WorldWideScience

Sample records for address emerging zoonoses

  1. Hantaviruses as emergent zoonoses

    LS Ullmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses belong to the Bunyaviridae family, which consists of vector-borne viruses. These viruses can provoke two infection types: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS - which occurs in the Old World - and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS - an emergent zoonosis that can be found in many countries of the western hemisphere. Rodents are hantavirus reservoirs and each species seems to host a different virus type. Humans acquire the infection by inhaling contaminated aerosol particles eliminated by infected animals. The factors involved in the emergence of hantavirus infections in the human population include ecological modifications and changes in human activities. The most important risk factor is contact between man and rodents, as a result of agricultural, forestry or military activities. Rodent control remains the primary strategy for preventing hantavirus diseases, including via health education and hygienic habits.

  2. Wildlife, Exotic Pets, and Emerging Zoonoses1

    Chomel, Bruno B.; Belotto, Albino; Meslin, François-Xavier

    2007-01-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic; wildlife constitutes a large and often unknown reservoir. Wildlife can also be a source for reemergence of previously controlled zoonoses. Although the discovery of such zoonoses is often related to better diagnostic tools, the leading causes of their emergence are human behavior and modifications to natural habitats (expansion of human populations and their encroachment on wildlife habitat), changes in agricultural practices, and globalization ...

  3. Zoonoses

    2008-12-08

    In this podcast, Dr. King discusses zoonoses and how foxes, raccoons, and bats play an important role in the ecology of infectious diseases, such as rabies.  Created: 12/8/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/8/2008.

  4. Prioritizing emerging zoonoses in The Netherlands.

    Havelaar, A.H.; van Rosse, F.; Bucura, C.; Toetenel, M.A.; Haagsma, J.A.; Kurowicka, D.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Speybroeck, N.; Langelaar, M.F.M.; van der Giessen, J.W.; Cooke, R.M.; Braks, M.A.H.

    2010-01-01

    To support the development of early warning and surveillance systems of emerging zoonoses, we present a general method to prioritize pathogens using a quantitative, stochastic multi-criteria model, parameterized for the Netherlands. A risk score was based on seven criteria, reflecting assessments of

  5. Prioritizing Emerging Zoonoses in The Netherlands

    Havelaar, A.H.; Van Rosse, F.; Bucura, C.; Toetenel, M.A.; Haagsma, J.A.; Kurowicka, D.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Speybroeck, N.; Langelaar, M.F.M.; Cooke, R.M.; et al.

    2010-01-01

    Background: To support the development of early warning and surveillance systems of emerging zoonoses, we present a general method to prioritize pathogens using a quantitative, stochastic multi-criteria model, parameterized for the Netherlands. Methodology/Principal Findings: A risk score was based

  6. Prioritizing Emerging Zoonoses in The Netherlands

    Havelaar, A.H.; Rosse, F.; Bubura, C.; Toetenel, M.A.; Haagsma, J.A.; Kurowicka, D.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background To support the development of early warning and surveillance systems of emerging zoonoses, we present a general method to prioritize pathogens using a quantitative, stochastic multi-criteria model, parameterized for the Netherlands. Methodology/Principal Findings A risk score was based on

  7. Prioritizing emerging zoonoses in the Netherlands

    A.H. Havelaar (Arie); F. van Rosse (Floor); C. Bucura (Catalin); M.A. Toetenel (Milou); J.A. Haagsma (Juanita); D. Kurowicka (Dorota); A.J.P. Heesterbeek (Hans); N. Speybroeck (Niko); M.F.M. Langelaar (Merel); J.W.B. van der Giessen (Joke); R.M. Cooke (Roger); M.A.H. Braks (Marieta)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: To support the development of early warning and surveillance systems of emerging zoonoses, we present a general method to prioritize pathogens using a quantitative, stochastic multi-criteria model, parameterized for the Netherlands. Methodology/Principal Findings: A risk scor

  8. Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses of Dogs and Cats

    Bruno B. Chomel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the middle of the 20th century, pets are more frequently considered as “family members” within households. However, cats and dogs still can be a source of human infection by various zoonotic pathogens. Among emerging or re-emerging zoonoses, viral diseases, such as rabies (mainly from dog pet trade or travel abroad, but also feline cowpox and newly recognized noroviruses or rotaviruses or influenza viruses can sicken our pets and be transmitted to humans. Bacterial zoonoses include bacteria transmitted by bites or scratches, such as pasteurellosis or cat scratch disease, leading to severe clinical manifestations in people because of their age or immune status and also because of our closeness, not to say intimacy, with our pets. Cutaneous contamination with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Leptospira spp., and/or aerosolization of bacteria causing tuberculosis or kennel cough are also emerging/re-emerging pathogens that can be transmitted by our pets, as well as gastro-intestinal pathogens such as Salmonella or Campylobacter. Parasitic and fungal pathogens, such as echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, onchocercosis, or sporotrichosis, are also re-emerging or emerging pet related zoonoses. Common sense and good personal and pet hygiene are the key elements to prevent such a risk of zoonotic infection.

  9. Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses of Dogs and Cats.

    Chomel, Bruno B

    2014-01-01

    Since the middle of the 20th century, pets are more frequently considered as "family members" within households. However, cats and dogs still can be a source of human infection by various zoonotic pathogens. Among emerging or re-emerging zoonoses, viral diseases, such as rabies (mainly from dog pet trade or travel abroad), but also feline cowpox and newly recognized noroviruses or rotaviruses or influenza viruses can sicken our pets and be transmitted to humans. Bacterial zoonoses include bacteria transmitted by bites or scratches, such as pasteurellosis or cat scratch disease, leading to severe clinical manifestations in people because of their age or immune status and also because of our closeness, not to say intimacy, with our pets. Cutaneous contamination with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Leptospira spp., and/or aerosolization of bacteria causing tuberculosis or kennel cough are also emerging/re-emerging pathogens that can be transmitted by our pets, as well as gastro-intestinal pathogens such as Salmonella or Campylobacter. Parasitic and fungal pathogens, such as echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, onchocercosis, or sporotrichosis, are also re-emerging or emerging pet related zoonoses. Common sense and good personal and pet hygiene are the key elements to prevent such a risk of zoonotic infection. PMID:26480316

  10. Prioritizing emerging zoonoses in the Netherlands.

    Arie H Havelaar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To support the development of early warning and surveillance systems of emerging zoonoses, we present a general method to prioritize pathogens using a quantitative, stochastic multi-criteria model, parameterized for the Netherlands. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A risk score was based on seven criteria, reflecting assessments of the epidemiology and impact of these pathogens on society. Criteria were weighed, based on the preferences of a panel of judges with a background in infectious disease control. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Pathogens with the highest risk for the Netherlands included pathogens in the livestock reservoir with a high actual human disease burden (e.g. Campylobacter spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Coxiella burnetii or a low current but higher historic burden (e.g. Mycobacterium bovis, rare zoonotic pathogens in domestic animals with severe disease manifestations in humans (e.g. BSE prion, Capnocytophaga canimorsus as well as arthropod-borne and wildlife associated pathogens which may pose a severe risk in future (e.g. Japanese encephalitis virus and West-Nile virus. These agents are key targets for development of early warning and surveillance.

  11. Surveillance, response systems, and evidence updates on emerging zoonoses: the role of one health.

    Asokan, G V; Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K; Asokan, Vanitha

    2013-01-01

    Globally, emerging zoonotic diseases are increasing. Existing surveillance systems for zoonoses have substantial gaps, especially in developing countries, and the systems in place in the developed world require improvements. Resources and updates on evidence-based practice (EBP) for zoonoses are sparser in the veterinary literature as compared to the medical literature. Evidence updates for emerging zoonoses are either absent or rudimentary in both human and veterinary medicine. A 'one-health' concept, including a global signaling surveillance system for emerging zoonoses, will be essential for correct diagnoses, interventions, and public health strategies. An open access EBP platform supported by builders of EBP resources is urgently needed to counter emerging zoonoses. PMID:24363836

  12. Surveillance, response systems, and evidence updates on emerging zoonoses: the role of one health

    Asokan, G.V.; Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K.; Asokan, Vanitha

    2013-01-01

    Globally, emerging zoonotic diseases are increasing. Existing surveillance systems for zoonoses have substantial gaps, especially in developing countries, and the systems in place in the developed world require improvements. Resources and updates on evidence-based practice (EBP) for zoonoses are sparser in the veterinary literature as compared to the medical literature. Evidence updates for emerging zoonoses are either absent or rudimentary in both human and veterinary medicine. A ‘one-health...

  13. Surveillance, response systems, and evidence updates on emerging zoonoses: the role of one health

    G. V. Asokan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, emerging zoonotic diseases are increasing. Existing surveillance systems for zoonoses have substantial gaps, especially in developing countries, and the systems in place in the developed world require improvements. Resources and updates on evidence-based practice (EBP for zoonoses are sparser in the veterinary literature as compared to the medical literature. Evidence updates for emerging zoonoses are either absent or rudimentary in both human and veterinary medicine. A ‘one-health’ concept, including a global signaling surveillance system for emerging zoonoses, will be essential for correct diagnoses, interventions, and public health strategies. An open access EBP platform supported by builders of EBP resources is urgently needed to counter emerging zoonoses.

  14. Emerging human infectious diseases: anthroponoses, zoonoses, and sapronoses

    Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2003), s. 403-404. ISSN 1080-6040 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : zoonoses Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 5.340, year: 2003 http://www.cdc.gov.ncidod/EID/vol9no3/02-0208-app.htm

  15. Dirofilariose: zoonose emergente negligenciada Dirofilariasis: neglected emerging zoonosis

    Rodrigo Costa da Silva; Helio Langoni

    2009-01-01

    A dirofilariose é uma zoonose pouco conhecida causada por Dirofilaria spp., nematódeo mais conhecido como verme do coração dos cães (Dirofilaria immitis), parasita do sistema circulatório desses animais, mas que também pode acometer gatos e o ser humano. Sua ocorrência está intimamente ligada à presença de mosquitos vetores (Aedes spp., Anopheles spp., Culex spp.), condições climáticas favoráveis, assim como trânsito entre regiões indenes e endêmicas/epidêmicas. O ser humano pode se infectar ...

  16. Towards a conceptual framework to support one-health research for policy on emerging zoonoses.

    Coker, Richard; Rushton, Jonathan; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Karimuribo, Esron; Lutumba, Pascal; Kambarage, Dominic; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Stärk, Katharina; Rweyemamu, Mark

    2011-04-01

    In the past two decades there has been a growing realisation that the livestock sector was in a process of change, resulting from an expansion of intensive animal production systems and trade to meet a globalised world's increasing demand for livestock products. One unintended consequence has been the emergence and spread of transboundary animal diseases and, more specifically, the resurgence and emergence of zoonotic diseases. Concurrent with changes in the livestock sector, contact with wildlife has increased. This development has increased the risk of transmission of infections from wildlife to human beings and livestock. Two overarching questions arise with respect to the real and perceived threat from emerging infectious diseases: why are these problems arising with increasing frequency, and how should we manage and control them? A clear conceptual research framework can provide a guide to ensure a research strategy that coherently links to the overarching goals of policy makers. We propose such a new framework in support of a research and policy-generation strategy to help to address the challenges posed by emerging zoonoses. PMID:21376670

  17. Dirofilariose: zoonose emergente negligenciada Dirofilariasis: neglected emerging zoonosis

    Rodrigo Costa da Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A dirofilariose é uma zoonose pouco conhecida causada por Dirofilaria spp., nematódeo mais conhecido como verme do coração dos cães (Dirofilaria immitis, parasita do sistema circulatório desses animais, mas que também pode acometer gatos e o ser humano. Sua ocorrência está intimamente ligada à presença de mosquitos vetores (Aedes spp., Anopheles spp., Culex spp., condições climáticas favoráveis, assim como trânsito entre regiões indenes e endêmicas/epidêmicas. O ser humano pode se infectar com D. immitis (pulmão, Dirofilaria repens (pulmão, subcutâneo e Dirofilaria tenuis (subcutâneo. A fisiopatologia está intimamente ligada à morte do parasita onde, no cão, pode induzir a obstrução de vasos circulatórios e no ser humano produzir uma lesão nodular com intensa reação inflamatória no parênquima pulmonar com formato de moeda observada nas radiografias. Pode ser diagnosticada pelo exame físico, pela detecção de microfilárias na circulação sangüínea, imunoadsorção enzimático (ELISA, alterações radiográficas, ecocardiografia, ultrassonografia e necropsia. Há riscos no tratamento, sendo a prevenção com a utilização de drogas nos animais o método mais eficaz, principalmente em visitas a áreas endêmicas ou epidêmicas, diminuindo-se, assim, o risco para saúde pública devido à disseminação do parasita.Dirofilariasis is an unknown zoonosis, caused by Dirofilaria spp, nematodea most known as dog's heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis, which parasites the vascular system of these animals, but infects cats and human beings too. Its occurrence is highly linked to the presence of mosquitoes (Aedes spp., Anopheles spp., Culex spp., adequate climatic conditions, as well as the transit between infection-free and endemic/epidemic regions. Human beings can be infected by D. immitis (lung, Dirofilaria repens (lung, subcutaneous and Dirofilaria tenuis (subcutaneous. The physiopathology is highly dependent of the

  18. Uncovering zoonoses awareness in an emerging disease ‘hotspot’

    Paige, Sarah B.; Malave, Carly; Mbabazi, Edith; Mayer, Jonathan; Goldberg, Tony L.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases from animals pose significant and increasing threats to human health; places of risk are simultaneously viewed as conservation and emerging disease ‘hotspots’. The One World/One Health paradigm is an ‘assemblage’ discipline. Extensive research from the natural and social sciences, as well as public health have contributed to designing surveillance and response policy within the One World/One Health framework. However, little research has been undertaken that consi...

  19. Evidence-based early clinical detection of emerging diseases in food animals and zoonoses: two cases.

    Saegerman, Claude; Humblet, Marie-France; Porter, Sarah Rebecca; Zanella, Gina; Martinelle, Ludovic

    2012-03-01

    If diseases of food-producing animals or zoonoses (re-)emerge, early clinical decision making is of major importance. In this particular condition, it is difficult to apply a classic evidence-based veterinary medicine process, because of a lack of available published data. A method based on the partition of field clinical observations (evidences) could be developed as an interesting alternative approach. The classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to improve the early clinical detection in two cases of emerging diseases: bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease) and bluetongue due to the serotype 8-virus in cattle. PMID:22374122

  20. Zoonoses as occupational diseases

    Giorgio Battelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Zoonoses are discussed as occupational diseases, with special reference to animal husbandry and related activities. After quoting some historical references, occupational zoonoses are examined in relation to the evolution of the concept of occupational zoonosis, the involvement of the World Health Organization in this field, their socio-economic significance, the principal working activities, zoonoses of greatest importance (with special reference to the Mediterranean region, the evaluation of damage and risks. An outline is made of the transmission of zoonoses from farm workers to animals and the biological hazards from the environment. The present situation of occupational zoonoses and related risks in industrialised and traditional farming activities are presented and the importance of some emerging and re-emerging zoonoses for the health of workers is highlighted. The author concludes by stressing that the prevention of occupational zoonoses must be implemented jointly by both veterinary and medical services through preventive measures and epidemiological surveillance of human and animal health, risk evaluation, diagnosis of infections and prompt reporting. It is hoped that the future will offer better inter-disciplinary collaboration and that legislation will be timely and better tailored to safeguard working health and safety.

  1. Control of zoonoses in emergency situations: lessons learned during recent outbreaks (gaps and weaknesses of current zoonoses control programmes

    Darem Tabbaa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In emergency situations, domestic animals and wildlife are, like people, exposed to infectious diseases and environmental contaminants in the air, soil, water and food. They can suffer from acute and/or chronic diseases from such exposure. Often animals serve as disease reservoirs or early warning systems for the community in regard to the spread of zoonotic diseases. Over 100 years of experience have shown that animal and human health are closely related. During the past few years, emergent disease episodes have increased; nearly all have involved zoonotic agents. As there is no way to predict when or where the next important new zoonotic pathogen will emerge or what its ultimate importance might be, investigation at the first sign of emergence of a new zoonotic disease is particularly important. Today, in many emerging situations, different activities involving zoonotic disease control are at risk because of failed investigative infrastructures or financial constraints. Considering that zoonotic diseases have their own characteristics, their prevention and control require unique strategies, based more on fundamental and applied research than on traditional approaches. Such strategies require cooperation and coordination between animal and public health sectors and the involvement of other disciplines and experts such as epidemiologists, entomologists, environmentalists and climatologists. Lessons learned from the avian influenza pandemic threat, the Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and rabies outbreaks are presented and the gaps and weakness of current control programmes are discussed.

  2. Ecological approaches to informing public health policy and risk assessments on emerging vector-borne zoonoses

    Medlock, Jolyon; Jameson, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Pathogens associated with vector-borne zoonoses occur in enzootic cycles within nature. They are driven by a combination of vertebrate host and invertebrate vector population dynamics, which in turn respond to changes in environmental stimuli. Human involvement in these cycles, and hence the occurrence of human disease, is often to act as incidental host. From a public health perspective our ability to better predict human outbreaks of these diseases and prepare intervention and mitigation st...

  3. Ecological approaches to informing public health policy and risk assessments on emerging vector-borne zoonoses

    Medlock, JM; Jameson, LJ

    2010-01-01

    Pathogens associated with vector-borne zoonoses occur in enzootic cycles within nature. They are driven by a combination of vertebrate host and invertebrate vector population dynamics, which in turn respond to changes in environmental stimuli. Human involvement in these cycles, and hence the occurrence of human disease, is often to act as incidental host. From a public health perspective our ability to better predict human outbreaks of these diseases and prepare intervention and mitigation st...

  4. Zoonoses in the Mediterranean region.

    Seimenis, Aristarco; Morelli, Daniela; Mantovani, Adriano

    2006-01-01

    The Mediterranean and Middle East Region (MME) is considered the most important area for the historical development and concentration of zoonoses. Besides the classical Mediterranean pattern, an urbanised pattern has emerged which is strongly influenced by globalisation. Both patterns co-exist and have many peculiarities affecting the life cycles of zoonoses and their social impact. The features of those zoonoses which are now most relevant in the MME (brucellosis, rabies, cystic echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, food-borne zoonoses) are discussed. Besides other relevant activities, the World Health Organization has established, since 1979, a specialised programme with a unit coordinating and managing activities: i.e. the Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Centre, operating from Athens, Greece. PMID:17361068

  5. Local address and emergency contact details

    2013-01-01

    The HR Department would like to remind members of the personnel that they are responsible for ensuring that their personal data concerning local address and preferred emergency contact details remains valid and up-to-date.   Both are easily accessible via the links below: Local address: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/LocalAddressChange   Emergency contacts: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/EC   Please take a few minutes to check your details and modify if necessary. Thank you in advance. HR Department Head Office

  6. Emerging vector-borne zoonoses: eco-epidemiology and public health implications in India.

    Dhiman, Ramesh C

    2014-01-01

    The diseases originating from animals or associated with man and animals are remerging and have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality. The present review highlights the re-emergence of emerging mainly zoonotic diseases like chikungunya, scrub typhus, and extension of spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis from western Rajasthan to Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and Haryana states; West Nile virus to Assam, and non-endemic areas of Japanese encephalitis (JE) like Maharashtra and JE to Delhi; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever making inroads in Ahmedabad; and reporting fifth parasite of human malaria with possibility of zoonosis have been highlighted, which necessitates further studies for prevention and control. Emphasis has been given on understanding the ecology of reservoir hosts of pathogen, micro niche of vector species, climatic, socioeconomic risk factors, etc. Development of facilities for diagnosis of virus from insects, reservoirs, and human beings (like BSL4, which has been established in NIV, Pune), awareness about symptoms of new emerging viral and other zoonotic diseases, differential diagnosis, risk factors (climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic) and mapping of disease-specific vulnerable areas, and mathematical modeling for projecting epidemiological scenario is needed for preparedness of public health institutes. It is high time to understand the ecological link of zoonotic or anthroponotic diseases for updated risk maps and epidemiological knowledge for effective preventive and control measures. The public health stakeholders in India as well as in Southeast Asia should emphasize on understanding the eco-epidemiology of the discussed zoonotic diseases for taking preventive actions. PMID:25325052

  7. Emerging Vector borne zoonoses: eco-­epidemiology and public health implications in India

    Ramesh C Dhiman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The diseases originating from animals or associated with man and animals are remerging and have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality. The present review highlights the re-emergence of emerging mainly zoonotic diseases like chikungunya, scrub typhus, extension of spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis from Western Rajasthan to Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and Haryana states; West Nile virus to Assam, and non- endemic areas of JE like Maharashtra and JE to Delhi; Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever making inroads in Ahmedabad; reporting fifth parasite of human malaria with possibility of zoonosis have been highlighted which necessitates further studies for prevention and control. Emphasis has been given on understanding the ecology of reservoir hosts of pathogen, micro niche of vector species, climatic, socioeconomic risk factors etc. Development of facilities for diagnosis of virus from insects, reservoirs and human beings (like BSL4 which has been established in NIV, Pune, awareness about symptoms of new emerging viral and other zoonotic diseases, differential diagnosis, risk factors (Climatic, ecological and socioeconomic and mapping of disease specific vulnerable areas, mathematical modeling for projecting epidemiological scenario, are needed for preparedness of public health institutes. It is high time to understand the ecological link of zoonotic or anthroponotic diseases for updated risk maps and epidemiological knowledge for effective preventive and control measures. The public health stakeholders in India as well as in south East Asia should emphasize on understanding the eco-epidemiology of the discussed zoonotic diseases for taking preventive actions.

  8. All creatures great and minute: a public policy primer for companion animal zoonoses.

    Reaser, J K; Clark, E E; Meyers, N M

    2008-10-01

    Approximately 63% of US households have at least one pet, a large percentage of which are considered family members. Pet owners can derive substantial physical and psychological benefits from interaction with companion animals. However, pet ownership is not without risks; zoonotic diseases are increasingly drawing the attention of healthcare professionals, policy makers and the general public. While zoonoses of 'traditional' pets are widely recognized and their prevention and treatment factors are generally known, the growing popularity of 'non-traditional' pets has the potential to facilitate human exposure to novel zoonoses. However, the greatest risk of zoonoses probably arises from animals taken directly from the wild to serve as pets. Non-governmental organizations, state veterinary associations and others have been calling for increased regulation of animal imports, some proposing that all 'exotics' be banned from the pet trade. Because zoonotic diseases of companion animals are influenced by interacting factors of ecological, technical, socio-economic, and political origin, efforts to minimize their impact need be multi-dimensional, simultaneously addressing both the ecological and socio-political drivers of disease emergence and transmission. This study is intended to serve as a primer for animal care professionals seeking to engage with policy makers and the pet industry on the prevention of companion animal zoonoses. We provide background on the human-animal bond, risks of zoonoses associated with groups of companion animals, and the public policy context, as well as identify the factors needed to build a comprehensive approach to companion animal zoonoses risk management. Also included are examples of innovative, non-regulatory initiatives designed to limit the spread and impact of companion animal zoonoses, including a reptile salmonella poster, the National Reptile Improvement Plan, Habitattitude campaign, Pet Zoonoses Committee, and a wildlife disease

  9. 76 FR 37817 - Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses...

    2011-06-28

    ... Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses in Support of Strategies That Address Food Safety Problems That Align... Administration, Office of the Commissioner and the Office of International Programs, Center for Food Safety and... state of food safety globally, including challenges, risks and emerging trends, through an...

  10. Zoonoses: A current issue in contemporary infectology

    Antonijević Božidar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Animal infectious diseases which can be transmitted to humans are as old as the civilization itself. It is thought that 75% of all human infectious diseases are of zoonotic origin. Zoonoses are of significant public health importance, with major social and economic impact. General facts about zoonoses. Depending on their life cycle, four groups of zoonoses are distinguished: orthozoonoses, cyclozoonoses, metazoonoses and saprozoonoses. Some zoonoses are of bacterial or viral origin, some are caused by rickettsia or chlamydia, others are mycotic or parasitic infections, whereas some are caused by arthropods or prions. Transmission of zoonoses to humans. Three stages are differentiated during the transmission of the causative agent to humans: excretion, presence in the environment and entry into the new host. There are two transmission mechanisms: transmissive (vector-borne and non-transmissive (fecally-orally. Conclusion. Undoubtedly, new zoonoses will continue to emerge, and that is why we need to take seriously the warning of the Third Congress for the European Society for Emerging Infections "to expect the unexpected." .

  11. Climate change, zoonoses and India.

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S; Aulakh, R S; Banga, H S

    2011-12-01

    Economic trends have shaped our growth and the growth of the livestock sector, but atthe expense of altering natural resources and systems in ways that are not always obvious. Now, however, the reverse is beginning to happen, i.e. environmental trends are beginning to shape our economy and health status. In addition to water, air and food, animals and birds play a pivotal role in the maintenance and transmission of important zoonotic diseases in nature. It is generally considered that the prevalence of vector-borne and waterborne zoonoses is likely to increase in the coming years due to the effects of global warming in India. In recent years, vector-borne diseases have emerged as a serious public health problem in countries of the South-East Asia region, including India. Vector-borne zoonoses now occur in epidemic form almost on an annual basis, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. New reservoir areas of cutaneous leishmaniosis in South India have been recognised, and the role of climate change in its re-emergence warrants further research, as does the role of climate change in the ascendancy of waterborne and foodborne illness. Similarly, climate change that leads to warmer and more humid conditions may increase the risk of transmission of airborne zoonoses, and hot and drier conditions may lead to a decline in the incidence of disease(s). The prevalence of these zoonotic diseases and their vectors and the effect of climate change on important zoonoses in India are discussed in this review. PMID:22435190

  12. Addressing social resistance in emerging security technologies.

    Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In their efforts to enhance the safety and security of citizens, governments and law enforcement agencies look to scientists and engineers to produce modern methods for preventing, detecting, and prosecuting criminal activities. Whole body scanners, lie detection technologies, biometrics, etc., are all being developed for incorporation into the criminal justice apparatus. Yet despite their purported security benefits these technologies often evoke social resistance. Concerns over privacy, ethics, and function-creep appear repeatedly in analyses of these technologies. It is argued here that scientists and engineers continue to pay insufficient attention to this resistance; acknowledging the presence of these social concerns yet failing to meaningfully address them. In so doing they place at risk the very technologies and techniques they are seeking to develop, for socially controversial security technologies face restrictions and in some cases outright banning. By identifying sources of potential social resistance early in the research and design process, scientists can both engage with the public in meaningful debate and modify their security technologies before deployment so as to minimize social resistance and enhance uptake. PMID:23970863

  13. Transmission of zoonoses through immigration and tourism

    Nikoletta Mavroidi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available More than 200 of the documented zoonoses represent a high proportion of the infectious diseases that cause cases of morbidity and mortality and almost 75% are emerging infections. Immigration and tourism are human activities that are included in the broader field of human migration and travel. Travel plays a significant role in the emergence and spread of disease. The migration of humans has provided the route of spread for infectious diseases and zoonoses (for example, plague, yellow fever, monkey pox and severe acute respiratory syndrome. Tourism constitutes a small fraction of overall movements of humans but a point worthy of note is the number of international travellers has increased by more than 1 300% over the last 50 years. In addition, over 80 million people, mostly from developing countries, are legal or illegal immigrants. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveller to the population visited and the ecosystem. Tourism and immigration may constitute an interface for mixing different genetic and ecological profiles, as well as cultural and social aspects, which is of particular interest in regard to zoonoses. Primary prevention, epidemiological surveillance and health education in the framework of intersectoral and international collaboration remain the cornerstone for response to and control of zoonoses in the context of tourism and immigration.

