348

  1. Addressing Geriatric Oral Health Concerns through National Oral Health Policy in India

    Abhinav Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an escalating demand for geriatric oral healthcare in all developed and developing countries including India. Two-thirds of the world’s elderly live in developing countries. This is a huge population that must receive attention from policy-makers who will be challenged by the changing demands for social and health services including oral health services. Resources are limited thus rather than being aspirational in wanting to provide all treatment needed for everybody, this critique presents a road map of how we might answer the present and future geriatric oral health concerns in a most efficient manner in a developing country. Viewing the recent Indian demographic profile and the trends in oral health, pertinent policy subjects have been discussed concerning the oral health needs of the elderly and also the associated challenges which include strategies to improve quality of life, strategies to train and educate the dental workforce and above all the role of healthcare systems towards realization of better aged society in India and other developing countries

  2. Mapping of Health Communication and Education Strategies Addressing the Public Health Dangers of Illicit Online Pharmacies.

    Anderson, Allison C; Mackey, Tim K; Attaran, Amir; Liang, Bryan A

    2016-04-01

    Illicit online pharmacies are a growing global public health concern. Stakeholders have started to engage in health promotion activities to educate the public, yet their scope and impact has not been examined. We wished to identify health promotion activities focused on consumer awareness regarding the risks of illicit online pharmacies. Organizations engaged on the issue were first identified using a set of engagement criteria. We then reviewed these organizations for health promotion programs, educational components, public service announcements, and social media engagement. Our review identified 13 organizations across a wide spectrum of stakeholders. Of these organizations, 69.2% (n = 9) had at least one type of health promotion activity targeting consumers. Although the vast majority of these organizations were active on Facebook or Twitter, many did not have dedicated content regarding online pharmacies (Facebook: 45.5%, Twitter: 58.3%). An online survey administered to 6 respondents employed by organizations identified in this study found that all organizations had dedicated programs on the issue, but only half had media planning strategies in place to measure the effectiveness of their programs. Overall, our results indicate that though some organizations are actively engaged on the issue, communication and education initiatives have had questionable effectiveness in reaching the public. We note that only a few organizations offered comprehensive and dedicated content to raise awareness on the issue and were effective in social media communications. In response, more robust collaborative efforts between stakeholders are needed to educate and protect the consumer about this public health and patient safety danger. PMID:26846423

  3. Evaluating the evidence base: policies and interventions to address socioeconomic status gradients in health.

    Dow, William H; Schoeni, Robert F; Adler, Nancy E; Stewart, Judith

    2010-02-01

    This chapter discusses the current evidence base for policies that could address socioeconomic status (SES) health gradients in the United States. The present volume has documented an enormous amount of research on the linkages between SES and health, but there are still relatively few studies that rigorously establish the effectiveness of particular policies or interventions in reducing those gradients. Given the difficulty in developing randomized evidence for many types of interventions related to social determinants of health, we argue for conducting policy analysis from a Bayesian perspective. This Bayesian approach combines information on best available theory and evidence regarding probable health benefits and costs of an intervention, providing a framework that also incorporates the probable costs of inaction. The second half of the chapter adopts a ladder metaphor to classify policies and interventions that could reduce SES gradients in population health. Using this framework, we consider the evidence base for various types of policies, focusing primarily on the social determinants of health, under the rubric that "all policy is health policy." We conclude by discussing promising strategies for future strengthening of the evidence base for policy, including the role of health impact assessment. PMID:20201876

  4. Swimming upstream: the challenges and rewards of evaluating efforts to address inequities and reduce health disparities.

    Hughes, Dana; Docto, Lindsay; Peters, Jessica; Lamb, Anne Kelsey; Brindis, Claire

    2013-06-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in the health of Americans are widespread and persistent in the United States despite improvements in the health of Americans overall. Increasingly, strategies for reducing disparities have focused on addressing the factors that contribute to - if not fundamentally underlie - health disparities: social, economic, and environmental inequities, which limit access to resources and cause unhealthy exposures. As public health shifts to interventions that seek to improve the circumstances of disproportionately affected populations and achieve equity through policy change, alternative methods to evaluate these efforts are also required. This paper presents an example of such approaches to addressing asthma disparities through Regional Asthma Management and Prevention's (RAMP) programmatic efforts and an evaluation of these activities. The paper describes RAMP's targets and strategies, as well as the specific evaluation methods applied to each, including activity tracking, observations, surveys, key informant interviews, and case studies. Preliminary evaluation findings are presented, as are lessons learned about the efficacy of the evaluation design features - both its strengths and shortcomings. Findings discussed are intended to contribute to the growing literature that provides evidence for the application of emerging approaches to evaluation that reflect non-traditional public health and support others interested in expanding or replicating this work. PMID:23416287

  5. Assessing correlations between geological hazards and health outcomes: addressing complexity in medical geology

    Wardrop, Nicola A.; Le Blond, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    Background: The field of medical geology addresses the relationships between exposure to specific geological characteristics and the development of a range of health problems: for example, long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking water can result in the development of skin conditions and cancers. While these relationships are well characterised for some examples, in others there is a lack of understanding of the specific geological component(s) triggering disease onset, necessitating further...

  6. Consumer-Involved Participatory Research to Address General Medical Health and Wellness in a Community Mental Health Setting.

    Iyer, Sharat P; Pancake, Laura S; Dandino, Elizabeth S; Wells, Kenneth B

    2015-12-01

    Barriers to sustainably implementing general medical interventions in community mental health (CMH) settings include role uncertainty, consumer engagement, workforce limitations, and sustainable reimbursement. To address these barriers, this project used a community-partnered participatory research framework to create a stakeholder-based general medical and wellness intervention in a large CMH organization, with consumers involved in all decision-making processes. Consumers faced practical barriers to participating in organizational decision making, but their narratives were critical in establishing priorities and ensuring sustainability. Addressing baseline knowledge and readiness of stakeholders and functional challenges to consumer involvement can aid stakeholder-based approaches to implementing general medical interventions in CMH settings. PMID:26174950

  7. New dialogue for the way forward in maternal health: addressing market inefficiencies.

    McCarthy, Katharine; Ramarao, Saumya; Taboada, Hannah

    2015-06-01

    Despite notable progress in Millennium Development Goal (MDG) five, to reduce maternal deaths three-quarters by 2015, deaths due to treatable conditions during pregnancy and childbirth continue to concentrate in the developing world. Expanding access to three effective and low-cost maternal health drugs can reduce preventable maternal deaths, if available to all women. However, current failures in markets for maternal health drugs limit access to lifesaving medicines among those most in need. In effort to stimulate renewed action planning in the post-MDG era, we present three case examples from other global health initiatives to illustrate how market shaping strategies can scale-up access to essential maternal health drugs. Such strategies include: sharing intelligence among suppliers and users to better approximate and address unmet need for maternal health drugs, introducing innovative financial strategies to catalyze otherwise unattractive markets for drug manufacturers, and employing market segmentation to create a viable and sustainable market. By building on lessons learned from other market shaping interventions and capitalizing on opportunities for renewed action planning and partnership, the maternal health field can utilize market dynamics to better ensure sustainable and equitable distribution of essential maternal health drugs to all women, including the most marginalized. PMID:25467178

  8. Addressing social and gender inequalities in health among seniors in Canada

    Plouffe Louise A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Although canadian seniors enjoy economic security and good health and have made substantial gains in recent decades, this well-being is not equally shared among socioeconomic groups and between men and women. As for younger age groups, income predicts health status in later life, but less powerfully. Potential alternative explanations include an overriding influence of the aging process, the subjective effects of income loss at retirement and the attenuation of the poverty gap owing to public retirement income. Older women are more likely to age in poverty than men, to live alone and to depend on inadequately resourced chronic health care and social services. These differences will hold as well for the next cohort of seniors in Canada. Addressing these disparities in health requires a comprehensive, multisectoral approach to health that is embodied in Canada's population health model. Application of this model to reduce these disparities is described, drawing upon the key strategies of the population health approach, recent federal government initiatives and actions recommended to the government by federal commissions.

  9. Time to address gender discrimination and inequality in the health workforce.

    Newman, Constance

    2014-01-01

    Gender is a key factor operating in the health workforce. Recent research evidence points to systemic gender discrimination and inequalities in health pre-service and in-service education and employment systems. Human resources for health (HRH) leaders' and researchers' lack of concerted attention to these inequalities is striking, given the recognition of other forms of discrimination in international labour rights and employment law discourse. If not acted upon, gender discrimination and inequalities result in systems inefficiencies that impede the development of the robust workforces needed to respond to today's critical health care needs.This commentary makes the case that there is a clear need for sex- and age-disaggregated and qualitative data to more precisely illuminate gender-related trends and dynamics in the health workforce. Because of their importance for measurement, the paper also presents definitions and examples of sex or gender discrimination and offers specific case examples.At a broader level, the commentary argues that gender equality should be an HRH research, leadership, and governance priority, where the aim is to strengthen health pre-service and continuing professional education and employment systems to achieve better health systems outcomes, including better health coverage. Good HRH leadership, governance, and management involve recognizing the diversity of health workforces, acknowledging gender constraints and opportunities, eliminating gender discrimination and equalizing opportunity, making health systems responsive to life course events, and protecting health workers' labour rights at all levels. A number of global, national and institution-level actions are proposed to move the gender equality and HRH agendas forward. PMID:24885565

  10. Is food allergen analysis flawed? Health and supply chain risks and a proposed framework to address urgent analytical needs.

    Walker, M J; Burns, D T; Elliott, C T; Gowland, M H; Mills, E N Clare

    2016-01-01

    above recommendations from food authorities, business organisations and National Measurement Institutes is important; however transparent international coordination is essential. Thus our recommendations are primarily addressed to the European Commission, the Health and Food Safety Directorate, DG Santé. A global multidisciplinary consortium is required to provide a curated suite of data including genomic and proteomic data on key allergenic food sources, made publically available on line. PMID:26536312

  11. The International Polar Year: continuing the Arctic human health legacy

    Parkinson, A J

    2012-01-01

    The International Polar Year (IPY) presenteda unique opportunity to further advance thecircumpolar human health agendas of theInternational Union for Circumpolar Healthand the Arctic Council. The Arctic HumanHealth Initiative (AHHI) was an IPY coordinatingproject that aimed to serve as a focalpoint for human health research, education,outreach, and communication activities duringIPY (2007-2009).International Journal of Circumpolar Health 70:5 2011

  12. Student assistance program: a new approach for student success in addressing behavioral health and life events.

    Veeser, Peggy Ingram; Blakemore, Carol Warren

    2006-01-01

    College health centers, whether large or small, often find it challenging to provide counseling and supportive services for all students (including remotely located students) 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Student assistance programs (SAPs) are services provided to students through a contractual arrangement to the university or college as a part of student services. The goal is to address psychosocial concerns that may interfere with academic performance within the realm of short-term counseling. These services range from traditional behavioral health concerns about stress and depressive reactions to how to find child care with foreign-speaking services. In this article, the authors describe a method to provide such short-term counseling to a 2,200-student health-science campus. They present data from 1 year of service as well as the benefits and limitations. PMID:16789654

  13. Facing safety and security challenges: A national and international perspective (Opening address)

    This international conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems is more than a gathering of senior regulators and of nuclear technologists; it is truly an international assembly of those who implement nuclear safety, security and emergency preparedness. The sessions should have a definitive underlying theme and purpose that support the objectives of the conference. A common understanding of the purpose of regulation in general and nuclear regulation in particular, should provide the connectivity between every one of us, independent of country or organization. A good starting point for the common understanding of regulation would be to note that regulation is done for the well-being of our people, for the common good, with full consideration of the national interests, and of international law and agreements. Nuclear regulation is a disciplined national tool for establishing predictable safety and security frameworks. It works by establishing and improving technical and legal structures to define the acceptable safety case that serves the public interest. Senior nuclear regulators, you and I, are coming together, in Moscow, in winter, in 2006, to make a statement regarding our responsibilities and to deliver a series of products, sustained by a common understanding of nuclear regulation. Moreover, we are here because we care about our nations and because we can and want to work together, better. In this regard, I present for your thoughtful consideration here, as a purpose, the objective stated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its current strategic plan: to enable the use and management of radioactive materials and nuclear fuels for beneficial civilian purposes in a manner that protects public health and safety and the environment, promotes the security of our nation, and provides for regulatory actions that are open, effective, efficient, realistic and timely. With that purpose in mind, it becomes clear why our presence here today is important. In

  14. Asymptomatic rheumatic heart disease in South African schoolchildren: Implications for addressing chronic health conditions through a school health service.

    Shung-King, Maylene; Zühlke, Liesel; Engel, Mark E; Mayosi, Bongani M

    2016-08-01

    When new evidence comes to light, it compels us to contemplate the implications of such evidence for health policy and practice. This article examines recent research evidence on the prevalence of asymptomatic rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in South Africa and considers the implications for the Integrated School Health Programme (ISHP). RHD is still a major burden of disease in developing countries, and elimination of this preventable condition ranks high among World Heart Federation goals. If left untreated, it becomes a chronic health condition that individuals have to cope with into their adult lives. The ISHP regards the health needs of children with chronic health conditions, which include conditions such as RHD, as a key service component. However, the chronic health component of the ISHP is still poorly developed and can benefit from good evidence to guide implementation. A recent study to ascertain the prevalence of RHD in asymptomatic schoolchildren through mass screening affords an opportunity to reflect on whether, and how, asymptomatic chronic health conditions in schoolchildren could be addressed, and what the implications would be if this were done through a school-based programme such as the ISHP. PMID:27499395

  15. Beyond health aid: would an international equalization scheme for universal health coverage serve the international collective interest?

    Ooms, Gorik; Hammonds, Rachel; Waris, Attiya; Criel, Bart; Van Damme, Wim; Whiteside, Alan

    2014-01-01

    It has been argued that the international community is moving ‘beyond aid’. International co-financing in the international collective interest is expected to replace altruistically motivated foreign aid. The World Health Organization promotes ‘universal health coverage’ as the overarching health goal for the next phase of the Millennium Development Goals. In order to provide a basic level of health care coverage, at least some countries will need foreign aid for decades to come. If internati...

  16. Assembling GHERG: Could “academic crowd–sourcing” address gaps in global health estimates?

    Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Marušić, Ana; Sridhar, Devi; Nair, Harish; Adeloye, Davies; Theodoratou, Evropi; Chan, Kit Yee

    2015-01-01

    In recent months, the World Health Organization (WHO), independent academic researchers, the Lancet and PLoS Medicine journals worked together to improve reporting of population health estimates. The new guidelines for accurate and transparent health estimates reporting (likely to be named GATHER), which are eagerly awaited, represent a helpful move that should benefit the field of global health metrics. Building on this progress and drawing from a tradition of Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG)’s successful work model, we would like to propose a new initiative – “Global Health Epidemiology Reference Group” (GHERG). We see GHERG as an informal and entirely voluntary international collaboration of academic groups who are willing to contribute to improving disease burden estimates and respect the principles of the new guidelines – a form of “academic crowd–sourcing”. The main focus of GHERG will be to identify the “gap areas” where not much information is available and/or where there is a lot of uncertainty present about the accuracy of the existing estimates. This approach should serve to complement the existing WHO and IHME estimates and to represent added value to both efforts. PMID:26445671

  17. Assembling GHERG: Could "academic crowd-sourcing" address gaps in global health estimates?

    Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Marušić, Ana; Sridhar, Devi; Nair, Harish; Adeloye, Davies; Theodoratou, Evropi; Chan, Kit Yee

    2015-06-01

    In recent months, the World Health Organization (WHO), independent academic researchers, the Lancet and PLoS Medicine journals worked together to improve reporting of population health estimates. The new guidelines for accurate and transparent health estimates reporting (likely to be named GATHER), which are eagerly awaited, represent a helpful move that should benefit the field of global health metrics. Building on this progress and drawing from a tradition of Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG)'s successful work model, we would like to propose a new initiative - "Global Health Epidemiology Reference Group" (GHERG). We see GHERG as an informal and entirely voluntary international collaboration of academic groups who are willing to contribute to improving disease burden estimates and respect the principles of the new guidelines - a form of "academic crowd-sourcing". The main focus of GHERG will be to identify the "gap areas" where not much information is available and/or where there is a lot of uncertainty present about the accuracy of the existing estimates. This approach should serve to complement the existing WHO and IHME estimates and to represent added value to both efforts. PMID:26445671

  18. Assembling GHERG: Could “academic crowd–sourcing” address gaps in global health estimates?

    Igor Rudan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent months, the World Health Organization (WHO, independent academic researchers, the Lancet and PLoS Medicine journals worked together to improve reporting of population health estimates. The new guidelines for accurate and transparent health estimates reporting (likely to be named GATHER, which are eagerly awaited, represent a helpful move that should benefit the field of global health metrics. Building on this progress and drawing from a tradition of Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG’s successful work model, we would like to propose a new initiative – “Global Health Epidemiology Reference Group” (GHERG. We see GHERG as an informal and entirely voluntary international collaboration of academic groups who are willing to contribute to improving disease burden estimates and respect the principles of the new guidelines – a form of “academic crowd–sourcing”. The main focus of GHERG will be to identify the “gap areas” where not much information is available and/or where there is a lot of uncertainty present about the accuracy of the existing estimates. This approach should serve to complement the existing WHO and IHME estimates and to represent added value to both efforts.

  19. The first federal budget under Prime Minister Justin Trudeau: Addressing social determinants of health?

    Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    A challenging budget environment during the Harper years has meant that crucial investments in the social determinants of health (SDHs) have increasingly been neglected. The tabling of what is widely considered a more progressive budget with expansionary fiscal elements under the new Prime Minister, Justin Trudeau, raises the question as to what extent this budget invests in policy areas that are crucial for achieving a more equitable distribution in the social determinants of health, as promised in the Liberal party platform. In this commentary, we argue that the first Liberal budget represents a step in the right direction, but that this first step needs to be followed up with a sustained commitment to address the pervasive (and unfair) social inequalities that are the root cause of persistent health inequities in Canada. We conclude that the first Trudeau budget, while moving in the right direction, does not fully embody the sustained policy changes needed to effectively address SDHs, including a more expansive role for the federal government in the redistribution of income and wealth. PMID:27526222

  20. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health.

    Valle, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH. PMID:26928215

  1. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health

    Adolfo Martinez Valle

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and evaluation (M&E have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH. This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH.

  2. Addressing Health Workforce Distribution Concerns: A Discrete Choice Experiment to Develop Rural Retention Strategies in Cameroon

    Paul Jacob Robyn

    2015-03-01

    the analysis of locally relevant, actionable incentives, generated through the involvement of policymakers at the design stage, this study provides an example of research directly linked to policy action to address a vitally important issue in global health.

  3. Using community-based participatory research to address Chinese older women's health needs: Toward sustainability.

    Chang, E-Shien; Simon, Melissa A; Dong, XinQi

    2016-01-01

    Although community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been recognized as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities, less attention is given to how CBPR projects may address gender inequalities in health for immigrant older women. The goal of this article is to share culturally sensitive strategies and lessons learned from the PINE study-a population-based study of U.S. Chinese older adults that was strictly guided by the CBPR approach. Working with Chinese older women requires trust, respect, and understanding of their unique historical, social, and cultural positions. We also discuss implications for developing impact-driven research partnerships that meet the needs of this vulnerable population. PMID:27310870

  4. Comparing the health impacts of different sources of energy. Keynote address

    Assessing health impacts of different energy sources requires synthesis of research results from any different disciplines into a rational framework. Information is often scanty; qualitatively different risks, or energy systems with substantially different end uses, must be put on a common footing. Historically institutional constraints have inhibited agencies from making incisive comparisons necessary for formulating energy policy; this has exacerbated public controversy over appropriate energy sources. Risk assessment methods reviewed include examples drawn from work of the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere. Uncertainty over the mechanism and size of air pollution health damage is addressed through a probabilistic health-damage function, using sulfate-particle exposure as an indicator. This facilitates intercomparison through analysis of each step in the whole fuel cycle between a typical coal and nuclear powerplant. Occupational health impacts, a significant fraction of overall damage, are illustrated by accident trends in coal mining. In broadening comparisons to include new technologies, one must include the impact of manufacturing the energy-producing device as part of an expanded fuel cycle, via input/output methods. Throughout the analysis, uncertainties must be made explicit in the results, including uncertainty of data and uncertainty in choice of appropriate models and methods. No single method of comparative risk assessment is fully satisfactory; each has its limitations. One needs to compare several methods if decision-making is to be realistic

  5. Comparing the health impacts of different sources of energy. Keynote address

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    Assessing health impacts of different energy sources requires synthesis of research results from any different disciplines into a rational framework. Information is often scanty; qualitatively different risks, or energy systems with substantially different end uses, must be put on a common footing. Historically institutional constraints have inhibited agencies from making incisive comparisons necessary for formulating energy policy; this has exacerbated public controversy over appropriate energy sources. Risk assessment methods reviewed include examples drawn from work of the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere. Uncertainty over the mechanism and size of air pollution health damage is addressed through a probabilistic health-damage function, using sulfate-particle exposure as an indicator. This facilitates intercomparison through analysis of each step in the whole fuel cycle between a typical coal and nuclear powerplant. Occupational health impacts, a significant fraction of overall damage, are illustrated by accident trends in coal mining. In broadening comparisons to include new technologies, one must include the impact of manufacturing the energy-producing device as part of an expanded fuel cycle, via input/output methods. Throughout the analysis, uncertainties must be made explicit in the results, including uncertainty of data and uncertainty in choice of appropriate models and methods. No single method of comparative risk assessment is fully satisfactory; each has its limitations. One needs to compare several methods if decision-making is to be realistic.

  6. Forging e-health partnerships: strategic perspectives from international executives.

    Caro, Denis H J

    2005-01-01

    International executives underscore the key management frontiers of strategic e-health partnerships between information and communication technology and health care sectors for innovative growth, systems integration, and social responsibility. PMID:15923919

  7. Community health workers as cultural producers in addressing gender-based violence in rural South Africa.

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    South Africa has been experiencing an epidemic of gender-based violence (GBV) for a long time and in some rural communities health workers, who are trained to care for those infected with HIV, are positioned at the forefront of addressing this problem, often without the necessary support. In this article, we pose the question: How might cultural production through media making with community health workers (CHWs) contribute to taking action to address GBV and contribute to social change in a rural community? This qualitative participatory arts-based study with five female CHWs working from a clinic in a rural district of South Africa is positioned as critical research, using photographs in the production of media posters. We offer a close reading of the data and its production and discuss three data moments: CHWs drawing on insider cultural knowledge; CHWs constructing messages; and CHWs taking action. In our discussion, we take up the issue of cultural production and then offer concluding thoughts on 'beyond engagement' when the researchers leave the community. PMID:27080871

  8. Addressing biodiversity loss when international markets of agricultural commodities are oligopolistic

    Daniel Esteban May

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence shows that international markets of agricultural commodities are oligopolistic. This article uses a theoretical framework to identify the effects of adopting either unilateral (i.e. non-cooperative or cooperative environmental policies on localbiodiversity when countries compete in this market structure. The results reveal that unilateral environmental policies can negatively affect local biodiversity in foreign countries. This suggests that protection of natural habitats can only be achieved by means of international cooperation.

  9. Addressing gaps in abortion education: a sexual health elective created by medical students.

    Caro-Bruce, Emily; Schoenfeld, Elizabeth; Nothnagle, Melissa; Taylor, Julie

    2006-05-01

    Medical school curricula frequently contain gaps in the areas of abortion and sexual health. A group of first- and second-year medical students at the authors' institution organized a collaborative, multidisciplinary elective course to address such omissions in the preclinical curriculum. This paper describes the process of creating and implementing the elective. Medical students identified curricular gaps in the areas of abortion, sexual assault, lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender health, and HIV counseling. Clinical faculty and community-based professionals were invited to address these topics in a weekly lecture series organized by students. The course also included a half-day experience shadowing at a local abortion clinic. Collaboration with several student groups helped broaden student interest in and increase financial support for the elective. Some 37% of all first- and second-year students enrolled in the elective and received institutional credit for the course. Written and verbal evaluations confirmed student satisfaction with the lectures and the clinical experience. Dynamic and well-prepared speakers who presented interesting medical content received the highest ratings from students. Student leaders identified several challenges in implementing the elective. Ultimately the elective proved to be a successful collaboration among students, faculty, and healthcare providers, and resulted in permanent changes in the standard medical school curriculum. Challenges for student-initiated electives include difficulty in finding administrative support, securing funding and ensuring sustainability. This paper aims to make this process accessible and applicable to other students and faculty interested in addressing curricular gaps at their respective medical schools. PMID:16753723

  10. Addressing the health benefits and risks, involving vitamin D or skin cancer, of increased sun exposure

    Moan, Johan; Porojnicu, Alina Carmen; Dahlback, Arne; Setlow, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    Solar radiation is the main cause of skin cancers. However, it also is a main source of vitamin D for humans. Because the optimal status of vitamin D protects against internal cancers and a number of other diseases, a controversy exists: Will increased sun exposure lead to net health benefits or risks? We calculated the relative yield of vitamin D photosynthesis as a function of latitude with a radiative transfer model and cylinder geometry for the human skin surface. The annual yield of vita...

  11. Preventive interventions addressing underage drinking: state of the evidence and steps toward public health impact.

    Spoth, Richard; Greenberg, Mark; Turrisi, Robert

    2008-04-01

    The epidemiological features of underage drinking and evidence of its social, health, and economic consequences suggest compelling reasons for the development and dissemination of effective preventive interventions. To clarify the nature and extent of the current evidence base on preventive interventions addressing underage drinking, a review of the literature was conducted through extensive searches of the research literature on outcome evaluations, existing reviews of this body of outcome research (N = 25), and summary reports of evidence on specific interventions. More than 400 interventions were identified and screened, and the evidence for 127 was reviewed. Criteria for the evaluation of evidence were established for intervention studies with alcohol-specific outcome measures for 3 developmental periods ( or = 20 years of age). Ultimately, 12 interventions met criteria for "most promising" evidence and 29 met criteria for "mixed or emerging" evidence. Conducting this review revealed clear advances in the number of evidence-based interventions available and the quality of outcome research; however, much work remains to achieve greater public health impact through evidence-based interventions. This work should consider (1) the great need for intervention research related to understudied developmental phases, intervention domains (eg, family, school, community, and media), and populations (eg, early tweens, late teens, young adults not attending college, and nonmajority populations); (2) the critical importance of addressing key issues in research design and methods (eg, limited longitudinal studies, replication studies, and dissemination research); and (3) the need for improved consistency in application of evidence and reporting standards. Finally, we recommend the application of emerging consumer-oriented and community-participatory models for intervention development and research, designed to increase the likelihood of "real-world" public health impact

  12. Childhood Diabesity: International Applications for Health Education and Health Policy

    Pinzon-Perez, Helda; Kotkin-Jaszi, Suzanne; Perez, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    Health policy has a direct impact on health education initiatives, health care delivery, resource allocation, and quality of life. Increasing rates in the epidemics of obesity and obesity-dependent diabetes mellitus (aka diabesity) suggest that health policy changes should be included in health education and disease prevention strategies. Health…

  13. The framework of international health research--secondary publication

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Kruse, Alexandra Yasmin

    2007-01-01

    Of the global budget for health research, only 10% is spent on the disease burden of 90% of the world's population. Investments in international health research are lacking, hampering health of the poor in particular. Effective vaccines against the world killers HIV, malaria and tuberculosis still...... and private sector commitment.Of the global budget for health research, only 10% is spent on the disease burden of 90% of the world's population. Investments in international health research are lacking, hampering health of the poor in particular. Effective vaccines against the world killers HIV...

  14. Revealing, Addressing, and Redressing Ethnocentricity: Teaching International Business Law with Process Response Journals.

    Gumnior, Elisabeth C.; Richards, Eric L.

    This paper demonstrates with specific examples from various students' journals how subtly and, at the same time, pervasively ethnocentricity expresses itself, and offers suggestions on how to assess and combat ethnocentric beliefs through writing assignments and classroom exercises in an international business law course at Indiana University. The…

  15. Quality indicators for international benchmarking of mental health care

    Hermann, Richard C; Mattke, Soeren; Somekh, David;

    2006-01-01

    To identify quality measures for international benchmarking of mental health care that assess important processes and outcomes of care, are scientifically sound, and are feasible to construct from preexisting data.......To identify quality measures for international benchmarking of mental health care that assess important processes and outcomes of care, are scientifically sound, and are feasible to construct from preexisting data....

  16. Addressing biodiversity loss when international markets of agricultural commodities are oligopolistic

    Daniel Esteban May

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that international markets of agricultural commodities are oligopolistic. This article uses a theoretical framework to identify the effects of adopting either unilateral (i.e. non-cooperative) or cooperative environmental policies on local biodiversity when countries compete in this market structure. The results reveal that unilateral environmental policies can negatively affect local biodiversity in foreign countries. This suggests that protection of natural habitats ca...

  17. Center for Victims of Torture--Guinea 2004-2005 International Mental Health Team: international humanitarian award.

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation for the Center for Victims of Torture--Guinea 2004-2005 International Mental Health Team, who received the International Humanitarian Award "for their outstanding commitment to the healing of torture victims and to educating the world community about torture and war trauma." A brief profile of the Center is presented, as well as the Center's award address, entitled Trauma Healing in Refugee Camps in Guinea: A Psychosocial Program for Liberian and Sierra Leonean Survivors of Torture and War. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115851

  18. Makerere University College of Health Sciences’ role in addressing challenges in health service provision at Mulago National Referral Hospital

    Sekandi Juliet

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mulago National Referral Hospital (MNRH, Uganda’s primary tertiary and teaching hospital, and Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS have a close collaborative relationship. MakCHS students complete clinical rotations at MNRH, and MakCHS faculty partner with Mulago staff in clinical care and research. In 2009, as part of a strategic planning process, MakCHS undertook a qualitative study to examine care and service provision at MNRH, identify challenges, gaps, and solutions, and explore how MakCHS could contribute to improving care and service delivery at MNRH. Methods Key informant interviews (n=23 and focus group discussions (n=7 were conducted with nurses, doctors, administrators, clinical officers and other key stakeholders. Interviews and focus groups were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim, and findings were analyzed through collaborative thematic analysis. Results Challenges to care and service delivery at MNRH included resource constraints (staff, space, equipment, and supplies, staff inadequacies (knowledge, motivation, and professionalism, overcrowding, a poorly functioning referral system, limited quality assurance, and a cumbersome procurement system. There were also insufficiencies in the teaching of professionalism and communication skills to students, and patient care challenges that included lack of access to specialized services, risk of infections, and inappropriate medications. Suggestions for how MakCHS could contribute to addressing these challenges included strengthening referral systems and peripheral health center capacity, and establishing quality assurance mechanisms. The College could also strengthen the teaching of professionalism, communication and leadership skills to students, and monitor student training and develop courses that contribute to continuous professional development. Additionally, the College could provide in-service education for providers on professionalism

  19. Sixth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health highlights selected papers presented at the Sixth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research organized by Jackson State University (JSU) from September 13−16, 2009 at the Marriott Hotel in Jackson, Mississippi, USA. The Symposium was built upon the overwhelming success of previous symposia hosted by JSU and co-sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) RCMI-Center...

  20. An addressable conducting network for autonomic structural health management of composite structures

    The electrical resistance change method (ERCM) has long been an area of interest as an in-service health monitoring system. To apply the ERCM to existing structures, a new concept, the addressable conducting network (ACN), is proposed for autonomic structural health management of graphite/polymer composites. The ACN consists of two sets of conducting lines normal to each other, where one set resides on the top surface of the laminate and the other on the bottom surface. Damage can be detected by monitoring the resistance change 'through the laminate thickness' between two lines. By using a thermally mendable polymer as the matrix, the same conducting lines can be used to supply the electric current needed for resistive heating, thereby allowing the detected damage to be healed. As shown experimentally, the electrical resistance change method using an ACN distinguishes between laminates made of properly and improperly cured prepreg as well as revealing damage generated during three-point bending tests. Finite element analysis was performed to examine the feasibility of the ACN and indicated that the damage can be easily located from the spatial distribution of resistance changes and that the damaged area can be locally heated by supplying a large amount of current to selected conducting lines

  1. Developing a Gap Taxonomy to Address Crew Health Risks in NASA's Human Research Program

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Edwards, J. Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The mission of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is to understand and reduce the risk to crew health and performance in exploration missions. The HRP addresses 27 specific risks by identifying and then filling gaps in understanding the risks and in the ability to disposition the risks. The primary bases for identifying gaps have been past experience and requirements definition. This approach has been very effective in identifying some important, relevant gaps, but may be inadequate for identifying gaps outside the past experience base. We are exploring the use of a gap taxonomy as a comprehensive, underlying conceptual framework that allows a more systematic identification of gaps. The taxonomy is based on these stages in medical care: prediction, prevention, detection/diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, rehabilitation, and lifetime surveillance. This gap taxonomy approach identifies new gaps in HRP health risks. Many of the new gaps suggest risk reduction approaches that are more cost effective than present approaches. A major benefit of the gap taxonomy approach is to identify new, economical approaches that reduce the likelihood and/or consequence of a risk.

  2. An addressable conducting network for autonomic structural health management of composite structures

    Takahashi, Kosuke; Park, Jong Se; Hahn, H. Thomas

    2010-10-01

    The electrical resistance change method (ERCM) has long been an area of interest as an in-service health monitoring system. To apply the ERCM to existing structures, a new concept, the addressable conducting network (ACN), is proposed for autonomic structural health management of graphite/polymer composites. The ACN consists of two sets of conducting lines normal to each other, where one set resides on the top surface of the laminate and the other on the bottom surface. Damage can be detected by monitoring the resistance change 'through the laminate thickness' between two lines. By using a thermally mendable polymer as the matrix, the same conducting lines can be used to supply the electric current needed for resistive heating, thereby allowing the detected damage to be healed. As shown experimentally, the electrical resistance change method using an ACN distinguishes between laminates made of properly and improperly cured prepreg as well as revealing damage generated during three-point bending tests. Finite element analysis was performed to examine the feasibility of the ACN and indicated that the damage can be easily located from the spatial distribution of resistance changes and that the damaged area can be locally heated by supplying a large amount of current to selected conducting lines.

  3. Multiple-scattering lidar from both sides of the clouds: Addressing internal structure

    Davis, A. B.

    2008-07-01

    Multiple-scattering (a.k.a. "off-beam") lidar is an emerging technology in cloud remote sensing. It delivers, as in classic lidar ceilometry, cloud base altitude but also the cloud's physical thickness H as well as its optical depth τ (averaged over horizontal scales on the order of H). The value of τ in fact must lie beyond the range accessible by standard (i.e., single-scattering/on-beam) lidar profiling, namely, up to 3-4. A refined diffusion-theoretical model is presented here for signals from multiple-scattering lidar and applied, on the one hand, to retrieval algorithm development and, on the other hand, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) estimation. SNRs are computed for LANL's ground-based Wide-Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL) system and NASA's space-based Lidar-In-space Technology Experiment (LITE). The refinements are threefold and all about internal structure. First, the laser source is modeled as a collimated anisotropic exponentially distributed internal source rather than an isotropic point source at the cloud boundary; this opens the possibility of using δ-Eddington rescaling to capture the forward peaked phase function more effectively within the diffusion framework. Second, stratification of the scattering coefficient is modeled as an increasing function of distance to cloud base; this strongly differentiates the signals when observed from above or from below. Finally, Cairns' rescaling is applied to this conservative scattering problem to account for the systematic effects of random (turbulence-driven) internal variability at scales up to a few mean free paths.

  4. Health Management Applications for International Space Station

    Alena, Richard; Duncavage, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Traditional mission and vehicle management involves teams of highly trained specialists monitoring vehicle status and crew activities, responding rapidly to any anomalies encountered during operations. These teams work from the Mission Control Center and have access to engineering support teams with specialized expertise in International Space Station (ISS) subsystems. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) applications can significantly augment these capabilities by providing enhanced monitoring, prognostic and diagnostic tools for critical decision support and mission management. The Intelligent Systems Division of NASA Ames Research Center is developing many prototype applications using model-based reasoning, data mining and simulation, working with Mission Control through the ISHM Testbed and Prototypes Project. This paper will briefly describe information technology that supports current mission management practice, and will extend this to a vision for future mission control workflow incorporating new ISHM applications. It will describe ISHM applications currently under development at NASA and will define technical approaches for implementing our vision of future human exploration mission management incorporating artificial intelligence and distributed web service architectures using specific examples. Several prototypes are under development, each highlighting a different computational approach. The ISStrider application allows in-depth analysis of Caution and Warning (C&W) events by correlating real-time telemetry with the logical fault trees used to define off-nominal events. The application uses live telemetry data and the Livingstone diagnostic inference engine to display the specific parameters and fault trees that generated the C&W event, allowing a flight controller to identify the root cause of the event from thousands of possibilities by simply navigating animated fault tree models on their workstation. SimStation models the functional power flow

  5. Paraprofessional Home Visitors' Perspectives on Addressing Poor Mental Health, Substance Abuse, and Domestic Violence: A Qualitative Study

    Tandon, S. Darius; Mercer, Constance D.; Saylor, Elizabeth L.; Duggan, Anne K.

    2008-01-01

    This research was conducted to understand paraprofessional home visitors' perceptions of their training in addressing poor mental health, substance abuse, and domestic violence, and their actions in working with families in addressing these issues. Five focus groups were conducted with a total of 28 paraprofessional home visitors. Three main…

  6. Consensus Statement on Electronic Health Predictive Analytics: A Guiding Framework to Address Challenges

    Amarasingham, Ruben; Audet, Anne-Marie J.; Bates, David W.; Glenn Cohen, I.; Entwistle, Martin; Escobar, G. J.; Liu, Vincent; Etheredge, Lynn; Lo, Bernard; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Ram, Sudha; Saria, Suchi; Schilling, Lisa M.; Shahi, Anand; Stewart, Walter F.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Xie, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Context: The recent explosion in available electronic health record (EHR) data is motivating a rapid expansion of electronic health care predictive analytic (e-HPA) applications, defined as the use of electronic algorithms that forecast clinical events in real time with the intent to improve patient outcomes and reduce costs. There is an urgent need for a systematic framework to guide the development and application of e-HPA to ensure that the field develops in a scientifically sound, ethical, and efficient manner. Objectives: Building upon earlier frameworks of model development and utilization, we identify the emerging opportunities and challenges of e-HPA, propose a framework that enables us to realize these opportunities, address these challenges, and motivate e-HPA stakeholders to both adopt and continuously refine the framework as the applications of e-HPA emerge. Methods: To achieve these objectives, 17 experts with diverse expertise including methodology, ethics, legal, regulation, and health care delivery systems were assembled to identify emerging opportunities and challenges of e-HPA and to propose a framework to guide the development and application of e-HPA. Findings: The framework proposed by the panel includes three key domains where e-HPA differs qualitatively from earlier generations of models and algorithms (Data Barriers, Transparency, and Ethics) and areas where current frameworks are insufficient to address the emerging opportunities and challenges of e-HPA (Regulation and Certification; and Education and Training). The following list of recommendations summarizes the key points of the framework: Data Barriers: Establish mechanisms within the scientific community to support data sharing for predictive model development and testing.Transparency: Set standards around e-HPA validation based on principles of scientific transparency and reproducibility.Ethics: Develop both individual-centered and society-centered risk-benefit approaches to evaluate

  7. To what extent do Australian child and youth health policies address the social determinants of health and health equity?: a document analysis study

    Phillips, Clare; Fisher, Matt; Baum, Fran; MacDougall, Colin; Newman, Lareen; McDermott, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a significant body of evidence that highlights the importance of addressing the social determinants of child and youth health. In order to tackle health inequities Australian governments are being called upon to take action in this area at a policy level. Recent research suggests that the health and well-being of children and youth in Australia is ‘middle of the road’ when compared to other OECD countries. To date, there have been no systematic analyses of Australian child...

