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Sample records for additional intraocular pressure

  1. Glaucoma Surgery Calculator: Limited Additive Effect of Phacoemulsification on Intraocular Pressure in Ab Interno Trabeculectomy

    Schuman, Joel S.; Brown, Eric N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction and to develop a predictive surgery calculator based on the results between trabectome-mediated ab interno trabeculectomy in pseudophakic patients versus phacoemulsification combined with trabectome-mediated ab interno trabeculectomy in phakic patients. Methods This observational surgical cohort study analyzed pseudophakic patients who received trabectome-mediated ab interno trabeculectomy (AIT) or phacoemulsification combined with AIT (phaco-AIT). Follow up for less than 12 months or neovascular glaucoma led to exclusion. Missing data was imputed by generating 5 similar but non-identical datasets. Groups were matched using Coarsened Exact Matching based on age, gender, type of glaucoma, race, preoperative number of glaucoma medications and baseline intraocular pressure (IOP). Linear regression was used to examine the outcome measures consisting of IOP and medications. Results Of 949 cases, 587 were included consisting of 235 AIT and 352 phaco-AIT. Baseline IOP between groups was statistically significant (p≤0.01) in linear regression models and was minimized after Coarsened Exact Matching. An increment of 1 mmHg in baseline IOP was associated with a 0.73±0.03 mmHg IOP reduction. Phaco-AIT had an IOP reduction that was only 0.73±0.32 mmHg greater than that of AIT. The resulting calculator to determine IOP reduction consisted of the formula -13.54+0.73 × (phacoemulsification yes:1, no:0) + 0.73 × (baseline IOP) + 0.59 × (secondary open angle glaucoma yes:1, no:0) + 0.03 × (age) + 0.09 × (medications). Conclusions This predictive calculator for minimally invasive glaucoma surgery can assist clinical decision making. Only a small additional IOP reduction was observed when phacoemulsification was added to AIT. Patients with a higher baseline IOP had a greater IOP reduction. PMID:27077914

  2. Additive Effect of Brinzolamide on Diurnal Changes in Intraocular Pressure in Latanoprost-treated Eyes

    Abe, Keitetsu; Kashiwagi, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the effect of brinzolamide on diurnal fluctuations in the intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients on latanoprost ophthalmic solution prospectively was aimed. Eleven patients with primary open angle glaucoma were enrolled in this study. The subjects were admitted to the hospital and had their IOPs measured over 24 hours (10 AM, noon, 2 PM, 4 PM, 6 PM, 8 PM, 10 PM, midnight, 3 AM, 6 AM, and 8AM). After topical administration of brinzolamide twice daily for 4-8 weeks for one eye, t...

  3. Predictors of additional intraocular pressure reduction in patients changed to latanoprost/timolol fixed combination

    Nordmann Jean-Philippe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the growing number of ocular hypotensive medications available, it is important to be able to predict a positive response to therapy. The purpose of the present study was to identify predictors of an additional 10% intraocular pressure (IOP reduction after 12 weeks of treatment with latanoprost/timolol fixed combination (FC in patients requiring a change in their previous ocular hypotensive medication. Methods This multicenter, open-label, prospective, phase IIIb study included subjects ≥18 years of age with open-angle glaucoma (OAG or ocular hypertension (OHT. Eligible subjects had baseline IOP ≥21 mmHg and insufficient response to current beta-blocker monotherapy. The primary efficacy analysis (logistic regression identified predictors of a positive response after 12 weeks of latanoprost/timolol FC. Results The intent-to-treat (ITT population included 383 subjects treated with ≥1 drop of FC and having ≥1 follow-up IOP assessment. Mean IOP was 22.19 ± 2.16 mmHg at baseline and was reduced by 5.42 ± 2.71 mmHg at study end. In all, 325 (84.9% subjects had a positive response to latanoprost/timolol FC; the response rate was similar across groups: OAG (n = 208; 82.7%; OHT (n = 161; 87.6%; OAG+OHT (n = 14; 85.7%. Higher baseline IOP (odds ratio: 1.284; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.101, 1.497; p = 0.0014 and absence of adverse events (odds ratio: 0.318; 95% CI: 0.161, 0.629; p = 0.0010 were significant predictors of positive response. Age, gender, ethnic origin, diagnosis, family history of OAG/OHT, corneal thickness, and concomitant systemic beta-blocker were not significant predictors of a positive response in the ITT analysis. The FC was well tolerated. The most common adverse events were related to the eye and were consistent with known adverse events associated with latanoprost and timolol. Conclusions These results support the use of latanoprost/timolol FC in patients whose IOP is insufficiently controlled

  4. Cataract surgery and intraocular pressure.

    Melancia, Diana; Abegão Pinto, Luis; Marques-Neves, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Cataract surgery is one of the most performed surgeries in the developed world. In addition to its significant impact on visual acuity, phacoemulsification has been hailed as a potential intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering procedure. While current evidence suggests an overall significant and sustained decrease in IOP to exist after cataract surgery, the specific ocular characteristics that could help predict which patients are likely to benefit from this IOP-lowering effect remain unclear. This definition is important in glaucoma patients if this surgery is to be used in the treatment for this disease. Our review aims to summarize the literature on the subject, depicting possible mechanisms behind this IOP decrease, which type of patients are more likely to benefit from this surgery for IOP-lowering purposes and ultimately help optimizing disease management for the increasing number of patients with concomitant glaucoma and cataract. PMID:25765255

  5. Cataract surgery to lower intraocular pressure

    Berdahl John

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cataract and glaucoma are common co morbidities. Cataract surgery is frequently performed in patients with glaucoma. In this study, a review of literature with search terms of cataract, glaucoma and intraocular pressure is followed by evaluation and synthesis of data to determine the effect of cataract surgery on intraocular pressure. Cataract surgery seems to lower intraocular pressure on a sustained basis, especially in patients with higher preoperative intraocular pressure. The mechanism of action of these finds remains speculative.

  6. Intraocular pressure in Japanese diabetic patients

    Matsuoka M; Ogata N.; Matsuyama K; Yoshikawa T.; Takahashi K.

    2012-01-01

    Masato Matsuoka,1 Nahoko Ogata,2 Kayako Matsuyama,1 Tadanobu Yoshikawa,1 Kanji Takahashi31Department of Ophthalmology, Kansai Medical University, Takii Hospital, Osaka, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Nara Medical University, Nara, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata Hospital, Osaka, JapanBackground: To determine whether the intraocular pressure (IOP) in diabetic patients is significantly different from that in nondiabetic patients.Methods: The medical records of a...

  7. Effect of a tight necktie on intraocular pressure

    Božić Marija; Hentova-Senćanin Paraskeva; Branković Aleksandra; Marjanović Ivan; Jocić Đorđević Jasmina; Senćanin Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Any factor causing constriction of the neck may lead to an increase in intraocular pressure. A tight necktie may result in increasing intraocular pressure, which could lead to an erroneous diagnosis and treatment of ocular hypertension or even glaucoma. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of a tight necktie on intraocular pressure measurement using Goldmann applanation tonometry. Material and Methods. This study included forty eyes of 20 patients with primary ope...

  8. Implantable intraocular pressure monitoring systems: Design considerations

    Arsalan, Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    Design considerations and limitations of implantable Intraocular Pressure Monitoring (IOPM) systems are presented in this paper. Detailed comparison with the state of the art is performed to highlight the benefits and challenges of the proposed design. The system-on-chip, presented here, is battery free and harvests energy from incoming RF signals. This low-cost design, in standard CMOS process, does not require any external components or bond wires to function. This paper provides useful insights to the designers of implantable wireless sensors in terms of design choices and associated tradeoffs. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. How to measure intraocular pressure: applanation tonometry

    Nick Astbury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Unless there is a contraindication (e.g. trauma or corneal ulcer, all adults attending an eye unit should have their intraocular pressure (IOP measured. Many people with glaucoma have no symptoms and do not know they have the condition. All children who have had cataract surgery should also have their IOP measured at every follow-up visit, if possible. Finding glaucoma early allows treatment to be given which will preserve sight. Although elevated IOP is not the only sign of glaucoma, measuring it is simple and quick to do. Applanation tonometry, using a Goldmann tonometer at a slit lamp, is the preferred method (the ‘gold standard’.

  10. Intraocular pressure in Japanese diabetic patients

    Matsuoka M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Masato Matsuoka,1 Nahoko Ogata,2 Kayako Matsuyama,1 Tadanobu Yoshikawa,1 Kanji Takahashi31Department of Ophthalmology, Kansai Medical University, Takii Hospital, Osaka, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Nara Medical University, Nara, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata Hospital, Osaka, JapanBackground: To determine whether the intraocular pressure (IOP in diabetic patients is significantly different from that in nondiabetic patients.Methods: The medical records of all patients who were initially examined in the Department of Ophthalmology, Kansai Medical University, Takii Hospital were reviewed. At the initial examination, patients had a detailed interview and underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examinations. All patients were over 20 years of age and did not have glaucoma.Results: A total of 703 patients were evaluated. The mean (±standard error IOP of the diabetic patients was 15.5 ± 0.2 mmHg (n = 206, and was significantly higher than the 14.0 ± 0.1 mmHg (n = 497 in the nondiabetic patients (P < 0.0001. The IOP was negatively correlated with age (r = –0.202; P = 0.024 in the diabetic patients and was weakly but significantly correlated with the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c level (r = 0.240; P = 0.015 in the group with diabetic retinopathy.Conclusion: The significantly higher IOP in diabetic patients and positive correlation of IOP with HbA1c levels in patients with diabetic retinopathy indicate that IOP in diabetic patients is higher, especially in those with poor control of diabetes.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, diabetic retinopathy, intraocular pressure, open-angle glaucoma

  11. A CLINICAL STUDY OF INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE CHANGES WITH VECURONIUM BROMIDE AND PANCURONIUM BROMIDE

    Nagaraja; Nagesha

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The maintenance of intraocular pressure forms the mainstay of anesthetic management of intraocular surgery. It is desirable to achieve a normal or reduced intraocular pressure before the eye is opened to avoid expulsive hemorrhage and ocular disruption at the time of incision. Therefore the ideal anesthetic technique for intraocular surgery should produce a moderate reduction in intraocular pressure, or maintain intraocular pressure at near normal values and av...

  12. Effect of a tight necktie on intraocular pressure

    Božić Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Any factor causing constriction of the neck may lead to an increase in intraocular pressure. A tight necktie may result in increasing intraocular pressure, which could lead to an erroneous diagnosis and treatment of ocular hypertension or even glaucoma. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of a tight necktie on intraocular pressure measurement using Goldmann applanation tonometry. Material and Methods. This study included forty eyes of 20 patients with primary open angle glaucoma and 20 healthy controls (all male. Intraocular pressure was measured without a necktie, 3 minutes after placing a tight necktie and 3 minutes after loosening it. Student’s t-test was used to analyze the data between two groups. The intraocular pressure measurements were subjected to paired t - test. The value p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A possible correlation between the age of subjects and intraocular pressure values was analyzed using linear regression (Pearson′. Results. A statistically significant difference was found in intraocular pressure readings in all three measurements between two tested groups (p<0.05. When analyzed within groups, statistical significance in intraocular pressure readings was found after loosening the necktie (<0.05. No correlation between the age of subjects and increased intraocular pressure was found in either tested group of subjects after the necktie had been tightened (r2=0.006, p=0.70 for primary open angle patients, r2=0.07, p=0.22 for healthy controls. Conclusion. Wearing a tight necktie for a limited period of time during the day could be considered as a possible risk factor for glaucoma development.

  13. [The neuroanatomical and physiological bases of variations in intraocular pressure].

    Chiquet, C; Denis, P

    2004-09-01

    Intraocular pressure displays a distinct circadian rhythm in animals and humans, with an increase at night and a decrease during the daytime. In animals, the IOP rhythm has been reported to be synchronized by environmental light and to persist in constant darkness, demonstrating a circadian component controlled by an endogenous pacemaker. The structures involved in the rhythmic regulation of intraocular pressure include the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which controls the activity of sympathetic and parasympathetic ocular innervation. These effectors are responsible for controlling the production (beta-adrenergic system) and the outflow (alpha1-adrenergic, parasympathetic system, prostaglandin) of aqueous humor. The production of aqueous humor is under adrenergic control (alpha1- and beta-receptors). Many neuropeptides such as vasoactive intestinal peptide, substance P, and the atrial natriuretic peptide are also involved in the regulation of intraocular pressure. A better understanding of the circadian regulation of intraocular pressure is needed for an appropriate treatment of ocular hypertension and glaucoma. PMID:15314570

  14. Metabolic Syndrome as a Risk Factor for Elevated Intraocular Pressure

    Sahinoglu-Keskek, Nedime; Keskek, Sakir Ozgur; Cevher, Selim; Kirim, Sinan; Kayiklik, Asim; Ortoglu, Gulay; Saler, Tayyibe

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between intraocular pressure and metabolic syndrome by comparing central corneal thicknesses. Methods: One hundred sixty-two subjects were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, with 89 subjects in a metabolic syndrome group and 73 subjects in a control group. Ophthalmological examinations, including intraocular pressure and central corneal thickness measurements, were performed on each subject. Serum fasting glucose, trigly...

  15. Relation between intraocular pressure and size of transverse sinuses

    There are asymmetries in the sizes of transverse sinus and intraocular pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible relationships between the asymmetry of transverse sinuses in TOF MR venography and intraocular pressures of right and left eyes. In this study, subjects were 63 male and 42 female medical school students, aged 18-21 years (mean±SD; 19.72±0.67 years). Subjects with neurological and ophthalmologic disease, particularly dural sinus thrombosis, myopia, trauma and glaucoma, were excluded the study. Subjects were divided into five groups according to the magnitudes of the right- and left-transverse sinuses in MR venography results. There is a functional relation between intraocular pressures of the right and left eyes and asymmetry of the transverse sinus. If the transverse sinus on one side is larger and its venous drainage is greater, the intraocular pressure of the eye on this side is lower. It can be speculated that the transverse sinus size may be associated with pathogenesis of diseases with increased intraocular pressure such as glaucoma. We aim to determine the relation between the size and drainage of transverse sinuses in TOF MR venography and intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma in our next study. (orig.)

  16. Relation between intraocular pressure and size of transverse sinuses

    Kantarci, Mecit; Onbas, Omer; Alper, Fatih; Okur, Adnan [Atatuerk University, Department of Radiology, Medical Faculty, Erzurum (Turkey); Dane, Senol; Gumustekin, Kenan [Atatuerk University, Department of Physiology, Medical Faculty, Erzurum (Turkey); Aslankurt, Murat [Atatuerk University, Department of Ophtalmatology, Medical Faculty, Erzurum (Turkey); Yazici, Ahmet Taylan [Beyoglu Goez Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2005-01-01

    There are asymmetries in the sizes of transverse sinus and intraocular pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible relationships between the asymmetry of transverse sinuses in TOF MR venography and intraocular pressures of right and left eyes. In this study, subjects were 63 male and 42 female medical school students, aged 18-21 years (mean{+-}SD; 19.72{+-}0.67 years). Subjects with neurological and ophthalmologic disease, particularly dural sinus thrombosis, myopia, trauma and glaucoma, were excluded the study. Subjects were divided into five groups according to the magnitudes of the right- and left-transverse sinuses in MR venography results. There is a functional relation between intraocular pressures of the right and left eyes and asymmetry of the transverse sinus. If the transverse sinus on one side is larger and its venous drainage is greater, the intraocular pressure of the eye on this side is lower. It can be speculated that the transverse sinus size may be associated with pathogenesis of diseases with increased intraocular pressure such as glaucoma. We aim to determine the relation between the size and drainage of transverse sinuses in TOF MR venography and intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma in our next study. (orig.)

  17. Effects of phacoemulsification on intraocular pressure and anterior chamber depth

    LIU, XIN-QUAN; ZHU, HUA-YING; Su, Jing; HAO, XIAO-JUN

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation on intraocular pressure (IOP) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) in patients with cataract or cataract associated with primary angle closure (PAC). A total of 361 patients (481 affected eyes) with senile cataract (cataract group) and 44 patients (52 affected eyes) with cataract associated with PAC (cataract with PAC group) underwent phacoemulsification with IOL implantation from ...

  18. Implantable parylene-based wireless intraocular pressure sensor

    Chen, Po-Jui; Rodger, Damien C.; Saati, Saloomeh; Humayun, Mark S.; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel implantable, wireless, passive pressure sensor for ophthalmic applications. Two sensor designs incorporating surface-micromachined variable capacitor and variable capacitor/inductor are implemented to realize the pressure sensitive components. The sensor is monolithically microfabricated using parylene as a biocompatible structural material in a suitable form factor for increased ease of intraocular implantation. Pressure responses of the mi...

  19. [Intraocular Pressure Sensor Based on a Contact Lens].

    Guo, Xuhong; Pet, Weihua; Yao, Zhaolin; Chen, Yuanfang; Hu, Xiaohui; Chen, Hongda; Zhu, Jingyuan; Wu, Huijuan

    2016-02-01

    Intraocular pressure detection has a great significance for understanding the status of eye health, prevention and treatment of diseases such as glaucoma. Traditional intraocular pressure detection needs to be held in the hospital. It is not only time-consuming to doctors and patients, but also difficult to achieve 24 hour-continuous detection. Microminiaturization of the intraocular pressure sensor and wearing it as a contact lens, which is convenient, comfortable and noninvasive, can solve this problem because the soft contact lens with an embedded micro fabricated strain gauge allows the measurement of changes in corneal curvature to correlate to variations of intraocular pressure. We fabricated a strain gauge using micro-electron mechanical systems, and integrated with the contact lens made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using injection molding. The experimental results showed that the sensitivity was 100. 7 µV/µm. When attached to the corneal surface, the average sensitivity of sensor response of intraocular pressure can be 125.8 µV/mm Hg under the ideal condition. PMID:27382734

  20. Effects of 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives on intraocular pressure in rabbits.

    Konno, Takashi; Ohnuma, Shin-ya; Uemoto, Kazuhiro; Uchibori, Takehiro; Nagai, Akihiko; Kogi, Kentaro; Endo, Kazuki; Hosokawa, Tomokazu; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2004-02-23

    We evaluated the activities of 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives, relatively selective adenosine A2 receptor agonists, in the intraocular pressure regulation in rabbits. An adenosine A2 receptor agonist 2-[p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS-21680) decreased intraocular pressure, while another A2 receptor agonist 2-(phenylamino)adenosine transiently increased it. The first group of 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives (1-hexyn-1-yl derivatives) caused a transient increase followed by decrease in intraocular pressure, while the second group (1-octyn-1-yl and 6-cyano-1-hexyn-1-yl derivatives) only decreased it. The second group is also effective in the ocular hypertensive models induced by water-loading and alpha-chymotrypsin. The outflow facility was increased by a 1-octyn-1-yl derivative. Both increase and decrease in intraocular pressure induced by 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives were inhibited by an adenosine A2 receptor antagonist 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine, but not by an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropyl xanthine. These findings suggest that 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives may affect intraocular pressure via adenosine A2 receptor, and 2-alkynyladenosine derivative-induced ocular hypotension is due to the increase of outflow facility. PMID:14985053

  1. Telemedicine in the control of intra-ocular pressure.

    Michelson, G; Striebel, W; Prihoda, W; Schmidt, V

    2000-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the most common causes of blindness in the Western world and a major risk factor is increased intra-ocular pressure. We therefore used telemedicine in its control. Patients measured their intra-ocular pressure several times a day with a portable instrument and the values were then entered into a portable digital assistant. These data were transmitted by a modem to a central server. If the intra-ocular pressure was pathologically high, an email message was automatically sent to the ophthalmologist. The pressure curve, including a statistical analysis, was displayed in an easily readable chart format. Ten patients with glaucoma participated in a trial. Self-tonometry with telemedicine enabled continuous evaluation of the patient by the ophthalmologist. This approach offered the advantage of controlling the treatment remotely. Advantages for the patient were that the measurements were easily done at home under normal conditions, and the patient could control when the measurement and data transmission would be performed. Telemedicine is a cost-effective technique enabling the early diagnosis of pathologically increased intra-ocular pressure. PMID:10793996

  2. Intraocular pressure and tear production in five herbivorous wildlife species.

    Ofri, R; Horowitz, I H; Raz, D; Shvartsman, E; Kass, P H

    2002-08-31

    The intraocular pressure and rate of tear production were measured in 18 addax antelopes (Addax nasomaculatus), four impalas (Aepyceros melampus), 11 wide-lipped rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum), 10 white-tailed wildebeests (Connochaetes gnou) and seven scimitar-horned oryxes (Oryx dammah). The animals were anaesthetised with an intramuscular injection of etorphine hydrochloride and acepromazine maleate, and the Schirmer tear test I was used to evaluate tear production, and applanation tonometry was used to evaluate the intraocular pressure. The mean (sd) rate of tear production ranged from 17.6 (3.1) mm/minute in the rhinoceros to 28.8 (8.3) mm/minute in the addax. The intraocular pressure ranged from 8.0 (1.2) mmHg in the impala to 32.1 (10.4) mmHg in the rhinoceros. The rate of tear production in the addax and the intraocular pressure in the rhinoceros appear to be the highest values of these variables to have been reported in any species. PMID:12233828

  3. Effect of chymase on intraocular pressure in rabbits.

    Konno, Takashi; Maruichi, Midori; Takai, Shinji; Oku, Hidehiro; Sugiyama, Tetsuya; Uchibori, Takehiro; Nagai, Akihiko; Kogi, Kentaro; Ikeda, Tsunehiko; Miyazaki, Mizuo

    2005-11-01

    Chymase is a chymotrypsin-like serine protease that is stored exclusively in the secretory granules of mast cells and converts big endothelins to endothelin-1 (1-31). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chymase on intraocular pressure in rabbits. Chymase injection (3 and 10 mU) resulted in a trend toward increased intraocular pressure and a significant increase in intraocular pressure at a dose of 10 mU compared with the control. A specific chymase inhibitor, Suc-Val-Pro-Phe(P)(OPh)(2), attenuated the ocular hypertension induced by chymase. Endothelin-1 (1-31) also caused ocular hypertension, which was inhibited by a selective endothelin ET(A) receptor antagonist, cyclo(D-Asp-Pro-D-Val-Leu-D-Trp) (BQ-123). Moreover, chymase-induced ocular hypertension was inhibited by BQ-123. These results suggest that chymase influences the regulation of intraocular pressure, and it is likely that the formation of endothelin-1 (1-31) and subsequent activation of endothelin ET(A) receptors are involved in the development of ocular hypertension induced by chymase. PMID:16253233

  4. Impact factors on intraocular pressure measurements in healthy subjects.

    Theelen, T.; Meulendijks, C.F.M.; Geurts, D.; Leeuwen, A.M. van; Voet, N.B.; Deutman, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether intraocular pressure (IOP) calculation by applanation tonometry is determined more essentially by the subject's neck position or by neck constriction. METHODS: 23 right eyes of 23 healthy subjects (12 male, 11 female) were included. IOP was measured by applanation tonometry

  5. Immediate intraocular pressure response to selective laser trabeculoplasty

    Lanzetta, P; Menchini, U; Virgili, G

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Selective laser trabeculoplasty targets the pigmented trabecular meshwork cells without damage to the trabecular meshwork architecture in vitro. A study was conducted in vivo of eight eyes with uncontrolled open angle glaucoma to ascertain the immediate intraocular response to selective laser trabeculoplasty.
METHODS—The trabecular meshwork of each eye was treated 360° with a frequency doubled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Intraocular pressure was measured 1, 2, 24 hours and 1, 4, ...

  6. Blood pressure modifies retinal susceptibility to intraocular pressure elevation.

    Zheng He

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma affects more than 67 million people. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is a risk factor for glaucoma and may reduce nutrient availability by decreasing ocular perfusion pressure (OPP. An interaction between arterial blood pressure and IOP determines OPP; but the exact contribution that these factors have for retinal function is not fully understood. Here we sought to determine how acute modifications of arterial pressure will affect the susceptibility of neuronal function and blood flow to IOP challenge. Anaesthetized (ketamine:xylazine Long-Evan rats with low (∼60 mmHg, sodium nitroprusside infusion, moderate (∼100 mmHg, saline, or high levels (∼160 mmHg, angiotensin II of mean arterial pressure (MAP, n = 5-10 per group were subjected to IOP challenge (10-120 mmHg, 5 mmHg steps every 3 minutes. Electroretinograms were measured at each IOP step to assess bipolar cell (b-wave and inner retinal function (scotopic threshold response or STR. Ocular blood flow was measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry in groups with similar MAP level and the same IOP challenge protocol. Both b-wave and STR amplitudes decreased with IOP elevation. Retinal function was less susceptible to IOP challenge when MAP was high, whereas the converse was true for low MAP. Consistent with the effects on retinal function, higher IOP was needed to attenuated ocular blood flow in animals with higher MAP. The susceptibility of retinal function to IOP challenge can be ameliorated by acute high BP, and exacerbated by low BP. This is partially mediated by modifications in ocular blood flow.

  7. An ultralow power wireless intraocular pressure monitoring system

    This paper describes an ultralow power wireless intraocular pressure (IOP) monitoring system that is dedicated to sensing and transferring intraocular pressure of glaucoma patients. Our system is comprised of a capacitive pressure sensor, an application-specific integrated circuit, which is designed on the SMIC 180 nm process, and a dipole antenna. The system is wirelessly powered and demonstrates a power consumption of 7.56 μW at 1.24 V during continuous monitoring, a significant reduction in active power dissipation compared to existing work. The input RF sensitivity is −13 dBm. A significant reduction in input RF sensitivity results from the reduction of mismatch time of the ASK modulation caused by FM0 encoding. The system exhibits an average error of ± 1.5 mmHg in measured pressure. Finally, a complete IOP system is demonstrated in the real biological environment, showing a successful reading of the pressure of an eye. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  8. Computerized invasive measurement of time-dependent intraocular pressure

    T.V.O. Campos

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Several methods have been described to measure intraocular pressure (IOP in clinical and research situations. However, the measurement of time varying IOP with high accuracy, mainly in situations that alter corneal properties, has not been reported until now. The present report describes a computerized system capable of recording the transitory variability of IOP, which is sufficiently sensitive to reliably measure ocular pulse peak-to-peak values. We also describe its characteristics and discuss its applicability to research and clinical studies. The device consists of a pressure transducer, a signal conditioning unit and an analog-to-digital converter coupled to a video acquisition board. A modified Cairns trabeculectomy was performed in 9 Oryctolagus cuniculus rabbits to obtain changes in IOP decay parameters and to evaluate the utility and sensitivity of the recording system. The device was effective for the study of kinetic parameters of IOP, such as decay pattern and ocular pulse waves due to cardiac and respiratory cycle rhythm. In addition, there was a significant increase of IOP versus time curve derivative when pre- and post-trabeculectomy recordings were compared. The present procedure excludes corneal thickness and error related to individual operator ability. Clinical complications due to saline infusion and pressure overload were not observed during biomicroscopic evaluation. Among the disadvantages of the procedure are the requirement of anesthesia and the use in acute recordings rather than chronic protocols. Finally, the method described may provide a reliable alternative for the study of ocular pressure dynamic alterations in man and may facilitate the investigation of the pathogenesis of glaucoma.

  9. Intraocular Pressure Following Intravitreal Injection of Triamcinolone Acetonide§

    Ansari, Ejaz A; Ali, N

    2008-01-01

    Background: To investigate the intraocular pressure (IOP) response following intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide. Methods: This retrospective consecutive non-comparative case series study included 41 patients (52 eyes) (19 male, 22 female, mean age 64.1 ± 13.44; range 22 – 85 years) with progressive exudative ARMD (n = 10 eyes) or diffuse diabetic macular oedema (42 eyes), who received one or more intravitreal injection(s) of 4 mg triamcinolone acetonide. Results: IOP increased ...

  10. Intraocular Pressure And Its Determinants In Tehran Population

    Kashi AH; Fotouhil A; Hashemi H.; Mohammadl K

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to provide data, on the distribution or intraocular pressure (IOP) in Tehran population. Materials and Methods: Through a population-based, cross-sectional study, a total of 4565 Tehran citizens were studied in the Tehran Eye Study. The findings of the participants (n=3834) 10 years and older free of glaucoma diagnosis or suspicion who had undergone applanation tonometry examination are presented. All participants received a standardized protocol included...

  11. Increased Intraocular Pressure after Extensive Conjunctival Removal: A Case Report

    Lee, Young Rok; Na, Jung Hwa; Kim, Jae Yong; Sung, Kyung Rim

    2013-01-01

    A 50-year-old woman, who had undergone extensive removal of conjunctiva on the right eye for cosmetic purposes at a local clinic 8 months prior to presentation, was referred for uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation (up to 38 mmHg) despite maximal medical treatment. The superior and inferior conjunctival and episcleral vessels were severely engorged and the nasal and temporal bulbar conjunctival areas were covered with an avascular epithelium. Gonioscopic examination revealed an o...

  12. Visual functional changes during acute elevation of intraocular pressure

    Tian-De SHOU

    2006-01-01

    Glaucoma is closely related to elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP). Many studies have done on the effect of chronic elevation of IOP on the retina and optic nerve, but less attention was paid to the effect of acute elevated IOP. Here we briefly review experimental studies on functional changes of the visual system from the retina to the visual cortex under acute elevated IOP condition, which is similar to that of acute primary angle-closure glaucoma.

  13. Effect of osteotomies during rhinoplasty on intraocular pressure

    Amr N. Rabie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate whether rhinoplasty with osteotomies for the treatment of deformed nose induces changes in intraocular pressure (IOP. Design: Prospective, nonrandomized study. Setting: University-affiliated medical center. Patients: Thirty patients who underwent rhinoplasty with osteotomies for the nose were prospectively enrolled in this study. Fifteen patients had lateral osteotomies with the external perforating technique, and fifteen with an internal continuous technique with periosteal elevation. We excluded patients with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, glaucoma, previous ocular trauma, history of ocular surgery, and previous use of topical corticosteroid eye drops. Main outcome measures: The intraocular pressure (IOP in each patient was measured by Goldmann tonometry preoperatively and postoperatively on days 1, 2, and 7. Results: 23 women and 7 men with a mean age of 27 years were enrolled in the study. The mean ± SD IOP of the eye was 15.69 ± 2.37 mmHg preoperatively. Postoperatively, the mean ± SD IOPs were 15.96 ± 1.92 mmHg on day 1, 15.45 ± 2.55 mmHg on day 2, and 15.72 ± 2.86 mmHg on day 7 (P = .863. Conclusions: Although osteotomes during rhinoplasty caused variations in the IOP compartment, the changes in IOP were not statistically significant. Therefore, rhinoplasty should be a safe surgical procedure with respect to ocular physiological function, however monitoring IOP peri-operatively is advised. To our best knowledge, this is the first clinical trial to determine the effect of rhinoplasty with osteotomy on intraocular pressure.