  14. [Network for surveillance of zoonoses in agriculture].

    Rigaud, Emma; Abadia, Geneviève

    2007-06-15

    Currently, health risk monitoring and observation are major issues in terms of prevention. These principles specifically apply to biological risks with the onset of emerging or re-emerging zoonoses and the implementation of a specific regulation on workers' protection against these risks. It is in this context that the Mutualité Sociale Agricole (French social security agency) decided in 1999 to create a monitoring network for non-food zoonoses in agriculture, supported by field professionals. More than a case recording system, it is an exchange network between various actors specialized in human health, prevention and animal health. Many different actions were initiated: studies, surveys, training, development of information tools etc., to give the various actors means to know and create awareness on these often ill-known diseases, to strengthen risk assessment, adapt prevention measures to each situation and react in the event of a sanitary crisis. PMID:17708088

  15. Integrated epidemiology for vector-borne zoonoses

    Wardrop, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The development and application of interventions for the control of vector-borne zoonoses requires broad understanding of epidemiological linkages between vector, animal infection and human infection. However, there are significant gaps in our understanding of these linkages and a lack of appropriate data poses a considerable barrier to addressing this issue. A move towards strengthened surveillance of vectors and disease in both animal and human hosts, in combination with linked human-animal...

  16. Communicating one's local address and emergency contact details

    Information Technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group; Human Resources Department, SPS (Services, Procedures and Social) Group

    2007-01-01

    As part of the ongoing simplification of procedures and rationalisation of administrative processes, the IT, PH (Users Office) and HR Departments have developed two new EDH forms for communicating or updating one's local address and emergency contact details. This is the first time that the forms relating to an official HR procedure can be accessed on a self-service basis and directly updated by the members of personnel themselves. The information recorded remains confidential and may only be accessed by the authorised administrative services and the emergency services. Local address: Members of the personnel must declare any change in their local address (Art. R V 1.38 of the Staff Regulations). This declaration is henceforth made by directly filling out the EDH document indicated below, and without requiring any other spontaneous formality vis-à-vis the department secretariat or the Users Office. It is also possible for any member of the personnel to check whether the local address in the Organizati...

  17. Hydrocomplexity: Addressing water security and emergent environmental risks

    Kumar, Praveen

    2015-07-01

    Water security and emergent environmental risks are among the most significant societal concerns. They are highly interlinked to other global risks such as those related to climate, human health, food, human migration, biodiversity loss, urban sustainability, etc. Emergent risks result from the confluence of unanticipated interactions from evolving interdependencies between complex systems, such as those embedded in the water cycle. They are associated with the novelty of dynamical possibilities that have significant potential consequences to human and ecological systems, and not with probabilities based on historical precedence. To ensure water security we need to be able to anticipate the likelihood of risk possibilities as they present the prospect of the most impact through cascade of vulnerabilities. They arise due to a confluence of nonstationary drivers that include growing population, climate change, demographic shifts, urban growth, and economic expansion, among others, which create novel interdependencies leading to a potential of cascading network effects. Hydrocomplexity aims to address water security and emergent risks through the development of science, methods, and practices with the potential to foster a "Blue Revolution" akin to the Green revolution for food security. It blends both hard infrastructure based solution with soft knowledge driven solutions to increase the range of planning and design, management, mitigation and adaptation strategies. It provides a conceptual and synthetic framework to enable us to integrate discovery science and engineering, observational and information science, computational and communication systems, and social and institutional approaches to address consequential water and environmental challenges.

  18. Zoonoses: a potential obstacle to the growing wildlife industry of Namibia

    Magwedere, Kudakwashe; Hemberger, Maria Y.; Louw C. Hoffman; Dziva, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Zoonoses, which account for approximately 75% of emerging human infectious diseases worldwide, pose a re-emerging threat to public health. With an ever-increasing interrelationship between humans, livestock and wildlife species, the threat to human health will rise to unprecedented levels. Wildlife species contribute to the majority of emerging diseases; therefore, there is an urgent need to define control systems of zoonoses of wildlife origin but very little information exists. In this revi...

  19. Ecology of zoonoses: natural and unnatural histories.

    Karesh, William B; Dobson, Andy; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Lubroth, Juan; Dixon, Matthew A; Bennett, Malcolm; Aldrich, Stephen; Harrington, Todd; Formenty, Pierre; Loh, Elizabeth H; Machalaba, Catherine C; Thomas, Mathew Jason; Heymann, David L

    2012-12-01

    More than 60% of human infectious diseases are caused by pathogens shared with wild or domestic animals. Zoonotic disease organisms include those that are endemic in human populations or enzootic in animal populations with frequent cross-species transmission to people. Some of these diseases have only emerged recently. Together, these organisms are responsible for a substantial burden of disease, with endemic and enzootic zoonoses causing about a billion cases of illness in people and millions of deaths every year. Emerging zoonoses are a growing threat to global health and have caused hundreds of billions of US dollars of economic damage in the past 20 years. We aimed to review how zoonotic diseases result from natural pathogen ecology, and how other circumstances, such as animal production, extraction of natural resources, and antimicrobial application change the dynamics of disease exposure to human beings. In view of present anthropogenic trends, a more effective approach to zoonotic disease prevention and control will require a broad view of medicine that emphasises evidence-based decision making and integrates ecological and evolutionary principles of animal, human, and environmental factors. This broad view is essential for the successful development of policies and practices that reduce probability of future zoonotic emergence, targeted surveillance and strategic prevention, and engagement of partners outside the medical community to help improve health outcomes and reduce disease threats. PMID:23200502

  20. Bacterial Zoonoses Transmitted by Household Pets

    Damborg, Peter Panduro; Broens, E.M.; Chomel, B.B.;

    2016-01-01

    zoonoses representing distinct transmission routes were selected arbitrarily based on the available information on incidence and severity of pet-associated disease caused by zoonotic bacteria: bite infections and cat scratch disease (physical injuries), psittacosis (inhalation), leptospirosis (contact...... with urine), and campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis (faecal–oral ingestion). Antimicrobial resistance was also included due to the recent emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria of zoonotic potential in dogs and cats. There is a general lack of data on pathogen prevalence in the relevant pet population...... to estimate the burden of human disease attributable to pets and to identify risk behaviours facilitating transmission, and (3) education of those in charge of pets, animal caretakers, veterinarians and human medical healthcare practitioners on the potential zoonotic risks associated with exposure to pets...

  1. Food-borne Zoonoses

    Background: The awareness of food borne illness has shifted over the years as international agribusiness and transportation have steadily increased. At least 30 food borne agents have been identified, with one-third emerging in the last 3 decades. Despite an increased emphasis on control measures, t...

  2. Zoonoses in the Bedroom

    2011-01-26

    This podcast reports on some of the diseases pet owners can acquire from their pets. Public health veterinarian, Dr. Heather Bair-Brake, describes the connection between disease and pets sleeping in their owner’s beds.  Created: 1/26/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/31/2011.

  3. UMANG – AN EMERGENCY CAMPAIGN TO ADDRESS MALNUTRITION

    Grana Pu Selvi Gnanaraj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: World Vision India with its existence in across the country implemented the emergency feeding program for the children with underweight in 53 area development sites spread across 15 states of the country. Rationale: Since more than 40% of the children were found to be underweight through our assessment process, we implemented this community based feeding program as an emergency response to children with malnutrition. Objective: To rehabilitate the malnourished children and sensitise the community on feeding, caring and health seeking practices. Material and Methods: Considering the high prevalence of underweight children, we initiated the program ‘UMANG’ (Urgent Management and Action for Nutritional growth on a campaign mode with the involvement of various stakeholders. Malnourished children for this program were selected through a community based screening program. This was a 90 day community based feeding program for the malnourished children conducted either in the anganwadi center or a common place. Underweight children (moderate and severe and their mothers/care takers attended this program with their contribution from backyard nutrition garden or local market and were taught to prepare a nutritious menu using locally available low cost food materials. Mothers were also sensitised on health seeking, caring and feeding practices to prevent future incidence of malnutrition. The families of the malnourished children were also supported with nutrition (backyard garden, economic development assistance to improve food diversity at the household level. Results: About 50858 malnourished children (54 per cent moderate and 46 per cent severe were enrolled in UMANG[1]. On comparing the baseline (1st day and endline figures (90th day 38.5 per cent of the children have graduated to normal from moderate and severe underweight. In addition UMANG had spin off benefits such as increase in anganwadi attendance, community based growth

  4. Public Health Threat of New, Reemerging, and Neglected Zoonoses in the Industrialized World

    Cutler, S.J.; Fooks, A.R.; Poel, van der W.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Microbiologic infections acquired from animals, known as zoonoses, pose a risk to public health. An estimated 60% of emerging human pathogens are zoonotic. Of these pathogens, >71% have wildlife origins. These pathogens can switch hosts by acquiring new genetic combinations that have altered path

  5. Zoonoses and one health: a review of the literature.

    Bidaisee, Satesh; Macpherson, Calum N L

    2014-01-01

    Background. One health is a concept that was officially adopted by international organizations and scholarly bodies in 1984. It is the notion of combining human, animal, and environmental components to address global health challenges that have an ecological interconnectedness. Methods. A cross-sectional study of the available literature cited was conducted from January 1984 when the one health concept was adopted till December 2012 to examine the role of the one health approach towards zoonoses. Inclusion criteria included publications, professional presentations, funding allocations, official documentation books, and book chapters, and exclusion criteria included those citations written outside the period of review. Results. A total of 737 resources met the inclusion criteria and were considered in this review. Resources showed a continuous upward trend for the years from 2006 to 2012. The predominant resources were journal publications with environmental health as the significant scope focus for one health. There was also an emphasis on the distribution of the work from developed countries. All categories of years, resources, scopes, and country locale differed from the means (P = 0.000). Year of initiative, scope, and country locale showed a dependent relationship (P = 0.022, P = 0.003, and P = 0.021, resp.). Conclusion. Our findings demonstrate the rapid growth in embracing the concept of one health, particularly in developed countries over the past six years. The advantages and benefits of this approach in tackling zoonoses are manifold, yet they are still not seemingly being embraced in developing countries where zoonoses have the greatest impact. PMID:24634782

  6. Zoonoses and One Health: A Review of the Literature

    Satesh Bidaisee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. One health is a concept that was officially adopted by international organizations and scholarly bodies in 1984. It is the notion of combining human, animal, and environmental components to address global health challenges that have an ecological interconnectedness. Methods. A cross-sectional study of the available literature cited was conducted from January 1984 when the one health concept was adopted till December 2012 to examine the role of the one health approach towards zoonoses. Inclusion criteria included publications, professional presentations, funding allocations, official documentation books, and book chapters, and exclusion criteria included those citations written outside the period of review. Results. A total of 737 resources met the inclusion criteria and were considered in this review. Resources showed a continuous upward trend for the years from 2006 to 2012. The predominant resources were journal publications with environmental health as the significant scope focus for one health. There was also an emphasis on the distribution of the work from developed countries. All categories of years, resources, scopes, and country locale differed from the means (P=0.000. Year of initiative, scope, and country locale showed a dependent relationship (P=0.022, P=0.003, and P=0.021, resp.. Conclusion. Our findings demonstrate the rapid growth in embracing the concept of one health, particularly in developed countries over the past six years. The advantages and benefits of this approach in tackling zoonoses are manifold, yet they are still not seemingly being embraced in developing countries where zoonoses have the greatest impact.

  7. Public health impact of zoonoses and international approaches for their detection and containment

    François-Xavier Meslin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Many new, emerging and re-emerging diseases of humans are caused by pathogens that originate from animals or products of animal origin. A wide variety of both domestic and wild animal species act as reservoirs for these pathogens, which may be viruses, bacteria or parasites. Given the extensive distribution of the animal species affected, the effective surveillance, prevention and control of zoonotic diseases pose a significant challenge. There are direct and indirect implications for public health of emerging zoonoses. Direct implications are defined as the consequences for human health in terms of morbidity and mortality. Indirect implications are defined as the effect of the influence of emerging zoonotic disease on health professionals and the general public. The tremendous indirect impact of emerging zoonotic diseases on public health policy and structures and on public perception of health risks is acknowledged. A biphasic approach for handling emerging zoonoses is proposed, i.e. a short- to intermediate-term response to an outbreak or emergency and a long-term comprehensive study of the ecology of the zoonotic pathogen. Resource-rich countries should invest in the establishment and strengthening of surveillance systems in resource-limited countries considering the international significance of emerging zoonoses. Based on the new international health regulations, emphasis should be placed on building the appropriate preparedness and response capacity in countries and on promoting intersectoral collaboration and coordination.

  8. NKS - The Nordic region's cooperative network for addressing challenges in nuclear safety and emergency preparedness

    Based on the foundation of a common cultural and historical heritage and a long tradition of collaboration, NKS aims to facilitate a common Nordic view on nuclear and radiation safety. A common understanding of rules, practice and measures, and national differences in this context, is here an essential requirement. Problems can generally be tackled quicker, more efficiently, more consistently and at a lower cost through collaboration, bearing in mind that key competencies are not equally distributed in the different Nordic countries. For instance common Nordic challenges emerge in relation to nuclear installations, where nuclear power plants are in operation in Finland and Sweden, and research reactors have been operated in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. There is an obvious benefit in exchanging ideas and technologies in relation to plant operation, and since a number of reactors in different Nordic countries are under decommissioning, a collaborative benefit can also be realised in that context. Sweden also has a nuclear fuel production plant, and its collaboration with other Nordic nuclear installations can also be beneficial. Further, a number of large radiological installations are projected in Nordic areas (e.g., the MAX-LAB/MAX IV synchrotron radiation source and the European spallation source ESS), where Nordic organisations are collaborating in addressing, e.g., potential environmental implications. On the emergency preparedness side, the Fukushima accident in March 2011 was a reminder that large accidents at nuclear installations can lead to widespread radioactive contamination in the environment. In order to respond to nuclear or radiological emergencies, should they affect Nordic populations, it is necessary to maintain an operational emergency preparedness. By continuously improving detection, response and decision aiding tools while maintaining an informal collaborative network between relevant stakeholders in the Nordic countries (including

  9. Zoonoses: a potential obstacle to the growing wildlife industry of Namibia

    Kudakwashe Magwedere

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Zoonoses, which account for approximately 75% of emerging human infectious diseases worldwide, pose a re-emerging threat to public health. With an ever-increasing interrelationship between humans, livestock and wildlife species, the threat to human health will rise to unprecedented levels. Wildlife species contribute to the majority of emerging diseases; therefore, there is an urgent need to define control systems of zoonoses of wildlife origin but very little information exists. In this review, we examine prevalent zoonotic infections reported in Namibia between 1990 and 2009 and assess their potential impact on the growing wildlife industry. A wide spectrum of zoonotic diseases was confirmed in both livestock and wildlife species, with rabies and anthrax cases being over-represented and also showing the widest species distribution. Whilst vaccination and ante-mortem inspection against these diseases may curb infected livestock species from entering the human food chain, such practices are difficult to implement in free-ranging wildlife species. In this context, there is a need to improve existing control measures and/or develop novel and better interventional strategies to reduce the threat of this re-emerging global problem. This review provides the basis for initiating a multidisciplinary evidence-based approach to control zoonoses in countries with thriving wildlife and game farming.

  10. Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses of Dogs and Cats

    Chomel, Bruno B.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Dogs and cats have been sharing our environment for a long time and as pets they bring major psychological well-being to our modern urbanized society. However, they still can be a source of human infection by various pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi. Abstract Since the middle of the 20th century, pets are more frequently considered as “family members” within households. However, cats and dogs still can be a source of human infection by various zoonot...

  11. Addressing Emerging Risks: Scientific and Regulatory Challenges Associated with Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals

    Dugas, Tammy R.; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Cormier, Stephania A.; Dellinger, Barry; Reams, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Airborne fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) are often generated through widely-used thermal processes such as the combustion of fuels or the thermal decomposition of waste. Residents near Superfund sites are exposed to PM through the inhalation of windblown dust, ingestion of soil and sediments, and inhalation of emissions from the on-site thermal treatment of contaminated soils. Epidemiological evidence supports a link between exposure to airborne PM and an increased risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. It is well-known that during combustion processes, incomplete combustion can lead to the production of organic pollutants that can adsorb to the surface of PM. Recent studies have demonstrated that their interaction with metal centers can lead to the generation of a surface stabilized metal-radical complex capable of redox cycling to produce ROS. Moreover, these free radicals can persist in the environment, hence their designation as Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFR). EPFR has been demonstrated in both ambient air PM2.5 (diameter < 2.5 µm) and in PM from a variety of combustion sources. Thus, low-temperature, thermal treatment of soils can potentially increase the concentration of EPFR in areas in and around Superfund sites. In this review, we will outline the evidence to date supporting EPFR formation and its environmental significance. Furthermore, we will address the lack of methodologies for specifically addressing its risk assessment and challenges associated with regulating this new, emerging contaminant. PMID:27338429

  12. Leveraging Emerging Technologies to Address Specific Learning Challenges and Derive Authentic Learning in Mathematics for Business at Africa University - Zimbabwe

    Agrippah Kandiero; Nelson Jagero

    2014-01-01

    Emerging Technologies have been put forward by many theorists and researchers in the field of education as the key to 21st century pedagogy alternative, with promise to address learning challenges and provide a platform for authentic learning. This paper reports on use of Emerging Technologies to address learning challenges and derive authentic learning in a Mathematics for Business undergraduate course at Africa University. The research was motivated by an authentic learning challenge based ...

  13. Tradition and transition: parasitic zoonoses of people and animals in Alaska, northern Canada, and Greenland.

    Jenkins, Emily J; Castrodale, Louisa J; de Rosemond, Simone J C; Dixon, Brent R; Elmore, Stacey A; Gesy, Karen M; Hoberg, Eric P; Polley, Lydden; Schurer, Janna M; Simard, Manon; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Zoonotic parasites are important causes of endemic and emerging human disease in northern North America and Greenland (the North), where prevalence of some parasites is higher than in the general North American population. The North today is in transition, facing increased resource extraction, globalisation of trade and travel, and rapid and accelerating environmental change. This comprehensive review addresses the diversity, distribution, ecology, epidemiology, and significance of nine zoonotic parasites in animal and human populations in the North. Based on a qualitative risk assessment with criteria heavily weighted for human health, these zoonotic parasites are ranked, in the order of decreasing importance, as follows: Echinococcus multilocularis, Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella and Giardia, Echinococcus granulosus/canadensis and Cryptosporidium, Toxocara, anisakid nematodes, and diphyllobothriid cestodes. Recent and future trends in the importance of these parasites for human health in the North are explored. For example, the incidence of human exposure to endemic helminth zoonoses (e.g. Diphyllobothrium, Trichinella, and Echinococcus) appears to be declining, while water-borne protozoans such as Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Toxoplasma may be emerging causes of human disease in a warming North. Parasites that undergo temperature-dependent development in the environment (such as Toxoplasma, ascarid and anisakid nematodes, and diphyllobothriid cestodes) will likely undergo accelerated development in endemic areas and temperate-adapted strains/species will move north, resulting in faunal shifts. Food-borne pathogens (e.g. Trichinella, Toxoplasma, anisakid nematodes, and diphyllobothriid cestodes) may be increasingly important as animal products are exported from the North and tourists, workers, and domestic animals enter the North. Finally, key needs are identified to better assess and mitigate risks associated with zoonotic parasites, including enhanced

  14. Zoonoses in the European Union: origin, distribution and dynamics

    Lahuerta, A.; Westrell, T.; Takkinen, J.;

    2011-01-01

    We present a summary of the main findings of the latest report of the European Food Safety Authority and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control on zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in the European Union (EU), based on data from 2009. Zoonoses are prevalent and widely ...... distributed across several countries in the EU. The most important highlight of this report was the continuous decrease of human salmonellosis since 2005, probably due to effective control programmes in livestock....

  15. Network of siren, public address and display system to preparedness and response for nuclear emergencies

    For an effective emergency response and implementation of counter measures, communication during a nuclear emergency is a very important aspect. The declaration of a nuclear emergency must be immediately conveyed to all those working in the plant and around the nuclear site. Besides this, the nature of emergency also needs to be conveyed unambiguously along with corresponding counter measures, such as stay in, evacuation or all clear signal for the relevant plants. This requirement has necessitated the need for a networked signaling system. Based on this requirement, a microcontroller based signaling and a telephone/wireless based communication and display system has been designed at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. It is proposed to be used as a part of emergency preparedness and response programme at the nuclear facility sites. As per the design made for Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay site, each plant or area in the site is identified by a unique identification code. The main Site Emergency Control Centre/Emergency Response Centre at Mod. Labs. selectively calls the various plants and declares the nature of emergency to be followed In that plant/area through different siren signals along with display and announcement of instructions. This paper describes the details of the system that is designed for Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay site and proposed for other nuclear power plant sites. (author)

  16. Doença de lyme-símile brasileira ou síndrome baggioyoshinari: zoonose exótica e emergente transmitida por carrapatos Brazilian lyme-like disease or baggio-yoshinari syndrome: exotic and emerging brazilian tick-borne zoonosis

    Natalino Hajime Yoshinari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A Doença de Lyme (DL é uma zoonose frequente no hemisfério Norte e considerada uma enfermidade infecciosa causada por espiroquetas do complexo Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato e transmitida pela picada de carrapatos do grupo Ixodes ricinus. Os primeiros casos semelhantes à DL no Brasil foram descobertos, em 1992, em irmãos que após serem picados por carrapatos desenvolveram eritema migratório, sintomas gripais e artrite. Criteriosa análise da casuística brasileira, mostrou que os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e laboratoriais no país, divergiam bastante dos exibidos pelos pacientes com DL nos Estados Unidos da América e Eurásia. Não foram encontrados carrapatos do complexo Ixodes ricinus hematófago ao homem nas áreas de risco; a enfermidade no país é recorrente; a Borrelia burgdorferi jamais foi isolada no Brasil e os ensaios sorológicos específicos exibem positividade baixa e oscilante. Além disso, o exame do sangue periférico dos pacientes quando analisados à microscopia eletrônica exibe estruturas sugestivas de Mycoplasma spp, Chlamydia spp e bacteroides. Na verdade, estas estruturas podem representar as formas latentes das espiroquetas (forma L ou bactérias desprovidas de parede, adaptadas a sobreviver em condições inóspitas em hospedeiros vertebrados e invertebrados. Assim, a zoonose presente no país recebeu a denominação de Síndrome Baggio-Yoshinari e definida como: "Enfermidade infecciosa nova e emergente brasileira, transmitida por carrapatos não pertencentes ao complexo Ixodes ricinus, causada por espiroquetas na sua morfologia atípica e latente, que origina manifestações clínicas semelhantes às observadas na DL, exceto pela ocorrência de recidivas clínicas e desordens autoimunes".Lyme disease (LD is a frequent zoonosis found in the Northern Hemisphere and is considered an infectious disease caused by spirochetes belonging sensu lato to the Borrelia burgdorferi complex transmitted by ticks of

  17. One Health and Zoonoses: The Evolution of One Health and Incorporation of Zoonoses

    Govindaraj V. Asokan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Zoonotic disease outbreaks have surged in the last two decades. These include severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, Hendra virus, Nipah virus, influenza viruses, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS coronavirus, and ebola. One Health is the initiative of an inclusive collaboration linking human, animal, and environmental health. One Health is advocated through an intersectoral coordination to combat zoonoses, and the term has evolved over centuries. The primary aim of this literature review was to examine the change in the definition of the term One Health over time, particuarly following the the introduction of the latest definition in 2007 by the American Medical Association and the American Veterinary Medical Association.Methods: This review was conducted in four phases. The first phase consisted of a general PubMed search for the phrase “One Health” for every literature published up to December 2014. Then an advanced search was carried out using “One Health” in conjunction with the terms “zoonosis” and “zoonoses” in PubMed for the time period between January 2007 and December 2014.  The articles found were then categorized based on the type of journals in which the articles were published. For the second phase, “One Health” was searched as a Medical subject heading (MeSH term, which is the National Library of Medicine controlled vocabulary thesaurus used for indexing articles. In the third phase, One Health advocate organizations were found using Google search engine. During the final phase, One Health was searched in Google scholar, examined by Google trends, and analyzed by Google ngram.Results: Before 2007, One Health had many connotations to health in the medical literature with an incomplete adherence to the usage of One Health linking zoonoses. The Google trends analysis shows an overal steady increase of the search of One Health from 2007 to 2014, which is consistent with the findings of

  18. Narrative overview of animal and human brucellosis in Morocco: intensification of livestock production as a driver for emergence?