  8. The United Nations and One Health: the International Health Regulations (2005) and global health security.

    Nuttall, I; Miyagishima, K; Roth, C; de La Rocque, S

    2014-08-01

    The One Health approach encompasses multiple themes and can be understood from many different perspectives. This paper expresses the viewpoint of those in charge of responding to public health events of international concern and, in particular, to outbreaks of zoonotic disease. Several international organisations are involved in responding to such outbreaks, including the United Nations (UN) and its technical agencies; principally, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO); UN funds and programmes, such as the United Nations Development Programme, the World Food Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme, the United Nations Children's Fund; the UN-linked multilateral banking system (the World Bank and regional development banks); and partner organisations, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). All of these organisations have benefited from the experiences gained during zoonotic disease outbreaks over the last decade, developing common approaches and mechanisms to foster good governance, promote policies that cut across different sectors, target investment more effectively and strengthen global and national capacities for dealing with emerging crises. Coordination among the various UN agencies and creating partnerships with related organisations have helped to improve disease surveillance in all countries, enabling more efficient detection of disease outbreaks and a faster response, greater transparency and stakeholder engagement and improved public health. The need to build more robust national public human and animal health systems, which are based on good governance and comply with the International Health Regulations (2005) and the international standards set by the OIE, prompted FAO, WHO and the OIE to join forces with the World Bank, to provide practical tools to help countries manage their zoonotic disease risks and develop adequate resources to prevent and control disease

  9. Risk of Anal Cancer in People Living with HIV: Addressing Anal Health in the HIV Primary Care Setting.

    Walker, Crystal Martin; Likes, Wendy; Bernard, Marye; Kedia, Satish; Tolley, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Anal health and anal cancer are rarely addressed in HIV primary care. We sought to understand factors that impeded or promoted addressing anal health in HIV primary care from providers' perspectives. In this exploratory study, HIV primary care providers from the Mid-South region of the United States participated in brief individual interviews. We analyzed transcribed data to identify barriers and facilitators to addressing anal health. Our study sample included five physicians and four nurse practitioners. The data revealed a number of barriers such as perception of patient embarrassment, provider embarrassment, external issues such as time constraints, demand of other priorities, lack of anal complaints, lack of resources, and gender discordance. Facilitators included awareness, advantageous circumstances, and the patient-provider relationship. Anal health education should be prioritized for HIV primary care providers. Preventive health visits should be considered to mitigate time constraints, demands for other priorities, and unequal gender opportunities. PMID:27080925

  10. DEFINING THE “COMMUNITY” FOR A COMMUNITY-BASED PUBLIC HEALTH INTERVENTION ADDRESSING LATINO IMMIGRANT HEALTH DISPARITIES: AN APPLICATION OF ETHNOGRAPHIC METHODS

    Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean; Simmons, Lauren B.; Cubilla-Batista, Idalina; Andrade, Elizabeth L.; Gudger, Glencora

    2015-01-01

    Although Latino and other immigrant populations are the driving force behind population increases in the U.S., there are significant gaps in knowledge and practice on addressing health disparities in these populations. The Avance Center for the Advancement of Immigrant/Refugee Health, a health disparities research center in the Washington, DC area, includes as part of its mission a multi-level, participatory community intervention (called Adelante) to address the co-occurrence of substance ab...

  11. Reflections on psychiatry and international mental health

    Helen Herrman

    2013-01-01

    Achieving adequate support for mental health in any country requires a unified approach. Strong links between psychiatrists, community leaders and patients and families that are based on negotiation and respect, are vital for progress. When strong partnerships exist, they can contribute to community understanding and advancement of psychiatry. This is the first step towards scaling up good quality care for those living with mental illnesses, preventing illnesses in those at risk, and promoting mental health through work with other community sectors. Partnerships are needed to support education and research in psychiatry, and improvements in quality of care wherever psychiatry is practiced, including primary health and community mental health services, hospitals and private practice. There are important roles for psychiatry in building the strength of organisations that champion the advocacy and support roles of service users and family carers, and encouraging partnerships for mental health promotion in the community.

  12. Symposium on international safeguards: Addressing verification challenges. Book of extended synopses

    A safeguards symposium has traditionally been organized by the Safeguards Department approximately every four years. The 2006 symposium addresses challenges to IAEA safeguards that have emerged or grown more serious since 2001. The increase in size and flexibility of uranium enrichment plants, for instance, and the spread of enrichment technology to a wider circle of States, pose challenges to traditional safeguards approaches. The procurement and supply networks discovered in 2004, dealing in sensitive nuclear technology and information, have serious implications for the future effectiveness of IAEA safeguards. The symposium will provide an opportunity for the IAEA and Member States to discuss options for dealing constructively with trade in sensitive nuclear technology. Reflecting developments since 2001, the 2006 symposium will focus on current challenges to the safeguards system, improving collection and analysis of safeguards information (analysis, processing tools, satellite imagery), advances in safeguards techniques and technology (future technology, neutron techniques, spent fuel verification, reprocessing, environmental sampling, containment and surveillance), further strengthening safeguards practices and approaches (safeguards approaches, integrated safeguards, R/SSAC, destructive analysis, non-destructive analysis, enrichment, reprocessing, spent fuel transfer) and future challenges. This publication contains 183 extended synopses, each of them was indexed separately

  13. Strengthening global health security by developing capacities to deploy medical countermeasures internationally.

    Marinissen, Maria Julia; Barna, Lauren; Meyers, Margaret; Sherman, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    In 2014, the United States in partnership with international organizations and nearly 30 partner countries launched the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) to accelerate progress to improve prevention, detection, and response capabilities for infectious disease outbreaks that can cause public health emergencies. Objective 9 of the GHSA calls for improved global access to medical countermeasures and establishes as a target the development of national policy frameworks for sending and receiving medical countermeasures from and to international partners during public health emergencies. The term medical countermeasures refers to vaccines, antimicrobials, therapeutics, and diagnostics that address the public health and medical consequences of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear events; pandemic influenza; and emerging infectious diseases. They are stockpiled by a few countries to protect their own populations and by international organizations, such as the World Health Organization (WHO), for the international community, typically for recipients with limited resources. However, as observed during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, legal, regulatory, logistical, and funding barriers slowed the ability of WHO and countries to quickly deploy or receive vaccine. Had the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic been more severe, the world would have been ill prepared to cope with the global demand for rapid access to medical countermeasures. This article summarizes the US government efforts to develop a national framework to deploy medical countermeasures internationally and a number of engagements to develop regional and international mechanisms, thus increasing global capacity to respond to public health emergencies. PMID:25254917

  14. Addressing Student Mental Health Needs by Providing Direct and Indirect Services and Building Alliances in the Community

    Kaffenberger, Carol J.; O'Rorke-Trigiani, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Given that 20% of students experience mental health issues that interfere with school performance and most of these students will turn first to their school for help, school counselors need to consider how they can best serve this population. This article describes how school counselors can address the mental health needs of students by providing…

  15. Health economists, tobacco control and international development: On the economisation of global health beyond neoliberal structural adjustment policies.

    Reubi, David

    2013-06-01

    This article addresses the increasing influence of economic rationalities in global health over the past 30 years by examining the genealogy of one economic strategy - taxation - that has become central to international anti-smoking initiatives in the global South. It argues that this genealogy sits uncomfortably with the usual story about economics and global health, which reduces the economisation of international health to neoliberal structural adjustment policies aimed at stabilisation, liberalisation and privatisation and laments their detrimental effect on health. While not disputing these policies' importance and damaging impact, the genealogy of tobacco taxes outlined in this article shows that the economisation of global health is not only about neoliberal structural adjustment policies but also about sin taxes, market failures and health economics. By stressing how changes in health like the global South's epidemiological transition can impact on economics and how beneficial taxation can be for health, it also shows that the relation between economics and health is not always unidirectional and detrimental to the latter. In doing so, the article contributes to the critique of the often mechanical use of neo-liberalism to explicate change and calls for other stories about the economisation of global health to be told. PMID:23750175

  16. The right to health of prisoners in international human rights law.

    Lines, Rick

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the health rights of prisoners as defined in international law, and the mechanisms that have been used to ensure the rights of persons in detention to realise the highest attainable standard of health. It examines this right as articulated within United Nations and regional human rights treaties, non-binding or so-called soft law instruments from international organisations and the jurisprudence of international human rights bodies. It explores the use of economic, social and cultural rights mechanisms, and those within civil and political rights, as they engage the right to health of prisoners, and identifies the minimum legal obligations of governments in order to remain compliant with human rights norms as defined within the international case law. In addressing these issues, this article adopts a holistic approach to the definition of the highest attainable standard of health. This includes a consideration of adequate standards of general medical care, including preventative health and mental health services. It also examines the question of environmental health, and those poor conditions of detention that may exacerbate health decline, disease transmission, mental illness or death. The paper examines the approach to prison health of the United Nations human rights system and its various monitoring bodies, as well as the regional human rights systems in Europe, Africa and the Americas. Based upon this analysis, the paper draws conclusions on the current fulfilment of the right to health of prisoners on an international scale, and proposes expanded mechanisms under the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment to monitor and promote the health rights of prisoners at the international and domestic levels. PMID:18382849

  17. Addressing Practical Issues Related Tto Nursing Care For International Visitors To Hiroshima

    Mariko Nishikawa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When nine million foreigners visited Japan in 2013, the federal government set a goal to attract an additional two and a half million visitors including medical tourists by 2020. This research investigates the attitudes and concerns of Japanese nurses when they are in a situation dealing with foreign patients. The data were collected from March through September 2010, from 114 nurses at three hospitals, in close proximity to popular tourist destinations in Hiroshima. A questionnaire was developed for this research, named Mari Meter, which included a section to write answers to an open question for the nurses to express their opinions. These responses were examined statistically and by word analysis using Text Mining Studio. Japanese nurses expressed greatest concern about payment options, foreign language skills, and issues of informed consent, when dealing with foreigners. The results confirm that, in order to provide a high quality of patient care, extra preparation and a greater knowledge of international workers and visitors are required by nursing professionals in Japan.

  18. Opening address

    Full text: Honourable Representatives of His Majesty King Mohammed VI and of the Government of Morocco, representatives of sponsoring organizations, distinguished participants, on behalf of the Director General of the IAEA, it is my pleasure and privilege to welcome you to this International Conference on National Infrastructures for Radiation Safety: Towards Effective and Sustainable Systems. I would like to express my sincere appreciation to His Majesty King Mohammed VI for his patronage, to the Government of Morocco and the University Mohammed V, Agdal, for hosting this conference in the beautiful and historic city of Rabat, and to the local organizers for their diligent planning and gracious hospitality. I would also like to thank the four organizations that are co-operating with the IAEA in holding this conference: the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, the International Labour Organization, the European Commission and the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency. National infrastructure for radiation safety has emerged as an issue of international concern over the last two decades. Systematic and strategic consideration of infrastructure has become widely recognized as an essential prerequisite for safety. The first IAEA conference to address the topic was in Munich, Germany, in 1990. The 1996 edition of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (known as the Basic Safety Standards or BSS) highlighted the issue, and the IAEA's technical co-operation Model Project for Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure was introduced to help address it. The Model Project has helped, and continues to help, more than 85 IAEA Member States to work towards the goal of a radiation safety infrastructure in accordance with the Basic Safety Standards. A great deal has been achieved, but this work is not complete. Furthermore, not all States are members of the IAEA or the Model

  19. Enhancing readiness of health profession students to address tobacco cessation with patients through online training

    Anne Maynard

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate effectiveness of an online training program in preparing health care students to address tobacco use with patients. Methods: The program was evaluated on knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, intended behavior, and user satisfaction. Participants consisted of 4,180 medical, nursing, dentistry, pharmacy, and other allied health professions students. Multiple choice questions assessed knowledge before and after the educational experience. Likert scales were used for self-reporting of attitude, self-efficacy, and intended behaviors towards tobacco cessation treatments in both a pre-module and post-module survey condition. Likert scores for satisfaction were recorded in a post-module survey. Two sample paired t-tests were used to measure statistical significance. Results: The knowledge increased significantly for all modules across users. Attitude, self-efficacy, and intended behavior scores increased. The Overview course's knowledge score increased from 59to 89(t[sub](649[/sub] = 61.9; p < 0.0001. Mean knowledge scores for all modules combined increased from 51.5to 74.0post-test. Satisfaction with the curriculum was high, with a mean score of 4.6 out of 5. Conclusions: The success of this program is evident by overall satisfaction, and increases in knowledge, self-efficacy, attitudes, and behaviors, as well as the ease with which it was deployed to thousands of students. Results of this study demonstrate that online training in tobacco cessation is an efficient and effective method of teaching students skills in tobacco cessation counseling, and can fill a vital gap in existing curricula.

  20. International initiatives addressing the safety and security of disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRS)

    High activity radioactive sources provide great benefit to humanity through their utilization in agriculture, industry, medicine, research and education, and the vast majority are used in well-controlled environments. None-the-less, control has been lost over a small fraction of those sources resulting in accidents of which some had serious – even fatal – consequences. Indeed, accidents and incidents involving radioactive sources indicate that the existing regime for the control of sources needs improvement. Additionally, today's global security environment requires more determined efforts to properly control radioactive sources. Consequently, the current regimes must be strengthened in order to ensure control over sources that are outside of regulatory control (orphan sources), as well as for sources that are vulnerable to loss, misuse, theft, or malicious use. Besides improving the existing situation, appropriate norms and standards at the national and international levels must continue to be developed to ensure the long-term sustainability of control over radioactive sources. In order to improve the existing situation, concerted national and international efforts are needed and, to some degree, are being implemented to strengthen the safety and security of sources in use, as well as to improve the control of disused sources located at numerous facilities throughout the world. More efforts must also be made to identify, recover, and bring into control orphan sources. The IAEA works closely with Member States to improve the safety and security of radioactive sources worldwide. Besides the IAEA Technical Assistance Programme and Technical Cooperation Fund, donor States provide significant financial contributions to the Nuclear Security Fund and/or direct technical support to other States to recover, condition and transfer disused sources into safe and secure storage facilities and to upgrade the physical protection of sources that are in use. Under the USA

  1. Priorities and realities: addressing the rich-poor gaps in health status and service access in Indonesia

    Utomo Budi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Over the past four decades, the Indonesian health care system has greatly expanded and the health of Indonesian people has improved although the rich-poor gap in health status and service access remains an issue. The government has been trying to address these gaps and intensify efforts to improve the health of the poor following the economic crisis in 1998. Methods This paper examines trends and levels in socio-economic inequity of health and identifies critical factors constraining efforts to improve the health of the poor. Quantitative data were taken from the Indonesian Demographic Health Surveys and the National Socio-Economic Surveys, and qualitative data were obtained from interviews with individuals and groups representing relevant stakeholders. Results The health of the population has improved as indicated by child mortality decline and the increase in community access to health services. However, the continuing prevalence of malnourished children and the persisting socio-economic inequity of health suggest that efforts to improve the health of the poor have not yet been effective. Factors identified at institution and policy levels that have constrained improvements in health care access and outcomes for the poor include: the high cost of electing formal governance leaders; confused leadership roles in the health sector; lack of health inequity indicators; the generally weak capacity in the health care system, especially in planning and budgeting; and the leakage and limited coverage of programs for the poor. Conclusions Despite the government's efforts to improve the health of the poor, the rich-poor gap in health status and service access continues. Factors at institutional and policy levels are critical in contributing to the lack of efficiency and effectiveness for health programs that address the poor.

  2. Strategies to increase demand for maternal health services in resource-limited settings: challenges to be addressed.

    Elmusharaf, Khalifa

    2015-09-01

    Universal health access will not be achieved unless women are cared for in their own communities and are empowered to take decisions about their own health in a supportive environment. This will only be achieved by community-based demand side interventions for maternal health access. In this review article, we highlight three common strategies to increase demand-side barriers to maternal healthcare access and identify the main challenges that still need to be addressed for these strategies to be effective.

  3. Human Rights, Social Inclusion and Health Equity in International Donors' Policies

    Hasheem Mannan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health policies have the potential to be important instruments in achieving equity in health. A framework – EquiFrame - for assessing the extent to which health policies promote equity was used to perform an equity audit of the health policies of three international aid organizations. Objective: To assess the extent to which social inclusion and human rights feature in the health policies of DFID (UK, Irish Aid, and NORAD (Norway. Method: EquiFrame provides a tool for analyzing equity and quality of health policies with regards to social inclusion and human rights. Each health policy was analyzed with regards to the frequency and content of a predefined set of Vulnerable Groups and Core Concepts. Results: The three policies vary but are all relatively weak with regards to social inclusion and human rights issues as defined in EquiFrame. The needs and rights of vulnerable groups for adequate health services are largely not addressed. Conclusion: In order to enhance a social inclusion and human rights perspective that will promote equity in health through more equitable health policies, it is suggested that EquiFrame can be used to guide the revision and development of the health policies of international organizations, aid agencies and bilateral donors in the future. Limitations: Analyses are limited to “policy on the books” and does not measure how effectively vulnerable groups are included in mainstream health policy work.

  4. Assessing the public health effects of global warming: New and ongoing international efforts

    Patz, J. [Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States). Div. of Environmental and Occupational Medicine

    1995-03-01

    The major health outcomes resulting from global warming are expected to occur through alterations in temperature, weather patterns, and sea-level rise. Potential impacts may include increases in heat-related morbidity and mortality, spread of vector-borne diseases, threatened food and fresh water supply, and infrastructural pressures due to extreme weather events and forced human migration. Extensive international coordination will be required both to assess and possibly mitigate these worldwide health ramifications. International organizations have begun to assembly research and monitoring initiatives. CLIMEDAT is a new database sponsored by the World Health Organization to specifically help network international scientists addressing the health-related aspects of global climate change. Under the World Meteorological Organization`s World Climate Program, monitoring systems such as the Global Climate, Global Ocean, and Global Terrestrial Observing Systems are aiding in the global and regional assessment of climate and ecosystem change. The International council of Scientific Unions is encouraging multidisciplinary involvement at several levels; projects include the World Climate Research Program, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program, the Human Dimensions Program, and Diversitas (which addresses the role of biodiversity change). The mitigating options of reducing greenhouse gas emissions combined with maximizing carbon dioxide sinks will further require full North/South cooperation.

  5. Eighth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is dedicated to the publication of selected papers presented at the Eighth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium was organized by Jackson State University (JSU from September 18-21, 2011 at the Marriott Hotel in Jackson, Mississippi. It was built upon the overwhelming success of seven previous symposia hosted by JSU. [...

  6. Ninth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is dedicated to the publication of selected papers presented at the Eighth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium was organized by Jackson State University (JSU) from 16–19 September, 2012 at the Marriott Hotel in Jackson, Mississippi, USA. It was built upon the overwhelming success of seven previous symposia hosted by JSU.

  7. Eighth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2012-01-01

    This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is dedicated to the publication of selected papers presented at the Eighth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium was organized by Jackson State University (JSU) from September 18-21, 2011 at the Marriott Hotel in Jackson, Mississippi. It was built upon the overwhelming success of seven previous symposia hosted by JSU. [...

  8. Ninth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is dedicated to the publication of selected papers presented at the Eighth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium was organized by Jackson State University (JSU from 16–19 September, 2012 at the Marriott Hotel in Jackson, Mississippi, USA. It was built upon the overwhelming success of seven previous symposia hosted by JSU.

  9. Seventh International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is dedicated to the publication of selected papers presented at the Seventh International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium was organized by Jackson State University (JSU) from September 12–15, 2010 at the Marriott Hotel in Jackson, Mississippi. It was built upon the overwhelming success of previous symposia hosted by JSU and co-sponsored by the National Institute...

  10. The Pan American Health Organization and international health: a history of training, conceptualization, and collective development.

    Auer, Annella; Guerrero Espinel, Juan Eduardo

    2011-08-01

    A constantly changing and increasingly complex global environment requires leaders with special competencies to respond effectively to this scenario. Within this context, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) goes beyond traditional leadership training models both in terms of its design as well as its conceptual approach to international health. As an intergovernmental, centenary organization in health, PAHO allows participants a unique vantage point from which to conceptualize, share experiences and develop projects relevant to international health. Derived from over two decades of experience (1985-2006) training professionals through its predessor Training Program in International Health, the Leaders in International Health Program "Edmundo Granda Ugalde" (LIHP) utilizes an innovative design, virtual and practical learning activities, and a problem-based approach to analyze the main concepts, theories, actors, forces, and processes relevant to international health. In collaboration with PAHO/WHO Representative Offices and national institutions, participants develop country projects based on priority health issues, many of which are integrated into the Organization's technical cooperation and/or implemented by relevant ministries and other entities in their respective countries/subregions. A total of 185 participants representing 31 countries have participated in the LIHP since its inception in 2008, building upon the 187 trained through its predecessor. These initiatives have contributed to the development of health professionals in the Region of the Americas devoted to international health, as well as provided important input towards a conceptual understanding of international health by fostering debate on this issue. PMID:22159721

  11. International Terrorism and Mental Health: Recent Research and Future Directions

    Fischer, Peter; Ai, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    International terrorism has become a major global concern. Several studies conducted in North America and Europe in the aftermath of terrorist attacks reveal that international terrorism represents a significant short-term and long-term threat to mental health. In the present article, the authors clarify the concept and categories of terrorism and…

  12. Neurology goes global: Opportunities in international health

    Fleisher, Jori E.; Mateen, Farrah J.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the need for additional neurologists and neurologic expertise in many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) has become more apparent. Many organizations are committed to this unmet need, but the scope of the problem remains mostly underappreciated. Neurologists may be skeptical about their value in resource-limited settings, yet we are critically needed and can have a marked effect. International experiences, however, must be carried out in ethical, informed, and sustainabl...

  13. Health Workforce and International Migration: Can New Zealand Compete? OECD Health Working Papers No. 33

    Zurn, Pascal; Dumont, Jean-Christophe

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines health workforce and migration policies in New Zealand, with a special focus on the international recruitment of doctors and nurses. The health workforce in New Zealand, as in all OECD countries, plays a central role in the health system. Nonetheless, maybe more than for any other OECD country, the health workforce in New…

  14. Has the Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme of Andhra Pradesh Addressed the Educational Divide in Accessing Health Care?

    Mala Rao

    Full Text Available Equity of access to healthcare remains a major challenge with families continuing to face financial and non-financial barriers to services. Lack of education has been shown to be a key risk factor for 'catastrophic' health expenditure (CHE, in many countries including India. Consequently, ways to address the education divide need to be explored. We aimed to assess whether the innovative state-funded Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme of Andhra Pradesh state launched in 2007, has achieved equity of access to hospital inpatient care among households with varying levels of education.We used the National Sample Survey Organization 2004 survey as our baseline and the same survey design to collect post-intervention data from 8623 households in the state in 2012. Two outcomes, hospitalisation and CHE for inpatient care, were estimated using education as a measure of socio-economic status and transforming levels of education into ridit scores. We derived relative indices of inequality by regressing the outcome measures on education, transformed as a ridit score, using logistic regression models with appropriate weights and accounting for the complex survey design.Between 2004 and 2012, there was a 39% reduction in the likelihood of the most educated person being hospitalised compared to the least educated, with reductions observed in all households as well as those that had used the Aarogyasri. For CHE the inequality disappeared in 2012 in both groups. Sub-group analyses by economic status, social groups and rural-urban residence showed a decrease in relative indices of inequality in most groups. Nevertheless, inequalities in hospitalisation and CHE persisted across most groups.During the time of the Aarogyasri scheme implementation inequalities in access to hospital care were substantially reduced but not eliminated across the education divide. Universal access to education and schemes such as Aarogyasri have the synergistic potential

  15. Political Economies of Health: A Consideration for International Nursing Studies

    Peters, Michael A.; Drummond, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces and explores the concept of political economy. In particular it focuses upon the political economy of health while also considering the implications for international nursing studies in the context of health care more generally. Political economy is not only about budgets, resources and policy. It is also about particular…

  16. Beyond health aid: would an international equalization scheme for universal health coverage serve the international collective interest?

    Ooms, Gorik; Hammonds, Rachel; Waris, Attiya; Criel, Bart; Van Damme, Wim; Whiteside, Alan

    2014-01-01

    It has been argued that the international community is moving 'beyond aid'. International co-financing in the international collective interest is expected to replace altruistically motivated foreign aid. The World Health Organization promotes 'universal health coverage' as the overarching health goal for the next phase of the Millennium Development Goals. In order to provide a basic level of health care coverage, at least some countries will need foreign aid for decades to come. If international co-financing of global public goods is replacing foreign aid, is universal health coverage a hopeless endeavor? Or would universal health coverage somehow serve the international collective interest?Using the Sustainable Development Solutions Network proposal to finance universal health coverage as a test case, we examined the hypothesis that national social policies face the threat of a 'race to the bottom' due to global economic integration and that this threat could be mitigated through international social protection policies that include international cross-subsidies - a kind of 'equalization' at the international level.The evidence for the race to the bottom theory is inconclusive. We seem to be witnessing a 'convergence to the middle'. However, the 'middle' where 'convergence' of national social policies is likely to occur may not be high enough to keep income inequality in check.The implementation of the international equalization scheme proposed by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network would allow to ensure universal health coverage at a cost of US$55 in low income countries-the minimum cost estimated by the World Health Organization. The domestic efforts expected from low and middle countries are far more substantial than the international co-financing efforts expected from high income countries. This would contribute to 'convergence' of national social policies at a higher level. We therefore submit that the proposed international equalization scheme

  17. Canada: a land of missed opportunity for addressing the social determinants of health.

    Bryant, Toba; Raphael, Dennis; Schrecker, Ted; Labonte, Ronald

    2011-06-01

    The first 25 years of universal public health insurance in Canada saw major reductions in income-related health inequalities related to conditions most amenable to medical treatment. While equity issues related to health care coverage and access remain important, the social determinants of health (SDH) represent the next frontier for reducing health inequalities, a point reinforced by the work of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health. In this regard, Canada's recent performance suggests a bleak prognosis. Canada's track record since the 1980s in five respects related to social determinants of health: (a) the overall redistributive impact of tax and transfer policies; (b) reduction of family and child poverty; (c) housing policy; (d) early childhood education and care; and (e) urban/metropolitan health policy have reduced Canada's capacity to reduce existing health inequalities. Reasons for this are explored and means of advancing this agenda are outlined. PMID:20888059

  18. The framework of international health research--secondary publication

    Kruse, Alexandra Yasmin; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2007-01-01

    Of the global budget for health research, only 10% is spent on the disease burden of 90% of the world's population. Investments in international health research are lacking, hampering health of the poor in particular. Effective vaccines against the world killers HIV, malaria and tuberculosis still...... do not exist. However, besides scaling up research for new drugs and vaccines, research in health care systems are needed to understand the obstacles to implement new as well as existing interventions to prevent and combat the major health problems of those most in need. The task demands political...

  19. International comparison of health care systems using resource profiles.

    2000-01-01

    The most frequently used bases for comparing international health care resources are health care expenditures, measured either as a fraction of gross domestic product (GDP) or per capita. There are several possible reasons for this, including the widespread availability of historic expenditure figures; the attractiveness of collapsing resource data into a common unit of measurement; and the present focus among OECD member countries and other governments on containing health care costs. Despit...

  20. Pre- and postgraduate education in international health--secondary publication.

    Christensen, Vibeke Brix; Norredam, Marie L; Karle, Hans; Hemmingsen, Ralf P

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this article is to provide information about possibilities for medical students and doctors to obtain knowledge about international health. Increasing globalisation requires knowledge about international health in such a way that Danish doctors are able to diagnose and treat patients, regardless of the patient's nationality and ethnic background. Denmark has a global responsibility towards low and middle income countries to increase the standard of health. Increased knowledge and research in these countries are important both at an undergraduate and postgraduate level. PMID:17521530

  1. Opening address [International conference on lessons learned from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and the safe termination of nuclear activities

    You are probably aware of the fact that Greece has no nuclear power programme and no plans to start building any nuclear power plants in the foreseeable future. In Greece there is only one research reactor and we hope that its time for decommissioning is still in the future. At the present time, it is undergoing renovation, and this is the reason why we had, regretfully, to change our plans and not visit the research reactor on Friday afternoon, as originally planned. However, Greece uses radioactive sources in medicine, industry, research and education. These activities have left us with some radiological legacies (orphan sources, for example, as in all other countries) and these continue to create small decommissioning tasks and radioactive waste that has to be taken care of. The country is also facing, to a lesser extent of course, some very interesting decommissioning problems from non-nuclear industries that have produced some weak radioactive waste. We are particularly eager to see some international harmonization of the exemption and clearance levels for such waste types, that is, for naturally occurring radioactive materials, the so-called NORM. The challenges in the harmonized implementation of internationally agreed reference exemption and clearance levels will be addressed, while the lessons learned from experiences from involving stakeholders in decommissioning projects are a focal point of one of the sessions. The amounts of radioactive materials produced in a small country without a nuclear power programme are very limited. The inventories in question are at the level of the uncertainty or 'noise' in the nuclear material inventories of the nations with large nuclear power programmes. In spite of their internationally very small weight, they still have to be addressed appropriately at the national level and disposed of properly - this is a requirement in all national legislations. We would like to appeal here for an international discussion that could

  2. Opening address

    The opening address by the host country started by thanking to the International Atomic Energy Agency for holding this important scientific event in in Morocco. The themes to be considered by this conference are among the priorities of the Scientific Research Department in its endeavour to promote scientific research in the field of nuclear science and technology for peaceful uses in Morocco. By so doing, this Department is following and supporting the efforts being made by our country to provide training, and elaborate rules and regulations, and to create infrastructure, acquire material and, equipment and encourage qualified and active researchers. Hence, the convening of this conference responds to a strategic interest of our country, which, similar to other countries, is committed to the achievement of comprehensive and sustainable development for the protection of human kind and the environment. This is considered nowadays as a strategic and vital objective as it entails the protection of people from radiation and against all kinds of professional risks and health hazards. Morocco attaches great importance to radiation safety issues. Our country adhered to all international conventions related to nuclear safety. It is in the process of adapting its internal regulations to international norms and standards, and it is making progress towards the establishment of a national safety body which meets those norms and standards, with the assistance of the IAEA. For this purpose, a standing committee for the follow-up of nuclear affairs has been created on the basis of Royal Instructions, and placed under the authority of the Prime Minister. Its task is to serve as a think-tank on nuclear safety issues and to make proposals on ways and means of reinforcing radiation safety measures. It goes without saying that the peaceful uses of nuclear energy must meet the safety standards elaborated by the IAEA. However, we are convinced that the elaboration of safety standards

  3. Opening Address by W. Weiss [International Conference on Radiation Protection In Medicine, Bonn (Germany), 3-7 December 2012

    There is no doubt that the application of ionizing radiation and radioactive substances in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures is beneficial for hundreds of millions of people each year. On the other hand, the ability of ionizing radiation to penetrate tissues and to kill and transform tissue cells can make it hazardous to health. Employing radiation in medicine, therefore, has to carefully balance the benefits by enhancing human health and welfare, and the risk related to the overall radiation exposure of people in medical practices which should be kept as low as reasonably achievable, in order to minimize its deleterious effects. According to the International Commission on Radiological Protection, there is considerable scope for dose reduction in diagnostic radiology and simple, low cost measures are available for reducing doses without loss of diagnostic information. At the same time, while new diagnostic equipment and techniques are bringing new benefits, some of the procedures involve the delivery of relatively high radiation doses to patients

  4. Ten Years of Addressing Children’s Health through Regulatory Policy at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    Payne-Sturges, Devon; Kemp, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Background Executive Order (EO) 13045, Protection of Children From Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks, directs each federal agency to ensure that its policies, programs, activities, and standards address disproportionate environmental health and safety risks to children. Objectives We reviewed regulatory actions published by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the Federal Register from April 1998 through December 2006 to evaluate applicability of EO 13045 to U.S. EPA action...

  5. Incoherent policies on universal coverage of health insurance and promotion of international trade in health services in Thailand.

    Pachanee, Cha-aim; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

    2006-07-01

    The Thai government has implemented universal coverage of health insurance since October 2001. Universal access to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs has also been included since October 2003. These two policies have greatly increased the demand for health services and human resources for health, particularly among public health care providers. After the 1997 economic crisis, private health care providers, with the support of the government, embarked on new marketing strategies targeted at attracting foreign patients. Consequently, increasing numbers of foreign patients are visiting Thailand to seek medical care. In addition, the economic recovery since 2001 has greatly increased the demand for private health services among the Thai population. The increasing demand and much higher financial incentives from urban private providers have attracted health personnel, particularly medical doctors, from rural public health care facilities. Responding to this increasing demand and internal brain drain, in mid-2004 the Thai government approved the increased production of medical doctors by 10,678 in the following 15 years. Many additional financial incentives have also been applied. However, the immediate shortage of human resources needs to be addressed competently and urgently. Equity in health care access under this situation of competing demands from dual track policies is a challenge to policy makers and analysts. This paper summarizes the situation and trends as well as the responses by the Thai government. Both supply and demand side responses are described, and some solutions to restore equity in health care access are proposed. PMID:16728511

  6. Addressing Health Inequities: Coronary Heart Disease Training within Learning Disabilities Services

    Holly, Deirdre; Sharp, John

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are at increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Research suggests this may be due to inequalities in health status and inequities in the way health services respond to need. Little is known about the most effective way to improve health outcomes for people with learning disabilities. A previously developed…

  7. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    Two years ago the World Health Assembly approved the establishment of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The Programme, set up under the auspices of WHO, provides support to the health authorities in Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine in dealing with the aftermath of the accident, and is intended to serve as a unifying framework for all international health-related activities arising from the accident carried out in the three countries. This document outlines the Programme's objectives, structure, accomplishments and future plans. As a background, it also provides a brief overview of the accident and of its current and potential impact on health in the three countries. 5 figs, 1 tab

  8. Learning from communities in the USA and England to promote equity and address the social determinants of health.

    Blanchard, Claire; Gibbs, Martin; Narle, Ginder; Brookes, Chris

    2013-12-01

    This commentary contextualises and documents the process of a twinning learning exchange between the US Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health initiative and the Communities for Health initiative in England to enable the transfer and adaptation of ideas for similar community-focused initiatives in various contexts globally. The multi-partner twinning exchange built on and shared knowledge around community health promotion interventions, targeting 'marginalised' populations and focused on addressing the social determinants of health to effectively reduce health inequalities. This commentary presents the methodology of the exchange; provides key themes, outcomes and lessons learnt that arose from discussions and the experience; and provides insights, considerations and recommendations for adaptation. Finally, it highlights the importance of such exchanges in the current global context and the need for their replication and adaptation. These experiences contribute to building the evidence base on successful interventions and identifying strategies that work for improving health outcomes and reducing health inequalities. They strengthen the need for all governments to address the social determinants of health as a priority whilst providing insights to inform successful policy. PMID:24722749

  9. Teaching lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender health in a South African health sciences faculty: addressing the gap

    Müller, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Background People who identity as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) have specific health needs. Sexual orientation and gender identity are social determinants of health, as homophobia and heteronormativity persist as prejudices in society. LGBT patients often experience discrimination and prejudice in health care settings. While recent South African policies recognise the need for providing LGBT specific health care, no curricula for teaching about LGBT health related issues exist...

  10. Type 1 diabetes: addressing the transition from pediatric to adult-oriented health care

    Monaghan M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Maureen Monaghan,1,2 Katherine Baumann2 1Center for Translational Science, Children's National Health System, 2George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes are at risk for poor health outcomes, including poor glycemic control, acute and chronic complications, and emergency department admissions. During this developmental period, adolescent and young adult patients also experience significant changes in living situation, education, and/or health care delivery, including transferring from pediatric to adult health care. In recent years, professional and advocacy organizations have proposed expert guidelines to improve the process of preparation for and transition to adult-oriented health care. However, challenges remain and evidence-based practices for preparing youth for adult health care are still emerging. Qualitative research suggests that adolescent and young adult patients rely on health care providers to guide them through the transition process and appreciate a gradual approach to preparing for adult-oriented health care, keeping parents in supportive roles into young adulthood. Patients also benefit from specific referrals and contact information for adult care providers. Promising models of transition care include provision of transition navigators, attendance at a young adult bridge clinic, or joint visits with pediatric and adult care providers. However, much of this research is in its early stages, and more rigorous trials need to be conducted to evaluate health outcomes during transition into adult health care. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the transition process, patient and health care provider perceptions of transition care, and emerging evidence of successful models of care for engagement in adult-oriented health care. Recommendations and resources for health care providers are also presented. Keywords: type 1 diabetes

  11. Research to assess impacts on developing countries of measures to address emissions in the international aviation and shipping sectors

    Anger, A. [Cambridge University, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Faber, J.; Koopman, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Van Velzen, A. [Transport Analysis and Knowledge Systems TAKS, s.l. (Netherlands); Long, K.; Pollitt, H.; Barker, T. [Cambridge Econometrics, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Comberti, C.; Fazekas, D.; Blachowicz, A. [Climate Strategies, London (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    The greenhouse gas emissions of international aviation and maritime transport are projected to increase rapidly over the coming decades, despite significant improvements in the fuel efficiency of aircraft and ships. In order to address their growth, Market Based Measures (MBMs) have been proposed to complement technical and operational measures. These measures are being discussed in ICAO (the UN organization for civil aviation) and IMO (the UN organization for maritime transport). One of the main issues in the debate has been the impact of MBMs on developing countries and especially on remote economies. This report quantifies the economic impacts of MBMs on ten case study economies and globally. The case study economies have been selected in the expectation that they would be relatively highly impacted because of their remoteness and/or dependence on international aviation or maritime transport. This report shows that the decrease in GDP is less than 0.01% on average and significantly less than 0.1% for all but a few of the case study countries. Countries with a higher dependency on tourism and trade are likely to experience greater economic impacts as market-based measures raise the costs of aviation and maritime transport; they impact economies due to increased prices for passenger travel and exported and imported goods. Some of these countries are small island states that are also vulnerable to climate change impacts. Undesired economic impacts on developing countries can be addressed effectively by a combination of measures such as exemptions of certain routes, lump sum rebates, and investments in infrastructure efficiency and development of more efficient ships and aircraft.

  12. The Evidence Base for Mental Health Consultation in Early Childhood Settings: Research Synthesis Addressing Staff and Program Outcomes

    Brennan, Eileen M.; Bradley, Jennifer R.; Allen, Mary Dallas; Perry, Deborah F.

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: One strategy to support early childhood providers' work with children exhibiting challenging behavior is offering mental health consultation services in order to build staff skills and confidence and reduce staff stress and turnover. Through systematic search procedures, 26 recent studies were identified that addressed the…

  13. Sexual health in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD): implications for measurement and beyond.

    Chou, Doris; Cottler, Sara; Khosla, Rajat; Reed, Geoffrey M; Say, Lale

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines different dimensions of sexual health as related to the measurement of sexual health indicators and the proposed changes in the International Classification of Diseases to address issues related to sexuality and sexual health with an aim of informing health policy-making and programming. The lack of mechanisms for monitoring and evaluating sexual health outcomes has impeded the development of policies and programmes that support sexual health. The potential impact of changes to the ICD-11 is major and far-reaching given that the ICD is used by countries to define eligibility and access to health services and to formulate relevant policies and laws, and is used by health professionals as a basis for conceptualizing health conditions, treatments and outcomes. Improving the measurement of sexual health-related indicators builds the evidence base on scientific knowledge of sex, sexuality, sexual health and rights. As we stand on the cusp of the post-2015 era and the development agenda transitions to the Sustainable Development Goals, a unique opportunity presents itself to further consider how sexual health is defined, conceptualized, and monitored. PMID:26719010

  14. Health-related safety: a framework to address barriers to aging in place.

    Lau, Denys T; Scandrett, Karen Glasser; Jarzebowski, Mary; Holman, Kami; Emanuel, Linda

    2007-12-01

    Maintaining safety in the home and community is a national public health concern, especially for older adults who "age in place." In this article, we introduce a multicausal concept called "health-related safety," which is defined as the minimization of the probability of preventable, unintended harm in community-dwelling individuals. Derived from the modern patient safety movement, health-related safety attributes adverse health events in the home and community to systematic breakdowns in the societal system, not to the commission of errors by particular individuals. Extending beyond health care institutions, the health-related safety framework is composed of multiple levels: micro (consumers and providers); mezzo (homes and communities); and macro (policies). Because the societal system is complex with inherent risks, health-related safety will require a culture shift and system redesign, new tools of risk assessments and management, and continuous safety improvement. We propose a research agenda to further refine the health-related safety framework by using empirical evidence and to develop appropriate mathematical and practical models from safety sciences to support this initiative. This article moves the field forward by applying systems thinking and safety sciences to health-related safety in the home and community, thereby paralleling what researchers have begun to do with patient safety in health care systems. PMID:18192636

  15. International observatory on mental health systems: structure and operation

    Minas Harry

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sustained cooperative action is required to improve the mental health of populations, particularly in low and middle-income countries where meagre mental health investment and insufficient human and other resources result in poorly performing mental health systems. The Observatory The International Observatory on Mental Health Systems is a mental health systems research, education and development network that will contribute to the development of high quality mental health systems in low and middle-income countries. The work of the Observatory will be done by mental health systems research, education and development groups that are located in and managed by collaborating organisations. These groups will be supported by the IOMHS Secretariat, the International IOMHS Steering Group and a Technical Reference Group. Summary The International Observatory on Mental Health Systems is: 1 the mental health systems research, education and development groups; 2 the IOMHS Steering Group; 3 the IOMHS Technical Reference Group; and 4 the IOMHS Secretariat. The work of the Observatory will depend on free and open collaboration, sharing of knowledge and skills, and governance arrangements that are inclusive and that put the needs and interests of people with mental illness and their families at the centre of decision-making. We welcome contact from individuals and institutions that wish to contribute to achieving the goals of the Observatory. Now is the time to make it happen where it matters, by turning scientific knowledge into effective action for people's health. (J.W. Lee, in his acceptance speech on his appointment as the Director-General of the World Health Organization 1.