  14. Persistently raised intraocular pressure following extracapsular cataract extraction.

    David, R; Tessler, Z.; Yagev, R.; BRISCOE, D; Biedner, B. Z.; Gilad, E.; YASSUR;, Y.

    1990-01-01

    In this population based study we have reviewed the files of all patients who underwent an extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) between 1984 and 1987, were normotensives prior to surgery, and were followed up for at least 10 months after the ECCE. From a total of 1047 operations 746 qualified for the inclusion criteria; of these, 16 (2.1%) were found to have a consistently raised intraocular pressure (greater than 21 mmHg) on more than two occasions) at four months or later after surgery ...

  15. Prostaglandin E2-Glyceryl Ester: In Vivo Evidence for a Distinct Pharmacological Identity from Intraocular Pressure Studies.

    Woodward, David F; Poloso, Neil J; Wang, Jenny W

    2016-08-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-2-glyceryl ester is a cyclo-oxygenase 2 product of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonyl glycerol. It is claimed as pharmacologically novel, but this is complicated by rapid and irreversible isomerization to the 1(3) ester. For ocular studies, enzymatic hydrolysis of the ester moiety creates an additional complication. PG-glyceryl esters were stabilized to isomerization and hydrolysis by replacing the noncarbonyl O with NH, to form the serinolamide and propanediolamide as stable analogs of PG-2-glyceryl and PG-2-1(3) glyceryl esters, respectively. Intraocular pressure was measured in conscious dogs and conscious laser-induced ocular hypertensive monkeys. Pharmacological studies involved stable transfectants for each of the human recombinant prostanoid receptors and the isolated feline iris for prostamide activity. PGE2-serinolamide and PGE2- propanediolamide were essentially inactive at all receptors except the EP3 receptor (EC50, ∼500 nM). This obliged elucidation of EP3 receptor involvement in the intraocular pressure response to these PGE2-glycyerl ester analogs. Since the EP3 receptor agonists sulprostone and GR 63799 did not lower monkey intraocular pressure, a role for EP3 receptors in mediating the effects of PGE2-serinolamide and PGE2-propanediolamide is not indicated. PGE2-glyceryl ester (0.01% and 0.1%) substantially lowered intraocular pressure in monkeys. PGE2-propanediolamide was more efficacious than PGE2-serinolamide in lowering intraocular pressure in monkey eyes, but both appeared equieffective in dog eyes. PGE2-serinolamide dose-dependently (0.01- 0.1%) lowered intraocular pressure in both species, but PGF2 α-serinolamide was inactive. In conclusion, stable PGE2-glyceryl ester analogs lowered intraocular pressure. These findings are consistent with the presence of a PGE2-glyceryl ester-specific recognition site in the eye. PMID:27217589

  16. A new device to noninvasively estimate the intraocular pressure produced during ocular compression

    Korenfeld MS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael S Korenfeld,1,2 David K Dueker3 1Comprehensive Eye Care, Ltd., 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University, Washington, MO, USA; 3Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Purpose: To describe a noninvasive instrument that estimates intraocular pressure during episodes of external globe compression and to demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of this device by comparing it to the intraocular pressures simultaneously and manometrically measured in cannulated eyes. Methods: A thin fluid-filled bladder was constructed from flexible and inelastic plastic sheeting and was connected to a pressure transducer with high pressure tubing. The output of the pressure transducer was sent to an amplifier and recorded. This device was validated by measuring induced pressure in the fluid-filled bladder while digital pressure was applied to one surface, and the other surface was placed directly against a human cadaver eye or in vivo pig eye. The human cadaver and in vivo pig eyes were each cannulated to provide a manometric intraocular pressure control. Results: The measurements obtained with the newly described device were within ~5% of simultaneously measured manometric intraocular pressures in both a human cadaver and in vivo pig eye model for a pressure range of ~15–100 mmHg. Conclusion: This novel noninvasive device is useful for estimating the intraocular pressure transients induced during any form of external globe compression; this is a clinical setting where no other devices can be used to estimate intraocular pressure. Keywords: glaucoma, intraocular pressure, tonometer, ocular compression

  17. Associations with Intraocular Pressure in a Large Cohort

    Chan, Michelle P.Y.; Grossi, Carlota M.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Yip, Jennifer L.Y.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Patel, Praveen J.; Khaw, Peng T.; Morgan, James E.; Vernon, Stephen A.; Foster, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe the associations of physical and demographic factors with Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg) and corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc) in a British cohort. Design Cross-sectional study within the UK Biobank, a large-scale multisite cohort study in the United Kingdom. Participants We included 110 573 participants from the UK Biobank with intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements available. Their mean age was 57 years (range, 40–69 years); 54% were women, and 90% were white. Methods Participants had 1 IOP measurement made on each eye using the Ocular Response Analyzer noncontact tonometer. Linear regression models were used to assess the associations of IOP with physical and demographic factors. Main Outcome Measures The IOPg and IOPcc. Results The mean IOPg was 15.72 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.70–15.74 mmHg), and the mean IOPcc was 15.95 mmHg (15.92–15.97 mmHg). After adjusting for covariates, IOPg and IOPcc were both significantly associated with older age, male sex, higher systolic blood pressure (SBP), faster heart rate, greater myopia, self-reported glaucoma, and colder season (all P < 0.001). The strongest determinants of both IOPg and IOPcc were SBP (partial R2: IOPg 2.30%, IOPcc 2.26%), followed by refractive error (IOPg 0.60%, IOPcc 1.04%). The following variables had different directions of association with IOPg and IOPcc: height (−0.77 mmHg/m IOPg; 1.03 mmHg/m IOPcc), smoking (0.19 mmHg IOPg, −0.35 mmHg IOPcc), self-reported diabetes (0.41 mmHg IOPg, −0.05 mmHg IOPcc), and black ethnicity (−0.80 mmHg IOPg, 0.77 mmHg IOPcc). This suggests that height, smoking, diabetes, and ethnicity are related to corneal biomechanical properties. The increase in both IOPg and IOPcc with age was greatest among those of mixed ethnicities, followed by blacks and whites. The same set of covariates explained 7.4% of the variability of IOPcc but only 5.3% of the variability of IOPg. Conclusions This analysis

  18. Role of cataract surgery in lowering intraocular pressure

    To study the effects of cataract surgery in lowering of intraocular pressure (IOP). Study Design: Retrospective study. Place and Duration of Study: The Department of Ophthalmology, Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from January 2011 to December 2013. Patients and Methods: The study included a total of 250 patients; of which 100 cases had simple cataract with no coexisting disease, 100 cases had cataract with primary open angle glaucoma and 50 cases of cataract had accompanying pseudoexfoliation glaucoma. All patients were assessed and recorded preoperatively for their IOP, vision, depth of anterior chamber (ACD), angle of anterior chamber by gonioscopy and glaucoma medications being used. Cataract surgery was performed by phacoemulsification and IOL implantations in all cases. These patients were followed up for a period of six months. Results: The intraocular ressure of all these patients was recorded at monthly interval for six months. The IOP showed a significant decrease in all cases and remained constant till the end of the study. A marked improvement of vision was noted in all cases. The depth of the anterior chamber increased and the angle also widened in all cases. Discussion: Cataract surgery has been found to reduce IOP along with improvement in vision. Patients with glaucoma have a dual benefit of reduced IOP and visual improvement after cataract surgery. (author)

  19. EFFECT OF AEROBIC EXERCISE OF MODERATE INTENSITY AND SHORT DURATION ON INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE IN YOUNG INDIVIDUALS

    Syamala Devi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Intra-ocular pressure (IOP in normal individuals varies throughout the night and day. The diurnal variation for normal eyes is between 3 and 6mmHg and the variation may increase in glaucomatous eyes. Hence, the present effort is to investigate the effect of moderate exercise on intraocular pressure changes. IOP was measured before and after exercise in 100 subjects (50M, 50F with no ocular abnormality with ages ranging from 18-21 years by using Schiotz tonometer. Weight, height and body mass index, were recorded. The results obtained were compared between before-and-after-exercise of the subjects. The data were presented as the mean ± SD, Student’s t-test was used to calculate significance between means. The IOP showed a statistically significant fall following moderate exercise. The mean IOP significantly decreased (p0.05 decreased after 60 minutes of aerobic exercise. Gender wise comparison of intraocular pressure both before and after exercise did not reveal much significance. Physical exercise, such as jogging, walking and bicycle riding, could be suggested as a complimentary therapy in addition to the pharmaceutical and surgical therapies available for glaucoma patients, even though the mechanism for lowering IOP is not clear enough.

  20. Intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants and its association with postconceptional age

    Rodrigo L. Lindenmeyer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants and correlate it with postconceptional age. METHODS: The intraocular pressure in a prospective cohort of very low birth weight premature infants (defined as a birth weight <1,500 g and gestational age <32 weeks admitted to Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre , Brazil was evaluated weekly. The evaluated outcome was the variation in the intraocular pressure following changes in the postconceptional age (defined as the gestational age at birth plus the age in weeks at the time of examination in the weeks following preterm birth. Mixed-effects models were used for the statistical analysis to determine the intraocular pressure variation according to postconceptional age, and means and 10th and 90th percentiles were calculated for the intraocular pressure values. RESULTS: Fifty preterm infants with a mean gestational age of 29.7 ± 1.6 weeks and a mean birth weight of 1,127.7 ± 222.7 g were evaluated. The mean intraocular pressure for the entire cohort considering both eyes was 14.9 ± 4.5 mmHg, and 13.5% of all recorded intraocular pressure values were greater than 20 mmHg. The analysis revealed a mean reduction in the intraocular pressure of 0.29 mmHg for each increase in postconceptional age (p = 0.047; 95% CI: -0.58 to -0.0035. The mean intraocular pressure (P10-P90 decreased from 16.3 mmHg (10.5222.16 at 26.3 weeks to 13.1 mmHg (7.28-18.92 at 37.6 weeks of postconceptional age. CONCLUSIONS: The mean intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants was 14.9 ± 4.5 mmHg. This value decreased 0.29 mmHg per week as the postconceptional age increased.

  1. Change in Intraocular Pressure During Point-of-Care Ultrasound

    Berg, Cameron

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Point-of-care ocular ultrasound (US is a valuable tool for the evaluation of traumatic ocular injuries. Conventionally, any maneuver that may increase intraocular pressure (IOP is relatively contraindicated in the setting of globe rupture. Some authors have cautioned against the use of US in these scenarios because of a theoretical concern that an US examination may cause or exacerbate the extrusion of intraocular contents. This study set out to investigate whether ocular US affects IOP. The secondary objective was to validate the intraocular pressure measurements obtained with the Diaton® as compared with standard applanation techniques (the Tono-Pen®.   Methods: We enrolled a convenience sample of healthy adult volunteers. We obtained the baseline IOP for each patient by using a transpalpebral tonometer. Ocular US was then performed on each subject using a high-frequency linear array transducer, and a second IOP was obtained during the US examination. A third IOP measurement was obtained following the completion of the US examination. To validate transpalpebral measurement, a subset of subjects also underwent traditional transcorneal applanation tonometry prior to the US examination as a baseline measurement. In a subset of 10 patients, we obtained baseline pre-ultrasound IOP measurements with the Diaton® and Tono-Pen®, and then compared them.   Results: The study included 40 subjects. IOP values during ocular US examination were slightly greater than baseline (average +1.8mmHg, p=0.01. Post-US examination IOP values were not significantly different than baseline (average -0.15mmHg, p=0.42. In a subset of 10 subjects, IOP values were not significantly different between transpalpebral and transcorneal tonometry (average +0.03mmHg, p=0.07.   Conclusion: In healthy volunteer subjects, point-of-care ocular US causes a small and transient increase in IOP. We also showed no difference between the Diaton® and Tono-Pen® methods

  2. Central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure in premature infants.

    Sekeroglu, Mehmet Ali; Hekimoglu, Emre; Petricli, İkbal Seza; Karakaya, Jale; Ozcan, Beyza; Yucel, Husniye; Kavurt, Aysen Sumru; Bas, Ahmet Yagmur

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) of premature infants and to document correlation of them with gestational age, chronological age, and birth weight of infants. Using a hand-held applanation tonometer and a portable pachymeter, IOP and CCT of 170 premature infants were measured just before initial retinopathy of prematurity screening examination and re-measured 4 weeks after the first visit. The CCT and IOP were positively correlated during the first (r = 0.616, p premature infants with a smaller gestational age were found to be higher (p Premature infants with smaller gestational age have higher CCT and IOP values when compared to older infants. These values tend to become lower 4 weeks after the first examination as infants become older. The CCT and IOP were positively correlated with each other and both were negatively correlated with gestational age, chronological age, and birth weight during first and second visits. PMID:26286757

  3. The accute effects of resistance exercise on intraocular pressure

    Vieira Geraldo Magela

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study intraocular pressure (IOP variations in healthy volunteers after weight lifting, in the supine position. METHODS: A descriptive study was designed. Thirty-four individuals were preselected for this study, and a group of 25 volunteers fulfilled the inclusion criteria for joining the initial phase of this research. All of them were healthy without glaucoma. They were asked to lift an 85% top load in the supine position for 8 times. IOP was measured before and after the exercise. Student's t test was used to analyze the IOP variations. RESULTS: A small, but significant IOP decrease (1.61 mmHg was obtained after exposing 25 individuals (49 eyes to a specific physical effort. CONCLUSIONS: After a session of weight lifting in the supine position with 85% top load for 8 repetitions, there is a small, but significant IOP decrease.

  4. Causes of elevated intraocular pressure following implantation of phakic intraocular lenses for myopia.

    Almalki, Salem; Abubaker, Abdullah; Alsabaani, Nasser A; Edward, Deepak P

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to present the causes and visual acuity outcomes in patients with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) following implantable collamer lens (ICL) implantation. A chart review identified patients who developed high IOP at any postoperative examination and a minimum follow-up period of 3 months after ICL implantation. Data are reported out to 6 months postoperatively. Outcome measures included causes of elevated IOP, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at last visit, number of glaucoma medications, other interventions, and glaucomatous damage. Elevated IOP occurred in 58 (10.8 %) of 534 eyes that received ICL. The mean age was 28 ± 7.2 years. The preoperative IOP was 16.3 ± 1.2 mmHg. Elevated IOP most commonly occurred on the first postoperative day (23/58 (39.7 %) eyes) due to retained viscoelastic. This was followed by steroid response in 22/58 (37.9 %) eyes at 2-4 weeks postoperatively. IOP elevation in 6 (10.3 %) eyes was related to high ICL vault and pupillary block, and in 4 (6.9 %) eyes due to synechial angle closure. At last visit, BCVA was 20/40 or better in 56/58 (96.6 %) eyes, and 5/58 (8.6 %) eyes remained on glaucoma medications due to persistent steroid response (2 eyes), synechial angle closure glaucoma (1 eye), and other causes (2 eyes). One eye showed glaucomatous damage. Two eyes with high vault and elevated IOP underwent ICL explantation. There is a moderate risk of transiently developing elevated IOP after ICL implantation. Thorough removal of viscoelastic and use of anti-glaucoma medications during steroid use will reduce the majority of cases with postoperative IOP elevation. PMID:26265323

  5. Intraocular pressure in postmenopausal Nigerian women with and without systemic hypertension

    J. A. Ebeigbe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mean intraocular pressure (IOP in postmenopausal women has been reported higher than that in menstruating women. Also, intraocular pressure is said to be positively correlated with systemic blood pressure. No previous study in Nigeria has compared intraocular pressure in postmenopausal women with and without systemic hypertension. Purpose: To investigate the effects of menopause on intraocular pressure in subjects with and without high blood pressure. Methods: Normotensive and hypertensive premenopausal and postmenopausal subjects in the   same agerange of 45 to 55 years were studied. Intraocular pressure was measured with the hand-held Kowa applanation tonometer.  Blood pressure was taken in the sitting position at the right upper arm using a manual mercury sphygmomanometer with the right cuff size. The average of two readings was recorded. Results: Mean IOP for premenopausal normotensive women was 14.58 ± 2.56 mmHg whilethat of postmenopausal normotensive women was16.15 ± 1.80 mmHg (p<0.05.  Also, the difference in mean IOP between premenopausal hypertensive (16.58 ± 3.23 mmHg and postmenopausal hypertensive women (18.24 ± 3.89 mmHgwas statistically significant (p<0.05. A statistically significant and positive correlation was observed between IOP and systemic blood pressure in postmenopausal hypertensive women, p<0.05.Conclusion: Menopause significantly increases intraocular pressure. Mean intraocular pressure of hypertensive postmenopausal women was significantly higher than that of normotensive post-menopausal women, (p<0.05. Knowledge of the normal level of intraocular pressure during various stages of the female reproductive cycle may help during glaucoma screening. (S Afr Optom 2011 70(3 117-122

  6. The Effect of Swimming Goggles on Intraocular Pressure and Blood Flow within the Optic Nerve Head

    Ma, Kyoung Tak; Chung, Woo Suk; Seo, Kyoung Yul; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Goggles are frequently worn in the sport of swimming and are designed to form a seal around the periorbital tissue orbit. The resultant pressure on the eye may have the potential to affect intraocular pressure and blood flow of the optic nerve head. This study evaluates the influence of wearing swimming goggles on intraocular pressure (IOP) and blood flow of the ocular nerve head (ONH) in normal subjects. Materials and Methods Thirty healthy participants took part in this study. The I...

  7. Intraocular pressure variations during zygomatic fracture reduction and fixation: a clinical study.

    Murray, Dylan J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The reduction of midface fractures has been associated with the rare but devastating complication of blindness. An increase in intraocular pressure is important in the mechanism of blindness in this setting. In this study, the authors assessed the intraocular pressure in patients who underwent zygomatic fracture reduction (with or without fixation). METHODS: Using applanation tonometry, 29 patients underwent intraocular pressure measurements before, during, and after fracture fixation. The contralateral pressures were measured and used as the control. RESULTS: There were 29 patients with a mean age of 35 years, and the mean time to surgery was 5 days. Preoperatively, all patients had normal intraocular pressures and normal visual acuity. All patients underwent a Gillies lift and 18 patients required open reduction and fixation of the frontozygomatic suture (n = 4) or the infraorbital margin (n = 2), and the remainder (n = 12) required fixation of both points. There was no statistically significant increase in the intraocular pressures following the reduction of uncomplicated zygomatic fractures. Statistically significant pressure reductions were noted immediately after reduction and fixation. CONCLUSIONS: The surgical reduction of uncomplicated zygomatic fractures has no adverse effect on the intraocular pressure. It is the authors\\' opinion that adjunctive measures to reduce the pressures are unnecessary.

  8. A Circadian and Cardiac Intraocular Pressure Sensor for Smart Implantable Lens.

    Donida, Achille; Di Dato, Giuseppe; Cunzolo, Paolo; Sala, Marco; Piffaretti, Filippo; Orsatti, Paolo; Barrettino, Diego

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a new system to measure the Intraocular Pressure (IOP) with very high accuracy (0.036 mbar) used for monitoring glaucoma. The system not only monitors the daily variation of the IOP (circadian IOP), but also allows to perform an spectral analysis of the pressure signal generated by the heartbeat (cardiac IOP). The system comprises a piezoresistive pressure sensor, an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) to read out the sensor data and an external reader installed on customized glasses. The ASIC readout electronics combines chopping modulation with correlated double sampling (CDS) in order to eliminate both the amplifier offset and the chopper ripple at the sampling frequency. In addition, programmable current sources are used to compensate for the atmospheric pressure ( 800-1200 mbar ) and the circadian component (± 7 mbar) thus allowing to read out the very weak cardiac signals (± 1.6 mbar) with a maximum accuracy of 0.036 mbar. PMID:26800549

  9. Short-term intraocular pressure changes after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in diabetic retinopathy patients

    Farhood, Qasim

    2014-01-01

    Qasim Kadhim Farhood,1 Sinan Mohammad Twfeeq21College of Medicine, Babylon University, Babylon; 2Al-Jumhori teaching hospital, Mosul, IraqBackground: This study examined the changes in short-term intraocular pressure (IOP) in a prospective series of patients undergoing intravitreal bevacizumab injection. The aim was to evaluate the frequency and predictive factors related to intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in patients receiving intravitreal bevacizumab.Patients and methods: This study in...

  10. A new device to noninvasively estimate the intraocular pressure produced during ocular compression

    Korenfeld MS; Dueker DK

    2016-01-01

    Michael S Korenfeld,1,2 David K Dueker3 1Comprehensive Eye Care, Ltd., 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University, Washington, MO, USA; 3Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Purpose: To describe a noninvasive instrument that estimates intraocular pressure during episodes of external globe compression and to demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of this device by comparing it to the intraocular pressures simultaneously and manometrically measured in cannulat...

  11. Intraocular pressure-lowering effect of oral paracetamol and its in vitro corneal penetration properties

    Mohamed N; Meyer D

    2013-01-01

    Nabiel Mohamed, David MeyerDivision of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South AfricaBackground: Several studies have confirmed the ability of cannabinoids to reduce intraocular pressure. Experimental data recently demonstrated unequivocally that the analgesic effect of paracetamol is due to its indirect action on cannabinoid receptors. The question then arises as to whether paracetamol can reduce intraocular pressure via its effect...

  12. Stem Cells in the Trabecular Meshwork for Regulating Intraocular Pressure.

    Yun, Hongmin; Zhou, Yi; Wills, Andrew; Du, Yiqin

    2016-06-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is still the main treatment target for glaucoma. Outflow resistance mainly exists at the trabecular meshwork (TM) outflow pathway, which is responsible for IOP regulation. Changes of TM cellularity and TM extracellular matrix turnover may play important roles in IOP regulation. In this article, we review basic anatomy and physiology of the outflow pathway and TM stem cell characteristics regarding the location, isolation, identification and function. TM stem cells are localized at the insert region of the TM and are label-retaining in vivo. They can be isolated by side-population cell sorting, cloning culture, or sphere culture. TM stem cells are multipotent with the ability to home to the TM region and differentiate into TM cells in vivo. Other stem cell types, such as adipose-derived stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells have been discovered for TM cell differentiation and TM regeneration. We also review glaucomatous animal models, which are suitable to study stem cell-based therapies for TM regeneration. PMID:27183473

  13. Measurement of Intraocular Pressure after LASIK by Dynamic Contour Tonometry

    LIU Lei; LEI Cheng; LI Xinyu; Dong Jieyu

    2006-01-01

    Changes of corneal properties induced by laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) results in low inaccurate intraocular pressure (IOP) readings by Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT).Before and after LASIK, the applied value of IOP, measured by dynamic contour tonometry (DCT)in comparison to GAT, was evaluated. Before and 1, 4 weeks after LASIK, the IOP in 30 cases (60 eyes) was measured by GAT and DCT respectively. The obtained results were statistically processed by SPSS11. 5 statistical software. The results showed that central corneal thickness (CCT)could affect GAT measurements but not DCT measurements. The comparison of IOP one and 4 weeks after LASIK revealed that the readings from GAT was separately decreased by 5.00±1.12 and 5.45±1. 13 mmHg as compared with those before LASIK, while those from DCT had no significant difference. It was concluded that LASIK-induced changes of CCT could influence the accuracy of GAT measurements, but had no influence on those from DCT. DCT was more beneficial to the measurements of IOP in normal eyes and those subject to LASIK surgery.

  14. Aerobic exercise and intraocular pressure in normotensive and glaucoma patients

    Chatzibalis Theodosios

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasing number of people participating in physical aerobic exercise, jogging in particular, we considered that it would be worth knowing if there are should be limits to the exercise with regard to the intraocular pressure (IOP of the eyes. The purpose of this study is to check IOP in healthy and primary glaucoma patients after aerobic exercise. Methods 145 individuals were subdivided into seven groups: normotensives who exercised regularly (Group A; normotensives in whose right eye (RE timolol maleate 0.5% (Group B, latanoprost 0.005% (Group C, or brimonidine tartrate 0.2% (Group D was instilled; and primary glaucoma patients under monotherapy with β-blockers (Group E, prostaglandin analogues (Group F or combined antiglaucoma treatment (Group G instilled in both eyes. The IOP of both eyes was measured before and after exercise. Results A statistically significant decrease was found in IOP during jogging. The aerobic exercise reduces the IOP in those eyes where a b-blocker, a prostaglandin analogue or an α-agonist was previously instilled. The IOP is also decreased in glaucoma patients who are already under antiglaucoma treatment. Conclusion There is no ocular restriction for simple glaucoma patients in performing aerobic physical activity.

  15. Mechanisms for vasopressin effects on intraocular pressure in anesthetized rats

    Balaban, C. D.; Palm, D. E.; Shikher, V.; Searles, R. V.; Keil, L. C.; Severs, W. B.

    1997-01-01

    Continuous intracameral infusions of a balanced salt solution (0.175 microliter min-1) have been reported to raise intraocular pressure (IOP) in anesthetized rats. Palm et al. (1995) previously reported that this effect was attenuated significantly by inclusion of arginine-vasopressin (AVP, 10 ng 0.175 microliter-1) in the infusate. This study used experimental and computer simulation methods to investigate factors underlying these changes in IOP. First, constant intracameral infusions of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) at different fixed rates (0.049-0.35 microliter min-1) were used to estimate the outflow resistance. Secondly, IOP responses were measured during an 2 hr intracameral infusion of either aCSF or AVP that was the sum of a small constant component (0.05 microliter min-1) and a larger periodic component (0.25 microliter min-1, cycling for 4 min on, then 4 min off); the mean infusion rate was 0.175 microliter min-1. As shown previously for 0.175 microliter min-1 constant infusions, the periodic aCSF infusion induced a significant rise in IOP that was attenuated by AVP administration. Complex demodulation analysis and the estimated gain parameter of a second order transfer function fit to the periodic responses indicated that outflow resistance increased significantly during the infusions in both aCSF and AVP groups, but that the indices of resistance did not differ significantly between aCSF and AVP infused eyes. This finding implies that changes in outflow resistance do not explain the difference in IOP responses to intracameral aCSF and AVP. The two responses differed significantly, though, in damping factors, such that the aCSF responses were considerably more underdamped than the AVP responses. It is hypothesized that aCSF-induced increase in IOP reflects both (1) a small component reflecting increased outflow resistance and (2) a larger non-resistive component. Since the non-resistive component is insensitive to pretreatment with acetazolamide

  16. Driving time modulates accommodative response and intraocular pressure.

    Vera, Jesús; Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Jiménez, Raimundo; Morales, José M; Catena, Andrés; Cardenas, David; Di Stasi, Leandro L

    2016-10-01

    Driving is a task mainly reliant on the visual system. Most of the time, while driving, our eyes are constantly focusing and refocusing between the road and the dashboard or near and far traffic. Thus, prolonged driving time should produce visual fatigue. Here, for the first time, we investigated the effects of driving time, a common inducer of driver fatigue, on two ocular parameters: the accommodative response (AR) and the intraocular pressure (IOP). A pre/post-test design has been used to assess the impact of driving time on both indices. Twelve participants (out of 17 recruited) completed the study (5 women, 24.42±2.84years old). The participants were healthy and active drivers with no visual impairment or pathology. They drove for 2h in a virtual driving environment. We assessed AR and IOP before and after the driving session, and also collected subjective measures of arousal and fatigue. We found that IOP and AR decreased (i.e., the accommodative lag increased) after the driving session (p=0.03 and p<0.001, respectively). Moreover, the nearest distances tested (20cm, 25cm, and 33cm) induced the highest decreases in AR (corrected p-values<0.05). Consistent with these findings, the subjective levels of arousal decreased and levels of fatigue increased after the driving session (all p-values<0.001). These results represent an innovative step towards an objective, valid, and reliable assessment of fatigue-impaired driving based on visual fatigue signs. PMID:27235337

  17. Evaluation of Different Power of Near Addition in Two Different Multifocal Intraocular Lenses

    Unsal, Ugur; Baser, Gonen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare near, intermediate, and distance vision and quality of vision, when refractive rotational multifocal intraocular lenses with 3.0 diopters or diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses with 2.5 diopters near addition are implanted. Methods. 41 eyes of 41 patients in whom rotational +3.0 diopters near addition IOLs were implanted and 30 eyes of 30 patients in whom diffractive +2.5 diopters near addition IOLs were implanted after cataract surgery were reviewed. Uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity, intermediate visual acuity, near visual acuity, and patient satisfaction were evaluated 6 months later. Results. The corrected and uncorrected distance visual acuity were the same between both groups (p = 0.50 and p = 0.509, resp.). The uncorrected intermediate and corrected intermediate and near vision acuities were better in the +2.5 near vision added intraocular lens implanted group (p = 0.049, p = 0.005, and p = 0.001, resp.) and the uncorrected near vision acuity was better in the +3.0 near vision added intraocular lens implanted group (p = 0.001). The patient satisfactions of both groups were similar. Conclusion. The +2.5 diopters near addition could be a better choice in younger patients with more distance and intermediate visual requirements (driving, outdoor activities), whereas the + 3.0 diopters should be considered for patients with more near vision correction (reading). PMID:27340560

  18. Intraocular/Intracranial pressure mismatch hypothesis for visual impairment syndrome in space.

    Zhang, Li-Fan; Hargens, Alan R

    2014-01-01

    Visual impairment intracranial pressure syndrome (VIIP) is considered a major risk for future human spaceflight. Loss of hydrostatic pressure gradients in vascular and cerebrospinal fluid systems due to the removal of gravity associated with subsequent intracranial and intraocular fluid shifts and the resulting intraocular/intracranial pressure mismatch might be important etiology factors causingVIIP syndrome. Acclimation changes in the ocular and cerebral circulation and the two fluid systems during chronic microgravity exposure and their underlying mechanisms need further elucidation. Relevant findings may help to validate the pressure differential hypothesis for VlIP syndrome and to evaluate whether a gravity based countermeasure is needed. PMID:24479265

  19. Intraocular pressure-lowering combination therapies with prostaglandin analogues.

    Aptel, Florent; Chiquet, Christophe; Romanet, Jean-Paul

    2012-07-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction is currently the only therapeutic approach demonstrated to preserve visual function in patients with glaucoma. The first line of glaucoma treatment consists of topical IOP-lowering medications, usually initiated as monotherapy. A significant proportion of patients require more than one medication to reach a target IOP at which optic nerve damage will not progress. As prostaglandin analogues (PGAs) are the most effective class for reducing IOP, one of the other commonly used classes (β-adrenoceptor antagonist [β-blocker], carbonic anhydrase inhibitor or α(2)-adrenoceptor agonist) is frequently combined with a PGA. In the last decade, the use of fixed combinations containing two medications in a single bottle has steadily increased. Fixed combinations have the potential to simplify the dosing regimen, increase patient adherence, avoid the washout effect of the second drop on the first medication instilled, decrease exposure to preservatives and, sometimes, reduce the cost of treatment. Clinical trials have evaluated PGA-based fixed combinations versus unfixed combinations (individual components administered concomitantly) or versus individual monotherapies; however, any advantage that the fixed combinations may have in terms of IOP-lowering efficacy is still debated. For these reasons, the PGA-based fixed combinations are not approved by regulatory authorities in some countries, such as the US. We review the published studies evaluating the efficacy and tolerability of the IOP-lowering unfixed and fixed combination therapies with PGAs. Regarding unfixed combinations, the review shows that α(2)-adrenergic agonists-PGA and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor-PGA combinations seem to be at least as effective at reducing IOP as the β-blocker-PGA combinations. As for the fixed combinations, the review shows that the three PGA-timolol fixed combinations are more effective than their component medications used separately as monotherapy and

  20. Acute effects of consumption of energy drinks on intraocular pressure and blood pressure

    Ilechie AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A Alex Ilechie, Sandra TettehDepartment of Optometry, University of Cape Coast, GhanaBackground: Energy drinks contain a wide variety of ingredients including caffeine, for which there have been conflicting reports regarding its effects on intraocular pressure (IOP and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of an energy drink (Red Bull® on the IOP and blood pressure of healthy young adults.Methods: Thirty healthy university students of either gender, aged 18–30 (mean 23.20 ± 2.81 years were randomly selected to participate in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups (experimental and control and were asked to abstain from caffeine for 48 hours prior to and during the study. Baseline IOP and blood pressure were measured. The experimental group (n = 15 consumed one can of the energy drink (containing 85 mg of caffeine in 250 mL and measurements were repeated at 30, 60, and 90 minutes, while the control group drank 250 mL of water and were tested over the same time period.Results: When compared with baseline, a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in mean IOP at 60 and 90 minutes was observed in the experimental group. There was no corresponding change in systolic or diastolic blood pressure.Conclusion: Our results suggest that energy drinks (ie, Red Bull produce a significant reduction in IOP but have no effect on blood pressure. These findings may be interpreted as reflecting the effect of the combination of caffeine and taurine in the Red Bull energy drink. This effect may result from the known hypotensive effect of taurine, and warrants further study.Keywords: acute effect, intraocular pressure, blood pressure, glaucoma, caffeine, taurine

  1. Comparative evaluation of intraocular pressure changes subsequent to insertion of laryngeal mask airway and endotracheal tube.