    Ducrotoy, Marie J.; Ammary, Khaoula; Ait Lbacha, Hicham; Zouagui, Zaid; Mick, Virginie; Prevost, Laura; Bryssinckx, Ward; Welburn, Susan C.; Benkirane, Abdelali

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world caused by several species of the genus Brucella. The disease, eradicated in many developed countries, is a re-emerging neglected zoonosis endemic in several zones especially in the Mediterranean region, impacting on human health and livestock production. A One Health approach could address brucellosis control in Morocco but scarcity of reliable epidemiological data, as well as underreporting, hinders the implementation of sustain...

  19. Review of the Risks of Some Canine Zoonoses from Free-Roaming Dogs in the Post-Disaster Setting of Latin America

    Gerardo Acosta-Jamett

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of humane and sustainable control strategies for free-roaming dogs (FRD and the lack of effective disaster preparedness planning in developing regions of the world, the occurrence of canine zoonoses is a potentially important yet unrecognized issue. The existence of large populations of FRDs in Latin America predisposes communities to a host of public health problems that are all potentially exacerbated following disasters due to social and environmental disturbances. There are hundreds of recognized canine zoonoses but a paucity of recommendations for the mitigation of the risk of emergence following disasters. Although some of the symptoms of diseases most commonly reported in human populations following disasters resemble a host of canine zoonoses, there is little mention in key public health documents of FRDs posing any significant risk. We highlight five neglected canine zoonoses of importance in Latin America, and offer recommendations for pre- and post-disaster preparedness and planning to assist in mitigation of the transmission of canine zoonoses arising from FRDs following disasters.

  20. Modeling of wildlife-associated zoonoses: applications and caveats.

    Alexander, Kathleen A; Lewis, Bryan L; Marathe, Madhav; Eubank, Stephen; Blackburn, Jason K

    2012-12-01

    Wildlife species are identified as an important source of emerging zoonotic disease. Accordingly, public health programs have attempted to expand in scope to include a greater focus on wildlife and its role in zoonotic disease outbreaks. Zoonotic disease transmission dynamics involving wildlife are complex and nonlinear, presenting a number of challenges. First, empirical characterization of wildlife host species and pathogen systems are often lacking, and insight into one system may have little application to another involving the same host species and pathogen. Pathogen transmission characterization is difficult due to the changing nature of population size and density associated with wildlife hosts. Infectious disease itself may influence wildlife population demographics through compensatory responses that may evolve, such as decreased age to reproduction. Furthermore, wildlife reservoir dynamics can be complex, involving various host species and populations that may vary in their contribution to pathogen transmission and persistence over space and time. Mathematical models can provide an important tool to engage these complex systems, and there is an urgent need for increased computational focus on the coupled dynamics that underlie pathogen spillover at the human-wildlife interface. Often, however, scientists conducting empirical studies on emerging zoonotic disease do not have the necessary skill base to choose, develop, and apply models to evaluate these complex systems. How do modeling frameworks differ and what considerations are important when applying modeling tools to the study of zoonotic disease? Using zoonotic disease examples, we provide an overview of several common approaches and general considerations important in the modeling of wildlife-associated zoonoses. PMID:23199265

  1. CDC Grand Rounds: Addressing Preparedness Challenges for Children in Public Health Emergencies.

    Hinton, Cynthia F; Griese, Stephanie E; Anderson, Michael R; Chernak, Esther; Peacock, Georgina; Thorpe, Phoebe G; Lurie, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Recent public health emergencies including Hurricane Katrina (2005), the influenza H1N1 pandemic (2009), and the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa (2014–2015) have demonstrated the importance of multiple-level emergency planning and response. An effective response requires integrating coordinated contributions from community-based health care providers, regional health care coalitions, state and local health departments, and federal agency initiatives. This is especially important when planning for the needs of children, who make up 23% of the U.S. population (1) and have unique needs that require unique planning strategies. PMID:26356838

  2. [Dichotomy of psychiatric and somatic emergency care; fundamental flaw should be addressed].

    Tuerlings, Joep H A M; Pelger, E C M Noor; de Pont, Boudewijn J H B; van Waarde, Jeroen A

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, acute psychiatric care is characterised by mind-body dualism. For acute psychiatric patients, the first port of call is the general practitioner (GP); after-hour care is provided by the out-of-hours GP service. In contrast to patients with other medical illnesses, the out-of-hours GP service does not usually refer patients with acute psychiatric issues to the accident and emergency (A&E) department of the general hospital, but to the local ambulant psychiatric 'crisis' service. However, some of these patients still end up at the A&E department, as our three cases demonstrate. Integration of the out-of-hours GP service, A&E and acute psychiatric care, therefore, would enable elimination of the current partitioning of somatic and psychiatric medicine in acute emergency care. This solution would not only improve acute emergency care, but would also ensure a targeted and efficient implementation of services and might even lead to a decreased stigmatisation of psychiatric patients in general. PMID:26230348

  3. The Emerging Role of Meditation in Addressing Psychiatric Illness, with a Focus on Substance Use Disorders

    Dakwar, Elias; Levin, Frances R.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 30 years the practice of meditation has become increasingly popular in clinical settings. In addition to evidence-based medical uses, meditation may have psychiatric benefits. In this review, the literature on the role of meditation in addressing psychiatric issues, and specifically substance use disorders, is discussed. Each of the three meditation modalities that have been most widely studied—transcendental meditation, Buddhist meditation, and mindfulness-based meditation—is c...

  4. NKS - The Nordic region's cooperative network for addressing challenges in nuclear safety and emergency preparedness

    Andersson, K.G. [NKS/Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Andgren, K. [NKS/Vattenfall R and D (Sweden); Leino, K. [NKS/Fortum Power and Heat Oy (Finland); Magnusson, S. [NKS/Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (Iceland); Physant, F. [NKS/FRIT, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2014-07-01

    Based on the foundation of a common cultural and historical heritage and a long tradition of collaboration, NKS aims to facilitate a common Nordic view on nuclear and radiation safety. A common understanding of rules, practice and measures, and national differences in this context, is here an essential requirement. Problems can generally be tackled quicker, more efficiently, more consistently and at a lower cost through collaboration, bearing in mind that key competencies are not equally distributed in the different Nordic countries. For instance common Nordic challenges emerge in relation to nuclear installations, where nuclear power plants are in operation in Finland and Sweden, and research reactors have been operated in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. There is an obvious benefit in exchanging ideas and technologies in relation to plant operation, and since a number of reactors in different Nordic countries are under decommissioning, a collaborative benefit can also be realised in that context. Sweden also has a nuclear fuel production plant, and its collaboration with other Nordic nuclear installations can also be beneficial. Further, a number of large radiological installations are projected in Nordic areas (e.g., the MAX-LAB/MAX IV synchrotron radiation source and the European spallation source ESS), where Nordic organisations are collaborating in addressing, e.g., potential environmental implications. On the emergency preparedness side, the Fukushima accident in March 2011 was a reminder that large accidents at nuclear installations can lead to widespread radioactive contamination in the environment. In order to respond to nuclear or radiological emergencies, should they affect Nordic populations, it is necessary to maintain an operational emergency preparedness. By continuously improving detection, response and decision aiding tools while maintaining an informal collaborative network between relevant stakeholders in the Nordic countries (including

  5. An overview of food safety and bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food production animals in the Caribbean region.

    Guerra, Maria Manuela Mendes; de Almeida, Andre M; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2016-08-01

    Foodborne diseases (FBDs) in the Caribbean have a high economic burden. Public health and tourism concerns rise along with the increasing number of cases and outbreaks registered over the last 20 years. Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Campylobacter spp. are the main bacteria associated with these incidents. In spite of undertaking limited surveillance on FBD in the region, records related to bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food-producing animals and their associated epidemiologic significance are poorly documented, giving rise to concerns about the importance of the livestock, food animal product sectors, and consumption patterns. In this review, we report the available published literature over the last 20 years on selected bacterial foodborne zoonoses in the Caribbean region and also address other food safety-related aspects (e.g., FBD food attribution, importance, surveillance), mainly aiming at recognizing data gaps and identifying possible research approaches in the animal health sector. PMID:27215411

  6. Major Parasitic Zoonoses Associated with Dogs and Cats in Europe

    Baneth, G.; Thamsborg, S M; Otranto, D;

    2016-01-01

    Some of the most important zoonotic infectious diseases are associated with parasites transmitted from companion animals to man. This review describes the main parasitic zoonoses in Europe related to dogs and cats, with particular emphasis on their current epidemiology. Toxoplasmosis, leishmaniosis...

  7. Zoonoses and zoonotic agents in humans, food, animals and feed in the Netherlands 2003-2006

    Valkenburgh S; Oosterom R van; Stenvers O; Aalten M; Braks M; Schimmer B; Giessen A van de; van Pelt W; Langelaar M; LZO; EPI

    2007-01-01

    The report 'Zoonoses and Zoonotic Agents in Humans, Food, Animals and Feed in The Netherlands 2003 - 2006' is based on data that is reported annually to the European Commission, in accordance with the Directive 2003/99/EC on the monitoring of zoonoses and zoonotic agents. They are supplemented with data from Dutch surveillance, monitoring and control programmes and relevant research projects concerning zoonoses and zoonotic agents by the different institutions that have contributed to the pre...

  8. The neglected zoonoses--the case for integrated control and advocacy.

    Welburn, S C; Beange, I; Ducrotoy, M J; Okello, A L

    2015-05-01

    The neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs) have been all but eradicated in wealthier countries, but remain major causes of ill-health and mortality across Africa, Asia, and Latin America. This neglect is, in part, a consequence of under-reporting, resulting in an underestimation of their global burden that downgrades their relevance to policy-makers and funding agencies. Increasing awareness about the causes of NZDs and how they can be prevented could reduce the incidence of many endemic zoonoses. Addressing NZDs by targeting the animal reservoir can deliver a double benefit, as enhanced animal health means a reduced risk of infection for humans, as well as improved livelihoods through increased animal productivity. Advocacy for NZD control is increasing, but with it comes a growing awareness that NZD control demands activities both in the short term and over a long period of time. Moreover, despite the promise of cheap, effective vaccines or other control tools, these endemic diseases will not be sustainably controlled in the near future without long-term financial commitment, particularly as disease incidence decreases and other health priorities take hold. NZD intervention costs can seem high when compared with the public health benefits alone, but these costs are easily outweighed when a full cross-sector analysis is carried out and monetary/non-monetary benefits--particularly regarding the livestock sector--are taken into account. Public-private partnerships have recently provided advocacy for human disease control, and could prove equally effective in addressing endemic zoonoses through harnessing social impact investments. Evidence of the disease burdens imposed on communities by the NZDs and demonstration of the cost-effectiveness of integrated control can strengthen the case for a One Health approach to endemic zoonotic disease control. PMID:25911990

  9. Animal helminths in human archaeological remains: a review of zoonoses in the past Helmintos animais em vestígios arqueológicos humanos: revisão de zoonoses no passado

    Luciana Sianto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a review of records of intestinal parasitic helminths from animals in human archaeological remains, reported since the emergence of paleopathological studies. The objective was to relate paleoparasitological findings to geographic, biotic, and abiotic factors from the environment in which the prehistoric populations lived, and understand some aspects related to the process of human dispersion and biological and cultural evolution. Modification of eating habits and the incorporation of new cultural practices are analyzed from the perspective of zoonoses from prehistory to the present day, especially in Brazilian indigenous populations. Three tables identifying the helminths, their natural hosts, dates, and sites of archaeological findings complete this review. In conclusion, various zoonoses known today have occurred since antiquity, and these data, combined with studies on the emergence and reemergence of diseases, could make possible to compose scenarios for the future.São revistos os registros de ocorrência de helmintos intestinais parasitos de animais em vestígios arqueológicos humanos, relatados desde o surgimento dos estudos paleopatológicos. Busca-se relacionar os achados em paleoparasitologia com fatores geográficos, bióticos e abióticos do ambiente em que as populações pré-históricas viviam, e com aspectos do processo de dispersão e evolução biológica e cultural humana. A modificação de hábitos alimentares e a incorporação de novas práticas culturais são analisadas sob o ponto de vista das zoonoses desde a pré-história até a atualidade, em especial em populações indígenas brasileiras. Três tabelas identificando os helmintos, seus hospedeiros naturais, datações e local dos achados arqueológicos complementam esta revisão. Conclui-se que várias zoonoses conhecidas hoje ocorrem desde a antiguidade e que estes dados, combinados a estudos de emergência e reemergência de doenças, podem

  10. [Human hantavirus diseases - still neglected zoonoses?].

    Vrbovská, V; Chalupa, P; Straková, P; Hubálek, Z; Rudolf, I

    2015-01-01

    Hantavirus disease is the most common rodent-borne viral infection in the Czech Republic, with a mean annual incidence of 0.02 cases per 100 000 population and specific antibodies detected in 1% of the human population. Four hantaviruses (Puumala, Dobrava-Belgrade, Tula, and Seewis) circulate in this country, of which Puumala virus (responsible for a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome called nephropathia epidemica) and Dobrava-Belgrade virus (causing haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome) have been proven to cause human disease. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive review of the hantaviruses occurring in the Czech Republic, based on the literature published during the past three decades, including their geographical distribution and clinical symptoms. The recent detection of Tula virus in an immunocompromised person as well as reports of Seoul virus infections in Europe highlight the possible emergence of neglected hantavirus infections in the foreseeable future. PMID:26795222

  11. Recent zoonoses caused by influenza A viruses.

    Alexander, D J; Brown, I H

    2000-04-01

    Influenza is a highly contagious, acute illness which has afflicted humans and animals since ancient times. Influenza viruses are part of the Orthomyxoviridae family and are grouped into types A, B and C according to antigenic characteristics of the core proteins. Influenza A viruses infect a large variety of animal species, including humans, pigs, horses, sea mammals and birds, occasionally producing devastating pandemics in humans, such as in 1918, when over twenty million deaths occurred world-wide. The two surface glycoproteins of the virus, haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), are the most important antigens for inducing protective immunity in the host and therefore show the greatest variation. For influenza A viruses, fifteen antigenically distinct HA subtypes and nine NA subtypes are recognised at present; a virus possesses one HA and one NA subtype, apparently in any combination. Although viruses of relatively few subtype combinations have been isolated from mammalian species, all subtypes, in most combinations, have been isolated from birds. In the 20th Century, the sudden emergence of antigenically different strains in humans, termed antigenic shift, has occurred on four occasions, as follows, in 1918 (H1N1), 1957 (H2N2), 1968 (H3N2) and 1977 (H1N1), each resulting in a pandemic. Frequent epidemics have occurred between the pandemics as a result of gradual antigenic change in the prevalent virus, termed antigenic drift. Currently, epidemics occur throughout the world in the human population due to infection with influenza A viruses of subtypes H1N1 and H3N2 or with influenza B virus. The impact of these epidemics is most effectively measured by monitoring excess mortality due to pneumonia and influenza. Phylogenetic studies suggest that aquatic birds could be the source of all influenza A viruses in other species. Human pandemic strains are thought to have emerged through one of the following three mechanisms: genetic reassortment (occurring as a

  12. Zoonoses in pet birds: review and perspectives.

    Boseret, Geraldine; Losson, Bertrand; Mainil, Jacques G; Thiry, Etienne; Saegerman, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Pet birds are a not-so-well known veterinarian's clientship fraction. Bought individually or in couples, as families often do (which is a lucrative business for pet shops or local breeders) or traded (sometimes illegally) for their very high genetic or exotic value, these birds, commonly canaries, parakeets or parrots, are regularly sold at high prices. These animals, however, are potential carriers and/or transmitters of zoonotic diseases. Some of them could have an important impact on human health, like chlamydophilosis, salmonellosis or even highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1. This review paper, although non exhaustive, aims at enlightening, by the description of several cases of bird-human transmission, the risks encountered by bird owners, including children. Public health consequences will be discussed and emphasis will be made on some vector-borne diseases, known to be emergent or which are underestimated, like those transmitted by the red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. Finally, biosecurity and hygiene, as well as prevention guidelines will be developed and perspectives proposed. PMID:23687940

  13. An Internet-based exercise as a component of an overall training program addressing medical aspects of radiation emergency management.

    Levy, K; Aghababian, R V; Hirsch, E F; Screnci, D; Boshyan, A; Ricks, R C; Samiei, M

    2000-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation and radioactive materials continues to increase worldwide in industry, medicine, agriculture, research, electrical power generation, and nuclear weaponry. The risk of terrorism using weapons of mass destruction or simple radiological devices also has increased, leading to heightened concerns. Radiation accidents occur as a consequence of errors in transportation of radionuclides, use of radiation in medical diagnosis and therapy, industrial monitoring and sterilization procedures, and rarely, nuclear power generation. Compared to other industries, a small number of serious radiation accidents have occurred over the last six decades with recent cases in the Republic of Georgia, Peru, Japan, and Thailand. The medical, psychological, and political consequences of such accidents can be considerable. A number of programs designed to train medical responders in the techniques of radiation accident management have been developed and delivered in many countries. The low frequency of serious radiation accidents requires constant re-training, as skills are lost and medical staff turnover occurs. Not all of the training involves drills or exercises in which responders demonstrate learning or communication over the broad spectrum of medical response capabilities. Medical preparedness within the context of a total emergency response program is lacking in many parts of the world, particularly in Central and Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States. This paper describes an effort to enhance medical preparedness in the context of a total program of international cooperation and conventions facilitated by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The paper concludes that novel application of telecommunications technology as part of a training activity in radiation accident preparedness can help address gaps in training in this field in which preparedness is essential but experience and practical field exercises are lacking. PMID:11183457

  14. Zoonoses from dogs with special reference to Egypt.

    Sabry, Abdel-Hameed A; Morsy, Ayman T A; Morsy, Tosson A

    2012-12-01

    A zoonosis is an animal disease that is transmissible to humans. Humans are usually an accidental host that acquires disease through close contact with an infected animal, who may or may not be symptomatic. Children are at highest risk for infection because they are more likely to have close contact with pets. Dogs are responsible for transmission of an extensive array of bacterial and parasitic zoonotic pathogens. The route of transmission can be through the feces, urine, saliva (eg, bites or contaminated scratches), or respiratory secretions of the animal, or by the dog or cat acting as a vehicle and source of tick or flea exposure or reservoir for vector borne disease. Although dogs have been implicated in transmission of zoonoses to their owners, risk of transmission from contact with dogs is low and may be further reduced by simple precautions. PMID:23469633

  15. Addressing Disparities in Emergency Communication with the Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing: Cultural Competence and Preparedness for First Responders

    Engelman, Alina Anna

    2012-01-01

    It is critically important to foster a resilient Deaf and hard-of-hearing (Deaf/HH) population empowered to act in a pre-event phase before and respond during and after critical large-scale public health emergencies. Standard all-hazards emergency preparedness risk & response communication efforts don't always reach people with barriers relating to literacy, language, culture or disability. This is a significant problem given that there is a growing body of evidence of higher risk during disa...

  16. The perceived impact of publications on Neglected Tropical Zoonoses as measured by their impact factor

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Speybroeck, Sara; Speybroeck, Niko

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether papers on Neglected Tropical Zoonoses are published in journals with lower impact factors than research on diseases with a similar global health burden. We found that, despite being cited equally often, the papers on Neglected Tropical Zoonoses were published in journals with lower impact factors. The scopes of these journals are mainly restricted to Tropical medicine. A clustering analysis revealed that The Lancet, a high impact general medical journal, does pay atten...

  17. Ensuring good governance to address emerging and re-emerging animal disease threats: supporting the veterinary services of developing countries to meet OIE international standards on quality.

    Vallat, B; Mallet, E

    2006-04-01

    As an effect of increased globalisation, animal diseases, in particular those transmissible to man, have an immediate global economic and social impact. This fact, dramatically illustrated by the current avian influenza epizootic in South-East Asia and Eastern Europe, clearly demonstrates the crucial importance of the national Veterinary Services (VS) for the prevention, early detection and response for the efficient control of animal diseases. Complying with this mission for the VS presupposes the existence of appropriate governance and legislation and of an official system to control their quality and reliability- an obvious weakness in many developing and in transition countries. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has therefore developed a project aiming at strengthening the VS in those countries facing the greatest animal health threats and to bring them into line with OIE international standards already adopted by the same countries. Based on the evaluation of the VS and subsequent actions at the global, regional and national levels, the project will have a significant beneficial impact on the targeted countries as well as the international community as a whole, not only in the fields of agriculture, food security and production, and food safety, but also for the local and global prevention of emerging and re-emerging diseases of veterinary and public health importance. The project will be implemented in strong collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization. The actions proposed must be considered eligible for the concept of International Public Good. PMID:16796063

  18. Emergence of nanomedicine as cancer targeted magic bullets: recent development and need to address the toxicity apprehension.

    Rahman, Mahfoozur; Ahmad, Mohammad Zaki; Kazmi, Imran; Akhter, Sohail; Afzal, Muhammad; Gupta, Gaurav; Sinha, Vivek Ranjan

    2012-12-01

    Multi drug resistance and non specific targeting is a major problem with conventional therapy. To overcome this problem, nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as an important tool to deliver conventional drugs, recombinant proteins, vaccines and more recently, nucleotides. NPs modify the drug release pattern, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) and therapeutic response. This review focuses on the potential of nanotechnology in cancer and discusses the different nanoparticulate drug-delivery systems including quantum dot, iron oxide nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, silica nanoparticles, dendrimer, graphene and polymeric nanoparticles with their applications in therapeutics, diagnostics, and imaging pattern. Further, the recent development and progress of theranostic nanoparticles in the treatment of cancer and toxicity associated with nanoparticles is also covered here. PMID:22725687

  19. Addressing (some) Big Data Challenges in Climate Science: Cross-Sciences Collaborative Efforts Driven By Eudat Emerging Services

    Page, C.; Budich, R.; Meeres, Y.; Coutin, S.; Dima, E.; Hinrichs, E.; Lautenschlager, M.

    2014-12-01

    As climate model horizontal and spatial resolutions are getting higher, in line with increasing available computing power on High Performance Computing (HPC) systems, the amount of data generated by climate simulations is getting very large. Our road toward exascale will continue to increase the generated data volumes to be analyzed, even when reducing data output to coarser output grids before storage and analysis. These problems are not confined to the climate scientific community, but it is shared among several scientific fields, such as high-particle physics, linguistics, and seismology, among others. Within the framework of the European EUDAT project, several emerging services are being developed and deployed operationally to enhance collaborative and federated infrastructures that can scale to very large data volumes, driven by scientific communities' needs and international collaborations notably with the Research Data Alliance (RDA) and through Working Groups involving EUDAT partners and international experts. One of these Working Groups is focusing on Workflows and their execution near the data storage in a federated infrastructure, and these workflows will also be using EUDAT services. EUDAT current and upcoming services will be presented, with a focus in how these services will be useful to the climate community ESGF infrastructure in a Big Data era, to perform data analyses that are not hampered by limitations simply because of too large data volumes given today's tools and infrastructures. A generic interface/protocol for abstraction of specific communities federated data environments, enabling cross-communities data sharing and collaboration, will also be presented. This study was funded by the EU project EUDAT funded by the European Commission's Seventh Framework Research Programme under the grant agreement 283304.

  20. DNA barcoding of sigmodontine rodents: identifying wildlife reservoirs of zoonoses.

    Lívia Müller

    Full Text Available Species identification through DNA barcoding is a tool to be added to taxonomic procedures, once it has been validated. Applying barcoding techniques in public health would aid in the identification and correct delimitation of the distribution of rodents from the subfamily Sigmodontinae. These rodents are reservoirs of etiological agents of zoonoses including arenaviruses, hantaviruses, Chagas disease and leishmaniasis. In this study we compared distance-based and probabilistic phylogenetic inference methods to evaluate the performance of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI in sigmodontine identification. A total of 130 sequences from 21 field-trapped species (13 genera, mainly from southern Brazil, were generated and analyzed, together with 58 GenBank sequences (24 species; 10 genera. Preliminary analysis revealed a 9.5% rate of misidentifications in the field, mainly of juveniles, which were reclassified after examination of external morphological characters and chromosome numbers. Distance and model-based methods of tree reconstruction retrieved similar topologies and monophyly for most species. Kernel density estimation of the distance distribution showed a clear barcoding gap with overlapping of intraspecific and interspecific densities < 1% and 21 species with mean intraspecific distance < 2%. Five species that are reservoirs of hantaviruses could be identified through DNA barcodes. Additionally, we provide information for the description of a putative new species, as well as the first COI sequence of the recently described genus Drymoreomys. The data also indicated an expansion of the distribution of Calomys tener. We emphasize that DNA barcoding should be used in combination with other taxonomic and systematic procedures in an integrative framework and based on properly identified museum collections, to improve identification procedures, especially in epidemiological surveillance and ecological assessments.

  1. Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Antimicrobial resistance in the European Union in 2004

    Helwigh, Birgitte

    . Often the human form of the disease is acquired through contaminated food. According to the report, the two most frequently reported zoonotic diseases in humans were Salmonella and Campylobacter infections. These bacteria were also commonly found in food and animals. The report includes information of...... 11 zoonoses, antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic agents as well as foodborne outbreaks. The national zoonoses country reports which have been used as a basis for this Summary report are below. The utmost effort was made to keep the information in the Summary Report and the national reports identical...

  2. Risk perception about zoonoses in immigrants and Italian workers in Northwestern Italy

    Natalia Cediel; Valeria Conte; Laura Tomassone; Donatella Tiberti; Paolo Guiso; Jaime Romero; Luis Carlos Villamil; Daniele De Meneghi

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: To assess factors associated with a low risk perception of zoonoses and to identify the gaps in knowledge about transmission and prevention of zoonoses in immigrant and Italian workers. MÉTODOS: A cross-sectional study with 175 workers in the agro-livestock and agro-food industry in Piemonte, Italy, was carried out. Data were collected with a semi-structured questionnaire based on knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) survey. We calculated proportions and used chi-square tests an...