  16. Protecting health from climate change: Preparedness of medical interns

    Majra Jai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health and to meet the challenge, health systems require qualified staff. Aims : To study the preparedness of medical interns to meet the challenge of protecting health from climate change. Settings and Design: Medical colleges in a coastal town. Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A proportionate number of medical interns from five medical colleges were included in the study. Level of awareness was used as a criterion to judge the preparedness. A self-administered, pretested, open-ended questionnaire was used. Responses were evaluated and graded. Statistical Analysis Used: Proportions, percentage, Chi-test. Results : About 90% of the medical interns were aware of the climate change and human activities that were playing a major role. Ninety-four percent were aware of the direct health impacts due to higher temperature and depletion in ozone concentration, and about 78% of the respondents were aware about the change in frequency / distribution of vector-borne diseases, water borne / related diseases, malnutrition, and health impact of population displacement. Knowledge regarding health protection was limited to mitigation of climate change and training / education. Options like adaptation, establishing / strengthening climate and disease surveillance systems, and health action in emergency were known to only nine (7%, eight (6%, and 17 (13%, respectively. Collegewise difference was statistically insignificant. Extra / co-curricular activities were the major source of knowledge. Conclusions : Majority of medical interns were aware of the causes and health impacts of climate change, but their knowledge regarding health protection measures was limited.

  17. Addressing inequity to achieve the maternal and child health millennium development goals: looking beyond averages

    Ruhago George M; Ngalesoni Frida N; Norheim Ole F

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Inequity in access to and use of child and maternal health interventions is impeding progress towards the maternal and child health Millennium Development Goals. This study explores the potential health gains and equity impact if a set of priority interventions for mothers and under fives were scaled up to reach national universal coverage targets for MDGs in Tanzania. Methods We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate potential reductions in maternal and child mortal...

  18. CDC Grand Rounds: Addressing Preparedness Challenges for Children in Public Health Emergencies.

    Hinton, Cynthia F; Griese, Stephanie E; Anderson, Michael R; Chernak, Esther; Peacock, Georgina; Thorpe, Phoebe G; Lurie, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Recent public health emergencies including Hurricane Katrina (2005), the influenza H1N1 pandemic (2009), and the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa (2014–2015) have demonstrated the importance of multiple-level emergency planning and response. An effective response requires integrating coordinated contributions from community-based health care providers, regional health care coalitions, state and local health departments, and federal agency initiatives. This is especially important when planning for the needs of children, who make up 23% of the U.S. population (1) and have unique needs that require unique planning strategies. PMID:26356838

  19. Proceedings of the 3. international conference on environment and health : urban planning and environmental management for human health

    This bi-annual series of international conferences on environment and health (ICEH) addresses issues regarding environmental management for human health. It promotes interdisciplinary cooperation among scientists to find solutions to emerging environmental issues that influence human and ecosystem health. Examples that link human health, environmental degradation and pollution are presented. The issue of improper management of surface waters that promote vectors for disease is discussed along with the bioaccumulation of toxic chemical substances, such as dioxins, that pose a threat to human health and ecosystems. The conference sub-themes were the local environment of slum areas and human health; water quality and water borne diseases; public participation in the management of environmental and health problems; air pollution and respiratory illness; solid waste management; indicators of human and ecosystem health; ecosystem approaches to planning and management; transportation; noise pollution; and complexity in environmental and health systems. Post conference workshops focused on environmental monitoring, urban planning and sustainability education in Chennai, India. A total of 70 papers were presented at the conference, of which 9 were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database

  20. A Critical Examination and Revisioning of Minority Health Frameworks, Research Methodologies, and Intervention Models Addressing South Asian American Health Disparities

    Mukherjea, Arnab

    2010-01-01

    Public health focuses on promoting health and preventing disease at the population level. More recently, the enterprise of public health in the United States has emphasized the importance of understanding and eliminating disparities in health indicators among racial and ethnic minority populations. Federal surveillance systems often aggregate all ethnic groups originating from Asia into a singular category, despite tremendous diversity of cultural features, demographic characteristics, and ...

  1. Health literacy: setting an international collaborative research agenda

    Rowlands Gillian

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health literacy is an increasingly important topic in both the policy and research agendas of many countries. During the recent 36th Annual Meeting of the North American Primary Care Research Group, the authors led an audio-taped 3-hour forum, "Studying Health Literacy: Developing an International Collaboration," where the current state of health literacy (HL in the United States (US and United Kingdom (UK was presented and attendees were encouraged to debate a future research agenda. Discussion of Forum Themes The debate centred around three distinct themes, including: (1 refining HL definitions and conceptual models, (2 HL measurement and assessment tools, and (3 developing a collaborative international research agenda. The attendees agreed that future research should be theoretically grounded and conceptual models employed in studies should be explicit to allow for international comparisons to be drawn. Summary and Authors Reflections The importance of HL research and its possible contribution to health disparities is becoming increasingly recognised internationally. International collaborations and comparative studies could illuminate some of the possible determinants of disparities, and also possibly provide a vehicle to examine other research questions of interest.

  2. Sixth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health highlights selected papers presented at the Sixth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research organized by Jackson State University (JSU from September 13−16, 2009 at the Marriott Hotel in Jackson, Mississippi, USA. The Symposium was built upon the overwhelming success of previous symposia hosted by JSU and co-sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH RCMI-Center for Environmental Health, the U.S. Department of Education Title III Graduate Education Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the JSU Office of Academic Affairs, and the JSU Office of Research and Federal Relations. [...

  3. Seventh International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is dedicated to the publication of selected papers presented at the Seventh International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium was organized by Jackson State University (JSU from September 12–15, 2010 at the Marriott Hotel in Jackson, Mississippi. It was built upon the overwhelming success of previous symposia hosted by JSU and co-sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH RCMI-Center for Environmental Health, the U.S. Department of Education Title III Graduate Education Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the JSU Office of Academic Affairs, and the JSU Office of Research and Federal Relations. [...

  4. "The L Pack": Addressing the Sexual Health Needs of Young Lesbians

    McAlister, Siobhan; Neill, Gail

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about the sexual health of women who identify as other than heterosexual have been highlighted in numerous research reports, yet access to information, advice and services remains limited within Northern Ireland. In response to this, a group of young women have produced a sexual health resource ("The L Pack") specifically for those who…

  5. Barriers to Addressing Adolescent Substance Use: Perceptions of New York School-Based Health Center Providers

    Harris, Brett; Shaw, Benjamin; Lawson, Hal; Sherman, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescent substance use is associated with chronic health conditions, accidents, injury, and school-related problems, including dropping out. Schools have the potential to provide students with substance use prevention and intervention services, albeit with confidentiality challenges. School-based health centers (SBHCs) provide…

  6. Addressing individual behaviours and living conditions: Four Nordic public health policies

    Vallgårda, Signild

    : Analyses of recent public health programmes in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Results: Focus is on either, or both, individual behaviour and living conditions as causes of ill health; the remedies are classical liberal as well as social democratic policies. None of the programmes is consistent with...... approach to public health exists. All programmes contain contradictory policies and ideological statements with differences regarding the emphasis on individual behaviour versus choice and living conditions and political responsibility. The policies are not entirely predictable from the political stance of......Aims: To identify characteristics of the public health policies of four Nordic countries concerning how they present the causes of ill health, the best ways to deal with these causes, and where to place responsibility; additionally, to investigate whether there is a common Nordic policy. Methods...

  7. International symposium on indoor air pollution, health and energy conservation. Extended summaries

    1981-01-01

    A collection of extended summaries prepared by the participants of the International Symposium on Indoor Air Pollution, Health and Energy Conservation held October 13 to 16, 1981 at the University of Massachusetts. The converence was divided into sections with papers addressing the characterization of the indoor environment, characterization of formaldehyde and other organic pollutants in the indoor environment, health effects of indoor pollutants, characterization of aerosols and inorganic gases in indoor environment, energy conservation and indoor air quality, ventilation and controls, exposure studies, models for indoor air quality and energy conservation, and policy and regulatory issues. (DT)

  8. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This report examines the scientific, organizational and financial aspects of the programme and describes the action taken by the WHO for its development

  9. US and International Health Professions’ Requirements for Continuing Professional Development

    Tran, Deanna; Tofade, Toyin; Thakkar, Namrata; Rouse, Michael

    2014-01-01

    There is not a comprehensive global analysis of continuing professional development (CPD) and continuing education (CE) in the major health professions in published literature. The aim of this article is to summarize findings from the US and international literature on CPD and CE practices in the health professions, comparing the different requirements and frameworks to see what similarities and challenges exist and what the future focus should be for the pharmacy profession. A literature rev...

  10. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This document reports on progress made to date in terms of technical management and coordination and financial aspects of the programme. It also provides information on future activities and discusses related issues

  11. Human Health and the Biological Effects of Tritium in Drinking Water: Prudent Policy Through Science - Addressing the ODWAC New Recommendation.

    Dingwall, S; Mills, C E; Phan, N; Taylor, K; Boreham, D R

    2011-01-01

    Tritium is a radioactive form of hydrogen and is a by-product of energy production in Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactors. The release of this radioisotope into the environment is carefully managed at CANDU facilities in order to minimize radiation exposure to the public. However, under some circumstances, small accidental releases to the environment can occur. The radiation doses to humans and non-human biota from these releases are low and orders of magnitude less than doses received from naturally occurring radioisotopes or from manmade activities, such as medical imaging and air travel. There is however a renewed interest in the biological consequences of low dose tritium exposures and a new limit for tritium levels in Ontario drinking water has been proposed. The Ontario Drinking Water Advisory Council (ODWAC) issued a formal report in May 2009 in response to a request by the Minister of the Environment, concluding that the Ontario Drinking Water Quality Standard for tritium should be revised from the current 7,000 Bq/L level to a new, lower 20 Bq/L level. In response to this recommendation, an international scientific symposium was held at McMaster University to address the issues surrounding this change in direction and the validity of a new policy. Scientists, regulators, government officials, and industrial stakeholders were present to discuss the potential health risks associated with low level radiation exposure from tritium. The regulatory, economic, and social implications of the new proposed limit were also considered.The new recommendation assumed a linear-no-threshold model to calculate carcinogenic risk associated with tritium exposure, and considered tritium as a non-threshold chemical carcinogen. Both of these assumptions are highly controversial given that recent research suggests that low dose exposures have thresholds below which there are no observable detrimental effects. Furthermore, mutagenic and carcinogenic risk calculated from

  12. National e-health innovation: conduct of international e-health technology transfers in Africa

    Iluyemi, Adesina

    2012-01-01

    The sociology and economics of the conduct of international e-health technology transfers (IeTTs) is examined. Most African countries are perennial recipients with variations in their domestic e-health utilisation, development and implementation. We identify, explore, and demonstrate how complex and interlinked global, continental, national and subnational actions and institutions condition their national e-health implementations. Multidisciplinary literatures are from national e-health i...

  13. Public health in action: effective school health needs renewed international attention

    Benzian, Habib; Monse, Bella; Belizario, Jr., Vicente; Schratz, Alexander; Sahin, Murat; Palenstein Helderman, Wim Van

    2012-01-01

    School health programmes as a platform to deliver high-impact health interventions are currently underrated by decision makers and do not get adequate attention from the international public health community. We describe the award-winning Fit for School Approach from the Philippines as an example of a large-scale, integrated, cost-effective and evidence-based programme that bridges the gap between sectors, and between evidence and practice. In view of the challenges to achieve the health and ...

  14. The role of Violence Against Women Act in addressing intimate partner violence: a public health issue.

    Modi, Monica N; Palmer, Sheallah; Armstrong, Alicia

    2014-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as violence committed by a current or former boyfriend or girlfriend, spouse or ex-spouse. Each year, 1.3 to 5.3 million women in the United States experience IPV. The large number of individuals affected, the enormous healthcare costs, and the need for a multidisciplinary approach make IPV an important healthcare issue. The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) addresses domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. It emphasizes development of coordinated community care among law enforcement, prosecutors, victim services, and attorneys. VAWA was not reauthorized in 2012 because it lacked bipartisan support. VAWA 2013 contains much needed new provisions for Native Americans; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, gay, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals; and victims of human trafficking but does not address the large amount of intimate partner violence in America's immigrant population. There are important remaining issues regarding intimate partner violence that need to be addressed by future legislation. This review examines the role of legislation and addresses proposals for helping victims of IPV. PMID:24299159

  15. Addressing Social Determinants of Health in a Clinic Setting: The WellRx Pilot in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    Page-Reeves, Janet; Kaufman, Will; Bleecker, Molly; Norris, Jeffrey; McCalmont, Kate; Ianakieva, Veneta; Ianakieva, Dessislava; Kaufman, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Although it is known that the social determinants of health have a larger influence on health outcomes than health care, there currently is no structured way for primary care providers to identify and address nonmedical social needs experienced by patients seen in a clinic setting. We developed and piloted WellRx, an 11-question instrument used to screen 3048 patients for social determinants in 3 family medicine clinics over a 90-day period. Results showed that 46% of patients screened positive for at least 1 area of social need, and 63% of those had multiple needs. Most of these needs were previously unknown to the clinicians. Medical assistants and community health workers then offered to connect patients with appropriate services and resources to address the identified needs. The WellRx pilot demonstrated that it is feasible for a clinic to implement such an assessment system, that the assessment can reveal important information, and that having information about patients' social needs improves provider ease of practice. Demonstrated feasibility and favorable outcomes led to institutionalization of the WellRx process at a university teaching hospital and influenced the state department of health to require managed care organizations to have community health workers available to care for Medicaid patients. PMID:27170801

  16. Study of Global Health Strategy Based on International Trends

    HATANAKA, Takashi; EGUCHI, Narumi; DEGUCHI, Mayumi; YAZAWA, Manami; ISHII, Masami

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese government at present is implementing international health and medical growth strategies mainly from the viewpoint of business. However, the United Nations is set to resolve the Post-2015 Development Agenda in the fall of 2015; the agenda will likely include the achievement of universal health coverage (UHC) as a specific development goal. Japan’s healthcare system, the foundation of which is its public, nationwide universal health insurance program, has been evaluated highly by the Lancet. The World Bank also praised it as a global model. This paper presents suggestions and problems for Japan regarding global health strategies, including in regard to several prerequisite domestic preparations that must be made. They are summarized as follows. (1) The UHC development should be promoted in coordination with the United Nations, World Bank, and Asian Development Bank. (2) The universal health insurance system of Japan can be a global model for UHC and ensuring its sustainability should be considered a national policy. (3) Trade agreements such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) should not disrupt or interfere with UHC, the form of which is unique to each nation, including Japan. (4) Japan should disseminate information overseas, including to national governments, people, and physicians, regarding the course of events that led to the establishment of the Japan’s universal health insurance system and should make efforts to develop international human resources to participate in UHC policymaking. (5) The development of separate healthcare programs and UHC preparation should be promoted by streamlining and centralizing maternity care, school health, infectious disease management such as for tuberculosis, and emergency medicine such as for traffic accidents. (6) Japan should disseminate information overseas about its primary care physicians (kakaritsuke physicians) and develop international human resources. (7) Global health should be developed in

  17. Addressing the "Global Health Tax" and "Wild Cards": Practical Challenges to Building Academic Careers in Global Health.

    Palazuelos, Daniel; Dhillon, Ranu

    2016-01-01

    Among many possible benefits, global health efforts can expand the skills and experience of U.S. clinicians, improve health for communities in need, and generate innovations in care delivery with relevance everywhere. Yet, despite high rates of interest among students and medical trainees to include global health opportunities in their training, there is still no clear understanding of how this interest will translate into viable and sustained global health careers after graduation. Building on a growing conversation about how to support careers in academic global health, this Perspective describes the practical challenges faced by physicians pursuing these careers after they complete training. Writing from their perspective as junior faculty at one U.S. academic health center with a dedicated focus on global health training, the authors describe a number of practical issues they have found to be critical both for their own career development and for the advice they provide their mentees. With a particular emphasis on the financial, personal, professional, and logistical challenges that young "expat" global health physicians in academic institutions face, they underscore the importance of finding ways to support these career paths, and propose possible solutions. Such investments would not only respond to the rational and moral imperatives of global health work and advance the mission of improving human health but also help to fully leverage the potential of what is already an unprecedented movement within academic medicine. PMID:26244256

  18. The effectiveness of health appraisal processes currently in addressing health and wellbeing during spatial plan appraisal: a systematic review

    Gray Selena

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial planning affects the built environment, which in turn has the potential to have a significant impact on health, for good or ill. One way of ensuring that spatial plans take due account of health is through the inclusion of health considerations in the statutory and non statutory appraisal processes linked to plan-making processes. Methods A systematic review to identify evaluation studies of appraisals or assessments of plans where health issues were considered from 1987 to 2010. Results A total of 6161 citations were identified: 6069 from electronic databases, 57 fromwebsite searches, with a further 35 citations from grey literature, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria. These 20 citations reported on a total of 135 different case studies: 11 UK HIA; 11 non UK high income countries HIA, 5 UK SEA or other integrated appraisal; 108 non UK high income SEA or other integrated appraisal. All studies were in English. No relevant studies were identified reporting on low or middle income countries. The studies were limited by potential bias (no independent evaluation, with those undertaking the appraisal also responsible for reporting outcomes, lack of detail and a lack of triangulation of results. Health impact assessments generally covered the four specified health domains (physical activity, mental health and wellbeing, environmental health issues such as pollution and noise, injury more comprehensively than SEA or other integrated appraisals, although mental health and wellbeing was an underdeveloped area. There was no evidence available on the incorporation of health in Sustainability Appraisal, limited evidence that the recommendations from any type of appraisal were implemented, and almost no evidence that the recommendations had led to the anticipated outcomes or improvements in health postulated. Conclusion Research is needed to assess (i the degree to which statutory plan appraisal processes (SA in the UK

  19. Public health agendas addressing violence against rural women - an analysis of local level health services in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Marta Cocco da Costa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses health managers' perceptions of local public health agendas addressing violence against rural women in municipalities in the southern part of the State Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. It consists of an exploratory descriptive study utilizing a qualitative approach. Municipal health managers responsible for planning actions directed at women's health and primary health care were interviewed. The analysis sought to explore elements of programmatic vulnerability related to violence in the interviewees' narratives based on the following dimensions of programmatic vulnerability: expression of commitment, transformation of commitment into action, and planning and coordination. It was found that local health agendas directed at violence against rural women do not exist. Health managers are therefore faced with the challenge of defining lines of action in accordance with the guidelines and principles of the SUS. The repercussions of this situation are expressed in fragile comprehensive services for these women and programmatic vulnerability.

  20. NIH Research Addresses Aging Issues and Disparities in Oral Health | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    ... maintain oral health. The research is evaluating motivational interviewing, counseling, and oral hygiene skills-building to establish which approach(es) is most effective. We are also in active discussions with NIH ...

  1. Addressing the American health-care cost crisis: Role of the oncology community

    Ramsey, SD; Ganz, PA; Shankaran, V; Peppercorn, J; Emanuel, E.

    2013-01-01

    Health-care cost growth is unsustainable, and the current level of spending is harming our economy and our patients. This commentary describes the scope of the health-care spending problem and the particular factors in cancer care that contribute to the problem, reflecting in part presentations and discussions from an Institute of Medicine National Cancer Policy Forum Workshop held in October 2012. Presenters at the workshop identified a number of steps that the oncology community can take to...

  2. Type 1 diabetes: addressing the transition from pediatric to adult-oriented health care

    Monaghan M; Baumann K

    2016-01-01

    Maureen Monaghan,1,2 Katherine Baumann2 1Center for Translational Science, Children's National Health System, 2George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes are at risk for poor health outcomes, including poor glycemic control, acute and chronic complications, and emergency department admissions. During this developmental period, adolescent and young adult patients also experience significant changes in li...

  3. Addressing the social determinants of health: a case study from the Mitanin (community health worker) programme in India

    Nandi, Sulakshana; Schneider, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The Mitanin Programme, a government community health worker (CHW) programme, was started in Chhattisgarh State of India in 2002. The CHWs (Mitanins) have consistently adopted roles that go beyond health programme-specific interventions to embrace community mobilization and action on local priorities. The aim of this research was to document how and why the Mitanins have been able to act on the social determinants of health, describing the catalysts and processes involved and the enabling prog...

  4. Presidential address.

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  5. Child health and the international monetary fund: the Nicaraguan experience.

    Curtis, E

    1998-11-14

    In 1979, when the Frente Sandinista de Liberacion Nacional (FSLN), a popular revolutionary front, deposed Nicaragua's ruling Somoza family, the Nicaraguan population's health status ranked with that of Bolivia and Honduras as the worst in Latin America. The Sandinista government committed itself to improving health services and health status such that in 1982, the World Health Organization commended the major advances in health care made in the government's first few years. That progress, however, has not been maintained as Sandinista health, nutrition, literacy, and agrarian programs have been abandoned by the government under pressure from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the US government to privatize and cut public spending. The progress made over the past decade is now being undone by an imposed structural adjustment policy and the burden of international debt. The IMF has disregarded social equity as a criterion for its programs. Under current conditions, the health and well-being of the Nicaraguan people will continue to deteriorate. Until the Nicaraguan debt situation is resolved, there is no hope for sustainable growth and development. PMID:9843123

  6. A health-in-all-policies approach addresses many of Richmond, California's place-based hazards, stressors.

    Corburn, Jason; Curl, Shasa; Arredondo, Gabino

    2014-11-01

    Poor and minority residents of Richmond, California, have faced a host of place-based hazards and stressors such as pollution, gun violence, and a dearth of economic opportunities, all of which have likely contributed to their poor health outcomes. In this article we describe the city's efforts to reverse its fortunes by embracing a health-in-all-policies strategy for community development. Starting in 2007, the city organized a series of participatory planning projects with residents, community activists, school officials, and other stakeholders to ensure that the city took health equity into account when devising each phase of its new community development strategy. The result was an approach designed to address the social determinants of health by directing development resources toward vulnerable communities and by adopting a health-in-all-policies ordinance. Specific projects focused on improving the built environment and community safety and redirecting government funds to areas of social need. The process has contributed to rising levels of resident satisfaction about personal health, the direction the city is taking, and the quality of neighborhood development. Richmond's experience suggests that adopting a health-in-all-policies strategy is one way to promote health equity in distressed cities. PMID:25367984

  7. Governors' priorities for public health and chronic disease prevention: a qualitative analysis of State of the State addresses.

    Eyler, Amy A; Zwald, Marissa L

    2015-09-01

    Governors use State of the State speeches to publicly outline state status, progress, and policy priorities. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively analyze the public health content of State of the State addresses from 2009 to 2013. Speech transcripts were collected and uploaded into NVivo10. Speeches were coded using a priori, general thematic codes followed by detailed sub-coding of public health text. Data was organized by emergent thematic patterns. From 2009 to 2013, 48 governors presented 72 speeches with public health messages. Framing current public health problems and outlining strategies were two of the three main themes that emerged. Problems were often framed using data or emphasizing economic costs. Governors outlined prevention strategies on tobacco, nutrition, or physical activity through increased funding, policies, or partnerships. Speech content provides information on priorities and trends and can be used to inform advocacy efforts. Future research should link these priorities to outcomes of legislation. PMID:26327940

  8. Opening address

    The impact of the Chernobyl accident on health has been dramatic but different than expected. It has posed a tremendous health, social and economic burden on the people of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Now the picture of the impact of the accident on health and environment is clearer and the agenda can further move towards development and focused health programmes. The work of the Chernobyl Forum, which allowed this important objective to be reached, is an example of the multiplied added value that different United Nations agencies working together can achieve when addressing complex problems affecting large communities in an independent, comprehensive and credible way. This model should be the basis for future action with the Member States towards reconstruction, development and better health

  9. Internal marketing strategy: Focusing on staff orientation in health care in South Africa

    J. W. De Jager

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to determine the levels of satisfaction in respect of pre identified internal marketing-related variables in a large provincial hospital in South Africa. Problem investigated: Low job satisfaction is often cited as a major cause of high turnover among health care providers worldwide. Likewise the Public Health Care Industry in South Africa is facing complex employee retention issues. In determining the reasons for high turnover an interest in evaluating employee satisfaction among health care providers has increased. Measuring components of job satisfaction will assist not only the health care organisations' management to understand hospital culture, but also to compile an effective internal marketing plan and strategy. Design/Methodology/Approach: A staff satisfaction survey was conducted amongst staff members at a provincial hospital in the Tshwane region, South Africa. Attitudes of staff on pre-identified staff satisfaction variables were assessed. These variables were employed to implement an internal marketing strategy. A list of variables was formulated after an extensive literature study had been conducted. A total of 416 staff members voluntarily completed a self-administered questionnaire. A five-point Likert type scale was used to measure the levels of satisfaction on staff-related issues, with a view to addressing issues in the internal marketing strategy. Findings : It was evident that the management principles currently employed by the management team were a cause for concern among staff members. Based on the analysis that identified the satisfaction variables best it was clear that management should take immediate steps to address the following issues : Clarification of hospital goals \\ objectives; Understanding the goals of the respective departments; The functioning of the Human resource department; Functioning of the overall hospital management; andImplications: This paper aims to present a

  10. The Role of Public Health in Addressing Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Mental Health and Mental Illness

    Annelle B. Primm, MD, MPH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Racial/ethnic minority populations are underserved in the American mental health care system. Disparity in treatment between whites and African Americans has increased substantially since the 1990s. Racial/ethnic minorities may be disproportionately affected by limited English proficiency, remote geographic settings, stigma, fragmented services, cost, comorbidity of mental illness and chronic diseases, cultural understanding of health care services, and incarceration. We present a model that illustrates how social determinants of health, interventions, and outcomes interact to affect mental health and mental illness. Public health approaches to these concerns include preventive strategies and federal agency collaborations that optimize the resilience of racial/ethnic minorities. We recommend strategies such as enhanced surveillance, research, evidence-based practice, and public policies that set standards for tracking and reducing disparities.

  11. A responsive evaluation of mental health treatment in Cambodia: Intentionally addressing poverty to increase cultural responsiveness in therapy.

    Seponski, Desiree M; Lewis, Denise C; Megginson, Maegan C

    2014-01-01

    Mental health issues are significant contributors to the global burden of disease with the highest incidence in resource poor countries; 90% of those in need of mental health treatment reside in low resource countries but receive only 10% of the world's resources. Cambodia, the eighth least developed country in the world, serves as one example of the need to address mental health concerns in low-income, resource poor countries. The current study utilises responsive evaluation methodology to explore how poverty-stricken Cambodian clients, therapists and supervisors experience Western models of therapy as culturally responsive to their unique needs. Quantitative and qualitative data were triangulated across multiple stakeholders using numerous methods including a focus group, interviews, surveys, case illustrations and live supervision observation and analysed using constant comparative analysis. Emerging findings suggest that poverty, material needs, therapy location and financial situations greatly impact the daily lives and mental health conditions of Cambodians and hinder clients' therapeutic progress. The local community needs and context of poverty greatly hinder clients' therapeutic progress in therapy treatment and when therapy does not directly address the culture of poverty, clients did not experience therapy as valuable despite some temporary decreases in mental health symptoms. PMID:25204750

  12. Addressing inequity to achieve the maternal and child health millennium development goals: looking beyond averages

    Ruhago George M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inequity in access to and use of child and maternal health interventions is impeding progress towards the maternal and child health Millennium Development Goals. This study explores the potential health gains and equity impact if a set of priority interventions for mothers and under fives were scaled up to reach national universal coverage targets for MDGs in Tanzania. Methods We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST to estimate potential reductions in maternal and child mortality and the number of lives saved across wealth quintiles and between rural and urban settings. High impact maternal and child health interventions were modelled for a five-year scale up, by linking intervention coverage, effectiveness and cause of mortality using data from Tanzania. Concentration curves were drawn and the concentration index estimated to measure the equity impact of the scale up. Results In the poorest population quintiles in Tanzania, the lives of more than twice as many mothers and under-fives were likely to be saved, compared to the richest quintile. Scaling up coverage to equal levels across quintiles would reduce inequality in maternal and child mortality from a pro rich concentration index of −0.11 (maternal and −0.12 (children to a more equitable concentration index of −0,03 and −0.03 respectively. In rural areas, there would likely be an eight times greater reduction in maternal deaths than in urban areas and a five times greater reduction in child deaths than in urban areas. Conclusions Scaling up priority maternal and child health interventions to equal levels would potentially save far more lives in the poorest populations, and would accelerate equitable progress towards maternal and child health MDGs.

  13. Computer mediated communication and disability support: addressing barriers to study for undergraduate distance learners with long-term health problems

    Debenham, Margaret

    1990-01-01

    This work explores barriers to study encountered by undergraduate distance learners with long-term health problems. It considers ways in which problems identified in an Exploratory Study might be addressed. These include fatigue, difficulties with handwriting, academic and social isolation, together with a need for better interactive communication with support agencies. The student perspective is explored in depth. The essential finding is that the adoption of an Autonomy approach when using ...

  14. Climate Change and Health on the U.S. Gulf Coast: Public Health Adaptation is Needed to Address Future Risks

    Elisaveta P. Petkova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate change on human health have been documented globally and in the United States. Numerous studies project greater morbidity and mortality as a result of extreme weather events and other climate-sensitive hazards. Public health impacts on the U.S. Gulf Coast may be severe as the region is expected to experience increases in extreme temperatures, sea level rise, and possibly fewer but more intense hurricanes. Through myriad pathways, climate change is likely to make the Gulf Coast less hospitable and more dangerous for its residents, and may prompt substantial migration from and into the region. Public health impacts may be further exacerbated by the concentration of people and infrastructure, as well as the region’s coastal geography. Vulnerable populations, including the very young, elderly, and socioeconomically disadvantaged may face particularly high threats to their health and well-being. This paper provides an overview of potential public health impacts of climate variability and change on the Gulf Coast, with a focus on the region’s unique vulnerabilities, and outlines recommendations for improving the region’s ability to minimize the impacts of climate-sensitive hazards. Public health adaptation aimed at improving individual, public health system, and infrastructure resilience is urgently needed to meet the challenges climate change may pose to the Gulf Coast in the coming decades.

  15. Identifying and Addressing the Mental Health Needs of Online Students in Higher Education

    Barr, Bonny

    2014-01-01

    89% of colleges and universities in the United States offer online courses and of those institutions 58% offer degree programs that are completely online (Parker, Lenhart & Moore, 2011).Providing online student services is an important component of these distance programs and is often required by accrediting bodies. Health and wellness…

  16. Emotional Congruence in Learning and Health Encounters in Medicine: Addressing an Aspect of the Hidden Curriculum

    O'Callaghan, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to draw attention to and provide insights into an area that is of educational significance for clinical teachers, namely the need to acknowledge and respond appropriately to the emotional context of both learning and health encounters in order to improve the outcomes of both. This need has been highlighted by recent calls for more…

  17. Keep Calm and Contracept! Addressing Young Women's Pleasure in Sexual Health and Contraception Consultations

    Hanbury, Ali; Eastham, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Clinical sexual health consultations with young women often focus on avoiding "risks;" namely pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection transmission. They also typically fail to explore how contraception use can impact on the capacity to enjoy sexual relationships. In contrast, this paper argues that sexual pleasure should be a…

  18. Life Before Tests: A District's Coordinated Health Approach for Addressing Children's Full Range of Needs

    Cooper, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Chronic illnesses, depression, abuse of drugs, alcohol and tobacco. Sugary snacks and drinks, vending machines, obesity and bullying. Guns, gang violence, school shootings and test scores. Teen-age birth rates, one-parent households, lack of health or dental care, and, dropouts. All of these issues are interconnected and intertwined with education…

  19. Addressing Health Disparities in the Undergraduate Curriculum: An Approach to Develop a Knowledgeable Biomedical Workforce

    Benabentos, Rocio; Ray, Payal; Kumar, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in health and healthcare are a major concern in the United States and worldwide. Approaches to alleviate these disparities must be multifaceted and should include initiatives that touch upon the diverse areas that influence the healthcare system. Developing a strong biomedical workforce with an awareness of the issues concerning health…

  20. Addressing Younger Workers’ Needs: The Promoting U through Safety and Health (PUSH Trial Outcomes

    Diane S. Rohlman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most younger workers, less than 25 years old, receive no training in worker safety. We report the feasibility and outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of an electronically delivered safety and health curriculum for younger workers entitled, PUSH (Promoting U through Safety and Health. All younger workers (14–24 years old hired for summer work at a large parks and recreation organization were invited to participate in an evaluation of an online training and randomized into an intervention or control condition. Baseline and end-of-summer online instruments assessed acceptability, knowledge, and self-reported attitudes and behaviors. One-hundred and forty participants (mean age 17.9 years completed the study. The innovative training was feasible and acceptable to participants and the organization. Durable increases in safety and health knowledge were achieved by intervention workers (p < 0.001, effect size (Cohen’s d 0.4. However, self-reported safety and health attitudes did not improve with this one-time training. These results indicate the potential utility of online training for younger workers and underscore the limitations of a single training interaction to change behaviors. Interventions may need to be delivered over a longer period of time and/or include environmental components to effectively alter behavior.

  1. Addressing the Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs of Young People in Ethiopia: An Analysis of the Current Situation.

    Muntean, Nigina; Kereta, Worknesh; Mitchell, Kirstin R

    2015-09-01

    Young people in Ethiopia face a number of risks to their sexual and reproductive health, including adolescent pregnancy, sexual violence, and unmet need for family planning. This study explores the extent to which current service provision addresses the SRH needs of young Ethiopians . Methods included a comprehensive review of the academic and policy literature on young people's SRH and service provision in Ethiopia; and 14 semi-structured Key Informant Interviews. Factors affecting utilization of sexual and reproductive services by young people include: limited SRH knowledge, lack of open discussion of sexual matters, low status of women, cultural and logistical barriers, competing priorities among community health professionals, limited resources for health facilities, and negative attitudes of providers towards unmarried youth. While the antenatal needs of young married women are somewhat addressed, gaps exist in terms of services for unmarried youth, young men, rural youth and vulnerable groups. The national policy platform has created an enabling environment for addressing youth SRH needs but challenges to implementing these policies still persist. The way forward requires a focus on reducing barriers to utilization of services, and attention to underserved groups. It also requires resource mobilization, strong leadership and effective coordination between stakeholders and donors. PMID:26897917

  2. The changing role of internal auditors in health care.

    Edwards, D E; Kusel, J; Oxner, T H

    2000-08-01

    Two surveys of directors of internal auditing in health care conducted in 1990 and 1998 found that healthcare internal auditors are spending proportionately more time on management and operational improvement activities and less time on traditional financial/compliance activities. The average staff size has remained relatively constant, but salaries at all levels of experience have risen. More importantly, the tenure of healthcare internal auditors has increased significantly since 1990. The profile of the healthcare internal auditing director also has changed. The director is older, more experienced, and has held the position for twice as long as was the case in 1990. On the other hand, the director is more stressed and less satisfied with compensation. PMID:11010199

  3. Inaugural Address

    Syed Yousaf Raza Gilani

    2008-01-01

    Sardar Aseff Ahmad Ali, Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission, Dr Rashid Amjad, President, Pakistan Society of Development Economists, Honourable Ministers, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen! It is indeed a privilege and honour to address this distinguished gathering of economists. I am very happy that this meeting is being attended by internationally acclaimed economists and academics from both within and outside the country. I am especially heartened to see that students of economics from a...

  4. Acculturation and health behaviors among international students: A qualitative approach.

    Yan, Zi; FitzPatrick, Kathleen

    2016-03-01

    The process of acculturation often results in changes in the health behavior of international students. This study employed an open-ended, qualitative approach in an attempt to gain an in-depth understanding of the acculturation process for physical activity, diet, and drinking behavior among international students. Eighteen undergraduate international students (average age 19.20, standard deviation 1.21) were interviewed for 45-60 min. Most of the international students became more physically active after they arrived in the United States. Facilitators included accessibility, weight management, free time, and role modeling. Most international students were unsatisfied with the food on campus. Their strategies for adjusting to this included ordering food from restaurants, visiting supermarkets, and moving off campus. Most international students felt uncomfortable with the drinking culture in the United States, although some of them felt drinking was a good way to socialize with Americans and explore American culture. Colleges and universities should adopt strategies to better help their international students build lifelong healthy behaviors. PMID:26273820

  5. [Proposal to address the mental health problems detected after the February 27, 2010 earthquake].

    Figueroa, Rodrigo A; Cortés, Paula F

    2016-02-01

    One of the most important topics mentioned by people from places affected by the February 27th, 2010 earthquake to the Presidential Delegation for the Reconstruction, was the urgent need of mental health care. Given the enormous individual and social burden of mental health sequelae after disasters, its treatment becomes a critical issue. In this article, we propose several actions to be implemented in Chile in the context of the process of recovery and reconstruction, including optimization of social communication and media response to disasters; designing and deployment of a national strategy for volunteer service; training of primary care staff in screening and initial management of post-traumatic stress reactions; and training, continuous education and clinical supervision of a critical number of therapists in evidence-based therapies for conditions specifically related to stress. PMID:27092680

  6. Five Topics Health Care Simulation Can Address to Improve Patient Safety

    Sollid, Stephen J M; Dieckmann, Peter; Aase, Karina;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: There is little knowledge about which elements of health care simulation are most effective in improving patient safety. When empirical evidence is lacking, a consensus statement can help define priorities in, for example, education and research. A consensus process was therefore......-day consensus meeting at the Utstein Abbey in Norway. The goals of stage 4 were to agree on the top 5 topics in health care simulation that contribute the most to patient safety, identify the patient safety problems they relate to, and suggest solutions with implementation strategies for these...... problems. RESULTS: The expert group agreed on the following topics: technical skills, nontechnical skills, system probing, assessment, and effectiveness. For each topic, 5 patient safety problems were suggested that each topic might contribute to solve. Solutions to these problems and implementation...

  7. Evaluating Health Risks from Inhaled Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Research Needs for Addressing Uncertainty

    Lehmann, Geniece M.; Christensen, Krista; Maddaloni, Mark; Phillips, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Indoor air concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in some buildings are one or more orders of magnitude higher than background levels. In response to this, efforts have been made to assess the potential health risk posed by inhaled PCBs. These efforts are hindered by uncertainties related to the characterization and assessment of source, exposure, and exposure-response. Objectives: We briefly describe some common sources of PCBs in indoor air and estimate the contribut...

  8. Motherhood in childhood: addressing reproductive health hazards among adolescent married women in India

    Patra, Shraboni

    2016-01-01

    Background In India, due to the high prevalence of child marriage, most adolescent pregnancies occur within marriage. Pregnancy and childbirth complications are among the leading causes of death in girls aged 15 to 19 years. Hence, adolescent pregnancy is a serious health threat to young women in India. Methods The study focuses on the level and trends of adolescent pregnancy rate (per thousand currently married adolescent women) in India in the last two decades, based on cross-sectional data...

  9. A Framework to Address Challenges in Communicating the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease.

    Winett, Liana; Wallack, Lawrence; Richardson, Dawn; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Messer, Lynne

    2016-09-01

    Findings from the field of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) suggest that some of the most pressing public health problems facing communities today may begin much earlier than previously understood. In particular, this body of work provides evidence that social, physical, chemical, environmental, and behavioral influences in early life play a significant role in establishing vulnerabilities for chronic disease later in life. Further, because this work points to the importance of adverse environmental exposures that cluster in population groups, it suggests that existing opportunities to intervene at a population level may need to refocus their efforts "upstream" to sufficiently combat the fundamental causes of disease. To translate these findings into improved public health, however, the distance between scientific discovery and population application will need to be bridged by conversations across a breadth of disciplines and social roles. And importantly, those involved will likely begin without a shared vocabulary or conceptual starting point. The purpose of this paper is to support and inform the translation of DOHaD findings from the bench to population-level health promotion and disease prevention, by: (1) discussing the unique communication challenges inherent to translation of DOHaD for broad audiences, (2) introducing the First-hit/Second-hit Framework with an epidemiologic planning matrix as a model for conceptualizing and structuring communication around DOHaD, and (3) discussing the ways in which patterns of communicating DOHaD findings can expand the range of solutions considered and encourage discussion of population-level solutions in relation to one another, rather than in isolation. PMID:27449924

  10. A Proposed Legal Framework for Addressing Privacy for Patient Controlled Health Records in Pediatrics

    Bourgeois, Fabienne; Taylor, Patrick; Mandl, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Summary Patient controlled health records (PCHRs) provide widespread and flexible access to integrated medical information. Unique legal challenges arise where the patient is a minor. Variations in laws and statutes concerning minor’s rights to privacy and confidentiality, and institutions’ local interpretations of them, need to be integrated in the principles governing PCHRs. We propose a legal framework to guide the development of access policies for PCHRs to ensure appropriate privacy and confidentiality protection surrounding minors. PMID:17238481

  11. How do integrated health care systems address racial and ethnic disparities in colon cancer?

    Rhoads, KF; Patel, MI; Ma, Y.; Schmidt, LA

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology. Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities have persisted over the last two decades. CRC is a complex disease requiring multidisciplinary care from specialists who may be geographically separated. Few studies have assessed the association between integrated health care system (IHS) CRC care quality, survival, and disparities. The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to an IHS positively affects quality of care, risk of mortality...