    Ghai B

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To evaluate the intraocular pressure and haemodynamic changes subsequent to insertion of laryngeal mask airway and endotracheal tube. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 50 adult patients. A standard general anaesthesia was administered to all the patients. After 3 minutes of induction of anaesthesia baseline measurements of heart rate, non-invasive blood pressure and intraocular pressure were taken following which patients were divided into two groups: laryngeal mask airway was inserted in group 1 and tracheal tube in group 2. These measurements were repeated at 15-30 second, every minute thereafter up to 5 minutes after airway instrumentation. RESULTS: A statistically significant rise in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and intraocular pressure was seen in both the groups subsequent to insertion of laryngeal mask airway or endotracheal tube. Mean maximum increase was statistically more after endotracheal intubation than after laryngeal mask airway insertion. The duration of statistically significant pressure responses was also longer after endotracheal intubation. CONCLUSION: Laryngeal mask airway is an acceptable alternative technique for ocular surgeries, offering advantages in terms of intraocular pressure and cardiovascular stability compared to tracheal intubation.

  2. The new factors defining variability of circadian’s rhythms of intraocular and perfusion pressure of glaucoma patients

    N. A. Baranova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the most scientifically based local risk and progressive factors are elevated levels of intraocular pressure and its instability during the day, caused by local hydromechanical disturbances. However, the other factors affecting the circadian changes of intraocular pressure levels are still evaluated. It was found that light is one of the most important factors affecting the intensity of the cyclical fluctuations of various biological processes, including, and fluctuations of intraocular pressure. At the same time, glaucoma can lead to a variety of sleep disorders, due to a mismatch between cycles «sleep-wake». One if this reason is the death of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. Such damage indirectly lead to a decrease in production of the pigment melanopsin, which is located in the retina. It is not involved in the visual process, but ensures the implementation of circadian rhythms «sleep-wake» and mediated suppression of epiphyseal melatonin. Most likely, melatonin plays a protective role in the occurrence and progression of glaucoma, protecting retinal cells against free radicals and has a direct impact on the intraocular pressure level. Several studies have shown that the circadian change in intraocular pressure levels, and in particular, its substantial reduction, is influenced by melatonin. In this regard, glaucoma is a disease in which the death of retinal cells, including producing melanopsin, a unique opportunity to study violations of cyclic rhythms. Melatonin acts on such established risk factors and progression of glaucoma as hypertension and diabetes. There are published results of the use of melatonin agonists in the experiment and clinical practice. So, in addition to local and systemic hypotensive action, normalizes sleep patients. Data about the melatonin’s effects on the direct and indirect reduction of intraocular pressure, neuroprotective effects and reducing symptoms of depression can

  3. Reference intervals for intraocular pressure measured by rebound tonometry in ten raptor species and factors affecting the intraocular pressure.

    Reuter, Anne; Müller, Kerstin; Arndt, Gisela; Eule, Johanna Corinna

    2011-09-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured with the TonoVet rebound tonometer in 10 raptor species, and possible factors affecting IOP were investigated. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed, and IOP was assessed in 2 positions, upright and dorsal recumbency, in 237 birds belonging to the families Accipitridae, Falconidae, Strigidae, and Tytonidae. Mean IOP values of healthy eyes were calculated for each species, and differences between families, species, age, sex, left and right eye, as well as the 2 body positions were evaluated. Physiologic fluctuations of IOP were assessed by measuring IOP serially for 5 days at the same time of day in 15 birds of 3 species. Results showed IOP values varied by family and species, with the following mean IOP values (mm Hg +/- SD) determined: white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), 26.9 +/- 5.8; red kite (Milvus milvus), 13.0 +/- 5.5; northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), 18.3 +/- 3.8; Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), 15.5 +/- 2.5; common buzzard (Buteo buteo), 26.9 +/- 7.0; common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), 9.8 +/- 2.5; peregrine falcon, (Falco peregrinus), 12.7 +/- 5.8; tawny owl (Strix aluco), 9.4 +/- 4.1; long-eared owl (Asio otus), 7.8 +/- 3.2; and barn owl (Tyto alba), 10.8 +/- 3.8. No significant differences were found between sexes or between left and right eyes. In goshawks, common buzzards, and common kestrels, mean IOP was significantly lower in juvenile birds than it was in adult birds. Mean IOP differed significantly by body position in tawny owls (P = .01) and common buzzards (P = .04). By measuring IOP over several days, mean physiologic variations of +/- 2 mm Hg were detected. Differences in IOP between species and age groups should be considered when interpreting tonometric results. Physiologic fluctuations of IOP may occur and should not be misinterpreted. These results show that rebound tonometry is a useful diagnostic tool in measuring IOP in birds of prey because it provides rapid

  4. Latanoprost ophthalmic solution in the treatment of open angle glaucoma or raised intraocular pressure: a review

    Andrea Russo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Russo, Ivano Riva, Teodoro Pizzolante, Federico Noto, Luciano QuarantaCattedra di Malattie dell’Apparato Visivo, Università degli studi di Brescia, USVD “Centro per lo studio del Glaucoma” Spedali Civili di BresciaAbstract: Latanoprost is a prostaglandin F2-alpha isopropyl ester prodrug which is rapidly hydrolyzed by esterases in the cornea to the biologically active latanoprost acid. When latanoprost is topically administered into the eye, the cornea seems to act like as a slow-release depot to the anterior segment. One hour after administration maximum concentration is found in the iris, followed by the anterior chamber and the ciliary body. Despite extensive research, controversy remains about the real mechanism of action of this drug. Immunohistochemical data have shown that the intraocular pressure (IOP reduction with topical prostaglandin F2-alpha is associated with a reduction of collagens within the uveoscleral outflow pathway. Evidence from several experimental and clinical studies suggests that latanoprost is a valuable addition first-line treatment alternatives for glaucoma, ocular hypertension and even angle-closure glaucoma. Strong points are its efficacy, which is demonstrated to be higher than that of brimonidine, dorzolamide and timolol with fewer systemic adverse effects; a convenient administration schedule; and the IOP-controlling pattern, which is relatively flat compared with timolol and dorzolamide, and enables better control in glaucoma progression, since large fluctuations may be associated with the risk of developing glaucoma in untreated ocular hypertensive subjects.Keywords: latanoprost, intraocular pressure, glaucoma, ocular hypertension

  5. Wireless Intraocular Pressure Sensing Using Microfabricated Minimally Invasive Flexible-Coiled LC Sensor Implant

    Chen, Po-Jui; Saati, Saloomeh; Varma, Rohit; Humayun, Mark S.; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an implant-based wireless pressure sensing paradigm for long-range continuous intraocular pressure (IOP) monitoring of glaucoma patients. An implantable parylene-based pressure sensor has been developed, featuring an electrical LC-tank resonant circuit for passive wireless sensing without power consumption on the implanted site. The sensor is microfabricated with the use of parylene C (poly-chlorop- xylylene) to create a flexible coil substrate that ca...

  6. Implantable micromechanical parylene-based pressure sensors for unpowered intraocular pressure sensing

    Chen, Po-Jui; Rodger, Damien C.; Agrawal, Rajat; Saati, Saloomeh; Meng, Ellis; Varma, Rohit; Humayun, Mark S.; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents the first implantable, unpowered, parylene-based microelectromechanical system (MEMS) pressure sensor for intraocular pressure (IOP) sensing. From in situ mechanical deformation of the compliant spiral-tube structures, this sensor registers pressure variations without electrical or powered signal transduction of any kind. Micromachined high-aspect-ratio polymeric hollow tubes with different geometric layouts are implemented to obtain high-sensitivity pressure responses. An integrated device packaging method has been developed toward enabling minimally invasive suture-less needle-based implantation of the device. Both in vitro and ex vivo device characterizations have successfully demonstrated mmHg resolution of the pressure responses. In vivo animal experiments have also been conducted to verify the biocompatibility and functionality of the implant fixation method inside the eye. Using the proposed implantation scheme, the pressure response of the implant can be directly observed from outside the eye under visible light, with the goal of realizing convenient, direct and faithful IOP monitoring in glaucoma patients.

  7. A novel index for predicting intraocular pressure reduction following cataract surgery

    Issa, S A; Pacheco, J.; Mahmood, U; Nolan, J; Beatty, S

    2005-01-01

    Aim: The results of a study designed to investigate the predictive value of preoperative anterior chamber depth (ACD) and intraocular pressure (IOP) are reported. The relation between these factors and their effect on the reduction in IOP following phacoemulsification cataract surgery was also studied.

  8. Intraocular pressure-lowering effect of oral paracetamol and its in vitro corneal penetration properties

    Mohamed N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nabiel Mohamed, David MeyerDivision of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South AfricaBackground: Several studies have confirmed the ability of cannabinoids to reduce intraocular pressure. Experimental data recently demonstrated unequivocally that the analgesic effect of paracetamol is due to its indirect action on cannabinoid receptors. The question then arises as to whether paracetamol can reduce intraocular pressure via its effect on intraocular cannabinoid receptors.Methods: A 2-week, prospective, randomized, controlled, single-center, parallel-group pilot study was carried out to determine the efficacy and safety of paracetamol 1 g orally administered every 6 hours in adult patients with primary or secondary open angle glaucoma as compared with topical levobunolol 0.5% twice a day. Patient well-being was closely monitored throughout the study and focused on hepatic safety in accordance with Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network criteria. The in vitro diffusion kinetics of acetaminophen in a phosphate-buffered solution in rabbit and human corneas was also investigated, with the view to a topical application.Results: Eighteen adult patients were enrolled in the study, with nine in the topical levobunolol group and nine in the oral paracetamol group. In the levobunolol group, the mean reduction in intraocular pressure at day 7 was 7.5 mmHg (P < 0.008 and at day 14 was 9.1 mmHg (P < 0.005, from a mean baseline intraocular pressure of 29.6 mmHg. The corresponding figures for the paracetamol group were 8.8 mmHg (P < 0.0004 at day 7 and 6.5 mmHg (P < 0.004 at day 14, from a mean baseline intraocular pressure of 29.4 mmHg. Both study regimens were well tolerated. No serious treatment-related adverse events were reported in either of the treatment groups. Liver function tests, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, or heart rate remained unchanged in both groups during the 2 weeks of the study. In

  9. A noncontact intraocular pressure measurement device using a micro reflected air pressure sensor for the prediagnosis of glaucoma

    Kim, Kyoung Hwan; Kim, Byeong Hee; Seo, Young Ho

    2012-03-01

    This study investigates a novel, portable tonometer using a micro reflected air pressure sensor for the prediagnosis of glaucoma. Because glaucoma progresses slowly and is not painful, glaucoma patients require a portable prediagnosis system to periodically measure intraocular pressure at home. Conventionally, intraocular pressure is measured by an air-puff tonometer whereby the cornea is deformed by a short pulse of air pressure and the magnitude of the corneal deformation is measured by optic systems such as a combination of laser- and photodiodes. In this study, a micro reflected air pressure sensor was designed, fabricated, and tested in order to measure the magnitude of corneal deformation without optic systems. In an experimental study, artificial eyes with different internal pressures were fabricated and these pressures were measured by the aforementioned system.

  10. A noncontact intraocular pressure measurement device using a micro reflected air pressure sensor for the prediagnosis of glaucoma

    This study investigates a novel, portable tonometer using a micro reflected air pressure sensor for the prediagnosis of glaucoma. Because glaucoma progresses slowly and is not painful, glaucoma patients require a portable prediagnosis system to periodically measure intraocular pressure at home. Conventionally, intraocular pressure is measured by an air-puff tonometer whereby the cornea is deformed by a short pulse of air pressure and the magnitude of the corneal deformation is measured by optic systems such as a combination of laser- and photodiodes. In this study, a micro reflected air pressure sensor was designed, fabricated, and tested in order to measure the magnitude of corneal deformation without optic systems. In an experimental study, artificial eyes with different internal pressures were fabricated and these pressures were measured by the aforementioned system. (paper)

  11. A capacitor-based sensor and a contact lens sensing system for intraocular pressure monitoring

    Chiou, Jin-Chern; Huang, Yu-Chieh; Yeh, Guan-Ting

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a capacitor-based sensor on a soft contact lens for the measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP). The sensor was designed and fabricated via microelectromechanical system fabrication technologies. The soft contact lens is designed to be worn on a cornea such that the curvature of the contact lens corresponds substantially to that of the cornea. In addition, the contact lens was fabricated via a cast-molding method using poly-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate to achieve a lens with high oxygen permeability, which can be worn comfortably for a long time. An IOP sensor prototype was implemented, which exhibited 1.2239 pF mmHg-1 (13,171 ppm mmHg-1) sensitivity during measurements of an artificial anterior chamber at pressures between 18 and 30 mmHg. The results indicate that the developed capacitor-based IOP sensor exhibited high stability and reproducibility in a series of measurements performed under various pressures. The capacitance of the proposed IOP sensor can successfully be converted into a digital value via a capacitor-to-digital converter and be transmitted via a commercial wireless telemetry system in this study.

  12. Intraocular pressure dynamics with prostaglandin analogs: a clinical application of water-drinking test

    Özyol P

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pelin Özyol,1 Erhan Özyol,1 Ercan Baldemir2 1Ophthalmology Department, 2Biostatistics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Mugla, Turkey Aim: To evaluate the clinical applicability of the water-drinking test in treatment-naive primary open-angle glaucoma patients. Methods: Twenty newly diagnosed primary open-angle glaucoma patients and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in this prospective study. The water-drinking test was performed at baseline and 6 weeks and 3 months after prostaglandin analog treatment. Peak and fluctuation of intraocular pressure (IOP measurements obtained with the water-drinking test during follow-up were analyzed. Analysis of variance for repeated measures and paired and unpaired t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean baseline IOP values in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma were 25.1±4.6 mmHg before prostaglandin analog treatment, 19.8±3.7 mmHg at week 6, and 17.9±2.2 mmHg at month 3 after treatment. The difference in mean baseline IOP of the water-drinking tests was statistically significant (P<0.001. At 6 weeks of prostaglandin analog treatment, two patients had high peak and fluctuation of IOP measurements despite a reduction in baseline IOP. After modifying treatment, patients had lower peak and fluctuation of IOP values at month 3 of the study. Conclusion: Peak and fluctuation of IOP in response to the water-drinking test were lower with prostaglandin analogs compared with before medication. The water-drinking test can represent an additional benefit in the management of glaucoma patients, especially by detecting higher peak and fluctuation of IOP values despite a reduced mean IOP. Therefore, it could be helpful as a supplementary method in monitoring IOP in the clinical practice. Keywords: glaucoma, intraocular pressure, water-drinking test, prostaglandin analog, intra­ocular pressure fluctuation

  13. Meta-analysis of timolol on diurnal and nighttime intraocular pressure and blood pressure.

    Lee, Princeton Wen-Yuan

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the nighttime intraocular pressure (IOP) and blood pressure (BP) response to timolol treatment in patients with ocular hypertension or primary open-angle glaucoma. METHODS: This was a meta-analysis of previously published studies that must have been randomized, prospective, crossover or parallel, single or double-masked trials. The treatment period must have been >\\/=2 weeks with >\\/=19 patients per treatment arm for a crossover, and >\\/=50 patients for a parallel designed trial. Studies must have included both baseline and treated 24-hour curves. RESULTS: For the IOP analysis, we included 8 articles with 340 patients. A reduction from baseline was observed for timolol at each time point and for the 24-hour curve (p<\\/=0.009). When 2 studies, in which timolol was used adjunctively, were removed, a similar difference was observed as above at each time point and for the 24-hour curve (p<\\/=0.003). In 2 studies, there were small reductions from baseline for the mean diastolic and systolic BPs at most time points and for the 24-hour curve (3.9 and 4.2 mmHg, respectively) with timolol treatment. The ocular perfusion pressure did not show any difference between baseline and timolol treatment at any time point or for the 24-hour curve (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that topical timolol therapy provides an ocular hypotensive effect over the 24-hour curve, including the nighttime hours, and while small reductions in the systolic and diastolic pressures occur, the ocular perfusion pressure is not altered over 24 hours.

  14. An examination of the relation between intraocular pressure, fundal stretching and myopic pathology.

    McMonnies, Charles W

    2016-03-01

    Pathological myopia is one of the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide. Myopic development and progression is biomechanical and dominated by axial elongation. This clinical perspective examines some of the stretch-related fundal changes, which are associated with axial elongation and myopic pathology. The biomechanics of stretching of the fundus appears to depend on genetically and/or visual experience-based scleral changes, which reduce its thickness and elastic modulus so that it becomes more susceptible to the distending forces of intraocular pressure. These changes include reduced collagen synthesis, altered collagen fibres, tissue loss, altered proteoglycans and increased matrix metalloproteinase activity. Such changes are associated with reduced scleral rigidity and related increased potential to stretch in response to intraocular pressure. As axial elongation progresses, the sclera appears likely to continue to reduce in thickness and in its capacity to resist intraocular pressure, especially when pressure becomes elevated. Tessellation, lacquer cracks, myopic crescents, staphylomata, chorioretinal atrophy and retinal detachment are examined within a model for stretching of the fundus. Age, refractive error and axial length, for example, are associated with increased pathological progression. Myopic pathological progression can become dominated by vascular changes and include a greater risk of loss of acuity and blindness. Measures to control myopic pathology, which successfully slow or prevent stretching of the fundus, appear to be key factors in reducing or even avoiding permanent visual loss associated with this condition. For example, limiting axial elongation and related myopic fundus pathology by inhibiting changes which reduce the elastic modulus of scleral tissue is a desirable outcome from interventions to control myopia. Similarly, reducing exposure to the distending stress of elevated intraocular pressure appears to be a desirable form of

  15. Intraocular Pressure in Eyes Receiving Intravitreal Antivascular Endothelial Growth Factor Injections

    Lemos, V; Cabugueira, A; de Noronha, M; Abegão Pinto, L; Reina, M.; Branco, J; Gomes, T

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the this study was to determine the effect of intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor injections on intraocular pressure (IOP) and identify possible risk factors for the development of increased IOP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study included a total of 106 eyes receiving intravitreal injection of bevacizumab as treatment for macular edema or active choroidal neovascularization. IOP was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry immediately be...

  16. Clinical investigation of the effect of topical anesthesia on intraocular pressure

    Almubrad, Turki M.; Kelechi C. Ogbuehi

    2007-01-01

    Background/Aims: Contact tonometry is generally considered more accurate than non-contact tonometry in the assessment of intraocular pressure (IOP). This study was designed to investigate the effect of ocular anesthesia, a pre-requisite for contact tonometry, on the IOP in a sample of visually normal subjects. Method: In a random sample of 120 young visually normal subjects (divided equally among three groups), the Topcon CT80 non-contact tonometer was used to measure IOP before, at the secon...

  17. Effects of glaucoma medications on the cardiorespiratory and intraocular pressure status of newly diagnosed glaucoma patients

    WALDOCK, A; Snape, J; Graham, C

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To evaluate the short term cardiovascular, respiratory, and intraocular pressure (IOP) effects of four glaucoma medications in newly diagnosed glaucoma patients.
METHODS—141 newly diagnosed glaucoma patients were recruited and underwent a full ocular, cardiovascular, and respiratory examination, including an electrocardiogram (ECG) and spirometry. They were prescribed one of four topical glaucoma medications and reviewed 3 months later. One eye of each patient was randomly chosen for ana...

  18. Assessment of the central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure in premature and full-term newborns

    Muslubas, Isil Bahar Sayman; Oral, Ayse Yesim Aydın; Cabi, Cemalettin; Caliskan, Sinan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in premature and full-term newborns. Materials and Methods: In this study, we evaluated measurements of CCT and IOP in 45 premature and 45 full-term newborns. IOP was determined with topical anesthesia using a Tono-Pen AVIA, applanation tonometer and a wire lid retractor in premature newborns undergoing screening for retinopathy. Full-term newborns were used as a control group. CCT was determined with a port...

  19. Intraocular pressure and influencing systemic health parameters in a Korean population

    Young Sang Han; Ji Woong Lee; Jong Soo Lee

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the relationship between intraocular pressure (IOP) and systemic health parameters such as age, gender, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride (TG) in a Korean population. Materials and Methods: A total of 30,893 healthy subjects underwent automated multiphasic tests, including non-contact tonometry, automated perimetry, fundus photography, and blood samplings for total cholesterol, HDL, and TG. Seven age groups were divided...

  20. Impact of the Topical Ophthalmic Corticosteroid Loteprednol Etabonate on Intraocular Pressure

    Sheppard, John D.; Timothy L Comstock; Cavet, Megan E.

    2016-01-01

    Corticosteroids are a mainstay therapeutic option for the treatment of ocular inflammation. However, safety remains a concern for clinicians, particularly with long-term use. Though highly effective at suppressing inflammatory and allergic responses, topical ophthalmic corticosteroids carry an inherent risk of side effects, including elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), a risk factor for the development of glaucoma. The corticosteroid loteprednol etabonate (LE) contains an ester rather than a...

  1. Surgical lowering of elevated intraocular pressure in monkeys prevents progression of glaucomatous disease

    Nickells, Robert W; Schlamp, Cassandra L; Li, Yan; Kaufman, Paul L.; Heatley, Gregg; Peterson, John C.; Faha, Barbara; Ver Hoeve, James N.

    2006-01-01

    Recent reports from large clinical trials have clearly demonstrated that lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) in persons with ocular hypertension has a beneficial effect on reducing the progression of glaucomatous disease. Few studies of this effect have been conducted in controlled laboratory settings, however, and none have been conducted using non-human primates, the model of experimental glaucoma considered most similar to the human disease. Using data collected retrospectively from a trab...

  2. The new factors defining variability of circadian’s rhythms of intraocular and perfusion pressure of glaucoma patients

    Baranova, N. A.; A. V. Kuroyedov; Yu. V. Ovchinnikov

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the most scientifically based local risk and progressive factors are elevated levels of intraocular pressure and its instability during the day, caused by local hydromechanical disturbances. However, the other factors affecting the circadian changes of intraocular pressure levels are still evaluated. It was found that light is one of the most important factors affecting the intensity of the cyclical fluctuations of various biological processes, including, and fluctuations of intrao...

  3. Common genetic determinants of intraocular pressure and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Leonieke M E van Koolwijk

    Full Text Available Intraocular pressure (IOP is a highly heritable risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma and is the only target for current glaucoma therapy. The genetic factors which determine IOP are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study for IOP in 11,972 participants from 4 independent population-based studies in The Netherlands. We replicated our findings in 7,482 participants from 4 additional cohorts from the UK, Australia, Canada, and the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium 2/Blue Mountains Eye Study. IOP was significantly associated with rs11656696, located in GAS7 at 17p13.1 (p=1.4×10(-8, and with rs7555523, located in TMCO1 at 1q24.1 (p=1.6×10(-8. In a meta-analysis of 4 case-control studies (total N = 1,432 glaucoma cases, both variants also showed evidence for association with glaucoma (p=2.4×10(-2 for rs11656696 and p=9.1×10(-4 for rs7555523. GAS7 and TMCO1 are highly expressed in the ciliary body and trabecular meshwork as well as in the lamina cribrosa, optic nerve, and retina. Both genes functionally interact with known glaucoma disease genes. These data suggest that we have identified two clinically relevant genes involved in IOP regulation.

  4. Managing elevated intraocular pressure in a patient with optic nerve hypoplasia

    Karina Marcovitch

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Karina Marcovitch, Joseph SowkaNova Southeastern University, College of Optometry, Davie, FL, USABackground: Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH is a congenital optic disc anomaly, often manifesting with visual deficits.Case: A 51-year-old woman with a history of bilateral amblyopia was referred for glaucoma evaluation due to elevated intraocular pressure. The patient demonstrated the classic nerve head appearance of bilateral ONH with “double ring sign” and indistinguishable cupping. Despite demonstrating functional and structural measurements consistent with glaucomatous optic neuropathy, it was felt that these deficits were more likely longstanding and secondary to ONH. Additionally, in the absence of any amblyogenic factors, it was also concluded that the patient’s bilateral “amblyopia” was the result of ONH. In that the patient presented with a significant and modifiable risk factor for glaucomatous development and pre-existing retinal nerve fiber layer and visual field defects, the patient was treated with topical glaucoma medications. Conclusion: Diagnosing glaucoma in patients with concurrent anomalies is a clinical conundrum. This report provides a review of ONH with emphasis on the common misdiagnosis of amblyopia in these patients as well as presenting a strategy for diagnosing and managing glaucoma in patients with preexisting, confounding conditions. Keywords: optic nerve hypoplasia, glaucoma, visual field loss, scanning laser polarimetry, threshold automated perimetry

  5. Intraocular pressure reduction of fixed combination timolol maleate 0.5% and dorzolamide 2% (Cosopt administered three times a day

    Moisseiev E, Lazar M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gabi Shemesh*, Elad Moisseiev*, Moshe Lazar1, Shimon Kurtz Department of Ophthalmology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel; Affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel*The first two authors contributed equallyPurpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy in intraocular pressure (IOP reduction of increasing Cosopt dosage from twice to three times a day.Methods: The study included patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. After a washout period, IOP was measured at baseline, after 4 weeks of treatment with Cosopt twice a day, and after another 4 weeks of treatment with Cosopt three times a day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen saturation levels were also recorded.Results: Twenty-nine eyes of 29 patients were included. Increasing Cosopt dosage resulted in a statistically significant (P < 0.001 additional reduction in IOP of 2.2 ± 1.58 mmHg (10.69% ± 7.49% of the baseline IOP values. There were no local or systemic adverse effects.Conclusion: Treatment with Cosopt three times a day was more effective in reducing IOP than twice a day, with no effect on safety.Keywords: Cosopt, timolol, dorzolamide, glaucoma, intraocular pressure, dosage

  6. Using the Electroretinogram to Understand How Intraocular Pressure Elevation Affects the Rat Retina

    Bang V. Bui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraocular pressure (IOP elevation is a key risk factor for glaucoma. Our understanding of the effect that IOP elevation has on the eye has been greatly enhanced by the application of the electroretinogram (ERG. In this paper, we describe how the ERG in the rodent eye is affected by changes in IOP magnitude, duration, and number of spikes. We consider how the variables of blood pressure and age can modify the effect of IOP elevation on the ERG. Finally, we contrast the effects that acute and chronic IOP elevation can have on the rodent ERG.

  7. Intraocular Pressure and Associations in Children. The Gobi Desert Children Eye Study

    Yang, Da Yong; Guo, Kai; Wang, Yan; Guo, Yuan Yuan; Yang, Xian Rong; Jing, Xin Xia; Guo, Hai Ke; Tao, Yong; Zhu, Dan; Jonas, Jost B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the intraocular pressure (IOP) and its association in children in a population living in an oasis in the Gobi Desert. Methods The cross-sectional school-based study included all schools in the Ejina region. The children underwent an ophthalmic examination, non-contact tonometry and measurement of blood pressure and body height and weight. Results Out of eligible 1911 children, 1565 (81.9%) children with a mean age of 11.9±3.5 years (range: 6–21 years) participated. Mean sphe...

  8. A time-delay calibrated method for cornea hysteresis and intraocular pressure measurement

    Wang, Kuo-Jen; Tsai, Che-Liang; Wang, Wai; Hsu, Long; Hsu, Ken-Yuh

    2016-04-01

    The presence of cornea hysteresis (CH) in characterizing the intraocular pressure (IOP) of a human eye deteriorates the accuracy of IOP. To suppress CH, the pressure gauge of a tonometer must be located as close as possible to the cornea. However, this arrangement is unpractical because appropriate working distance to the cornea is required. In this paper, a time-delay calibrated (TDC) method is proposed to counteract the undesired effect of CH in characterizing the IOP. Employing this TDC method, the CH approaches to zero for most eyes measured.