  3. Risk perception about zoonoses in immigrants and Italian workers in Northwestern Italy

    Natalia Cediel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: To assess factors associated with a low risk perception of zoonoses and to identify the gaps in knowledge about transmission and prevention of zoonoses in immigrant and Italian workers. MÉTODOS: A cross-sectional study with 175 workers in the agro-livestock and agro-food industry in Piemonte, Italy, was carried out. Data were collected with a semi-structured questionnaire based on knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP survey. We calculated proportions and used chi-square tests and odds ratios to assess associations. Eight individual interviews with key informants on immigration and public health in Piemonte were carried out. RESULTADOS: Participants were 82 (47% Italians and 93 (53% immigrants. Immigrants were from Romania, Morocco, Albania, India, China, Argentina, Peru, Macedonia, Ivory Coast, Ukraine and Colombia. The study revealed significant differences in risk perception at work (p = 0.001. We found associations between "not having correct knowledge about zoonoses" and the following variables: i. "being immigrant" OR = 4.1 (95%CI 1.7;9.8 p ≤ 0.01; ii. "working in the livestock industry" OR = 2.9 (95%CI 1.2;15.4 p = 0.01; and iii. "being an unqualified worker" OR = 4.4 (95%CI 2.9;15.4 p ≤ 0.01. Another strong association was found between being immigrant and having a low job qualification OR = 6.7 (IC95% 2.9 - 15.4 p ≤ 0.01. Asian immigrants were the group with the highest frequency of risky behaviours and the lowest level of knowledge about zoonoses. CONCLUSÕES: Our results indicate that there were differences in risk perception of zoonoses between the groups participating in our study. These results suggest that immigrant status can be considered a risk factor for having lower risk perception and lower level of knowledge of zoonoses at work. There is a relationship between this specific knowledge of zoonoses and lack of training and instruction among migrant populations. Our results stress the need for developing

  4. Narrative overview of animal and human brucellosis in Morocco: intensification of livestock production as a driver for emergence?

    Ducrotoy, Marie J; Ammary, Khaoula; Ait Lbacha, Hicham; Zouagui, Zaid; Mick, Virginie; Prevost, Laura; Bryssinckx, Ward; Welburn, Susan C; Benkirane, Abdelali

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world caused by several species of the genus Brucella. The disease, eradicated in many developed countries, is a re-emerging neglected zoonosis endemic in several zones especially in the Mediterranean region, impacting on human health and livestock production. A One Health approach could address brucellosis control in Morocco but scarcity of reliable epidemiological data, as well as underreporting, hinders the implementation of sustainable control strategies. Surveillance and control policies implemented by the Moroccan government in domestic animals (cattle and small ruminants) in the last few decades are assessed for disease impact. This study considers the origins of animal brucellosis in Morocco and the potential for emergence of brucellosis during a shift from extensive to intensive livestock production. PMID:26690090

  5. Emergency!

    Geissler, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    For generations, schools have routinely held fire drills. However, ensuring a safe learning environment is more complicated than staging an occasional drill. Schools and universities should have an integrated school safety plan, and it must address how to manage site hazards in science labs, kitchens and other building areas. It is essential for…

  6. Knowledge of causes, clinical features and diagnosis of common zoonoses among medical practitioners in Tanzania

    Mfinanga Godfrey S

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many factors have been mentioned as contributing to under-diagnosis and under-reporting of zoonotic diseases particularly in the sub-Sahara African region. These include poor disease surveillance coverage, poor diagnostic capacity, the geographical distribution of those most affected and lack of clear strategies to address the plight of zoonotic diseases. The current study investigates the knowledge of medical practitioners of zoonotic diseases as a potential contributing factor to their under-diagnosis and hence under-reporting. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. Semi-structured open-ended questionnaire was administered to medical practitioners to establish the knowledge of anthrax, rabies, brucellosis, trypanosomiasis, echinococcosis and bovine tuberculosis in selected health facilities within urban and rural settings in Tanzania between April and May 2005. Frequency data were analyzed using likelihood ratio chi-square in Minitab version 14 to compare practitioners' knowledge of transmission, clinical features and diagnosis of the zoonoses in the two settings. For each analysis, likelihood ratio chi-square p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. Fisher's exact test was used where expected results were less than five. Results Medical practitioners in rural health facilities had poor knowledge of transmission of sleeping sickness and clinical features of anthrax and rabies in humans compared to their urban counterparts. In both areas the practitioners had poor knowledge of how echinococcosis is transmitted to humans, clinical features of echinococcosis in humans, and diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in humans. Conclusion Knowledge of medical practitioners of zoonotic diseases could be a contributing factor to their under-diagnosis and under-reporting in Tanzania. Refresher courses on zoonotic diseases should be conducted particularly to practitioners in rural areas. More emphasis

  7. Parasite zoonoses and climate change: molecular tools for tracking shifting boundaries.

    Polley, Lydden; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2009-06-01

    For human, domestic animal and wildlife health, key effects of directional climate change include the risk of the altered occurrence of infectious diseases. Many parasite zoonoses have high potential for vulnerability to the new climate, in part because their free-living life-cycle stages and ectothermic hosts are directly exposed to climatic conditions. For these zoonoses, climate change can shift boundaries for ecosystem components and processes integral to parasite transmission and persistence, and these shifts can impact host health. Vulnerable boundaries include those for spatial distributions, host-parasite assemblages, demographic rates, life-cycle phenologies, associations within ecosystems, virulence, and patterns of infection and disease. This review describes these boundary shifts and how molecular techniques can be applied to defining the new boundaries. PMID:19428303

  8. Zoonoses in Europe: distribution and trends - the EFSA-ECDC Community Summary Report 2008

    Lahuerta, Angela; Helwigh, Birgitte; Mäkelä, Pia

    2010-01-01

    On 28 January 2010 the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) launched their annual report on zoonoses and food-borne outbreaks for 2008. The report provides a comprehensive overview of zoonotic infections and disease outbreaks caused by consuming contaminated food. The number of reported human cases of the three most reported zoonotic infections, was lower in 2008 compared to 2007. Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly repor...

  9. Risks of Zoonosic Disease transmission in pets in Sancti Spíritus City.

    Odmara M. Castellanos Yero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available For the development of this work the urban zone of Sancti Spíritus was taken as a sample. The main objective was to identify the risk factors associated to the ignorance of zoonosis transmitted by pet animals. The tests were applied to 50 homes in 5 People’s Council, having as a total 250 housings. Dogs were the animals which predominated in houses (66.6%.The risks of Zoonosis showed that 393 persons are in direct contact with the animals, 330 played with them and 234 bathe them. The 64.0 % of the persons that were tested knew about the risk of animals for the human health, the lowest knowledge was obtained in the People’s Council of kilo 12 and Jesus Maria. Tested persons agreed that animals have lowest risk of transmitting disease to human. The 62 % of tested persons said that the most common way of zoonosic disease transmission is by bites. For the tested population the most known zoonosic diseases were: Leptospirosis, Brucellosis, Rabia and Salmonellosis, the population showed great desire for being training about zoonosic diseases, giving more responsibility in this task to Veterinarian Service (75.2 %.

  10. Opening address

    Full text: Honourable Representatives of His Majesty King Mohammed VI and of the Government of Morocco, representatives of sponsoring organizations, distinguished participants, on behalf of the Director General of the IAEA, it is my pleasure and privilege to welcome you to this International Conference on National Infrastructures for Radiation Safety: Towards Effective and Sustainable Systems. I would like to express my sincere appreciation to His Majesty King Mohammed VI for his patronage, to the Government of Morocco and the University Mohammed V, Agdal, for hosting this conference in the beautiful and historic city of Rabat, and to the local organizers for their diligent planning and gracious hospitality. I would also like to thank the four organizations that are co-operating with the IAEA in holding this conference: the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, the International Labour Organization, the European Commission and the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency. National infrastructure for radiation safety has emerged as an issue of international concern over the last two decades. Systematic and strategic consideration of infrastructure has become widely recognized as an essential prerequisite for safety. The first IAEA conference to address the topic was in Munich, Germany, in 1990. The 1996 edition of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (known as the Basic Safety Standards or BSS) highlighted the issue, and the IAEA's technical co-operation Model Project for Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure was introduced to help address it. The Model Project has helped, and continues to help, more than 85 IAEA Member States to work towards the goal of a radiation safety infrastructure in accordance with the Basic Safety Standards. A great deal has been achieved, but this work is not complete. Furthermore, not all States are members of the IAEA or the Model

  11. The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) Network - Data and Technological Resources to Address Current and Emerging Issues in Agroecosystems.

    Okalebo, J. A.; Wienhold, B.; Suyker, A.; Erickson, G.; Hayes, M. J.; Awada, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) is one of 18 established Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) networks across the US. PR-HPA is a partnership between the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), the USDA-ARS Agroecosystem Management Research Unit (AMRU) in Lincoln, and the USDA-ARS Environmental Management Research Unit (EMRU) in Clay Center, NE. The PR-HPA network encompasses 27,750 ha of research sites with data going back to the early 1900s. A partial list of on-going research projects include those encompassing long-term manuring and continuous corn (Est. 1912), dryland tillage plots (Est. 1970), soil nutrients and tillage (Est. 1983), biofuel feedstock studies (Est. 2001), and carbon sequestration study (Est. 2000). Affiliated partners include the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) that develops measures to improve preparedness and adaptation to climate variability and drought; the High Plains Regional Climate Center (HPRCC) that coordinates data acquisition from over 170 automated weather stations and around 50 automated soil moisture network across NE and beyond; the AMERIFLUX and NEBFLUX networks that coordinate the water vapor and carbon dioxide flux measurements across NE with emphasis on rainfed and irrigated crop lands; the ARS Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network (GRACEnet) and the Resilient Economic Agricultural Practices (REAP) project; and the Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (CALMIT) that assists with the use of geospatial technologies for agriculture and natural resource applications. Current emphases are on addressing present-day and emerging issues related to profitability and sustainability of agroecosystems. The poster will highlight some of the ongoing and planned efforts in research pertaining to climate variability and change, water sustainability, and ecological and agronomic challenges associated

  12. Radiological emergencies in industry (causes and consequences). Address at the second national course of Radiation Safety in Industry. Jun 5-7 2000 Guatemala

    The address discusses the following issues: review of accidents in industrial radiography, human factors, technical failures, factors that decrease risk, personnel training, design of equipment and recommendations

  13. Feasibility and Acceptability of Screening and Brief Interventions to Address Alcohol and Other Drug Use among Patients Presenting for Emergency Services in Cape Town, South Africa

    Bronwyn Myers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence from high income countries, it is not known whether screening and brief interventions (SBI for alcohol and other drug (AOD use are feasible to implement in low and middle income countries. This paper describes the feasibility and acceptability of a peer-led SBI for AOD-using patients presenting with injuries at emergency services in Cape Town, South Africa. Data were extracted from program records on the number of eligible patients screened and the number of program refusals. A questionnaire examined preliminary responses to the intervention for 30 patients who had completed the program and 10 emergency personnel. Peer counselors were also interviewed to identify barriers to implementation. Of the 1458 patients screened, 21% (305 met inclusion criteria, of which 74% (225 were enrolled in the intervention. Of the 30 patients interviewed, most (83% found the program useful. Emergency personnel were supportive of the program but felt that visibility and reach could improve. Peer counselors identified the need for better integration of the program into emergency services and for additional training and support. In conclusion, with limited additional resources, peer-led SBIs for AOD use are feasible to conduct in South African emergency services and are acceptable to patients and emergency personnel.

  14. Ecological dynamics of emerging bat virus spillover

    Raina K. Plowright; Eby, Peggy; Hudson, Peter J.; Smith, Ina L.; Westcott, David; Wayne L. Bryden; Middleton, Deborah; Reid, Peter A.; McFarlane, Rosemary A.; Martin, Gerardo; Tabor, Gary M.; Skerratt, Lee F.; Anderson, Dale L.; Crameri, Gary; Quammen, David

    2015-01-01

    Viruses that originate in bats may be the most notorious emerging zoonoses that spill over from wildlife into domestic animals and humans. Understanding how these infections filter through ecological systems to cause disease in humans is of profound importance to public health. Transmission of viruses from bats to humans requires a hierarchy of enabling conditions that connect the distribution of reservoir hosts, viral infection within these hosts, and exposure and susceptibility of recipient...

  15. Phaeohyphomycoses, Emerging Opportunistic Diseases in Animals

    Seyedmousavi, S.; Guillot, J; Hoog, de, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging fungal diseases due to black yeasts and relatives in domestic or wild animals and in invertebrates or cold- and warm-blooded vertebrates are continually being reported, either as novel pathogens or as familiar pathogens affecting new species of hosts. Different epidemiological situations can be distinguished, i.e., occurrence as single infections or as zoonoses, and infection may occur sporadically in otherwise healthy hosts. Such infections are found mostly in mammals but also in co...

  16. The role of the OIE in information exchange and the control of animal diseases, including zoonoses.

    Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M

    2013-08-01

    The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts. PMID:24547648

  17. Listeria monocytogenes infection in poultry and its public health importance with special reference to food borne zoonoses.

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Verma, Amit Kumar; Rajagunalan, S; Kumar, Amit; Tiwari, Ruchi; Chakraborty, Sandip; Kumar, Rajesh

    2013-04-01

    Listeriosis is a disease that causes septicemia or encephalitis in humans, animals and birds. Although, the disease is rare and sporadic in poultry but if occurs then causes septicemia or sometimes localized encephalitis. Occasionally, the disease is seen in young chicks and the causative agent, like in humans and animals, is Listeria monocytogenes. The organism is capable to infect almost all animals and poultry; however, outbreaks of listeriosis are infrequent in birds. It is widely distributed among avian species and chickens, turkeys, waterfowl (geese, ducks), game birds, pigeons, parrots, wood grouse, snowy owl, eagle, canaries, which appear to be the most commonly affected. Chickens are thought to be the carriers of Listeria and also the prime reservoirs for the infection and thus contaminate the litter and environment of the poultry production units. Listeriosis is often noticed along with other poultry diseases such as coccidiosis, infectious coryza, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and parasitic infections, signifying the opportunistic nature of the organism. Intestinal colonization of poultry and the presence of L. monocytogenes in feces represent a potential source of the organism for listeriosis in ruminants. Man gets infection from raw broiler meat due to Listeria contamination and unhygienic conditions of the processing area, rather than acquiring direct infection from birds. With the changing food habits of the people, the health consciousness is also increasing and since listeriosis has now been recognized as an emerging food borne zoonoses. Therefore, this review has been compiled to make aware the poultry producers and the consumers of poultry meat/products regarding the importance of the disease and its public health significance. PMID:24498796

  18. Listeria monocytogenes Infection in Poultry and its Public Health Importance with Special Reference to Food Borne Zoonoses

    Ruchi Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeriosis is a disease that causes septicemia or encephalitis in humans, animals and birds. Although, the disease is rare and sporadic in poultry but if occurs then causes septicemia or sometimes localized encephalitis. Occasionally, the disease is seen in young chicks and the causative agent, like in humans and animals, is Listeria monocytogenes. The organism is capable to infect almost all animals and poultry; however, outbreaks of listeriosis are infrequent in birds. It is widely distributed among avian species and chickens, turkeys, waterfowl (geese, ducks, game birds, pigeons, parrots, wood grouse, snowy owl, eagle, canaries, which appear to be the most commonly affected. Chickens are thought to be the carriers of Listeria and also the prime reservoirs for the infection and thus contaminate the litter and environment of the poultry production units. Listeriosis is often noticed along with other poultry diseases such as coccidiosis, infectious coryza, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and parasitic infections, signifying the opportunistic nature of the organism. Intestinal colonization of poultry and the presence of L. monocytogenes in feces represent a potential source of the organism for listeriosis in ruminants. Man gets infection from raw broiler meat due to Listeria contamination and unhygienic conditions of the processing area, rather than acquiring direct infection from birds. With the changing food habits of the people, the health consciousness is also increasing and since listeriosis has now been recognized as an emerging food borne zoonoses. Therefore, this review has been compiled to make aware the poultry producers and the consumers of poultry meat/products regarding the importance of the disease and its public health significance.

  19. The importance of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases: recognition, monitoring and control

    Whilst communicable diseases mainly affect the developing world, new and emerging diseases have re-awakened the developed countries to the importance of these infections. Concern has been raised that climate change and other man-made changes to the environment could provide conditions for diseases to increase their range and affect countries where they have not normally been a problem. The zoonoses, infections naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and humans, present considerable difficulties because eradication is almost impossible and control is problematic. However, control of many zoonoses can be affordable and reduction in human morbidity needs to become a priority task in many countries and regions. Many global, regional or locally occurring emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases are caused by zoonoses, including both vector-borne and non-vector borne diseases. Molecular biology has been instrumental in providing an understanding of zoonotic infections in relation to their transmission, epidemiology, clinical and pathological effects, treatment, development of vaccines and diagnosis and control. Examples of zoonoses in which molecular tools have helped decisively are mentioned in this review and examples are given on how molecular markers may help in the assessment and control of zoonotic diseases as illustrated in the insect vector-borne protozoan zoonosis, Chagas' disease and a snail-borne helminthic zoonosis, fascioliasis. Finally, emphasis is placed on the need to increase studies on animal reservoirs, to improve teaching and understanding of 'old-fashioned' disciplines such as medical malacology and entomology, as well as training and technology transfer and to actively pursue field work. Only by investing in these disciplines will we be in a position to go to the field, perform surveys, and acquire the data that will enable us to determine the presence of emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases. (author)

  20. Zoonoses and marginalised infectious diseases of poverty: Where do we stand?

    Chaignat Claire L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite growing awareness of the importance of controlling neglected tropical diseases as a contribution to poverty alleviation and achieving the Millennium Development Goals, there is a need to up-scale programmes to achieve wider public health benefits. This implementation deficit is attributable to several factors but one often overlooked is the specific difficulty in tackling diseases that involve both people and animals - the zoonoses. A Disease Reference Group on Zoonoses and Marginalised Infectious Diseases (DRG6 was convened by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR, a programme executed by the World Health Organization and co-sponsored by UNICEF, UNDP, the World Bank and WHO. The key considerations included: (a the general lack of reliable quantitative data on their public health burden; (b the need to evaluate livestock production losses and their additional impacts on health and poverty; (c the relevance of cross-sectoral issues essential to designing and implementing public health interventions for zoonotic diseases; and (d identifying priority areas for research and interventions to harness resources most effectively. Beyond disease specific research issues, a set of common macro-priorities and interventions were identified which, if implemented through a more integrated approach by countries, would have a significant impact on human health of the most marginalised populations characteristically dependent on livestock.

  1. Economic Assessment of Zoonoses Surveillance in a 'One Health' Context: A Conceptual Framework.

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C

    2016-08-01

    Collaboration between animal and public health sectors has been highlighted as a means to improve the management of zoonotic threats. This includes surveillance systems for zoonoses, where enhanced cross-sectoral integration and sharing of information are seen as key to improved public health outcomes. Yet, there is a lack of evidence on the economic returns of such collaboration, particularly in the development and implementation of surveillance programmes. The economic assessment of surveillance in this context needs to be underpinned by the understanding of the links between zoonotic disease surveillance in animal populations and the wider public health disease mitigation process and how these relations impact on the costs and benefits of the surveillance activities. This study presents a conceptual framework of these links as a basis for the economic assessment of cross-sectoral zoonoses surveillance with the aim of supporting the prioritization of resource allocation to surveillance. In the proposed framework, monetary, non-monetary and intermediate or intangible cost components and benefit streams of three conceptually distinct stages of zoonotic disease mitigation are identified. In each stage, as the final disease mitigation objective varies so does the use of surveillance information generated in the animal populations for public health decision-making. Consequently, the associated cost components and benefit streams also change. Building on the proposed framework and taking into account these links, practical steps for its application are presented and future challenges are discussed. PMID:26607752

  2. The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa

    Mekonnen Sissay M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa was held in Asahikawa Medical University, Japan on 15 and 16 Feb 2011. This meeting was fully supported by the Asian Science and Technology Strategic Cooperation Promotion Programs sponsored by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education Japan (MEXT for 3 years from 2010 to Akira Ito. A total of 24 researchers from 9 countries joined together and discussed the present situation and problems towards the control of cestode zoonoses. As the meeting was simultaneously for the establishment of joint international, either bilateral or multilateral collaboration projects, the main purposes were directed to 1 how to detect taeniasis/cysticercosis infected patients, 2 how to differentiate Taenia solium from two other human Taenia species, T. saginata and T. asiatica, 3 how to evaluate T. asiatica based on the evidence of hybrid and hybrid-derived adult tapeworms from Thailand and China, 4 how to evaluate T. solium and T. hyaenae and other Taenia species from the wild animals in Ethiopia, and 5 how to detect echinococcosis patients and 6 how to differentiate Echinococcus species worldwide. Such important topics are summarized in this meeting report.

  3. A Serological Survey About Zoonoses in the Verkhoyansk Area, Northeastern Siberia (Sakha Republic, Russian Federation).

    Magnaval, Jean-François; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Gibert, Morgane; Gurieva, Alla; Outreville, Jonathan; Dyachkovskaya, Praskovia; Fabre, Richard; Fedorova, Sardana; Nikolaeva, Dariya; Dubois, Damien; Melnitchuk, Olga; Daviaud-Fabre, Pascale; Marty, Marie; Alekseev, Anatoly; Crubezy, Eric

    2016-02-01

    In 2012, a seroprevalence survey concerning 10 zoonoses, which were bacterial (Lyme borreliosis and Q fever), parasitic (alveolar echinococcosis [AE] and cystic echinococcosis [CE], cysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, toxocariasis, and trichinellosis), or arboviral (tick-borne encephalitis and West Nile virus infection), was conducted among 77 adult volunteers inhabiting Suordakh and Tomtor Arctic villages in the Verkhoyansk area (Yakutia). Following serological testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and/or western blot, no positive result was found for cysticercosis, CE, toxocariasis, trichinellosis, and both arboviral zoonoses. Four subjects (5.2%) had anti-Toxoplasma IgG, without the presence of specific IgM. More importantly, eight subjects (10.4%) tested positive for Lyme borreliosis, two (2.6%) for recently acquired Q fever, and one (1.3%) for AE. Lyme infection and Q fever, whose presence had not been reported so far in Arctic Yakutia, appeared therefore to be a major health threat for people dwelling, sporting, or working in the Arctic area of the Sakha Republic. PMID:26807914

  4. Integrated health messaging for multiple neglected zoonoses: Approaches, challenges and opportunities in Morocco.

    Ducrotoy, M J; Yahyaoui Azami, H; El Berbri, I; Bouslikhane, M; Fassi Fihri, O; Boué, F; Petavy, A F; Dakkak, A; Welburn, S; Bardosh, K L

    2015-12-01

    Integrating the control of multiple neglected zoonoses at the community-level holds great potential, but critical data is missing to inform the design and implementation of different interventions. In this paper we present an evaluation of an integrated health messaging intervention, using powerpoint presentations, for five bacterial (brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis) and dog-associated (rabies, cystic echinococcosis and leishmaniasis) zoonotic diseases in Sidi Kacem Province, northwest Morocco. Conducted by veterinary and epidemiology students between 2013 and 2014, this followed a process-based approach that encouraged sequential adaptation of images, key messages, and delivery strategies using auto-evaluation and end-user feedback. We describe the challenges and opportunities of this approach, reflecting on who was targeted, how education was conducted, and what tools and approaches were used. Our results showed that: (1) replacing words with local pictures and using "hands-on" activities improved receptivity; (2) information "overload" easily occurred when disease transmission pathways did not overlap; (3) access and receptivity at schools was greater than at the community-level; and (4) piggy-backing on high-priority diseases like rabies offered an important avenue to increase knowledge of other zoonoses. We conclude by discussing the merits of incorporating our validated education approach into the school curriculum in order to influence long-term behaviour change. PMID:26299194

  5. IP Addressing

    2006-01-01

    tut quiz anim This interactive tutorial covers the following: The concept of halving a binary number space., Using the halving concept to explain how the Internet IP space is segmented into the A, B, and C address classifications., How the first octet ranges for the A, B, and C IP space are produced.In this tutorial, explanations are illustrated by simple animations. Students are asked to observe number patterns, and check their observations against automated 'answers.' There is a qu...

  6. Inaugural Address

    Syed Yousaf Raza Gilani

    2008-01-01

    Sardar Aseff Ahmad Ali, Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission, Dr Rashid Amjad, President, Pakistan Society of Development Economists, Honourable Ministers, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen! It is indeed a privilege and honour to address this distinguished gathering of economists. I am very happy that this meeting is being attended by internationally acclaimed economists and academics from both within and outside the country. I am especially heartened to see that students of economics from a...