  12. The Role of Translational Research in Addressing Health Disparities: a Conceptual Framework

    Fleming, Erik S.; Perkins, James; Easa, David; Conde, Jose G.; Richard S. Baker; Southerland, William M.; Dottin, Robert; Benabe, Julio E.; Ofili, Elizabeth O.; Bond, Vincent C; McClure, Shelia A.; Sayre, Michael H.; Beanan, Maureen J.; Norris, Keith C.

    2008-01-01

    Translational research has tremendous potential as a tool to reduce health disparities in the United States, but a lack of common understanding about the scope of this dynamic, multidisciplinary approach to research has limited its use. The term “translational research” is often associated with the phrase “bench to bedside,” but the expedited movement of biomedical advances from the laboratory to clinical trials is only the first phase of the translational process. The second phase of transla...

  13. Iron deficiency anemia among children: Addressing a global public health problem within a Canadian context

    Christofides, Anna; Schauer, Claudia; Zlotkin, Stanley H.

    2005-01-01

    Despite current Canadian pre- and perinatal nutrition programs, the prevalence of both iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is very high among young Aboriginal children from Canada’s remote north. The major risk factors for IDA include prolonged consumption of evaporated cow’s milk, chronic infection and prolonged exclusive breastfeeding. In the present article, the authors discuss IDA as a significant public health problem in Canadian Aboriginal communities. Whereas the prevalenc...

  14. Addressing the socioeconomic determinants of adolescent health: experiences from the WHO/HBSC Forum 2007

    Koller, Theadora; Morgan, Antony; Guerreiro, Ana; Currie, Candace; Ziglio, Erio; Due, Pernille

    translation of research into action, the Forum series focuses on increasing know-how to scale up intersectoral policies and interventions; reduce health inequities; and involve young people in the design, implementation and evaluation of policies and interventions. Interviews with selected participants in the...... ensure systematic, appropriate and meaningful youth involvement; maximization of the usefulness of the European consultation; and definition of a budget line and framework for evaluation of the process' impact at country level....

  15. Cluster randomized controlled trial protocol: addressing reproductive coercion in health settings (ARCHES)

    Tancredi, Daniel J.; Silverman, Jay G.; Michele R Decker; McCauley, Heather L.; Anderson, Heather A.; Jones, Kelley A.; Ciaravino, Samantha; Hicks, Angela; Raible, Claire; Zelazny, Sarah; James, Lisa; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Women ages 16–29 utilizing family planning clinics for medical services experience higher rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) and reproductive coercion (RC) than their same-age peers, increasing risk for unintended pregnancy and related poor reproductive health outcomes. Brief interventions integrated into routine family planning care have shown promise in reducing risk for RC, but longer-term intervention effects on partner violence victimization, RC, and unintended pregnancy...

  16. Challenges faced by multidisplinary new investigators on addressing grand challenges in global health

    Logie, Carmen; Dimaras, Helen; Fortin, Anny; Ramón-García, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Background The grand challenges approach aims to spark innovative and transformative strategies to overcome barriers to significant global health issues. Grand Challenges Canada endorses an ‘Integrated Innovation™’ approach that focuses on the intersection of scientific/technological, social and business innovation. In this article we explore themes emerging from a dialogue between the authors, who are multidisciplinary recipients of the ‘Rising Stars in Global Health’ award from Grand Challe...

  17. Addressing underutilization of consumer health information resource centers: a formative study*

    Kennedy, May G.; Kiken, Laura; Shipman, Jean P.

    2008-01-01

    Problem: Four consumer health information centers in Richmond, Virginia, provide one-on-one assistance in accessing health information. Because they may not be fully utilized at present, an exploratory marketing study of factors affecting usage of the centers was conducted. Method: Observers counted center passers-by and tracked their paths. Also, brief intercept interviews were conducted with people who had just used a center, people nearby who could have used one but did not, and people on the street. Finally, in-depth individual interviews were conducted with key informants. Results: There was a high degree of satisfaction with the centers among users. Nonusers universally endorsed the center concept. However, most passers-by did not even glance at the centers, and intercept interviewees suggested better signage and promoting the resource centers through various media channels. Key informants added suggestions about interpersonal strategies (e.g., physician referrals) for center usage promotion but cautioned that a large increase in traffic could not be accommodated without increasing staff size or shifting from a model of individualized service. Conclusions: Triangulating findings from multiple data collection methods can provide useful guidance for efforts to promote center utilization. At minimum, steps should be taken to make the largest centers more noticeable. Because center utilization is not only associated with consumer satisfaction with hospitals, but may also foster health literacy, both hospital-based and community-based usage promotion strategies may be warranted. All such promotional strategies should be audience-tested before they are adopted. PMID:18219380

  18. Addressing Younger Workers' Needs: The Promoting U through Safety and Health (PUSH) Trial Outcomes.

    Rohlman, Diane S; Parish, Megan; Elliot, Diane L; Hanson, Ginger; Perrin, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Most younger workers, less than 25 years old, receive no training in worker safety. We report the feasibility and outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of an electronically delivered safety and health curriculum for younger workers entitled, PUSH (Promoting U through Safety and Health). All younger workers (14-24 years old) hired for summer work at a large parks and recreation organization were invited to participate in an evaluation of an online training and randomized into an intervention or control condition. Baseline and end-of-summer online instruments assessed acceptability, knowledge, and self-reported attitudes and behaviors. One-hundred and forty participants (mean age 17.9 years) completed the study. The innovative training was feasible and acceptable to participants and the organization. Durable increases in safety and health knowledge were achieved by intervention workers (p change behaviors. Interventions may need to be delivered over a longer period of time and/or include environmental components to effectively alter behavior. PMID:27517968

  19. World Health Considerations in Airborne Pollution with Special Reference to Radioactive Wastes (Opening Address)

    The World Health Organization is concerned with the promotion of health and human well-being throughout the world. For this reason, it is as closely concerned with the problem of pollution as it is with other better defined problems such as malaria, plague, influenza, cancer, mental illness, and all other killing and debilitating diseases of man. At this meeting we are concerned specifically with the cleaning of airborne radioactive waste and the operation and developmental experience acquired from the management of these wastes in the past. We can view the present and future with reasonable confidence, and this is justifiable since the experience of the past 20 years has been reassuring. Despite many residual uncertainties we probably know a great deal more of the risks of radiation exposure than we do of almost any other actual or potential atmospheric contaminants. The World Health Organization is also concerned with this problem, but I wish to emphasize that the question of radioactive waste is only part, and maybe a very small part, of the problem of pollution as a whole. Indeed, it is probably unwise, except in very exceptional circumstances, to treat and view radioactive waste, either airborne or waterborne, as a single series of contaminants posing a single problem in their own right

  20. Canadian health expenditures: where do we really stand internationally?

    Deber, R; Swan, B

    1999-06-15

    There are different ways to measure how much Canada spends on health care and the quality of these measurements may vary. This paper examines Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development data for 3 common standards of measure: health expenditures as a proportion of gross domestic product (GDP), nominal spending per capita (US dollars) and spending per capita in purchasing power parities (PPP) equivalents. In 1994, the most recent year for which there were firm data. Canada spent 9.9% of its GDP on health care (rank 3 of 29), and $1999 PPPs per capita (rank 3). However, actual spending was only US$1824 per capita (rank 14). In the same year Japan spent 7% of GDP on health care (rank 22), $1478 in PPPs per capita (rank 16), but actually spent US$2614 per capita (rank 3). Although each measure is suitable for some policy purposes, Canadian spending remains modest by international standards. PMID:10410638

  1. Evolution of research in health geographics through the International Journal of Health Geographics (2002–2015)

    Perez, Sandra; Laperrière, Vincent; Borderon, Marion; Padilla, Cindy; Maignant, Gilles; Oliveau, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Health geographics is a fast-developing research area. Subjects broached in scientific literature are most varied, ranging from vectorial diseases to access to healthcare, with a recent revival of themes such as the implication of health in the Smart City, or a predominantly individual-centered approach. Far beyond standard meta-analyses, the present study deliberately adopts the standpoint of questioning space in its foundations, through various authors of the International Journal of Health...

  2. Alternative dispute resolution: methods to address workplace conflict in health services organizations.

    DeSouza, J R

    1998-01-01

    As healthcare organizations become increasingly complex, healthcare administrators and human resource managers face the cost and challenges of employment-related disputes. Litigation and legal costs associated with employment disputes are escalating at a significant rate. Additionally, litigation procedures are drawn out and damage the employer-employee relationship. Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) programs such as mediation and arbitration alleviate the burden of litigation and preserve positive employment relationships between the organization and its employees. A proposed ADR program is presented is a guideline for health services organizations considering the adoption of such programs. PMID:10182933

  3. Constructing Pragmatic Socioeconomic Status Assessment Tools to Address Health Equality Challenges

    Tajik, Parvin; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: A key challenge for equality evaluation and monitoring, mainly in developing countries, is assessing socioeconomic status (SES) of individuals. This difficulty along with low technical competency, have resulted in many health information collected in these countries which are devoid of suitable SES indices. However, simplifying data collection requirements for estimating economic parameters seems to guarantee their wide adoption by survey and health information system (HIS) designers, resulting in immediate production of equity-oriented policy-relevant information. The goal of this study is obtaining adequate number of variables, which their combination can provide a valid assessment of SES in Iranian population. Methods: The data source was Living Standards Measurement Study of Iran (2006). Data of 27,000 households on the ownership of 33 household assets was used for this analysis. Households of this study were divided into 5 groups in terms of SES status using principle component analysis. Then selection was made among the 33 variables so that a combination with minimum necessary number for obtaining SES status is reached. Agreement of the new combination (including minimum number of variables) with full variable combination (including all 33 variables) was assessed using weighted kappa. Results: A minimum set of six variables including having kitchen, bathroom, vacuum cleaner, washing machine, freezer and personal computer could successfully discriminate SES of the population. Comparing this 6 item-index with the whole 33 item-index revealed that 65% of households were in the same quintiles, with a weighted kappa statistics of 0.76. For households in different quintiles, movement was generally limited to one quintile, with just 2% of households moving two or more quintiles. Conclusions: The proposed simple index is completely applicable in current Iran's society. It can be used in different survey and studies. The development is quite simple and can

  4. Constructing pragmatic socioeconomic status assessment tools to address health equality challenges

    Parvin Tajik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A key challenge for equality evaluation and monitoring, mainly in developing countries, is assessing socioeconomic status (SES of individuals. This difficulty along with low technical competency, have resulted in many health information collected in these countries which are devoid of suitable SES indices. However, simplifying data collection requirements for estimating economic parameters seems to guarantee their wide adoption by survey and health information system (HIS designers, resulting in immediate production of equity-oriented policy-relevant information. The goal of this study is obtaining adequate number of variables, which their combination can provide a valid assessment of SES in Iranian population. Methods: The data source was Living Standards Measurement Study of Iran (2006. Data of 27,000 households on the ownership of 33 household assets was used for this analysis. Households of this study were divided into 5 groups in terms of SES status using principle component analysis. Then selection was made among the 33 variables so that a combination with minimum necessary number for obtaining SES status is reached. Agreement of the new combination (including minimum number of variables with full variable combination (including all 33 variables was assessed using weighted kappa. Results: A minimum set of six variables including having kitchen, bathroom, vacuum cleaner, washing machine, freezer and personal computer could successfully discriminate SES of the population. Comparing this 6 item-index with the whole 33 item-index revealed that 65% of households were in the same quintiles, with a weighted kappa statistics of 0.76. For households in different quintiles, movement was generally limited to one quintile, with just 2% of households moving two or more quintiles. Conclusions: The proposed simple index is completely applicable in current Iran′s society. It can be used in different survey and studies. The development is

  5. Operating plan for the Office of International Health Programs

    In this report unified ideas are presented about what the Office of International Health Programs does, what the individual contributions are, and how the organization connects to the Department of Energy. The planning efforts have focused on the office's three areas of responsibility: Europe, Japan, and the Marshall Islands. Common to each technical program area are issues related to the following: health of populations exposed to radiation incidents and the associated medical aspects of exposure; dose reconstruction; training; and public involvement. Each of the program areas, its customers, and primary customer interests are described

  6. Operating plan for the Office of International Health Programs

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    In this report unified ideas are presented about what the Office of International Health Programs does, what the individual contributions are, and how the organization connects to the Department of Energy. The planning efforts have focused on the office`s three areas of responsibility: Europe, Japan, and the Marshall Islands. Common to each technical program area are issues related to the following: health of populations exposed to radiation incidents and the associated medical aspects of exposure; dose reconstruction; training; and public involvement. Each of the program areas, its customers, and primary customer interests are described.

  7. Health concerns and ethical considerations regarding international surrogacy.

    Knoche, Jonathan W

    2014-08-01

    Since the advent of IVF, various arrangements for child bearing and rearing have developed. With the confluence of advanced medical technology, reproductive choice, and globalization, a market in international surrogacy has flourished. However, myriad health, social, and ethical concerns abound regarding the well-being of gestational carriers and children, the infringement of autonomy and free choice, and threats to human dignity. The present paper examines the scope, health risks, and ethical concerns of cross-border surrogacy, arguing that the risks may not exceed the benefits. PMID:24834850

  8. Health care policies addressing transgender inmates in prison systems in the United States.

    Brown, George R; McDuffie, Everett

    2009-10-01

    Inmates with gender identity disorders (GID) pose special challenges to policy makers in U.S. prison systems. Transgender persons are likely overrepresented in prisons; a reasonable estimate is that at least 750 transgender prisoners were in custody in 2007. Using the Freedom of Information Act, requests were mailed to each state, the District of Columbia, and the Federal Bureau of Prisons in 2007. The requests were for copies of policies, directives, memos, or other documents concerning placement and health care access of transgender inmates. By April 2008, 46 responses were received; 6 states did not reply. Information was qualitatively analyzed and summarized. There was substantial disparity in transgender health care for inmates with GID or related conditions. Most systems allowed for diagnostic evaluations. There was wide variability in access to cross-sex hormones, with some allowing for continuation of treatment and others allowing for both continuation and de novo initiation of treatment. There was uniformity in denial of surgical treatments for GID. PMID:19635927

  9. Addressing the human resource for health crisis in Tanzania: the lost in transition syndrome.

    Sirili, Nathanael; Kiwara, Angwara; Nyongole, Obadia; Frumence, Gasto; Semakafu, Avemaria; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2014-04-01

    Tanzania is experiencing a serious Human Resource for Health (HRH) crisis. Shortages are 87.5% and 67% in private and public hospitals, respectively. Mal-distribution and brain drain compound the shortage. The objective of this study was to improve knowledge on the HRH status in Tanzania by analyzing what happens to the number of medical doctors (MD) and doctor of dental surgery (DDS) degree graduates during the transition period from graduation, internship to appointment. We analyzed secondary data to get the number of MDs and DDS; who graduated from 2001 to 2010, the number registered for internship from 2005 to 2010 and the number allowed for recruitment by government permits from 2006 to 2010. Self administered questionnaires were provided to 91 MDs and DDS who were pursuing postgraduate studies at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences during this study who went through the graduation-internship-appointment (GIA) period to get the insight of the challenges surrounding the MDs and DDS during the GIA period. From 2001 to 2010 a total of 2,248 medical doctors and 198 dental surgeons graduated from five local training institutions and abroad. From 2005 to 2010 a total of 1691 (97.13%) and 186 (126.53%) of all graduates in MD and DDS, respectively, registered for internship. The 2007/2008 recruitment permit allowed only 37.7% (80/218) and 25.0% (7/27) of the MDs and DDS graduated in 2006, respectively. The 2009/20 10 recruitment permit allowed 265 MDs (85.48%) out of 310 graduates of 2008. In 2010/2011 permission for MDs was 57.58% (190/ 330) of graduates of 2009 and in 2011/2012 permission for MDs was for 61.03% ((249/408) graduates of 2010. From this analysis the recruitment permits in 2007/2008, 2009/2010, 2010/2011 1nd 2011/2012 could not offer permission for employment of 482 (38.10%) of all MDs graduated in the subsequent years. Major challenges associated with the GIA period included place of accommodation, allowance (for internship) or salary

  10. Report on the International Conference on Emergency Health Care Development.

    Dines, G B

    1990-01-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) provide rescue, field stabilization, transportation to medical facilities, and definitive care for persons experiencing medical emergencies. In order to advance worldwide development and refinement of EMS systems, and their integration with emergency preparedness and response programs, the International Conference on Emergency Health Care Development was held in Crystal City, Arlington, VA, August 15-19, 1989. The conference was supported by the Department of ...

  11. 1997 Operating plan for the Office of International Health Programs

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    One year ago, the Office of International Health Programs provided you with our 1996 Operating Plan, which defined our ideas and ideals for conducting business in 1996. We have again this year undertaken an intensive planning effort, first reviewing our accomplishments and shortcomings during 1996, and then developing plans and priorities for the upcoming year, taking into account input from customers and outside review panels, and ensuring that the demands on the office have been balanced with anticipated human, financial, and material resources.

  12. User-Centric eHealth Tool to Address the Psychosocial Effects of Sickle Cell Disease.

    Issom, David-Zacharie; Hartvigsen, Gunnar; Bonacina, Stefano; Koch, Sabine; Lovis, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most prevalent blood inherited disorder in the world. Patients suffer from several chronic issues, comorbidities and high-mortality rates. Despite its prevalence, the disease remains largely ignored. A literature review was conducted and a questionnaire was sent to patients in order to understand the potential of e-health tools to support people with SCD. Additionally, focus groups have been conducted to detail respondents' answers. The results showed that patients felt isolated and misunderstood. They also highlighted patients' wishes for a social network able to make them feel less scattered. Using participatory-design techniques, we designed a prototype of user-centric interface for an online self-supportive SCD patient community. The mock-ups include chatrooms, forums and videoconferences capabilities. They illustrate how SCD patients' social networking and caregivers-patient relationship needs could be met. Future work will focus on the implementation and evaluation of the system. PMID:27332283

  13. Addressing health inequalities in the delivery of the human papillomavirus vaccination programme: examining the role of the school nurse.

    Tammy Boyce

    increase uptake and address health inequalities in childhood and adolescent vaccination programmes.

  14. International Observatory on Mental Health Systems: a mental health research and development network

    Minas Harry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the mental health situation for most people in low and middle-income countries is unsatisfactory, there is a renewed commitment to focus attention on the mental health of populations and on the scaling up of mental health services that have the capacity to respond to mental health service needs. There is general agreement that scaling up activities must be evidence-based and that the effectiveness of such activities must be evaluated. If these requirements are to be realised it will be essential to strengthen capacity in countries to conduct rigorous monitoring and evaluation of system development projects and to demonstrate sustained benefit to populations. The Observatory The International Observatory on Mental Health Systems (IOMHS will build capacity to measure and to track mental health system performance in participating countries at national and sub-national (provincial and district levels. The work of IOMHS will depend on the establishment of robust partnerships among the key stakeholder groups. The Observatory will build the capability of partner organisations and networks to provide evidence-based advice to policy makers, service planners and implementers, and will monitor the progress of mental health service scaling up activities. Summary The International Observatory on Mental Health Systems will be a mental health research and development network that will monitor and evaluate mental health system performance in low and middle-income countries.

  15. An exploration of social determinants of health amongst internally displaced persons in northern Uganda.

    Roberts, Bayard; Odong, Vicky Norah; Browne, John; Ocaka, Kaducu Felix; Geissler, Wenzel; Sondorp, Egbert

    2009-01-01

    Social determinants of health describe the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age and their influence on health. These circumstances are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels, which are themselves influenced by policy choices. Armed conflict and forced displacement are important influences on the social determinants of health. There is limited evidence on the social determinants of health of internally displaced persons (IDPs) who have been forced from their homes due to armed conflict but remain within the borders of their country. The aim of this study was to explore the social determinants of overall physical and mental health of IDPs, including the response strategies used by IDPs to support their health needs. Northern Uganda was chosen as a case-study, and 21 face-to-face semi-structured interviews with IDPs were conducted in fifteen IDP camps between November and December 2006.The findings indicated a number of key social determinants. Experiencing traumatic events could cause "over thinking" which in turn could lead to "madness" and physical ailments. Respondents also attributed "over thinking" to the spirit (cen) of a killed person returning to disturb its killer. Other social determinants included overcrowding which affected physical health and contributed to an emotional sense of loss of freedom; and poverty and loss of land which affected physical health from lack of food and income, and mental health because of worry and uncertainty. Respondents also commented on how the conflict and displacement and led to changes in social and cultural norms such as increased "adultery", "defilement", and "thieving". Response strategies included a combination of biopsychosocial health services, traditional practices, religion, family and friends, and isolating.This study supports work exploring the political, environmental, economic, and socio-cultural determinants of health of IDPs

  16. Addressing the social determinants of health: a case study from the Mitanin (community health worker) programme in India.

    Nandi, Sulakshana; Schneider, Helen

    2014-09-01

    The Mitanin Programme, a government community health worker (CHW) programme, was started in Chhattisgarh State of India in 2002. The CHWs (Mitanins) have consistently adopted roles that go beyond health programme-specific interventions to embrace community mobilization and action on local priorities. The aim of this research was to document how and why the Mitanins have been able to act on the social determinants of health, describing the catalysts and processes involved and the enabling programmatic and organizational factors. A qualitative comparative case study of successful action by Mitanin was conducted in two 'blocks', purposefully selected as positive exemplars in two districts of Chhattisgarh. One case focused on malnutrition and the other on gender-based violence. Data collection involved 17 in-depth interviews and 10 group interviews with the full range of stakeholders in both blocks, including community members and programme team. Thematic analysis was done using a broad conceptual framework that was further refined. Action on social determinants involved raising awareness on rights, mobilizing women's collectives, revitalizing local political structures and social action targeting both the community and government service providers. Through these processes, the Mitanins developed identities as agents of change and advocates for the community, both with respect to local cultural and gender norms and in ensuring accountability of service providers. The factors underpinning successful action on social determinants were identified as the significance of the original intent and vision of the programme, and how this was carried through into all aspects of programme design, the role of the Mitanins and their identification with village women, ongoing training and support, and the relative autonomy of the programme. Although the results are not narrowly generalizable and do not necessarily represent the situation of the Mitanin Programme as a whole, the

  17. Effectiveness of a parenting program in Bangladesh to address early childhood health, growth and development.

    Aboud, Frances E; Singla, Daisy R; Nahil, Md Imam; Borisova, Ivelina

    2013-11-01

    A stratified cluster design was used to evaluate a 10-month parenting program delivered to mothers of children in rural Bangladesh. Intervention mothers through a combination of group meetings and home visits received messages along with an illustrative card concerning hygiene, responsive feeding, play, communication, gentle discipline, and nutritious foods. Control mothers received the standard government care. Three months prior, 463 children between 4 and 14 months in a subdistrict of western Bangladesh were administered the cognitive, receptive language and expressive language Bayley III subtests, their length was taken and past week illness recorded. Gross motor milestones were reported by the mother and verified through observation. Mothers were interviewed concerning their practices: preventive health practices, dietary diversity, home stimulation, and knowledge about development milestones. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed as a measure of emotional availability. Family sociodemographic variables included maternal education, family assets, decision-making and mobility autonomy. One month after the end of the program, mothers and their children were again assessed. Comparisons were made between intervention and control children who were under-12 months vs. 12 months and older at the start of the program. This may be a critical age, when children begin to be upright and mobile enough to explore on their own and be less dependent on parenting stimulation. Analyses yielded strong intervention effects on the three Bayley subtests and on parenting practices related to stimulation and knowledge of development milestones. Age effects were found only for dietary diversity in that younger children in the program benefited more than older ones. However, all children became more stunted. Findings are discussed in terms of theories of behaviour change and parenting, critical ages for parenting programs, and implications for program delivery. PMID:23871435

  18. The role of in-depth reproductive health counseling in addressing reproductive health concerns in female survivors of nongynecologic cancers.

    Shah, M S; Letourneau, J M; Niemasik, E E; Bleil, M; McCulloch, Charles E; Rosen, M P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize reproductive concerns among female cancer survivors and determine the role of targeted counseling in improving overall reproductive quality of life (QOL). A survey was administered to women from the California Cancer Registry, ages 18-40, with nongynecologic cancers diagnosed from 1993 to 2007, who received fertility-compromising treatments. In total, 356 women completed the survey, which included questions regarding their reproductive health counseling history and the reproductive concerns scale (RCS), a validated reproductive QOL tool. Factors independently associated with higher RCS scores included a desire for children at the time of diagnosis, posttreatment infertility, treatment with chemoradiation or bone marrow transplant, and income less than $100,000 per year at diagnosis. Among the highest reported reproductive concerns were those related to loss of control over one's reproductive future and concerns about the effect of illness on one's future fertility. Across our population and independent of age, in-depth reproductive health counseling prior to cancer treatment was associated with significantly lower RCS scores. Our findings highlight the importance of early counseling and targeting high-risk groups for additional counseling after completion of cancer treatment. This approach may be an effective strategy for optimizing long-term reproductive QOL in this vulnerable population. PMID:27144587

  19. Integrated Strategies to Address Maternal and Child Health and Survival in Low-Income Settings: Implications for Haiti.

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2016-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals for improving maternal and child health globally were agreed on in 2000, and several monitoring and evaluation strategies were put in place, including "Countdown to 2015" for monitoring progress and intervention coverage to reach the goals. However, progress in achieving the goals has been slow, with only 13 of the 75 participating Countdown countries on track to reach the targets for reducing child mortality.An overview of child mortality rates in low-income countries is presented, followed by a discussion of evidenced-based interventions that can bridge the equity gaps in global health. Finally, comments are included on the companion article in this issue, "Addressing the Child and Maternal Mortality Crisis in Haiti through a Central Referral Hospital Providing Countrywide Care" (page 59), and what is needed for that new project to succeed. PMID:27065474

  20. Using community-based participatory research to address Chinese older women’s health needs: Toward sustainability

    Chang, E-Shien; Simon, Melissa A.; Dong, XinQi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been recognized as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities, less attention is given to how CBPR projects may address gender inequalities in health for immigrant older women. The goal of this article is to share culturally sensitive strategies and lessons learned from the PINE study—a population-based study of U.S. Chinese older adults that was strictly guided by the CBPR approach. Working with Chinese older women requires trust, respect, and understanding of their unique historical, social, and cultural positions. We also discuss implications for developing impact-driven research partnerships that meet the needs of this vulnerable population. PMID:27310870

  1. Opening Address - IAEA [International Workshop on Justification of Medical Exposure in Diagnostic Imaging, Brussels (Belgium), 2-4 September 2009

    I am honoured to welcome you to the workshop on justification of medical exposure in diagnostic imaging, sponsored jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the European Commission, and I would like to thank the European Commission for hosting this workshop here in Brussels. Diagnostic imaging has seen many developments as it has evolved over the years, and in the last 30-40 years the pace of innovation has increased, starting with the introduction of computed tomography in the early 1970s. During the last decade, the rate of change has accelerated even further. Most patient exposure now arises from practices that barely existed two decades ago. These developments are evident in technology such as multi-detector CT scanning. However, this advance is achieved at the cost of a radiation burden to the individual patient and to the community. Contrary to other exposures to ionizing radiation, which have remained constant or decreased over the past decades, medical exposures have increased at a remarkable rate. It is of interest to note that in the 1990s, a patient had to remain in a CT gantry for a period of 10 minutes for a chest CT, whereas now it takes a few seconds to scan the entire chest. This may give the impression that the radiation dose in CT is small, which is not the case. A typical chest CT can impart a radiation dose equivalent to hundreds of chest radiographs. However, the radiation dose to individual patients and the population can be reduced significantly through careful application of optimization and justification of medical exposures. Over the last 20 years, much successful work has been devoted to developing and consolidating approaches to optimization. Less effort has been committed to justification and the limited amount applied has not yet been as successful. We should recognize that the use of ionizing radiation in medicine has brought tremendous health benefits to the global population, even though these benefits are not evenly

  2. [Position of health at international relations. Part II. Organizational dimensions of health].

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of some concepts and definitions related with "set up of health", used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of organizational dimensions of health at worldwide agenda. The following organizational dimensions of health were discussed: (a) health for all, (b) health promotion, intersectoral and multisectoral actions, health in all policies, (c) health development, health as an element of human development, (d) investment for health, (e) health diplomacy and (f) mainstreaming of health. The analysis was based on World Health Assembly and UN General Assembly resolutions as well as supranational reports and statements available through conventional channels, not grey literature. It is apparent that some of notions are not in common use in Poland, some seems to be unknown. It was argued that some general and discreet thoughts and statements concerning organizational aspects of health were expressed in the preamble of WHO Constitution. Nevertheless they are not comparable with later propositions and proceedings. The first modern concepts and notions related as process were developed at late seventies. They originated from efforts to realize a vision of health for all and formulate national policies, strategies and plans of action for attaining this goal. The turning point was in 1981, when WHA adopted Global Strategy for Heath for All by the Year 2000. Since then one can observe considerable progress and new concepts came into existence, more and more precise and better reflecting the sense of health actions. The evolution of organizational dimensions of health was described in the context of brand positioning. It was assumed that first step of positioning was concentrated on structural dimensions of health. That served to awareness raise, attitudes change and motivation to action. That made a foundation to the next step--positioning based on process approach to health. Among others the

  3. Sustainable Development and Health: Recent International Developments, Policies and Projects

    Liliana Cori

    2006-01-01

    Environment and health have been more and more jointly addressed in recent years, thanks to the efforts of several public and private institutions. In this scenario, a leading role has been played by the World Heath Organisation (WHO). A specific attention was devoted to the issue by the European Union (EU) EU institutions and the WHO Office for Europe, which lists 52 countries (including Europe, Eastern European Countries and Turkey,former Yugoslavia and part of the former Soviet Union). The objectives of the present paper are to give an overview of the main developments in this area, and to underline the progress made towards a common understanding of health and environment issues, the advantages and limits of these developments and the challenges for the future, to be tackled at a global level.

  4. International programme to mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident: Establishment of an international centre

    In April 1990, an agreement was signed between the WHO and the USSR Ministry of Health to set up a long-term international programme to assist the populations affected by the Chernobyl accident, as well as to increase the body of scientific knowledge about radiation effects. This report outlines the contents of the agreement and describes the action taken by the WHO to implement the programme

  5. European developments on radiation protection in health care. An international public health perspective

    The World Health Organisation's Programme on Radiation and Environmental Health is engaged in a range of global, regional and national collaborations to protect patients, workers and the public from planned, existing and emergency radiation exposures. Collaboration with European countries in this field is very active, with the ultimate goal of ensuring appropriate use of radiation worldwide. The WHO 'Global Initiative on Radiation Safety in Health Care Settings' is now being developed to mobilize the health sector towards safer and effective use of radiation in medicine. European collaboration in this initiative can have impact not only regionally but globally. This article provides an overview of relevant European developments in radiation protection in health care, from an international public health perspective. The 'Global Initiative' presents new opportunities for European countries to expand the horizons of their achievements globally, therefore contributing to improved radiation protection worldwide. (authors)

  6. [Position of health at international relations. Part I. Structural dimensions of health].

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    In the article, the health is perceived as complex, multidimensional concept and not as absence of disease. This is consistent with public health perspective, where public health is regarded as public as well as political activity. It aims to solve health and social problems, depends on analysis of phenomena, needs the negotiations and relies on making decision on feasible directions of changes--what, why, how, where, when and by whom should be done. Public health policy developed as a result of international relations, and UN family fora especially, is regarded as significant for creating of health position. The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of selected concepts and definitions related to structural dimensions of health, used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of health structure notions at worldwide agenda. The UN main bodies, programmes and funds working on the health field are mentioned and voting rules in UN General Assembly and World Health Assembly are reminded. The following structural dimensions were considered: (a) well-being, (b) human rights, (c) everyday resource, health potential, (4) equity. All were explored in WHO Constitution, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and numerous WHA and UN GA resolutions, decisions as well as other documents. Some remarkable differences in English and Polish language versions and meanings were pointed out. It was argued that present perception of structural dimension of health is strongly derived from the preamble of the WHO Constitution adopted and signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States. It is an evidence of the strength of this document and wisdom of its authors. The greater progress is associated. with concepts and notion of organizational dimensions of health perceived as action and processes leading to health. Long-term efforts to strengthen

  7. The Centre for International Mental Health approach to mental health system development.

    Minas, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Although mental disorders are a major public health problem, the development of mental health services has been a low priority everywhere, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Recent years have seen a growing understanding of the importance of population mental health and increased attention to the need to develop mental health systems for responding to population mental health service needs. In countries and regions where mental health services are all but nonexistent, and in postconflict and postdisaster settings, there are many impediments to establishing or scaling up mental health services. It is frequently necessary to act simultaneously on multiple fronts: generating local evidence that will inform decision makers; developing a policy framework; securing investment; determining the most appropriate service model for the context; training and supporting mental health workers; establishing or expanding existing services; putting in place systems for monitoring and evaluation; and strengthening leadership and governance capabilities. This article presents the approach of the Centre for International Mental Health in the Melbourne School of Population Health to mental health system development, and illustrates the way in which the elements of the program are integrated by giving a brief case example from Sri Lanka. PMID:22335181

  8. Understanding attrition from international internet health interventions: a step towards global eHealth

    Geraghty, Adam W A; Torres, Leandro D.; Leykin, Yan; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide automated Internet health interventions have the potential to greatly reduce health disparities. High attrition from automated Internet interventions is ubiquitous, and presents a challenge in the evaluation of their effectiveness. Our objective was to evaluate variables hypothesized to be related to attrition, by modeling predictors of attrition in a secondary data analysis of two cohorts of an international, dual language (English and Spanish) Internet smoking cessation interventi...

  9. The safety of radioactive waste management. Address at the international conference on the safety of radioactive waste management. Cordoba, Spain, 16 March 2000

    In his address at the International Conference on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (Cordoba, Spain, 16 March 2000), the Director General of the IAEA focussed on the issue that deserves particular attention, namely high level waste, including spent fuel when it is considered as a waste

  10. Addressing gender inequalities to improve the sexual and reproductive health and wellbeing of women living with HIV

    Avni Amin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Globally, women constitute 50% of all persons living with HIV. Gender inequalities are a key driver of women's vulnerabilities to HIV. This paper looks at how these structural factors shape specific behaviours and outcomes related to the sexual and reproductive health of women living with HIV. Discussion: There are several pathways by which gender inequalities shape the sexual and reproductive health and wellbeing of women living with HIV. First, gender norms that privilege men's control over women and violence against women inhibit women's ability to practice safer sex, make reproductive decisions based on their own fertility preferences and disclose their HIV status. Second, women's lack of property and inheritance rights and limited access to formal employment makes them disproportionately vulnerable to food insecurity and its consequences. This includes compromising their adherence to antiretroviral therapy and increasing their vulnerability to transactional sex. Third, with respect to stigma and discrimination, women are more likely to be blamed for bringing HIV into the family, as they are often tested before men. In several settings, healthcare providers violate the reproductive rights of women living with HIV in relation to family planning and in denying them care. Lastly, a number of countries have laws that criminalize HIV transmission, which specifically impact women living with HIV who may be reluctant to disclose because of fears of violence and other negative consequences. Conclusions: Addressing gender inequalities is central to improving the sexual and reproductive health outcomes and more broadly the wellbeing of women living with HIV. Programmes that go beyond a narrow biomedical/clinical approach and address the social and structural context of women's lives can also maximize the benefits of HIV prevention, treatment, care and support.

  11. Junior Doctors of Health©: an interprofessional service-learning project addressing childhood obesity and encouraging health care career choices.

    Buff, Scotty M; Gibbs, Pamella Y; Oubré, O'karsamaa L; Ariail, Jane C; Blue, Amy V; Greenberg, Raymond S

    2011-01-01

    While much literature describes programmatic success of clinical service-learning opportunities, this initiative integrates student learning across a comprehensive discipline set (Dental Medicine, Graduate Studies, Health Administration, Medicine, Nursing, Occupational Therapy, Pharmacy, Physical Therapy, and Physician Assistant), providing preventive health education and role modeling to low-income elementary-school children. Junior Doctors of Health© (JDOH), a health education curriculum taught by Medical University of South Carolina students, addresses childhood obesity and encourages child interest in health professional (HP) and biomedical science (BS) careers. Of the 78 surveyed HP/BS students, over 80% agreed JDOH was worthwhile for their professional development, increased their appreciation and ability as an interprofessional team member, improved their understanding and interest in underserved communities, and provided them with valuable childhood-obesity prevention information. With the increased need for childhood-obesity prevention and team building among students of various health and science professions, recommendations are offered to others interested in creating or collaborating to build similar service-learning initiatives. PMID:21927772

  12. Semantic aspects of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: towards sharing knowledge and unifying information.

    Andronache, Adrian Stefan; Simoncello, Andrea; Della Mea, Vincenzo; Daffara, Carlo; Francescutti, Carlo

    2012-02-01

    During the last decade, under the World Health Organization's direction, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) has become a reference tool for monitoring and developing various policies addressing people with disability. This article presents three steps to increase the semantic interoperability of ICF: first, the representation of ICF using ontology tools; second, the alignment to upper-level ontologies; and third, the use of these tools to implement semantic mappings between ICF and other tools, such as disability assessment instruments, health classifications, and at least partially formalized terminologies. PMID:22193319

  13. Addressing the global climate change problem in GATT/WTO law: the vision of a new international climate law based on international distributive justice

    Al-Tayer, A.; Maniruzzaman, Munir

    2011-01-01

    International distribution justice’, not ‘most favoured nation’ (MFN), is the appropriate core principle to govern a law of obligations such as that of the World Trade Organisation (WTO). The international distributive justice principle delivers opportunity for economic development because it observes the ‘differences’ principle that characterises distributive justice, whereas the MFN principle does not, for it distributes obligations erga omnes partes. On the international distributive just...

  14. Addressing the Needs of the Whole Child: What Public Health Can Do to Answer the Education Sector’s Call for a Stronger Partnership

    Diane Allensworth, PhD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the overall level of child health in the United States remains high, public health professionals know that racial and ethnic disparities in child and adolescent health persist and that lifestyle choices related to chronic disease in adults are often established in childhood and adolescence. And yet, those health needs are not the public health sector’s alone to resolve. We have natural partners among educators. Improving graduation rates is one of the most cost-effective ways to reduce health disparities. This article provides strategies for how public health professionals can answer this call by educators to address the needs of the whole child.

  15. Comparative and International Education: Fraternal or Siamese Twins? A Preliminary Genealogy of Our Twin Fields. Presidential Address to the Comparative and International Education Society .