  9. Efficacy of combined cataract extraction and endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation for the reduction of intraocular pressure and medication burden

    Roberts, Sammie J.; Mulvahill, Matthew; SooHoo, Jeffrey R.; Pantcheva, Mina B.; Kahook, Malik Y.; Seibold, Leonard K.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To report on the efficacy of combined endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation (ECP) and phacoemulsification cataract extraction (PCE) with intraocular lens placement for reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) and medication burden in glaucoma. METHODS A retrospective case review of 91 eyes (73 patients) with glaucoma and cataract that underwent combined PCE/ECP surgery was performed. Baseline demographic and ocular characteristics were recorded, as well as intraocular pressure, number of glaucoma medications, and visual acuity postoperatively with 12-month follow-up. Treatment failure was defined as less than 20% reduction in IOP from baseline on two consecutive visits (at 1, 3, 6, or 12mo postoperatively), IOP ≥21 mm Hg or ≤5 mm Hg on two consecutive visits, or additional glaucoma surgery performed within 12mo after PCE/ECP. RESULTS Overall, mean medicated IOP was reduced from 16.65 mm Hg at baseline to 13.38 mm Hg at 12mo (P<0.0001). Mean number of glaucoma medications was reduced from 1.88 medications at baseline to 1.48 medications at 12mo (P=0.0003). At 3mo postoperatively, the success rate was 73.6% (95%CI: 63.3, 81.5), 57.1% at 6mo (95% CI: 46.3, 66.6), and 49.7% at 12mo (95%CI: 38.9, 59.6). Patient demographic characteristics were not associated with treatment success. The only ocular characteristic associated with treatment success was a higher baseline IOP. CONCLUSION Combined PCE/ECP surgery is an effective surgical option for the reduction of IOP and medication burden in glaucoma patients. Patients with higher baseline IOP levels are most likely to benefit from this procedure. PMID:27275423

  10. Effect of Anterior Chamber Depth on Intraocular Pressure after Uneventful Phacoemulsification Surgery in Nonglaucomatous Eyes with CataractEffect of Anterior Chamber Depth on Intraocular Pressure after Uneventful Phacoemulsification Surgery in Nonglaucomatous Eyes with CataractEffect of Anterior Chamber Depth on Intraocular Pressure after Uneventful Phacoemulsification Surgery in Nonglaucomatous Eyes with Cataract

    Tansu Gönen; Kadircan Keskinbora; Fatih Horozo¤lu; Özkan Sever; Mustafa Yaflar

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of preoperative anterior chamber depth (ACD) on intraocular pressure (IOP) after uneventful phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in nonglaucomatous eyes. Material and Method: The medical records of fifty-five patients (30 male and 25 female) were reviewed retrospectively. The patients who had undergone uneventful phacoemulsification and IOL implantation were divided into two groups according to the values of preoperative ACD: ...

  11. Two-position measurement of intraocular pressure by PT100 noncontact tonometry in comparison with Goldmann tonometry

    Ogbuehi KC

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Kelechi C Ogbuehi, John C Chijuka, Uchechukwu L Osuagwu Department of Optometry & Vision Science, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the precision of intraocular pressure measurements obtained by PT100 noncontact tonometry in a handheld and slit lamp-mounted position in comparison with that of Goldmann applanation tonometry in healthy young adults.Methods: Sixty eyes from 60 subjects (30 men and 30 women aged 22 ± 1 (range 20–24 years participated in this study. Triplicate intraocular pressure measurement of a randomly selected eye was obtained by a noncontact tonometer in a handheld and slit lamp-mounted position in a randomized order, with the Goldmann applanation tonometer always performed last. A second measurement session was carried out after one week to assess repeatability.Results: The mean ± standard deviation of intraocular pressure readings in the first and second session, respectively, with the three techniques were: handheld position, 14.52 ± 3.28 mmHg and 15.26 ± 2.11 mmHg; slit lamp-mounted position, 14.01 ± 2.80 mmHg and 15.16 ± 2.34 mmHg; and Goldmann applanation tonometer, 14.86 ± 3.26 mmHg and 15.16 ± 2.42 mmHg. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05 between the techniques in the intraocular pressure measurements returned (Goldmann applanation tonometer vs handheld and Goldmann applanation tonometer vs slit lamp-mounted. The Goldmann applanation tonometer measured intraocular pressure 0.34 mmHg higher than handheld and 0.85 mmHg higher than slit lamp-mounted in session 1, and in session 2 Goldmann applanation tonometer intraocular pressure measurement was the same as with the slit lamp-mounted method but lower than with the handheld method by 0.11 mmHg. In PT100 handheld vs slit lamp-mounted comparisons, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05 between intraocular pressure measurements returned

  12. Effect of pegaptanib sodium 0.3 mg intravitreal injections (Macugen) in intraocular pressure

    Boyer, David S; Goldbaum, Mauro; Leys, Anita M; Starita, Carla; Larsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the rate of pegaptanib-associated sustained intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation. METHODS: A posthoc analysis was conducted on all IOP measurements, except the immediate 30-min postinjection, from all subjects randomised to pegaptanib 0.3 mg or sham injections continuously in...... medication added during the course of the study. No subject required glaucoma surgery. CONCLUSIONS: In V.I.S.I.O.N., after 2 years, there was no evidence of sustained IOP elevation associated with pegaptanib 0.3 mg use. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00321997....

  13. Influence of various anesthetic drugs on the intraocular pressure of cats.

    Hahnenberger, R W

    1976-04-14

    Cats with one normal eye and one eye with experimental glaucoma were trained to tolerate tonometry while conscious. They were then given the general anesthetic agents pentobarbital, ketamine, and CI-744 in the lowest and twice the lowest dosages which permitted tonometry in untrained cats. Pentobarbital lowered intraocular pressure (IOP) by 20-50%. Ketamine raised IOP by about 10%. CI-744 had essentially no effect on IOP. The two conpoments of CI-744, tiletamine (CI-634) and zolazepam (CI-716) were given individually in the doses in which they had been given as part of CI-744. Tiletamine had no effect on IOP, while zolazepam lowered IOP by about 10%. PMID:1083696

  14. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of NO-donor containing carbonic anhydrase inhibitors to lower intraocular pressure.

    Huang, Qinhua; Rui, Eugene Y; Cobbs, Morena; Dinh, Dac M; Gukasyan, Hovhannes J; Lafontaine, Jennifer A; Mehta, Saurabh; Patterson, Brian D; Rewolinski, David A; Richardson, Paul F; Edwards, Martin P

    2015-03-26

    The antiglaucoma drugs dorzolamide (1) and brinzolamide (2) lower intraocular pressure (IOP) by inhibiting the carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme to reduce aqueous humor production. The introduction of a nitric oxide (NO) donor into the alkyl side chain of dorzolamide (1) and brinzolamide (2) has led to the discovery of NO-dorzolamide 3a and NO-brinzolamide 4a, which could lower IOP through two mechanisms: CA inhibition to decrease aqueous humor secretion (reduce inflow) and NO release to increase aqueous humor drainage (increase outflow). Compounds 3a and 4a have shown improved efficacy of lowering IOP in both rabbits and monkeys compared to brinzolamide (2). PMID:25728019

  15. Modelado computacional del globo ocular ante cargas de presión intraocular Computational modeling of the ocular globe before intraocular pressure loads

    Diego Alexander Garzón-Alvarado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Para el estudio de algunas patologías del ojo (miopía asociada a un crecimiento axial, se desarrolló una investigación que pretende establecer un modelo del comportamiento mecánico del ojo. En el presente trabajo se realiza un estudio del material escleral, para determinar su comportamiento, y con estos datos se realiza el modelo del globo ocular por elementos finitos para obtener el estado de esfuerzos y deformaciones presentes en este cuando se somete a un incremento en la presión intraocular. Para esto se analiza el ojo mediante el modelo Mooney Rivlin para cinco constantes que presenta el denominado ANSYS. Los resultados muestran cómo las restricciones mecánicas y la alta presión intraocular pueden generar abultamientos cercanos a la inserción muscular denominados estafilomas, lo cual concuerda con lo observado clínicamenteA research that intends to establish a model of the mechanical behavior of the eye was developed for studying some eye diseases (myopia associated with an axial growth. A study of the scleral material was conducted to determine its behavior and with these data the model of the ocular globe was created by using finite elements to obtain the state of strain and deformation present in it when it is subjected to an increase of the intraocular pressure. To this end, the eye was analyzed using the Mooney Rivlin model for five constants presented by the so-called ANSYS. The results showed how the mechanical restrictions and the high intraocular pressure may generate outpouchings closed to the muscular insertion denominated staphylomas, which agreed with what was clinically observed

  16. Effects of Cataract Surgery on Intraocular Pressure in Patients with and without Glaucoma

    Tülin İsmi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the effects of phacoemulsification surgery with primary intraocular lens (IOL implantation on intraocular pressure (IOP in various types of glaucoma patients with visually significant cataract and to compare these results with cataract patients without glaucoma. Ma te ri al and Met hod: This retrospective study included consecutive cases of 21 primary open-angle glaucoma patients, 13 primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG patients, 11 pseudoexfoliation glaucoma patients, and 21 control eyes without any type of glaucoma; all patients had co-existing cataract. Visual acuities, IOP, number of glaucoma medications used, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and gonioscopic evaluations were noted both pre- and postoperatively. Phacoemulsification and IOL implantations were performed via clear corneal incisions in the whole study group. Study group was followed-up for six months. Re sults: Postoperative visits at the 1st, 3rd, and 6th months were noted. After surgery, visual acuities improved significantly (p=0.001 in all groups. Intraocular pressures decreased in all groups postoperatively, but the change was statistically significant in the PACG group (p=0.013. Increase in ACD was significant in PACG group (p=0.001. Widening of iridocorneal angle and decrease in the number of antiglaucoma drugs were observed in all groups, but these were significant in the PACG group (p=0.001 and p<0.05, respectively. Dis cus si on: In glaucoma patients with co-existing cataract, phacoemulsification surgery allows both the visual rehabilitation and IOP control. This IOP lowering effect is seen most markedly in the PACG group. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 167-72

  17. The Effect of a Diving Mask on Intraocular Pressure in a Healthy Population

    Catherina Josephine Goenadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Swimming goggles increase the intraocular pressure (IOP via the periorbital frame pressure and suction effect. In comparison, diving masks have a larger frame rim and incorporate the nose. The exact effect(s of diving masks on IOP is unknown. This study evaluates the influence of diving masks on IOP in normal, healthy subjects. Methods: Tonometry was performed in both eyes of all subjects with an AVIA®Tono-Pen by a single investigator. Measurements were taken at baseline without the diving mask and with the subjects wearing a small-volume, double-window diving mask, but with the mask lenses removed. Two IOP readings in each eye were measured, and an additional reading was measured if the difference between the initial 2 was ≥2 mm Hg. Central corneal thickness (CCT was also measured in each eye, using a contact pachymeter (OcuScan®Alcon. Results: Forty eyes of 20 healthy volunteers (age 29.7 ± 9.3 years; range 21–52 were included. The mean CCT was 544.4 ± 43.5 µm. The mean IOP before the diving mask was worn had been 17.23 ± 2.18 mm Hg (n = 40. The IOP decreased by 0.43 mm Hg (p < 0.05 to 16.80 ± 2.57 mm Hg after the diving mask had been put on. There was no correlation between IOP change and age (r = 0.143, p = 0.337, gender (r = –0.174, p = 0.283 or CCT (r = –0.123, p = 0.445. Conclusion: There was no increase in IOP after the diving mask had been worn. A small but statistically significant decrease in IOP was observed. This study demonstrates that unlike swimming goggles, the strap tension and frame pressure on the periorbital tissue from a diving mask does not increase IOP. Diving masks may be a suitable alternative to swimming goggles for patients with advanced glaucoma or glaucoma filtration surgery.

  18. The Effect of a Diving Mask on Intraocular Pressure in a Healthy Population

    Goenadi, Catherina Josephine; Law, David Zhiwei; Lee, Jia Wen; Ong, Ee Lin; Chee, Wai Kitt; Cheng, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Swimming goggles increase the intraocular pressure (IOP) via the periorbital frame pressure and suction effect. In comparison, diving masks have a larger frame rim and incorporate the nose. The exact effect(s) of diving masks on IOP is unknown. This study evaluates the influence of diving masks on IOP in normal, healthy subjects. Methods Tonometry was performed in both eyes of all subjects with an AVIA®Tono-Pen by a single investigator. Measurements were taken at baseline without the diving mask and with the subjects wearing a small-volume, double-window diving mask, but with the mask lenses removed. Two IOP readings in each eye were measured, and an additional reading was measured if the difference between the initial 2 was ≥2 mm Hg. Central corneal thickness (CCT) was also measured in each eye, using a contact pachymeter (OcuScan®Alcon). Results Forty eyes of 20 healthy volunteers (age 29.7 ± 9.3 years; range 21–52) were included. The mean CCT was 544.4 ± 43.5 µm. The mean IOP before the diving mask was worn had been 17.23 ± 2.18 mm Hg (n = 40). The IOP decreased by 0.43 mm Hg (p $1003c; 0.05) to 16.80 ± 2.57 mm Hg after the diving mask had been put on. There was no correlation between IOP change and age (r = 0.143, p = 0.337), gender (r = −0.174, p = 0.283) or CCT (r = −0.123, p = 0.445). Conclusion There was no increase in IOP after the diving mask had been worn. A small but statistically significant decrease in IOP was observed. This study demonstrates that unlike swimming goggles, the strap tension and frame pressure on the periorbital tissue from a diving mask does not increase IOP. Diving masks may be a suitable alternative to swimming goggles for patients with advanced glaucoma or glaucoma filtration surgery. PMID:27462262

  19. Abnormal increase of intraocular pressure in fellow eye after severe ocular trauma

    Vaajanen, Anu; Tuulonen, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: An ocular injury can lead to secondary glaucoma in the traumatized eye in 3% to 20% of cases. Literature on the risk of developing elevated intraocular pressure in the nontraumatized fellow eye is scant. Clinicians treating ocular traumas should also bear in mind sympathetic ophthalmia, a rare bilateral granulomatous panuveitis following accidental or surgical trauma to 1 eye. Case report: We report a case of high-pressure glaucoma of the fellow eye without any signs of uveitis. The left eye of a 24-year-old man was injured in an inadvertent movement during a free-time table-tennis match. The eye was severely crushed, leading to blindness. His right eye developed medically uncontrolled high-pressure glaucoma only 1 month after the injury. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports of post-traumatic glaucoma in the nontraumatized eye after open-globe injury. PMID:27495058

  20. Comparison of intraocular pressure measurements with the portable PT100 noncontact tonometer and Goldmann applanation tonometry

    Sarwat Salim

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sarwat Salim, Daniel J Linn, James R Echols II, Peter A NetlandHamilton Eye Institute, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USAPurpose: Noncontact tonometers are useful when regulations preclude use of contact tonometers by medical students and other nonophthalmologists. Our study compared the measurements by the portable, noncontact tonometer (PT100 with Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT. Methods: This was a prospective study of 98 eyes from 98 patients. Intraocular pressure (IOP was measured by GAT and the PT100 (Reichert, Buffalo, NY.Results: Mean IOP measurements showed no significant differences in measurements performed by the two tonometers (P = 0.64. Measurements by the two tonometers were in agreement by ≤3 mmHg in 92.8% of eyes. Linear regression analysis of PT100 vs GAT measurements revealed a slope of 0.98 with r2 = 0.58. Bland–Altman analysis showed a mean difference of measurements by GAT and PT100 of -0.3 mmHg with two standard deviation = 7.1 mmHg.Conclusion: The portable noncontact PT100 tonometer provides IOP measurements comparable to GAT within the normal range of IOP. Keywords: applanation tonometer, intraocular pressure, noncontact tonometry

  1. Intraocular pressure determination in clinically normal red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria).

    Selmi, André L; Mendes, Guilherme M; McManus, Concepta; Arrais, Patrícia

    2002-03-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) reflects a balance between aqueous humor production and outflow and is often an essential ophthalmic diagnostic procedure in animals. The objective of this study was to estimate IOP in clinically normal red-footed tortoises (Geochelone carbonaria) of various sizes by using applanation tonometry. Intraocular pressures were estimated for 25 captive red-footed tortoises (10 males, 10 females, and 5 animals of unknown sex) by using an applanation tonometer after topical anesthesia. Body length ranged from 5.1 to 54.9 cm, measured from nuchal to anal scutes. Five measurements from each eye were obtained by a single observer in an ambient temperature of approximately 30 degrees C. Observer's reliability was good (intraclass r = 0.75), and IOP did not change over the ordered sequence of five replicate measurements. For individual tortoises the correlation for IOP between the left and right eyes was low (r = 0.20). The paired t-test did not show any statistical effect (P = 0.426) for the difference in IOP between the left and right eyes. Mean IOP determined for 10 confirmed males and 10 confirmed females did not differ between sexes (P = 0.244). The mean IOP of five small tortoises ( 10 cm long). In red-footed tortoises there does not appear to be any relation between carapace length and IOP. PMID:12216794

  2. Tafluprost once daily for treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma

    Liu Y

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yang Liu, Weiming MaoDepartment of Cell Biology and Anatomy, North Texas Eye Research Institute, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TXAbstract: Glaucoma is a leading cause of visual loss worldwide. Current antiglaucoma therapy focuses on lowering intraocular pressure to a safe level. In recent years, prostaglandin analogs have become the first-line agents for treating open angle glaucoma. Tafluprost, which was first reported in 2003, is a novel prostaglandin analog, and has been shown to be a potent ocular hypotensive agent in a number of preclinical and clinical studies. Also, its unique preservative-free formulation helps to decrease preservative-associated ocular disorders and improve patient compliance. In this review, studies from 2003 to 2012 focusing on the structure, metabolism, efficacy, and safety of tafluprost are summarized. These studies suggested that application of tafluprost once daily is a safe and effective treatment for patients with open angle glaucoma.Keywords: tafluprost, prostaglandin analog, glaucoma, intraocular pressure, preservative-free formulation

  3. The heritability of glaucoma-related traits corneal hysteresis, central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, and choroidal blood flow pulsatility.

    Ellen E Freeman

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to investigate the heritability of potential glaucoma endophenotypes. We estimated for the first time the heritability of the pulsatility of choroidal blood flow. We also sought to confirm the heritability of corneal hysteresis, central corneal thickness, and 3 ways of measuring intraocular pressure. METHODS: Measurements were performed on 96 first-degree relatives recruited from Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital in Montreal. Corneal hysteresis was determined using the Reichert Ocular Response Analyser. Central corneal thickness was measured with an ultrasound pachymeter. Three measures of intraocular pressure were obtained: Goldmann-correlated and corneal compensated intraocular pressure using the Ocular Response Analyser, and Pascal intraocular pressure using the Pascal Dynamic Contour Tonometer. The pulsatility of choroidal blood velocity and flow were measured in the sub-foveolar choroid using single-point laser Doppler flowmetry (Oculix. We estimated heritability using maximum-likelihood variance components methods implemented in the SOLAR software. RESULTS: No significant heritability was detected for the pulsatility of choroidal blood flow or velocity. The Goldman-correlated, corneal compensated, and Pascal measures of intraocular pressure measures were all significantly heritable at 0.94, 0.79, and 0.53 after age and sex adjustment (p = 0.0003, p = 0.0023, p = 0.0239. Central corneal thickness was significantly heritable at 0.68 (p = 0.0078. Corneal hysteresis was highly heritable but the estimate was at the upper boundary of 1.00 preventing us from giving a precise estimate. CONCLUSION: Corneal hysteresis, central corneal thickness, and intraocular pressure are all heritable and may be suitable as glaucoma endophenotypes. The pulsatility of choroidal blood flow and blood velocity were not significantly heritable in this sample.

  4. Genome-wide association study of intraocular pressure identifies the GLCCI1/ICA1 region as a glaucoma susceptibility locus.

    Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES); Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium; Strange, A; Bellenguez, C; Freeman, C.; Pirinen, M.; Su, Z.; Band, G.; Pearson, R; Vukcevic, D.; Rautanen, A; Spencer, CC; Donnelly, P

    2013-01-01

    To discover quantitative trait loci for intraocular pressure, a major risk factor for glaucoma and the only modifiable one, we performed a genome-wide association study on a discovery cohort of 2175 individuals from Sydney, Australia. We found a novel association between intraocular pressure and a common variant at 7p21 near to GLCCI1 and ICA1. The findings in this region were confirmed through two UK replication cohorts totalling 4866 individuals (rs59072263, P(combined) = 1.10 × 10(-8)). A ...

  5. A randomised comparative study of the effect of Airtraq optical laryngoscope vs. Macintosh laryngoscope on intraocular pressure in non-ophthalmic surgery

    Bikramjit Das; Rajiv Kumar Samal; Arup Ghosh; Ratul Kundu

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We compared intraocular pressure changes following laryngoscopy and intubation with conventional Macintosh blade and Airtraq optical laryngoscope. METHODS: Ninety adult patients were randomly assigned to study group or control group. Study group (n = 45) - Airtraq laryngoscope was used for laryngoscopy. Control group (n = 45) - conventional Macintosh laryngoscope was used for laryngoscopy. Preoperative baseline intraocular pressure was measured with Schiotz tonometer. Laryngosc...

  6. Short-term intraocular pressure changes after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in diabetic retinopathy patients

    Farhood QK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Qasim Kadhim Farhood,1 Sinan Mohammad Twfeeq21College of Medicine, Babylon University, Babylon; 2Al-Jumhori teaching hospital, Mosul, IraqBackground: This study examined the changes in short-term intraocular pressure (IOP in a prospective series of patients undergoing intravitreal bevacizumab injection. The aim was to evaluate the frequency and predictive factors related to intraocular pressure (IOP elevation in patients receiving intravitreal bevacizumab.Patients and methods: This study included 52 patients with diabetic retinopathy between 28 to 75 years of age with a mean age of 51 years; 30 (58% were females, and 22 (42% were males. All patients received bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 mL injected intravitreally in a standard fashion between May 2012 to February 2013 in the AL-Jumhoury teaching hospital. IOP was measured at baseline, 5, 10, and 30 minutes after injection using Goldman applanation tonometry.Statistics: Data were analyzed using the SPSS v.12.0 for windows. Basic, demographic, and clinical data were analyzed using means, proportions, and appropriate 95% confidence intervals (CIs.Results: Most patients (85% were diagnosed with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, while 15% presented with diabetic macular edema. The mean IOP values at baseline, 5, 10, and 30 minutes after injection were 14.0 mmHg (95% CI 13.4–14.7, 36.1 mmHg (95% CI 33.5–38.6, 25.7 mmHg (95% CI 23.8–27.5, and 15.5 mmHg (95% CI 12.4–16.51, respectively. Regression analysis showed a trend toward phakic patients having higher IOP at 30 minutes.Conclusion: Intravitreal injection of bevacizumab is safe with respect to short-term IOP changes, as almost all IOP returned to a safe range (<25 mmHg within 30 minutes. Elevated IOP 30 minutes after injection only occurs rarely, so routine prophylactic use of anti-glaucoma medication is not indicated.Keywords: intravitreal injection, bevacizumab, intraocular pressure, Goldmann applanation tonometry

  7. Travoprost with sofZia® preservative system lowered intraocular pressure of Japanese normal tension glaucoma with minimal side effects

    Mizoue, Shiro; Nakano, Tadashi; Fuse, Nobuo; Iwase, Aiko; Matsumoto, Shun; Yoshikawa, Keiji

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the effect of travoprost with sofZia® preservative system for lowering the intraocular pressure (IOP) of Japanese normal tension glaucoma (NTG) patients. Methods In this prospective, multicenter, open-label study, Japanese NTG patients with baseline IOPs

  8. Genome-wide analysis of multi-ancestry cohorts identifies new loci influencing intraocular pressure and susceptibility to glaucoma

    P.G. Hysi (Pirro); C-Y. Cheng (Ching-Yu); H. Springelkamp (Henriët); S. MacGregor (Stuart); J.N.C. Bailey (Jessica N. Cooke); R. Wojciechowski (Robert); V. Vitart (Veronique); A. Nag (Abhishek); A.W. Hewit (Alex); R. Höhn (René); C. Venturini (Cristina); A. Mirshahi (Alireza); W.D. Ramdas (Wishal); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); E.N. Vithana (Eranga); C.C. Khor; A.B. Stefansson (Arni B.); J. Liao (Jie); J.L. Haines (Jonathan); N. Amin (Najaf); Y. Wang (Ying); P.S. Wild (Philipp S.); A.B. Ozel (Ayse B.); J. Li; B.W. Fleck (Brian W.); T. Zeller (Tanja); S.E. Staffieri (Sandra E.); Y.Y. Teo (Yik Ying); G. Cuellar-Partida (Gabriel); X. Luo (Xiaoyan); R.R. Allingham (R Rand); J.E. Richards (Julia); A. Senft (Andrea); L.C. Karssen (Lennart); Y. Zheng (Yingfeng); C. Bellenguez (Céline); L. Xu (Liang); O. Iglesias (Oriol); J.F. Wilson (James F); J.H. Kang (Jae H.); E.M. van Leeuwen (Elisa); V. Jonsson (Vesteinn); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); D.D.G. Despriet (Dominique); S. Ennis (Sarah); S.E. Moroi (Sayoko); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); N.M. Jansonius (Nomdo); S. Yazar (Seyhan); E.S. Tai (Shyong); P. Amouyel (Philippe); J. Kirwan (James); L.M.E. van Koolwijk (Leonieke); M.A. Hauser (Michael); F. Jonasson (Fridbert); P.J. Leo (Paul); S.J. Loomis (Stephanie J.); R. Fogarty (Rhys); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); L.S. Kearns (Lisa S.); K.J. Lackner (Karl); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus); C.L. Simpson (Claire); C.E. Pennell (Craig); B.A. Oostra (Ben); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S-M. Saw (Seang-Mei); A.J. Lotery (Andrew); J.E. Bailey-Wilson (Joan E.); A. Hofman (Albert); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); C. Maubaret (Cécilia); A.F.H. Pfeiffer (Andreas); R.C.W. Wolfs (Roger); H.G. Lemij (Hans); T.L. Young (Terri); L.R. Pasquale (Louis); C. Delcourt (Cécile); T.D. Spector (Timothy); C.C.W. Klaver (Caroline); K.S. Small (Kerrin); K.P. Burdon (Kathryn); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); T.Y. Wong (Tien); A.C. Viswanathan (Ananth); D.A. Mackey (David); J.E. Craig (Jamie); J.L. Wiggs (Janey); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); C.J. Hammond (Christopher); T. Aung (Tin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractElevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is an important risk factor in developing glaucoma, and variability in IOP might herald glaucomatous development or progression. We report the results of a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 18 population cohorts from the International Glau

  9. Respiratory complications associated with ketamine anesthesia for ophthalmic procedures following intraocular pressure measurement in children

    Lei Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We compared respiratory complications (RCs in children who received intramuscular (IM versus intravenous (IV or no ketamine for intraocular pressure (IOP measurement to test our observation that IM ketamine is associated with higher incidence of RCs. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 149 eye examinations under anesthesia with ketamine in 27 patients and 263 non-ketamine examinations under anesthesia in 81 patients using a mixed effects logistic regression model. Results: IM ketamine was strongly associated with increased odds of RCs compared to no ketamine (odds ratio (OR: 20.23, P < 0.0001 and to IV ketamine (OR: 6.78, P = 0.02, as were higher American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA classification (OR: 2.60, P = 0.04, and the use of volatile agents (OR: 3.32, P = 0.02. Conclusion: Further studies should be conducted to confirm our observation of increased RCs with IM ketamine.

  10. The Management of a Patient with Elevated Intraocular Pressure Resistant to Medical Treatment: Anterior Chamber Irrigation

    Abdullah Beyoğlu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year-old male patient was medically treated in another center for hyphema which occurred after blunt trauma to his right eye. He was admitted to our clinic when his visual acuity decreased after being discharged. Biomicroscopic examination revealed total hyphema. Intraocular pressure (IOP was 48 mm Hg in the right eye with Goldmann applanation tonometry. Since IOP could not be managed by medical therapy and there was no regression in hyphema, anterior chamber was irrigated. As in our case, it should not be forgotten that re-hemorrhage may occur in the first week of hyphema during childhood. Moreover, surgical treatment should be considered when hemorrhage does not regress with medical treatment, increased IOP persists, and when there is a risk of corneal endothelial staining (corneal blood staining. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 400-2

  11. Corneal biomechanical changes and intraocular pressure in patients with thyroid orbitopathy

    Pniakowska, Zofia; Klysik, Anna; Gos, Roman; Jurowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the relevance of the objective parameters addressing the altered biomechanical properties of cornea for glaucoma monitoring in patients with mild or moderate thyroid associated orbitopathy (TAO), and in healthy individuals. METHODS Twenty-five patients with TAO (group 1) and 25 healthy adults (group 2) were included to the study. Both groups were of a similar age and the ratio women:man. For each patient, the following parameters of both eyes were measured with ocular response analyzer (ORA): corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), Goldmann correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg) and corneal compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc). In both groups participating in our study, all measurements were performed within minutes to reduce the diurnal effects. RESULTS The mean age in group 1 was 56±11y and 76% were women, 24% were men. The mean age in group 2 was 64±11y and 68% were women, 32% were men. CH correlated negatively with IOPg in group 1 (r2=0.10, P0.05) and also no significant correlation in group 2 (r2=0.04, P>0.05). CRF mean value in group 2 (11.51±1.72 mm Hg) was higher than in group 1 (10.85±1.45 mm Hg) (P<0.05). IOPg strongly correlated with IOPcc in both groups (group 1: r2=0.79, P<0.0001; group 2: r2=0.85, P<0.0001). There was also strong correlation between CRF and CH in both populations: group 1: (r2=0.58, P<0.0001), group 2: (r2=0.41, P<0.0001). CONCLUSION Biomechanical parameters of cornea, as quantified by CH and CRF, and measured together with IOPcc, precisely reveal glaucoma staging in TAO and thus are reliable for diagnosing and follow-up in clinical practice.

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Association between Adiposity Markers and Intraocular Pressure: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Di Zhao

    Full Text Available Intraocular pressure (IOP reduction or stabilization is the only proven method for glaucoma management. Identifying risk factors for IOP is crucial to understand the pathophysiology of glaucoma.To examine the associations of change in body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, and percent fat mass with change in intraocular pressure (IOP in a large sample of Korean adults.Cohort study of 274,064 young and middle age Korean adults with normal fundoscopic findings who attended annual or biennial health exams from January 1, 2002 to Feb 28, 2010 (577,981 screening visits.BMI, waist circumference, and percent fat mass.At each visit, IOP was measured in both eyes with automated noncontact tonometers.In multivariable-adjusted models, the average increase in IOP (95% confidence intervals over time per interquartile increase in BMI (1.26 kg/m2, waist circumference (6.20 cm, and percent fat mass (3.40% were 0.18 mmHg (0.17 to 0.19, 0.27 mmHg (0.26 to 0.29, and 0.10 mmHg (0.09 to 0.11, respectively (all P < 0.001. The association was stronger in men compared to women (P < 0.001 and it was only slightly attenuated after including diabetes and hypertension as potential mediators in the model.Increases in adiposity were significantly associated with an increase in IOP in a large cohort of Korean adults attending health screening visits, an association that was stronger for central obesity. Further research is needed to understand better the underlying mechanisms of this association, and to establish the role of weight gain in increasing IOP and the risk of glaucoma and its complications.

  13. Ocular health assessment, tear production, and intraocular pressure in the Andros Island iguana (Cyclura cychlura cychlura).