  7. Bacterial zoonoses of fishes: a review and appraisal of evidence for linkages between fish and human infections.

    Gauthier, David T

    2015-01-01

    Human contact with and consumption of fishes presents hazards from a range of bacterial zoonotic infections. Whereas many bacterial pathogens have been presented as fish-borne zoonoses on the basis of epidemiological and phenotypic evidence, genetic identity between fish and human isolates is not frequently examined or does not provide support for transmission between these hosts. In order to accurately assess the zoonotic risk from exposure to fishes in the context of aquaculture, wild fisheries and ornamental aquaria, it is important to critically examine evidence of linkages between bacteria infecting fishes and humans. This article reviews bacteria typically presented as fish-borne zoonoses, and examines the current strength of evidence for this classification. Of bacteria generally described as fish-borne zoonoses, only Mycobacterium spp., Streptococcus iniae, Clostridium botulinum, and Vibrio vulnificus appear to be well-supported as zoonoses in the strict sense. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, while transmissible from fishes to humans, does not cause disease in fishes and is therefore excluded from the list. Some epidemiological and/or molecular linkages have been made between other bacteria infecting both fishes and humans, but more work is needed to elucidate routes of transmission and the identity of these pathogens in their respective hosts at the genomic level. PMID:25466575

  8. Keynote address

    This paper addresses various aspects of the bases underlying the nuclear third party liability regime, and also analyses the distinction between danger and risk and the manner in which damage caused by flood, mass unemployment (economic damage mainly) and certain diseases is dealt with in the absence of liability provisions similar to those applicable to nuclear incidents. It also is suggested that the State because of its duty under the Basic Law to ensure adequate energy supplies, should be co-responsible for liability questions along with the nuclear operator. (NEA)

  9. Welcome Address

    2001-01-01

    @@  On behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute, I welcome you to Beijing and to the Third Asian Conference on Food Safety and Nutrition. Many of you will remember the first Asian conference on Food Safety held in Kuala Lumpur in 1990 and the second held in Bangkok in 1994. These meetings have been so successful that ILSI made the commitment to host such a conference periodically in order to provide a forum to share the latest information and to set new goals and priorities.   This year, we have broadened the scope of the agenda to include issues on nutrition. I want to thank all of our co-sponsors and members of the Planning Committee for preparing such a comprehensive and timely program. Some of the issues and challenges facing Asia that will be addressed at this meeting are:

  10. Opening address

    The impact of the Chernobyl accident on health has been dramatic but different than expected. It has posed a tremendous health, social and economic burden on the people of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Now the picture of the impact of the accident on health and environment is clearer and the agenda can further move towards development and focused health programmes. The work of the Chernobyl Forum, which allowed this important objective to be reached, is an example of the multiplied added value that different United Nations agencies working together can achieve when addressing complex problems affecting large communities in an independent, comprehensive and credible way. This model should be the basis for future action with the Member States towards reconstruction, development and better health

  11. Malaria zoonoses.

    Baird, J Kevin

    2009-09-01

    The genus Plasmodium includes many species that naturally cause malaria among apes and monkeys. The 2004 discovery of people infected by Plasmodium knowlesi in Malaysian Borneo alerted to the potential for non-human species of plasmodia to cause human morbidity and mortality. Subsequent work revealed what appears to be a surprisingly high risk of infection and relatively severe disease, including among travelers to Southeast Asia. The biology and medicine of this zoonosis is reviewed here, along with an examination of the spectrum of Plasmodium species that may cause infection of humans. PMID:19747661

  12. Inaugural address

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  13. Lassa fever or lassa hemorrhagic fever risk to humans from rodent-borne zoonoses.

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Megahed, Laila Abdel-Mawla; Abdalla Saleh, Hala Ahmed; Morsy, Tosson A

    2015-04-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) typically manifest as rapidly progressing acute febrile syndromes with profound hemorrhagic manifestations and very high fatality rates. Lassa fever, an acute hemorrhagic fever characterized by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and chest and abdominal pain. Rodents are important reservoirs of rodent-borne zoonosis worldwide. Transmission rodents to humans occur by aerosol spread, either from the genus Mastomys rodents' excreta (multimammate rat) or through the close contact with infected patients (nosocomial infection). Other rodents of the genera Rattus, Mus, Lemniscomys, and Praomys are incriminated rodents hosts. Now one may ask do the rodents' ectoparasites play a role in Lassa virus zoonotic transmission. This paper summarized the update knowledge on LHV; hopping it might be useful to the clinicians, nursing staff, laboratories' personals as well as those concerned zoonoses from rodents and rodent control. PMID:26012219

  14. Zoonoses in Europe: distribution and trends - the EFSA-ECDC Community Summary Report 2008

    Lahuerta, Angela; Helwigh, Birgitte; Mäkelä, Pia

    2010-01-01

    On 28 January 2010 the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) launched their annual report on zoonoses and food-borne outbreaks for 2008. The report provides a comprehensive overview of zoonotic infections and disease outbreaks caused...... by consuming contaminated food. The number of reported human cases of the three most reported zoonotic infections, was lower in 2008 compared to 2007. Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis in the European Union (EU) for the last five years followed by salmonellosis and...... yersiniosis. The declining trend of salmonellosis continued, most likely as a result of the intensified control of Salmonella in animal populations, particularly in poultry, and better hygiene throughout the food chain. The number of confirmed cases of listeriosis decreased by 11% in 2008 (1,381) compared to...

  15. Bacterial infections from aquatic species: potential for and prevention of contact zoonoses.

    Haenen, O L M; Evans, J J; Berthe, F

    2013-08-01

    As aquaculture production and the consumption of aquaculture products increase, the possibility of contracting zoonotic infections from either handling or ingesting these products also increases. The principal pathogens acquired topically from fish or shellfish through spine/pincer puncture or open wounds are Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Mycobacterium marinum, Streptococcus iniae, Vibrio vulnificus and V. damsela. These pathogens, which are all indigenous to the aquatic environment, have also been associated with disease outbreaks in food fish. Outbreaks are often related to management factors, such as the quality and quantity of nutrients in the water and high stocking density, which can increase bacterial loads on the external surface of the fish. As a result, diseased fish are more likely to transmit infection to humans. This review provides an account of human cases of zoonoses throughout the world from the principal zoonotic pathogens of fish and shellfish. PMID:24547653

  16. Opening address

    Recognizing the global danger of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive material, governments have in recent years taken a number of steps which includes the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), the 2005 Amendments to the CPPNM, the International Convention of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540. Perhaps more important than formal legal measures alone are the actions governments have initiated to institute practical cooperation in this field. Of course, the IAEA has been a leader in this effort, as reflected in the Nuclear Security Plan. Of the many areas where the IAEA has contributed, let me cite three: the development of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, the numerous efforts through technical assistance programmes to assess physical protection needs and to build national capacity to implement physical protection systems, and the collection and dissemination of information through the Illicit Trafficking Database. States are acting together to develop training and communications channels to facilitate intervention in an ongoing illicit transfer or to build national capacity to protect nuclear materials and respond to security threats. 60 nations have joined the Russian Federation and the USA as partners in the global initiative to Combat nuclear Terrorism. These visible forms of international cooperation are backed up by numerous bilateral assistance and cooperation programmes directed at improving physical protection, including during transport, consolidating and eliminating unused nuclear materials and radioactive sources, bolstering nuclear detection at ports and borders, strengthening the ability of law enforcement agencies to identify and prosecute nuclear smuggling cases, developing procedures and protocols to intervene in emergency situations involving nuclear or radioactive materials, and exchanging information on nuclear terrorism

  17. Opening Address

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  18. Keynote address

    This keynote address describes the reasons why Ontario restructured its electricity sector to include open market competition. Much effort, time, money and expertise have been devoted to developing the Ontario competitive market. The 1997 White Paper issued by the Ontario Ministry of Energy, Science and Technology was the first paper to express the urgent need for change because the old system was failing. Prices increased by 60 per cent between 1986 and 1993. Although governments imposed a price freeze, it is recognized that such prices freezes cannot be sustained. Between 1980 and 1986, Ontario Hydro's debt rose from $12 billion to over $30 billion. The cause was attributed to poor business performance which was putting the taxpayers at risk. The author states that the potential and social benefits of competitive electricity markets are significant. Opening the power markets improves the efficiency of electricity systems and offers significant benefits. It is noted that restructuring does not mean deregulation. The Ontario Energy Board and the Independent Market Operator continue to regulate the market to ensure its proper operation and to protect consumers. In a properly functioning competitive market, prices change in response to market conditions. Electricity prices have generally declined where competitive markets have been introduced in other jurisdictions around the world. The author also cautions that it is easy to create unfounded fears about a competitive market and cited California as an example. California's problems arose from a lack of generating capacity, regulation which discouraged new power generation, inadequate transmission capacity, lack of snow in the northeast where hydropower is produced, and a consumer price cap that encouraged power consumption at a time when supply was short. The author notes that these factors do not exist in Ontario and that the competitive market should not be abandoned

  19. Keynote address

    DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs

  20. Opening address

    This opening address covers two main areas: first, a snapshot of the continuing threat and the recent changes having been made to the United Kingdom's counterterrorism structures to respond to it; and second, how the United Kingdom is combating nuclear terrorism through a range of measures covering physical security, decreasing vulnerability to attack and increasing resilience. Combating the threat of nuclear terrorism requires an international effort. Radiological and fissile materials are present throughout the world and, as such, it should be secured wherever it is found. All countries are encouraged to continue to enhance security and protection mechanisms for radiological and fissile material; and to develop contingency plans should the worst happen. The United Kingdom has responded to the very serious and real threat by consolidating and strengthening elements of its counterterrorist planning via the creation in May this year of the Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism (OSCT). These changes have been coupled with an unprecedented level of investment to enable the delivery of the United Kingdom counterterrorist strategy - known as CONTEST - through which we aim to (a) stop terrorist attacks; (b) where it cannot be stopped, to mitigate its impact; (c) strengthen our overall protection against terrorist attack; (d) stop people becoming terrorists or supporting violent extremism. In the case of radiological and nuclear terrorism, it is not sufficient merely to prepare for such an attack; one must also devote efforts to preventing such attacks in the first instance by intercepting dangerous materials before they reach their intended target; and by strengthening the protection of vulnerable places and detecting or mitigating any devices before they are placed or activated. As such, in terms of the United Kingdom's efforts on radiological and nuclear terrorism, there are three main strands to this work: physical protection of materials including the global

  1. Presidential address.

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  2. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Antimicrobial Resistance and Millennium Development Goals: Resolving the Challenges through One Health

    G. V. Asokan; R. K. Kasimanickam

    2014-01-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses, which could severely hamper reaching the targets of millennium development goals (MDG). Five out of the total eight MDG’s are strongly associated with the Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs). Recent emergence and dissemination of drug-resistant pathogens has accelerated and prevent reaching the targets of MDG, with shrinking of therapeutic arsenal, mostly due to antimicrobial resistance (AMR). World Health Organization (WHO has identified AMR a...

  3. Management of opioid use disorders among veterans in subacute rehab: Use of an interdisciplinary task force to address an emerging concern.

    Hinrichs, Kate L M; Sharma, Samata; Thurston, Joe; Sivashanker, Karthik; Chang, Grace H

    2016-01-01

    There is both rapidly growing need, and limited evidence-based guidelines, for the management of opioid use disorders in subacute rehab and other nonaddiction medical settings. Following 2 unintentional opioid overdoses within the Community Living Center (CLC), a VA (Veterans Administration) subacute rehab setting, an interdisciplinary CLC Addictions Task Force was created to address a critical issue: how to best meet the combined neuropsychiatric and medical needs of the opiate use disorder patient through a multifaceted treatment approach. The goals of the task force were to develop and institute educational initiatives for providers; create patient care guidelines; increase safety on the unit; improve provider confidence when caring for this high-risk population; and mitigate the risk of unintentional overdose. The task force divided into 4 working groups to meet these aims. Process and outcomes are discussed. We found that in-services by addiction specialists improved clinician comfort in caring for this high-risk patient group. Specific areas that yielded the greatest clinician satisfaction ratings included didactics on how to identify at-risk patients and techniques on how to manage the patient in a general rehab setting. Utilizing an interdisciplinary approach, and an iterative process, at all stages was critical to the success of the CLC Addictions Task Force, as it improved buy-in and motivation from all disciplines. Improvements have been made to enhance patient safety, improve communication amongst providers, and provide a foundation to improve patient outcomes. Our preliminary work to enhance the identification and management of opioid use disorders at our CLC is an important first step towards a standardized curriculum that could be applied to other VA and non-VA subacute rehab settings. PMID:26672391

  4. Opening address

    and become more technical. Involving experts from all fields is then crucial for success. This perception is reflected in the goals of this meeting. It is designed as an extensive information exchange forum between decision makers, regulators, radiation and waste safety specialists, and the nuclear industry. It is this mix which promises high efficiency with respect to solving the problems that you are addressing. I am sure that the safe termination of practices involving radioactive materials during the decommissioning of nuclear installations is one of the major challenges that industrialized nations will have to face during the next decades

  5. Welcome Address

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  6. Opening address

    The opening address by the host country started by thanking to the International Atomic Energy Agency for holding this important scientific event in in Morocco. The themes to be considered by this conference are among the priorities of the Scientific Research Department in its endeavour to promote scientific research in the field of nuclear science and technology for peaceful uses in Morocco. By so doing, this Department is following and supporting the efforts being made by our country to provide training, and elaborate rules and regulations, and to create infrastructure, acquire material and, equipment and encourage qualified and active researchers. Hence, the convening of this conference responds to a strategic interest of our country, which, similar to other countries, is committed to the achievement of comprehensive and sustainable development for the protection of human kind and the environment. This is considered nowadays as a strategic and vital objective as it entails the protection of people from radiation and against all kinds of professional risks and health hazards. Morocco attaches great importance to radiation safety issues. Our country adhered to all international conventions related to nuclear safety. It is in the process of adapting its internal regulations to international norms and standards, and it is making progress towards the establishment of a national safety body which meets those norms and standards, with the assistance of the IAEA. For this purpose, a standing committee for the follow-up of nuclear affairs has been created on the basis of Royal Instructions, and placed under the authority of the Prime Minister. Its task is to serve as a think-tank on nuclear safety issues and to make proposals on ways and means of reinforcing radiation safety measures. It goes without saying that the peaceful uses of nuclear energy must meet the safety standards elaborated by the IAEA. However, we are convinced that the elaboration of safety standards

  7. Opening address

    Nuclear terrorism has been recognized as a potential threat to human security and economic prosperity since at least the 1970s. Evidence of Al Qaeda's interest in acquiring nuclear material came to light during the 1990s. However, it is since the attacks of 11 September 2001 that the risk of nuclear terrorist acts has come to be a widespread public and governmental concern, for understandable reasons, and that efforts to combat illicit trafficking, which could lead to nuclear or other radioactive materials falling into the hands of terrorists, have intensified. Six years on, it makes sense to take stock of what has been achieved in the combat to stem illicit trafficking and of where further actions - actions of individual States and cooperative international actions - might usefully be initiated. The IAEA has maintained an Illicit Trafficking Database since 1995. Information reported to this database confirms that concerns about illicit trafficking in nuclear material are justified. Database information points to persistent theft and loss of radioactive sources. States' international obligations relevant to international nuclear trafficking are based on the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, which deals with weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons and non-State actors, and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1375, which requires all States to take the necessary steps to prevent the commission of terrorist acts, including early warning to other States. In addition to these legally binding instruments, there is the non-binding Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, which Member States of the IAEA agreed in 2003. The Code addresses the establishment of an adequate system of regulatory control, from the production of radioactive sources to their final

  8. Review of the Risks of Some Canine Zoonoses from Free-Roaming Dogs in the Post-Disaster Setting of Latin America

    Gerardo Acosta-Jamett; Barend Mark Bronsvoort; Elena Garde

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Free-roaming dogs are seldom considered an important public health risk following natural disasters in developing regions. With the high number of recognized canine zoonoses and evidence of increased transmission of some significant diseases this is a risk that may be being overlooked. Communities with free-roaming dogs and endemic canine zoonoses of importance should be developing appropriate community preparedness and response plans to mitigate the occurrence of increased tra...

  9. Keynote address

    Radioactive waste management is definitely a field where an added value may be gained through international cooperation. However, the bases for international cooperation must remain very clear at all times. Waste management is essentially a matter of national jurisdiction. The approach to radioactive waste management is specific to each country, it may be influenced by the historical background of the waste management activities in the country, by the specific technical designs developed to ensure safe management, by the nature of geological formations (if underground disposal is sought), by the industrial infrastructure, by the corporate framework, by the national arrangements for safety regulation, etc. Industrial solutions for radioactive waste management exist or are emerging for most types of low and intermediate level waste. Disposing of low and intermediate level waste in surface facilities now represents a sound and proven industrial practice. A common objective for all countries is to have the availability of solutions for the entire set of waste categories. In the current context, the solutions for some categories appear to be less developed than for others. One may think more particularly of radium-bearing waste resulting from historical practices initiated as early as the beginning of the 20th century. Others may mention graphite waste originating from the former gas-graphite reactor system. The waste package is a key element in the waste management mechanism. It constitutes the basis of the safety approach. The care with which the specifications of the package are first defined, then controlled, through rigorous quality assurance procedures, is essential. The safe management of radioactive waste is achieved primarily through the reliability of the managers and of all the actors involved in waste disposal in carrying out their long term responsibilities. In order to properly implement their missions, they must be associated, at an early stage, with any

  10. Opening address

    Being fully aware of the IAEA's central and important roles in the field of nuclear security, Japan has cooperated closely with the IAEA in the field of nuclear security. One of Japan's efforts was holding a seminar on strengthening nuclear security in Asian countries in November 2006, making use of Japan's contribution to the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. The seminar was organized for the first time in Asia to address nuclear security matters, in which more than 100 experts from 19 countries participated. Japan also hosted a seminar, aimed at promoting the accession to the international counterterrorism conventions and protocols, inviting government officials and experts from Asia Pacific countries. At the seminar, Japan presented its experience and lessons learned with regard to its ratification of relevant international conventions such as the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. Japan has also provided assistance for capacity building in the field of physical protection measures, and is preparing three projects for Asian countries through the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. In Thailand, Japan has a project aimed at improving physical protection of nuclear research facilities. In Vietnam, Japan plans to host a workshop on radiation detection equipment for border officials and is also preparing for a seminar aimed at capacity building of control on nuclear material in Vietnam. Japan is committed to continue its efforts to make the IAEA Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement together with an Additional Protocol the universally accepted verification standard for the peaceful use undertakings of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Japan's basic policy on bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements is as follows. Considering the dual nature of nuclear material and technology, Japan is of the view that three Ss, that is, S for 'safeguards' (non-proliferation), S for 'safety

  11. Opening address

    conference. Within this area, activities are performed to help establish enhanced capabilities at border crossings and elsewhere in countries to detect smuggling of radioactive substances. For this, effective and user friendly detection instruments are needed, both for goods, persons and vehicles. Proper procedures must be available to deal with the detection of radioactive material and the seizure of material by law enforcement organizations. Basic plans must be available to meet the radiation dispersal device threat and to deal with emergencies at nuclear installations, other locations and transports resulting from attacks or other malicious acts. The plan outlines what must be done to achieve the goals of prevention, detection and response. It recognizes the need to work on parallel tracks. One track is to implement the plan and provide support for the implementation of the requirements of the legal instruments: reference materials containing a set of internationally accepted guides and recommendations are being established. For the purpose of publishing such guides and recommendations, the IAEA has initiated a Nuclear Security Series. Three categories of documents are now being considered. The first category is the security fundamentals that provide the fundamental principles for nuclear security. The next category of documents will contain recommendations, which establish functional requirements, 'what should be done' as a basis for regulatory systems. The third category is 'how to do it' including best practices for implementation and these are documented in implementing guides and supporting technical guidance. On another track, we find the IAEA nuclear security services; advisory and evaluation missions that are convened with teams of recognized international experts to evaluate the status and provide recommendations for improvements of different features of the nuclear security systems. The International Nuclear Security Advisory Service (INSServ) mission aims at

  12. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2012

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control analysed information submitted by 27 European Union Member States on the occurrence of zoonoses and food-borne outbreaks in 2012. Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis, with 214,268 confirmed human cases. The occurrence of Campylobacter continued to be high in broiler meat at EU level. The decreasing trend in confirmed salmonellosis cases in humans continued with a total of 91,03...

  13. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2011

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control analysed the information submitted by 27 European Union Member States on the occurrence of zoonoses and food-borne outbreaks in 2011. Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis with 220,209 confirmed human cases. The occurrence of Campylobacter continued to be high in broiler meat at EU level. The decreasing trend in confirmed salmonellosis cases in humans continued with a total of 95...

  14. Emerging horizons for tick-borne pathogens: from the "one pathogen-one disease" vision to the pathobiome paradigm

    Vayssier-Taussat, M.; Kazimírová, M.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Hornok, S.; Farkas, R.; Cosson, J.-F.; Bonnet, S.; Vourch, G.; Gasqui, P.; Mihalca, A. D.; Plantard, O.; Silaghi, C.; Cutler, S.; Rizzoli, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 12 (2015), s. 2033-2043. ISSN 1746-0913 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : co-infections * emerging diseases * Ixodes ricinus * new paradigm * next-generation sequencing * pathobiome * unknown pathogens * vector competence * zoonoses Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 4.275, year: 2014

  15. Prevalence of Endemic Pig-Associated Zoonoses in Southeast Asia: A Review of Findings from the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Okello, Anna L; Burniston, Stephanie; Conlan, James V; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Welburn, Susan C; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Allen, John; Blacksell, Stuart D

    2015-05-01

    The increasing intensification of pork production in southeast Asia necessitates an urgent requirement to better understand the dual impact of pig-associated zoonotic disease on both pig production and human health in the region. Sharing porous borders with five countries and representing many regional ethnicities and agricultural practices, the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) appears well placed to gauge the levels of pig-associated zoonoses circulating in the wider region. Despite this, little is known about the true impact of zoonotic pathogens such as leptospirosis, Trichinella, hepatitis E virus (HEV), Japanese encephalitis (JE), and Taenia solium on human health and livestock production in the country. A comprehensive review of the published prevalences of these five pig-associated zoonoses in Lao PDR has demonstrated that although suspicion remains high of their existence in pig reservoirs across the country, epidemiological data are scarce; only 31 epidemiological studies have been undertaken on these diseases in the past 25 years. A greater understanding of the zoonoses prevalence and subsequent risks associated with pork production in the southeast Asian region could help focus public health and food safety interventions at key points along the value chain, benefiting both livestock producers and the broader animal and human health systems in the region. PMID:25802431

  16. Targeting cattle-borne zoonoses and cattle pathogens using a novel trypanosomatid-based delivery system.

    G Adam Mott

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosomatid parasites are notorious for the human diseases they cause throughout Africa and South America. However, non-pathogenic trypanosomatids are also found worldwide, infecting a wide range of hosts. One example is Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum theileri, a ubiquitous protozoan commensal of bovids, which is distributed globally. Exploiting knowledge of pathogenic trypanosomatids, we have developed Trypanosoma theileri as a novel vehicle to deliver vaccine antigens and other proteins to cattle. Conditions for the growth and transfection of T. theileri have been optimised and expressed heterologous proteins targeted for secretion or specific localisation at the cell interior or surface using trafficking signals from Trypanosoma brucei. In cattle, the engineered vehicle could establish in the context of a pre-existing natural T. theileri population, was maintained long-term and generated specific immune responses to an expressed Babesia antigen at protective levels. Building on several decades of basic research into trypanosomatid pathogens, Trypanosoma theileri offers significant potential to target multiple infections, including major cattle-borne zoonoses such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Brucella abortus and Mycobacterium spp. It also has the potential to deliver therapeutics to cattle, including the lytic factor that protects humans from cattle trypanosomiasis. This could alleviate poverty by protecting indigenous African cattle from African trypanosomiasis.

  17. Owner-collected swabs of pets: a method fit for the purpose of zoonoses research.

    Möbius, N; Hille, K; Verspohl, J; Wefstaedt, P; Kreienbrock, L

    2013-09-01

    As part of the preparation of a large cohort study in the entire German population, this study examined the feasibility of cat and dog owners collecting nasal and oral swabs of their animals at home as a method of assessing exposure to zoonoses. In veterinary clinics in Hannover, Germany, 100 pet owners were recruited. Nasal and oral swabs of pets were taken by a veterinarian at the clinic and owners took swabs at home. Swabs were analysed regarding bacterial growth and compared (owner vs. vet) using Cohen's kappa and McNemar's test. The return rate of kits was 92%, and 77% of owners thought it unnecessary to have veterinarian assistance to swab the mouth. McNemar's test results: oral swabs 78% agreement with Gram-positive bacterial growth, 87% agreement with Gram-negative bacterial growth; with similar results for nasal swabs. Although sample quality differed, this method allowed the receipt of swabs from pets in order to obtain information about colonization with zoonotic pathogens. PMID:23114113

  18. [Causes of death, zoonoses, and reproduction in the European brown hare in Switzerland].

    Haerer, G; Nicolet, J; Bacciarini, L; Gottstein, B; Giacometti, M

    2001-04-01

    To elucidate the importance of different causes of mortality which could explain the downward trend of the hare populations in Switzerland and for monitoring selected zoonoses, the health and reproductive status of 167 perished brown hares (Lepus europaeus) was assessed. Concerning causes of mortality, traumas were by far the most frequent diagnosis, 80% of the hares dying because of injuries. Animals killed by road traffic were highly represented. Predators (such as dogs, domestic cats, lynx, martens, buzzards, and golden eagles) killed 16% of the analysed animals. In juveniles, predation was significantly more frequent than in adults. Infectious diseases led to death in 15% of the animals, and cases of pasteurellosis, brucellosis, pseudotuberculosis, tularaemia, listeriosis, and toxoplasmosis were diagnosed. In 5% of the hares, the cause of death pertained to other categories or remained unclear. Reproductive performance was judged to be normal, since mean litter size was 2.5 per female and pregnancy rate in March-June was 74%. We conclude that neither a specific infectious disease, for which adult hares are particularly susceptible, nor an insufficient reproductive performance are responsible for the decline of brown hare populations in Switzerland. This phenomenon is rather a cause of a reduced survival rate in leverets. PMID:11344944

  19. Zoonoses research in the German National Cohort : feasibility of parallel sampling of pets and owners.

    Hille, Katja; Möbius, Nadine; Akmatov, Manas K; Verspohl, Jutta; Rabold, Denise; Hartmann, Maria; Günther, Kathrin; Obi, Nadia; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2014-11-01

    Cats and dogs live in more than 20 % of German households and the contact between these pets and their owners can be very close. Therefore, a transmission of zoonotic pathogens may occur. To investigate whether zoonotic research questions can be examined in the context of population-based studies like the German National Cohort (GNC), two studies on different study populations were conducted as part of the feasibility tests of the GNC. The aim of the first study was to quantify the actual exposure of participants of the GNC to cats and dogs. In the second study summarised here the feasibility of the sampling of cats and dogs by their owners was tested. To quantify the exposure of participants of the GNC to cats and dogs 744 study participants of the Pretests of the GNC were asked whether they had contact with animals. Currently 10 % have a dog and 14 % have a cat in their household. These figures confirm that a large proportion of the German population has contact with pets and that there is a need for further zoonoses research. To establish the collection of biological samples from cats and dogs in the context of large-scale population-based studies feasible methods are needed. Therefore, a study was conducted to test whether pet owners can take samples from their cats and dogs and whether the quality of these samples is comparable to samples taken by a qualified veterinarian. A total of 82 dog and 18 cat owners were recruited in two veterinary practices in Hannover and the Clinic for Small Animals at the University of Veterinary Medicine in Hannover. Sampling instructions and sample material for nasal and buccal swabs, faecal samples and, in the case of cat owners, a brush for fur samples, were given to the pet owners. The pet owners were asked to take the samples from their pets at home and to send the samples by surface mail. Swab samples were cultured and bacterial growth was quantified independent of bacterial species. The growth of Gram-positive and

  20. Zoonoses in humans from small rural properties in Jataizinho, Parana, Brazil

    Daniela Dib Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a serological survey for Lyme diseases, brucellosis, leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis and identify the risk variables related to these zoonoses in humans living in the rural area of Jataizinho, state of Parana, Brazil. A total of 63 rural properties were surveyed. Additionally, 207 serum samples collected from these rural area inhabitants were tested for indirect immunofluorescence (IFI and western blots (WB were performed to detect Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato; a tamponated acidified antigen test (AAT and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME were used to detect antibodies of Brucella abortus; the microscopic agglutination test (MAT was carried out to detect antibodies anti-Leptospira spp. and IFI was used to find antibodies of Toxoplasma gondii. Two of the samples (0.96% were reactive for Lyme borreliosis, three (1.4% for brucellosis, 25 (12.1% for leptospirosis and 143 (69.1% for toxoplasmosis. Although the town of Jataizinho has a human development index (IDH that was considered to be average (0.733 in the state of Parana, the low social, economic and cultural conditions of the population from small rural properties have resulted in lack of basic information on animal health and direct or indirect contact with the various species of domestic animals, wildlife and ticks have probably contributed to the prevalence levels found. These results show the need for additional regional studies in order to determine the epidemiological characteristics of these diseases as well as their respective vectors and reservoirs so that effective prophylaxis can be administered in the human population.