    Wilson, David N.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the evolution of comparative education and international education, as well as their merger, in terms of a "genealogy" detailing destinations and activities of scholars from the 1930s to the present, primarily in Europe and North America. Discusses a variety of definitions for comparative education and international education. (SV)

  16. Global health security agenda and the international health regulations: moving forward.

    Katz, Rebecca; Sorrell, Erin M; Kornblet, Sarah A; Fischer, Julie E

    2014-01-01

    The launch of the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) in February 2014 capped over a decade of global efforts to develop new approaches to emerging and reemerging infectious diseases-part of the growing recognition that disease events, whether natural, accidental, or intentional, threaten not just public health, but national, regional, and global security interests. In 2005, the United States, along with other Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO), adopted the revised International Health Regulations [IHR (2005)]. The IHR (2005) conferred new responsibilities on WHO and the global health community to coordinate resources for capacity building and emergency response, and on the now-196 States Parties to develop the core capacities required to detect, assess, report, and respond to potential public health emergencies of international concern. Both GHSA and the IHR aim to elevate political attention and encourage participation, coordination, and collaboration by multiple stakeholders, while leveraging previously existing commitments and multilateral efforts. GHSA and the IHR (2005) are platforms for action; how efforts under each will complement each other remains unclear. Mechanisms that measure progress under these 2 overlapping frameworks will aid in focusing resources and in sustaining political momentum for IHR implementation after 2016. PMID:25254911

  17. Opening keynote address [International conference on challenges faced by technical and scientific support organizations in enhancing nuclear safety

    From the operator's view, establishing an international TSO platform could provide additional input and further improve nuclear safety. All TSOs, whether they support the regulators, operators or industry, should have the opportunity to be part of this platform. The TSOs should have a role in harmonizing safety standards, exchanging experience, improving the operating experience feedback process, evaluating the events, identifying further R and D requirements, developing a common view on best nuclear safety practices and giving objective advice to regulators and operators. As a first step, this platform could be established at a regional level in Europe. It should then be involved in an information exchange with the relevant international organizations. This presentation discussed the operator's perspective on the establishment of an international TSO platform

  18. Recommendations for strengthening the national systems and the international regime for combating of illicit trafficking. Keynote address/session 10

    Full text: Illicit trafficking activities involving nuclear material and equipment are acts of nuclear proliferation. The threat of illicit trafficking is an international concern and the consequences of illicit trafficking, such as war or terrorist attacks using illegally manufactured nuclear weapons, might affect any country. As long as these materials and equipment remain a potential for theft and smuggling due to insufficient security and control conditions, there is a possibility that proliferators or terrorist groups may illegally take possession of such materials and equipment for illicit purposes. A precondition for preventing illicit trafficking is the existence of effective national systems for supervision and control of nuclear material and equipment, including physical protection and export/import control, based on an accurate and complete legislation. In addition thereto, national systems for combating of illicit trafficking, through prevention and detection within a state's territory or across its borders, incorporate such components as: supervision and control of nuclear operations; organisation of operator activities through quality assurance, internal control, security culture, etc.; law enforcement functions (police, intelligence, customs, investigation, prosecution, penalties and sanctions); and procedures for co-ordination and co-operation between supervising and law enforcement authorities. According to a joint Swedish-Norwegian-Latvian study, there are imperfections in many national systems for combating of illicit trafficking, such as: Incomplete legislation on nuclear non-proliferation and safety, physical protection and export/import control; Unclear or overlapping responsibilities between national supervision and law enforcement authorities, leading to poor co-operation and co-ordination of preventing and detecting measures; Incomplete rules and regulations concerning operator functions and responsibilities, including requirements on

  19. Challenges to the implementation of International Health Regulations (2005) on Preventing Infectious Diseases: experience from Julius Nyerere International Airport, Tanzania

    Bakari, Edith; Frumence, Gasto

    2013-01-01

    Background: The International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) is a legal instrument binding all World Health Organization (WHO) member States. It aims to prevent and control public health emergencies of international concern. Country points of entry (POEs) have been identified as potential areas for effective interventions to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases across borders. The agreement postulates that member states will strengthen core capacities detailed in the IHR (2005), i...

  20. Opening address [International conference on lessons learned from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and the safe termination of nuclear activities

    The purpose of our endeavour is to contribute to the concerted international efforts to obtain a realistic picture of the scope of the decommissioning task, based on achievements thus far, but also to discuss the challenges that lie ahead. In this regard, the role of the IAEA is to continue the burdensome task of compiling information on the magnitude of this problem, as it is the only safe way of creating a solid basis for an international discussion on the solution of the associated problems. It is through the accumulation and evaluation of information that the decommissioning process over the years has become efficient and refined and, most importantly, safer

  1. Staff perceptions of addressing lifestyle in primary health care: a qualitative evaluation 2 years after the introduction of a lifestyle intervention tool

    Carlfjord Siw; Lindberg Malou; Andersson Agneta

    2012-01-01

    Background: Preventive services and health promotion in terms of lifestyle counselling provided through primary health care (PHC) has the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality in the population. Health professionals in general are positive about and willing to develop a health-promoting and/or preventive role. A number of obstacles hindering PHC staff from addressing lifestyle issues have been identified, and one facilitator is the use of modern technology. When a computer-based tool fo...

  2. Educating Chinese Scientists to Write for International Journals: Addressing the Divide between Science and Technology Education and English Language Teaching

    Cargill, Margaret; O'Connor, Patrick; Li, Yongyan

    2012-01-01

    As is the worldwide trend, scientists in China face strong and increasing pressure to publish their research in international peer-reviewed journals written in English. There is an acute need for graduate students to develop the required language skills alongside their scientific expertise, in spite of the distinct division currently existing…

  3. Welcome Address

    2001-01-01

    @@  On behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute, I welcome you to Beijing and to the Third Asian Conference on Food Safety and Nutrition. Many of you will remember the first Asian conference on Food Safety held in Kuala Lumpur in 1990 and the second held in Bangkok in 1994. These meetings have been so successful that ILSI made the commitment to host such a conference periodically in order to provide a forum to share the latest information and to set new goals and priorities.   This year, we have broadened the scope of the agenda to include issues on nutrition. I want to thank all of our co-sponsors and members of the Planning Committee for preparing such a comprehensive and timely program. Some of the issues and challenges facing Asia that will be addressed at this meeting are:

  4. Strengthening the Paediatricians Project 2: The effectiveness of a workshop to address the Priority Mental Health Disorders of adolescence in low-health related human resource countries

    Russell Paul SS

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paediatricians can be empowered to address the Priority Mental Health Disorders at primary care level. To evaluate the effectiveness of a collaborative workshop in enhancing the adolescent psychiatry knowledge among paediatricians. Methods A 3-day, 27-hours workshop was held for paediatricians from different regions of India under the auspices of the National Adolescent Paediatric Task Force of the Indian Academy of Paediatrics. A 5-item pretest-posttest questionnaire was developed and administered at the beginning and end of the workshop to evaluate the participants' knowledge acquisition in adolescent psychiatry. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed on an intention-to-participate basis. Results Forty-eight paediatricians completed the questionnaire. There was significant enhancement of the knowledge in understanding the phenomenology, identifying the psychopathology, diagnosing common mental disorder and selecting the psychotropic medication in the bivariate analysis. When the possible confounders of level of training in paediatrics and number of years spent as paediatrician were controlled, in addition to the above areas of adolescent psychiatry, the diagnostic ability involving multiple psychological concepts also gained significance. However, both in the bivariate and multivariate analyses, the ability to refer to appropriate psychotherapy remained unchanged after the workshop. Conclusions This workshop was effective in enhancing the adolescent psychiatry knowledge of paediatricians. Such workshops could strengthen paediatricians in addressing the priority mental health disorders at the primary-care level in countries with low-human resource for health as advocated by the World Health Organization. However, it remains to be seen if this acquisition of adolescent psychiatry knowledge results in enhancing their adolescent psychiatry practice.

  5. An international, multidisciplinary, academic and clinical publication dedicated to men's and women's sexual health.

    2004-01-01

    With a 2002 impact factor of 2.5,International Journal of Impotence Research: The Journal of Sexual Medicine currently ranks in the top ten of all journals in the ISI category of Urology and Nephrology*. The journal addresses sexual medicine for both genders as an interdisciplinary field for a wide audience including researchers, family practitioners, gynecologists, internist, psychologists,neurologists, psychiatrists, endocrinologists,radiologists, urologists and other health care clinicians.

  6. Standardized interventions in international health: Procrustes, where are you now?

    Maher, Dermot

    2009-10-01

    Two opposing views on implementing interventions in international health are represented on the one hand by 'one size doesn't fit all' and on the other by the promotion of standard approaches. Successes in scaling up access to tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment and access to antiretroviral therapy provide examples of the benefits of a standardized approach to disease management. These benefits may be extended to the management of the emerging epidemic of non-communicable diseases in developing countries. An enthusiastic advocate of standardization, Procrustes (a figure in Greek mythology) went to extreme lengths but his tendencies can be a useful reminder that one size may not fit all, but does fit enough. PMID:19708901

  7. State humanitarian verticalism versus universal health coverage: a century of French international health assistance revisited.

    Atlani-Duault, Laëtitia; Dozon, Jean-Pierre; Wilson, Andrew; Delfraissy, Jean-François; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2016-05-28

    The French contribution to global public health over the past two centuries has been marked by a fundamental tension between two approaches: State-provided universal free health care and what we propose to call State humanitarian verticalism. Both approaches have historical roots in French colonialism and have led to successes and failures that continue until the present day. In this paper, the second in The Lancet's Series on France, we look at how this tension has evolved. During the French colonial period (1890s to 1950s), the Indigenous Medical Assistance structure was supposed to bring metropolitan France's model of universal and free public health care to the colonies, and French State imperial humanitarianism crystallised in vertical programmes inspired by Louis Pasteur, while vying with early private humanitarian activism in health represented by Albert Schweitzer. From decolonisation to the end of the Cold War (1960-99), French assistance to newly independent states was affected by sans frontièrisme, Health for All, and the AIDS pandemic. Since 2000, France has had an active role in development of global health initiatives and favoured multilateral action for health assistance. Today, with adoption of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals and the challenges of non-communicable diseases, economic inequality, and climate change, French international health assistance needs new direction. In the context of current debate over global health as a universal goal, understanding and acknowledging France's history could help strengthen advocacy in favour of universal health coverage and contribute to advancing global equity through income redistribution, from healthy populations to people who are sick and from wealthy individuals to those who are poor. PMID:27145710

  8. Serious crisis in the practice of international health by the World Health Organization: the Commission on Social Determinants of Health.

    Banerji, Debabar

    2006-01-01

    The Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) is the latest effort by the World Health Organization to improve health and narrow health inequalities through action on social determinants. The CSDH does not note that much work has already been done in this direction, does not make a sufficient attempt to analyze why earlier efforts failed to yield the desired results, and does not seem to have devised approaches to ensure that it will be more successful this time. The CSDH intends to complement the work of the earlier WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, which has not had the desired impact, and it is unclear how the CSDH can complement work that suffers from such serious infirmities. Inadequacies of both commissions reflect a crisis in the practice of international health at the WHO, stemming from a combination of unsatisfactory administrative practices and lack of technical competence to provide insights into the problems afflicting the most needy countries. Often the WHO has ended up distorting the rudimentary health systems of the poor countries, by pressuring them into accepting health policies, plans, and programs that lack sound scientific bases. The WHO no longer seems to take into account historical and political factors when it sets out to improve the health situation in low-income countries--which is supposed to be the focus of the CSDH. An alternative approach is suggested. PMID:17175839

  9. International conference 'Addressing the issues of potential terrorism and guarding against weapons of mass destruction in Central Asia' Proceedings

    Over a period of 20 century, starting from First World War, the weapons of mass destruction (W D M) arouse serious concern in world community. Geneva's protocol of 1925 prohibits the use of chemical and biological weapons. Once nuclear weapon was created, the W D M proliferation becomes the subject of high concern. Nowadays, trans national organized criminal groups and international terrorist networks are appeared in the world scene, which show their interest in obtaining an access to sensitive materials, technologies, weapons and their distribution

  10. A Critical-Holistic Analysis of Nursing Faculty and Student Interest in International Health.

    Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto; Korniewicz, Denise M.; Zerbe, Melissa

    2001-01-01

    Responses from 211 undergraduate and 23 graduate nursing students and 38 faculty revealed substantial interest in international health. Faculty had numerous international experiences; many students had traveled abroad and one-third considered international health a career priority. The need for a broad interdisciplinary framework rather than…

  11. Strengthening the International Health Regulations: lessons from the H1N1 pandemic

    Wilson, Kumanan; John S Brownstein; Fidler, David P.

    2010-01-01

    The International Health Regulations (2005) [IHR(2005)] represent a potentially revolutionary change in global health governance. The use of the regulations by the World Health Organization (WHO) to respond to the outbreak of pandemic influenza A 2009-H1N1 highlights the importance of the regulations to protecting global health security. As the 2009-H1N1 pandemic illustrated, the IHR(2005) have provided a more robust framework for responding to public health emergencies of international conce...

  12. Opening Address [International Conference on Research Reactors: Safe Management and Effective Utilization, Rabat (Morocco), 14-18 November 2011

    Significant issues still being faced by the research reactor community are primarily related to the operation, utilization, safety, ageing, decommissioning and waste management. More recently, challenges such as initiatives for creating new RR facilities, securing isotope production, human resources, infrastructure capacity building, or sustainability of RR programmes, are receiving greater attention. This conference will focus on new developments in the relevant, efficient and safe utilisation of Nuclear Research Reactors for the countries' social and economic development. It will contribute to foster the exchange of information on current and new research reactors and to provide a forum for reactor users, operators, managers, regulators, designers and suppliers to share experience and exchange opinions. It constitutes an opportunity to discuss common challenges, options and strategies and to strengthen regional and international cooperation between Research Reactors' centres from developed and developing countries with special emphasis on the transfer of knowledge and know how. In this particular context, the International Atomic Energy Agency is a central partner, playing a major role in strengthening the operation, applications and safety of Nuclear Research Reactors, thus supporting the development of civil and peaceful nuclear technologies worldwide

  13. Addressing verification challenges, 16 October 2006, Vienna, Austria, Symposium on International Safeguards (16-20 October 2006)

    In his talk about Verification Challenges Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the IAEA, welcomed the participants of the Symposium on International Safeguards. He stated that safeguards is probably the most difficult task entrusted to an international organization and that a major increase in nuclear energy around the globe is expected which means that nuclear know-how is spread to more and more countries and can be applied to both peaceful purposes and also non-peaceful purposes. More and more countries want to go in for the nuclear fuel cycle including sensitive fuel cycle activities like enrichment and reprocessing, they become so-called 'virtual nuclear weapons States. There is the need to develop a new international or multinational approach to the fuel cycle so as to avoid ending up with not just nine nuclear weapon States but another 20 or 30 States which have the capacity to develop nuclear weapons in a very short span of time. He stressed the important linkage between disarmament and non-proliferation and remembered the audience that safeguards, although very much a technical activity, operates in a politically charged environment. The IAEA's job is to make sure that countries with comprehensive safeguards are conducting all their activities exclusively for peaceful purposes. The ability to discover possible undeclared activities is a key challenge the IAEA is facing. He mentioned that the IAEA does not get all the information they would need, for example the IAEA does not get systematic information from the Nuclear Suppliers Group on exports and imports. Without the Additional Protocol the IAEA is also hampered in its ability to detect undeclared activities, e.g in the R and D activities that do not directly involve nuclear material. Another key issue are financial resources. Transparency measures in certain situations are under considerations including interviewing people, having access to documents, things that are not strictly required by the

  14. Opening address

    Nuclear terrorism has been recognized as a potential threat to human security and economic prosperity since at least the 1970s. Evidence of Al Qaeda's interest in acquiring nuclear material came to light during the 1990s. However, it is since the attacks of 11 September 2001 that the risk of nuclear terrorist acts has come to be a widespread public and governmental concern, for understandable reasons, and that efforts to combat illicit trafficking, which could lead to nuclear or other radioactive materials falling into the hands of terrorists, have intensified. Six years on, it makes sense to take stock of what has been achieved in the combat to stem illicit trafficking and of where further actions - actions of individual States and cooperative international actions - might usefully be initiated. The IAEA has maintained an Illicit Trafficking Database since 1995. Information reported to this database confirms that concerns about illicit trafficking in nuclear material are justified. Database information points to persistent theft and loss of radioactive sources. States' international obligations relevant to international nuclear trafficking are based on the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, which deals with weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons and non-State actors, and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1375, which requires all States to take the necessary steps to prevent the commission of terrorist acts, including early warning to other States. In addition to these legally binding instruments, there is the non-binding Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, which Member States of the IAEA agreed in 2003. The Code addresses the establishment of an adequate system of regulatory control, from the production of radioactive sources to their final

  15. A Social Media mHealth Solution to Address the Needs of Dengue Prevention and Management in Sri Lanka

    Rathnayake, Vajira Sampath; Lim, Gentatsu; Panchapakesan, Chitra; Foo, Schubert; Wijayamuni, Ruwan; Wimalaratne, Prasad; Fernando, Owen Noel Newton

    2016-01-01

    Background Sri Lanka has witnessed a series of dengue epidemics over the past five years, with the western province, home to the political capital of Colombo, bearing more than half of the dengue burden. Existing dengue monitoring prevention programs are exhausted as public health inspectors (PHIs) cope with increasing workloads and paper-based modes of surveillance and education, characterizing a reactive system unable to cope with the enormity of the problem. On the other hand, the unprecedented proliferation and affordability of mobile phones since 2009 and a supportive political climate have thus far remained unexploited for the use of mobile-based interventions for dengue management. Objective To conduct a needs assessment of PHIs in Colombo with respect to their dengue-related tasks and develop a new mobile-based system to address these needs while strengthening existing systems. Methods One-on-one in-depth interviews were conducted with 29 PHIs to a) gain a nuanced, in-depth understanding of the current state of surveillance practices, b) understand the logistical, technological and social challenges they confront, and c) identify opportunities for mobile-based interventions. Quantitative analysis included simple descriptive statistics while qualitative analysis comprised textual analysis of 209 pages of transcripts (or nearly 600 minutes of conversations) using grounded theory approaches. Results Current paper-based data collection practices for dengue surveillance involved a circuitous, time consuming process that could take between 7-10 days to officially report and record a single case. PHIs confronted challenges in terms of unreliable, standalone GIS devices, delays in registering mosquito breeding sites and lack of engagement from communities while delivering dengue education. These findings, in concert with a high motivation to use mobile-based systems, informed the development of Mo-Buzz, a mobile-based system that integrates three components

  16. Global citizenship: A privilege and a responsibility. Vienna, 2 June 2003. Address to the American International School, Palais Ferstel

    Good evening and thank you - Director Spradling, members of the faculty, alumni, family and friends of this graduating class, and especially the graduates of the American International School Vienna Class of 2003. Let me begin by thanking you for the invitation to share this important occasion with you. In my work, I frequently speak with diplomats and statesmen about how we can make our world a better place for 'future generations' - but I don't often get an opportunity like this one: to speak directly to you - the generation that holds the future in its hands. And I feel particularly fortunate to be speaking to such an international graduating class. As an Egyptian educated in the US, working in Vienna, with my children living in London, and an entire career devoted to international co-operation, I can tell you that I consider myself primarily a global citizen. And for me, thinking globally is now almost a must. This is because the world we live in has become highly interdependent. Many aspects of our modern life - Internet communication, the global marketplace, global warming, even the fights against disease and terrorism - point to the fact that the human race has entered a new era - a global era - and there is no turning back. To members of your generation, this might not seem like news. To your parents, the Internet feels like a new way of life (in fact - speaking for your parents, or perhaps your grandparents, we can still remember when television was a new and awesome thing) - but to you, global interaction and communication is a natural part of life. In fact, you especially are well equipped for this interdependent world - because the development of a global perspective is an essential feature of your educational environment here at the American International School. So you are 'ahead of the curve' in this regard. Yes, you are Brazilian, you are Indian, you are Iranian, you are Austrian, you are Japanese - you are one of the fifty nationalities that make

  17. Addressing Inequality

    Raquel Sosa Elízaga

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The global sociology currently faces one of its greatest challenges: to contribute to the debate about the most serious problem which all societies have faced in recent years. The rising inequality has led to many initiatives for reflection, discussion and evaluation of public policies in order to combat poverty. Particularly, the fact that the Millennium Goals are supposed to accomplish their significance by 2015 provides the International Sociological Association (ISA the unique opportunity to contribute to those goals through their own analyses and proposals. Over many years, the ISA has promoted the integrated debate of its members on issues related to inequalities: from different perspectives such as education, health, social movements, public policies, gender problems and violence, among others. The overlapping and accumulation of inequalities has been, so to speak, the natural environment from which the ISA can take part in this international debate. This article identifies the work lines approved in the Association Program Committee Meeting held in Mexico in 2011, in the process of theAssociation’s Congress in Yokohama in 2014.

  18. Global Health Security Demands a Strong International Health Regulations Treaty and Leadership From a Highly Resourced World Health Organization.

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2015-10-01

    If the Ebola tragedy of West Africa has taught us anything, it should be that the 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR) Treaty, which gave unprecedented authority to the World Health Organization (WHO) to provide global public health security during public health emergencies of international concern, has fallen severely short of its original goal. After encouraging successes with the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic, the intent of the legally binding Treaty to improve the capacity of all countries to detect, assess, notify, and respond to public health threats has shamefully lapsed. Despite the granting of 2-year extensions in 2012 to countries to meet core surveillance and response requirements, less than 20% of countries have complied. Today it is not realistic to expect that these gaps will be solved or narrowed in the foreseeable future by the IHR or the WHO alone under current provisions. The unfortunate failures that culminated in an inadequate response to the Ebola epidemic in West Africa are multifactorial, including funding, staffing, and poor leadership decisions, but all are reversible. A rush by the Global Health Security Agenda partners to fill critical gaps in administrative and operational areas has been crucial in the short term, but questions remain as to the real priorities of the G20 as time elapses and critical gaps in public health protections and infrastructure take precedence over the economic and security needs of the developed world. The response from the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network and foreign medical teams to Ebola proved indispensable to global health security, but both deserve stronger strategic capacity support and institutional status under the WHO leadership granted by the IHR Treaty. Treaties are the most successful means the world has in preventing, preparing for, and controlling epidemics in an increasingly globalized world. Other options are not sustainable. Given the gravity of ongoing

  19. The Productivity of Health Care and Pharmaceuticals: An International Comparison

    Frech, H. E. III; Miller, Richard D. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Much work has been done analyzing the determinants of health care expenditures. Much less effort has been devoted to analyzing the determinants of health itself. The focus of the analysis presented here is the production of health, with special attention paid to disaggregating health into pharmaceuticals and other health care. We also analyze the effects that wealth and certain lifestyle factors have on health. Researchers who have analyzed the determinants of health across geographi...

  20. Opening address

    Last week we were reminded once again of the after-effects of Chernobyl. Unexpectedly high values of the radioactive substance caesium were found in moose meat from the south of Vaesterbotten County. A moose cow shot in Aengersjoe had 2000 becquerel per kilo meat, and a moose calf had almost 4000 becquerel. The caesium content in Swedish moose has varied after the 1986 reactor breakdown at Chernobyl. The explanation for this year's unusually high content appears to be that, due to the warm weather, the moose have eaten blueberries which contain more caesium than plants in wood clearings. Moose meat containing caesium reminds us of the vulnerability of our society. It reminds us that emissions cross borders and that ambitious, long term environmental policies must be adopted at the national but above all at the international level. Work on environmental objectives is an important component of Swedish efforts to overcome our environmental problems within a generation. In Sweden, our work is based on 15 environmental quality objectives. We have established subgoals, action strategies and follow-up mechanisms. In an international context it is, I venture to say, unique in its systematic structure. The Swedish Government and Riksdag have laid down that: - Human health and biological diversity shall be protected against harmful effects of radiation in the outdoor environment. - By the year 2010, the content in the environment of radioactive substances emitted from all activities and operations shall be so low that human health and biological diversity are protected. - By the year 2020 the annual number of cases of skin cancer caused by the sun shall not be higher than the figure for the year 2000. The risks involved in electromagnetic fields shall be continuously reviewed and necessary measures taken when such risks are identified. These objectives describe the quality and conditions for Sweden's environmental, natural and cultural resources that are ecologically

  1. Development of consensus International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) core sets for lymphedema

    Viehoff, P.B.; Heerkens, Y.F.; Ravensberg, C.D. van; Hidding, J.; Damstra, R.J.; Napel, H. ten; Neumann, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    To understand the challenges of patients with lymphedema it is important to describe functioning and to measure the effectiveness of treatment in changing functioning. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) offers an international framework to classify functioni

  2. Opening address

    Full text: The International Labour Organization (ILO), is very pleased to be associated with this International Conference on National Infrastructures for Radiation Safety. On behalf of the Director General, Mr. J. Somavia, I would like to congratulate the national organizer and host, the University Mohammed V, Agdal, and the Government of Morocco, the IAEA and the other co-operating organizations: the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, the European Commission and the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency for taking this initiative. When flying here to Morocco yesterday, I read newspaper reports about the results of the investigations related to the disaster of the Columbia space shuttle. The findings were as follows: the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), must establish a safety culture within itself. NASA was well aware of the problem of falling insulation material but did not take it seriously before the disaster. The workers in the Chernobyl power plant knew the hazards and safety rules but did not take them seriously. Every day, more than 5000 people die from occupational accidents and work related diseases as the hazards are not taken seriously. Some of them are caused by ionizing radiation. We in the ILO expect enterprises and workplaces to follow proper occupational safety and health management systems so as to avoid accidents, diseases and other problems at work. Equally, we must expect national leadership, sound nationwide management, for radiation safety, which means: National policy setting, which usually results in national standards and laws; National structures and mechanisms, that is, who is in charge of what; Responsibilities and accountabilities set, and resources allocated; National action plans, a national programme;Implementation of these plans;Follow-up, monitoring, review, feedback to enhance the process using selected indicators; Continuous improvement in measurable steps at national level

  3. Nuclear Energy in the 21st Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges. Proceedings of an International Ministerial Conference

    The International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21st Century was organized by the IAEA and co-sponsored by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the China Nuclear Energy Association. The conference was hosted by the Government of China through the China Atomic Energy Authority and held in Beijing. A total of 16 ministers participated in the conference, and a further 13 ministers provided statements to be presented on their behalf. The aim of this conference was to provide an opportunity to review the status and prospects of nuclear power, including progress in the evolution of technology, and to discuss the actions necessary to carry forward the positive momentum that nuclear power has experienced in recent years. The conference also offered a forum for many countries considering the potential benefits of introducing nuclear power into their national energy mix to further assess the viability of the nuclear power option. These proceedings contain the conference summary and the presentations made during the opening ceremony, as well as the concluding statement by the President of the conference. This material, as well as all the ministerial and technical presentations from the conference, is included on the attached DVD

  4. International conference on isotopic and nuclear analytical techniques for health and environment. Book of abstracts

    Decision makers and stakeholders are becoming increasingly dependent on reliable chemical measurements that serve as a basis for decisions related to health, consumer safety, commerce, environment protection and compliance to regulations. Several millions of analytical results are produced annually, thus consuming appreciable amounts of resources. Reliability of these data is of major concern if cost-benefit figures are applied. Nuclear and isotopic analytical techniques (NATs) have been supported by the IAEA as part of their mandate to foster the peaceful use of nuclear energy for many years. Nuclear analytical laboratories have been installed and upgraded through Technical Co-operation assistance in many Member State laboratories. These techniques, including INAA, XRF, PIXE, stable and radioisotopes, spectrometroscopy, etc. have been applied to a wide range of subjects with varying success. Nuclear analytical techniques, featuring some intrinsic quality control aspects, such as multi-nuclide analysis, frequently serve as 'reference methods' to cross-check critical results. As nuclear properties of elements are targeted, matrix problems seem to be negligible to a great extent. The International Conference on Isotopic and Nuclear Analytical Techniques for Health and Environment was held 10-13 June 2003 in Vienna, Austria. The main purpose of this Conference was to bring together scientists, technologists, representatives of industry and regulatory authorities to exchange information and review the status of current developments and applications of isotopic and nuclear analytical techniques, and to discuss future trends and developments. A further objective is to identify potential opportunities for developing countries for applying isotopic and nuclear analytical techniques in health and environmental studies, and to consider the promotion and transfer of such technology. International developments and trends in health care, nutrition, and environmental monitoring

  5. Opening Address by S. Matić [International Conference on Radiation Protection In Medicine, Bonn (Germany), 3-7 December 2012

    Radiation protection in medicine is an essential component of good medical practice that has established itself as a subject of interest not only for radiation safety bodies and health authorities but also for policy makers, health care providers, researchers, manufacturers, patients and the general public. Your presence here today confirms this fact. There is a global trend of a major increase in the number of radiological procedures, medical uses of ionizing radiation being the largest artificial source of radiation exposure today. Ionizing radiation has become one of the most important diagnostic tools and an essential component of cancer treatment. On the benefits side, new technologies, applications and equipment are constantly being developed to improve the safety and efficacy of procedures. At the same time, incorrect or inappropriate handling of these increasingly complex technologies can also introduce potential health hazards for patients and staff. This demands public health policies that both recognize the multiple health benefits that can be obtained, while addressing and minimizing health risks

  6. Addressing Issues in the Development and Use of the Composite International Reference Values as Rorschach Norms for Adults.

    Meyer, Gregory J; Shaffer, Thomas W; Erdberg, Philip; Horn, Sandra L

    2015-01-01

    This article describes 3 studies evaluating normative reference data for the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2003, 2007), with a particular focus on the viability of the Composite International Reference Values (CIRVs) that were compiled from 21 adult studies by Meyer, Erdberg, and Shaffer (2007). Study 1 documented how the CIRV norms are virtually identical when organized into 3 groups differentiated by the quality of their data collection effort, including an optimal group of 4 samples that relied on multiple experienced examiners and provided ongoing quality control over administration and coding. Analyses also showed that relative to the group of more optimal samples, the group of less optimal samples did not produce more variability in summary scores within or across samples or lower interrater reliability for coding. Study 2 used the existing CS reference norms to generate T scores for the CIRV means and documented how the CS norms make other samples of healthy nonpatients look psychologically impaired in multiple domains. Study 3 documented with examples from 4 different countries how 2 sets of within-country local norms produced notably different results on some variables, which compromises the ability of local norms to be used instead of the CIRVs. Taken together, the 3 studies provide support for the use of CIRVs in clinical practice as norms that are generalizable across samples, settings, languages, and cultures and that account for the natural variability that is present when clinicians and researchers contend with the ambiguity contained in the standard CS reference materials concerning the proper ways to administer and code. We conclude by urging CS users to rely on the CIRVs when making clinical inferences and to adopt alternative methods of ensuring they are following cohesively standardized administration and coding guidelines. PMID:25297806

  7. Opening Address [International Conference on Research Reactors: Safe Management and Effective Utilization, Rabat (Morocco), 14-18 November 2011

    Significant issues that the RR community continues to face are primarily related to operation, utilization and safety, ageing, decommissioning, fuel and waste management. There are also more recent challenges, such as initiatives for new RR facilities, securing radioisotope production, human resource and infrastructure capacity building, as well as sustainability of RR programmes, all of which are receiving greater attention. In view of the above, it is timely to convene another in the series of international conferences to discuss the issues and foster cooperation within the worldwide RR community. For more than 60 years, RRs have been one of the locomotives of nuclear science and technology. To date, approximately 670 RRs have been built, and some 240 of these facilities continue to operate in 55 countries. It goes without saying that RRs must be safely and reliably operated, adequately utilized, refurbished when necessary, provided with adequate proliferation-resistant fuel cycle services and safely decommissioned at the end of life. In this regard, the IAEA provides assistance to Member States by developing safety standards and disseminating information on good practices for all aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle as well as the planning and implementation of decommissioning. Member States look to the IAEA for coordination of the worldwide effort in this area and for help in solving specific problems. Today RR operating organizations need to overcome challenges such as effective utilization, the on-going management of ageing facilities, pressures for increased vigilance with respect to non-proliferation, and shrinking resources, both financial and human, while fulfilling an expanding role in support of nuclear technology development. The IAEA coordinates and implements an array of activities that together provide broad support for RRs. As with other aspects of nuclear technology, RR activities within the IAEA are spread among diverse groups in different

  8. Ensuring good governance to address emerging and re-emerging animal disease threats: supporting the veterinary services of developing countries to meet OIE international standards on quality.

    Vallat, B; Mallet, E

    2006-04-01

    As an effect of increased globalisation, animal diseases, in particular those transmissible to man, have an immediate global economic and social impact. This fact, dramatically illustrated by the current avian influenza epizootic in South-East Asia and Eastern Europe, clearly demonstrates the crucial importance of the national Veterinary Services (VS) for the prevention, early detection and response for the efficient control of animal diseases. Complying with this mission for the VS presupposes the existence of appropriate governance and legislation and of an official system to control their quality and reliability- an obvious weakness in many developing and in transition countries. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has therefore developed a project aiming at strengthening the VS in those countries facing the greatest animal health threats and to bring them into line with OIE international standards already adopted by the same countries. Based on the evaluation of the VS and subsequent actions at the global, regional and national levels, the project will have a significant beneficial impact on the targeted countries as well as the international community as a whole, not only in the fields of agriculture, food security and production, and food safety, but also for the local and global prevention of emerging and re-emerging diseases of veterinary and public health importance. The project will be implemented in strong collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization. The actions proposed must be considered eligible for the concept of International Public Good. PMID:16796063

  9. Standardized monitoring of Rangifer health during International Polar Year

    Susan Kutz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} Monitoring of individual animal health indices in wildlife populations can be a powerful tool for evaluation of population health, detecting changes, and informing management decisions. Standardized monitoring allows robust comparisons within and across populations, and over time and vast geographic regions. As an International Polar Year Initiative, the CircumArctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment network established field protocols for standardized monitoring of caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus health, which included body condition, contaminants, and pathogen exposure and abundance. To facilitate use of the protocols, training sessions were held, additional resources were developed, and language was translated where needed. From March 2007 to September 2010, at least 1206 animals from 16 circumpolar herds were sampled in the field using the protocols. Four main levels of sampling were done and ranged from basic to comprehensive sampling. Possible sources of sampling error were noted by network members early in the process and protocols were modified or supplemented with additional visual resources to improve clarity when needed. This is the first time that such broad and comprehensive circumpolar sampling of migratory caribou and wild reindeer, using standardized protocols covering both body

  10. Opening Address

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  11. Addressing the "other" health literacy competencies--knowledge, dispositions, and oral/aural communication: development of TALKDOC, an intervention assessment tool.

    Helitzer, Deborah; Hollis, Christine; Sanders, Margaret; Roybal, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Most health literacy assessments evaluate literacy skills including reading, writing; numeracy and interpretation of tables, graphs, diagrams and charts. Some assess understanding of health systems, and the ability to adequately apply one's skills to specific health-related tasks or demands in health situations. However, to achieve functional health literacy, the ability to "obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions," other health literacy dimensions should be assessed: a person's knowledge and attitudes about a health issue affects his or her ability to and interest in participating in his or her own care. In patient care settings, the abilities to listen, ask questions and check one's understanding are crucial to making appropriate decisions and carrying out instructions. Although literacy is a skill associated with educational attainment and therefore difficult to change in a short time, health education interventions can address health literacy domains such as knowledge, attitudes and oral communication skills. For this reason, an instrument that can assess these constructs is a valuable part of a health educator's toolbox. The authors describe the development and process and outcomes of testing a novel instrument targeted to assess HPV and cervical cancer health literacy competencies, TALKDOC, including its validation with the Health Activities Literacy Scale. PMID:23030568

  12. Opening Address [6. International Symposium on Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM VI), Marrakesh (Morocco), 22-26 March 2010

    Full text: On behalf of the National Organizing Committee, good morning and thanks a lot for coming. The convening of this conference in Marrakesh constitutes, without doubt, a further step towards the promotion of scientific research and development in the field of NORM activities as well as furthering the aim of improving their radiation safety aspects. It is obvious that the main objective of this gathering is how to strengthen and improve protection of humans and the environment and likewise to ensure sustainable development through the utilization of NORM. Ladies and gentlemen, our country Morocco is launching many action plans for economic and social development. Therefore, the convening of this Conference responds to this strategic interest. Morocco is committed to the achievement of comprehensive and sustainable development of the legal and regulatory framework for the protection of humans and the environment. Ladies and gentlemen, as stated by the organizers - the Steering Committee and the National Organizing Committee - and given the findings of NORM V held in Seville, the objectives of this NORM VI symposium are to provide a forum for debate between the scientific, technical and regulatory communities involved in NORM issues. It gives the opportunity to present and discuss recent studies and work achieved, to share results and experience and to identify future needs and challenges. With your involvement, we expect that this symposium, like previous symposia in this series, will lead to increased harmonization of regulatory approaches and the wider application of international standards, especially with regard to discussion of the draft version of the revised BSS (IAEA Safety Series No. 115) as proposed by the IAEA and the other cosponsors. I would also like to take this opportunity, ladies and gentlemen, to express my appreciation to the Steering Committee and the Scientific Committee for their involvement and their valuable help and expertise in

  13. Feasibility of health systems strengthening in South Sudan: a qualitative study of international practitioner perspectives

    Jones, Abigail; Howard, Natasha; Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of health systems strengthening from the perspective of international healthcare implementers and donors in South Sudan. Design A qualitative interview study, with thematic analysis using the WHO health system building blocks framework. Setting South Sudan. Participants 17 health system practitioners, working for international agencies in South Sudan, were purposively sampled for their knowledge and experiences of health systems strengthening, services del...

  14. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Best Paper Award 2013

    Tchounwou, Paul B.; Ophelia Han

    2013-01-01

    With the start of 2013, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is instituting an annual award to recognize outstanding papers related to environmental health sciences and public health that meet the aims, scope and high standards of this journal. We are pleased to announce the first “International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Best Paper Award” for 2013. Nominations were solicited from the Editorial Board members, with all papers published in 2...

  15. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Best Paper Award 2015

    Tchounwou, Paul B.; Joyce Zhou

    2015-01-01

    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health started to institute an annual award in 2013 to recognize outstanding papers related to environmental health sciences and public health that meet the aims, scope and high standards of this journal. We are pleased to announce the third “International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Best Paper Awards” for 2015. Nominations were solicited from the Editor-in-Chief and Editorial Board members, with all papers pu...

  16. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Best Paper Award 2014

    Tchounwou, Paul B.; Joyce Zhou

    2014-01-01

    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health started to institute an annual award in 2013 to recognize outstanding papers related to environmental health sciences and public health that meet the aims, scope and high standards of this journal. We are pleased to announce the second “International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Best Paper Award” for 2014. Nominations were solicited from the Editor-in-Chief and Editorial Board members, with all papers pub...

  17. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Best Paper Award 2013

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the start of 2013, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is instituting an annual award to recognize outstanding papers related to environmental health sciences and public health that meet the aims, scope and high standards of this journal. We are pleased to announce the first “International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Best Paper Award” for 2013. Nominations were solicited from the Editorial Board members, with all papers published in 2009 eligible for consideration.

  18. An international comparison of the association among literacy, education, and health across the United States, Canada, Switzerland, Italy, Norway, and Bermuda: implications for health disparities.

    Yamashita, Takashi; Kunkel, Suzanne R

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between education and health is well-established, but theoretical pathways are not fully understood. Economic resources, stress, and health behaviors partially explain how education influences health, but further study is needed. Previous studies show that health literacy mediates the education-health relationship, as do general literacy skills. However, little is known whether such mediation effects are consistent across different societies. This study analyzed data from the International Assessment of Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey conducted in Canada, the United States, Italy, Norway, Switzerland, and Bermuda to investigate the mediation effects of literacy on the education-health relationship and the degree of such mediation in different cultural contexts. Results showed that literacy skills mediated the effect of education on health in all study locations, but the degree of mediation varied. This mediation effect was particularly strong in Bermuda. This study also found that different types of literacy skills are more or less important in each study location. For example, numeracy skills in the United States and prose (reading) literacy skills in Italy were stronger predictors of health than were other literacy skills. These findings suggest a new direction for addressing health disparities: focusing on relevant types of literacy skills. PMID:25749096

  19. The Forgotten World on Campus: Acculturation and Health Issues of International Students.

    Sharif, Behjat A.

    1998-01-01

    Surveyed international college students regarding their health conditions and student-health-center utilization motives and patterns. Significant gender differences existed in perceptions of health status and health behaviors. Many students had sleep-related problems. Language barriers was the main problem in making educational and sociocultural…

  20. Report of the international workshop on safety measures to address the year 2000 issue at medical facilities which use radiation generators and radioactive materials. (Supplement to IAEA-TECDOC-1074)

    In resolution GC(42)/RES/11 on 'Measures to Address the Year 2000 (Y2K) Issue', adopted on 25 September 1998, the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) - inter alia - urged Member States 'to share information with the Secretariat regarding diagnostic and corrective actions being planned or implemented by operating and regulatory organizations at their ... medical facilities which use radioactive materials to make those facilities Year 2000 ready', encouraged the Secretariat 'within existing resources to act as a clearing-house and central point of contact for Member States to exchange information regarding diagnostic and remediation actions being taken at ... medical facilities which use radioactive materials to make these facilities Year 2000 ready', urged the Secretariat 'to handle the information provided by Member States carefully' and requested the Director General to report to it at its next (1999) regular session on the implementation of that resolution. To foster exchange of information and experience and to develop more specific advice based on this experience, the IAEA, in co-operation with the World Health Organization, conducted an International Workshop on Safety Measures to Address the Year 2000 Issue at Medical Facilities Which Use Radiation Generators and Radioactive Materials, held in Vienna, 28-30 June 1999. Whereas the focus in IAEA-TECDOC-1074 had been on identifying what might go wrong as a result of Y2K problems and on proposing methods to address them, the focus of the International Workshop was on sharing the experience gained in implementing the proposed methods - an approach consistent with the role of the Secretariat as 'a clearing-house and central point of contact for Member States to exchange information regarding diagnostic and remediation actions'

  1. From theory to practice: a Canadian case study of the utility of climate change adaptation frameworks to address health impacts

    Clarke, Kaila-Lea; Berry, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective It is now recognized that climate change affects human health. The question is how to adapt. This article examines mainstreaming climate considerations into public health programs and the utility of climate change and health adaptation frameworks, using Ontario, Canada, as a case study. Methods A literature review identified climate change and health adaptation frameworks for comparison with the Ontario Public Health Standards. Key informant interviews gauged the extent to which cli...