    Wojick, Kimberlee B; Naples, Lisa M; Knapp, Charles R

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ocular health of a wild population of Andros Island iguanas (Cyclura cychlura cychlura) and determine reference values for tear production and intraocular pressure (IOP) for this species. Fifty-two iguanas, 20 males and 32 females, ranging in size from 11.1- to 51.0-cm snout-to-vent length (SVL), were included in the sample set, with measurements obtained from each eye. No abnormalities were found on ophthalmic examination, with the exception of mild, focal chemosis in one individual and periocular ticks in 52% of iguanas. Tear production was measured using the phenol red thread test, and IOP was measured using the TonoVet rebound tonometer set on the P (undefined species) setting. No significant difference was found between males and females for either measurement. No significant difference was found between right and left eyes for intraocular pressure; however, a significant difference was found between eyes for tear production values. The mean (+/- SD) of IOP in the left and right eyes were 4.77 +/- 1.88 mm Hg and 5.12 +/- 2.52 mm Hg, respectively, with a range of 1-11 mm Hg. The mean (+/- SD) of tear production in the left and right eyes were 10.63 +/- 6.89 mm/15 sec (range 1-28 mm/15 sec) and 12.44 +/- 7.52 mm/15 sec (range 1-23 mm/15 sec), respectively. A positive correlation was found between SVL and all ocular parameters measured. This study provides an assessment of ocular health, as well as baseline values for IOP and tear production, in the Andros Island iguana. PMID:23505711

  14. Brinzolamide nanocrystal formulations for ophthalmic delivery: reduction of elevated intraocular pressure in vivo.

    Tuomela, Annika; Liu, Peng; Puranen, Jooseppi; Rönkkö, Seppo; Laaksonen, Timo; Kalesnykas, Giedrius; Oksala, Olli; Ilkka, Jukka; Laru, Johanna; Järvinen, Kristiina; Hirvonen, Jouni; Peltonen, Leena

    2014-06-01

    Nanocrystal-based drug delivery systems provide important tools for ocular formulation development, especially when considering poorly soluble drugs. The objective of the study was to formulate ophthalmic, intraocular pressure (IOP) reducing, nanocrystal suspensions from a poorly soluble drug, brinzolamide (BRA), using a rapid wet milling technique, and to investigate their IOP reducing effect in vivo. Different stabilizers for the nanocrystals were screened (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), poloxamer F127 and F68, polysorbate 80) and HPMC was found to be the only successful stabilizer. In order to investigate both the effect of an added absorption enhancer (polysorbate 80) and the impact of the free drug in the nanocrystal suspension, formulations in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at pH 7.4 and pH 4.5 were prepared. Particle size, polydispersity (PI), solid state (DSC), morphology (SEM) as well as dissolution behavior and the uniformity of the formulations were characterized. There was rapid dissolution of BRA (in PBS pH 7.4) from all the nanocrystal formulations; after 1 min 100% of the drug was fully dissolved. The effect was significantly pronounced at pH 4.5, where the dissolved fraction of drug was the highest. The cytotoxicity of nanocrystal formulations to human corneal epithelial cell (HCE-T) viability was tested. The effects of the nanocrystal formulations and the commercial product on the cell viability were comparable. The intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering effect was investigated in vivo using a modern rat ocular hypertensive model and elevated IOP reduction was seen in vivo with all the formulations. Notably, the reduction achieved in experimentally elevated IOP was comparable to that obtained with a marketed product. In conclusion, various BRA nanocrystal formulations, which all showed advantageous dissolution and absorption behavior, were successfully formulated. PMID:24680962

  15. Effect of intravenous metoclopramide on intraocular pressure: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    Sudheera K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevention of rise in intraocular pressure (IOP is essential in patients undergoing surgery for perforated eye injuries. Metoclopramide, a prokinetic agent, is commonly used to hasten gastric emptying in emergency surgeries. Aim: To study the change in IOP after intravenous metoclopramide and to study the influence of metoclopramide on change in IOP after succinylcholine and tracheal intubation. Settings and Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 60 patients undergoing non-ophthalmic elective surgery. Materials and Methods: Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA I adult patients were randomly assigned to receive normal saline (Group C or metoclopramide 10 mg (Group M 30 min before the induction of anesthesia. Thiopentone was used for induction and succinylcholine for tracheal intubation. Intraocular pressure was measured in both the eyes pre and post drug treatment and succinylcholine and tracheal intubation using Perkins applanation tonometer. Statistical Analysis: Student′s t-test and repeated measures ANOVA were used. A P value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Intraocular pressure was consistently lower in Group M than in Group C after the test drug, though the difference was not statistically significant. Intraocular pressure decreased significantly after administration of thiopentone and increased significantly in Groups C and M after tracheal intubation ( P < 0.01. Intraocular pressure was comparable between the groups at all the times. Conclusions: Metoclopramide does not cause a clinically significant change in IOP nor does it influence the changes in IOP during anesthesia and tracheal intubation. Metoclopramide shows a trend towards decrease in IOP, though clinically insignificant. Therefore metoclopramide can be used to promote gastric emptying in patients with perforated eye injury.

  16. Development of a wireless intra-ocular pressure monitoring system for incorporation into a therapeutic glaucoma drainage implant

    Kakaday, Tarun; Plunkett, Malcolm; McInnes, Steven; Li, Jim S. Jimmy; Voelcker, Nicolas H.; Craig, Jamie E.

    2008-12-01

    Glaucoma is a common cause of blindness. Wireless, continuous monitoring of intraocular pressure (IOP) is an important, unsolved goal in managing glaucoma. An IOP monitoring system incorporated into a glaucoma drainage implant (GDI) overcomes the design complexity associated with incorporating a similar system in a more confined space within the eye. The device consists of a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based capacitive pressure sensor integrated with an inductor printed directly onto a polyimide printed circuit board (PCB). The device is designed to be incorporated onto the external plate of a therapeutic GDI. The resonance frequency changes as a function of IOP, and is tracked remotely using a spectrum analyzer. A theoretical model for the reader antenna was developed to enable maximal inductive coupling with the IOP sensor implant. Pressure chamber tests indicate that the sensor implant has adequate sensitivity in the IOP range with excellent reproducibility over time. Additionally, we show that sensor sensitivity does not change significantly after encapsulation with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to protect the device from fluid environment. In vitro experiments showed that the signal measured wirelessly through sheep corneal and scleral tissue was adequate indicating potential for using the system in human subjects.

  17. Acute Changes in Central Corneal Thickness According to Experimental Adjustment of Intraocular Pressure in Normal Canine Eyes

    Park, Young-Woo; JEONG, Man-Bok; Lee, Eui Ri; Lee, Yesran; Ahn, Jae-Sang; Kim, Soo-Hyun; SEO, Kangmoon

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Central corneal thickness (CCT) can be a promising source of glaucoma monitoring and diagnosis. This study evaluated changes in CCT according to experimental adjustment of intraocular pressure (IOP) in canine eyes. To adjust and measure IOP, each eye was cannulated with two 26-gauge needles under inhalant anesthesia. One needle was connected to a pressure transducer, and the other was connected to an adjustable bag of physiologic saline. IOP was stepwise increased from 10 mmHg to 70 ...

  18. A wireless intraocular pressure monitoring device with a solder-filled microchannel antenna

    This paper presents the prototype of an intraocular pressure sensor as a major step toward building a device that can be permanently implanted during cataract surgery. The implantation will proceed through an incision of 2–3 mm using an injector, during which the complete device must be folded into a cross-section of 2 mm × 1 mm. The device uses radio frequency (RF) for wireless power and data transfer. The prototype includes an antenna, an RF chip and a pressure sensor assembled on a printed circuit board with several circuit components used for testing and calibration. The antenna is fabricated and integrated with the circuit using a fabrication method employing solder-filled microchannels embedded in an elastomer. The monitoring device is powered at 2.716 GHz from a distance of 1–2 cm. The prototype has undergone electrical and mechanical tests for antenna and sensor performance. The flexible antenna can withstand a stress of 33.4 kPa without any electrical disconnection. It did not show a significant increase in electrical resistance after 50 bending cycles with a maximum applied stress of 116 kPa. Transmitted pressure data shows an averaged sensitivity of 16.66 Hz (mm-Hg)–1. (paper)

  19. Selectively bonded polymeric glaucoma drainage device for reliable regulation of intraocular pressure.

    Moon, Seunghwan; Im, Seongmin; An, Jaeyong; Park, Chang Ju; Kim, Hwang Gyun; Park, Sang Woo; Kim, Hyoung Ihl; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2012-04-01

    A novel glaucoma drainage device (GDD) using a polymeric micro check valve with no reverse flow is presented for the effective regulation of intraocular pressure (IOP). A significant functional improvement was achieved by reducing the possible incidence of hypotony, as the proposed GDD only drains aqueous humor at a certain cracking pressure or higher. The device consists of three biocompatible polymer layers: a top layer (cover), an intermediate layer (membrane), and a bottom layer (base plate with a cannula). All three layers, made of soft polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), were bonded together to realize the thin GDDs. The bottom layer was selectively coated with chromium (Cr)/gold (Au) to prevent stiction between the valve seat and the valve orifice so that the device could show enhanced reliability in operation and high yield in production. Two types of polymeric devices were fabricated; one was a glaucoma drainage device for humans (GDDH) and the other was a glaucoma drainage device for animals (GDDA). From subsequent in vitro tests, the cracking pressures were 18.33 ± 0.66 mmHg (mean ± standard deviation) for GDDH and 12.42 mmHg for GDDA, both of which were very close to the corresponding normal IOPs. From in vivo tests of GDDA, the IOP of all implanted devices was properly regulated within the target pressure (10-15 mmHg). The experimental results showed that the proposed polymeric GDD has high potential for use in the treatment of glaucoma disease in terms of its repeatability of the cracking pressure and patients' relief from post-operative discomfort. PMID:22094823

  20. Metabolic syndrome: a risk factor for high intraocular pressure in the Israeli population

    Tamara; Wygnanski-Jaffe; Itzhak; Bieran; Dorit; Tekes-Manova; Yair; Morad; Isaac; Ashkenazi; Eedy; Mezer

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association among elevated intraocular pressure(IOP), the metabolic syndrome(Met S), body mass index(BMI), and some of their components in the Israeli population.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of12 747 soldiers of the Israeli Defense Forces, aged 35 y or older, who underwent a routine periodical medical examination between 1991 and 2004. None of the subjects received medical treatment for either glaucoma or ocular hypertension. High IOP(>21 mm Hg) was correlated with age, sex, arterial blood pressure, total blood cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, BMI and Met S.RESULTS: A statistically significant difference was found between the IOP of subjects with a low risk and higher risk for the development of Met S(P <0.0001 for males, P =0.0026 for females). A statistically significant positive correlation was found in male subjects between high BMI and elevated IOP(r =0.11677, P <0.0001).CONCLUSION: Met S and BMI were significantly more prevalent in subjects with increased IOP levels. We suggest that both should be taken into consideration in the assessment of glaucoma suspects.

  1. A Miniature-Implantable RF-Wireless Active Glaucoma Intraocular Pressure Monitor.

    Chow, Eric Y; Chlebowski, Arthur L; Irazoqui, Pedro P

    2010-12-01

    Glaucoma is a detrimental disease that causes blindness in millions of people worldwide. There are numerous treatments to slow the condition but none are totally effective and all have significant side effects. Currently, a continuous monitoring device is not available, but its development may open up new avenues for treatment. This work focuses on the design and fabrication of an active glaucoma intraocular pressure (IOP) monitor that is fully wireless and implantable. Major benefits of an active IOP monitoring device include the potential to operate independently from an external device for extended periods of time and the possibility of developing a closed-loop monitoring and treatment system. The fully wireless operation is based off using gigahertz-frequency electromagnetic wave propagation, which allows for an orientation independent transfer of power and data over reasonable distances. Our system is comprised of a micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) pressure sensor, a capacitive power storage array, an application-specific integrated circuit designed on the Texas Instruments (TI) 130 nm process, and a monopole antenna all assembled into a biocompatible liquid-crystal polymer-based tadpole-shaped package. PMID:23850751

  2. Estimated Trans-Lamina Cribrosa Pressure Differences in Low-Teen and High-Teen Intraocular Pressure Normal Tension Glaucoma: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Si Hyung Lee; Seung Woo Kwak; Eun Min Kang; Gyu Ah Kim; Sang Yeop Lee; Hyoung Won Bae; Gong Je Seong; Chan Yun Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the association between estimated trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD) and prevalence of normal tension glaucoma (NTG) with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure (IOP) using a population-based study design. Methods A total of 12,743 adults (≥ 40 years of age) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2009 to 2012 were included. Using a previously developed formula, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (C...

  3. Pattern of intraocular pressure reduction following laser trabeculoplasty in open-angle glaucoma patients: comparison between selective and nonselective treatment

    Almeida Jr ED

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Eglailson Dantas Almeida Júnior1, Luciano Moreira Pinto1,2, Rodrigo Antonio Brant Fernandes1,2, Tiago Santos Prata1,31Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Cerpo Oftalmologia, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Hospital Medicina dos Olhos, São Paulo, BrazilObjective: To compare the pattern of intraocular pressure (IOP reduction following selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT versus argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT in open-angle glaucoma (OAG patients, and to investigate the ability of initial IOP reduction to predict mid-term success.Methods: A prospective, nonrandomized, interventional case series was carried out. Consecutive uncontrolled OAG glaucoma patients underwent SLT or ALT; the same preoperative medical regimen was maintained during follow-up. Data collected included age, type of OAG, pre- and postoperative IOP, number of glaucoma medications, and surgical complications. Post-treatment assessments were scheduled at day 1 and 7 and months 1, 3, and 6.Results: A total of 45 patients (45 eyes were enrolled [SLT group (n = 25; ALT group (n = 20]. Groups were similar for age, baseline IOP, and number of glaucoma medications (P ≥ 0.12. We found no significant differences in mean IOP reduction between SLT (5.1 ± 2.5 mmHg; 26.6% and ALT (4.4 ± 2.8 mmHg; 22.8% groups at month 6 (P = 0.38. Success rates (IOP ≤ 16 mmHg and IOP reduction ≥25% at last follow-up visit were similar for SLT (72% and ALT (65% groups (P = 0.36. Comparing the pattern of IOP reduction (% of IOP reduction at each visit between groups, we found a greater effect following SLT compared with ALT at day 7 (23.7% ± 13.7% vs 8.1% ± 9.5%; P < 0.001. No significant differences were observed at other time points (P ≥ 0.32. Additionally, the percentage of IOP reduction at day 7 and at month 6 were significantly correlated in the SLT group (R2 = 0.36; P < 0.01, but not in the ALT group (P = 0.89. Early postoperative success predicted late

  4. Relationship between progression of visual field defect and intraocular pressure in primary open-angle glaucoma

    Naito T

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomoko Naito,1 Keiji Yoshikawa,2 Shiro Mizoue,3 Mami Nanno,4 Tairo Kimura,5 Hirotaka Suzumura,6 Fumio Shiraga1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama, Japan; 2Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime, Japan; 4Kagurazaka Minamino Eye Clinic, 5Ueno Eye Clinic, 6Suzumura Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: To analyze the relationship between intraocular pressure (IOP and the progression of visual field defects in Japanese primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG and normal-tension glaucoma (NTG patients.Patients and methods: The subjects of the study were patients undergoing treatment for POAG or NTG who had performed visual field tests at least ten times with a Humphrey field analyzer (Swedish interactive thresholding algorithm standard, C30-2 program. The progression of visual field defects was defined by a significantly negative value of the mean deviation slope at the final visual field test during the follow-up period. The relationships between the progression of visual field defects and IOP, as well as other clinical factors, were retrospectively analyzed.Results: A total of 156 eyes of 156 patients were included in the analysis. Significant progression of visual field defects was observed in 70 eyes of 70 patients (44.9%, while no significant progression was evident in 86 eyes of 86 patients (55.1%. The eyes with visual field defect progression had significantly lower baseline IOP (P<0.05, as well as significantly lower IOP reduction rate (P<0.01. The standard deviation of IOP values during follow-up was significantly greater in the eyes with visual field defect progression than in eyes without (P<0.05.Conclusion: Reducing IOP is thought to be useful for Japanese POAG or NTG patients to suppress the progression of visual field defects. In NTG, IOP management should take into account not only achieving the target IOP, but also

  5. Central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure in the Cameroonian nonglaucomatous population

    André Omgbwa Eballe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available André Omgbwa Eballe1, Godefroy Koki2, Augustin Ellong2, Didier Owono2, Emilienne Epée2, Lucienne Assumpta Bella2, Côme Ebana Mvogo1, Jeanne Mayouego Kouam21Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceuticals Sciences, University of Douala; 2Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé, CameroonAim: We performed a prospective, analytical study from 01 January to 31 March 2009 in the Ophthalmology Unit of the Gyneco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital of Yaounde, aiming to determine the profile of central corneal thickness (CCT in the Cameroonian nonglaucomatous black population and its relationship with intraocular pressure (IOP.Results and discussion: Four hundred and eighty-five patients (970 eyes meeting our ­inclusion criteria were selected for this study. The average CCT was 529.29 ± 35.9 µm in the right eye (95% confidence interval [CI]: 526.09–532.49, 528.19 ± 35.9 µm in the left eye (95% CI: 524.99–531.40 and 528.74 ± 35.89 µm in both eyes (95% CI: 526.48–531.00, range 440 to 670 µm. The average IOP was 13.01 ± 2.97 mmHg in both eyes (95% CI: 12.82–13.19. A rise in CCT by 100 µm was followed by an increase in IOP of about 2.8 mmHg (95% CI: 2.3–3.6 for both eyes taken together. Linear regression analysis showed that corneal thickness was negatively correlated with age and IOP was positively related with age.Conclusion: CCT in the Cameroonian nonglaucomatous black population was found to be lower compared with CCT values in Caucasian and Asian populations. On the basis of reference values ranging between 527 and 560 µm, an adjustment of IOP values by a correction factor is required for many Cameroonian patients. This will improve the diagnosis and follow-up of glaucoma by helping to detect true ocular hypertension.Keywords: central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, Cameroon

  6. Diclofenac prevents temporal increase of intraocular pressure after uneventful cataract surgery with longer operation time

    Kohji Nishida

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Masahiko Shimura1, Toru Nakazawa2, Kanako Yasuda1, Takashi Shiono3, Kohji Nishida21Department of Ophthalmology, NTT East Japan Tohoku Hospital, Sendai, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Shiono Eye Center, Sendai, JapanPurpose: This study compares the effect of topical diclofenac with that of betamethasone against postoperative increase of intraocular pressure (IOP after cataract surgery in normal patients, and also investigated the risk factors for postoperative increase of IOP in each group.Methods: Fifty consecutive patients without systemic disease who have bilateral and symmetrical cataracts underwent uncomplicated cataract surgery in both eyes (100 eyes in total. Postoperatively, topical diclofenac was applied 4 times daily to one eye, and topical betamethasone to the other eye in each patient. IOP and best corrected logMAR visual acuity (BCVA in each eye were measured up to 8 weeks. Total surgery time and effective phacoemulsification time (EPT for each case was recorded.Results: BCVA in both diclofenac- and betamethasone-treated eyes significantly improved after the cataract surgery; however, no statistical difference in VA was noted between the diclofenac- and betamethasone-treated eyes throughout the observation period. IOP in the diclofenac-treated eyes decreased with time, in contrast to the IOP in the betamethasone-treated eyes, which showed a slight increase. At 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, there was significant difference between these two eye groups. Multiple regression analysis revealed that postoperative increase in IOP at 8 weeks in the betamethasone-treated eyes was closely correlated with total surgery time and EPT, but the IOP in the diclofenac-treated eyes showed no correlation with any surgical or clinical parameters.Conclusions: Postoperative increase in IOP after cataract surgery was affected by total

  7. A Comparative and Interrelationship Study between Blood Pressure and Intraocular Pressure in Young Healthy Male Adults after Water Ingestion

    Shailaja S. Patil

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral water ingestion increases blood volume, and hence blood pressure (BP which in turn increases intraocular pressure (IOP. The aim of the present study was to know the interrelationship between BP and IOP of both the sides, before and after water ingestion, in young healthy male subjects.Methods: This is a comparative and interrelationship study for which thirty six male subjects aged 17- 20 years were selected. BP of both arms was recorded every 15 minutes and IOP was recorded every 30 minutes for two hours in both control and study trials (before and after water ingestion respectively. Statistical analysis was done using Student’s t test and regression analysis.Results: Water ingestion led to a significant increase in BP and IOP of both eyes. Significant correlation was present between mean arterial pressure (MAP and IOP on right side in both trials. But, there was no correlation between MAP and IOP on left side in both trials.Conclusion: It can be concluded that correlation between BP and IOP, before and after water ingestion is not uniform on both sides, whose cause cannot be clearly explained and therefore, needs further in depth study of the underlying anatomical and physiological processes.

  8. Effects of inner materials on the sensitivity and phase depth of wireless inductive pressure sensors for monitoring intraocular pressure

    Jang, Cheol-In; Shin, Kyeong-Sik; Kim, Mi Jeung; Yun, Kwang-Seok; Park, Ki Ho; Kang, Ji Yoon; Lee, Soo Hyun

    2016-03-01

    In this research, we developed wireless, inductive, pressure sensors with high sensitivity and investigated the effects of the inner materials (copper or ferrite) on the performance of the sensors. The proposed sensor is comprised of two parts, i.e., the top and the bottom parts. The top part includes a micro coil and a capacitor for the wireless transfer of data, and the bottom part includes the inner materials and a thick or thin flexible membrane to induce changes in the inductance. An anchor is used to assemble the top and bottom parts. The behavior of the sensor with copper was based on the eddy current effect, and, as the pressure increased, its resonance frequency increased, while its phase depth decreased exponentially. The principle of the sensor with ferrite was related to the effective permeability between a ferrite and a coil, and its response was the opposite of that with copper, i.e., as the pressure increased, the resonance frequency decreased linearly, and the phase depth increased linearly. These different operational mechanisms can be explained by the changes in the equations of inductance presented in this paper. After characterizing four different types of inductive pressure sensors in ambient air, one type of inductive pressure sensor was used to monitor the intraocular pressure (IOP) of a rabbit's eye as a biomedical application. The results showed that, in the animal tests, the measured responsivity and sensitivity were 16.7 kHz/mmHg and 1340 ppm/mmHg, respectively. These data indicate that the proposed sensor is a good candidate for monitoring IOP.

  9. Mirtogenol® potentiates latanoprost in lowering intraocular pressure and improves ocular blood flow in asymptomatic subjects

    Schonlau, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Robert D Steigerwalt Jr1, Gianni Belcaro1, Paolo Morazzoni2, Ezio Bombardelli2, Carolina Burki3, Frank Schönlau4 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, San Valentino, Italy; 2Indena S.p.A. Scientific Department, Milan, Italy; 3Horphag Research (UK) Ltd., Geneva, Switzerland; 4Horphag Research (UK) Ltd. South Kensington, London UKPurpose: The dietary supplement Mirtogenol® was previously shown to lower elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). We here pre...

  10. Investigation of postoperative intraocular pressure in cases of silicone oil removal using 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy with oblique incisions

    Takashina H; Watanabe A; Tsuneoka H

    2015-01-01

    Hirotsugu Takashina,1,2 Akira Watanabe,2 Hiroshi Tsuneoka2 1Department of Ophthalmology, National Hospital Organization Sagamihara Hospital, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) in cases of silicone oil (SO) removal when using 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy (TSV) with oblique incisions.Methods: ...

  11. Interface Fluid Syndrome Induced by Uncontrolled Intraocular Pressure Without Triggering Factors After LASIK in a Glaucoma Patient

    Shoji, Nobuyuki; Ishida, Akira; Haruki, Takahiro; Matsumura, Kazuhiro; Kasahara, Masayuki; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study sought to describe a glaucoma patient with interface fluid syndrome (IFS) induced by uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP) without triggering factors after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Case report and review of the literature. A 23-year-old man with open-angle glaucoma underwent bilateral LASIK for myopia in 2009. Two years later, the patient reported sudden vision loss. The IOP in the right eye was not measurable using Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT), but ...

  12. Nucleoside-Derived Antagonists to A3 Adenosine Receptors Lower Mouse Intraocular Pressure and Act across Species

    Wang, Zhao; Do, Chi Wai; Avila, Marcel Y.; Peterson-Yantorno, Kim; Stone, Richard A.; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Joshi, Bhalchandra; Besada, Pedro; Jeong, Lak Shin; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Civan, Mortimer M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether novel, selective antagonists of human A3 adenosine receptors (ARs) derived from the A3-selective agonist Cl-IB-MECA lower intraocular pressure (IOP) and act across species. IOP was measured invasively with a micropipette by the Servo-Null Micropipette System (SNMS) and by non-invasive pneumotonometry during topical drug application. Antagonist efficacy was also assayed by measuring inhibition of adenosine-triggered shrinkage of native bovine n...

  13. Study of the Effect of Distance and Misalignment between Magnetically Coupled Coils for Wireless Power Transfer in Intraocular Pressure Measurement

    Adrian E. Rendon-Nava; J. Alejandro Díaz-Méndez; Luis Nino-de-Rivera; Wilfrido Calleja-Arriaga; Felix Gil-Carrasco; Daniela Díaz-Alonso

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of the effect of distance and alignment between two magnetically coupled coils for wireless power transfer in intraocular pressure measurement is presented. For measurement purposes, a system was fabricated consisting of an external device, which is a Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit variation, in charge of transferring energy to a biomedical implant and reading data from it. The biomedical implant is an RLC tank circuit, encapsulated by a polyimide coating. Power transfer was done by ...

  14. The Heritability of Glaucoma-Related Traits Corneal Hysteresis, Central Corneal Thickness, Intraocular Pressure, and Choroidal Blood Flow Pulsatility

    Freeman, Ellen E.; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Descovich, Denise; Massé, Hugues; Mark R. Lesk

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this work was to investigate the heritability of potential glaucoma endophenotypes. We estimated for the first time the heritability of the pulsatility of choroidal blood flow. We also sought to confirm the heritability of corneal hysteresis, central corneal thickness, and 3 ways of measuring intraocular pressure. Methods Measurements were performed on 96 first-degree relatives recruited from Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital in Montreal. Corneal hysteresis was determined u...

  15. 24-hour intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients randomized to receive dorzolamide or brinzolamide in combination with latanoprost

    Oishi, Yoshimi

    2009-01-01

    Yoshimi Nakamura, Shusaku Ishikawa, Yuko Nakamura, Hiroshi Sakai, Ichiko Henzan, Shoichi SawaguchiDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of the Ryukyus Faculty of Medicine, Okinawa, JapanPurpose: To investigate the efficacy of dorzolamide 1% (bid or tid) or brinzolamide 1% bid on 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) control as well as patients’ preference for either drug when added in combination with latanoprost against glaucoma (IOP, ≥18 mmHg).Methods: In this randomized cro...

  16. Safety and tolerability of tafluprost in treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension

    Dorota Pozarowska

    2010-01-01

    Dorota PozarowskaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Medical University, Lublin, PolandAbstract: Glaucoma is one of the most common neuropathies of the optic nerve. An elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a well documented risk factor for the development and progression of this disease. Until now, IOP reduction is the only well documented successful method of glaucoma treatment. Among the many hypotensive drugs, prostaglandin analogs are proved to be the most potent antiglaucoma agents, with very ...

  17. Measurement of treatment compliance using a medical device for glaucoma patients associated with intraocular pressure control: a survey

    Nordmann, Jean-Philippe; BAUDOUIN, Christophe; Renard, Jean-Paul; Denis, Philippe; Lafuma, Antoine; Laurendeau, Caroline; Jeanbat, Viviane; Berdeaux, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To identify and characterize treatment compliance profiles of glaucoma patients and evaluate the association with intraocular pressure (IOP). Methods: A computerized device (Travalert®) that recorded daily instillation times and eye-drop counts was given for 3 months. Patients were declared compliant when at least 2 drops were instilled per day. Compliance rates were calculated for weekdays and weekends, separately, over 8 consecutive weeks. A principal components analysis (PCA) wa...

  18. 24-hour intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients randomized to receive dorzolamide or brinzolamide in combination with latanoprost

    Nakamura, Yoshimi; Ishikawa, Shusaku; Nakamura, Yuko; Sakai, Hiroshi; Henzan, Ichiko; Sawaguchi, Shoichi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of dorzolamide 1% (bid or tid) or brinzolamide 1% bid on 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) control as well as patients’ preference for either drug when added in combination with latanoprost against glaucoma (IOP, ≥18 mmHg). Methods: In this randomized crossover study patients were assigned to receive latanoprost plus either dorzolamide or brinzolamide for four weeks. Thereafter, patients underwent 24-hour IOP monitoring while continuing to receive dorzola...

  19. Intraocular pressure reduction and neuroprotection conferred by bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in an animal model of glaucoma

    Roubeix, Christophe; Godefroy, David; Mias, Céline; Sapienza, Anaïs; Riancho, Luisa; Degardin, Julie; Fradot, Valérie; Ivkovic, Ivana; Picaud, Serge; Sennlaub, Florian; Denoyer, Alexandre; Rostene, William; Sahel, José Alain; Parsadaniantz, Stéphane Melik; Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Glaucoma is a sight-threatening retinal neuropathy associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) due to degeneration and fibrosis of the trabecular meshwork (TM). Glaucoma medications aim to reduce IOP without targeting the specific TM pathology, Bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used today in various clinical studies. Here, we investigated the potential of MSCs therapy in an glaucoma-like ocular hypertension (OHT) model and decipher in vitro the effects of MSCs...

  20. Influence of GlideScope assisted endotracheal intubation on intraocular pressure in ophthalmic patients

    Nauman Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional Macintoch laryngoscopy is known to cause a rise in intraocular pressure (IOP, tachycardia and hypertension. These changes are not desirable in patients with glaucoma and open globe injury. GlideScope is a video laryngoscope that functions independent of the line of sight, reduces upward lifting forces for glottic exposure and requires less cervical neck movement for intubation, making it less stimulating than Macintosh laryngoscopy. Aim: The aim was to assess the variations in IOP and hemodynamic changes after GlideScope assisted intubation. Materials and Methods: After approval of the local Institutional Research and Ethical Board and informed patient consent, 50 adult American Society of Anesthesiologist I and II patients with normal IOP were enrolled in a prospective, randomized study for ophthalmic surgery requiring tracheal intubation. In all patients, trachea was intubated using either GlideScope or Macintoch laryngoscope. IOP of nonoperated eye, heart rate and blood pressure were measured as baseline, 1 min after induction, 1 min and 5 min after tracheal intubation. Results: IOP was not significantly different between groups before and after anesthetic induction and 5 min after tracheal intubation (P = 0.217, 0.726, and 0.110 respectively. The only significant difference in IOP was at 1 min after intubation (P = 0.041. No significant difference noted between groups in mean arterial pressure (P = 0.899, 0.62, 0.47, 0.82 respectively and heart rate (P = 0.21, 0.72, 0.07, 0.29, respectively at all measurements. Conclusion: GlideScope assisted tracheal intubation shown lesser rise in IOP at 1 min after intubation in comparison to Macintoch laryngoscope, suggesting that GlideScope may be preferable to Macintosh laryngoscope.