  1. Use of a Systems Approach and Evidence-Based One Health for Zoonoses Research%用系统方法和同一个健康理念研究种间传染病

    G.V.Asokan; Vanitha Asokan; Zbys Fedorowicz; Prathap Tharyan

    2011-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that 259% of the 57 million annual deaths that occur globall are caused by microbes. A study reported 1 415 species of infectious organisms are known to be pathogenic to humans. Zoonoses constitute 61% of all known infectious diseases, with humans serving as the primary reservoir for only 3% of them. Of the 175 infectious species considered to be emerging, 75% are zoonotic. Zoonotic diseases and their impact on human and animal health are not monitored, prevented, and treated in an integrated way, despite the fact that etiologies and treatments are similar across species. The efficacy and resistance of a drug in one species has a bearing on others, in the context of zoonoses. Further, an RCT involving many species is effective in a natural setting, is robust, and may require fewer human volunteers. One Health is based on a systems approach and a collaborative effort of multiple disciplines - working locally, nationally, and globally - to attain optimal health for people, animals, and the environment. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have so far been independent and discipline oriented. Pooling of results for diagnostic test accuracies and treatment effects of drugs for zoonoses across species has to be done, since the results of preclinical trials emanate from laboratory animals. The Cochrane Collaboration is the platform of choice to initiate a new group on zoonoses to carry out systematic meta-analyses of diagnostic tests and drug efficacies without bias, thus underpinning the systems approach and One Health.%世界卫生组织估计,全球每年5 700万例死亡中有25%是由微生物引起.研究报道有1 415种传染性生物可使人类致病.种间传染病占所有已知传染性疾病的61%,但人类作为初始病原者仅占3%.在175个被认为是新的传染性生物中,有75%可致人畜共染.尽管不同物种间病因和治疗方法相似,但种间传染病及其对人类和动物健康的影

  2. Address Points - Volusia County Addresses (Point)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Situs Addresses for Volusia County. Maintained by Growth and Resource Management. Addresses are determined by the cities for their jurisdiction and by the County...

  3. A framework for the study of zoonotic disease emergence and its drivers: spillover of bat pathogens as a case study

    Wood, James L. N.; Leach, Melissa; Waldman, Linda; MacGregor, Hayley; Fooks, Anthony R; Jones, Kate E.; Restif, Olivier; Dechmann, Dina; Hayman, David T. S.; Baker, Kate S.; Peel, Alison J.; Kamins, Alexandra O.; Fahr, Jakob; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Yaa; Suu-Ire, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Many serious emerging zoonotic infections have recently arisen from bats, including Ebola, Marburg, SARS-coronavirus, Hendra, Nipah, and a number of rabies and rabies-related viruses, consistent with the overall observation that wildlife are an important source of emerging zoonoses for the human population. Mechanisms underlying the recognized association between ecosystem health and human health remain poorly understood and responding appropriately to the ecological, social and economic cond...

  4. Allegheny County Address Points

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  5. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) and ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2014. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2012

    Korsgaard, Helle

    2014-01-01

    Zoonoses are infections and diseases that are naturally transmissible, directly or indirectly, for example via contaminated foodstuffs, between animals and humans. The severity of these diseases in humans varies from subclinical infection or mild symptoms to life-threatening conditions. In order to prevent zoonoses from occurring, it is important to identify which animals and foodstuffs are the main sources of infection. For this purpose information aimed at protecting human health is collect...

  6. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  7. Emerging bacterial pathogens: the past and beyond.

    Vouga, M; Greub, G

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1950s, medical communities have been facing with emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, and emerging pathogens are now considered to be a major microbiologic public health threat. In this review, we focus on bacterial emerging diseases and explore factors involved in their emergence as well as future challenges. We identified 26 major emerging and reemerging infectious diseases of bacterial origin; most of them originated either from an animal and are considered to be zoonoses or from water sources. Major contributing factors in the emergence of these bacterial infections are: (1) development of new diagnostic tools, such as improvements in culture methods, development of molecular techniques and implementation of mass spectrometry in microbiology; (2) increase in human exposure to bacterial pathogens as a result of sociodemographic and environmental changes; and (3) emergence of more virulent bacterial strains and opportunistic infections, especially affecting immunocompromised populations. A precise definition of their implications in human disease is challenging and requires the comprehensive integration of microbiological, clinical and epidemiologic aspects as well as the use of experimental models. It is now urgent to allocate financial resources to gather international data to provide a better understanding of the clinical relevance of these waterborne and zoonotic emerging diseases. PMID:26493844

  8. Establishment of serological herd profiles for zoonoses and production diseases in pigs by "meat juice multi-serology".

    Meemken, Diana; Tangemann, Anna Helene; Meermeier, Dieter; Gundlach, Susanne; Mischok, Dieter; Greiner, Matthias; Klein, Guenter; Blaha, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The most important pork-borne zoonotic diseases in humans such as Salmonelloses and Yersinioses cause only latent infections in pigs. Thus, the infection of pigs does not result in apparent or palpable alterations in the pig carcasses. This is the major reason, why the traditional meat inspection with adspection, palpation and incision is not able to control the food safety risks of today. The objective of this paper is to evaluate a set of serological tests, which provides a classification of pig herds into "zoonoses risk categories" as demanded by EU law and into "herd health risk categories" by using meat juice as diagnostic specimen for ELISA tests. Serological data that were obtained by testing meat juice samples from various pig herds were analyzed as proof of the "meat juice multi-serology" concept. For that, at least 60 meat juice samples from 49 pig herds each were taken between September 2010 and March 2011 and tested for antibodies against zoonotic pathogens (Salmonella spp., Trichinella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica and Toxoplasma gondii) and against pathogens causing production diseases (Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, influenza A virus subtype H1N1, influenza A virus subtype H3N2 and PRRSV). Apparent and true animal prevalence, herd prevalence values and intra-herd seroprevalence values as well as the predictive values for the herd and the animal prevalence values were calculated for each pathogen and each of the 49 randomly selected herds. The herd seroprevalence values (one seropositive sample per herd determined a "positive herd") for Y. enterocolitica, Salmonella spp., T. gondii, M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV were higher than 80%, respectively, for the influenza A viruses between 60% and 14% and for Trichinella spp. 0%. Although all herds were located in the same area in the Northwest of Germany within a radius of 250 km, the intra-herd seroprevalence values for all tested pathogens, except for Trichinella spp., varied remarkably from herd to herd. In the

  9. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  10. Addressing the nuclear misconception

    There is a perception, fostered and encouraged by the anti-nuclear groups, that the nuclear industry generates large quantities of waste with no idea how to deal with it, that it is unsafe, uneconomic, and environmentally damaging. The task is to change these perceptions, by demonstrating that the industry is not a problem in itself, but in fact provides solutions to problems. This paper, while primarily concerned with waste, addresses all of these issues as each has a bearing on the perception of the industry and therefore must be considered when addressing the issue of waste. The paper concludes that evidence exists to support the industry view, but that the mission of the industry should be to change the perception of the industry, by influencing and working together with its stake holders to address their concerns, rather than merely presenting more and more facts. (author)

  11. Addressing the nuclear misconception

    There is a perception, fostered and encouraged by the anti-nuclear groups, that the nuclear industry generates large quantities of waste with no idea how to deal with it, is unsafe, uneconomic, and environmentally damaging. The task of the industry is to change the perception by demonstrating that the industry provides solutions to problems, and is not a problem in itself. This paper, whilst primarily concerned with waste, addresses all of these issues as each has a bearing on the perception of the industry and therefore must be considered when addressing the issue of waste. The paper concludes that evidence exists to support the industry, but that the mission of the industry should be to change the perception of it, by influencing and working together with its stakeholders to address their concerns, rather than merely presenting more and more facts. (author)

  12. The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2013

    European Food Safety Authority

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2013 in 32 European countries (28 Member States and four non-Member States. Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis. After several years of an increasing European Union (EU trend, the human campylobacteriosis notification rate has stabilised. In food and animals no EU trends were observed and the occurrence of Campylobacter continued to be high in broiler meat at EU level. The decreasing EU trend in confirmed human salmonellosis cases observed in recent years continued. Most Member States met their Salmonella reduction targets for poultry. In foodstuffs, the reported EU-level Salmonella non-compliance in fresh poultry meat decreased. Human listeriosis increased further, showing an increasing EU trend in 2009-2013. In ready-to-eat foods Listeria was seldom detected above the legal safety limit. Also during 2009-2013, a decreasing EU trend was observed in confirmed yersiniosis cases. Positive findings for Yersinia were mainly reported in pig meat and products thereof. The number of confirmed verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC infections in humans increased. VTEC was reported from food and animals. A total of 5,196 food-borne outbreaks, including water-borne outbreaks, were reported in the EU. Most food-borne outbreaks were caused by Salmonella, followed by viruses, bacterial toxins and Campylobacter, whereas in 28.9 % of all outbreaks the causative agent was unknown. Important food vehicles in strong-evidence food-borne outbreaks were eggs and egg products, followed by mixed food, and fish and fish products. The report further summarises trends and sources along the food chain of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Toxoplasma, rabies, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever, West Nile Virus and tularaemia.

  13. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2012

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control analysed information submitted by 27 European Union Member States on the occurrence of zoonoses and food-borne outbreaks in 2012. Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis, with 214,268 confirmed human cases. The occurrence of Campylobacter continued to be high in broiler meat at EU level. The decreasing trend in confirmed salmonellosis cases in humans continued with a total of 91,034 cases reported in 2012. Most Member States met their Salmonella reduction targets for poultry. In foodstuffs, Salmonella was most often detected in meat and products thereof. The number of confirmed human listeriosis cases increased to 1,642. Listeria was seldom detected above the legal safety limit from ready-to-eat foods. A total of 5,671 confirmed verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC infections were reported. VTEC was also reported from food and animals. The number of human tuberculosis cases due to Mycobacterium bovis was 125 cases, and 328 cases of brucellosis in humans were reported. The prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle increased, and the prevalence of brucellosis in cattle, sheep or goats decreased. Trichinella caused 301 human cases and was mainly detected in wildlife. One domestically acquired human case and one imported human case of rabies were reported. The number of rabies cases in animals increased compared with 2011. A total of 643 confirmed human cases of Q fever were reported. Almost all reporting Member States found Coxiella burnetii (Q fever positive cattle, sheep or goats. A total of 232 cases of West Nile fever in humans were reported. Nine Member States reported West Nile virus findings in solipeds. Most of the 5,363 reported food-borne outbreaks were caused by Salmonella,bacterial toxins, viruses and Campylobacter, and the main food sources were eggs, mixed foods and fish and fishery products.

  14. Importance et hiérarchisation des zoonoses en France : le point de vue du vétérinaire

    Ganière, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Deux critères permettent de définir l’importance des zoonoses chez les animaux d’élevage : leur impact économique, la fréquence et gravité de la maladie qu’elles provoquent chez l’Homme. A quelques exceptions près, leur hiérarchisation montre qu’elles ne font pas partie majoritairement des maladies les plus préoccupantes (par leur impact direct ou indirect sur la santé ou les performances zootechniques des animaux) en élevage. Toutefois, le risque zoonotique (en particulier lorsqu’il est lié ...

  15. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  16. Developing emergency nursing competence.

    Proehl, Jean A

    2002-03-01

    Developing and maintaining the competence emergency nurses need is an important function of emergency clinical nurse specialists (CNS), educators, and other members of the emergency department (ED) leadership team. A thorough orientation is the first and most important step in developing the competence of emergency nurses. After orientation, the challenge is to maintain currency of practice in the face of incessant change such as new medications, new equipment, and new therapies in emergency care. This article focuses on the orientation of emergency nurses. A related article in this issue addresses assessment of competency. PMID:11818264

  17. Viral Metagenomics on Animals as a Tool for the Detection of Zoonoses Prior to Human Infection?

    Sarah Temmam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many human viral infections have a zoonotic, i.e., wild or domestic animal, origin. Several zoonotic viruses are transmitted to humans directly via contact with an animal or indirectly via exposure to the urine or feces of infected animals or the bite of a bloodsucking arthropod. If a virus is able to adapt and replicate in its new human host, human-to-human transmissions may occur, possibly resulting in an epidemic, such as the A/H1N1 flu pandemic in 2009. Thus, predicting emerging zoonotic infections is an important challenge for public health officials in the coming decades. The recent development of viral metagenomics, i.e., the characterization of the complete viral diversity isolated from an organism or an environment using high-throughput sequencing technologies, is promising for the surveillance of such diseases and can be accomplished by analyzing the viromes of selected animals and arthropods that are closely in contact with humans. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of viral diversity within such animals (in particular blood-feeding arthropods, wildlife and domestic animals using metagenomics and present its possible future application for the surveillance of zoonotic and arboviral diseases.

  18. An Ecological and Conservation Perspective on Advances in the Applied Virology of Zoonoses

    Jonathan H. Epstein

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this manuscript is to describe how modern advances in our knowledge of viruses and viral evolution can be applied to the fields of disease ecology and conservation. We review recent progress in virology and provide examples of how it is informing both empirical research in field ecology and applied conservation. We include a discussion of needed breakthroughs and ways to bridge communication gaps between the field and the lab. In an effort to foster this interdisciplinary effort, we have also included a table that lists the definitions of key terms. The importance of understanding the dynamics of zoonotic pathogens in their reservoir hosts is emphasized as a tool to both assess risk factors for spillover and to test hypotheses related to treatment and/or intervention strategies. In conclusion, we highlight the need for smart surveillance, viral discovery efforts and predictive modeling. A shift towards a predictive approach is necessary in today’s globalized society because, as the 2009 H1N1 pandemic demonstrated, identification post-emergence is often too late to prevent global spread. Integrating molecular virology and ecological techniques will allow for earlier recognition of potentially dangerous pathogens, ideally before they jump from wildlife reservoirs into human or livestock populations and cause serious public health or conservation issues.

  19. Occupational zoonoses in zoo and wildlife veterinarians in India: A review

    H. B. Chethan Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Zoos and biological parks are considered as a hub for public ecreation and education. This is highlighted by the fact that visitors to the zoos are increasing year by year and they generate sizeable revenue. Veterinary professionals play a pivotal role in health management of wild animals in zoos and biological parks. Since veterinarians work in close contact with wild animals, there is a potential risk of transmission of zoonotic diseases from wild animals to humans and vice versa. There are approximately 1415 infectious agents causing diseases in humans, out of which 868 (61% are known to be zoonotic in nature. It is also important to note that more than 70% of the emerging zoonotic diseases have wild animals as reservoir hosts. The major zoonotic diseases that are transmitted from wild animals to humans include rabies, anthrax, leptospirosis, Q-fever, psittacosis, hendra virus, nipah virus, herpes B encephalitis, toxoplasmosis, etc. Hence, it is imperative for veterinarians and zoo staff to be fully aware of the knowledge pertaining to the source, transmission, pathogenicity, treatment and control of zoonotic diseases. In this manuscript, we provide key information regarding zoonotic diseases and also recommend important measures for their control and prevention. The information provided here will be highly beneficial for personnel who work in close association with wild animals

  20. Lung Emergencies

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at ... should be considered an emergency. Symptoms of sudden lung collapse (pneumothorax) Symptoms of a sudden lung collapse ...

  1. Scientific Opinion on Review of the European Union Summary Report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks—Terms of reference 2 to 7

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW Panel of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA has evaluated the European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks by EFSA and ECDC (the report with regard to data needs and subsequent analyses that will minimise the impact of existing data gaps and inconsistencies. Specific assessments performed for bovine tuberculosis, echinococcosis, Q fever, brucellosis, rabies, cysticercosis and tularaemia show that the report gives an accurate picture of the epidemiological situation for the infections which have an EU harmonised monitoring system. Generally the data analysis is descriptive; further analysis for specific purposes and quantification of the trends should be considered. Specific information for each disease should contain (i a clear case definition, (ii a clear description of sampling techniques and diagnostic tests used, (iii relevant epidemiological characteristics and (iv relevant control measures or surveillance. Prioritisation of diseases from a public health viewpoint is not in the remit of the AHAW Panel. Proposed criteria to assess the value of including additional diseases in the report are (1 the disease is reported regularly in animals and humans in some EU Member States; (2 the disease is considered a serious public health issue; and (3 monitoring in animals is epidemiologically justifiable. The first two criteria are inclusion criteria; the third is used to prioritise diseases for inclusion in the report. The last section of the opinion addresses the value of the data included in the report for AHAW risk assessment. Their usefulness is often compromised by missing case definition, insufficient metadata or outdated data. It is recommended that data needs are further analysed to improve the preparedness of the AHAW Panel to answer risk questions, via some readily available and stable data as well as good knowledge of ad-hoc data models

  2. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor develop...

  3. Holographic content addressable storage

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  4. Addressing mathematics & statistics anxiety

    Kotecha, Meena

    2015-01-01

    This paper should be of interest to mathematics and statistics educators ranging from pre-university to university education sectors. It will discuss some features of the author’s teaching model developed over her longitudinal study conducted to understand and address mathematics and statistics anxiety, which is one of the main barriers to engaging with these subjects especially in non-specialist undergraduates. It will demonstrate how a range of formative assessments are used to kindle, as w...

  5. The importance of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases: Recognition, monitoring and control

    Full text: Whilst communicable diseases mainly affect the developing world, new and emerging diseases have re-awakened the developed countries to the importance of these infections. Zoonoses are of main concern. In these diseases, the animal reservoir is of prime importance for its control, and elimination becomes a task always believed to be far from affordable. Therefore, the greatest efforts are nowadays concentrated on human non-zoonotic diseases. Among zoonoses, there are several usually neglected parasitic diseases, which need to be added to the priority list. These are diseases for which it is very difficult to get funds for research, despite being of high human impact globally, regionally or locally. Most of them are globally or regionally/locally emerging or re-emerging at present, including both vector-borne and non-vector borne diseases. Molecular tools are recently showing that these diseases are more complex than previously believed, explaining the reduced success of control initiatives despite the great efforts carried out. Molecular marker combinations, from high resolution DNA sequencing up to less detailed techniques, are very useful tools for zoonoses. In epidemiology they enable the distinguishing between different strains of the causal agent and their relationships with higher/lower prevalence and intensities in humans and animals, concrete animal species which constitute the reservoirs and infection sources for humans, concrete vector species, climatic factors and environmental characteristics, geographical distribution and spreading capacities. In clinics and pathology, they enable the distinguishing of strain relationships with more or less pathogenicity and immunogenicity. In diagnosis, they are useful for the development of highly sensitive and specific diagnostic techniques to be applied in humans, reservoir animals and vectors. In treatment, they are useful in the characterisation of resistant and susceptible strains, as well as in post

  6. Emergency preparedness

    Jackson, J. [Key Safety and Blowout Control Corp., Sylvan Lake, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This presentation included several slides depicting well control and emergency preparedness. It provided information to help in pre-emergency planning for potential well control situations. Key Safety and Blowout Control Corp has gained experience in the Canadian and International well control industry as well as from the fires of Kuwait. The president of the company lectures on the complications and concerns of managers, wellsite supervisors, service companies, the public sector, land owners, government agencies and the media. The slides presented scenarios based on actual blowout recovery assignments and described what types of resources are needed by a well control team. The presentation addressed issues such as the responsibility of a well control team and what they can be expected to do. The issue of how government agencies become involved was also discussed. The presentation combines important information and descriptive images of personal experiences in fire fighting and well control. The emergency situations presented here demonstrate the need for a thorough understanding of preplanning for emergencies and what to expect when a typical day in the oil patch turns into a high stress, volatile situation. tabs., figs.

  7. Global trends in emerging infectious diseases.

    Jones, Kate E; Patel, Nikkita G; Levy, Marc A; Storeygard, Adam; Balk, Deborah; Gittleman, John L; Daszak, Peter

    2008-02-21

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a significant burden on global economies and public health. Their emergence is thought to be driven largely by socio-economic, environmental and ecological factors, but no comparative study has explicitly analysed these linkages to understand global temporal and spatial patterns of EIDs. Here we analyse a database of 335 EID 'events' (origins of EIDs) between 1940 and 2004, and demonstrate non-random global patterns. EID events have risen significantly over time after controlling for reporting bias, with their peak incidence (in the 1980s) concomitant with the HIV pandemic. EID events are dominated by zoonoses (60.3% of EIDs): the majority of these (71.8%) originate in wildlife (for example, severe acute respiratory virus, Ebola virus), and are increasing significantly over time. We find that 54.3% of EID events are caused by bacteria or rickettsia, reflecting a large number of drug-resistant microbes in our database. Our results confirm that EID origins are significantly correlated with socio-economic, environmental and ecological factors, and provide a basis for identifying regions where new EIDs are most likely to originate (emerging disease 'hotspots'). They also reveal a substantial risk of wildlife zoonotic and vector-borne EIDs originating at lower latitudes where reporting effort is low. We conclude that global resources to counter disease emergence are poorly allocated, with the majority of the scientific and surveillance effort focused on countries from where the next important EID is least likely to originate. PMID:18288193

  8. Essential veterinary education in emerging infections, modes of introduction of exotic animals, zoonotic diseases, bioterrorism, implications for human and animal health and disease manifestation.

    Chomel, B B; Marano, N

    2009-08-01

    A fundamental role of the veterinary profession is the protection of human health through wholesome food and control of diseases of animal origin, especially zoonoses. Therefore, training of veterinary students worldwide needs to face the new challenges posed by emerging infections, both from wildlife and domestic animals, as well as risks from bio/agroterrorism. New courses emphasising recognition, response, recovery and prevention must be developed to respond to natural or intentionally induced emerging diseases and zoonoses. Training programmes in applied epidemiology, zoonoses and foreign animal diseases are crucial for the development of a strong workforce to deal with microbial threats. Students should learn the reporting pathways for reportable diseases in their countries or states. Knowledge of the principles of ecology and ecosystems should be acquired during pre-veterinary studies. Elective classes on wildlife diseases, emphasising wildlife zoonotic diseases, should be offered during the veterinary curriculum, as well as a course on risk communication, since veterinarians are frequently in the position of having to convey complex information under adverse circumstances. PMID:20128464

  9. Address delivered in Vilnius

    Piłsudski, Józef

    2013-01-01

    Title: Przemówienie w Wilnie 20 kwietnia 1922 roku (Address delivered in Vilnius, 20 April, 1922) Originally published: Pisma-mowy-rozkazy, vol. V, Warsaw, Instytut Józefa Piłsudskiego, 1933, pp. 255–260. Language: PolishThe excerpt used is from the original About the author Józef Piłsudski [1867, Zułów (in the district of Święciany, Lit. Zalave/Švenčionys, present-day Lithuania) – 1935, Warsaw]: politician. Piłsudski was born to a family belonging to the Polish-speaking gentry in the Lithuan...