  2. Evolution of research in health geographics through the International Journal of Health Geographics (2002-2015).

    Pérez, Sandra; Laperrière, Vincent; Borderon, Marion; Padilla, Cindy; Maignant, Gilles; Oliveau, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Health geographics is a fast-developing research area. Subjects broached in scientific literature are most varied, ranging from vectorial diseases to access to healthcare, with a recent revival of themes such as the implication of health in the Smart City, or a predominantly individual-centered approach. Far beyond standard meta-analyses, the present study deliberately adopts the standpoint of questioning space in its foundations, through various authors of the International Journal of Health Geographics, a highly influential journal in that field. The idea is to find space as the common denominator in this specialized literature, as well as its relation to spatial analysis, without for all that trying to tend towards exhaustive approaches. 660 articles have being published in the journal since launch, but 359 articles were selected based on the presence of the word "Space" in either the title, or the abstract or the text over 13 years of the journal's existence. From that database, a lexical analysis (tag cloud) reveals the perception of space in literature, and shows how approaches are evolving, thus underlining that the scope of health geographics is far from narrowing. PMID:26790403

  3. Inaugural address

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  4. International cooperation and health. Part I: issues and concepts

    McKee, M; Gilmore, A; Schwalbe, N.

    2005-01-01

    The world is increasingly shaped by powerful global forces, many of which have consequences for human health and the social, economic, and environmental factors that influence health are increasingly determined at a supranational level. As a result, local or national level efforts to influence health determinants can have only a limited impact and it is all too easy for the individual public health practitioner to feel powerless. Yet while public health practitioners, on their own, may indeed...

  5. International cooperation and health. Part 2: making a difference

    McKee, M; Gilmore, A; Schwalbe, N.

    2005-01-01

    The world is increasingly shaped by powerful global forces, many of which have consequences for human health and the social, economic, and environmental factors that influence health are increasingly determined at a supranational level. As a result, local or national level efforts to influence health determinants can have only a limited impact and it is all too easy for the individual public health practitioner to feel powerless. Yet while public health practitioners, on their own, may indeed...

  6. Welcome Address

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  7. Opening address

    This opening address covers two main areas: first, a snapshot of the continuing threat and the recent changes having been made to the United Kingdom's counterterrorism structures to respond to it; and second, how the United Kingdom is combating nuclear terrorism through a range of measures covering physical security, decreasing vulnerability to attack and increasing resilience. Combating the threat of nuclear terrorism requires an international effort. Radiological and fissile materials are present throughout the world and, as such, it should be secured wherever it is found. All countries are encouraged to continue to enhance security and protection mechanisms for radiological and fissile material; and to develop contingency plans should the worst happen. The United Kingdom has responded to the very serious and real threat by consolidating and strengthening elements of its counterterrorist planning via the creation in May this year of the Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism (OSCT). These changes have been coupled with an unprecedented level of investment to enable the delivery of the United Kingdom counterterrorist strategy - known as CONTEST - through which we aim to (a) stop terrorist attacks; (b) where it cannot be stopped, to mitigate its impact; (c) strengthen our overall protection against terrorist attack; (d) stop people becoming terrorists or supporting violent extremism. In the case of radiological and nuclear terrorism, it is not sufficient merely to prepare for such an attack; one must also devote efforts to preventing such attacks in the first instance by intercepting dangerous materials before they reach their intended target; and by strengthening the protection of vulnerable places and detecting or mitigating any devices before they are placed or activated. As such, in terms of the United Kingdom's efforts on radiological and nuclear terrorism, there are three main strands to this work: physical protection of materials including the global

  8. Association between Social Integration and Health among Internal Migrants in ZhongShan, China.

    Yanwei Lin

    Full Text Available Internal migrants are the individuals who migrate between regions in one country. The number of internal migrants were estimated at 245 million in China in 2013. Results were inconsistent in the literature about the relationship between their health statuses and social integration. The main difference exists on how to measure the social integration and whether health statuses of internal migrants improve with years of residence. To complement the existing literature, this study measured social integration more comprehensively and estimated the internal migrants' health statuses with varying years of residence, and explored the associations between the migrants' social integration and health. We used the data from 2014 Internal Migrant Dynamic Monitoring Survey of Health and Family Planning in ZhongShan, China. Health status was measured from four aspects: self-reported health, subjective well-being, perception of stress, mental health. We measured social integration through four dimensions: economy, social communication, acculturation, and self-identity. The analyses used multiple linear regressions to examine the associations between self-reported health, subjective well-being, and perception of stress, mental health and social integration. The analytical sample included 1,999 households of the internal migrants and 1,997 local registered households, who were permanent residents in ZhongShan. Among the internal migrants, Adults in the labor force, who were aged 25 to 44 years old, accounted for 91.2% of the internal migrant population, while 74.6% of the registered population were in that age group. Median residential time among migrants was 2.8 (1.3-6.2 years, and 20.2% of them were migrating in the same Guangdong province. Except for mental health, other health statuses among migrants had significant differences compared with local registered population, e.g. self-reported health was better, but subjective well-being was worse. However, these

  9. Association between Social Integration and Health among Internal Migrants in ZhongShan, China.

    Lin, Yanwei; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Wen; Shi, Jingrong; Han, Siqi; Song, Xiaolei; Xu, Yong; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Internal migrants are the individuals who migrate between regions in one country. The number of internal migrants were estimated at 245 million in China in 2013. Results were inconsistent in the literature about the relationship between their health statuses and social integration. The main difference exists on how to measure the social integration and whether health statuses of internal migrants improve with years of residence. To complement the existing literature, this study measured social integration more comprehensively and estimated the internal migrants' health statuses with varying years of residence, and explored the associations between the migrants' social integration and health. We used the data from 2014 Internal Migrant Dynamic Monitoring Survey of Health and Family Planning in ZhongShan, China. Health status was measured from four aspects: self-reported health, subjective well-being, perception of stress, mental health. We measured social integration through four dimensions: economy, social communication, acculturation, and self-identity. The analyses used multiple linear regressions to examine the associations between self-reported health, subjective well-being, and perception of stress, mental health and social integration. The analytical sample included 1,999 households of the internal migrants and 1,997 local registered households, who were permanent residents in ZhongShan. Among the internal migrants, Adults in the labor force, who were aged 25 to 44 years old, accounted for 91.2% of the internal migrant population, while 74.6% of the registered population were in that age group. Median residential time among migrants was 2.8 (1.3-6.2) years, and 20.2% of them were migrating in the same Guangdong province. Except for mental health, other health statuses among migrants had significant differences compared with local registered population, e.g. self-reported health was better, but subjective well-being was worse. However, these health

  10. Towards liveable urban environments by addressing health from a spatial perspective: exploration by mapping environmental noise and air pollution in the Northern fringe of Brussels

    Vervoort, Peter; Verbeek, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Although a growing societal awareness for the impact of the built environment on health and well-being urges spatial planners to take health aspirations into account, the issue is mostly addressed very late in the planning process.This results in a rather short term perspective of possible solutions and a mainly local focus on measures to mitigate environmental nuisance. The article starts from the existing gap between the requisite technical expertise concerning enviromnental nuisance and th...

  11. Aboriginal medical services cure more than illness: a qualitative study of how Indigenous services address the health impacts of discrimination in Brisbane communities

    Baba, Josifini T; Brolan, Claire E; Hill, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders persistently experience a significantly lower standard of health in comparison to non-Indigenous Australians. The factors contributing to this disparity are complex and entrenched in a history of social inequality, disempowerment, poverty, dispossession and discrimination. Aboriginal medical services (AMS) provide a culturally appropriate alternative to mainstream medical services as a means to address this health disparity and also advocate f...

  12. Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating a Program to Address the Oral Health Needs of Aboriginal Children in Port Augusta, Australia

    Misan, G.; Jamieson, L. M.; L. Richards; H. Mills; A. Russell; Shearer, M.; Parker, E J

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal Australian children experience profound oral health disparities relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In response to community concerns regarding Aboriginal child oral health in the regional town of Port Augusta, South Australia, a child dental health service was established within a Community Controlled Aboriginal Health Service. A partnership approach was employed with the key aims of (1) quantifying rates of dental service utilisation, (2) identifying factors influencin...

  13. Promoting Health Behaviors Using Peer Education: A Demonstration Project between International and American College Students

    Yan, Zi; Finn, Kevin; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Bent, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peer education has the potential to promote health behaviors and cultural competence for both international and domestic college students. Purpose: The present study examined a peer education program aimed at promoting cultural competence and health behaviors among international and American students in a university setting. Methods:…

  14. Opening address

    Being fully aware of the IAEA's central and important roles in the field of nuclear security, Japan has cooperated closely with the IAEA in the field of nuclear security. One of Japan's efforts was holding a seminar on strengthening nuclear security in Asian countries in November 2006, making use of Japan's contribution to the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. The seminar was organized for the first time in Asia to address nuclear security matters, in which more than 100 experts from 19 countries participated. Japan also hosted a seminar, aimed at promoting the accession to the international counterterrorism conventions and protocols, inviting government officials and experts from Asia Pacific countries. At the seminar, Japan presented its experience and lessons learned with regard to its ratification of relevant international conventions such as the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. Japan has also provided assistance for capacity building in the field of physical protection measures, and is preparing three projects for Asian countries through the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. In Thailand, Japan has a project aimed at improving physical protection of nuclear research facilities. In Vietnam, Japan plans to host a workshop on radiation detection equipment for border officials and is also preparing for a seminar aimed at capacity building of control on nuclear material in Vietnam. Japan is committed to continue its efforts to make the IAEA Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement together with an Additional Protocol the universally accepted verification standard for the peaceful use undertakings of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Japan's basic policy on bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements is as follows. Considering the dual nature of nuclear material and technology, Japan is of the view that three Ss, that is, S for 'safeguards' (non-proliferation), S for 'safety

  15. To Your Health: NLM update transcript - Healthy international travel recommendations

    ... of the Zika virus. Some additional information about travel health risks - from the American Academy of Family Physicians - ... us here next week and here's to safe travels and your health! Image: Courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control ...

  16. Primary Health Care Models: A Review of the International Literature

    Julia Abelson; Brian Hutchison

    1994-01-01

    A common element in many countries’ health system reform agenda is an emphasis on changes to the organization, financing and delivery of primary health care. Numerous objectives for primary health care reform have been cited in jurisdictions around the world with different approaches being taken toward achieving stated objectives. This paper reviews the literature which has described and evaluated experiences with different primary health care delivery models in Canadian and other jurisdictio...

  17. International research teams-the social utility of health promotion and health education

    Andrei Shpakou

    2016-04-01

    of new, innovative communication media. 2. Activities of VRTs to a significant extent contribute to an international research cooperation. 3. Verification of the health policy implemented by both academic centers poses a challenge to actions undertaken by Grodno and Suwalki VRTs.

  18. Human Rights, Social Inclusion and Health Equity in International Donors' Policies

    Hasheem Mannan; Malcolm MacLachlan; Mutamad Amin; Arne Henning Eide; Marguerite Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health policies have the potential to be important instruments in achieving equity in health. A framework – EquiFrame - for assessing the extent to which health policies promote equity was used to perform an equity audit of the health policies of three international aid organizations. Objective: To assess the extent to which social inclusion and human rights feature in the health policies of DFID (UK), Irish Aid, and NORAD (Norway). Method: EquiFrame provides a tool for analyzin...

  19. Global Health Training and International Clinical Rotations during Residency: Current Status, Needs, and Opportunities

    Drain, Paul K; Holmes, King K.; Skeff, Kelley M; Thomas L Hall; Gardner, Pierce

    2009-01-01

    Increasing international travel and migration have contributed to globalization of diseases. Physicians today must understand the global burden and epidemiology of diseases, the disparities and inequities in global health systems, and the importance of cross-cultural sensitivity. To meet these needs, resident physicians across all specialties have expressed growing interest in global health training and international clinical rotations. More residents are acquiring international experience, d...

  20. The health policy implications of international trade in alcohol and tobacco products.

    Powell, M

    1989-10-01

    The aim of national alcohol and tobacco preventive health policy is to reduce consumption in order to reduce harm. However, the level of domestic consumption depends upon the interaction of international demand and supply and the development of international trade policy. Trade policy may conflict with or act as a constraint on the implementation of preventive health policy. Trends in alcohol and tobacco trade and developments in international trade policy affecting these products are examined in this paper in relation to health policy goals. Economic models of the links between trade flows, quantities consumed and health effects are then outlined as a preliminary step towards identifying the complex interaction between alcohol and tobacco trade and production, consumption, health and welfare. It is shown that consideration of the economic trade links are an important factor in the development of international and domestic health policy. PMID:2819273

  1. Opening Address (by R. Hojman) [International Conference on Research Reactor Utilization, Safety, Decommissioning, Fuel and Waste Management, Santiago, Chile, 10-14 November 2003

    Full text: I have the high honour of addressing you in order to express on behalf of the Nuclear Energy Commission of Chile (CCHEN), and also on my own behalf, our pleasure in having the opportunity to welcome to our country this select group of authorities and professionals of the IAEA, and more than 100 representatives of nuclear institutions from some 50 countries. We are certain that this conference will facilitate a valuable exchange of knowledge in areas as important as the use of research reactors, safety related aspects of such use, the fuel cycle, and dismantling and management of radioactive waste. We also value the opportunity provided by this forum to share experi- ences, exchange opinions, and discuss options and priorities during the five technical sessions scheduled as part of the conference and, moreover, to deepen existing and create new bonds of international cooperation. I would like to mention the fact that our country has experience in the operation of its experimental reactors and has managed to make contributions to major applications in various fields including medicine, agriculture, industry and mining, and environment and metrology. Health applications have been given priority among the CCHEN's activities, and this is why the use of the reactor at La Reina Nuclear Studies Center has focused on the production of radioisotopes and radio-pharmaceu- tical applications which have short half-lives and are used in the diagnosis of the dynamic functioning of various organs and as therapeutic agents in some types of cancer. In agriculture, various isotope techniques have been investigated and fine tuned in areas such as soil fertility, fertilizing sources, optimum use of nutrients, rationalization and economy in the use of water, quantification of the degree of soil erosion, and irrigation with fertilizers. More recently, a study of residuality and mobility of agro-chemicals in soil and water was initiated through a project developed jointly with

  2. Convocation address.

    Alexander, P C

    1994-07-01

    Total world population is growing at the annual rate of 2%. While this rate of growth represents a decline from the annual growth rate of 2.5% during the early 1960s, world population still continues to grow rapidly in absolute terms as a result of the already enormous population base. Experts predict world population to grow to 12-14 billion before it stabilizes. Most of this growth will be due to high fertility amid declining mortality in developing countries; 80% of world population by the year 2000 will be in developing countries. India, for example, had a population of 358 million people in 1950. That population, however, should grow to more than one billion by the year 2000. The author, governor of Maharashtra, congratulates all who have successfully completed courses at the International Institute for Population Sciences during the year and voices his expectation that graduates will use their newfound knowledge and expertise in research and teaching as well as in developing meaningful and effective population policies in their respective countries. He also describes some of India's current population-related problems and future prospects. India has thus far kept its rate of food production above the rate of population growth. Even so, the average caloric intake in India needs to be increased by at least 50% in order for the population to maintain adequate health standards. The current scarcity of additional arable land, the need to halt further deforestation, and the ongoing absolute growth in population, however, suggest that India will be unable to raise the level of caloric intake for its people. India may even become dependent upon other countries to provide food for its population. PMID:12346131

  3. Enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins: experiences from the Lower Mekong River Basin

    Douven, W.; Mul, M. L.; Fernández-Álvarez, B.; Hung, S. Lam; Bakker, N.; Radosevich, G.; van der Zaag, P.

    2012-09-01

    This paper analyses the design and impact of capacity building programmes aimed at enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins. The case study is a programme developed by the Mekong River Commission (MRC). A post-training evaluation was applied to assess its impact in terms of individual capacity enhancement and change (use and application of knowledge, factors hampering application, and change in function and opportunities within the organisation). The design of the Capacity Building Programme of the MRC Flood Management and Mitigation Programme required a well balanced range of subjects (such as IWRM (integrated water resources management), model and decision support systems, and international water law). The post-training evaluation, 6 months after the last training workshop, showed an increase in familiarity with the topics for all 37 respondents, with the highest increase for the respondents with few years of working experience and from training and education institutions. The relevance of the subjects taught was highlighted by 95% of the respondents, and 78% of the participants had already used some of the acquired knowledge in their job. The respondents indicated that they did not have sufficient opportunities to apply all knowledge. The phased implementation and training of lecturers during the training workshops had a good impact, directly through increasing involvement in facilitation and delivery of the capacity building programme and through the use of the knowledge gained in short courses and development of curricula at their institute. For these types of capacity building programmes, a few recommendations can be made. The selection of participants is crucial for the application of the learned knowledge in their work. The integrative nature of transboundary water issues calls for a capacity building programme addressing a wide range of subjects, which can be understood by a

  4. Addressing the Common Pathway Underlying Hypertension and Diabetes in People Who Are Obese by Maximizing Health: The Ultimate Knowledge Translation Gap

    Elizabeth Dean

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the WHO definition of health, this article examines the alarming discord between the epidemiology of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and obesity and the low profile of noninvasive (nondrug compared with invasive (drug interventions with respect to their prevention, reversal and management. Herein lies the ultimate knowledge translation gap and challenge in 21st century health care. Although lifestyle modification has long appeared in guidelines for medically managing these conditions, this evidence-based strategy is seldom implemented as rigorously as drug prescription. Biomedicine focuses largely on reducing signs and symptoms; the effects of the problem rather than the problem. This article highlights the evidence-based rationale supporting prioritizing the underlying causes and contributing factors for hypertension and T2DM, and, in turn, obesity. We argue that a primary focus on maximizing health could eliminate all three conditions, at best, or, at worst, minimize their severity, complications, and medication needs. To enable such knowledge translation and maximizing health outcome, the health care community needs to practice as an integrated team, and address barriers to effecting maximal health in all patients. Addressing the ultimate knowledge translation gap, by aligning the health care paradigm to 21st century needs, would constitute a major advance.

  5. International students. Culture shock can affect the health of students from abroad.

    Hamboyan, H.; Bryan, A. K.

    1995-01-01

    Family physicians and other health care workers who have international students as patients should have a thorough understanding of their circumstances in order to manage their health problems effectively. These students often experience culture shock that could lead to serious psychosocial difficulties and mental health problems.

  6. Stuttering and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF): An Update

    Yaruss, J. Scott; Quesal, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recently presented a multidimensional classification scheme for describing health status and the experience of disablement. This new framework, the "International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health" (ICF; WHO, 2001), is a revision of WHO's prior framework for describing the consequences of…

  7. International Health Financing and the Response to AIDS

    Lieberman, S.; Gottret, P.; Yeh, E.; Beyer, J.; Oelrichs, R.; Zewdie, D.

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to finance HIV responses have generated large increases in funding, catalyzed activism and institutional innovation, and brought renewed attention to health issues and systems. The benefits go well beyond HIV programs. The substantial increases in HIV funding are a tiny percentage of overall increases in health financing, with other areas also seeing large absolute increases. Data on health funding suggest an improved "pro-poor" distribution, with Africa benefiting relatively more fro...

  8. Addressing Health Literacy Challenges with a Cutting-Edge Infectious Disease Curriculum for the High School Biology Classroom

    Jacque, Berri; Koch-Weser, Susan; Faux, Russell; Meiri, Karina

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the secondary analysis of evaluation data from an innovative high school biology curriculum focused on infectious disease (ID) to examine the health literacy implications of teaching claims evaluation, data interpretation, and risk assessment skills in the context of 21st-Century health science. The curriculum was implemented…

  9. Planning, implementing, and evaluating a program to address the oral health needs of aboriginal children in port augusta, australia.

    Parker, E J; Misan, G; Shearer, M; Richards, L; Russell, A; Mills, H; Jamieson, L M

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal Australian children experience profound oral health disparities relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In response to community concerns regarding Aboriginal child oral health in the regional town of Port Augusta, South Australia, a child dental health service was established within a Community Controlled Aboriginal Health Service. A partnership approach was employed with the key aims of (1) quantifying rates of dental service utilisation, (2) identifying factors influencing participation, and (3) planning and establishing a program for delivery of Aboriginal children's dental services that would increase participation and adapt to community needs. In planning the program, levels of participation were quantified and key issues identified through semistructured interviews. After 3.5 years, the participation rate for dental care among the target population increased from 53 to 70 percent. Key areas were identified to encourage further improvements and ensure sustainability in Aboriginal child oral health in this regional location. PMID:22577401

  10. Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating a Program to Address the Oral Health Needs of Aboriginal Children in Port Augusta, Australia

    E. J. Parker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal Australian children experience profound oral health disparities relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In response to community concerns regarding Aboriginal child oral health in the regional town of Port Augusta, South Australia, a child dental health service was established within a Community Controlled Aboriginal Health Service. A partnership approach was employed with the key aims of (1 quantifying rates of dental service utilisation, (2 identifying factors influencing participation, and (3 planning and establishing a program for delivery of Aboriginal children’s dental services that would increase participation and adapt to community needs. In planning the program, levels of participation were quantified and key issues identified through semistructured interviews. After 3.5 years, the participation rate for dental care among the target population increased from 53 to 70 percent. Key areas were identified to encourage further improvements and ensure sustainability in Aboriginal child oral health in this regional location.

  11. Medical-professional control of internal exposure to radionuclides in base nuclear installations. Extract from recommendations elaborated according to the methodological guide 'Recommendations for clinical practice' published by the Health High Authority in July 2011 - Occupational health references Nr 130

    This sheet addresses the medical-professional control of the internal exposure to radionuclides in relationship with professional activity of workers exposed to this risk in base nuclear installations. It presents and discusses published recommendations which aimed at optimizing the prevention of the internal exposure risk and the medical follow-up of workers exposed to this risk. Different themes are addressed which concerns the implementation, communication, traceability and archiving, control programmes, the assessment of the efficient dose, the health risk and the taking on by labour medicine

  12. On the significance of international synergy in addressing seismic safety at existing nuclear reactor facilities - Is Armenia NPP a success story?

    Despite the progress has been made in addressing seismic safety issues at nuclear installations worldwide, there are still issues that require re-evaluation as a result of new information that arises regarding seismic hazard, revised understanding of site conditions and structural seismic resistance and/or facility life extension request. Since the seismic re-evaluation is a complex process consisting of elements that individually present challenges in our state of understanding of how installations resist seismic loads (i.e., source, path, interaction and dynamic response), issues will always exist given the variation of parameters from site to site. This paper focuses on some of the elements of the re-evaluation process with special attention to nuclear facilities of the former Soviet Union while using the Armenian nuclear reactor facility and its upgrade program as the working example. It presents a discussion on seismic questions that are important to any nuclear facility and it identifies the relevance to the Armenian NPP. Given that one of the main questions addressed in this paper is how the synergy of international organizations influences the resolution of seismic issues that are generally common at nuclear facilities around the world, the Armenian NPP upgrade program is a perfect example for such an assessment since it calls for the resolution of multiple issues while it involves multiple organizations. (author)

  13. An international partnership interdisciplinary training programme on public health

    Andrioti, Despena; Charalambous, George; Skitsou, Alexandra;

    2015-01-01

    motivation to participate in and expectations of the course, they stressed the need to go deeper into applications, tools and methods on how to implement relevant policies, to better serve the population of their respective district. They rank primary health care (68.5%), health system challenges (66%) and...

  14. Using vignettes to assess contributions to the work of addressing child mental health problems in primary care

    Wissow, Lawrence S.; Zafar, Waleed; Fothergill, Kate; Ruble, Anne; Slade, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background To further efforts to integrate mental health and primary care, this study develops a novel approach to quantifying the amount and sources of work involved in shifting care for common mental health problems to pediatric primary care providers. Methods Email/web-based survey of a convenience sample (n = 58) of Maryland pediatricians (77 % female, 58 % at their site 10 or more years; 44 % in private practice, 52 % urban, 48 % practicing with a co-located mental health provider). Part...

  15. Proceedings of the international symposium on radioactive waste disposal: Health and environmental criteria and standards

    The co-organisers of the International Symposium on Health and Environmental Criteria and Standards for Radioactive Waste Disposal are pleased to present these proceedings. This Symposium succeeded in bringing together a wide range of participants and perspectives in order to address in a common forum the technical and non-technical issues related to long-term storage of radioactive waste. The papers presented herein reflect both the diversity of the participants and the complexity of the issues addressed. The sessions, panels, and papers developed for the symposium focused on some of the daunting challenges posed by long-term isolation and storage of high level radioactive waste. Panel sessions addressed the basic principles of criteria and standards, the context of the risks involved, and an overview of relevant philosophical, social, and ethical issues. Paper sessions considered national laws, policies and experiences; criteria formulation; environmental protection; compliance; human intrusion; and fundamental philosophical, social, and ethical issues. The presentations stimulated lively discussion and debate, and the contributors received valuable feedback. The interplay between technical and social aspects reflected in some papers and in the discussion highlights the changing role of the public in radioactive waste issues. The average citizen has become more aware of and more involved in radioactive waste matters in recent years. Solutions that were previously analysed through a technological lens are now being viewed in a much broader perspective that better addresses the concerns of local communities as well as national and international interests. Public involvement must begin earlier, last longer, and improve in quality so as to create an ongoing dialogue and debate rather than cycles of dictates and discord. The symposium has offered suggestions as to how government, industry, and the public can foster a broader dialogue on the formulation and

  16. A Conceptual Framework to Address Stress-Associated Human Health Effects of Ecosystem Services Degraded by Disasters

    Chronic stress leads to a variety of mental and physiological disorders, and stress effects are the primary concern after traumatic injury and exposure to infectious diseases or toxic agents from disaster events. We developed a conceptual model to address the question of whether...

  17. Opening Address by L. Michel [FR:13: International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios, Paris (France), 4-7 March 2013

    For this opening address, I would like to share with you some thoughts about the evolution of the key drivers during the last decades for the development of fast reactors from the very pioneering age until now, taking into account new concerns and the major events that have occurred since the last international conference on fast reactors and related fuel cycles held in 2009 in Kyoto, Japan (FR09). There are three major periods: ——The pioneering age (1945–1980) with breeding as a main driver followed by a kind of “winter season” (1980–2000) for the development of fast reactors worldwide. ——The so-called “brainstorming” phase (2000–2010), back to physics and nuclear chemistry, with international rebirth of the research on fast reactors and advanced fuel cycle owing to the GENERATION IV initiative, revisiting various reactor concepts along with 4 main drivers: sustainability, safety, proliferation resistance and cost competitiveness ——The new era (started in 2010) with very promising technological options and projects of prototypes with two main key drivers: ●● Innovation towards enhanced safety, which is a major concern for public acceptance of nuclear power, especially after the Fukushima accident; ●●Higher flexibility in the management of fissile materials and nuclear waste in order to take into account various possible options for the contribution of nuclear power in the energy mix

  18. From Alma Ata to the Global Fund: The history of international health policy

    Italian Global Health Watch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available “Global Funds are like stars in the sky, you can see them, admire them, appreciate their abundance… but fail to touch them.” - Ministry of Health Official, Malawi Abstract The paper traces the evolution of international health policies and international health institutions, starting from the birth of the World Health Organization, the setting up of the Health for All target at the Alma Ata conference in 1978 and the rise of neo-liberal policies promoted by international financial institutions from 1980 to the present. The paper looks at different issues surrounding public-private partnerships and the setting up of the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the influence of these institutions on the health systems in poor countries.

  19. The EU health claim regulation in international comparison

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition and health claims are voluntary claims on food indicating favourable nutritional content or health benefits of the food. Nutrition and health claims on food are increasingly regulated in the world market. This process is accompanied by intensive stakeholder discussions on the possible...... marketing. The EU regulation is regarded as focusing relatively strongly on precaution and consumer understanding. The extent to which this hampers food innovations is in dispute. It is suggested that using marketing measures in favour of scientifically approved claims as well as stakeholder cooperation...

  20. Addressing Health Literacy Challenges With a Cutting-Edge Infectious Disease Curriculum for the High School Biology Classroom.

    Jacque, Berri; Koch-Weser, Susan; Faux, Russell; Meiri, Karina

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the secondary analysis of evaluation data from an innovative high school biology curriculum focused on infectious disease (ID) to examine the health literacy implications of teaching claims evaluation, data interpretation, and risk assessment skills in the context of 21st-Century health science. The curriculum was implemented between 2010 and 2013 in Biology II classes held in four public high schools (three in Massachusetts and one in Ohio), plus a private school in Virginia. A quasi-experimental design was used in which student participants (n = 273) were compared to an age-matched, nonparticipant, peer group (N = 125). Participants in each school setting demonstrated increases in conceptual content knowledge (Cohen's d > 1.89) as well as in understanding how to apply scientific principles to health claims evaluation and risk assessment (Cohen's d > 1.76) and in self-efficacy toward learning about ID (Cohen's d > 2.27). Participants also displayed enhanced communication about ID within their social networks relative to the comparison group (p < .05). The data show that integrating the claims evaluation, data interpretation, and risk assessment skills critical for 21st-century health literacy health into high school biology classrooms is effective at fostering both the skills and self-efficacy pertinent to health literacy learning in diverse populations. PMID:26194205

  1. An exploration of social determinants of health amongst internally displaced persons in northern Uganda.

    Geissler Wenzel; Ocaka Kaducu; Browne John; Odong Vicky; Roberts Bayard; Sondorp Egbert

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Social determinants of health describe the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age and their influence on health. These circumstances are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels, which are themselves influenced by policy choices. Armed conflict and forced displacement are important influences on the social determinants of health. There is limited evidence on the social determinants of health of internally dis...

  2. Welcome to the Maiden Issue of International Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences

    Manjula Shantaram; Mohamed Sherif Sirajudeen; Padmakumar Somasekharan Pillai

    2012-01-01

    Today marks the publication date of the inaugural issue of the International Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences (IJHRS). IJHRS is a publication of Global Network of Health Educators (GNHE), a not-for-profit initiative of Health educators worldwide in a mission to promote the health related awareness across the globe. We would like to take this opportunity to place on record my hearty thanks to all the members of GNHE and editorial board of IJHRS for their invaluable personal and sc...

  3. Ministerial Presentation: Saudi Arabia. Statement by the Head of the Delegation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    nuclear weapons - of which the most important is perhaps the Middle East - so as to achieve international security and peace, and to strengthening the exploitation of technology for the welfare of humankind. Allow me to conclude this address by expressing the sincere hope that our Conference can make a fitting contribution in helping States and the International Atomic Energy Agency to expand the safe and secure use of atomic energy, and therefore to boost the momentum of its contribution to electricity generation, water desalination, health and welfare at the global level, and elimination of nuclear weapons and prevention of their proliferation in the world. Thank you.

  4. International Maritime Health Promotion Programme 2007-12

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Rodriguez, Maria Manuela; Canals, Maria Luisa

    Background: Prevention of diabetes-2, cardio-vascular diseases, cancer and overweight is needed in general and in seafaring as well. The diseases are related to three main causal factors: diet, physical activity and smoking. Seafarers have their daily life on board and health promotion is a natural...... part of the occupational health for seafarers. WHO use the concept of a high-risk strategy and a population strategy for prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD). Speaking about intervention studies, related to the population strategy, there are few if any studies with known long-term health...... to take some further initiatives.   Agenda 1.  Definition of the areas included in NCD-health promotion 2.  Presentations of some projects - short 3.  Systematizing projects: Type: descriptive-causal-intervention /country/study population / objectives/expected effect/ time shedule...

  5. Better international knowledge of FGM needed among health practitioners.

    2016-01-01

    More resources and evidence-based guidelines are needed for health practitioners across the world to provide culturally sensitive medical and psychological treatment for women and girls who have undergone female genital mutilation or cutting (FGM). PMID:26938391

  6. Canadian health expenditures: Where do we really stand internationally?

    Deber, R; Swan, B

    1999-01-01

    There are different ways to measure how much Canada spends on health care and the quality of these measurements may vary. This paper examines Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development data for 3 common standards of measure: health expenditures as a proportion of gross domestic product (GDP), nominal spending per capita (US dollars) and spending per capita in purchasing power parities (PPP) equivalents. In 1994, the most recent year for which there were firm data. Canada spent 9.9%...

  7. Morality, consumerism and the internal market in health care.

    Sorell, T.

    1997-01-01

    Unlike the managerially oriented reforms that have brought auditing and accounting into such prominence in the UK National Health Service (NHS), and which seem alien to the culture of the caring professions, consumerist reforms may seem to complement moves towards the acceptance of wide definitions of health, and towards increasing patient autonomy. The empowerment favoured by those who support patient autonomy sounds like the sort of empowerment that is sometimes associated with the patient'...

  8. Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    During the past century, environmental hazards have become a major concern, not only to public health professionals, but also to the society at large because of their tremendous health, socio-cultural and economic impacts. Various anthropogenic or natural factors have been implicated in the alteration of ecosystem integrity, as well as in the development of a wide variety of acute and/or chronic diseases in humans. It has also been demonstrated that many environmental agents, acting either in...

  9. Student experiences with an international public health exchange project.

    Critchley, Kim A; Richardson, Eileen; Aarts, Clara; Campbell, Barbara; Hemmingway, Ann; Koskinen, Liisa; Mitchell, Maureen P; Nordstrom, Pam

    2009-01-01

    With growing interconnectivity of healthcare systems worldwide and increased immigration, inappropriate cultural and role assumptions are often seen when cultures clash within a country or when there is practice across country boundaries in times of disaster and during international travel. To increase students' multicultural awareness and work experiences abroad, the authors describe a 7-school, 5-country international student exchange project. The authors also share the students' evaluations of their experiences as they are challenged to erase boundaries and embrace nursing across countries. Participating faculty describe the process, challenges, and keys to success found in creating and living this international project. Students involved in the exchange process evaluate the learning opportunities and challenges and the joy of coming together as newfound colleagues and friends. PMID:20339334

  10. Challenges to the implementation of International Health Regulations (2005 on Preventing Infectious Diseases: experience from Julius Nyerere International Airport, Tanzania

    Edith Bakari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The International Health Regulations (IHR (2005 is a legal instrument binding all World Health Organization (WHO member States. It aims to prevent and control public health emergencies of international concern. Country points of entry (POEs have been identified as potential areas for effective interventions to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases across borders. The agreement postulates that member states will strengthen core capacities detailed in the IHR (2005, including those specified for the POE. This study intended to assess the challenges faced in implementing the IHR (2005 requirements at Julius Nyerere International Airport (JNIA, Dar es Salaam. Design: A cross-sectional, descriptive study, employing qualitative methods, was conducted at the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MoHSW, WHO, and JNIA. In-depth interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs and documentary reviews were used to obtain relevant information. Respondents were purposively enrolled into the study. Thematic analysis was used to generate study findings. Results: Several challenges that hamper implementation of the IHR (2005 were identified: (1 none of the 42 Tanzanian POEs have been specifically designated to implement IHR (2005. (2 Implementation of the IHR (2005 at the POE was complicated as it falls under various uncoordinated government departments. Although there were clear communication channels at JNIA that enhanced reliable risk communication, the airport lacked isolated rooms specific for emergence preparedness and response to public health events. Conclusions: JNIA is yet to develop adequate core capacities required for implementation of the IHR (2005. There is a need for policy managers to designate JNIA to implement IHR (2005 and ensure that public health policies, legislations, guidelines, and practice at POE are harmonized to improve international travel and trade. Policy makers and implementers should also ensure that

  11. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Best Paper Award 2014

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health started to institute an annual award in 2013 to recognize outstanding papers related to environmental health sciences and public health that meet the aims, scope and high standards of this journal. We are pleased to announce the second “International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Best Paper Award” for 2014. Nominations were solicited from the Editor-in-Chief and Editorial Board members, with all papers published in 2010 eligible for consideration.

  12. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Best Paper Award 2015

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health started to institute an annual award in 2013 to recognize outstanding papers related to environmental health sciences and public health that meet the aims, scope and high standards of this journal. We are pleased to announce the third “International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Best Paper Awards” for 2015. Nominations were solicited from the Editor-in-Chief and Editorial Board members, with all papers published in 2011 eligible for consideration. The following nine papers were selected for recognition awards:[...

  13. Playing it safe: addressing the emotional and physical health of lesbian and gay pupils in the U.K.

    Warwick, I; Aggleton, P; Douglas, N

    2001-02-01

    Compared to young people in general, young lesbians and gay men can face specific challenges to their physical and emotional well-being. These include discrimination, victimization, homophobic bullying and an elevated suicide risk. Relative to initiatives which attempt to address bullying in general, little has been done in schools in the U.K. to address physical and verbal homophobic bullying. This paper reports on an exploratory study to examine teachers' perceptions of homophobic bullying, the responses made to this form of bullying, and the factors which impact on the provision of education and support to lesbian and gay pupils. Findings suggested that teachers were aware of homophobic bullying but were confused, unable or unwilling to address the needs of lesbian and gay pupils. Implications for policy, practice and research are discussed. While current U.K. Government policy promoting Healthy Schools and Citizenship education offers hope for the future, much remains to be done to ensure that such initiatives are inclusive of all pupils. PMID:11259075

  14. A pilot study of medical student attitudes to, and use of, commercial movies that address public health issues

    Cowie Rachael

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An innovative approach to learning public health by using feature-length commercial movies was piloted in the fourth year of a medical degree. We aimed to explore how students responded to this approach and the relative effectiveness of two promotional strategies. Firstly we placed DVDs of 15 movies (with public health-related content in the medical school library. Then alternating groups of students (total n = 82 students were exposed to either a brief promotional intervention or a more intensive intervention involving a class presentation. The response rates were 99% at baseline and 85% at follow-up. Findings The level and strength of support for using movies in public health training increased after exposure to the public health module with significantly more students "strongly agreeing". Student behaviour, in terms of movies viewed or accessed from the library, also suggested student interest. While there were no statistically significant differences in median viewing or library access rates between the two intervention groups, the distribution of viewing patterns was shifted favourably. Those exposed to the more intensive intervention (class presentation were significantly more likely to have reported watching at least one movie (97% vs. 81%; p = 0.033 or to having accessed at least one movie from the library (100% vs. 70%, p = 0.0001. Conclusions This pilot study found that the students had very positive attitudes towards viewing public health-related commercial movies. Movie access rates from the library were also favourable.

  15. Addressing the persistence of Tuberculosis Among the Canadian Inuit Population: The need for a social determinants of health framework

    Chantelle AM Richmond

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Canadian Aboriginal people have poorer levels of health than the general population. A serious issue is the high rate of tuberculosis (TB among the Inuit population; rates are much higher than those of the general Canadian population. Several social determinants of health (SDOH, including household crowding and poverty, are strongly correlated with TB prevalence. In this paper, we describe the medical and social determinants of TB, and critically examine the TB literature specific to the Inuit population. The majority of studies recommend biomedical interventions for the treatment of TB. Few researchers have employed the social determinants of health theory to steer their research, and even fewer researchers suggest improving living and social conditions in Inuit communities as a way of eradicating TB. We conclude with research and policy recommendations.

  16. mHealth is an Innovative Approach to Address Health Literacy and Improve Patient-Physician Communication – An HIV Testing Exemplar

    Kumar, Disha; Arya, Monisha

    2015-01-01

    Low health literacy is a barrier for many patients in the U.S. Patients with low health literacy have poor communication with their physicians, and thus face worse health outcomes. Several government agencies have highlighted strategies for improving and overcoming low health literacy. Mobile phone technology could be leveraged to implement these strategies to improve communication between patients and their physicians. Text messaging, in particular, is a simple and interactive platform that ...

  17. Addressing oral health inequalities in the United Kingdom--the impact of devolution on population-based fluoride policy.