  1. Distribution of intraocular pressure and its determinants in an Iranian adult population

    Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Shariati, Mohammad; Yekta, Abbasali; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and its determinants in an Iranian population. METHODS In a cross-sectional survey, random cluster sampling was conducted from the 40-64 years old population of Shahroud, in the north of Iran. All participants had optometry and ophthalmic exams. IOP was determined using the Goldmann tonometry method and biometric components were measured. RESULTS Of the 6311 people selected for the study, 5190 (82.2%) participated. The mean age of the participants was 50.9±6.2y and 58.7% of them were female. Mean IOP was 12.87±2.27 mm Hg. In this study 0.3% of the participants had an IOP higher than 21 mm Hg. The multiple linear regression model revealed that sex (Coef=-0.30; 95% CI: -0.43 to -0.17), diabetes (Coef=0.43; 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.67), high systolic blood pressure (Coef=0.02; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.02), high body mass index (BMI) (Coef=0.03; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.04), higher education (Coef=0.02, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.04), thicker central corneal thickness (Coef=0.01; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.02), and myopic shift in spherical equivalent (Coef=-0.14; 95% CI: -0.18 to -0.10) significantly correlated with high IOP. CONCLUSION The IOP in this 40-64 years old population is low overall. In the north of Iran, average IOP is statistically significantly correlated with female sex, diabetes, higher BMI, systolic blood pressure, higher education, thicker cornea, and myopic refractive error. PMID:27588277

  2. The Path to Open-Angle Glaucoma Gene Discovery: Endophenotypic Status of Intraocular Pressure, Cup-to-Disc Ratio, and Central Corneal Thickness

    Charlesworth, Jac; Kramer, Patricia L.; Dyer, Tom; Diego, Victor; Samples, John R.; Craig, Jamie E; Mackey, David A.; Hewitt, Alex W; Blangero, John; Wirtz, Mary K.

    2010-01-01

    The primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) risk factors intraocular pressure, vertical cup-to-disc ratio, and central corneal thickness are shown to be highly heritable in 22 large POAG families from Australia and the Northwest Pacific region of the United States. Furthermore, bivariate genetic analysis reveals that both intraocular pressure and vertical cup-to-disc ratio represent potentially useful endophenotypes for the genetic dissection of POAG risk.

  3. Effects of systemic domestic recombinant human erythropoietin on HIF-1α expression in the retina in a rabbit model of acute high intraocular pressure

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in the retina of rabbits with acute high intraocular pressure and to investigate the mechanism of systemic domestic recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) protecting the retina from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods First,control group and model group were established in rabbit eyes. The acute high intraocular pressure model was established by saline perfusion into anterior chamber,and then hypodermic injection of domestic rhEP...

  4. Application of Cornelian Cherry Iridoid-Polyphenolic Fraction and Loganic Acid to Reduce Intraocular Pressure

    Szumny, Dorota; Sozański, Tomasz; Kucharska, Alicja Z.; Dziewiszek, Wojciech; Piórecki, Narcyz; Magdalan, Jan; Chlebda-Sieragowska, Ewa; Kupczynski, Robert; Szeląg, Adam; Szumny, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common diseases of old age in modern societies is glaucoma. It is strongly connected with increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and could permanently damage vision in the affected eye. As there are only a limited number of chemical compounds that can decrease IOP as well as blood flow in eye vessels, the up-to-date investigation of new molecules is important. The chemical composition of the dried Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) polar, iridoid-polyphenol-rich fraction was investigated. Loganic acid (50%) and pelargonidin-3-galactoside (7%) were found as the main components. Among the other constituents, iridoid compound cornuside and the anthocyans cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, cyanidin 3-O-robinobioside, and pelargonidin 3-O-robinobioside were quantified in the fraction. In an animal model (New Zealand rabbits), the influence of loganic acid and the polyphenolic fraction isolated from Cornelian cherry fruit was investigated. We found a strong IOP-hypotensive effect for a 0.7% solution of loganic acid, which could be compared with the widely ophthalmologically used timolol. About a 25% decrease in IOP was observed within the first 3 hours of use. PMID:26124854

  5. Intraocular pressure and influencing systemic health parameters in a Korean population

    Young Sang Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the relationship between intraocular pressure (IOP and systemic health parameters such as age, gender, body mass index (BMI, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL, and triglyceride (TG in a Korean population. Materials and Methods: A total of 30,893 healthy subjects underwent automated multiphasic tests, including non-contact tonometry, automated perimetry, fundus photography, and blood samplings for total cholesterol, HDL, and TG. Seven age groups were divided by decades ranging from 20 to 29 years to 80 + years. The association between IOP and BMI, plasma lipid profiles was examined using cross-sectional analysis. Results: The mean age of subjects was 47.7 years. The mean IOP of subjects was 15.4 ± 3.2 mmHg for both eyes. The mean IOP of men was significantly higher than women ( P = 0.000. By multiple linear regression analysis, IOP was positively associated with gender (male, BMI, total cholesterol, and TG and negatively associated with age ( P = 0.000. BMI, total cholesterol, and TG had significantly positive correlations with IOP after adjusting for age, gender, and other variables which can influence the IOP ( P = 0.000. Conclusions: In a Korean population, the mean IOP, total cholesterol, TG, and BMI values of men were higher than women. IOP was found to increase with total cholesterol, TG, BMI, and to decrease with only age regardless of sex.

  6. TRPV4 regulates calcium homeostasis, cytoskeletal remodeling, conventional outflow and intraocular pressure in the mammalian eye

    Ryskamp, Daniel A.; Frye, Amber M.; Phuong, Tam T. T.; Yarishkin, Oleg; Jo, Andrew O.; Xu, Yong; Lakk, Monika; Iuso, Anthony; Redmon, Sarah N.; Ambati, Balamurali; Hageman, Gregory; Prestwich, Glenn D.; Torrejon, Karen Y.; Križaj, David

    2016-01-01

    An intractable challenge in glaucoma treatment has been to identify druggable targets within the conventional aqueous humor outflow pathway, which is thought to be regulated/dysregulated by elusive mechanosensitive protein(s). Here, biochemical and functional analyses localized the putative mechanosensitive cation channel TRPV4 to the plasma membrane of primary and immortalized human TM (hTM) cells, and to human and mouse TM tissue. Selective TRPV4 agonists and substrate stretch evoked TRPV4-dependent cation/Ca2+ influx, thickening of F-actin stress fibers and reinforcement of focal adhesion contacts. TRPV4 inhibition enhanced the outflow facility and lowered perfusate pressure in biomimetic TM scaffolds populated with primary hTM cells. Systemic delivery, intraocular injection or topical application of putative TRPV4 antagonist prodrug analogs lowered IOP in glaucomatous mouse eyes and protected retinal neurons from IOP-induced death. Together, these findings indicate that TRPV4 channels function as a critical component of mechanosensitive, Ca2+-signaling machinery within the TM, and that TRPV4-dependent cytoskeletal remodeling regulates TM stiffness and outflow. Thus, TRPV4 is a potential IOP sensor within the conventional outflow pathway and a novel target for treating ocular hypertension. PMID:27510430

  7. The effects of delivery type and gender on intraocular pressure and central corneal thickness in newborns

    Zeynep Gursel Ozkurt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To analyze intraocular pressure (IOP and central corneal thickness (CCT in newborns during the first 12 h of life. Methods: Forty-three newborns born by vaginal delivery (VD and 30 newborns born by cesarean section (CS were evaluated. IOP and CCT were measured using Tono-Pen and handheld pachymeter, respectively, at both the 5th minute after delivery and at the 12th h of life. Results: The mean IOP for the VD group was significantly higher than that of the CS group at both the 5th minute and 12th h (p =0.042 and p =0.018, respectively. In both groups, the IOP decreased by the 12th h, but the decrease was only significant for the CS group (p =0.020. The decrease in CCT over the 12 h was significant for both groups (p <0.001. In the VD and CS groups, the IOP values of the males were significantly higher than those of the females at the fifth minute only (p =0.024 and p =0.043, respectively. No other values were significantly different between the genders. Conclusions: Newborn IOP is affected by the mode of delivery and gender. A higher IOP was found in vaginally delivered newborns than in CS newborns for at least 12 h postpartum. CCT showed a significant decline within 12 h. Male newborns have significantly higher IOP values in the first minutes of life.

  8. The Application of a Contact Lens Sensor in Detecting 24-Hour Intraocular Pressure-Related Patterns

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Recent studies suggest that intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations, peaks, and rhythm are important factors in disease advancement. Yet, current glaucoma management remains hinged on single IOP measurements during clinic hours. To overcome this limitation, 24-hour IOP monitoring devices have been employed and include self-tonometry, permanent IOP, and temporary IOP monitoring. This review discusses each IOP measuring strategy and focuses on the recently FDA-approved contact lens sensor (CLS). The CLS records IOP-related ocular patterns for 24 hours continuously. Using the CLS, IOP-related parameters have been found to be associated with the rate of visual field progression in primary open-angle glaucoma, disease progression in primary angle-closure glaucoma, and various clinical variables in ocular hypertension. The CLS has been used to quantify blink rate and limbal strain and measure the circadian rhythm in a variety of disease states including normal-tension glaucoma and thyroid eye disease. The effects of various IOP-lowering interventions were also characterized using the CLS. CLS provides a unique, safe, and well-tolerated way to study IOP-related patterns in a wide range of disease states. IOP-related patterns may help identify patients most at risk for disease progression and assist with the development of tailored treatments. PMID:27525110

  9. Effect of blade configuration, knife action, and intraocular pressure on keratotomy incision depth and shape.

    Melles, G R; Wijdh, R H; Cost, B; Beekhuis, W H; Binder, P S; van Rij, G; Groot, K

    1993-07-01

    For the same diamond blade extension, uphill (centripetal) radial keratotomy incision direction achieves greater depth and consequently greater refractive effect than downhill (centrifugal) incisions. To determine which factors may account for this difference, two uphill and two downhill incisions were made with a double-edged diamond blade set to 90% central pachometry in 26 human donor eyes at 15 or 60 mm Hg. Uphill incisions made with the perpendicular blade had greater mean incision depth than downhill incisions made with the oblique blade at 15 mm Hg (83.6 +/- 3.9% and 68.2 +/- 5.2%) (p 0.1). The perpendicular blade edge created a straight, and the oblique edge an S- or J-shaped, histological incision configuration. Corneal profile pictures taken during each incision showed the knife to tilt opposite of the incision direction and to move at a constant angle to the limbal plane, producing a smaller optical clear zone (OCZ) in the posterior stroma than intended with uphill incisions. Greater refractive effect with uphill incisions may be explained by the perpendicular blade being more effective in incising corneal lamellae, and the creation of a smaller posterior OCZ. Intraocular pressure variations during surgery may affect achieved incision depth of downhill, but not of uphill, incisions. PMID:8339558

  10. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE AND CLONIDINE AS PREMEDICANT ON INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE AND HAEMODYNAMIC CHANGES IN NON-OPHTHALMIC SURGERIES

    Preeti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation are associated with hypertension, tachycardia, increased circulating catecholamines and increase in intraocular pressure. Aim of this study is to compare the effect of IV Dexmedetomidine and IV Clonidine premedication on the intraocular pressure changes, haemodynamic responses after succinylcholine injection and intubation. METHODS Sixty cases both male and female patients ranging between the age group 18 to 60 years belonging to ASA 1 or ASA 2 grades, undergoing elective non-ophthalmic surgeries under general anaesthesia were studied. All patients were randomized into 3 groups of 20 patients each. Each group consists of 20 patients. Dexmedetomidine Group (Group 1 patients received intravenous Dexmedetomidine 1 micro/kg in 100 mL normal saline, Clonidine Group (Group 2 patients received intravenous Clonidine 1 micro/kg in 100 mL normal saline, Control Group (Group 3 patients received intravenous 100 mL saline infused over 10 minutes. Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP, Heart Rate (HR and IOP were recorded at before premedication 5 min. after premedication, 30 s after succinylcholine, 1 min. after intubation, 5 mins. after intubation. RESULT Fall in Pulse rate, Systolic blood pressure. Diastolic blood pressure, Mean arterial pressure and intraocular pressure were observed following administration of dexmedetomidine and clonidine groups after suxamethonium injection and endotracheal intubation. Pulse rate, blood pressure (Systolic, Diastolic and Mean and IOP differences were statistically significant (p value between 0.000 and 0.5 in dexmedetomidine and clonidine group compared to control groups 1 min. and 5 minutes after intubation, but it was statistically not significant between dexmedetomidine and clonidine group. CONCLUSION Dexmedetomidine (1 micro/kg given 10 minutes before induction is much more effective in controlling both the tachycardia, hypertension and IOP following laryngoscopy and intubation

  11. A randomised comparative study of the effect of Airtraq optical laryngoscope vs. Macintosh laryngoscope on intraocular pressure in non-ophthalmic surgery

    Bikramjit Das

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We compared intraocular pressure changes following laryngoscopy and intubation with conventional Macintosh blade and Airtraq optical laryngoscope. METHODS: Ninety adult patients were randomly assigned to study group or control group. Study group (n = 45 - Airtraq laryngoscope was used for laryngoscopy. Control group (n = 45 - conventional Macintosh laryngoscope was used for laryngoscopy. Preoperative baseline intraocular pressure was measured with Schiotz tonometer. Laryngoscopy was done as per group protocol. Intraocular pressure and haemodynamic parameters were recorded just before insertion of the device and subsequently three times at an interval of one minute after insertion of the device. RESULTS: Patient characteristics, baseline haemodynamic parameters and baseline intraocular pressure were comparable in the two groups. Following insertion of the endotracheal tube with Macintosh laryngoscope, there was statistically significant rise in heart rate and intraocular pressure compared to Airtraq group. There was no significant change in MAP. Eight patients in Macintosh group had tongue-lip-dental trauma during intubation, while only 2 patients received upper airway trauma in Airtraq group. CONCLUSION: We conclude that Airtraq laryngoscope in comparison to Macintosh laryngoscope results in significantly fewer rises in intraocular pressure and clinically less marked increase in haemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation.

  12. Correlation of intraocular pressure with blood pressure and body mass index in offsprings of diabetic patients: A cross-sectional study

    Shailaja Patil, Anita Herur, Shashikala GV, Surekharani Chinagudi, Manjula R, Roopa Ankad, Sukanya Badami, Brid SV

    2014-01-01

    Background: Raised intraocular pressure (IOP) has been associated with risk factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), obesity, body mass index (BMI) and sex, increasing the risk of glaucoma causing visual impairment and blindness. Since familial inheritance is known with glaucoma and DM, the aim was to study the IOP and its correlation with BMI and blood pressure (BP) in offsprings of DM and also to predict the future/early onset of glaucoma in them. Methods: This was an observation...

  13. Exercise training prevents increased intraocular pressure and sympathetic vascular modulation in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome

    Castro, E.F.S. [Unidade de Hipertensão, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mostarda, C.T. [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luís, MA (Brazil); Rodrigues, B. [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moraes-Silva, I.C. [Unidade de Hipertensão, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Feriani, D.J. [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Angelis, K. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, M.C. [Unidade de Hipertensão, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-13

    The present study aimed to study the effects of exercise training (ET) performed by rats on a 10-week high-fructose diet on metabolic, hemodynamic, and autonomic changes, as well as intraocular pressure (IOP). Male Wistar rats receiving fructose overload in drinking water (100 g/L) were concomitantly trained on a treadmill for 10 weeks (FT group) or kept sedentary (F group), and a control group (C) was kept in normal laboratory conditions. The metabolic evaluation comprised the Lee index, glycemia, and insulin tolerance test (KITT). Arterial pressure (AP) was measured directly, and systolic AP variability was performed to determine peripheral autonomic modulation. ET attenuated impaired metabolic parameters, AP, IOP, and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) induced by fructose overload (FT vs F). The increase in peripheral sympathetic modulation in F rats, demonstrated by systolic AP variance and low frequency (LF) band (F: 37±2, 6.6±0.3 vs C: 26±3, 3.6±0.5 mmHg{sup 2}), was prevented by ET (FT: 29±3, 3.4±0.7 mmHg{sup 2}). Positive correlations were found between the LF band and right IOP (r=0.57, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=0.64, P=0.003). Negative correlations were noted between KITT values and right IOP (r=-0.55, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=-0.62, P=0.005). ET in rats effectively prevented metabolic abnormalities and AP and IOP increases promoted by a high-fructose diet. In addition, ocular benefits triggered by exercise training were associated with peripheral autonomic improvement.

  14. Exercise training prevents increased intraocular pressure and sympathetic vascular modulation in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome

    The present study aimed to study the effects of exercise training (ET) performed by rats on a 10-week high-fructose diet on metabolic, hemodynamic, and autonomic changes, as well as intraocular pressure (IOP). Male Wistar rats receiving fructose overload in drinking water (100 g/L) were concomitantly trained on a treadmill for 10 weeks (FT group) or kept sedentary (F group), and a control group (C) was kept in normal laboratory conditions. The metabolic evaluation comprised the Lee index, glycemia, and insulin tolerance test (KITT). Arterial pressure (AP) was measured directly, and systolic AP variability was performed to determine peripheral autonomic modulation. ET attenuated impaired metabolic parameters, AP, IOP, and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) induced by fructose overload (FT vs F). The increase in peripheral sympathetic modulation in F rats, demonstrated by systolic AP variance and low frequency (LF) band (F: 37±2, 6.6±0.3 vs C: 26±3, 3.6±0.5 mmHg2), was prevented by ET (FT: 29±3, 3.4±0.7 mmHg2). Positive correlations were found between the LF band and right IOP (r=0.57, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=0.64, P=0.003). Negative correlations were noted between KITT values and right IOP (r=-0.55, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=-0.62, P=0.005). ET in rats effectively prevented metabolic abnormalities and AP and IOP increases promoted by a high-fructose diet. In addition, ocular benefits triggered by exercise training were associated with peripheral autonomic improvement

  15. Exercise training prevents increased intraocular pressure and sympathetic vascular modulation in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome.

    Castro, E F S; Mostarda, C T; Rodrigues, B; Moraes-Silva, I C; Feriani, D J; De Angelis, K; Irigoyen, M C

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to study the effects of exercise training (ET) performed by rats on a 10-week high-fructose diet on metabolic, hemodynamic, and autonomic changes, as well as intraocular pressure (IOP). Male Wistar rats receiving fructose overload in drinking water (100 g/L) were concomitantly trained on a treadmill for 10 weeks (FT group) or kept sedentary (F group), and a control group (C) was kept in normal laboratory conditions. The metabolic evaluation comprised the Lee index, glycemia, and insulin tolerance test (KITT). Arterial pressure (AP) was measured directly, and systolic AP variability was performed to determine peripheral autonomic modulation. ET attenuated impaired metabolic parameters, AP, IOP, and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) induced by fructose overload (FT vs F). The increase in peripheral sympathetic modulation in F rats, demonstrated by systolic AP variance and low frequency (LF) band (F: 37±2, 6.6±0.3 vs C: 26±3, 3.6±0.5 mmHg2), was prevented by ET (FT: 29±3, 3.4±0.7 mmHg2). Positive correlations were found between the LF band and right IOP (r=0.57, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=0.64, P=0.003). Negative correlations were noted between KITT values and right IOP (r=-0.55, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=-0.62, P=0.005). ET in rats effectively prevented metabolic abnormalities and AP and IOP increases promoted by a high-fructose diet. In addition, ocular benefits triggered by exercise training were associated with peripheral autonomic improvement. PMID:25714884

  16. Intraocular pressure following 18 hours of systemic dehydration in ocular normotensive healthy subjects

    Faustina K. Idu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effect of dehydration on intraocular pressure (IOP. Subjects: The study population comprised 50 subjects (27 men and 23 women with a mean age of 42.84 ± 2.64 years.Method: The subjects dehydrated for 18 hours. IOP was assessed in both eyes using the Perkins handheld applanation tonometer. Baseline measurement of IOP was taken before the subjects dehydrated for 18 hours and repeated after dehydration. Blood samples were taken before and after dehydration for the determination of plasma osmolality and plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH concentrations.Results: A statistically significant (p < 0.001 reduction in the mean weight of subjects occurred after dehydration. There was a significant reduction in IOP from 16.68 mmHg ± 0.32 mmHg to 13.08 mmHg ± 0.31 mmHg after dehydration (p < 0.001. Mean plasma osmolality showed a statistically significant increase (p < 0.05 from baseline of 290.02 mOsmol/kg ± 1.25 mOsmol/kg to 294.96 mOsmol/kg ± 1.33 mOsmol/kg after dehydration. There was also a significant increase (p < 0.05 in mean plasma ADH concentration from 5.36 pg/mL ± 0.21 pg/mL to 6.40 pg/mL ± 0.20 pg/mL after dehydration. There were no significant differences in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures before and after dehydration.Conclusion: Dehydration decreases IOP in healthy humans; this decrease probably results from an increase in plasma osmolality and plasma ADH concentrations.

  17. Comparison of the effects of remifentanil and alfentanil on intraocular pressure in cataract surgery

    Godrat Akhavanakbari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anesthesia for ophthalmic surgery requires management of intraocular pressure (IOP during perioperative period. In an open eye, in conditions such as after traumatic injury or during cataract surgery, IOP increase can lead to permanent vision loss. Administration of narcotics concomitant with anesthetics has the ability to reduce this increase of IOP. This clinical trial aims to compare the efficacy of remifentanil and alfentanil in preventing an increase in IOP after administration of succinylcholine, intubation and during anesthesia. Methods: This double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 50 patients undergoing elective general surgery for cataracts. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Alfentanil (20 μg/kg in 30 s for group 1 and remifentanil (1 μg/kg in 30 s for group 2 were injected before induction of anesthesia, and 0.5 μg/kg/min alfentanil for group 1 and 0.1 μg/kg/min remifentanil for group 2 were infused during the anesthesia. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and IOP from normal eye were measured before the induction, after administration of thiopental and succinylcholine, after tracheal intubation, and 2 min later, and were repeated in 2-min intervals until the end of operation. Results: IOP decreased after injection of anesthetics and remained lower all through the operation in both groups, but IOP decreased after injection of succinylcholine in remifentanil group while it increased in alfentanil group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Results of this study indicate benefits of both remifentanil and alfentanil in managing IOP after induction and during anesthesia. It seems that remifentanil is better than alfentanil in controlling the IOP after injection of succinylcholine.

  18. Allometry and Scaling of the Intraocular Pressure and Aqueous Humour Flow Rate in Vertebrate Eyes

    Zouache, Moussa A.; Eames, Ian; Samsudin, Amir

    2016-01-01

    In vertebrates, intraocular pressure (IOP) is required to maintain the eye into a shape allowing it to function as an optical instrument. It is sustained by the balance between the production of aqueous humour by the ciliary body and the resistance to its outflow from the eye. Dysregulation of the IOP is often pathological to vision. High IOP may lead to glaucoma, which is in man the second most prevalent cause of blindness. Here, we examine the importance of the IOP and rate of formation of aqueous humour in the development of vertebrate eyes by performing allometric and scaling analyses of the forces acting on the eye during head movement and the energy demands of the cornea, and testing the predictions of the models against a list of measurements in vertebrates collated through a systematic review. We show that the IOP has a weak dependence on body mass, and that in order to maintain the focal length of the eye, it needs to be an order of magnitude greater than the pressure drop across the eye resulting from gravity or head movement. This constitutes an evolutionary constraint that is common to all vertebrates. In animals with cornea-based optics, this constraint also represents a condition to maintain visual acuity. Estimated IOPs were found to increase with the evolution of terrestrial animals. The rate of formation of aqueous humour was found to be adjusted to the metabolic requirements of the cornea, scaling as Vac0.67, where Vac is the volume of the anterior chamber. The present work highlights an interdependence between IOP and aqueous flow rate crucial to ocular function that must be considered to understand the evolution of the dioptric apparatus. It should also be taken into consideration in the prevention and treatment of glaucoma. PMID:26990431

  19. The relation between intraocular pressure change and plasma natriuretic peptide under simulated hypobaric conditions

    Karadag Remzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To ascertain whether the changes in intraocular pressure (IOP that occur during hypobaric hypoxic exposure are related to plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (BNP levels. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 26 healthy participants (all male, mean age 23.1 years. IOP was measured at local ground level, (792 m above sea level, then while in a chamber providing hypobaric hypoxic conditions (the subjects were exposed to a pressure equivalent to 9144 m for 1-3 min, and again after exit from the chamber. In each condition, the mean of three consecutive measurements of IOP was calculated for each eye. For BNP measurements, blood samples were drawn before the participants entered the chamber and just after they left the chamber. Results: IOP during hypobaric hypoxic exposure (18.00 ± 3.70 mmHg was significantly greater than that before (15.66 ± 2.10 mmHg, P < 0.001 or after (16.10 ± 2.63 mmHg, P = 0.001 the exposure. IOP levels before and after the exposure were not significantly different (P = 0.136. Plasma BNP levels measured before and after exposure to hypobaric hypoxic conditions were not significantly different (P = 0.462. Conclusion: Plasma BNP levels did not change after short-term hypobaric hypoxic exposure, while the IOP increased. This increase may have been caused by some other systemic factors. As the hypobaric hypoxic conditions were reversed, IOP decreased to normal levels.

  20. Association between urinary albumin excretion and intraocular pressure in type 2 diabetic patients without renal impairment.

    Jin A Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To assess the relationship between urinary albumin excretion and intraocular pressure (IOP in type 2 diabetes patients without renal impairment. METHODS: We explored the effects of albuminuria on high IOP in 402 non-glaucomatous type 2 diabetes without renal impairment who participated in the 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between log-transformed albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR tertiles and an IOP of ≥ 18 mmHg after adjusting for age, gender, hypertension, body mass index, triglycerides, area of residence, and education level. RESULTS: Subjects with a high IOP ≥ 18 mmHg were more likely to be current smokers (P = 0.038, heavy drinkers (P = 0.006, and to have high systolic blood pressure (P = 0.016, triglycerides (P = 0.008, and a higher log-transformed ACR (P = 0.022.In multivariate regression analysis, ACR tertile was associated with the prevalence of high IOP significantly (P = 0.022. The associations between ACR tertiles and high IOP were significant in overweight patients and those with abdominal obesity (P = 0.003 and 0.003, respectively. In contrast, there were no associations in the subgroup of patients who were not overweight and those without abdominal obesity (P = 0.291 and 0.561, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary albumin excretion is associated with high IOP in the type 2 diabetes population without renal insufficiency. The effect of the albuminuria on IOP was evident in a subgroup of patients with components of metabolic syndrome.

  1. Evaulation of Incidence and Risk Factors for Intraocular Pressure Elevation After Intravitreal Triamcinolone Acetonide Injection

    Didar Uçar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the effect of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA used for the macular edema on intraocular pressure (IOP and to determine the risk factors for IOP elevation. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included 93 eyes of 85 patients who had 4 mg intravitreal triamcinolone injection. Of the 85 patients, 56 (65.8% had diabetic macular edema, 22 (25.8% had branch retinal, and 7 (8.2% had central retinal vein occlusion. IOP changes after injection as well as the relation between IOP elevation and age, sex, lens status, etiology of macular edema, baseline IOP were evaluated. Results: Fourty-six male and 39 female patients with mean age 61.58±9.5 years were evaluated. IOP was recorded to be >24 mmHg in 30 eyes (32.2% at follow-up visit after an average of 7.5 weeks. Normalization of IOP with medication was achieved in all IOP elevated eyes. Fifteen of 29 eyes (51.7% with vein occlusion and 15 of 64 eyes (23.3% with diabetic macula edema had IOP elevation (p=0.01. Twenty-six of 73 phakic (35.6% and 4 of 20 pseudophakic eyes (20% had IOP >24 mmHg (p=0.16. There was no association between IOP elevation and sex (p=0.33. Baseline IOP was 16.47±2.8 mmHg in eyes which had elevated IOP and 14.78±2.4 mmHg in the remaining. There was significant relation between IOP elevation and baseline IOP level (p=0.01. Conclusion: Elevated IOP is common side effect after IVTA, but normalization is usually achieved by topical medication. Patients with baseline IOP ≥15 mmHg and vein occlusion have higher risk for IOP elevation. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2015; 45: 86-91

  2. Assessment of Corneal Biomechanical Properties and Intraocular Pressure in Myopic Spanish Healthy Population

    María A. del Buey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine biomechanical parameters of the cornea in myopic eyes and their relationship with the degree of myopia in a western healthy population. Methods. Corneal hysteresis (CH, corneal resistance factor (CRF, Goldmann correlated intraocular pressure (IOP, and corneal compensated IOP (IOPcc were measured using the ocular response analyzer (ORA in 312 eyes of 177 Spanish subjects aged between 20 and 56 years. Refraction was expressed as spherical equivalent (SE, which ranged from 0 to −16.50 diopters (D (mean: −3.88±2.90 D. Subjects were divided into four groups according to their refractive status: group 1 or control group: emmetropia (-0.50≤SE0.05; nevertheless, IOPcc was significantly higher in the moderately myopic (15.47±2.47 mmHg and highly myopic (16.14±2.59 mmHg groups than in the emmetropia (15.15±2.06 mmHg and low myopia groups (14.53±2.37 mmHg. No correlation between age and the measured parameters was found. CH and IOPcc were weakly but significantly correlated with SE (r=0.171, P=0.002 and r=-0.131, P=0.021, resp.. Conclusions. Present study showed only a very weak, but significant, correlation between CH and refractive error, with CH being lower in both moderately and highly myopic eyes than that in the emmetropic and low myopic eyes. These changes in biomechanical properties of the cornea may have an impact on IOP measurement, increasing the risk of glaucoma.

  3. Surface modification of acrylate intraocular lenses with dielectric barrier discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure

    WANG Yao; LIU ZhenMei; XU ZhiKang; YAO Ke

    2009-01-01

    Surface modification with dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was carried out at atmospheric pressure (argon as the discharge gas) to improve the biocompatibility of hydrophobic acrylate intraocular lens (IOL). Changes of the plasma-treated IOL surface in chemical composition,morphology and hydrophilicity were comprehensively evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM),atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle (WCA) measurements. The surface biocompatibility of the untreated and plasma-treated IOLs was compared with the adhesion behavior of platelets,macrophages and lens epithelial cells (LECs) in vitro. After DBD plasma treatment,the hydrophilicity of the IOL surface was obviously improved. The changes in WCA with treatment extension may be attributed to both the introduction of oxygen or/and nitrogen-containing polar groups and the increase of surface roughness induced by plasma etching effect. The existence of low molecular weight oxidized material (LMWOM) was proved on the plasma treated IOL which was caused by the chain scission effect of the plasma treatment. The plasma-treated lOLs resisted the adhesion of platelets and macrophages significantly. The LECs spreading and proliferation were postponed on the lOLs plasma-treated for more than 180 s,with a well maintained epithelial phenotype of LECs. The IOL biocompatibility was improved after the DBD plasma treatment. We speculate that slighter foreign-body reaction and later incidence of anterior capsule opacification (ACO) may be expected after implantation of the argon DBD plasma-treated IOL.