  10. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2011

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control analysed the information submitted by 27 European Union Member States on the occurrence of zoonoses and food-borne outbreaks in 2011. Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis with 220,209 confirmed human cases. The occurrence of Campylobacter continued to be high in broiler meat at EU level. The decreasing trend in confirmed salmonellosis cases in humans continued with a total of 95,548 cases in 2011. Most Member States met their Salmonella reduction targets for poultry, and Salmonella is declining in these populations. In foodstuffs, Salmonella was most often detected in meat and products thereof. The number of confirmed human listeriosis cases decreased to 1,476. Listeria was seldom detected above the legal safety limit from ready-to-eat foods. A total of 9,485 confirmed verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC infections were reported. This represents an increase of 159.4 % compared with 2010 as a result of the large STEC/VTEC outbreak that occurred in 2011 in the EU, primarily in Germany. VTEC was also reported from food and animals. The number of human yersiniosis cases increased to 7,017 cases. Yersinia enterocolitica was isolated also from pig meat and pigs; 132 cases of Mycobacterium bovis and 330 cases of brucellosis in humans were also reported. The prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle increased, and the prevalence of brucellosis decreased in cattle and sheep and goat populations. Trichinellosis and echinococcosis caused 268 and 781 human cases, respectively and these parasites were mainly detected in wildlife. The numbers of alveolar and of cystic echinococcosis respectively increased and decreased in the last five years. One imported human case of rabies was reported. The number of rabies cases in animals continued to decrease. Most of the 5,648 reported food-borne outbreaks were caused by Salmonella,bacterial toxins

  11. UN PARADIGMA HOLÍSTICO Y TRANSDISCIPLINARIO PARA EL ESTUDIO DE LAS ZOONOSIS: MEDICINA DE LA CONSERVACIÓN A holistic and transdisciplinary paradigm for studying zoonoses: conservation medicine

    José Andrés Rojas Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El sesenta por ciento de las enfermedades emergentes que afectan al ser humano son zoonosis; la mayoría (cerca del 75% tienen su origen en la fauna silvestre. Muchas de estas patologías son comunes a los animales domésticos de carácter productivo, debido a las múltiples interrelaciones existentes y la habilidad de muchos microorganismos de mutar para colonizar nuevos huéspedes. Las zoonosis inciden directamente en el sector agropecuario y en la salud pública, y se constituyen en una seria limitante a la exportación de productos de origen animal y al comercio internacional; comprometen seriamente la seguridad alimentaria y causan cada año un alto impacto socioeconómico en naciones agroexportadoras como son la mayoría de países latinoamericanos. Organizaciones internacionales como la FAO, OIE y OMS a través de su iniciativa conjunta ´´One Health Approach´´ reconocen la necesidad de cambiar la visión tradicional del médico veterinario, y proponen afincar los servicios sanitarios de salud animal en la prevención epidemiológica temprana de las zoonosis; a través de la investigación holística y transdiciplinaria. Este artículo trata sobre las implicaciones que las zoonosis de origen silvestre pueden tener en la sanidad animal y en la salud pública. Así mismo, toca el tema de medicina de la conservación con algunas perspectivas para Costa Rica.Sixty percent of emergent diseases affecting human beings are zoonoses; most of them (around 75% originate in wild fauna. Many zoonotic diseases are common in domesticated animals used for production (meat, milk, eggs, rearing due to the multiple interrelationships involved and many microorganisms’ ability to mutate so as to colonize new hosts. Zoonoses directly affect livestock and public health and have become a serious limitation on exporting animal products and thus international trade. They seriously compromise food security, causing a high socioeconomic impact on agroexporting

  12. A Behavioral Framework to Address the Emerging Challenge of Multimorbidity.

    Suls, Jerry; Green, Paige A; Davidson, Karina W

    2016-04-01

    Multimorbidity, the co-occurrence of multiple physical or psychological illnesses, is prevalent particularly among older adults. The number of Americans with multiple chronic diseases is projected to increase from 57 million in 2000 to 81 million in 2020. However, behavioral medicine and health psychology, while focusing on the co-occurrence of psychological/psychiatric disorders with primary medical morbidities, have historically tended to ignore the co-occurrence of primary medical comorbidities, such as diabetes and cancer, and their biopsychosocial implications. This approach may hinder our ecologically valid understanding of the etiology, prevention, and treatment for individual patients with multimorbidity. In this selective review, we propose a heuristic behavioral framework for the etiology of multimorbidity. More acknowledgment and systematic research on multiple, co-existing disorders in behavioral medicine are consistent with the biopsychosocial model's emphasis on treating the "whole person," which means not considering any single illness, its symptoms, risk factors, or mechanisms, in isolation. As systems analytics, big data, machine learning, and mixed-model trajectory analyses, among others, come online and become more widely available, we may be able to tackle multimorbidity more holistically, efficiently, and satisfactorily. PMID:26867072

  13. Prevention policies addressing packaging and packaging waste: Some emerging trends.

    Tencati, Antonio; Pogutz, Stefano; Moda, Beatrice; Brambilla, Matteo; Cacia, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    Packaging waste is a major issue in several countries. Representing in industrialized countries around 30-35% of municipal solid waste yearly generated, this waste stream has steadily grown over the years even if, especially in Europe, specific recycling and recovery targets have been fixed. Therefore, an increasing attention starts to be devoted to prevention measures and interventions. Filling a gap in the current literature, this explorative paper is a first attempt to map the increasingly important phenomenon of prevention policies in the packaging sector. Through a theoretical sampling, 11 countries/states (7 in and 4 outside Europe) have been selected and analyzed by gathering and studying primary and secondary data. Results show evidence of three specific trends in packaging waste prevention policies: fostering the adoption of measures directed at improving packaging design and production through an extensive use of the life cycle assessment; raising the awareness of final consumers by increasing the accountability of firms; promoting collaborative efforts along the packaging supply chains. PMID:27372152

  14. Why public health might address the emerging role of vaccinomics?

    Stefania Boccia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The greatest public health benefit of the advances brought about by the understanding of the human genome, completely sequenced in 2000, will likely occur as genomic medicine expands its focus from rare genetic disorders towards the inclusion of more common diseases also, such as coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer and infectious disease. Advances in Genomics hold the promise of improving the delivery of health care, particularly that of preventive medicine, and of tailoring drug treatment.

  15. Introduction to Several Common and Important Zoonoses%常见几种重要人畜共患传染病介绍

    郭志红; 史喜菊

    2010-01-01

    @@ 人兽共患病一词是自英文Zoonosis(复数Zoonoses)翻译而来.按此词构成的原意来讲是指在自然条件下动物(主要指家畜)的某些传染性疾病可以传染给人的一类疾病.上世纪五六十年代经联合国世界粮农组织(FAO)和世界卫生组织(WHO)的专家委员会的讨论研究,对Zoonoses一词所下的定义是:"Those disease and infections that are:naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and man"(那些在脊椎动物和人之间自然地传播的疾病和感染).

  16. Conference President's address

    The objective of the Conference is to promote the development of a coherent international policy on the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation and to foster information exchange on this subject. The organizers, the IAEA in cooperation with United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the European Commission (EC) and the International Union of Radioecology (IUR), as well as the hosts of the conference, the Government of Sweden through the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI), are pleased that so nearly 300 delegates from 53 countries have been nominated by their governments to attend this meeting. Another objective is to discuss the implications of the ICRP's proposal for a framework to assess radiation effects in the environment. A framework for radiological protection of the environment must be practical and simple, as should be international standards for discharges into the environment that take account of such an approach. This is a task for the IAEA, in cooperation with other international organizations. This conference therefore provides an opportunity for you to influence the development of both ICRP and IAEA policy in this area. The background session today will give information on the current situation as well as social and political drivers for change. A number of organizations will provide an insight to the present status of international policies on the radiological protection related to releases to the environment. During the course of the conference, there will be five topical sessions that will cover selected subjects related to protection of the environment, such as stakeholders' views, case studies, approaches for non-radioactive pollutants, the state of current scientific knowledge and, finally, the implications of ICRP proposals for international safety standards. Keynote speakers will address key issues within each topical session, and a rapporteur will summarize the

  17. Diabetic Emergencies

    ... Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Diabetic Emergencies It is estimated that more than 20 ... they have it. The best way to prevent diabetic emergencies is to effectively manage the disease through ...

  18. WATER-BORNE EMERGING ZOONOSE? CASE REPORT ON ERYSIPELAS (ERYSIPELOTHRIX RHUSIOPATHIAE) IN HARBOUR PORPOISES (PHOCOENA PHOCOENA) AND HARBOUR SEAL (PHOCA VITULINA).

    Boseret, Géraldine; Saegerman, Claude; Mainil, Jacques; Jauniaux, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    An adult female harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and a juvenile male harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) have been found stranded dead on the Belgian coast in late 2001. As the two bodies were in good condition (CC = 2), necropsy and bacteriological analyses were performed as well as other postmortem investigations. Blood heart and organs (liver, digestive and respiratory tract, lungs, spleen, brain, kidneys) samples have been collected and analyzed. The porpoise showed evidence of septicaemia,...

  19. Observations of IPv6 Addresses

    Malone, David

    2008-01-01

    IPv6 addresses are longer than IPv4 addresses, and are so capable of greater expression. Given an IPv6 address, conventions and standards allow us to draw conclusions about how IPv6 is being used on the node with that address. We show a technique for analysing IPv6 addresses and apply it to a number of datasets. The datasets include addresses seen at a busy mirror server, at an IPv6-enabled TLD DNS server and when running traceroute across the production IPv6 network. The technique quantif...

  20. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) and ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2015. The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2014

    Helwigh, Birgitte; Porsbo, Lone Jannok; Boysen, Louise;

    This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2014 in 32 European countries (28 Member States (MS) and four non-MS). Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly re......, molluscs and products thereof’. The report further summarises trends and sources along the food chain of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Toxoplasma, rabies, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), West Nile virus and tularaemia....

  1. European Food Safety Authority, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control; The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2009

    Korsgaard, Helle

    2011-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control have analysed the information on the occurrence of zoonoses and food-borne outbreaks in 2009 submitted by 27 European Union Member States. In 2009, 108,614 salmonellosis cases in humans were reported and the statistically significant decreasing trend in the case numbers continued. Eighteen Member States reached the European Union Salmonella reduction target for breeding flocks of fowl, 17 Member Stat...

  2. Entrepreneurship, Emerging Technologies, Emerging Markets

    Thukral, Inderpreet S.; Von Ehr, James; Groen, Aard J.; Sijde, van der Peter; Adham, Khairul Akmaliah

    2008-01-01

    Academics and practitioners alike have long understood the benefits, if not the risks, of both emerging markets and emerging technologies.Yet it is only recently that foresighted firms have embraced emerging technologies and emerging markets through entrepreneurial activity. Emerging technologies an

  3. Emergency contraception

    Morning-after pill; Postcoital contraception; Birth control - emergency; Plan B ... Emergency contraception most likely prevents pregnancy in the same way as regular birth control pills: By preventing ...

  4. Port virtual addressing for PC

    Instruments for nuclear signal measurements based on add-on card for a personal computer (PC) are designed often. Then one faces the problem of the addressing of data input/output devices which show an integration level or intelligence that makes the use of several port address indispensable, and these are limited in the PC. The virtual addressing offers the advantage of the occupation of few addresses to accede to many of these devices. The principles of this technique and the appliances of a solution in radiometric in a radiometric card based on programmed logic are discussed in this paper

  5. Reclaiming unused IPv4 addresses

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    As many people might know, the number of IPv4 addresses is limited and almost all have been allocated (see here and here for more information).   Although CERN has been allocated some 340,000 addresses, the way these are allocated across the site is not as efficient as we would like. As we face an increasing demand for IPv4 addresses with the growth in virtual machines, the IT Department’s Communication Systems Group will be reorganising address allocation during 2016 to make more efficient use of the IPv4 address ranges that have been allocated to CERN. We aim, wherever possible, to avoid giving out fixed IP addresses, and have all devices connected to the campus network obtain an address dynamically each time they connect. As a first stage, starting in February, IP addresses that have not been used for more than 9 months will be reclaimed. No information about the devices concerned will be deleted from LANDB, but a new IP address will have to be requested if they are ever reconnected to t...

  6. An address by AECL's president

    This complete address given by Reid Morden, the President of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, at the June 1997 meeting of the Canadian Nuclear Association. In his address, Morden discusses Canada's success in at home and abroad. He also corrects myths about nuclear energy

  7. Emergency Checklist

    ... Prevention Week National Prescription Drug Take-Back Day Emergency Checklist If someone may have been poisoned, call ... may save you from a visit to the emergency room. Below is a checklist to help you ...

  8. Presidential Address: Industry Location, Economic Development Incentives, and Clusters

    Woodward, Douglas P.

    2012-01-01

    In his Presidential Address, Professor Woodward uses South Carolina’s economic development experience as a case study of significant challenges in regional development. The state has re-industrialized and emerged as a leader in attracting capital investment through generous financial incentives, after watching the demise of its major industry cluster (textiles and apparel) since the 1970s. The address argues that regional science research continues to advance our understanding of regional pol...

  9. A Life’s Addresses

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    2006-01-01

    number of different aspects of Koch’s own life such as marijuana, the Italian language, World War Two, etc. In this way, the book quite conventionally inscribes itself in the tradition of post-enlightenment apostrophic poetry as characterized by Culler, just as all its poems belong to the favourite......, are literally troped as and addressed in the manner of so many acquaintances, personal connections, relatives, friends, lovers, and family members in Koch’s life. My main claim is that Koch’s poetics in New Addresses is one that slightly dislocates the romantic dichotomy between the world of things...

  10. Agenda to address climate change

    This document looks at addressing climate change in the 21st century. Topics covered are: Responding to climate change; exploring new avenues in energy efficiency; energy efficiency and alternative energy; residential sector; commercial sector; industrial sector; transportation sector; communities; renewable energy; understanding forests to mitigate and adapt to climate change; the Forest Carbon budget; mitigation and adaptation

  11. Introduction to IP address management

    Rooney, Tim

    2010-01-01

    "The book begins with a basic overview of IP networking, followed by chapters describing each of the three core IPAM technologies: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, DHCP, and DNS. The next three chapters describe IPAM management techniques and practice, followed by chapters on IPv4-IPv6 co-existence, security and the IPAM business case"--

  12. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  13. Communities Address Barriers to Connectivity.

    Byers, Anne

    1996-01-01

    Rural areas lag behind urban areas in access to information technologies. Public institutions play a critical role in extending the benefits of information technologies to those who would not otherwise have access. The most successful rural telecommunications plans address barriers to use, such as unawareness of the benefits, technophobia, the…

  14. Improved Secure Address Resolution Protocol

    Abhishek Samvedi; Sparsh Owlak; Vijay Kumar Chaurasia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an improved secure address resolution protocol is presented where ARP spoofing attack is prevented. The proposed methodology is a centralised methodology for preventing ARP spoofing attack. In the proposed model there is a central server on a network or subnet which prevents ARP spoofing attack.

  15. Chagas' disease: an emergent urban zoonosis. The caracas valley (Venezuela) as an epidemiological model.

    Urdaneta-Morales, Servio

    2014-01-01

    The unprecedented emergence of important public health and veterinary zoonoses is usually a result of exponential population growth and globalization of human activities. I characterized Chagas' disease as an emergent zoonosis in the Caracas Valley (Venezuela) due to the following findings: the presence of reservoirs (Didelphis marsupialis, Rattus rattus) and vectors (Panstrongylus geniculatus, Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus) infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in urbanized or marginalized areas; the elevated contact between P. geniculatus and human beings detected by parasitological and molecular examinations of triatomine feces demonstrated the possibility of transmission risks; a study of outbreaks of urban Chagas' disease reported the first proven case of oral transmission of T. cruzi to human beings; the risk of transmission of glandular metacyclic stages from marsupials by experimental ocular and oral instillation; mice genitalia infected with T. cruzi contaminated blood resulted in the formation of amastigotes very close to the lumen suggesting that there may be a possibility of infection via their release into the urine and thence to the exterior; the ubiquitous histotropism and histopathology of T. cruzi was demonstrated using a mouse model; the presence of experimental T. cruzi pseudocysts in adipose, bone-cartilage, and eye tissue indicated a potential risk for transplants. Socio-sanitary programs that include improvements in housing, vector control, and access to medical treatment, as well as strategies aimed at combating social inequalities, poverty, and underdevelopment should be undertaken in those areas where zoonoses are most prevalent. Disciplines, such as Ecology, Epidemiology, Medical Entomology, Human and Veterinary Medicine, Environmental Studies, Public Health, Social and Political Studies, Immunology, Microbiology, and Pharmacology could all provide important contributions that aim to reduce the occurrence of factors governing the spread of

  16. Chagas’ Disease: An Emergent Urban Zoonosis. The Caracas Valley (Venezuela) as an Epidemiological Model

    Urdaneta-Morales, Servio

    2014-01-01

    The unprecedented emergence of important public health and veterinary zoonoses is usually a result of exponential population growth and globalization of human activities. I characterized Chagas’ disease as an emergent zoonosis in the Caracas Valley (Venezuela) due to the following findings: the presence of reservoirs (Didelphis marsupialis, Rattus rattus) and vectors (Panstrongylus geniculatus, Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus) infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in urbanized or marginalized areas; the elevated contact between P. geniculatus and human beings detected by parasitological and molecular examinations of triatomine feces demonstrated the possibility of transmission risks; a study of outbreaks of urban Chagas’ disease reported the first proven case of oral transmission of T. cruzi to human beings; the risk of transmission of glandular metacyclic stages from marsupials by experimental ocular and oral instillation; mice genitalia infected with T. cruzi contaminated blood resulted in the formation of amastigotes very close to the lumen suggesting that there may be a possibility of infection via their release into the urine and thence to the exterior; the ubiquitous histotropism and histopathology of T. cruzi was demonstrated using a mouse model; the presence of experimental T. cruzi pseudocysts in adipose, bone-cartilage, and eye tissue indicated a potential risk for transplants. Socio-sanitary programs that include improvements in housing, vector control, and access to medical treatment, as well as strategies aimed at combating social inequalities, poverty, and underdevelopment should be undertaken in those areas where zoonoses are most prevalent. Disciplines, such as Ecology, Epidemiology, Medical Entomology, Human and Veterinary Medicine, Environmental Studies, Public Health, Social and Political Studies, Immunology, Microbiology, and Pharmacology could all provide important contributions that aim to reduce the occurrence of factors governing the spread of

  17. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Antimicrobial Resistance and Millennium Development Goals: Resolving the Challenges through One Health

    G. V. Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses, which could severely hamper reaching the targets of millennium development goals (MDG. Five out of the total eight MDG’s are strongly associated with the Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs. Recent emergence and dissemination of drug-resistant pathogens has accelerated and prevent reaching the targets of MDG, with shrinking of therapeutic arsenal, mostly due to antimicrobial resistance (AMR. World Health Organization (WHO has identified AMR as 1 of the 3 greatest threats to global health. Until now, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE have been observed in hospital-acquired infections. In India, within a span of three years, New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase prevalence has risen from three percent in hospitals to twenty- fifty percent and is found to be colistin resistant as well. Routine use of antimicrobials in animal husbandry accounts for more than 50% in tonnage of all antimicrobial production to promote growth and prophylaxis. This has consequences to human health and environmental contamination with a profound impact on the environmental microbiome, resulting in resistance. Antibiotic development is now considered a global health crisis. The average time required to receive regulatory approval is 7.2 years. Moreover, the clinical approval success is only 16%. To overcome resistance in antimicrobials, intersectoral partnerships among medical, veterinary, and environmental disciplines, with specific epidemiological, diagnostic, and therapeutic approaches are needed. Joint efforts under “One Health”, beyond individual professional boundaries are required to stop antimicrobial resistance against zoonoses (EID and reach the MDG.

  18. Chagas’ disease: an emergent urban zoonosis. The Caracas Valley (Venezuela as an epidemiological model

    Servio eUrdaneta-Morales

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The unprecedented emergence of important public health and veterinary zoonoses is usually a result of exponential population growth and globalization of human activities. I characterized Chagas´ disease as an emergent zoonosis in the Caracas Valley (Venezuela due to the following findings: the presence of reservoirs (Didelphis marsupialis, Rattus rattus and vectors (Panstrongylus geniculatus, P. rufotuberculatus infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in urbanized or marginalized areas; the elevated contact between P. geniculatus and humans detected by parasitological and molecular examinations of triatomine faeces demonstrated the possibility of transmission risks; a study of outbreaks of urban Chagas´ disease reported the first proven cases of oral transmission of T. cruzi to humans; the risk of transmission of glandular metacyclic stages from marsupials by experimental ocular and oral instillation; mice genitalia infected with T. cruzi contaminated blood resulted in the formation of amastigotes very close to the lumen suggesting that there may be a possibility of infection via their release into the urine and thence to the exterior; the ubiquitous histotropism and histopathology of T. cruzi was demonstrated using a mouse model; the presence of experimental T. cruzi pseudocysts in adipose, bone-cartilage and eye tissue indicated a potential risk for transplants. Socio-sanitary programs that include improvements in housing, vector control and access to medical treatment, as well as strategies aimed at combating social inequalities, poverty and underdevelopment should be undertaken in those areas where zoonoses are most prevalent. Disciplines such as Ecology, Epidemiology, Medical Entomology, Human and Veterinary Medicine, Environmental Studies, Public Health, Social and Political Studies, Immunology, Microbiology and Pharmacology, could all provide important contributions that aim to reduce the occurrence of factors governing the spread of emergent

  19. Emergency thoracotomy.

    Champion, H. R.; Danne, P D; Finelli, F.

    1986-01-01

    Eighty-nine consecutive trauma patients, who were treated at one institution and received emergency thoracotomy, were studied. Although 76 (85%) of the patients had no vital signs at hospital arrival, 15 (17%) patients survived the emergency thoracotomy to progress to other hospital treatments. Ten patients were ultimately discharged, nine of whom have normal functions. Maintaining a broad set of indications for emergency thoracotomy may increase survival amongst trauma patients for whom the ...

  20. Addressing Barriers to Learning. Volume 13, Number 2. Spring 2008

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Concern about responding to behavior problems and promoting social and emotional learning are related and are embedded into the arenas we frame to encompass the content of student/learning supports. How these concerns are addressed is critical to the type of school and classroom climate that emerges and to student engagement and re-engagement in…

  1. A stakeholder-informed approach to the identification of criteria for the prioritization of zoonoses in Canada.

    Victoria Ng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zoonotic diseases account for over 60% of all communicable diseases causing illness in humans and 75% of recently emerging infectious diseases. As limited resources are available for the control and prevention of zoonotic diseases, it is necessary to prioritize diseases in order to direct resources into those with the greatest needs. The selection of criteria for prioritization has traditionally been on the basis of expert opinion; however, details of the methods used to identify criteria from expert opinion often are not published and a full range of criteria may not be captured by expert opinion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used six focus groups to identify criteria for the prioritization of zoonotic diseases in Canada. Focus groups included people from the public, animal health professionals and human health professionals. A total of 59 criteria were identified for prioritizing zoonotic diseases. Human-related criteria accounted for the highest proportion of criteria identified (55%, followed by animal-related criteria (26% then pathogen/disease-related criteria (19%. Similarities and differences were observed in the identification and scoring of criteria for disease prioritization between groups; the public groups were strongly influenced by the individual-level of disease burden, the responsibility of the scientific community in disease prioritization and the experiences of recent events while the professional groups were influenced by the societal- and population-level of disease burden and political and public pressure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This was the first study to describe a mixed semi-quantitative and qualitative approach to deriving criteria for disease prioritization. This was also the first study to involve the opinion of the general public regarding disease prioritization. The number of criteria identified highlights the difficulty in prioritizing zoonotic diseases. The method presented in this

  2. Advances in emergency networking

    de Graaf,, Dirk C; Berg, van den, C.A.; Boucherie, Richard J.; Elfrink, Herman; Heemstra de Groot, Sonia; Haan, de, R.J.; Marvelde, te, Arjan; Ommeren, van, F.J.; Roijers, Frank; Stemerdink, Jan; Tromp, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Crisis situations require fast regain of control. Wireless ad-hoc networks will enable emergency services to act upon the actual status of the situation by retrieving and exchanging detailed up-to-date information. Deployment of highbandwidth, robust, self-organising ad-hoc networks will therefore enable quicker response to typical hat/where/when questions, than the more vulnerable low-bandwidth communication networks currently in use. This paper addresses a number of results of the projects ...

  3. Emergency Contraception

    ... the early weeks of pregnancy to end the pregnancy. Pills used for emergency contraception cannot end a pregnancy once a fertilized ... body for up to 10 years to prevent pregnancy. After you take emergency contraceptive pills, your period may come earlier or ...

  4. Emergency Shelters

    Popovic Larsen, Olga; Lee, Daniel Sang-Hoon; Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen; Asholt Thomsen, Rune; Lobos

    2013-01-01

    The report gives all the research, teaching, seminars carried in the duration of the shelter cluster. It concludes with proposing relevant research agendas in the field of emergency architecture......The report gives all the research, teaching, seminars carried in the duration of the shelter cluster. It concludes with proposing relevant research agendas in the field of emergency architecture...

  5. Emerging foodborne diseases.

    Altekruse, S F; Cohen, M L; Swerdlow, D L

    1997-01-01

    The epidemiology of foodborne diseases is rapidly changing. Recently described pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and the epidemic strain of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium Definitive Type 104 (which is resistant to at least five antimicrobial drugs), have become important public health problems. Well-recognized pathogens, such as Salmonella serotype Enteritidis, have increased in prevalence or become associated with new vehicles. Emergence in foodborne diseases is driven by the same forces as emergence in other infectious diseases: changes in demographic characteristics, human behavior, industry, and technology; the shift toward a global economy; microbial adaptation; and the breakdown in the public health infrastructure. Addressing emerging foodborne diseases will require more sensitive and rapid surveillance, enhanced methods of laboratory identification and subtyping, and effective prevention and control. PMID:9284372

  6. Internationalization of Emerging Economies and Firms

    A contribution to the scarce body of literature on internationalization of emerging economies and their firms. Using a large variety of national contexts, it addresses the advancing business development of new emerging economies and their impact on the process of internationalization of emerging...... brought under scrutiny in this volume. The chapters provide insights from diverse contexts ranging from Brazil to Malaysia....

  7. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  8. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need. (authors)

  9. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  10. Emergency surgery

    Stoneham, M; Murray, D; Foss, N

    2014-01-01

    undertaken on elderly patients with limited physiological reserve. National audits have reported variations in care quality, data that are increasingly being used to drive quality improvement through professional guidance. Given that the number of elderly patients presenting for emergency surgery is likely......National reports recommended that peri-operative care should be improved for elderly patients undergoing emergency surgery. Postoperative mortality and morbidity rates remain high, and indicate that emergency ruptured aneurysm repair, laparotomy and hip fracture fixation are high-risk procedures...