    Chestnutt, I G

    2013-07-01

    The front covers of the current volume of the British Dental Journal (Volume 215) feature drawings by children participating in the Welsh national oral health improvement programme - Designed to Smile. This programme involves 78,350 children in the Principality, who are deemed at greatest risk of tooth decay, participating in daily toothbrushing in 1,211 nurseries and schools. It mirrors the Childsmile programme in Scotland. Since devolution in 1999, approaches to oral health improvement across the United Kingdom have diverged. This article considers the way in which population-based policies with regards to fluoride use have varied between countries. PMID:23846053

  18. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines: comparison with effective public health policy

    S.M. Gainsbury; M. Blankers; C. Wilkinson; K. Schelleman-Offermans; J. Cousijn

    2013-01-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of basi

  19. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines : comparison with effective public health policy

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-01-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of basi

  20. Opening Statement - Angel Gurria [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    It is a great honour to open this International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy. It is also a privilege for the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to co-sponsor this conference. I wish to thank both our hosts, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of China, represented by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the China Atomic Energy Authority, for convening us today to advance on our common goal: to secure clean and peaceful nuclear power for the 21st century. The global crisis has exposed not only the paramount challenges of today?s global economy and the remarkable level of interdependence among our nations. It has also confronted us with our duty to define the kind of global economy we need for tomorrow. It is our responsibility to devise sound policies for a stronger, cleaner and fairer global economy. Clean and affordable energy, including access to safe and secure nuclear power, should be a central element of our efforts. This is essential not only for a sustainable economy, but also for the future of our planet. The crisis has prompted us to act immediately and in concert. Take the example of our hosts, the Government of China. In the face of the economic slowdown, they responded rapidly and in a comprehensive fashion. Importantly, they increased government spending, and stimulated domestic demand, and are looking into effective ways to enhance social policies. The turmoil showed that China and all of us need to be more involved in international economic cooperation. We are profoundly affected by the policies implemented by each of our countries. There is no better example than energy to illustrate our interdependence. Holding this meeting in Beijing shows the importance China places on international cooperation and recognizes the role China could play in designing clean and safe energy solutions for the future. For me, coming to Beijing is also an opportunity to stress the high significance of the OECD partnership with

  1. Development of a standardized process improvement protocol to address elevated health care-associated infection rates on an incented quality scorecard.

    Yegge, Jeanne A; Gase, Kathleen A; Hopkins-Broyles, Diane; Leone, Carole L; Trovillion, Ellen W; Babcock, Hilary M

    2014-02-01

    This practice forum report details a standardized improvement process that was created both to improve patient outcomes related to various hospital-acquired infections and to address leadership concerns related to incented quality metrics. A 3-year retrospective review identified common issues to guide future interventions and confirmed that this methodology reduced the rate of recurrent infections across the health care system. Process tool samples are provided. PMID:24485374

  2. The Chernobyl Accident 20 Years On: An Assessment of the Health Consequences and the International Response

    Baverstock, Keith; Williams, Dillwyn

    2006-01-01

    Background The Chernobyl accident in 1986 caused widespread radioactive contamination and enormous concern. Twenty years later, the World Health Organization and the International Atomic Energy Authority issued a generally reassuring statement about the consequences. Accurate assessment of the consequences is important to the current debate on nuclear power. Objectives Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, assess the international response ...

  3. 'Change of Heart!': A New E-Learning Model Geared to Addressing Complex and Sensitive Public Health Issues

    Hillier, Dawn; Mitchell, Alice; Millwood, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Psychosocial risk factors for poor health show that we are highly sensitive to particular dimensions of the social and work environments. Central is the contrast between mutually supportive collaborative relationships versus stressful relationships of social dominance--in the workplace and at home. These social ordeals can exacerbate the effect of…

  4. How Effective Is Peer Education in Addressing Young People's Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs in Developing Countries?

    Price, Neil; Knibbs, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This review article questions the assumptions at the core of peer education interventions adopted in young people's sexual and reproductive health programmes in developing countries. Peer education is a more complex and problematic approach than its popularity with development agencies and practitioners implies. Its rise to prominence is more…

  5. Under the (legal radar screen: global health initiatives and international human rights obligations

    Hammonds Rachel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that many low income countries are heavily reliant on external assistance to fund their health sectors the acceptance of obligations of international assistance and cooperation with regard to the right to health (global health obligations is insufficiently understood and studied by international health and human rights scholars. Over the past decade Global Health Initiatives, like the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund have adopted novel approaches to engaging with stakeholders in high and low income countries. This article explores how this experience impacted on acceptance of the international obligation to (help fulfil the right to health beyond borders. Methods The authors conducted an extensive review of international human rights law literature, transnational legal process literature, global public health literature and grey literature pertaining to Global Health Initiatives. To complement this desk work and deepen their understanding of how and why different legal norms evolve the authors conducted 19 in-depth key informant interviews with actors engaged with three stakeholders; the European Union, the United States and Belgium. The authors then analysed the interviews through a transnational legal process lens. Results Through according value to the process of examining how and why different legal norms evolve transnational legal process offers us a tool for engaging with the dynamism of developments in global health suggesting that operationalising global health obligations could advance the right to health for all. Conclusions In many low-income countries the health sector is heavily dependent on external assistance to fulfil the right to health of people thus it is vital that policies and tools for delivering reliable, long-term assistance are developed so that the right to health for all becomes more than a dream. Our research suggests that the Global Fund experience offers

  6. International comparisons of health inequalities in childhood dental caries

    Pine, Cynthia M; Adair, Pauline M; Nicoll, Alison D;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To undertake formative studies investigating how the experience of dental caries in young children living in diverse settings relates to familial and cultural perceptions and beliefs, oral health-related behaviour and oral microflora. PARTICIPANTS: The scientific consortium came from 27...

  7. Status of simulation in health care education: an international survey

    Qayumi K

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Karim Qayumi,1 George Pachev,2 Bin Zheng,3 Amitai Ziv,4 Valentyna Koval,1 Sadia Badiei,5 Adam Cheng6 1Center of Excellence for Simulation Education and Innovation, Department of Surgery, 2Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Surgical Simulation Research Laboratory, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada; 4Israel Center for Medical Simulation, Chaim Sheba Medical Center and Sackler Medical School, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; 5Centre of Excellence for Simulation Education and Innovation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 6KidSIM-ASPIRE Simulation Research Program, Alberta Children’s Hospital, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, CanadaAbstract: Simulation is rapidly penetrating the terrain of health care education and has gained growing acceptance as an educational method and patient safety tool. Despite this, the state of simulation in health care education has not yet been evaluated on a global scale. In this project, we studied the global status of simulation in health care education by determining the degree of financial support, infrastructure, manpower, information technology capabilities, engagement of groups of learners, and research and scholarly activities, as well as the barriers, strengths, opportunities for growth, and other aspects of simulation in health care education. We utilized a two-stage process, including an online survey and a site visit that included interviews and debriefings. Forty-two simulation centers worldwide participated in this study, the results of which show that despite enormous interest and enthusiasm in the health care community, use of simulation in health care education is limited to specific areas and is not a budgeted item in many institutions. Absence of a sustainable business model, as well as sufficient financial support in terms of budget, infrastructure

  8. Development of Translation Materials to Assess International Students' Mental Health Concerns

    Chalungsooth, Pornthip; Schneller, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    International college students in the United States often face adjustment difficulties; therefore, cultural sensitivity is necessary to help them express their concerns. This article describes the development of translations of international students' common mental health concerns into 7 languages. Suggestions for the use of translated materials…

  9. Opening Address by B. Bigot [FR:13: International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios, Paris (France), 4-7 March 2013

    The world has to deal with an unavoidable increase in energy needs to satisfy the legitimate expected social and economic development of many countries in the next two decades, despite all the efforts we have to do for better energy efficiency and for large energy savings in the most advanced economies. In Europe today, the energy supply relies on fossil fuels for over 75% of its primary energy consumption. Worldwide, it is over 82%. Such a massive use of fossil fuels is thus both a threat for the environment, climate and health, and also for our economies. In 2012, for France, fossil fuel imports represented an expense three times larger than in 2005, and accounted for over 90% of France’s trade deficit. If keeping this current energy mix, we will strongly contribute to a large increase of the risk of climate change, environmental and human health impacts, and their damaging effects. Tackling climate change, environmental and health issues will require the priority use of CO2 emission free energy sources. Despite the Kyoto Protocol and many political international statements, the amount of CO2 emissions per year has known a +40% growth from 1990 to 2009, with the correlated increase of temperatures. To ensure a sustainable development, the world needs a sustainable energy supply, which makes a sufficient amount available for everybody at an acceptable price. For all these reasons, the substitution of fossil fuel consumption as soon as possible and to the greatest extent possible with CO2 free energy sources must be our top priority. The cornerstone of any sustainable European energy is the reduction of our consumption of fossil fuels with three axes of action relative to the technologies using these fuels: energy savings, improved efficiency and substitution by other technologies which do not use such fuels, such as renewable and nuclear energies

  10. Addressing the “Global Health Tax” and “Wild Cards”: Practical Challenges to Building Academic Careers in Global Health

    Dhillon, Ranu

    2016-01-01

    Among many possible benefits, global health efforts can expand the skills and experience of U.S. clinicians, improve health for communities in need, and generate innovations in care delivery with relevance everywhere. Yet, despite high rates of interest among students and medical trainees to include global health opportunities in their training, there is still no clear understanding of how this interest will translate into viable and sustained global health careers after graduation. Building on a growing conversation about how to support careers in academic global health, this Perspective describes the practical challenges faced by physicians pursuing these careers after they complete training. Writing from their perspective as junior faculty at one U.S. academic health center with a dedicated focus on global health training, the authors describe a number of practical issues they have found to be critical both for their own career development and for the advice they provide their mentees. With a particular emphasis on the financial, personal, professional, and logistical challenges that young “expat” global health physicians in academic institutions face, they underscore the importance of finding ways to support these career paths, and propose possible solutions. Such investments would not only respond to the rational and moral imperatives of global health work and advance the mission of improving human health but also help to fully leverage the potential of what is already an unprecedented movement within academic medicine. PMID:26244256

  11. Addressing the Irreducible Needs of Interprofessional Education: Creating and Sustaining an Institutional Commons for Health Professions Training.

    Earnest, Mark A; Pfeifle, Andrea L

    2016-06-01

    Leaders in health professions education schools and programs are under pressure to respond to new accreditation requirements for interprofessional education (IPE). The work of creating and sustaining an IPE program at an academic health center is in many ways analogous to the challenge of creating and sustaining a "commons"-a set of resources shared by many, but owned by none. In this Commentary, the authors borrow from the work of Nobel Laureate Elinor Ostrum to describe the "design principles" necessary to build and maintain the set of common resources needed to successfully implement and sustain an IPE program. They interpret these principles in the context of their own experiences implementing IPE programs and recommend three institutional structural elements necessary to build and sustain an IPE program: (1) a representative governance body, (2) an accountable director or leader, and (3) a structure supporting vertical and horizontal communication and authority. PMID:27049542

  12. Local Breast Cancer Spatial Patterning: A Tool for Community Health Resource Allocation to Address Local Disparities in Breast Cancer Mortality

    Brantley-Sieders, Dana M.; Fan, Kang-Hsien; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L.; Shyr, Yu; Cook, Rebecca S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite available demographic data on the factors that contribute to breast cancer mortality in large population datasets, local patterns are often overlooked. Such local information could provide a valuable metric by which regional community health resources can be allocated to reduce breast cancer mortality. We used national and statewide datasets to assess geographical distribution of breast cancer mortality rates and known risk factors influencing breast cancer mortality in middle Tenness...

  13. Does the development of new medicinal products in the European Union address global and regional health concerns?

    Álvarez-Martín Elena

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1995, approval for many new medicinal products has been obtained through a centralized procedure in the European Union. In recent years, the use of summary measures of population health has become widespread. We investigated whether efforts to develop innovative medicines are focusing on the most relevant conditions from a global public health perspective. Methods We reviewed the information on new medicinal products approved by centralized procedure from 1995 to 2009, information that is available to the public in the European Commission Register of medicinal products and the European Public Assessment Reports from the European Medicines Agency. Morbidity and mortality data were included for each disease group, according to the Global Burden of Disease project. We evaluated the association between authorized medicinal products and burden of disease measures based on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs in the European Union and worldwide. Results We considered 520 marketing authorizations for medicinal products and 338 active ingredients. New authorizations were seen to increase over the period analyzed. There was a positive, high correlation between DALYs and new medicinal product development (ρ = 0.619, p = 0.005 in the European Union, and a moderate correlation for middle-low-income countries (ρ = 0.497, p = 0.030 and worldwide (ρ = 0.490, p = 0.033. The most neglected conditions at the European level (based on their attributable health losses were neuropsychiatric diseases, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, sense organ conditions, and digestive diseases, while globally, they were perinatal conditions, respiratory infections, sense organ conditions, respiratory diseases, and digestive diseases. Conclusions We find that the development of new medicinal products is higher for some diseases than others. Pharmaceutical industry leaders and policymakers are invited to consider the implications of this

  14. Opening Address - European Commission [International Workshop on Justification of Medical Exposure in Diagnostic Imaging, Brussels (Belgium), 2-4 September 2009

    exposures now approaching those of the natural background. In view of these developments, the IAEA initiative to launch this series of workshops on justification of medical exposure in diagnostic imaging was important and timely. The EC is very pleased to host the present workshop here in Brussels and is grateful for this opportunity to involve EU stakeholders more closely, in particular our medical working party of the Article 31 Group of Experts. I also welcome the representation of WHO in this workshop, WHO being obviously a major actor in the development of health policies. This workshop will be an outstanding event which I am sure will look into the fundamental aspects of the principle of justification as well as into specific aspects such as radiological imaging for asymptomatic patients, children and pregnant women, into the further development of tools such as referral guidelines, the clinical audit, into the role of professional societies, etc.; all matters in which the Commission is very active as well, both in my unit, the RP unit of DG TREN, as well as in the research programme of our colleagues in DG RTD. The workshop is also timely with regard to the ongoing revision of international standards. The EC is deeply involved in these in order to ensure full coherence between the international standards and the EURATOM standards, in view of our eventual co-sponsorship of international standards. This workshop is of course only one of many initiatives in the medical area, and it is only one of the areas of cooperation between the EC, the IAEA and WHO. The EC plans the adoption of a communication next year elaborating our long term policy in this area. No doubt this communication will receive fair media attention and raise the awareness of stakeholders. The results of this workshop will of course be reflected in this communication.

  15. Why Police Kill Black Males with Impunity: Applying Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to Address the Determinants of Policing Behaviors and "Justifiable" Homicides in the USA.

    Gilbert, Keon L; Ray, Rashawn

    2016-04-01

    Widespread awareness of the recent deaths of several black males at the hands of police has revealed an unaddressed public health challenge-determining the root causes of excessive use of force by police applied to black males that may result in "justifiable homicides." The criminalization of black males has a long history in the USA, which has resulted in an increase in policing behaviors by legal authorities and created inequitable life chances for black males. Currently, the discipline of public health has not applied an intersectional approach that investigates the intersection of race and gender to understanding police behaviors that lead to "justifiable homicides" for black males. This article applies the core tenets and processes of Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to develop a framework that can improve research and interventions to address the disparities observed in recent trend analyses of "justifiable homicides." Accordingly, we use PHCRP to offer an alternative framework on the social, legal, and health implications of violence-related incidents. We aim to move the literature in this area forward to help scholars, policymakers, and activists build the capacity of communities to address the excessive use of force by police to reduce mortality rates from "justifiable homicides." PMID:26661386

  16. Environmental equity in air quality management: local and international implications for human health and climate change.

    O'Neill, Marie S; Kinney, Patrick L; Cohen, Aaron J

    2008-01-01

    The health burden of environmental exposures, including ambient air pollution and climate-change-related health impacts, is not equally distributed between or within regions and countries. These inequalities are currently receiving increased attention in environmental research as well as enhanced appreciation in environmental policy, where calls for environmental equity are more frequently heard. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 Global Update of the Air Quality Guidelines attempted to address the global-scale inequalities in exposures to air pollution and the burden of diseases due to air pollution. The guidelines stop short, however, of addressing explicitly the inequalities in exposure and adverse health effects within countries and urban areas due to differential distribution of sources of air pollution such as motor vehicles and local industry, and differences in susceptibility to the adverse health effects attributed to air pollution. These inequalities, may, however, be addressed in local air quality and land use management decisions. Locally, community-based participatory research can play an important role in documenting potential inequities and fostering corrective action. Research on environmental inequities will also benefit from current efforts to (1) better understand social determinants of health and (2) apply research evidence to reduce health disparities. Similarly, future research and policy action will benefit from stronger linkages between equity concerns related to health consequences of both air pollution exposure and climate change, since combustion products are important contributors to both of these environmental problems. PMID:18569628

  17. IP Addressing

    2006-01-01

    tut quiz anim This interactive tutorial covers the following: The concept of halving a binary number space., Using the halving concept to explain how the Internet IP space is segmented into the A, B, and C address classifications., How the first octet ranges for the A, B, and C IP space are produced.In this tutorial, explanations are illustrated by simple animations. Students are asked to observe number patterns, and check their observations against automated 'answers.' There is a qu...

  18. Mental Health Need, Awareness, and Use of Counseling Services among International Graduate Students

    Hyun, Jenny; Quinn, Brian; Madon, Temina; Lustig, Steve

    2007-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined the prevalence of mental health needs in international graduate students, their knowledge of mental health services, and their use of on-campus and off-campus counseling services. Methods: All registered graduate students in the Spring 2004 semester received an e-mail invitation to participate in a…

  19. Ensuring Rights: Improving Access to Sexual and Reproductive Health Services for Female International Students in Australia

    Poljski, Carolyn; Quiazon, Regina; Tran, Chau

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the research and advocacy work being conducted by the Multicultural Centre for Women's Health (MCWH), a national community-based organization in Victoria, Australia, the paper analyzes female international students' experiences with accessing sexual and reproductive health information and services. Accessibility of sexual and…

  20. Policy indicators for health and nature. 25 years of international research and policy on acidification

    25 years of international cooperation between research and policy resulted in effect indicators for health and nature by means of which environmental targets can be adjusted. At the same time those indicators increased the coherence of targets in the field of nature and health

  1. International Conference on Advancements of Medicine and Health Care through Technology

    Ciupa, Radu

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents the contributions of the third International Conference on Advancements of Medicine and Health Care through Technology (Meditech 2014), held in Cluj-Napoka, Romania. The papers of this Proceedings volume present new developments in - Health Care Technology, - Medical Devices, Measurement and Instrumentation, - Medical Imaging, Image and Signal Processing, - Modeling and Simulation, - Molecular Bioengineering, - Biomechanics.

  2. Effectiveness of an International Health Elective As Measured by NBME Part II

    Waddell, Wendy; And Others

    1976-01-01

    National Board of Medical Examiner's exam results show that U.S. medical students who participated between 1968 and 1974 in Yugoslav or Israeli international fellowship programs sponsored by the Association of American Medical Schools and the U.S. Public Health Service gained knowledge of preventive medicine and public health. (JT)

  3. The Effects of International Monetary Fund Loans on Health Outcomes

    Stuckler, David; King, Lawrence P; Basu, Sanjay

    2008-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Tuberculosis—a contagious, bacterial infection—has killed large numbers of people throughout human history. Over the last century improvements in public health began to reduce the incidence (the number of new cases in the population in a given time), prevalence (the number of infected people), and mortality rate (number of people dying each year) of tuberculosis in several countries. Many authorities thought that tuberculosis had become a disease of the past. It h...

  4. Ministerial Presentation: Sudan [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    First, I would like to thank the IAEA and OECD for sponsoring this conference and the government of China for hosting the conference. It gives me great pleasure to address this conference. This is a very important conference dealing with nuclear power in the 21st century. Sudan as a developing nation experiences an increase in the energy demand of its people. This is due to an increase industrialization and urbanization. Sudan with the assistance of the IAEA has initiated a planning study for long term energy supply and demand. This study showed that by the year 2020 an energy gap between energy supply and demand will occur. According to this study Sudan need to consider the nuclear option as part of an energy mix. Accordingly, Sudan with the help of the IAEA has started a technical cooperation program aiming at understanding the necessary infrastructure needed for a nuclear power program. To implement this program two committees were formed. A technical committee to address the technical requirement for the project and a high administrative committee to give the necessary political support. Utilizing nuclear energy for peaceful purposes requires strong commitment towards issues of safety, security and safeguards of nuclear and radioactive material. As part of the infrastructure requirement, in Sudan we started the amendments of the legal and regulatory framework. A new atomic energy act is being drafted. The most important features of this act are that: It provide for the establishment of a separate independent regulatory authority which will deal with all regulatory aspects of radioactive sources and nuclear material. The act also covers areas like emergency preparedness, nuclear security, liability and others. The legal requirement of nuclear program is the adherences to certain international legal instrument. A national committee from the ministries of justice, foreign affairs and science and technology was formed to advice on the country position regarding the

  5. Opening Address [FR09: International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Challenges and Opportunities, Kyoto (Japan), 7-11 December 2009

    Full text: Distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen. It is my honour to address participants at this opening session of the International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Challenges and Opportunities, organized by the IAEA and hosted by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Fast reactor technology has the potential to ensure that energy resources which would last hundreds of years with the technology we are using today will actually last several thousand years. In other words, it can satisfy enormous increases in demand. This innovative technology also reduces the risk to the environment and helps to limit the burden that will be placed on future generations in the form of waste products. The coming year will be an exciting one for the development of fast spectrum nuclear reactors. We expect to reach several important milestones: (a) The first criticality of the China Experimental Fast Reactor; (b) The restart of the Monju prototype fast reactor in Japan; (c) The new insights we will gain through the end-of-life studies at the Phenix reactor in France. In the near future, new fast reactors will be commissioned: the 500 MW(e) Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor in India, the first in a series of five of the same type, and the BN-800 reactor in the Russian Federation. Moreover, China, France, India, Japan and the Republic of Korea are preparing advanced prototypes and demonstration or commercial reactors for the 2020-2030 period. Nuclear power is set to become an increasingly important part of the global energy mix in the coming decades as demand for energy grows. A number of countries in both the developed and developing world have told the IAEA that they are interested in introducing nuclear power. The 30 countries which already have nuclear power reactors are set to build more. This trend is likely to be accompanied by accelerated deployment of fast reactors. Continued advances in research and technology development are necessary to ensure improved

  6. Integrated care: a fresh perspective for international health policies in low and middle-income countries

    Unger, Jean-Pierre; De PAEPE, Pierre; Ghilbert, Patricia; Soors, Werner; Green, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To propose a social-and-democrat health policy alternative to the current neoliberal one. Context of case The general failure of neoliberal health policies in low and middle-income countries justifies the design of an alternative to bring disease control and health care back in step with ethical principles and desired outcomes. Data sources National policies, international programmes and pilot experiments—including those led by the authors—are examined in both scientific and ...

  7. Deep listening: towards an imaginative reframing of health and well-being practices in international development

    Pavlicevic, Mercédès; Impey, Angela

    2013-01-01

    This paper challenges the “intervention-as-solution” approach to health and well-being as commonly practised in the international development sector, and draws on the disciplinary intersections between Community Music Therapy and ethnomusicology in seeking a more negotiated and situationally apposite framework for health engagement. Drawing inspiration from music-based health applications in conflict or post-conflict environments in particular, and focusing on case studies from Lebanon and So...

  8. Assessment of Implementation of International Health Regulations (2005) on Preventing Infectious Diseases: A Case Study of Julius Nyerere International Airport, Dar es Salaam.

    Bakari, Edith

    2012-01-01

    The International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) is a legal instrument binds all World Health Organization (WHO) Member States in order to prevent and control the Public Health Emergencies of International Concern (PHEIC). In this connection, the points of entry (POE) have been identified to be potential areas for effective interventions. In the 58th World Health Assembly (WHA) held in Geneva, Switzerland in 2005 WHO Member States agreed to strengthen the identified core capacities including...

  9. Addressing Breast Cancer Health Disparities in the Mississippi Delta Through an Innovative Partnership for Education, Detection, and Screening.

    Mayfield-Johnson, Susan; Fastring, Danielle; Fortune, Melody; White-Johnson, Freddie

    2016-06-01

    Projects to reduce disparities in cancer treatment and research include collaborative partnerships and multiple strategies to promote community awareness, education, and engagement. This is especially needed in underserved areas such as the Mississippi Delta where more women are diagnosed at regional and distant stages of breast cancer. The purpose for this project was to increase the relatively low screening rate for African American women in the Mississippi Delta through a partnership between the Mississippi Network for Cancer Control and Prevention at The University of Southern Mississippi, The Fannie Lou Hamer Cancer Foundation and the Mississippi State Department of Health to decrease health disparities in breast cancer through increased awareness on self-early detection methods, leveraging resources to provide mammography screenings, and adequate follow-up with services and treatment for abnormal findings. Through this collaborative effort, over 500 women in three rural Mississippi Delta counties were identified, provided community education on early self-detection, and given appointments for mammography screenings within one fiscal year. PMID:26578349

  10. A Response to the Commentary Entitled: “Addressing the Shortage of Health Professionals in Rural China: Issues and Progress”

    Qian Yang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The principal problems of healthcare services in China are “difficulty in seeing a doctor”and “high expense of getting medical service” (commonly known in Chinese as “kan bing nan, kan bing gui”. The central Chinese government has already launched the bottom-up cascading medical system and two-way referral system recently in order to solve these problems (1. Only when patients go to medical institutions in an orderly fashion, can we see the hope of breaking the kan bing nan, kan bing gui (2. However, we face a number of obstacles when implementing the referral policies. The biggest obstacle is the lack of Human Resource (HR for primary care both in capacity and volume (3. The central Chinese government has launched a series of policies to deal with the shortage of HRs in rural areas. Profound measurements involve postgraduate training for General Practitioner (GP (a three-year plan beginning in 2010 for producing health professionals for rural areas and improving rural retention, “3+2” medical education model (3-year diploma education and 2-year postgraduate GP training, and in-service training for physicians in rural areas (4. It is not the time to assess their effectiveness, however, these measurements are certain to improve the capacity of Community Health Service (CHS institutions.

  11. Staff perceptions of addressing lifestyle in primary health care: a qualitative evaluation 2 years after the introduction of a lifestyle intervention tool

    Carlfjord Siw

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventive services and health promotion in terms of lifestyle counselling provided through primary health care (PHC has the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality in the population. Health professionals in general are positive about and willing to develop a health-promoting and/or preventive role. A number of obstacles hindering PHC staff from addressing lifestyle issues have been identified, and one facilitator is the use of modern technology. When a computer-based tool for lifestyle intervention (CLT was introduced at a number of PHC units in Sweden, this provided an opportunity to study staff perspectives on the subject. The aim of this study was to explore PHC staff’s perceptions of handling lifestyle issues, including the consultation situation as well as the perceived usefulness of the CLT. Methods A qualitative study was conducted after the CLT had been in operation for 2 years. Six focus group interviews, one at each participating unit, including a total of 30 staff members with different professions participated. The interviews were designed to capture perceptions of addressing lifestyle issues, and of using the CLT. Interview data were analysed using manifest content analysis. Results Two main themes emerged from the interviews: a challenging task and confidence in handling lifestyle issues. The first theme covered the categories responsibilities and emotions, and the second theme covered the categories first contact, existing tools, and role of the CLT. Staff at the units showed commitment to health promotion/prevention, and saw that patients, caregivers, managers and politicians all have responsibilities regarding the issue. They expressed confidence in handling lifestyle-related conditions, but to a lesser extent had routines for general screening of lifestyle habits, and found addressing alcohol the most problematic issue. The CLT, intended to facilitate screening, was viewed as a complement, but was not

  12. Making mapping matter: a case study for short project international partnerships by global public health students

    Rosemary Wyber

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A large number of global public health students seek international experience as part of their academic curriculum. These placements are often short, given the constraints of cost and time available within the academic calendar. In contrast to international electives for clinical students there are few published guidelines on practical, ethical or feasible projects. This paper describes a ten-day sanitation mapping project in Mumbai, India and explores the broader implications for global public health student electives. Methods: Three graduate public health students conducted a geographic review of sanitation facilities in Cheeta Camp informal settlement, Mumbai. Forty-six toilet blocks with 701 individual seats were identified. The project was reviewed ethically, educationally and logistically as a possible model for other short-term international projects. Conclusions: Clearer guidelines are needed to support non-clinical placements by global public health students. Projects that are feasible, relevant and meaningful should be foster maximise benefit for learners and host communities.

  13. Keynote address

    Good morning ladies and gentlemen. I am truly honored to be your keynote speaker at the first International Oil Spill R ampersand D Forum. This Forum is cosponsored by the Coast Guard, on behalf of the OPA 90 Interagency Coordinating Committee on Oil Spill Research, and the International Maritime Organization. The fact that IMO is jointly sponsoring the Forum truly reflects the global nature of our concerns for the marine environment. I was asked to speak to you today because of my purview over the entire Coast Guard R ampersand D Program, a significant portion of which is oil spill related. Our environmental awareness was renewed on March 24, 1990 when the tankship Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and caused the largest vessel related oil spill in U.S. history. During the next 15 months there were three other large oil spills that threatened the U.S. shorelines. The U.S. flag tank vessel American Trader suffered a three foot diameter hole in a cargo tank near Huntington Beach California; the Mega Borg, a Norwegian flag tank vessel, exploded and caught fire off the coast of Texas in the Gulf of Mexico; and the Greek flag tanker World Prodigy ran aground in Narragensett Bay near Rhode Island. Each spill presented a unique set of challenges to our response operations. Despite intense response and cleanup actions, which included excellent international cooperation for the Exxon Valdez spill, it was apparent that existing world-wide catastrophic spill response capabilities could easily be exceeded and that there was no international mechanism which promoted and facilitated cooperations

  14. Keynote address

    This paper addresses various aspects of the bases underlying the nuclear third party liability regime, and also analyses the distinction between danger and risk and the manner in which damage caused by flood, mass unemployment (economic damage mainly) and certain diseases is dealt with in the absence of liability provisions similar to those applicable to nuclear incidents. It also is suggested that the State because of its duty under the Basic Law to ensure adequate energy supplies, should be co-responsible for liability questions along with the nuclear operator. (NEA)

  15. Access to essential medicines for sexual and reproductive health care: the role of the pharmaceutical industry and international regulation.

    Cottingham, Jane; Berer, Marge

    2011-11-01

    The range of medicines and technologies that are essential for sexual and reproductive health care is well established, but access to them is far from universally assured, particularly in less developed countries. This paper shows how the pharmaceutical industry plays a major role in the lack of access to essential medicines for sexual and reproductive health care, by a) investing in products for profit-making reasons despite their negative health impact (e.g. hormone replacement therapy), b) marketing new essential medicines at prices beyond the reach of countries that most need them (e.g. HPV vaccines), and c) failing to invest in the development of new products (e.g. microbicides and medical abortion pills). Small companies, some of them non-profit-making, struggle to fill some of that demand (e.g. for female condoms). International patent protection contributes to high prices of medicines, and while international agreements such as compulsory licensing under TRIPS and the Medicines Patent Pool allow for mechanisms to enable poorer countries to get access to essential medicines, the obstacles created by "big pharma" are daunting. All these barriers have fostered a market in sub-standard medicines (e.g. fake medical abortion pills sold over the internet). An agenda driven by sexual and reproductive health needs, based on the right to health, must focus on universal access to essential medicines at prices developing countries can afford. We call for greater public investment in essential medicines, expanded production of affordable generic drugs, and the development of broad strategic plans, that include affordable medicines and technologies, for addressing identified public health problems, such as cervical cancer. PMID:22118143

  16. The role of the World Bank in international health: renewed commitment and partnership.

    de Beyer, J A; Preker, A S; Feachem, R G

    2000-01-01

    During the course of the past ten years, the World Bank has become the single largest external financier of health activities in low and middle income countries and an important voice in national and international debates on health policy. This article highlights the Bank's new strategic direction in the health sector aimed at: improving health, nutrition, and population outcomes of the poor; enhancing the performance of health care systems; and securing sustainable health care financing. Millions of preventable deaths and treatable illnesses, together with health systems that are inefficient, inequitable and ineffective, have motivated expanded Bank support for the health sector in many of its client countries. The new policy directions and system-wide reforms observed in these countries are the result of both demand and supply factors. It is part of a general shift in the Bank's approach to development assistance, which sees systemic reform as a way to improve the impact and sustainability of investments in health. On the demand side, the Bank is trying to adapt to ongoing political, technological, economic, demographic, epidemiological and social pressures. On the supply side, the Bank's growing international experience and substantial financial resources are used to complement the development assistance provided by other organizations and the global effort to improve health and health systems in low and middle income countries. PMID:10619685

  17. International survey of occupational health nurses' roles in multidisciplinary teamwork in occupational health services.

    Rogers, Bonnie; Kono, Keiko; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Peurala, Marjatta; Radford, Jennifer; Staun, Julie

    2014-07-01

    Access to occupational health services for primary prevention and control of work-related injuries and illnesses by the global workforce is limited (World Health Organization [WHO], 2013). From the WHO survey of 121 (61%) participating countries, only one-third of the responding countries provided occupational health services to more than 30% of their workers (2013). How services are provided in these countries is dependent on legal requirements and regulations, population, workforce characteristics, and culture, as well as an understanding of the impact of workplace hazards and worker health needs. Around the world, many occupational health services are provided by occupational health nurses independently or in collaboration with other disciplines' professionals. These services may be health protection, health promotion, or both, and are designed to reduce health risks, support productivity, improve workers' quality of life, and be cost-effective. Rantanen (2004) stated that basic occupational health services must increase rather than decline, especially as work becomes more complex; workforces become more dynamic and mobile, creating new models of work-places; and jobs become more precarious and temporary. To better understand occupational health services provided by occupational health nurses globally and how decisions are made to provide these services, this study examined the scope of services provided by a sample of participating occupational health nurses from various countries. PMID:25000546

  18. Opening Address [FR09: International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Challenges and Opportunities, Kyoto (Japan), 7-11 December 2009

    Full text: Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. As Conference General Chair of the International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles (FR09) organized by the IAEA, and as a representative of the host organization for this conference, I would like to deliver an opening address. First of all, I would like to express my appreciation that so many participants, both from home and abroad, are attending this conference. Above all, I'm most grateful for the commitment that the International Advisory Committee, the International Scientific Programme Committee, the Local Organizational Committee and the Local Executive Committee members have shown in holding this year's conference, FR09. For this conference, about 750 participants have registered from 26 countries and three organizations (European Commission, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, IAEA). I'm grateful that so many people are very interested in fast reactor development. Thinking back on the history of the conference of fast reactor systems, it all started back in 1974 in London. It then continued to be held every few years up until the fifth Kyoto conference in 1991. However, it has been suspended since then and so now, this year, the conference is being held for the first time in 18 years at the same location where we left off in 1991, the Kyoto International Conference Center. During this period, in the early 1990s, the FFTF and EBR-II experimental reactors in the United States of America were shut down. In 1991, the construction of the SNR-300 prototype reactor in Germany was cancelled for both economic and political reasons, and in 1994, the operation of the PFR prototype reactor was stopped in the United Kingdom. Then, in 1998, the Super Phenix demonstration reactor in France was also shut down. In Japan, there was a sodium leak accident at the Monju prototype reactor in 1995 during a plant performance test. On the other hand, since 2000, the importance of nuclear energy has been recognized once again

  19. Health literacy in relation to cancer: addressing the silence about and absence of cancer discussion among Aboriginal people, communities and health services.

    Treloar, Carla; Gray, Rebecca; Brener, Loren; Jackson, Clair; Saunders, Veronica; Johnson, Priscilla; Harris, Magdalena; Butow, Phyllis; Newman, Christy

    2013-11-01

    Cancer outcomes for Aboriginal Australians are poorer when compared with cancer outcomes for non-Aboriginal Australians despite overall improvements in cancer outcomes. One concept used to examine inequities in health outcomes between groups is health literacy. Recent research and advocacy have pointed to the importance of increasing health literacy as it relates to cancer among Aboriginal people. This study examined individual, social and cultural aspects of health literacy relevant to cancer among Aboriginal patients, carers and their health workers in New South Wales. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 22 Aboriginal people who had been diagnosed with cancer, 18 people who were carers of Aboriginal people with cancer and 16 healthcare workers (eight Aboriginal and eight non-Aboriginal health workers). Awareness, knowledge and experience of cancer were largely absent from people's lives and experiences until they were diagnosed, illustrating the need for cancer awareness raising among Aboriginal people, communities and services. Some beliefs about cancer (particularly equating cancer to death) differed from mainstream Western biomedical views of the body and cancer and this served to silence discussion on cancer. As such, these beliefs can be used to inform communication and help illuminate how beliefs can shape responses to cancer. Participants proposed some practical strategies that could work to fill absences in knowledge and build on beliefs about cancer. These results were characterised by a silence about cancer, an absence of discussions of cancer and an acknowledgement of an already full health agenda for Aboriginal communities. To promote health literacy in relation to cancer would require a multi-layered programme of work involving grass-roots community education, workers and Board members of Aboriginal community-controlled health organisations and speciality cancer services, with a particular focus on programmes to bridge community-based primary

  20. BUILDING A PLATFORM FOR TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH IN CHRONIC NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES TO ADDRESS POPULATION HEALTH IN PERU

    Miranda, J. Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Málaga, Germán; Cardenas, María K.; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.; Pesantes, M. Amalia; Araya, Ricardo; Boggio, Oscar; Checkley, William; García, Patricia J.; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Lescano, Andrés G.; Montori, Victor; Pan, William; Rivera-Chira, Maria; Sacksteder, Katherine; Smeeth, Liam; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence in Chronic Diseases, based at Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, was created in 2009 with support from the United States National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). The vision of CRONICAS is to build a globally recognised Centre of Excellence conducting quality and innovative research and generating high-impact evidence for health. The Centre’s identity is embedded in its core values: generosity, innovation, integrity, and quality. This review has been structured to describe the development of the CRONICAS Centre, with a focus on highlighting the ongoing translational research projects and capacity building strategies. The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence is not a risk-averse organisation: it benefits from past experiences, including past mistakes, and improves upon them, and thus challenges traditional research approaches. This ethos and environment is key to fostering innovation in research. PMID:25754562

  1. "I feel your pain": a research study addressing perianesthesia health care providers' knowledge and attitudes toward pain.

    Burns, Julie; Magee, Kerstin T; Cooley, Hayley; Hensler, Anne; Montana, Joanne; Shumaker, Daria; Snyder, Jane; Polk, Artisha R

    2010-02-01

    Patients' feedback about their perianesthesia experience at an acute care 609-bed teaching hospital in Washington, DC, indicated that pain management was an area in need of improvement. A nonexperimental descriptive study related to pain management was conducted in the perianesthesia areas to assess the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers. McCaffrey and Ferrell's 38-item self-report questionnaire was given to anesthesia providers, preoperative nurses, Phase I nurses, and Phase II nurses (N=138). Seventy-two participants responded, yielding a 52% response rate. Results showed a statistically significant difference between the scores of the anesthesia care providers and the preoperative area nurses and between the Phase I nurses and the preoperative nurses. No statistically significant differences were found between the anesthesia providers, and Phase I and Phase II nurses, indicating that at this hospital, nurses who provide postoperative care have similar knowledge and attitudes regarding pain as the anesthesia providers. PMID:20159531

  2. Is there scope for community health nurses to address lifestyle risk factors? the community nursing SNAP trial

    Chan Bibiana C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper examines the opportunity and need for lifestyle interventions for patients attending generalist community nursing services in Australia. This will help determine the scope for risk factor management within community health care by generalist community nurses (GCNs. Methods This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in four generalist community nursing services in NSW, Australia. Prior to service contacts, clients were offered a computer-assisted telephone interview to collect baseline data on socio-demographics, health conditions, smoking status, physical activity levels, alcohol consumption, height and weight, fruit and vegetable intake and 'readiness-to-change' for lifestyle risk factors. Results 804 clients participated (a response rate of 34.1%. Participants had higher rates of obesity (40.5% vs 32.1% and higher prevalence of multiple risk factors (40.4% vs 29.5% than in the general population. Few with a SNAPW (Smoking-Nutrition-Alcohol-Physical-Activity-Weight risk factor had received advice or referral in the previous 3 months. The proportion of clients identified as at risk and who were open to change (i.e. contemplative, in preparation or in action phase were 65.0% for obese/overweight; 73.8% for smokers; 48.2% for individuals with high alcohol intake; 83.5% for the physically inactive and 59.0% for those with poor nutrition. Conclusions There was high prevalence of lifestyle risk factors. Although most were ready to change, few clients recalled having received any recent lifestyle advice. This suggests that there is considerable scope for intervention by GCNs. The results of this trial will shed light on how best to implement the lifestyle risk factor management in routine practice.