  4. Surface modification of acrylate intraocular lenses with dielectric barrier discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure

    2009-01-01

    Surface modification with dielectric barrier discharge(DBD) plasma was carried out at atmospheric pressure(argon as the discharge gas) to improve the biocompatibility of hydrophobic acrylate intraocular lens(IOL).Changes of the plasma-treated IOL surface in chemical composition,morphology and hydrophilicity were comprehensively evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS),field emission scanning electron microscopy(FESEM),atomic force microscopy(AFM) and water contact angle(WCA) measurements.The surface biocompatibility of the untreated and plasma-treated IOLs was compared with the adhesion behavior of platelets,macrophages and lens epithelial cells(LECs) in vitro.After DBD plasma treatment,the hydrophilicity of the IOL surface was obviously improved.The changes in WCA with treatment extension may be attributed to both the introduction of oxygen or/and nitrogen-containing polar groups and the increase of surface roughness induced by plasma etching effect.The existence of low molecular weight oxidized material(LMWOM) was proved on the plasma-treated IOL which was caused by the chain scission effect of the plasma treatment.The plasma-treated IOLs resisted the adhesion of platelets and macrophages significantly.The LECs spreading and proliferation were postponed on the IOLs plasma-treated for more than 180 s,with a well maintained epithelial phenotype of LECs.The IOL biocompatibility was improved after the DBD plasma treatment.We speculate that slighter foreign-body reaction and later incidence of anterior capsule opacification(ACO) may be expected after implantation of the argon DBD plasma-treated IOL.

  5. Changes in intraocular pressure and anterior segment morphometry after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery.

    Dooley, I

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To study changes in anterior segment morphometry after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery, and to investigate whether there is a relationship between any observed changes and intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction after the procedure. METHODS: The anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), anterior chamber angle (ACA), central corneal thickness (CCT), and IOP were measured in 101 non-glaucomatous eyes before and after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery. RESULTS: After cataract surgery, the mean ACD, ACV, and ACA values increased by 1.08 mm, 54.4 mm(3), and 13.1 degrees , respectively, and the mean IOP (corrected for CCT) decreased by 3.2 mm Hg. The predictive value of a previously described index (preoperative ACD\\/preoperative IOP (corrected for CCT) or CPD ratio) for IOP (corrected for CCT) reduction after cataract surgery was confirmed, reflected in an r(2) value of 23.3% between these two parameters (P<0.001). Other indices predictive of IOP reduction after cataract surgery were also identified, including preoperative IOP\\/preoperative ACV and preoperative IOP\\/preoperative ACA, reflected in r(2) values of 13.7 and 13.7%, respectively (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the predictive value of the CPD ratio for IOP reduction after cataract surgery, and may contribute to the decision-making process in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Furthermore, two novel indices of preoperative parameters that are predictive for IOP reduction after cataract surgery were identified, and enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying IOP changes after this procedure.

  6. Intraocular pressure measurement over soft contact lens by rebound tonometer: a comparative study

    Senay; Asik; Nacaroglu; Emine; Seker; Un; Mehmet; Giray; Ersoz; Yelda; Tasci

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the intraocular pressure(IOP)measurements by Icare rebound tonometer over a contact lens in comparison with Goldmann applanation tonometry(GAT). METHODS: Fifty patients using contact lens were included in this study. One of the eyes of the patients was selected randomly and their IOP were measured by rebound tonometer with and without contact lens(RTCL,RT respectively) and by GAT, as well as their central corneal thickness(CCT) by optical pachymeter. The results of both methods were compared by correlation analysis, general linear method repeated measure and Bland-Altman analysis.RESULTS: Mean IOP values measured by RTCL, RT and GAT were 15.68 ±3.7, 14.50 ±3.4 and 14.16 ±2.8(P <0.001), respectively. Mean IOP by RTCL was significantly higher than the measurements implemented by RT and GAT(P <0.001), while there was no difference between the measurements by GAT and RT(P =0.629). There was a good level of positive correlation between GAT and RTCL as well as RT(r =0.786 P <0.001, r =0.833 P <0.001, respectively). We have observed that CCT increase did not show any correlation with the differences of the measurements between RTCL and RT(P =0.329), RTCL and GAT(P =0.07) as well as RT and GAT(P =0.189) in linear regression model.CONCLUSION: The average of the measurements over contact lens by rebound tonometer was found to be higher than what was measured by GAT. Although this difference is statistically significant, it may be clinically negligible in the normal population.

  7. Not only pregnancy but also the number of fetuses in the uterus affects intraocular pressure

    Metin Saylik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate whether, intraocular pressure (IOP is affected when there is a second fetus in the uterus during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Eighty eyes of 40 twin pregnancies (TwPs, 80 eyes of 40 singleton pregnancies (SiPs and 80 eyes of 40 non-pregnant females (NoPs were included in the study. Statistical Analysis: Repeated measurements analysis of variance with two factors, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and theTukey′s multiple comparison test were used. Results: The mean IOP (MIOP values in TwPs were 14.29 ± 1.28, 11.48 ± 1.20, and 9.81 ± 1.36 mmHg and the MIOP values in SiPs were 14.42 ± 0.95, 13.12 ± 0.75, and 10.97 ± 0.89 mmHg in subsequent trimesters. The MIOP values in NoPs were 14.77 ± 1.18, 14.92 ± 1.33, and 15.08 ± 0.89 mmHg in subsequent 3-month measurements. The results show that the MIOP values for the TwPs group were significantly lower than the SiPs in all trimesters. Conclusions: During pregnancy, the number of fetuses in the uterus is an indirectly important factor that influences the decrease in IOP. We hypothesize that the increased ocular hypotensive effect of TwPs is most likely related to the presence of higher levels of hormones, particularly estrogen, progesterone and relaxin compared with SiPs.

  8. Safety and efficacy of travoprost solution for the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure

    Quaranta L

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Luciano Quaranta,1,* Ivano Riva,1,* Andreas Katsanos,2 Irene Floriani,3 Marco Centofanti,4,† Anastasios G P Konstas51Centre for the Study of Glaucoma, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy; 2Ophthalmology Department, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece; 3Laboratory of Clinical Research, IRCCS, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy; 4DSCMT, University of Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; 5Glaucoma Unit, 1st University Department of Ophthalmology, AHEPA Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece*These authors contributed equally to this work; †Dr Centofanti passed away on 1 March 2015Abstract: Travoprost is a prostaglandin analogue widely used for reducing intraocular pressure (IOP in patients affected with glaucoma and ocular hypertension. It exerts its ocular hypotensive effect through the prostaglandin FP receptors, located in the ciliary muscle and the trabecular meshwork. Several studies have shown that topical administration of travoprost induces a mean IOP reduction ranging from 25% to 32%, and sustained throughout the 24-hour cycle. When compared with timolol, travoprost is more effective at reducing IOP, while generally no difference has been found in the head-to-head comparison with other prostaglandin analogues. The fixed combination of travoprost and timolol has demonstrated a hypotensive efficacy comparable to the concomitant administration of the two drugs. Recently, a new preservative-free formulation of travoprost 0.004% has been marketed for reducing tolerability-related problems in subjects affected with ocular surface disease. Low rates of topical and systemic adverse reactions, strong ocular hypotensive efficacy, and once-a-day dosing make travoprost a first-line treatment for patients affected with elevated IOP.Keywords: prostaglandin analogue, glaucoma, ocular hypertension

  9. Impact of the Topical Ophthalmic Corticosteroid Loteprednol Etabonate on Intraocular Pressure.

    Sheppard, John D; Comstock, Timothy L; Cavet, Megan E

    2016-04-01

    Corticosteroids are a mainstay therapeutic option for the treatment of ocular inflammation. However, safety remains a concern for clinicians, particularly with long-term use. Though highly effective at suppressing inflammatory and allergic responses, topical ophthalmic corticosteroids carry an inherent risk of side effects, including elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), a risk factor for the development of glaucoma. The corticosteroid loteprednol etabonate (LE) contains an ester rather than a ketone at the C-20 position, minimizing the potential for side effects, including IOP elevation. In early pivotal clinical trials of LE ophthalmic suspension for conjunctivitis (allergic, giant papillary), anterior uveitis, and post-operative inflammation, LE had minimal impact on IOP over short-term (gel, an ointment, and a suspension of LE in combination with tobramycin-have become commercially available. Multiple studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of LE for inflammatory conditions have been reported, including those requiring longer-term treatment such as photorefractive keratectomy, corneal transplantation, and dry eye disease. We review the available published data on the effect of LE on IOP and report on the cumulative incidence of clinically significant IOP elevations (≥10 mm Hg from baseline) with short-term and long-term LE use. In all studies, LE consistently demonstrated a low propensity to elevate IOP, regardless of formulation, dosage regimen, or treatment duration, including in known steroid responders. The cumulative proportion of patients exhibiting clinically significant IOP increases was 0.8% (14/1725 subjects) in studies evaluating short-term LE treatment and 1.5% (21/1386 subjects) in long-term studies. Furthermore, use of LE was associated with significantly lower rates of IOP elevation ≥10 mm Hg as compared to prednisolone acetate or dexamethasone (when used in combination with tobramycin). The cumulative data to date substantiates a

  10. System for Rapid, Precise Modulation of Intraocular Pressure, toward Minimally-Invasive In Vivo Measurement of Intracranial Pressure.

    Max A Stockslager

    Full Text Available Pathologic changes in intracranial pressure (ICP are commonly observed in a variety of medical conditions, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, brain tumors, and glaucoma. However, current ICP measurement techniques are invasive, requiring a lumbar puncture or surgical insertion of a cannula into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-filled ventricles of the brain. A potential alternative approach to ICP measurement leverages the unique anatomy of the central retinal vein, which is exposed to both intraocular pressure (IOP and ICP as it travels inside the eye and through the optic nerve; manipulating IOP while observing changes in the natural pulsations of the central retinal vein could potentially provide an accurate, indirect measure of ICP. As a step toward implementing this technique, we describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of a system that is capable of manipulating IOP in vivo with <0.1 mmHg resolution and settling times less than 2 seconds. In vitro tests were carried out to characterize system performance. Then, as a proof of concept, we used the system to manipulate IOP in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri while video of the retinal vessels was recorded and the caliber of a selected vein was quantified. Modulating IOP using our system elicited a rapid change in the appearance of the retinal vein of interest: IOP was lowered from 10 to 3 mmHg, and retinal vein caliber sharply increased as IOP decreased from 7 to 5 mmHg. Another important feature of this technology is its capability to measure ocular compliance and outflow facility in vivo, as demonstrated in tree shrews. Collectively, these proof-of-concept demonstrations support the utility of this system to manipulate IOP for a variety of useful applications in ocular biomechanics, and provide a framework for further study of the mechanisms of retinal venous pulsation.

  11. CLINICAL PRESENTATION OF LENS INDUCED GLAUCOMA: STUDY OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, DURATION OF SYMPTOMS, INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE AND VISUAL ACUITY

    Venkataratnam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lens Induced Glaucoma is a common cause of ocular morbidity. OBJECTIVES: Our study was to know the Epidemiological factors, Duration of Symptoms, Visual Acuity and Intraocular Pressure in the clinical Presentation of Lens Induced Glaucoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This w as a tertiary hospital based prospective study in the department of Glaucoma, Sarojini Devi Eye Hospital and Regional Institute of Ophthalmology (RIO, Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad over a period from March 2015 to August 2015. 50 Patients clinically diagnosed as Lens Induced Glaucoma (LIG were studied with the data of Age, Sex, literacy, Laterality and Rural / Urban status with the duration of symptoms, Intraocular pressure and Visual Acuity. The data was analyzed by simple statistical methods. RESULT S: 50 patients, clinically diagnosed as Lens Induced Glaucoma (LIG were studied. Age group distribution was 1(2.0% in 40 - 50yrs, 13 ( 26.0% in >50 - 60yrs, 26(52.0% in >60 - 70yrs and 10(20.0% in > 70 yrs. Sex distribution was 23(46.0% of Males and 27(54.0% of Females. Urban / Rural status was 15(30.0% of Urban and 35(70.0% of Rural. Literacy status was 7(14.0% of Literate and 43(86.0% of Illiterate. Laterality was RE in 24(48.0% and LE in 26(52.0%. Duration of the presenting symptoms before re porting to the Hospital was 12.0% in 2wks. Intraocular pressure (IOP in mm of Hg showed no case (0.0% in 20 – 40, 27(54.0% in >40 - 60 and 5(10.0% >60 wit h the Mean IOP of 42.12 mm of Hg. Visual Acuity (VA was PL +ve in 24(48.0 and HM - 3/60. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing age, female gender, rural, illiterate, and delayed reporting to the hospital after the pre senting symptoms were the common risk factors with increased Intraocular pressure and poor visual acuity in the clinical presentation of Lens induced Glaucoma.

  12. Monothiocarbamates Strongly Inhibit Carbonic Anhydrases in Vitro and Possess Intraocular Pressure Lowering Activity in an Animal Model of Glaucoma.

    Vullo, Daniela; Durante, Mariaconcetta; Di Leva, Francesco Saverio; Cosconati, Sandro; Masini, Emanuela; Scozzafava, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Supuran, Claudiu T; Carta, Fabrizio

    2016-06-23

    A series of monothiocarbamates (MTCs) were prepared from primary/secondary amines and COS as potential carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitors, using the dithiocarbamates, the xanthates, and the trithiocarbonates as lead compounds. The MTCs effectively inhibited the pharmacologically relevant human (h) hCAs isoforms I, II, IX, and XII in vitro and showed KIs spanning between the low and medium nanomolar range. By means of a computational study, the MTC moiety binding mode on the CAs was explained. Furthermore, a selection of MTCs were evaluated in a normotensive glaucoma rabbit model for their intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering effects and showed interesting activity. PMID:27253845

  13. The Association of Central corneal thickness with Intra-ocular Pressure and Refractive Error in a Nigerian Population

    Eghosasere Iyamu; Misan Memeh

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the variation of central corneal thickness (CCT) with intraocular pressure (IOP) and spherical equivalent refractive error. A total of thirty-nine (N=39) subjects within 20-75 years with mean age 45.2 ± 15.4 years were used for this study. The central corneal thickness was assessed with the Corneo-Gage plus ultrasonic Pachymeter, the IOP with slit-lamp mounted Goldmann applanation tonometer and refractive status by Protec 2000 autorefractor, phoropte...

  14. Intraocular pressure and ocular pulse amplitude using dynamic contour tonometry and contact lens tonometry

    Grus Franz-H

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new Ocular Dynamic Contour Tonometer (DCT, investigational device supplied by SMT (Swiss Microtechnology AG, Switzerland allows simultaneous recording of intraocular pressure (IOP and ocular pulse amplitude (OPA. It was the aim of this study to compare the IOP results of this new device with Goldmann tonometry. Furthermore, IOP and OPA measured with the new slitlamp-mounted DCT were compared to the IOP and OPA measured with the hand-held SmartLens®, a gonioscopic contact lens tonometer (ODC Ophthalmic Development Company AG, Switzerland. Methods Nineteen healthy subjects were included in this study. IOP was determined by three consecutive measurements with each of the DCT, SmartLens®, and Goldmann tonometer. Furthermore, OPA was measured three times consecutively by DCT and SmartLens®. Results No difference (P = 0.09 was found between the IOP values by means of DCT (mean: 16.6 mm Hg, median: 15.33 mm Hg, SD: +/- 4.04 mm Hg and Goldmann tonometry (mean: 16.17 mm Hg, median: 15.33 mm Hg, SD: +/- 4.03 mm Hg. The IOP values of SmartLens® (mean: 20.25 mm Hg, median: 19.00 mm Hg, SD: +/- 4.96 mm Hg were significantly higher (P = 0.0008 both from Goldmann tonometry and DCT. The OPA values of the DCT (mean: 3.08 mm Hg, SD: +/- 0.92 mm Hg were significantly lower (P = 0.0003 than those obtained by SmartLens® (mean: 3.92 mm Hg, SD: +/- 0.83 mm Hg. Conclusions DCT was equivalent to Goldmann applanation tonometry in measurement of IOP in a small group of normal subjects. In contrast, SmartLens® (contact lens tonometry gave IOP readings that were significantly higher compared with Goldmann applanation tonometer readings. Both devices, DCT and SmartLens® provide the measurement of OPA which could be helpful e.g. for the management of glaucoma.

  15. Evaluation of intraocular pressure and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in patients with Helicobacter pylori

    Baran Gencer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: High prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (HP in the glaucoma patients was shown in recent studies. In our prospective study we aimed to compare the intraocular pressure (IOP and the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT in patients with HP positive and negative. Methods: In 91 patients with gastritis HP was investigated by urea breath test (UBT and biopsy sample culture Following the full ophthalmologic examination the patients’ IOP was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry and RNFLT was measured by spectral optic coherence tomography. The patients' demographic and clinical characteristics were compared with the χ² test for categorical variables and with the Mann Whitney U test for continuous variables. Results: Of the 90 patients who meet the including criteria, HP was detected in 74 patients (27 male, 47 female positive, and in 16 patients (7 male, 9 female negative. Median (minimum-maximum age values were 46 (18-79 in HP positive group and 51 (18-67 in HP negative group. One hundred forty seven eyes in 74 HP positive patients and 31 eyes in 16 HP negative patients included in the study. Median IOP values were determined 14 (7-21 mmHg in HP positive group and 14 (8-18 mmHg in HP negative group. The measurements of RNFLT in superior, temporal, inferior and nasal quadrants found to be respectively 122(98-165, 68(50-101, 135(93-188, 79(51-120 micron in HP positive group and 120(94-161, 67(43-104, 129(94-166, 76(50-97 micron in HP negative group. No statistically significant difference was found when compared IOP and RNFLT measurements between the two groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: In this study found that the IOP and RNFLT measurements of HP positive group was not show statistically significant difference compared with HP negative group. In a large case series, randomized, case-controlled, histologic and serologic studies should be done to show the relationship between HP and glaucoma.

  16. Impact of Phacoemulsification Surgery on Intraocular Pressure in Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma

    Volkan Dayanır

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To investigate whether primary phacoemulsification in acute primary angle closure glaucoma (APACG and chronic primary angle closure glaucoma (CPACG will lower intraocular pressure (IOP or not. Ma te ri al and Met hod: This retrospective, non-comparative, consecutive, interventional case series includes 22 eyes of 20 patients with APACG and 31 eyes of 23 patients with CPACG. All eyes had undergone phacoemulsification surgery without any reference to the presence of cataract. Data about IOP, number of antiglaucoma medications and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA were collected. Re sults: In APACG mean IOP (95% CI, number of antiglaucoma medications and Snellen visual acuity changed at last preoperative evaluation from 30.9±15.6 mmHg (23.0-38.0, 2.6±1.4 boxes and 0.4±0.2 lines to 15.5±3.9 mm Hg (p<0.000, 13.8-17.0, 0.6±0.9 boxes (p<0.000 and 0.6±0.3 lines (p=0.001 at last follow-up. Same parameters in CPACG changed from 18.0±7.8 mmHg (15.1- 20.8, 1.6±1.1 boxes and 0.5±0.2 lines at last preoperative evaluation to 14.7±3.6 mmHg (p<0.023, 13.4-16.0, 0.5±0.8 boxes (p<0.000 and 0.6±0.3 lines (p=0.007 at last follow-up. Mean follow-up (95% CI for APACG and CPACG were 554±646 (268-841 and 747±820 (438-1041 days respectively. In APACG and CPACG groups 19 eyes (86% and 16 eyes (52% had lower IOP respectively at last follow-up. 59% of the eyes with APACG and 61% of the eyes with CPACG were classified as complete success when it was defined as IOP ≤18mmHg without any antiglaucoma medications. Dis cus si on: Primary phacoemulsification without any reference to cataract is a safe and effective procedure in terms of IOP control and reducing the number of antiglaucoma drops in APACG and CPACG. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 438-42

  17. Genetic context determines susceptibility to intraocular pressure elevation in a mouse pigmentary glaucoma

    Cosma Ioan M

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DBA/2J (D2 mice develop an age-related form of glaucoma. Their eyes progressively develop iris pigment dispersion and iris atrophy followed by increased intraocular pressure (IOP and glaucomatous optic nerve damage. Mutant alleles of the Gpnmb and Tyrp1 genes are necessary for the iris disease, but it is unknown whether alleles of other D2 gene(s are necessary for the distinct later stages of disease. We initiated a study of congenic strains to further define the genetic requirements and disease mechanisms of the D2 glaucoma. Results To further understand D2 glaucoma, we created congenic strains of mice on the C57BL/6J (B6 genetic background. B6 double-congenic mice carrying D2-derived Gpnmb and Tyrp1 mutations develop a D2-like iris disease. B6 single-congenics with only the Gpnmb and Tyrp1 mutations develop milder forms of iris disease. Genetic epistasis experiments introducing a B6 tyrosinase mutation into the congenic strains demonstrated that both the single and double-congenic iris diseases are rescued by interruption of melanin synthesis. Importantly, our experiments analyzing mice at ages up to 27 months indicate that the B6 double-congenic mice are much less prone to IOP elevation and glaucoma than are D2 mice. Conclusion As demonstrated here, the Gpnmb and Tyrp1 iris phenotypes are both individually dependent on tyrosinase function. These results support involvement of abnormal melanosomal events in the diseases caused by each gene. In the context of the inbred D2 mouse strain, the glaucoma phenotype is clearly influenced by more genes than just Gpnmb and Tyrp1. Despite the outward similarity of pigment-dispersing iris disease between D2 and the B6 double-congenic mice, the congenic mice are much less susceptible to developing high IOP and glaucoma. These new congenic strains provide a valuable new resource for further studying the genetic and mechanistic complexity of this form of glaucoma.

  18. Effect of Melatonin and 5-Methoxycarbonylamino-N-Acetyltryptamine on the Intraocular Pressure of Normal and Glaucomatous Mice.

    Martínez-Águila, Alejandro; Fonseca, Begoña; Pérez de Lara, María J; Pintor, Jesús

    2016-05-01

    Melatonin is a neurohormone that is produced not only by the pineal gland but also by several ocular structures. One of the main physiologic roles of melatonin is the reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP). Using both control C57BL/6J and glaucomatous DBA/2J mice as well as TonoLab tonometry, this study evaluated the effect of melatonin and 5-methoxycarbonylamino-N-acetyltryptamine (5-MCA-NAT) when glaucomatous pathology was fully established and compared pharmacological behavior in treated mice versus control mice. In addition, 5-MCA-NAT was tested to determine its effects on ameliorating increased IOP in a glaucoma model. The results demonstrate that melatonin and 5-MCA-NAT can reduce IOP in a concentration-dependent manner. The EC50values for melatonin in control and glaucomatous animals were 34µM and 50µM, respectively. Interestingly, melatonin decreased IOP in 19.4% ± 3.7% and 32.6% ± 6.0% of control and glaucomatous mice, respectively, when the animals were studied at age 12 months. 5-MCA-NAT reduced IOP in the same manner and was able to stop IOP progression in glaucomatous mice. Use of melatonin receptor antagonists showed that hypotensive effects were blocked by the MT2receptor antagonists luzindole and 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetralin in the case of melatonin and by only 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetralin in the case of 5-MCA-NAT. In conclusion, melatonin and 5-MCA-NAT can effectively reduce IOP in a glaucoma model, and their hypotensive effects are more profound in the glaucoma model than in control animals. PMID:26941171

  19. "Effect of topical timolol on intraocular pressure in the presence of systemic indomethacin in normal subjects"

    Sud R

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study on 60 normal subjects, the effect of 0.5% timolol eye drops on intraocular tension was assessed in the presence of oral indomethacin. The subjects were categorized in four groups for comparing the results. Also the side effects of timolol maleate were noted. The following conclusions were made:- 1. In cases in whom indomethacin was given along with timolol drops, average fall in intraocular tension was almost identical with those in whom timolol alone was used. 2. The ocular hypotensive effect of timolol maleate eve drops is not attenuated by indomethacin given orally; but before we can conclude that the simultaneous administration of timolol maleate eye drops and indomethacin is entirely without risk of attenuation. We must study the effect of combined administration in patients with glaucoma.

  20. Relationship between progression of visual field defect and intraocular pressure in primary open-angle glaucoma

    Naito T.; Yoshikawa K; Mizoue S; Nanno M; Kimura T; Suzumura H; Shiraga F

    2015-01-01

    Tomoko Naito,1 Keiji Yoshikawa,2 Shiro Mizoue,3 Mami Nanno,4 Tairo Kimura,5 Hirotaka Suzumura,6 Fumio Shiraga1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama, Japan; 2Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime, Japan; 4Kagurazaka Minamino Eye Clinic, 5Ueno Eye Clinic, 6Suzumura Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: To analyze the relationship between intraocular press...

  1. Study of the effect of distance and misalignment between magnetically coupled coils for wireless power transfer in intraocular pressure measurement.

    Rendon-Nava, Adrian E; Díaz-Méndez, J Alejandro; Nino-de-Rivera, Luis; Calleja-Arriaga, Wilfrido; Gil-Carrasco, Felix; Díaz-Alonso, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of the effect of distance and alignment between two magnetically coupled coils for wireless power transfer in intraocular pressure measurement is presented. For measurement purposes, a system was fabricated consisting of an external device, which is a Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit variation, in charge of transferring energy to a biomedical implant and reading data from it. The biomedical implant is an RLC tank circuit, encapsulated by a polyimide coating. Power transfer was done by magnetic induction coupling method, by placing one of the inductors of the Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit and the inductor of the implant in close proximity. The Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit was biased with a 10 MHz sinusoidal signal. The analysis presented in this paper proves that wireless transmission of power for intraocular pressure measurement is feasible with the measurement system proposed. In order to have a proper inductive coupling link, special care must be taken when placing the two coils in proximity to avoid misalignment between them. PMID:25097887

  2. Nucleoside-derived antagonists to A3 adenosine receptors lower mouse intraocular pressure and act across species.

    Wang, Zhao; Do, Chi Wai; Avila, Marcel Y; Peterson-Yantorno, Kim; Stone, Richard A; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Joshi, Bhalchandra; Besada, Pedro; Jeong, Lak Shin; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Civan, Mortimer M

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether novel, selective antagonists of human A3 adenosine receptors (ARs) derived from the A3-selective agonist Cl-IB-MECA lower intraocular pressure (IOP) and act across species. IOP was measured invasively with a micropipette by the Servo-Null Micropipette System (SNMS) and by non-invasive pneumotonometry during topical drug application. Antagonist efficacy was also assayed by measuring inhibition of adenosine-triggered shrinkage of native bovine nonpigmented ciliary epithelial (NPE) cells. Five agonist-based A3AR antagonists lowered mouse IOP measured with SNMS tonometry by 3-5 mm Hg within minutes of topical application. Of the five agonist derivatives, LJ 1251 was the only antagonist to lower IOP measured by pneumotonometry. No effect was detected pneumotonometrically over 30 min following application of the other four compounds, consonant with slower, smaller responses previously measured non-invasively following topical application of A3AR agonists and the dihydropyridine A3AR antagonist MRS 1191. Latanoprost similarly lowered SNMS-measured IOP, but not IOP measured non-invasively over 30 min. Like MRS 1191, agonist-based A3AR antagonists applied to native bovine NPE cells inhibited adenosine-triggered shrinkage. In summary, the results indicate that antagonists of human A3ARs derived from the potent, selective A3 agonist Cl-IB-MECA display efficacy in mouse and bovine cells, as well. When intraocular delivery was enhanced by measuring mouse IOP invasively, five derivatives of the A3AR agonist Cl-IB-MECA lowered IOP but only one rapidly reduced IOP measured non-invasively after topical application. We conclude that derivatives of the highly-selective A3AR agonist Cl-IB-MECA can reduce IOP upon reaching their intraocular target, and that nucleoside-based derivatives are promising A3 antagonists for study in multiple animal models. PMID:19878673

  3. Mirtogenol® potentiates latanoprost in lowering intraocular pressure and improves ocular blood flow in asymptomatic subjects

    Robert D Steigerwalt Jr

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Robert D Steigerwalt Jr1, Gianni Belcaro1, Paolo Morazzoni2, Ezio Bombardelli2, Carolina Burki3, Frank Schönlau4 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, San Valentino, Italy; 2Indena S.p.A. Scientific Department, Milan, Italy; 3Horphag Research (UK Ltd., Geneva, Switzerland; 4Horphag Research (UK Ltd. South Kensington, London UKPurpose: The dietary supplement Mirtogenol® was previously shown to lower elevated intraocular pressure (IOP. We here present the effects of this supplement on IOP in comparison as well as in combination with latanoprost eye drops. Methods: Seventy-nine patients with asymptomatic ocular hypertension were randomly assigned to three groups receiving either the supplement, or latanoprost eye drops, or both in combination. Intraocular pressure and retinal blood flow were investigated in monthly intervals over 24 weeks.Results: Mirtogenol alone lowered IOP from baseline 38.1 to 29.0 mmHg after 16 weeks, with little further improvement during the following eight weeks. Latanoprost rapidly lowered IOP from baseline 37.7 to 27.2 mmHg within four weeks, without further effects thereafter. The combination of the supplement and latanoprost lowered IOP from 38.0 to 27.3 mmHg after four weeks, and further decreased IOP to 24.2 mmHg after six weeks. After 24 weeks IOP with the combination treatment (23.0 mmHg was significantly lower than with latanoprost alone (27.2 mmHg. Mirtogenol and latanoprost individually showed comparable effects for gradually increasing central artery blood flow with treatment duration. Combination treatment showed higher systolic blood flow velocity throughout the trial period. The diastolic blood flow velocity gradually increased with treatment duration in all three groups. From twelve weeks onwards, the diastolic component with combination treatment was higher than with individual treatments.Conclusions: Mirtogenol lowered elevated IOP in patients almost as effectively as

  4. Comparison of levobunolol and brimonidine in prophylaxis of intraocular pressure (iop|) rise following nd: yag laser capsulotomy

    To compare the efficacy of topical 0.5% Levobunolol and 0.2% Brimonidine in preventing intraocular pressure rise after Nd: YAG laser posterior capsulotomy. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Setting and Duration of Study: Ophthalmology Department Combined Military Hospital Multan, from September 2010 to March 2011. Patients and Methods: A total of 82 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected from out-patient department and randomly divided into two equal groups. Topical 0.5% levobunolol was instilled in group A while 0.2% brimonidine was instilled in group B one hour before and immediately after doing Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy. The intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured using Goldmann applanation tonometer 1, 3 and 24 hours later. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in mean IOP between 0.5% Levobunolol group (Group A) and 0.2% Brimonidine group (Group B) at 1 hour, 3 hours and 24 hours after Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy. The mean intraocular pressure (IOP) one hour after Nd:YAG laser and topical treatment in group A was 16.10 ± 1.60 mmHg while in group B was 15.65 ± 3.01 mmHg (P=0.401). Mean IOP after three hours in group A was 15.80 ± 1.35 mm Hg and in group B was 15.05 ± 2.15 mmHg (p=0.062). Mean IOP after 24 hours in group A was 15.13 ± 2.05 mmHg while in group B was 14.32 ± 1.62 mmHg (p=0.058). Conclusion: Both 0.5% Levobunolol and 0.2% Brimonidine are equally effective in controlling the IOP spike after Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy. Either of these medicines can be used as a prophylaxis to prevent rise in IOP after Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy. (author)

  5. The reduction of intraocular pressure after instillation of travoprost compared with timolol in chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma

    Edi S. Affandi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to compare the reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP after instillation of Travoprost compared with timolol in chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma. A prospective randomized, crossover study was conducted from April 2005 to July 2005 at Department of Ophthalmology, National Central General Hospital (RSCM Jakarta on subjects with chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma. Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: those taking Travoprost once daily and those taking timolol twice daily. Two weeks after treatment with the first drug, the second drug was substituted. Intraocular pressure was recorded before therapy, at day 1, day 7, and day 14. There was a wash out period of three weeks prior to initial treatment and after the cross over. Sixteen subjects (32 eyes met the inclusion criteria and were included in this study. The mean baseline IOP in the Travoprost group was 25.38 ± 3.01 mmHg, while in the timolol group it was 25.88 ± 2.55 mmHg (p=0.354. At day 7, the IOP were consecutively 16.75 + 1.92 mmHg and 21.25 + 3.09 mmHg (p=0.001 and at day 14 IOP were 13.94 + 2.02 mmHg and 19.25 + 2.18 mmHg (p=000. This showed that Travoprost decreased the IOP faster and greater than timolol. The mean baseline IOP was 25.38 ± 3.01 mmHg was decreased to 11.44 ± 1.90 mmHg with Travoprost. In the timolol group, the mean baseline IOP of 25.88 ± 2.55 mmHg was decreased to 6.63 ± 2.25 mmHg. Statistically, Travoprost significantly reduced the IOP faster and greater than timolol (p<0.05. Travoprost eye drops reduced the IOP faster and greater than timolol. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:242-5Keywords: chronic primary angle closure glaucoma, intraocular pressure, Travoprost, timolol.