  11. Urologic Emergencies.

    Ludvigson, Adam E; Beaule, Lisa T

    2016-06-01

    The diagnosis and management of urologic emergencies are incorporated into the basic training of all urology residents. In institutions without access to urologic services, it is usually left to the General Surgeon or Emergency Medicine physician to provide timely care. This article discusses diagnoses that are important to recognize and treatment that is practically meaningful for the non-Urologist to identify and treat. The non-Urology provider, after reading this article, will have a better understanding and a higher comfort level with treating patients with urologic emergencies. PMID:27261785

  12. Addressing concrete cracking in NPPs

    The phenomenon of concrete cracking is one of the most frequently encountered deterioration at NPPs as it has been shown by a wide Survey of NPPs performed by IAEA in 1994-95 It can be due to a multitude of causes such as the normal ageing process (shrinkage, creep, prestressing force loss) as well as exposure to the environment (temperature variation, moisture, freeze/thaw, etc) The above mentioned Survey has also shown that in 64% of cases, no action was taken or required. It became also obvious that there is a lack of guidance as when remedial actions are needed. The paper describes, with the help of a Flow Chart, the various stages to be considered, from the first step of identification of cracks, to the definition of causes, evaluation of extent of damage, evaluation of effect/implications (safety, reliability), to the final step of deciding if repair action is required. Finally, based upon a wide literature survey the paper proposes in a Chart format, Criteria for addressing concrete cracks in NPPs., when taking in considerations all these factors. This paper discusses the process which should lead to the selection of an effective repair method and proposes, based upon worldwide standards and literature, criteria which should lead to the decision whether to repair or not concrete cracks, after the cracks have been identified and evaluated, addressing the entire range of aspects involved. (author)

  13. Brucellosis as an emerging threat in developing economies: lessons from Nigeria.

    Ducrotoy, Marie J; Bertu, Wilson J; Ocholi, Reuben A; Gusi, Amahyel M; Bryssinckx, Ward; Welburn, Sue; Moriyón, Ignacio

    2014-07-01

    Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, has a large proportion of the world's poor livestock keepers, and is a hotspot for neglected zoonoses. A review of the 127 accessible publications on brucellosis in Nigeria reveals only scant and fragmented evidence on its spatial and temporal distribution in different epidemiological contexts. The few bacteriological studies conducted demonstrate the existence of Brucella abortus in cattle and sheep, but evidence for B. melitensis in small ruminants is dated and unclear. The bulk of the evidence consists of seroprevalence studies, but test standardization and validation are not always adequately described, and misinterpretations exist with regard to sensitivity and/or specificity and ability to identify the infecting Brucella species. Despite this, early studies suggest that although brucellosis was endemic in extensive nomadic systems, seroprevalence was low, and brucellosis was not perceived as a real burden; recent studies, however, may reflect a changing trend. Concerning human brucellosis, no studies have identified the Brucella species and most reports provide only serological evidence of contact with Brucella in the classical risk groups; some suggest brucellosis misdiagnoses as malaria or other febrile conditions. The investigation of a severe outbreak that occurred in the late 1970s describes the emergence of animal and human disease caused by the settling of previously nomadic populations during the Sahelian drought. There appears to be an increasing risk of re-emergence of brucellosis in sub-Saharan Africa, as a result of the co-existence of pastoralist movements and the increase of intensive management resulting from growing urbanization and food demand. Highly contagious zoonoses like brucellosis pose a threat with far-reaching social and political consequences. PMID:25058178

  14. Emergency Contraception

    ... can be used after a woman has been raped. How does EC work? Using EC does not ... used has failed, or if a woman is raped. Emergency contraception methods include progestin- only pills, ulipristal, ...

  15. Thoracic emergencies.

    Worrell, Stephanie G; Demeester, Steven R

    2014-02-01

    This article discusses thoracic emergencies, including the anatomy, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, examination, diagnosis, technique, management, and treatment of acute upper airway obstruction, massive hemoptysis, spontaneous pneumothorax, and pulmonary empyema. PMID:24267505

  16. Ear emergencies

    Ear emergencies include objects in the ear canal and ruptured eardrums. ... Children often put objects into their ears. These objects can be hard to remove. The ear canal is a tube of solid bone that is lined with thin, sensitive ...

  17. Emergent Modernism

    Simonsen, Karen Margrethe

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the problems of historizing modernism in the light of developments within world literature and theories about world literature. It draws upon Wlad Godzich's concept of emergence and Lyotard's concept of "evènement".......This article discusses the problems of historizing modernism in the light of developments within world literature and theories about world literature. It draws upon Wlad Godzich's concept of emergence and Lyotard's concept of "evènement"....

  18. EMERGENCY CALLS

    Medical Service

    2001-01-01

    IN URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR GENEVA EMERGENCY SERVICES GENEVA AND VAUD 144 FIRE BRIGADE 118 POLICE 117 CERN FIREMEN 767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 01-251-51-51 Patient not fit to be moved, call family doctor, or: GP AT HOME, open 24h/24h 748-49-50 Association Of Geneva Doctors Emergency Doctors at home 07h-23h 322 20 20 Patient fit to be moved: HOPITAL CANTONAL CENTRAL 24 Micheli-du-Crest 372-33-11 ou 382-33-11 EMERGENCIES 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 6 rue Willy-Donzé 372-33-11 MATERNITY 32 bvd.de la Cluse 382-68-16 ou 382-33-11 OPHTHALMOLOGY 22 Alcide Jentzer 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 MEDICAL CENTRE CORNAVIN 1-3 rue du Jura 345 45 50 HOPITAL DE LA TOUR Meyrin EMERGENCIES 719-61-11 URGENCES PEDIATRIQUES 719-61-00 LA TOUR MEDICAL CENTRE 719-74-00 European Emergency Call 112 FRANCE EMERGENCY SERVICES 15 FIRE BRIGADE 18 POLICE 17 CERN FIREMEN AT HOME 00-41-22-767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 04-72-11-69-11 All doctors ...

  19. Emerging images

    Mitra, Niloy J.

    2009-01-01

    Emergence refers to the unique human ability to aggregate information from seemingly meaningless pieces, and to perceive a whole that is meaningful. This special skill of humans can constitute an effective scheme to tell humans and machines apart. This paper presents a synthesis technique to generate images of 3D objects that are detectable by humans, but difficult for an automatic algorithm to recognize. The technique allows generating an infinite number of images with emerging figures. Our algorithm is designed so that locally the synthesized images divulge little useful information or cues to assist any segmentation or recognition procedure. Therefore, as we demonstrate, computer vision algorithms are incapable of effectively processing such images. However, when a human observer is presented with an emergence image, synthesized using an object she is familiar with, the figure emerges when observed as a whole. We can control the difficulty level of perceiving the emergence effect through a limited set of parameters. A procedure that synthesizes emergence images can be an effective tool for exploring and understanding the factors affecting computer vision techniques. © 2009 ACM.

  20. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  1. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  2. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    Snir, Marc [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Wisniewski, Robert [Intel Corporation; Abraham, Jacob [unknown; Adve, Sarita [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Bagchi, Saurabh [Purdue University; Balaji, Pavan [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Belak, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Bose, Pradip [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center; Cappello, Franck [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Carlson, Bill [unknown; Chien, Andrew [University of Chicago; Coteus, Paul [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center; DeBardeleben, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Diniz, Pedro [University of Southern California; Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Erez, Mattan [University of Texas at Austin; Fazzari, Saverio [Booz Allen Hamilton; Geist, Al [ORNL; Gupta, Rinku [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Johnson, Fred [Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), Oak Ridge, TN; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Leyffer, Sven [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Liberty, Dean [AMD; Mitra, Subhasish [Stanford University; Munson, Todd [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Schreiber, Rob [HP Labs; Stearley, Jon [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Van Hensbergen, Eric [ARM

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  3. Building Footprints - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Structures/Addresses Framework is a statewide spatial database of structure and address points in the State of Montana. The Montana Structures/Addresses...

  4. Hematologic emergencies

    Daniele Vallisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the surprising progress made in other areas of hematology (advances in the understanding of leukemogenesis, improved transplant techniques has been conspicuously absent in the management of hematologic emergencies. And yet, every step toward greater knowledge, every new treatment option will be of little value unless we are able to manage the acute complications of hematologic diseases. These complications are better defined as hematologic emergencies, and they are characterized by a high rate of mortality. This review is based on a search of the literature that was initially confined to articles published in the journal Hematology from 2000 to 2009. The search was then extended to the Cochrane Library and to Pub Med in February 2010 with the following Keywords emergencies; urgencies; hematology. The same key words were employed in a search of the archives of Blood and the New England Journal of Medicine from 2000 to 2010. The results confirm that hematologic emergencies can be caused by hematologic malignancies as well as by non-neoplastic hematologic diseases. Within the former category; this review examines the causes; manifestations; treatment and prevention of disseminated intravascular coagulation; superior vena caval syndrome; spinal cord compression; tumor lysis syndrome; hyperleukocytosis; and hypercalcemia. We also review emergency situations associated with non-neoplatic haematological diseases; such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; drug-induced hemolytic anemia; and acute sickle-cell crisis.

  5. Emergency management: e-learning as an immediate response to veterinary training needs.

    Alessandrini, Barbara; D'Albenzio, Silvia; Turrini, Monica; Valerii, Lejla; Moretti, Michela; Pediconi, Ombretta; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Lelli, Rossella

    2012-01-01

    Veterinary training plays a crucial role in increasing effectiveness of veterinary response to epidemic and non-epidemic emergencies. Being able to assess learning needs and to deliver training is acknowledged as a strategic priority in veterinary public health activities. The validation of an e-learning system that is able to respond to the urgent needs of veterinary professionals to ensure the despatch of rapid teaching methods on emerging and re-emerging animal diseases and zoonoses was the core of a research project developed in the Mediterranean Basin between 2005 and 2009. The project validated a new transferable, sustainable and repeatable learning model, the main components of which are described. The model is applied to an emergency situation that occurred in Italy in 2008, when West Nile disease outbreaks were reported in northern Italy. Approximately 450 official veterinarians were trained, using an e-learning system that showed adaptability and effectiveness in transferring knowledge, skills and competence to face the situation. The case was used to validate the effectiveness of the model and proved that it can be applied in any emergency situation, i.e. every time that rapid dissemination of knowledge and skills is required. PMID:22718337

  6. Emergency management: e-learning as an immediate response to veterinary training needs

    Barbara Alessandrini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Veterinary training plays a crucial role in increasing effectiveness of veterinary response to epidemic and non-epidemic emergencies. Being able to assess learning needs and to deliver training is acknowledged as a strategic priority in veterinary public health activities. The validation of an e-learning system that is able to respond to the urgent needs of veterinary professionals to ensure the despatch of rapid teaching methods on emerging and re-emerging animal diseases and zoonoses was the core of a research project developed in the Mediterranean Basin between 2005 and 2009. The project validated a new transferable, sustainable and repeatable learning model, the main components of which are described. The model is applied to an emergency situation that occurred in Italy in 2008, when West Nile disease outbreaks were reported in northern Italy. Approximately 450 official veterinarians were trained, using an e-learning system that showed adaptability and effectiveness in transferring knowledge, skills and competence to face the situation. The case was used to validate the effectiveness of the model and proved that it can be applied in any emergency situation, i.e. every time that rapid dissemination of knowledge and skills is required.

  7. Gender: addressing a critical focus.

    Thornton, L; Wegner, M N

    1995-01-01

    The definition of gender was addressed at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, China). After extensive debate, the definition developed by the UN Population Fund in 1995 was adopted: "a set of qualities and behaviors expected from a female or male by society." The sustainability of family planning (FP) programs depends on acknowledgment of the role gender plays in contraceptive decision-making and use. For example, programs must consider the fact that women in many cultures do not make FP decisions without the consent of their spouse. AVSC is examining providers' gender-based ideas about clients and the effects of these views on the quality of reproductive health services. Questions such as how service providers can encourage joint responsibility for contraception without requiring spousal consent or how they can make men feel comfortable about using a male method in a society where FP is considered a woman's issue are being discussed. Also relevant is how service providers can discuss sexual matters openly with female clients in cultures that do not allow women to enjoy their sexuality. Another concern is the potential for physical violence to a client as a result of the provision of FP services. PMID:12294397

  8. Emerging boundaries

    Løvschal, Mette

    2014-01-01

    and formalization. These principles are then used to argue the case for socioconceptual emergence and causality between the lines. This causality appears only in a long-term perspective and implies that, although the development of these boundaries was chronologically displaced across northwestern......This article proposes a processual ontology for the emergence of man-made, linear boundaries across northwestern Europe, particularly in the first millennium BC. Over a significant period of time, these boundaries became new ways of organizing the landscape and settlements—a phenomenon that has...... Europe, elements of this phenomenon emerged along equivalent trajectories. At the same time, variation in the regional incorporation of these linear phenomena points toward situation-specific applications and independent development....

  9. Emergency situations

    The nuclear activities are exercised so as to prevent the accidents. They are subjected to a rule whom application is controlled by the Asn. The risk of grave accident is so limited to a very low level of probability. He cannot be however completely pushed aside. The expression ' radiological emergency situation ' indicates a situation which ensues from an incident or of an accident risking to lead to an emission of radioactive materials or a level of radioactivity susceptible to strike a blow at the public health. The term ' nuclear crisis ' is used for the events which can lead to a radiological emergency situation on a nuclear basic installation or during a transport of radioactive materials. The preparation and the management of emergency situations, that they are of natural, accidental or terrorist origin, became a major concern of our society. We propose you of to know more about it in this file. (N.C.)

  10. Emergency radiology

    This book is the German, translated version of the original published in 1984 in the U.S.A., entitled 'Emergency Radiology'. The publication for the most part is made up as an atlas of the radiological images presenting the findings required for assessment of the emergency cases and their first treatment. The test parts' function is to explain the images and give the necessary information. The material is arranged in seven sections dealing with the skull, the facial part of the skull, the spine, thorax, abdominal region, the pelvis and the hip, and the limbs. With 690 figs

  11. Nuclear emergencies

    This leaflet, which is in the form of a fold-up chart, has panels of text which summarize the emergencies that could arise and the countermeasures and emergency plans that have been prepared should nuclear accident occur or affect the United Kingdom. The levels of radiation doses at which various measures would be introduced are outlined. The detection and monitoring programmes that would operate is illustrated. The role of NRPB and the responsible government departments are set out together with an explanation of how the National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity would be coordinated. (UK)

  12. Emergency Arbitration

    Hakanen, Jussi

    2013-01-01

    Viime vuosien aikana monet vÀlitysinstituutit ovat lisÀnneet vÀlityssÀÀntöihinsÀ ehtoja pikaturvaamismenettelystÀ (engl. Emergency Arbitration). Pikaturvaamismenettely tarkoittaa menettelyÀ, jossa osapuoli voi hakea vastapuolta vastaan turvaamistoimia vÀlityslautakunnan mÀÀrÀÀmÀltÀ pikavÀlimieheltÀ (engl. Emergency Arbitrator) silloin kun vÀlimiesoikeutta ei ole vielÀ muodostettu. TÀssÀ tutkielmassa tarkastellaan erityisesti Keskuskauppakamarin vÀlimieslautakunnan (FCC)...

  13. Vaccine hesitancy: understanding better to address better.

    Kumar, Dewesh; Chandra, Rahul; Mathur, Medha; Samdariya, Saurabh; Kapoor, Neelesh

    2016-01-01

    Vaccine hesitancy is an emerging term in the socio-medical literature which describes an approach to vaccine decision making. It recognizes that there is a continuum between full acceptance and outright refusal of some or all vaccines and challenges the previous understanding of individuals or groups, as being either anti-vaccine or pro-vaccine. The behaviours responsible for vaccine hesitancy can be related to confidence, convenience and complacency. The causes of vaccine hesitancy can be described by the epidemiological triad i.e. the complex interaction of environmental- (i.e. external), agent- (i.e. vaccine) and host (or parent)- specific factors. Vaccine hesitancy is a complex and dynamic issue; future vaccination programs need to reflect and address these context-specific factors in both their design and evaluation. Many experts are of the view that it is best to counter vaccine hesitancy at the population level. They believe that it can be done by introducing more transparency into policy decision-making before immunization programs, providing up-to-date information to the public and health providers about the rigorous procedures undertaken before introduction of new vaccines, and through diversified post-marketing surveillance of vaccine-related events. PMID:26839681

  14. Addressing verification challenges [International safeguards symposium on addressing verification challenges

    In his welcome address the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Mr. M. ElBaradei, stated that safeguards activities are probably the most difficult task entrusted to an international organization and to determine all the details of a country's nuclear programme is a daunting challenge that raises a number of questions. There is an increase in nuclear power around the globe as a result of shortages of energy and concerns about energy independence and climate change. On the one hand, this is good, because without energy there is no hope for development on the other hand, however, it means that nuclear know-how and nuclear technology will continue to spread to more and more countries. There is also an increase in the number of countries interested in developing nuclear fuel cycle capabilities: sensitive fuel cycle activities, reprocessing and above all uranium enrichment. It even seems that some countries might be hedging their bets in order to have the know-how should they need to develop their own deterrence. Verifying enrichment or reprocessing facilities is quite difficult, and the so-called conversion time is extremely short. Thus, the IAEA is dealing with what is called 'virtual nuclear weapon States'. The IAEA has been talking for a number of years about the need to develop a new international or multinational approach to the fuel cycle in order to avoid a situation with nine nuclear weapon States and another 20 or 30 States having the capacity to develop nuclear weapons in a very short period of time. There is a need to remember that there is a linkage between nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. Furthermore safeguards activities, though fundamentally technical in nature, are carried out in a political charged environment. The security dimension - that is, nuclear terrorism - also presents a new challenge, because State systems of accounting for and control of nuclear material are no longer simply tools for safeguards, but

  15. Avian zoonoses – a review

    Kozdruń Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Birds are one of the most interesting and most colourful groups of animals, but they can also be a source of zoonotic factors dangerous for humans. This paper describes the threats to human health from contact with birds. The most vulnerable occupational groups associated with birds are veterinarians, owners of poultry farms, breeders of ornamental birds, zoo personnel, and poultry slaughterhouse workers. Ornithosis is the most dangerous zoonosis of the avian bacterial diseases. Among other hazardous bacterial factors, Salmonella and Campylobacter are responsible for gastrointestinal diseases. Avian influenza is the most dangerous of the viral diseases. It should be noted, however, that avian influenza is a disease of birds, not humans. The recent threat which has appeared is infection with West Nile virus. The results of serological examinations of birds and humans indicate that the virus exists in our ecosystem. Allergic alveolitis connected with the pigeon tick and the Dermanyssus gallinae mite also merits mention. In any case, where people have contact with birds or their droppings and secretions, special precautions should be taken. This way the negative effects of birds on human health can be minimised or eliminated

  16. Avian zoonoses – a review

    Kozdruń Wojciech; Czekaj Hanna; Styś Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Birds are one of the most interesting and most colourful groups of animals, but they can also be a source of zoonotic factors dangerous for humans. This paper describes the threats to human health from contact with birds. The most vulnerable occupational groups associated with birds are veterinarians, owners of poultry farms, breeders of ornamental birds, zoo personnel, and poultry slaughterhouse workers. Ornithosis is the most dangerous zoonosis of the avian bacterial diseases. Among other h...

  17. Emergence delirium

    Munk, Louise; Andersen, Lars Peter Holst; Gögenur, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Emergence delirium (ED) is a well-known phenomenon in the postoperative period. However, the literature concerning this clinical problem is limited. This review evaluates the literature with respect to epidemiology and risk factors. Treatment strategies are discussed. The review concludes that...

  18. Studying Emerge

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; Selin, Cynthia; Rodegher, Sandra;

    2015-01-01

    The Emerge event, held in Tempe, AZ in March 2012, brought together a range of scientists, artists, futurists, engineers and students in order to experiment with innovative methods for thinking about the future. These methodological techniques were tested through nine workshops, each of which made...

  19. Emerging Materiality

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Breinbjerg, Morten; Pold, Søren

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine how materiality emerges from complex chains of mediation in creative software use. The primarily theoretical argument is inspired and illustrated by interviews with two composers of electronic music. The authors argue that computer mediated activity should not primarily be...

  20. Emergency Preparedness

    2001-01-01

    The trends of RPC work in the area of preparedness for nuclear and radiological accidents are listed. RPC in cooperation with Swedish Government developed the project on preparation for iodine prophylaxis in case of accident at Ignalina NPP and arranged seminar on emergency preparedness issues in 2001.

  1. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  2. ELECTRICALLY ADDRESSABLE VESICLES – TOOLS FOR DIELECTROPHORESIS METROLOGY

    Desai, Salil P.; Vahey, Michael D.; Voldman, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has emerged as an important tool for the manipulation of bioparticles ranging from the submicron to the tens of microns in size. Here we show the use of phospholipid vesicle electroformation techniques to develop a new class of test particles with specifically engineered electrical propserties to enable identifiable dielectrophoretic responses in microfabricated systems. These electrically addressable vesicles (EAVs) enable the creation of electrically distinct populat...

  3. Emerging Multinationals

    Gammeltoft, Peter

    ) and books (e.g. Goldstein 2007; Benito and Narula 2007). This paper takes stock of the mounting trend of outward FDI from emerging economies, with special focus on a group of five countries, which are becoming increasingly economically and politically influential, viz. the ‘BRICS' countries. An ‘S......' is appended here to the conventional acronym of ‘BRIC' (Brazil, Russia, India, China) to include the largest economy on the African continent, South Africa. The five BRICS countries produced some USD25 billion of outward FDI flows in 2004, corresponding to some 3 percent of world FDI flows and well over half...... (61 percent) of total developing country outflows. OFDI from the BRICS countries has grown rapidly over the last few years, while still remaining modest compared to many developed countries. Following a brief discussion of FDI and emerging economies in general the article proceeds to hypothesise...

  4. Emergency Contraception

    Gemzell-Danielsson K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been numerous attempts to control fertility after unprotected sexual intercourse. From very bizarre methods like the vaginal application of Coca Cola to the more serious attempts using calcium antagonists influencing fertility parameters in sperm to hormonal methods or intrauterine devices. So far, hormonal methods preventing or delaying ovulation have proved to be the most popular starting with the combination of ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel, known as the Yuzpe regimen. The first dose had to be taken within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse, a second one 12 hours later. Later on, levonorgestrel alone, at first in a regimen similar to the Yuzpe method (2 × 0.75 mg 12 hours apart showed to be more successful, eventually resulting in the development of a 1.5 mg levonorgestrel pill that combined good efficacy with a high ease of use. It has become the standard method used up to this day in most countries. Since the mid 1970s copper IUDs have been used for emergency contraception, which show a high efficacy. Their disadvantages lie in the fact that emergency contraception is considered an off label use and that they might not be acceptable for every patient. Mifepristone in doses of 10 or 25 mg is being used successfully as an emergency contraceptive in China, but has never received any significant consideration in Western countries. The most recent development is the approval of the selective progesterone receptor modulator ulipristal acetate in the dosage of 30 mg for emergency contraception up to 5 days after unprotected intercourse, combining the safe and easy application of the single dose levonorgestrel pill with an even higher efficacy. Several efficacious and easy to use methods for emergency contraception are available on the market today with the most widely spread being levonorgestrel in a single dose of 1.5 mg (given as one tablet of 1.5 mg or 2 tablets of 0.75 mg each for administration up to 3 days after

  5. Radiation emergencies

    Elaborate precautions are taken in the design, construction and operation of nuclear installations. Even then, there always remains the possibility, however small, of accidents. A radiation emergency can be defined as any abnormal situation following an incident/accident which may result in either unusually large radiation fields in any plant/area or large release of air or liquid borne radioactivity leading to widespread contamination of areas

  6. Emerging issues

    Some formal and informal mechanisms were implemented at the Ontario Ministry of the Environment that allow the identification of emerging environmental issues. The early warning is most often provided through the expertise of the personnel and their contacts. The Ministry commissioned a study to review the process, learn from the processes in place in other organizations, and implement the appropriate changes into its emerging issues procedure. The team conducting the review answered four specific questions. The first question was: What are the necessary elements of an emerging issues tool? The second question was: What are some of the best practices in other jurisdictions? It was followed by the question: How do those jurisdictions implement emerging issues models? The final question was: What implementation is appropriate for the Ontario Ministry of the Environment? The approach involved reviewing the appropriate literature and reviewing the best practices in place in other jurisdictions, both in the United States and in Europe. Senior officials in Canada and the United States were interviewed, and the procedure was identified and described. A case study concerning the acid rain problem in the 1960s and 1970s was used to test the developed procedure retroactively. This procedure involves a variation of the top-down, bottom-up input procedure at the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), with a formal issues scanning process, and the prioritizing and analysis of the steps. It was noted that if the procedure had been in place in the late 1960s in Ontario, it would have been possible to identify one or more impacts from the acid rain situation ten years earlier. Preventive and remedial action could have been implemented, leading to environmental and economic benefits for the province of Ontario. The broad involvement of stakeholders is required for an open and systematic prioritization of the issues. The authors concluded the study by identifying

  7. Emerging Jets

    Schwaller, Pedro; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilit...

  8. Emerging jets

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  9. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    multi-platform drilling of the Nankai seismogenic zone. Scientific initiatives are flourishing to drive IODP towards the study of submarine geohazards. In the last three years international workshops, were held to address the topic: ESF-ECORD sponsored a Magellan Workshop focussed on submarine landslides (Barcelona, Spain, 2006); IODP sponsored a world-wide Geohazard Workshop (Portland, Oregon, 2007); ESF-ECORD sponsored another Magellan Workshop focussed on Mediterranean submarine geohazards (Luleå, Sweden, 2008). In addition, following the ECORD-Net Conference on the Deep Sea Frontier (Naples, Italy, 2006), the history, monitoring and prediction of geohazards was identified as one of the 6 major areas for a European science plan to integrate Ocean Drilling, Ocean Margin, and Seabed research. More than 200 scientists and private companies representatives have been mobilized world-wide to attend these meetings, from where it emerged that Ocean Drilling will play a key role in the future to answer the following basic open questions on submarine geohazards: - What is the frequency, magnitude, and distribution of geohazard events? - Do precursory phenomena exist and can they be recognized? - What are the physical and mechanical properties of materials prone to failure? - What are the roles of preconditioning vs. triggering in rapid seafloor deformation? - Can the tsunamigenic potential of past and future events be assessed? Within the global-ocean geohazards, worth of note is the attention given in this preparatory phase to submarine geohazards in the Mediterranean basin, a miniature ocean often called a "natural laboratory" because of the diversity of geological environments it contains. The coastline is very densely-populated, totalling 160 million inhabitants sharing 46,000 km of coastline. The Mediterranean is the World's leading holiday destination, receiving an average of 135 million visitors annually. Submarine landslides, volcanic flank collapses, volcanic island

  10. E6 Addressing Scheme and Network Architecture

    Dmitry Anatolyevich Zaitsev; Sergey Ivanovich Bolshakov

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes new E6 addressing scheme for the creation of world-wide networks totally constructed on the base of Ethernet technology. Hierarchic E6 addresses with the length of 6 octets are used instead of both Ethernet MAC-addresses and IP-addresses that allows the routing within world-wide networks and cuts overhead of TCP, IP headers; the address space is extended in 16K times regarding IP addresses. Standard Ethernet LLC2 facilities are employed for guaranteed delivery of informati...