  3. Consultation and remediation in the north: meeting international commitments to safeguard health and well-being

    Laura Banfield

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . International commitments exist for the safeguarding of health and the prevention of ill health. One of the earliest commitments is the Declaration of Alma-Ata (1978, which provides 5 principles guiding primary health care: equity, community participation, health promotion, intersectoral collaboration and appropriate technology. These broadly applicable international commitments are premised on the World Health Organization's multifaceted definition of health. The environment is one sector in which these commitments to safeguarding health can be applied. Giant Mine, a contaminated former gold mine in the Northwest Territories, Canada, represents potential threats to all aspects of health. Strategies for managing such threats usually involve an obligation to engage the affected communities through consultation. Objective . To examine the remediation and consultation process associated with Giant Mine within the context of commitments to safeguard health and well-being through adapting and applying the principles of primary health care. Methods . Semi-structured interviews with purposively selected key informants representing government proponents and community members were conducted. Results . In reviewing themes which emerged from a series of interviews exploring the community consultation process for the remediation of Giant Mine, the principles guiding primary health were mapped to consultation in the North: (a “equity” is the capacity to fairly and meaningfully participate in the consultation; (b “community participation” is the right to engage in the process through reciprocal dialogue; (c “health promotion” represents the need for continued information sharing towards awareness; (d “intersectoral collaboration” signifies the importance of including all stakeholders; and (e “appropriate technology” is the need to employ the best remediation actions relevant to the site and the community. Conclusions . Within

  4. The effects of training mental health practitioners in medication management to address nonadherence: a systematic review of clinician-related outcomes

    Bressington D

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Bressington,1 Esther Coren,1 Douglas MacInnes21Department of Health, Well-Being and Family, 2Centre for Health and Social Care Research, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, UKBackground: Nonadherence with medicine prescribed for mental health is a common problem that results in poor clinical outcomes for service users. Studies that provide medication management-related training for the mental health workforce have demonstrated that improvements in the knowledge, attitudes, and skills of staff can help to address nonadherence. This systematic review aims to establish the effectiveness of these training interventions in terms of clinician-related outcomes.Methods: Five electronic databases were systematically searched: PubMed, CINAHL, Medline, PsycInfo, and Google Scholar. Studies were included if they were qualitative or quantitative in nature and were primarily designed to provide mental health clinicians with knowledge and interventions in order to improve service users' experiences of taking psychotropic medications, and therefore potentially address nonadherence issues.Results: A total of five quantitative studies were included in the review. All studies reported improvements in clinicians' knowledge, attitudes, and skills immediately following training. The largest effect sizes related to improvements in clinicians' knowledge and attitudes towards nonadherence. Training interventions of longer duration resulted in the greatest knowledge- and skills-related effect sizes.Conclusion: The findings of this review indicate that training interventions are likely to improve clinician-related outcomes; however, due to the methodological limitations of the current evidence base, future research in this area should aim to conduct robust randomized controlled trials with follow-up and consider collecting qualitative data to explore clinicians' experiences of using the approaches in clinical practice.Keywords: staff training

  5. Opening Address by G. Apostolakis [3. International Conference on Nuclear Power Plant Life Management, Salt Lake City, UT (United States), 14-18 May 2012

    Ageing management is not a simple process. The NRC has been involved with its ageing management and licence renewal programmes since 1982. At that time, the NRC began its Ageing Research Program. In 1991, it initiated a License Renewal Rule and Demonstration Program. In the course of these activities, it was discovered that the NRC was giving insufficient credit for the existing PLiM programme. In 1995, there was an Amended License Renewal rule, which focused on managing the adverse effects of ageing. In 1998, the NRC received its first licence renewal application to enable a plant to operate from 40 to 60 years. Presently (May 2012), the NRC has renewed licences for 71 plants at 42 sites. Ten units at nine sites have passed 40 years of licensed operation and entered the period of 40−60 year extended operation. There are applications under review for 15 units at 11 sites. The NRC expects applications for all remaining currently operating units. The NRC’s licence renewal guiding principles are that the ongoing regulatory process is adequate to ensure the safety of all currently operating US plants and that the same plant operating rules apply during the 20-year renewal term. In addition, the NRC applies supplementary conditions for ageing management through the licence renewal process and is fully aware that operating experience is very important in terms of lessons learned, which can then bring about further changes in the process and in practice. Recent additional NRC guidance addresses the need to manage buried piping and tanks, inaccessible non-environmentally qualified cables, spent fuel pool neutron absorbing materials other than Boraflex, and pressurized water reactor vessel internals. In summary, the NRC believes that: – Ageing management must be a living process that continuously incorporates operating experience. – Research is necessary to establish the technical basis for LTO of existing nuclear plants beyond 60 years. – The industry must have a

  6. Opening Address [FR09: International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Challenges and Opportunities, Kyoto (Japan), 7-11 December 2009

    Full text: Good morning, distinguished delegates, ladies and gentlemen. I would like to express my deep gratitude for your presence at the 'International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Challenges and Opportunities' organized by the IAEA. I would like to make a brief opening address on behalf of MEXT1. Firstly, I would like to welcome all who have travelled the long distance to Japan, and to express my thanks to people in Japan for their usual acceptance and for their cooperation on the research, development and use of nuclear technology. I would also like to thank the staff of the IAEA, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the commissions for their commitment to organizing this meeting. Today, humankind faces global issues on a scale never before seen, including global warming and energy resource security. Under such circumstances, ensuring the energy supply is essential for solving both the energy problem and global climate change simultaneously. This is increasingly being recognized all over the world. Sharing the recognition, we promote research, development and the use of nuclear energy as the major source of electrical power. We are aiming at the establishment of the fast breeder reactor cycle, which will ensure a long term energy supply, through efficient use of uranium resources. At MEXT, we continue to promote research and development in order to achieve the early commercialization of the fast breeder reactor cycle, by utilizing the prototype Monju fast breeder reactor. We are now doing our utmost to restart Monju by the end of March 2010, with the acceptance and cooperation of the local community. After the restart, we will enhance the reliability of Monju as an operational power plant, drawing upon operational experience. At the same time, we will continue research and development of radioactive waste reduction for topics such as minor actinide burning, as well as the enhancement of nuclear non-proliferation. We hope that Monju will

  7. Unhealthy marketing of pharmaceutical products: An international public health concern.

    Mulinari, Shai

    2016-05-01

    I consider the current state of pharmaceutical marketing vis-à-vis ethical and legal standards and advocate measures to improve it. There is abundant evidence of unethical or illicit marketing. It fuels growing concerns about undue corporate influence over pharmaceutical research, education, and consumption. The most extensive evidence of industry transgressions comes from the United States (US), where whistle-blowers are encouraged by financial rewards to help uncover illicit marketing and fraud. Outside the US increasing evidence of transgressions exists. Recently I have observed a range of new measures to align pharmaceutical marketing practices with ethical and legal standards. In the interest of public health, I highlight the need for additional and more profound reforms to ensure that information about medicines supports quality and resource-efficient care. PMID:26911654

  8. Addressing Social Determinants of Health by Integrating Assessment of Caregiver-Child Attachment into Community Based Primary Health Care in Urban Kenya

    Racheal Nduku Ndambuki; Paul Campbell Erwin; Susanna Williams; Bryant, Nancy H.; Bryant, John H.

    2012-01-01

    A principle strategic insight of the Final Report for WHO’s Commission on Social Determinants of Health (SDOH) is that the nurturant qualities of the environments where children grow up, live, and learn matter the most for their development. A key determinant of early childhood development is the establishment of a secure attachment between a caregiver and child. We report initial field-tests of the integration of caregiver-child attachment assessment by community health workers (CHWs) as a r...

  9. Review for the Korean Health Professionals and International Cooperation Doctors Dispatched to Peru by the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA).

    Kim, Bongyoung

    2015-04-01

    South Korea dispatches Korean nationals to partner developing countries as an Official Development Assistance (ODA) project through the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA). In the health sector, KOICA dispatches international cooperation doctors (ICDs), nurses, physical therapists, radiologic technologists, nutritionists, medical laboratory technologists, occupational therapists, and dental hygienists. A total of 216 ICDs were dispatched over 19 times from 1995 until 2013. There were 19 areas of specialties among the ICDs. The most common specialty was internal medicine (61/216, 28.2%), the second most common specialty was general surgery (43/216, 19.9%), followed by oriental medicine (27/216, 12.5%), pediatrics (17/216, 7.9%), orthopedics (16/216, 7.4%), family medicine (16/216, 7.4%), and odontology (14/216, 6.5%). The ICDs have worked in 21 countries. KOICA dispatched the highest number of ICDs to Asia (97/216, 44.9%), followed by Africa (50/216, 23.1%), Latin America (34/216, 15.7%), the commonwealth of independent states (31/216, 14.4%), and Oceania (4/216, 1.9%). Nobody was dispatched to the Middle East. A total of 134 KOICA health professionals were dispatched to Peru from 1996 until October 1, 2014. Of these, 19.4% (26/134) were ICDs, 44.8% (60/216) were nurses, 20.1% (27/134) were physical therapists, 6.7% (9/134) were radiologic technologists, 2.2% (3/134) were nutritionists, and 6.7% (9/134) were medical laboratory. ICDs' specialties comprised internal medicine (13/26, 50%), family medicine (8/26, 30.8%), pediatrics (2/26, 7.7%), otorhinolaryngology (1/26, 3.8%), orthopedics (1/26, 3.8%), and oriental medicine (1/26, 3.8%). Most of the dispatched health professionals worked at institutions that were supported by KOICA. For this reason, the proportion of health professionals who worked at public health centers (PHCs) was the highest (58.2%, 78/134) when classified by workplace type. Other KOICA health professionals worked at hospitals

  10. Addressing the disconnect between public health science and personalised health care: the potential role of cluster analysis in combination with multi-criteria decision analysis

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Dowie, Jack; Turner, Robin;

    2013-01-01

    Background: Public health promotion and person-centred health care are being pursued simultaneously, with little attempt to resolve the conflict between them. One necessary step is to accept that health-care decisions involve multiple criteria and hence are preference sensitive. A second is to ar......Background: Public health promotion and person-centred health care are being pursued simultaneously, with little attempt to resolve the conflict between them. One necessary step is to accept that health-care decisions involve multiple criteria and hence are preference sensitive. A second...... are from one arm of an Australian trial of online and interactive personalised decision aids for prostate cancer screening. Participants were 523 men aged 40–79 years, who assigned importance weights to five criteria: loss of lifetime, needless biopsy, and bowel, urinary, and sexual problems......-investigators in the trial from which data come. All authors approved the final abstract. Conflicts of interest: JD has a financial interest in the Annalisa software used in the trial but did not benefit from its use in it. The other authors declare they have no conflicts of interest....

  11. Opening address

    Adopted under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, Resolution 1540 (2004) - hereafter UNSCR 1540 - sets out several obligations and recommendations for United Nations Member States, including specific requirements regarding illicit trafficking in operational paragraph (OP) 3, where it decides that all States shall take and enforce measures to prevent WMD proliferation including: 'Develop and maintain appropriate effective border controls and law enforcement efforts to detect, deter, prevent and combat, including through international cooperation when necessary, the illicit trafficking and brokering in such items in accordance with their national legal authorities and legislation and consistent with international law'. UNSCR 1540 also created a committee to monitor and report on the measures taken by States to implement these obligations, known as the 1540 Committee. This paper discusses the gaps in national and international proliferation systems identified by the 1540 Committee. By creating obligations for States regarding non-State actors UNSCR 1540 supplements the existing NPT and other nuclear non-proliferation treaty regimes. The presentation looks more narrowly at eight questions of particular relevance to illicit trafficking in nuclear materials, which UNSCR 1540 broadly defines to include dual-use as well as special purpose items. The questions are whether a State has legislation specifically related to nuclear materials for border control, trading or brokering of nuclear items, and controls on transit, trans-shipment, re-export or import of nuclear items. The largest gaps exist in establishing legal frameworks for trans-shipments, trading or brokering of items and re-exports. The 1540 Committee recognizes the need to help the international community close these gaps. The 1540 Committee would like to work in even closer cooperation with the IAEA and other NGOs to develop mechanisms to share appropriate information and foster the global effort to

  12. Opening address

    Full text: I have the pleasure to welcome you, on behalf of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to this important International Conference on National infrastructures for Radiation Safety. Let me congratulate the organizers of this conference for their decision to approach the Government of Morocco to host this meeting in the beautiful city of Rabat but, first of all, let me thank our host, His Majesty King Mohammed VI and the Government of Morocco, and the University Mohammed V, Agdal, for the kind hospitality and the beautiful setting here in Rabat, and for making this dream become a pleasant reality. We are convening here to discuss 'radiation safety infrastructure', a term which for outsiders - and probably also many of us - seems to be a bit fuzzy. Over the last decades, considerable progress has been made in radiation safety techniques, in measurement, monitoring, exposure prevention, and intervention techniques. In general, occupational exposure for workers has dropped continuously, as data from the Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) system can demonstrate. Today, it is becoming clear that further progress cannot rely on improving hard techniques alone, but also has to focus on the soft issues: on institutional aspects, on aspects of information, organization, and finally, a safety culture - in a word, on infrastructure. On one side, sustainable infrastructures - at both the international and the national level - are essential in order to maintain the positive trend in radiation safety, in occupational exposure and, thus, to support the safe use of nuclear energy and radiation. On the other hand, effective national and international infrastructures are required to ensure the radiation safety and security of radioactive sources, and to avoid incidents and accidents with 'orphan' sources, which have become a major concern in recent years. The OECD/NEA is happy to provide the experience of its 28 member countries from Europe, North America and the

  13. Opening address

    The supply of energy is the most important problem facing mankind today. Energy is necessary for economic development, and it is in the interests of the industrialized nations to ensure that the developing countries reach their economic potential. The need for the increased use of nuclear power is evident, and the CANDU reactor provides a simple, proven energy source; the 950 MW CANDU has potential applications in both industrialized and third world nations. The Canadian nuclear industry has an important role to play in the world, but must be rationalized in order to compete successfully in the international marketplace

  14. Efficiency and functionality of an internal purchaser-provider model in public specialized health care services

    Iso-Mustajärvi, Anni

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing demand to find solutions for improving cost-efficiency in health care. The demand for services continues to increase and there is a need to control the increasing resource requirements. Market-oriented organization models and management methods have been seen as one way to address the challenge and as an alternative to traditional hierarchical organization models in health care. Researchers highlight the importance of investigating how different kinds of changes actuall...

  15. Monitoring of Environmental Contamination and Addressing Health Risks Through the Analysis of Teeth by Means of Nuclear Techniques

    Radionuclides (mostly uranium and thorium) and heavy metals (lead and cadmium) are environmental contaminants produced by agricultural and industrial activities, or are simply the result of soil and water pollution by non regular human activities (e.g. disposal of garbage in rivers and water ponds). Humans incorporate these contaminants via the food chain, where bones are the most important target-organ. The incidence of health risk and hazards would depend, obviously, on the time length and intensity of such incorporation. However, while in vivo monitoring of human bones is difficult, the analysis of teeth is a promising possibility, particularly for the quantification of lead and cadmium in deciduous tooth (milk tooth), and uranium in adult tooth. This study will be focused, initially, on the Guarapiranga dam and on the human settlements located in its surroundings. Their teeth will be collected and classified by age and social-economical status, with the collaboration of the Dentistry School from UNISA, which is developing several social tasks in the Guarapiranga region. Water, plants and fishes will be collected and analyzed too, aiming at biokinetic al study of contaminants, particularly the transfer dynamics among the species of the dam. (Author)

  16. Opening address

    Full text: It is encouraging to see so many experts gathered here today to discuss the important issue of environmental protection from ionizing radiation. The International Union of Radioecology (IUR) has collaborated constructively with other international organizations, notably the ICRP, the IAEA, UNSCEAR and the EU, and hope that these close links may be strengthened and developed in the future. Such international cooperation has been conducive to rapid progress on the theme of radiological protection of the environment in recent years. The IUR, as an independent scientific association, has been fighting to put environmental radioactivity in the same context as other environmental problems within regulatory and political agendas. In the early years, it could be quite embarrassing because there was little support for this initiative, but now it can give us great satisfaction that the topic appears to be receiving the international attention it deserves. However, it is imperative that any advances are built on a foundation of scientific knowledge. The IUR task group, formed in 1997, took note of a number of initiatives and ideas being developed within the radiological protection community. The IUR was the first international organization to conclude that a systematic approach was required in order to develop a framework within which various initiatives could be accommodated and, in 2000, such a system was presented and promoted. The IUR also highlighted the need to consider the broader socioeconomic context within which these ideas were beginning to evolve. I would now like to spend a few moments of your time to update you on the IUR's views and activities. A consensus conference was held in Oslo in 2001, supported by a number of representatives from NGOs, industry, academia and regulators. A surprising degree of agreement was achieved, enabling the drafting of a consensus statement - stating that the environment should receive radiological protection. Members of

  17. Chairperson's address

    In nuclear power industry responsibilities for generation, transmission and retailing have been split and many nuclear power stations have been transferred to private companies. This has produced a clear focus on good management and the need for a top class safety culture if nuclear stations are to be run successfully. There are, however, two specific aspects of nuclear power generation which appear to cause private companies considerable concern: the unique health and safety issue related to ionizing radiation in normal operation and potential accidents; and the technical, economic and socio-political problems attached to disposing of radioactive waste

  18. Opening address

    There is now universal recognition of the illicit trafficking problem and more uniform agreement on the need to take action to combat nuclear terrorism. In the past, security issues were considered strictly a national responsibility. It is now recognized that illicit trafficking not only concerns the protection of national borders but that there are vital international parameters. The IAEA's activities in the nuclear security field took a quantum leap in 2002 when it established its first Nuclear Security Plan for 2002-2005, including protection against illicit trafficking. We are now implementing the second plan for 2006-2009, which has been approved by our Board of Governors and the General Conference in 2005. The current Nuclear Security Plan for 2006-2009, which ranges over two bi-annual programme and budget periods, is comprehensive and identifies three activity areas, as well as activities supporting nuclear security. The first activity area is entitled 'Needs assessment, analysis and coordination' and is 'horizontal' in that it supports the implementation of the entire plan, and provides nuclear security relevant information, for purposes of information exchange to help prioritize activities and in support of operational activities. The ITDB programme is a cornerstone in the work to combat illicit trafficking. The second activity area, namely, prevention, aims at supporting sustainable capacity building in IAEA Member States to meet the threat of nuclear terrorism and of other criminal activities involving nuclear and other radioactive substances. Core activities include an effective accounting registry and physical protection, the implementation of a nuclear security culture and measures to sustain effective systems in the long term. Should prevention fail, it will be important to have a second line of defence, which is the third activity area in the plan, referred to as detection and response. This is the area which is of particular concern at this

  19. Addressing the public health burden caused by the nutrition transition through the Healthy Foods North nutrition and lifestyle intervention programme.

    Sharma, S; Gittelsohn, J; Rosol, R; Beck, L

    2010-10-01

    Dietary inadequacies, low levels of physical activity, excessive energy intake and high obesity prevalence have placed Inuit and Inuvialuit populations of the Canadian Arctic at increased risk of chronic disease. An evidence-based, community participatory process was used to develop Healthy Foods North (HFN), a culturally appropriate nutrition and physical activity intervention programme that aimed to reduce risk of chronic disease and improve dietary adequacy amongst Inuit/Inuvialuit in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. HFN was implemented over the course of 12 months in a series of seven phases between October 2008 and 2009 (Nunavut) and June 2008 and 2009 (Northwest Territories). Combining behaviour change and environmental strategies to increase both the availability of healthful food choices in local shops and opportunities for increasing physical activity, HFN promoted the consumption of traditional foods and nutrient-dense and/or low energy shop-bought foods, utilisation of preparation methods that do not add fat content, decreased consumption of high-energy shop-bought foods, and increased physical activity. Messages identified in the community workshops, such as the importance of family eating and sharing, were emphasised throughout the intervention. Intervention components were conducted by community staff and included working with shops to increase the stocking of healthy foods, point of purchase signage and promotion in shops and community settings, pedometer challenges in the workplace and use of community media (e.g. radio and cable television advertisements) to reinforce key messages. HFN represents an innovative multilevel approach to the reduction of chronic disease risk factors amongst Inuit and Inuvialuit, based on strong collaboration with local agencies, government and institutions. PMID:21158971

  20. The metamorphosis of managed care: implications for health reform internationally.

    Rodwin, Marc A

    2010-01-01

    The conventional wisdom is that managed care's brief life is over and we are now in a post-managed care era. In fact, managed care has a long history and continues to thrive. Writers also often assume that managed care is a fixed thing. They overlook that managed care has evolved and neglect to examine the role that it plays in the health system. Furthermore, private actors and the state have used managed care tools to promote diverse goals. These include the following: increasing access to medical care; restricting physician entrepreneurialism; challenging professional control over the medical economy; curbing medical spending; managing medical practice and markets; furthering the growth of medical markets and private insurance; promoting for-profit medical facilities and insurers; earning bounties for reducing medical expenditures: and reducing governmental responsibility for, and oversight of, medical care. Struggles over these competing goals spurred the metamorphosis of managed care. This article explores how managed care transformed physicians' conflicts of interests and responses to them. It also examines how managed care altered the opportunities for patients/medical consumers to use exit and voice to spur change. PMID:20579232

  1. Opening address

    The dawn of the nuclear age brought with it a new power, terrifying in its ability to destroy, awesome in its potential for good: it is the same stark contrast that confronts us today. On the one hand, as the technological expertise in handling its by-products develops, and with the growing realization of humanity's impact on its surroundings, nuclear power represents an important, climate friendly supply of energy. Moreover, its applications stretch far beyond civil nuclear power - food preservation and disease prevention are being revolutionized by nuclear technology, and, indeed, nuclear power will almost certainly be necessary if we are to continue our adventure of exploration beyond our solar system. However, if we are to continue to reap the benefits of the atom, we must keep in check its associated dangers, and prevent a technology with the power for so much good from falling into the hands of those that would use it to harm and destroy. Nuclear security plays a vital role in this endeavour.The Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, or NPT, has been a significant and, to many, an unexpected success in restraining nuclear proliferation and providing a secure framework for the peaceful transfer of nuclear technology. The United Kingdom continues to believe in the central importance of all aspects of the NPT, and regards it as the cornerstone of the non-proliferation regime. Alongside the NPT, the IAEA has played a crucial role in promoting and aiding nuclear safety and security, championing the peaceful use of nuclear science and technology and encouraging and enforcing safeguards that protect nuclear material and prevent its diversion to harmful uses. Both the NPT and the operations of the IAEA face serious challenges. In our view, this is not a reason to be downhearted and to reject one of the best examples of effective multilateralism; rather, it amounts to a clear call for enhanced international efforts to strengthen the system and make it

  2. Integrated Disease Investigations and Surveillance planning: a systems approach to strengthening national surveillance and detection of events of public health importance in support of the International Health Regulations

    Kennedy Sarah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The international community continues to define common strategic themes of actions to improve global partnership and international collaborations in order to protect our populations. The International Health Regulations (IHR[2005] offer one of these strategic themes whereby World Health Organization (WHO Member States and global partners engaged in biosecurity, biosurveillance and public health can define commonalities and leverage their respective missions and resources to optimize interventions. The U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Cooperative Biologica Engagement Program (CBEP works with partner countries across clinical, veterinary, epidemiological, and laboratory communities to enhance national disease surveillance, detection, diagnostic, and reporting capabilities. CBEP, like many other capacity building programs, has wrestled with ways to improve partner country buy-in and ownership and to develop sustainable solutions that impact integrated disease surveillance outcomes. Designing successful implementation strategies represents a complex and challenging exercise and requires robust and transparent collaboration at the country level. To address this challenge, the Laboratory Systems Development Branch of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC and CBEP have partnered to create a set of tools that brings together key leadership of the surveillance system into a deliberate system design process. This process takes into account strengths and limitations of the existing system, how the components inter-connect and relate to one another, and how they can be systematically refined within the local context. The planning tools encourage cross-disciplinary thinking, critical evaluation and analysis of existing capabilities, and discussions across organizational and departmental lines toward a shared course of action and purpose. The underlying concepts and methodology of these tools are presented here.

  3. Integrated Disease Investigations and Surveillance planning: a systems approach to strengthening national surveillance and detection of events of public health importance in support of the International Health Regulations.

    Taboy, Celine H; Chapman, Will; Albetkova, Adilya; Kennedy, Sarah; Rayfield, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    The international community continues to define common strategic themes of actions to improve global partnership and international collaborations in order to protect our populations. The International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) offer one of these strategic themes whereby World Health Organization (WHO) Member States and global partners engaged in biosecurity, biosurveillance and public health can define commonalities and leverage their respective missions and resources to optimize interventions. The U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency's Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) works with partner countries across clinical, veterinary, epidemiological, and laboratory communities to enhance national disease surveillance, detection, diagnostic, and reporting capabilities. CBEP, like many other capacity building programs, has wrestled with ways to improve partner country buy-in and ownership and to develop sustainable solutions that impact integrated disease surveillance outcomes. Designing successful implementation strategies represents a complex and challenging exercise and requires robust and transparent collaboration at the country level. To address this challenge, the Laboratory Systems Development Branch of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and CBEP have partnered to create a set of tools that brings together key leadership of the surveillance system into a deliberate system design process. This process takes into account strengths and limitations of the existing system, how the components inter-connect and relate to one another, and how they can be systematically refined within the local context. The planning tools encourage cross-disciplinary thinking, critical evaluation and analysis of existing capabilities, and discussions across organizational and departmental lines toward a shared course of action and purpose. The underlying concepts and methodology of these tools are presented here. PMID:21143828

  4. Ministerial Presentation: Republic of Korea [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    30 years. As a result, we have developed and is currently utilizing Korea Standard Type nuclear plant OPR-1000 as well as high-efficiency advanced nuclear fuel. More recently, we were able to enjoy significant achievement by developing the next-generation nuclear reactor APR-1400. Korea has actively participated in the international cooperation project for the development of future nuclear reactor system, which is for making nuclear power a sustainable energy source for the future with improved safety and environmental friendliness. Korea has established the ''Long-term Plan for Developing Future Nuclear Energy System'' in December 2008 and actively participated in the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) which is a program initiated by IAEA for developing future nuclear powered energy system. Korea will continue to be strongly committed to the peaceful and efficient use of nuclear energy and work with international community to contribute to the development of nuclear power facility and nuclear fuel cycle. Distinguished guests! As you are well aware, the rights to use nuclear power are bestowed only to those that have earned international trust and transparency by faithfully observing bilateral and multi-lateral agreements. Korea has made efforts to build trust and transparency in the international community by using nuclear power in a safe and peaceful manner. We are implementing national-level measures to strengthen the nuclear power control system including revision of legal framework and organizational restructuring, as well as faithfully observing the obligations outlined by IAEA in the Full-scope Safeguard Agreement and Additional Protocol. Korea will continue to pursue safe use of nuclear power in Korea as well as work towards gaining international trust through the international verification process in order to enhance our status as the advanced country in the use of nuclear energy technology. The world has been utilizing nuclear energy for the last 50

  5. Opening address of the European Commission [International conference on safety and security of radioactive sources: Towards a global system for the continuous control of sources throughout their life cycle

    The Head of the Radiation Protection Unit represents the units in the Directorate in charge of the HASS Directive: the Radiation Protection unit, TREN H4, as the initiator and the legal cell of unit H1, in terms of its transposition into national legislation and international liaison on the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and the Guidelines on Import and Export. He emphasizes in this ceremony that for the European Community this conference is very important, and congratulates the IAEA and the French hosts for putting so much effort into its success. Security concerns are met to a large extend if safety is properly addressed. Security is largely a national matter, even though actions are undertaken to coordinate national initiatives. The fact that there is no explicit mention of security in our legislation relates to the legal basis of Directives and their binding character. It does not mean that it is ignored. It is felt that the possible impact of malevolent uses of radiation sources, causing societal disruption much more than a significant impact upon health, needs to be addressed in full transparency and empowerment of the citizen. Secrecy and confidentiality, while sometimes necessary, should not hinder the flow of information. Facts to prepare for an emergency of this type are needed. This conference should enhance significantly the political consensus towards ensuring the safety and security of sources and prompt countries to take all practical measures that are necessary to ensure proper control of sources in current use, to recover orphan sources, and to inform and train people so that they act responsibly

  6. Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership: international trade law, health systems and public health

    Khan, Usman; Pallot, Robert; Taylor, David; Kanavos, Panos

    2015-01-01

    The London School of Economics and Political Science study Free trade agreements (FTAs) have the declared aim of seeking to increase global trade and promote economic growth. Historically, economic growth has led to improved population health. Yet this link is now weakening, and attention is being focussed on assessing the effect of FTAs on health and the ability of government to mitigate against negative impact. Within this context, this study presents an assessment of the health im...

  7. Globalisation, Health and Security. Coordinates of a “New Item” on the International Agenda

    José Luis León Manríquez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the links between globalisation, the health agenda and international and inter-American security. Even though traditionally health had not formed part of discussions in the area of security, in the past few years a series of processes have favouredthe inclusion of this topic in discussions, with an importance that seems to be increasing markedly. On the one hand, the spread of pandemics, like HIV/AIDS, has jeopardised the survival of large population centres in certain countries; and, on the other hand, discussion around the topic of international and inter-American security has become complex and has had to incorporate topics that, years ago, were considered alien to the military and strategic issues that dominated the agenda. The case of health seems to be one of them,and it has arrived to stay in debates on international security.

  8. In Search of Global Health Justice: A Need to Reinvigorate Institutions and Make International Law.

    Harmon, Shawn H E

    2015-12-01

    The recent outbreak of Ebola in West Africa has killed thousands of people, including healthcare workers. African responses have been varied and largely ineffective. The WHO and the international community's belated responses have yet to quell the epidemic. The crisis is characteristic of a failure to properly comply with the International Health Regulations 2005. More generally, it stems from a failure of international health justice as articulated by a range of legal institutions and instruments, and it should prompt us to question the state and direction of approaches to the governance of global public health. This paper queries what might be done to lift global public health as a policy arena to the place of prominence that it deserves. It argues that there are at least two critical reasons for the past, present and easily anticipated future failings of the global public health regime. After exploring those, it then articulates a new way forward, identifying three courses of action that might be adopted in realising better health outcomes and global health justice, namely value, institutional and legal reform. PMID:26113422

  9. Integrated care: a fresh perspective for international health policies in low and middle-income countries

    Jean-Pierre Unger

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To propose a social-and-democrat health policy alternative to the current neoliberal one. Context of case: The general failure of neoliberal health policies in low and middle-income countries justifies the design of an alternative to bring disease control and health care back in step with ethical principles and desired outcomes. Data sources: National policies, international programmes and pilot experiments—including those led by the authors—are examined in both scientific and grey literature. Case description: We call for the promotion of a publicly-oriented health sector as a cornerstone of such alternative policy. We define ‘publicly-oriented’ as opposed to ‘private-for-profit’ in terms of objectives and commitment, not of ownership. We classify development strategies for such a sector according to an organisation-based typology of health systems defined by Mintzberg. As such, strategies are adapted to three types of health systems: machine bureaucracies, professional bureaucracies and divisionalized forms. We describe avenues for family and community health and for hospital care. We stress social control at the peripheral level to increase accountability and responsiveness. Community-based, national and international sources are required to provide viable financing. Conclusions and discussion: Our proposed social-and-democrat health policy calls for networking, lobbying and training as a joint effort in which committed health professionals can lead the way.

  10. What contribution can international relations make to the evolving global health agenda?

    Davies, Sara E

    2010-01-01

    This article presents two approaches that have dominated International Relations in their approach to the international politics of health. The statist approach, which is primarily security-focused, seeks to link health initiatives to a foreign or defence policy remit. The globalist approach, in contrast, seeks to advance health not because of its intrinsic security value but because it advances the well-being and rights of individuals. This article charts the evolution of these approaches and demonstrates why both have the potential to shape our understanding of the evolving global health agenda. It examines how the statist and globalist perspectives have helped shape contemporary initiatives in global health governance and suggests that there is evidence of an emerging convergence between the two perspectives. This convergence is particularly clear in the articulation of a number of UN initiatives in this area - especially the One World, One Health Strategic Framework and the Oslo Ministerial Declaration (2007) which inspired the first UN General Assembly resolution on global health and foreign policy in 2009 and the UN Secretary-General's note "Global health and foreign policy: strategic opportunities and challenges". What remains to be seen is whether this convergence will deliver on securing states' interest long enough to promote the interests of the individuals who require global efforts to deliver local health improvements. PMID:20882709

  11. Ministerial Presentation: Jordan. Why Nuclear? [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    and UK. One of our major challenges, and in fact a common challenge to all, is development of the requisite human resources. To address partially this challenge, a nuclear engineering B.Sc. degree program was established in 2006 at Jordan University of Science and Technology and JAEC is in the process of procurement of a nuclear research reactor for education, training, and isotope production. To sustain and enhance the contribution of nuclear power as an energy option in the Middle East, it is necessary for all countries in the region to accept the International Atomic Energy Agency's safeguards on all of their nuclear activities, leading to the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the region, as a prelude for full adherence to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Jordan has been conscious to meet all its legal obligations under the NPT and IAEA safeguards, and has participated in many global fora, such as the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), to develop its civilian nuclear energy programme. In return, it is imperative for the IAEA and technology holders to share their nuclear technology and expertise to address developing countries challenges. It is time to move from unnecessary restriction of dissemination of nuclear technology, to sharing in a responsible way in the spirit of 'Atoms of Peace'', with full adherence to safety, security and safeguards. I wish you and to the Conference success in making nuclear power a real option available to all aspiring countries to address both national energy needs and the global challenge of climate change.

  12. Integrated Disease Investigations and Surveillance planning: a systems approach to strengthening national surveillance and detection of events of public health importance in support of the International Health Regulations

    Kennedy Sarah; Albetkova Adilya; Chapman Will; Taboy Celine H; Rayfield Mark A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The international community continues to define common strategic themes of actions to improve global partnership and international collaborations in order to protect our populations. The International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) offer one of these strategic themes whereby World Health Organization (WHO) Member States and global partners engaged in biosecurity, biosurveillance and public health can define commonalities and leverage their respective missions and resources to optimiz...

  13. International health links: an evaluation of partnerships between health-care organizations in the UK and developing countries.

    Baguley, Dave; Killeen, Tim; Wright, John

    2006-07-01

    Increasingly, international health links are evolving between UK health-care institutions and those in developing countries, the core aims of which are to seek the transfer of ideas, knowledge, skills and training. This study aimed to evaluate established health links, what constitutes them and how they are supported. Benefits and challenges associated with the links, as perceived both by link coordinators in the UK and their overseas partners, were explored. Fourteen links between health-care organizations in the UK and those in developing countries were identified and interviews were successfully conducted with 22 link coordinators: 13 in the UK and nine in developing countries. The interviews indicated that health links offer mutual benefits to both partners in terms of shared skills and the promotion of global awareness. Links can act as important catalysts; stimulating increases in institutional capacity for research and training. They provide opportunities for personal and professional development of staff and promote the development of friendships and supportive networks between diverse communities. Many of the health links showed signs of evolving from uniprofessional links between individual institutions into broader, multidisciplinary community partnerships. The main challenges facing health links arise from cultural differences, funding problems, communication difficulties and bureaucracy. There was broad agreement that greater recognition of the value and importance of health links by the NHS and closer collaboration between government departments to provide support and resources could promote wider and more effective link partnerships. PMID:16884618

  14. Opening address

    Recognizing the global danger of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive material, governments have in recent years taken a number of steps which includes the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), the 2005 Amendments to the CPPNM, the International Convention of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540. Perhaps more important than formal legal measures alone are the actions governments have initiated to institute practical cooperation in this field. Of course, the IAEA has been a leader in this effort, as reflected in the Nuclear Security Plan. Of the many areas where the IAEA has contributed, let me cite three: the development of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, the numerous efforts through technical assistance programmes to assess physical protection needs and to build national capacity to implement physical protection systems, and the collection and dissemination of information through the Illicit Trafficking Database. States are acting together to develop training and communications channels to facilitate intervention in an ongoing illicit transfer or to build national capacity to protect nuclear materials and respond to security threats. 60 nations have joined the Russian Federation and the USA as partners in the global initiative to Combat nuclear Terrorism. These visible forms of international cooperation are backed up by numerous bilateral assistance and cooperation programmes directed at improving physical protection, including during transport, consolidating and eliminating unused nuclear materials and radioactive sources, bolstering nuclear detection at ports and borders, strengthening the ability of law enforcement agencies to identify and prosecute nuclear smuggling cases, developing procedures and protocols to intervene in emergency situations involving nuclear or radioactive materials, and exchanging information on nuclear terrorism

  15. Opening Address by U. Heinen-Esser [International Conference on Radiation Protection In Medicine, Bonn (Germany), 3-7 December 2012

    Ten years ago, the IAEA invited us to Malaga to discuss radiation protection in medicine. The outcome of that conference was the adoption of an Action Plan, which has guided international efforts on protecting patients from ionizing radiation ever since. Since then, developments in medicine have progressed at a rapid pace. New diagnosis and treatment techniques using ionizing radiation and radioactive substances have become well established. At the same time, there is also a growing awareness of both the benefits and risks of using ionizing radiation on humans. In the face of such rapid progress, and all opportunities currently available for using ionizing radiation, we should continue to be guided by the following three pillars of radiation protection: (1) Justification — weighing up the benefits and risks, i.e. the benefits of treatment must outweigh the risks. The increasing use of ionizing radiation in medicine worldwide (4 billion diagnostic procedures in 2008) is an indication of its benefits. However, it must benefit all countries. Radiation supported health services (e.g. for cancer diagnosis and treatment) must also be made accessible to developing countries. Conversely, with the wide range of diagnostic techniques using ionizing radiation, we must never lose sight of the associated risks. This is particularly true of early detection screening. Clear framework conditions on the admissibility of such screening must be drawn up. (2) Optimization — achieving the treatment objectives with the lowest possible dose. Whichever diagnostic method or treatment is chosen, it should always be performed with the lowest possible radiation dose for both the patient and the medical personnel. We have a social and an ethical responsibility to control exposure appropriately. The protection and safe treatment of children is particularly key in this regard. Optimizing exposure is an ongoing challenge. (3) Risk minimization — limiting the risk (for example, when setting

  16. Religious Affiliation, Internalized Homophobia, and Mental Health in Lesbians, Gay Men, and Bisexuals

    Barnes, David; Meyer, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    Most religious environments in the U.S. do not affirm homosexuality. We investigate the relationship between exposure to non-affirming religious environments and internalized homophobia and mental health in a sample of LGBs in New York City. Guided by minority stress theory, we hypothesized that exposure to non-affirming religious settings would lead to higher internalized homophobia, more depressive symptoms, and less psychological well-being. We hypothesized that Black and Latino LGBs would...

  17. Making mapping matter: a case study for short project international partnerships by global public health students

    Wyber, Rosemary; Potter, James R.; Jennifer B. Weaver

    2014-01-01

    Background: A large number of global public health students seek international experience as part of their academic curriculum. These placements are often short, given the constraints of cost and time available within the academic calendar. In contrast to international electives for clinical students there are few published guidelines on practical, ethical or feasible projects. This paper describes a ten-day sanitation mapping project in Mumbai, India and explores the broader implications for...

  18. Sexual health and use of condoms among local and international sex workers in Sydney.

    O'Connor, C C; Berry, G.; Rohrsheim, R; Donovan, B.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare indicators of sexual health and predictors of condom use for commercial sex among local and international female sex workers first attending an STD clinic. SETTING: A public STD clinic in Sydney, Australia. SUBJECTS: All sex workers first attending between June 1991 and May 1993. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of demographic, behavioural and morbidity data from proforma medical records. RESULTS: 91 local sex workers and 123 international sex workers (predominantly fr...

  19. Internal consistency and factor structure of 12-item general health questionnaire in visually impaired students

    Ajay Kumar Bakhla; Vijay Verma; Mahesh Hembram; Samir Kumar Praharaj; Vinod Kumar Sinha

    2013-01-01

    Background: As there are no instruments to measure psychological wellness or distress in visually impaired students, we studied internal consistency and factor structure of GHQ-12 in visually impaired children. Materials and Methods: Internal consistency analysis (Cronbach′s alpha and item total correlation) and exploratory factor analysis (principal component analysis) were carried out to identify factor structure of 12-item general health questionnaire (GHQ-12). Results: All items of GHQ-12...

  20. Keynote address

    This keynote address describes the reasons why Ontario restructured its electricity sector to include open market competition. Much effort, time, money and expertise have been devoted to developing the Ontario competitive market. The 1997 White Paper issued by the Ontario Ministry of Energy, Science and Technology was the first paper to express the urgent need for change because the old system was failing. Prices increased by 60 per cent between 1986 and 1993. Although governments imposed a price freeze, it is recognized that such prices freezes cannot be sustained. Between 1980 and 1986, Ontario Hydro's debt rose from $12 billion to over $30 billion. The cause was attributed to poor business performance which was putting the taxpayers at risk. The author states that the potential and social benefits of competitive electricity markets are significant. Opening the power markets improves the efficiency of electricity systems and offers significant benefits. It is noted that restructuring does not mean deregulation. The Ontario Energy Board and the Independent Market Operator continue to regulate the market to ensure its proper operation and to protect consumers. In a properly functioning competitive market, prices change in response to market conditions. Electricity prices have generally declined where competitive markets have been introduced in other jurisdictions around the world. The author also cautions that it is easy to create unfounded fears about a competitive market and cited California as an example. California's problems arose from a lack of generating capacity, regulation which discouraged new power generation, inadequate transmission capacity, lack of snow in the northeast where hydropower is produced, and a consumer price cap that encouraged power consumption at a time when supply was short. The author notes that these factors do not exist in Ontario and that the competitive market should not be abandoned