  6. 24-hour intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients randomized to receive dorzolamide or brinzolamide in combination with latanoprost

    Yoshimi Nakamura

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Yoshimi Nakamura, Shusaku Ishikawa, Yuko Nakamura, Hiroshi Sakai, Ichiko Henzan, Shoichi SawaguchiDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of the Ryukyus Faculty of Medicine, Okinawa, JapanPurpose: To investigate the efficacy of dorzolamide 1% (bid or tid or brinzolamide 1% bid on 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP control as well as patients’ preference for either drug when added in combination with latanoprost against glaucoma (IOP, ≥18 mmHg.Methods: In this randomized crossover study patients were assigned to receive latanoprost plus either dorzolamide or brinzolamide for four weeks. Thereafter, patients underwent 24-hour IOP monitoring while continuing to receive dorzolamide (for two successive days/nights: at first bid then tid or brinzolamide bid (once overnight. They were then switched over to receive the other test medication for a further four weeks and subsequently reexamined for 24-hour IOP. A questionnaire survey on treatment satisfaction was performed.Results: In 20 patients dorzolamide bid or tid or brinzolamide bid exerted significant (p < 0.001 reductions of IOP from baseline at all time-points over 24 hours; no difference was detected among the treatment regimens. Significantly (p < 0.05 more patients preferred dorzolamide (n = 9 over brinzolamide (n = 2, whereas nine patients gave a neutral answer. Conclusion: Dorzolamide bid or tid and brinzolamide bid when combined with latanoprost therapy elicited significant IOP reduction for 24 hours. It is rational to consider patients’ preference of therapeutic regimen especially long-term users such as those with glaucoma.Keywords: glaucoma, brinzolamide, dorzolamide, latanoprost combination therapy, 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP, questionnaire survey

  7. Correlation of intraocular pressure with blood pressure and body mass index in offsprings of diabetic patients: A cross-sectional study

    Shailaja Patil, Anita Herur, Shashikala GV, Surekharani Chinagudi, Manjula R, Roopa Ankad, Sukanya Badami, Brid SV

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Raised intraocular pressure (IOP has been associated with risk factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM, obesity, body mass index (BMI and sex, increasing the risk of glaucoma causing visual impairment and blindness. Since familial inheritance is known with glaucoma and DM, the aim was to study the IOP and its correlation with BMI and blood pressure (BP in offsprings of DM and also to predict the future/early onset of glaucoma in them. Methods: This was an observational study done in medical undergraduate students. 25 students were included in the study group (offsprings of diabetic parents-cases and 23 students in the control group (offsprings without diabetic history in parents. Height, weight, blood pressure and intraocular pressure were recorded in both the groups and these were compared. Statistical analysis was done by student’s t test and Pearson’s correlation. Results: Cases exhibited a lower IOP, BMI, mean arterial pressure (MAP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, but not SBP, as compared to controls. These differences, however, were not statistically significant except DBP. There was a negative correlation found between IOP and BMI and also between IOP and MAP in cases, whereas in controls, there was a positive correlation found between BMI and IOP and no correlation between IOP and MAP. Conclusion: Offsprings of diabetic patients may be less prone for primary open angle glaucoma. Limitations: The limitations of the present study include a smaller sample size, study of the results in relation to paternal or maternal diabetic status and also of grandparents, so that the inheritance of diabetes and also of IOP can be studied.

  8. Effect of hemodialysis on visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and macular thickness in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Chelala E

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elias Chelala,1,2,* Ali Dirani,1,2,* Ali Fadlallah,1,2 Elise Slim,1,2 Youssef Abdelmassih,1,2 Henry Fakhoury,3 Patrick Baz,1,2 Riad Bejjani1,2 1Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, 2Hôtel-Dieu de France Hospital, Saint-Joseph University, 3Eye and Ear Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon *These two authors contributed equally to this work Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hemodialysis (HD on visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP, and central foveal thickness (CFT in patients with chronic kidney disease.Materials and methods: Forty-nine eyes from 49 chronic kidney-disease patients were analyzed. Causes of chronic kidney disease included diabetes mellitus (n=9 patients, hypertensive nephrosclerosis (n=15 patients, and other causes (n=25 patients. All patients underwent HD in the Dialysis Unit of Hôtel-Dieu de France Hospital. Best-corrected visual acuity, CFT, and IOP were evaluated before and after HD. CFT was measured with spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and IOP was measured with Goldmann applanation tonometry.Results: Neither decimal best-corrected visual acuity (pre-HD 0.71±0.32, post-HD 0.72±0.31; P=0.877 nor CFT (pre-HD 251.39±39.29, post-HD 253.09±39.26; P=0.272 significantly changed after HD. However, mean IOP significantly decreased from 13.99±2.48 before HD to 12.65±2.41 mmHg after HD (P=0.001. IOP change was significantly correlated with serum albumin levels (P=0.008 and weight changes (P=0.047.Conclusion: HD can affect various ocular parameters. This is particularly true of IOP, which decreases significantly following HD. Keywords: chronic kidney disease, hemodialysis, visual acuity, central macular thickness, intraocular pressure

  9. Bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% lowered intraocular pressure of normal-tension glaucoma with minimal adverse events

    Tsumura T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Toyoaki Tsumura,1 Keiji Yoshikawa,2 Hirotaka Suzumura,3 Tairo Kimura,4 Satoshi Sasaki,5 Itaru Kimura,6 Ryuji Takeda71Department of Ophthalmology, Fussa Hospital, Fussa, Tokyo, Japan; 2Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Machida, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Nakano General Hospital, Nakano, Tokyo, Japan; 4Ueno Eye Clinic, Ueno, Tokyo, Japan; 5Sasaki Eye Clinic, Ueno, Tokyo, Japan; 6Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Urayasu, Chiba, Japan; 7Department of Biological Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara, Nara, JapanPurpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% (bimatoprost in Japanese normal-tension glaucoma (NTG patients with an intraocular pressure (IOP of 18 mmHg or less.Methods: Bimatoprost was instilled into the unilateral conjunctival sac of Japanese NTG patients with a baseline IOP of 18 mmHg or less. The time courses of IOP, conjunctival hyperemia, superficial punctate keratitis, and adverse events were examined at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks post bimatoprost instillation.Results: Thirty-two of the 38 enrolled NTG patients (mean age, 64.1 ± 12.6 years; 19 males and 19 females completed the study, with six patients unable to complete the study (two patients discontinued because of side effects and four patients withdrew. The levels of IOP in the treated eyes were significantly reduced (P < 0.0001 from the baseline IOP levels. No significant change in IOP was observed in the fellow eyes. There were significant increases in conjunctival hyperemia. No significant superficial punctate keratitis scores were noted between the baseline and each point examined. Eyelash disorder, eyelid pigmentation, and deepening of the upper eyelid sulcus were observed in 28, six, and three eyes, respectively.Conclusion: Bimatoprost effectively lowered the IOP. It was well tolerated in Japanese NTG patients, with few patients having to discontinue

  10. Measurement of treatment compliance using a medical device for glaucoma patients associated with intraocular pressure control: a survey

    Jean-Philippe Nordmann

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Philippe Nordmann1, Christophe Baudouin1, Jean-Paul Renard2, Philippe Denis3, Antoine Lafuma4, Caroline Laurendeau4, Viviane Jeanbat4, Gilles Berdeaux5,61Hôpital des Quinzes-Vingt, Paris, France; 2Hôpital du Val de Grâce, Paris, France; 3Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Lyon, France; 4Cemka, Bourg-la-Reine, France; 5Alcon France, Rueil-Malmaison, France; 6Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, Paris, FranceObjective: To identify and characterize treatment compliance profiles of glaucoma patients and evaluate the association with intraocular pressure (IOP.Methods: A computerized device (Travalert® that recorded daily instillation times and eye-drop counts was given for 3 months. Patients were declared compliant when at least 2 drops were instilled per day. Compliance rates were calculated for weekdays and weekends, separately, over 8 consecutive weeks. A principal components analysis (PCA was followed by an ascendant hierarchical classification (AHC to identify compliance groups.Results: 140 patients were recruited (mean age 65.5 years; 51.8% female of whom 83.6% had primary open-angle glaucoma with mean IOP 23.9 mmHg before Travalert® use. 60.7% were treated with DuoTrav® (travoprost timolol fixed combination and 39.3% with ­travoprost. The PCA identified two axes (compliance and treatment weeks. The AHC identified 3 ­compliance groups: ‘high’ (56.6%, approx. 80% compliance, ‘medium’ (21.2%, approx. 50% compliance, and ‘low’ (22.1%, approx. 20% compliance. Demographics and glaucoma parameters did not predict low compliance. Final mean IOP was 16.1 mmHg, but higher in the low compliance group (17.7 mmHg, P = 0.02.Conclusions: Compliance measurement by a medical device showed compliance rates <80% by 50% (approx. of patients, significantly impacting IOP control. No demographic or glaucoma variable was associated with low compliance.Keywords: glaucoma, compliance, efficacy, intraocular pressure control

  11. Picos de pressão intra-ocular: comparação entre curva tensional diária, minicurva e medida da pressão intra-ocular às 6 horas Intraocular pressure peaks: comparison between the circadian curve, diurnal curve and the 6 a.m. measurement

    Luciana Duarte Rodrigues

    2004-02-01

    ária e da minicurva.INTRODUCTION: Intraocular pressure (IOP is a major risk factor for the development of open angle glaucoma (OAG. Intraocular pressure control is the main target of glaucoma therapy at the moment. The 24-hour intraocular pressure curve (circadian curve-CC is of great importance for open angle glau-coma diagnosis and follow-up. Because of practical facilities, simplified methods such as the diurnal curve (DC have been used. PURPOSE: Comparison between circadian curve and diurnal curve as regards intraocular pressure peak detection and the verification of the influence of postural variation on 6 a.m. measurement. METHODS: Sixty-four open angle glaucoma or suspected glaucoma patients (126 eyes were submitted to circadian curve. Diurnal curves considered 9 a.m. - noon - 3 p.m. 6 p.m. measurements of the circadian curve. At 6 a.m., measurements were performed in the dark, while patients were lying, with the Perkins tonometer. Then, another measurement was taken, with the Goldmann tonometer with the patients seated. Mean intraocular pressure and intraocular pressure peaks in the circadian and diurnal curves were compared, as well as the time when the peaks occurred. RESULTS: Mean IOP was higher in the open angle glaucoma patients in both the circadian curve and diurnal curve. When the circadian curve and diurnal curve were compared, mean intraocular pressure was higher in the 6 a.m. circadian curve IOP measurement was higher when taken in bed. The diurnal curve did not detect 60.42% of the peaks in open angle glaucoma patients and 88.24% of the peaks in suspected glaucoma patients. CONCLUSIONS: 1. The circadian curve detects more intraocular pressure peaks than the diurnal curve; 2. Six a.m. intraocular pressure is higher when taken in bed; 3. 6 a.m. intraocular pressure in bed is higher than the mean intraocular pressure in both circadian curve and diurnal curve.

  12. Repeatability of intraocular pressure measurements with icare pro rebound, Tono-Pen AVIA and Goldmann tonometers in sitting and reclining positions

    C. Schweier; Hanson, J V; Funk, J; Töteberg-Harms, M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Icare Pro (ICP) is a new Rebound tonometer that is able to measure intraocular pressure (IOP) in both sitting and reclining positions. In this study, the gold standard Goldmann tonometer (GAT) was compared to ICP and Tono-Pen AVIA (TPA). Hypothesis was that repeatability of GAT is superior to ICP and TPA. METHODS: 36 eyes of 36 healthy caucasian individuals, 13 male and 26 females, 17 right and 19 left eyes have been included in this prospective, randomized, cross-section...

  13. Intraocular Pressure-Lowering Effects of Commonly Used Fixed-Combination Drugs with Timolol: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Cheng, Jin-Wei; Cheng, Shi-Wei; Gao, Lian-Di; Lu, Guo-Cai; Wei, Rui-Li

    2012-01-01

    Background The first goal of medical therapy in glaucoma is to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP), and the fixed-combination medications are needed to achieve sufficiently low target IOP. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate IOP-lowering effect of the commonly used fixed-combination drugs containing 0.5% timolol. Methods Pertinent publications were identified through systematic searches. Over 85% of the patients had to be diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma...

  14. Intraocular pressure reduction using a fixed combination of timolol maleate 0.5% and brimonidine tartrate 0.2% administered three times daily

    Moisseiev E; Kurtz S; Lazar M.; Shemesh G

    2013-01-01

    Elad Moisseiev, Shimon Kurtz, Moshe Lazar, Gabi ShemeshDepartment of Ophthalmology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, IsraelBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a fixed combination of timolol maleate 0.5% + brimonidine tartrate 0.2% (Combigan®) for reduction for intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with glaucoma when the dose frequency is increased from twice to three times daily.Methods: The patients included had either primary ...

  15. Comparison between 0.5% timolol maleate and 0.2% brimonidine tartrate in controlling increase in intraocular pressure after neodymium: yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser capsulotomy

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of prophylactically given 0.5% Timolol maleate and 0.2% Brimonidine tartrate in controlling increase in intraocular pressure after neodymium (Nd) : yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) laser capsulotomy. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Ophthalmology Department, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore from 15-05-2009 to 14-05-2010 for a duration of 12 months. Material and Methods: In this study, 90 consecutive patients were referred from outpatient department for Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy. Hospital ethical committee's approval for this research proposal and the informed consent was taken. These patients were equally divided into two groups A and B, comprising of 45 patients in each group. Group A was control group which received 0.5% Timolol maleate. Group B was experimental group which received 0.2% Brimonidine tartrate. Intraocular pressure was measured using Goldmann tonometer before instilling these topical medications. These medications were administered topically 1 hour before the laser procedure. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was recorded 1 and 3 hours after laser capsulotomy. Results: In patients belonging to group A, 42 (93.3%) patients had effective control of IOP (raise of less than or equal to 5 mmHg from the baseline) after 3 hours of Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy whereas 28 (62.2%) patients had effective control of IOP after the same period of time in group-B with significant difference (p<0.001). Conclusion: Use of prophylactic topical antiglaucoma medications before doing Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy is a effective way to reduce post laser spike of intraocular pressure. Present study showed that the use of 0.5% timolol maleate was safe and more effective than 0.2% brimonidine tartrate when given 1 hour before laser capsulotomy. (author)

  16. Effects of brinzolamide vs timolol as an adjunctive medication to latanoprost on circadian intraocular pressure control in primary open-angle glaucoma Japanese patients

    Ishikawa, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    Makoto Ishikawa1,2, Takeshi Yoshitomi11Department of Ophthalmology, Akita University Faculty of Medicine, Akita, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Ogachi Central Hospital, Akita, JapanPurpose: To study the effect of the concomitant use of brinzolamide and latanoprost on the 24-hour variation in intraocular pressure (IOP) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients first treated with timolol and latanoprost.Methods: We studied 30 eyes from 30 POAG patients previously treated with latanop...

  17. Role of fixed-combination brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension

    Beckers, Henny

    2009-01-01

    Henny JM Beckers, Jan SAG Schouten, Carroll AB WebersUniversity Eye Clinic, Maastricht, The NetherlandsAbstract: Brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% is a new fixed-combination for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Brinzolamide/timolol has a favorable safety profile, with an incidence of ocular burning and stinging <5%. Published data show that brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% and dorzolamide 2%/timolol 0.5% have similar efficacies for lowering intraocular pressure (IOP)...

  18. To evaluate the effects of dexmedetomidine on intraocular pressure and haemodynamic changes in response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation

    Tanuja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most important prerequisites for neurosurgeries are brain relaxation, need of stable haemodynamics with less fluctuation in intracranial pressure and speedy recovery from anaesthesia. Endotracheal intubation is the major stressful stimuli that can elicit a marked pressor response. Various drugs have been used to attenuate these reflexes. Dexmedetomidine, a highly selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, have neuroprotective, cardioprotective, and sedative effects so it is potentially useful during neuroanaesthesia. This is a prospective randomised control trial carried out to see whether administration of Dexmedetomidine prior to intubation can attenuate the various haemodynamic responses, intraocular pressure (IOP and the requirement of induction dose of propofol in control and study group. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients (ASA grade 1, 2 scheduled for intracranial tumour surgeries were divided into two groups (25 each. Group D received Dexmedetomidine 0.8 μg/kg i.v. over 10 mins and group C received 20 ml saline. Anaesthesia induced with Propofol, dose adjusted using bispectral index monitor. The groups were compared with IOP, Heart rate (HR, Mean arterial pressure (MAP, and dose of Propofol required for induction. Results : Groups were well matched for their demographic data and pre-operative. IOP in both the eyes decreases significantly after premedication and remained below baseline even after 10 th min of intubation in group D while in Group C; it increased significantly after intubation and remained above baseline. The difference between groups was also statistically significant. HR and MAP decreased significantly in patients of group D compared to group C (P < 0.05. Patients were more haemodynamicaly stable at all time points after premedication in group D (P < 0.05. Propofol requirements for induction was lesser in group D (P < 0.05. Bradycardia and hypotension incidences were higher in group D. Conclusion

  19. Changes in intraocular pressures during laparoscopy: a comparison of propofol total intravenous anesthesia to desflurane-thiopental anesthesia.

    Asuman, Arslan Onuk; Baris, Arslan; Bilge, Karsli; Bozkurt, Selen; Nurullah, Bülbüler; Meliha, Kahraman; Umit, Celik

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine intraocular pressure (IOP) changes during laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed under either desflurane-thiopental anesthesia or propofol total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA). 36 patients who will undergo elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly divided into one of two groups: desflurane (Group D, n=18) or propofol (Group P, n=18). All patients received fentanyl 2 micro/kg IV, and then breathed 100% oxygen for 3 minutes prior to induction of anesthesia. Anesthesia was induced by using thiopental 5 mg/kg IV in Group D and 2 mg/kg IV propofol in group P. Neuromuscular block was achieved with rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg IV. Anesthesia was maintained with desflurane 3-6% in group D and propofol infusion 5-10 mg/kg/h in group P. Desflurane and propofol concentrations were adjusted to maintain mean arterial pressure witihin 20% of the preinduction value. During anaesthesia, fractionated doses of fentanyl 0.5-1 micro g /kg IV and maintenance doses of muscle relaxants were used. In both groups, the the mixture 60% nitrous oxide and 40% oxygen was administered used. Arterial pressure, heart rate, ETCO2, SpO2 and IOP were recorded at the predefined time points. Creation of pneumoperitoneum resulted in a significant increase in IOP which remained elevated throughout the operation in both groups. Also, we recorded a similar IOP changes with both techniques except at five minutes after pneumoperitoneum in 15 degrees reverse Trendelenburg position during desflurane-thiopental anesthesia. In c6nclusion, desflurane-thiopental anesthesia maintains the IOP at least at similar levels compared to propofol TIVA anesthesia. PMID:23833850

  20. Time Course of Age-dependent Changes in Intraocular Pressure and Retinal Ganglion Cell Death in DBA/2J Mouse

    Xiulan Zhang; Mei Zhang; Marcel Y. Avila; Jian Ge; Alan M. Laties

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To characterizes the progression of glaucoma in DBA/2J mice by measuring intraocular pressure (IOP) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) numbers in mice of various ages.Methods: A quantitative assessment of the pathophysiology of the DBA/2J mice was performed and the C57/BL6 mice was used as control. The IOP was measured by the servo-null micropipette system; the regional patterns of the loss of RGCs were determined by cell count of retrogradely-labeled RGCs.Results: The baseline IOP for DBA/2J mice at 7 weeks was (16.6 ± 1.2)mm Hg.Then IOP increased extend to 12 months, with the peak of (25.2 ± 1.2)mm Hg at 6 months of age. Retinal ganglion cell numbers did not decrease relative to control until 12 months of age (P=0.006), when the loss was proportionally higher in peripheral regions (P<0.05).Conclusion: The elevation in IOP precedes the loss of RGCs by several months.RGCs cell loss occurs particularly in peripheral regions of the retina. These findings expand our understanding of the changes in DBA/2J mice and provide information for experiments design when they are used as a glaucoma model for future studies of RGCs degeneration in glaucoma.

  1. Goldmann applanation tonometry compared with corneal-compensated intraocular pressure in the evaluation of primary open-angle Glaucoma

    Ehrlich Joshua R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To better understand the role of corneal properties and intraocular pressure (IOP in the evaluation of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG; and to determine the feasibility of identifying glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON using IOP corrected and uncorrected for corneal biomechanics. Methods Records from 1,875 eyes of consecutively evaluated new patients were reviewed. Eyes were excluded if central corneal thickness (CCT or Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA measurements were unavailable. Presence or absence of GON was determined based on morphology of the optic disc, rim and retinal nerve fiber layer at the time of clinical examination, fundus photography and Heidelberg Retinal Tomography. Goldmann-applanation tonometry (GAT in the untreated state was recorded and Goldmann-correlated (IOPg and corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc were obtained using the ORA. Glaucomatous eyes were classified as normal or high-tension (NTG, HTG using the conventional cutoff of 21 mm Hg. One eligible eye was randomly selected from each patient for inclusion. Results A total of 357 normal, 155 HTG and 102 NTG eyes were included. Among NTG eyes, IOPcc was greater than GAT (19.8 and 14.4 mm Hg; p  Conclusions IOPcc may account for measurement error induced by corneal biomechanics. Compared to GAT, IOPcc may be a superior test in the evaluation of glaucoma but is unlikely to represent an effective diagnostic test.

  2. Modification of hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens with poly(ethylene glycol) by atmospheric pressure glow discharge: A facile approach

    To improve the anterior surface biocompatibility of hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) in a convenient and continuous way, poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEGs) were immobilized by atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) treatment using argon as the discharge gas. The hydrophilicity and chemical changes on the IOL surface were characterized by static water contact angle and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to confirm the covalent binding of PEG. The morphology of the IOL surface was observed under field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The surface biocompatibility was evaluated by adhesion experiments with platelets, macrophages, and lens epithelial cells (LECs) in vitro. The results revealed that the anterior surface of the PEG-grafted IOL displayed significantly and permanently improved hydrophilicity. Cell repellency was observed, especially in the PEG-modified IOL group, which resisted the attachment of platelets, macrophages and LECs. Moreover, the spread and growth of cells were suppressed, which may be attributed to the steric stabilization force and chain mobility effect of the modified PEG. All of these results indicated that hydrophobic acrylic IOLs can be hydrophilic modified by PEG through APGD treatment in a convenient and continuous manner which will provide advantages for further industrial applications.

  3. Investigation of postoperative intraocular pressure in cases of silicone oil removal using 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy with oblique incisions

    Takashina H

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hirotsugu Takashina,1,2 Akira Watanabe,2 Hiroshi Tsuneoka2 1Department of Ophthalmology, National Hospital Organization Sagamihara Hospital, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP in cases of silicone oil (SO removal when using 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy (TSV with oblique incisions.Methods: We enrolled ten consecutive eyes with SO removal (SO group and eleven consecutive eyes with idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM as the initial vitrectomy (ERM group in cases using 25-gauge TSV with oblique incisions. Postoperative IOPs were compared between the two groups at each of the four examination periods.Results: No significant differences were identified in any of the periods examined.Conclusion: The use of 25-gauge TSV with oblique incisions resulted in almost equivalent postoperative IOPs between cases with SO removal and idiopathic ERM as the initial operation. Self-sealing sclerotomy in 25-gauge TSV with oblique incisions may primarily involve the valve architecture, and be complemented by vitreous incarceration. Keywords: sclerotomy leakage, self-sealing, silicone oil tamponade, remnant vitreous, hypotony, idiopathic epiretinal membrane

  4. Changes in the retrobulbar arterial circulation after decrease of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with primary open angle glaucoma

    Knežević Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An altered perfusion of the optic nerve head has been proposed as a pathogenic factor in glaucoma. Objective. To evaluate changes of haemodynamic parameters in the retrobulbar arterial circulation after a decrease of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG. Methods. Twenty-six patients were examined, 14 men and 12 women, 21 up to 50 years old and 5 below, all with previously diagnosed and treated POAG, and all examined at the Eye Clinic, Clinical Centre of Serbia. IOP was measured both with a Goldmann aplanation tonometer and dynamic contour tonometer. Central corneal thickness was measured with ultrasound pachymeter. Imaging of the retrobulbar arterial circulation by colour Doppler was performed at the Neurology Clinic, Clinical Centre of Serbia. It involved measuring of haemodynamic parameters of the ophthalmic artery, central retinal artery, and posterior ciliary arteries. Peak systolic velocity (PSV and end-diastolic velocity (EDV were measured, and resistive index (RI and pulsatility index (PI were calculated. Results. Haemodynamic arterial parameters PSV and EDV in the ophthalmic and central retinal artery after decrease of IOP were lower, while RI and PI were higher. In the posterior ciliary arteries PSV, EDV and PI were lower, and RI was higher. Conclusion. Changes of the retrobulbar arterial circulation after elevated IOP in POAG patients are important for approach and treatment, while the role of vascular factors in the supplement of the optic disc neuroretinal rim could be a key for progression backlash of glaucoma and the radix of neuroprotection.

  5. Factors Influencing Intraocular Pressure Changes after Laser In Situ Keratomileusis with Flaps Created by Femtosecond Laser or Mechanical Microkeratome.

    Lin, Meng-Yin; Chang, David C K; Shen, Yun-Dun; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Lin, Chang-Ping; Wang, I-Jong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe factors that influence the measured intraocular pressure (IOP) change and to develop a predictive model after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with a femtosecond (FS) laser or a microkeratome (MK). We retrospectively reviewed preoperative, intraoperative, and 12-month postoperative medical records in 2485 eyes of 1309 patients who underwent LASIK with an FS laser or an MK for myopia and myopic astigmatism. Data were extracted, such as preoperative age, sex, IOP, manifest spherical equivalent (MSE), central corneal keratometry (CCK), central corneal thickness (CCT), and intended flap thickness and postoperative IOP (postIOP) at 1, 6 and 12 months. Linear mixed model (LMM) and multivariate linear regression (MLR) method were used for data analysis. In both models, the preoperative CCT and ablation depth had significant effects on predicting IOP changes in the FS and MK groups. The intended flap thickness was a significant predictor only in the FS laser group (P LASIK with an FS laser. PMID:26824754

  6. Factors Influencing Intraocular Pressure Changes after Laser In Situ Keratomileusis with Flaps Created by Femtosecond Laser or Mechanical Microkeratome.

    Meng-Yin Lin

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe factors that influence the measured intraocular pressure (IOP change and to develop a predictive model after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK with a femtosecond (FS laser or a microkeratome (MK. We retrospectively reviewed preoperative, intraoperative, and 12-month postoperative medical records in 2485 eyes of 1309 patients who underwent LASIK with an FS laser or an MK for myopia and myopic astigmatism. Data were extracted, such as preoperative age, sex, IOP, manifest spherical equivalent (MSE, central corneal keratometry (CCK, central corneal thickness (CCT, and intended flap thickness and postoperative IOP (postIOP at 1, 6 and 12 months. Linear mixed model (LMM and multivariate linear regression (MLR method were used for data analysis. In both models, the preoperative CCT and ablation depth had significant effects on predicting IOP changes in the FS and MK groups. The intended flap thickness was a significant predictor only in the FS laser group (P < .0001 in both models. In the FS group, LMM and MLR could respectively explain 47.00% and 18.91% of the variation of postoperative IOP underestimation (R2 = 0.47 and R(2 = 0.1891. In the MK group, LMM and MLR could explain 37.79% and 19.13% of the variation of IOP underestimation (R(2 = 0.3779 and 0.1913 respectively. The best-fit model for prediction of IOP changes was the LMM in LASIK with an FS laser.

  7. Interface Fluid Syndrome Induced by Uncontrolled Intraocular Pressure Without Triggering Factors After LASIK in a Glaucoma Patient: A Case Report.

    Shoji, Nobuyuki; Ishida, Akira; Haruki, Takahiro; Matsumura, Kazuhiro; Kasahara, Masayuki; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2015-09-01

    This study sought to describe a glaucoma patient with interface fluid syndrome (IFS) induced by uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP) without triggering factors after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Case report and review of the literature. A 23-year-old man with open-angle glaucoma underwent bilateral LASIK for myopia in 2009. Two years later, the patient reported sudden vision loss. The IOP in the right eye was not measurable using Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT), but was determined to be 33.7 mm Hg using a noncontact tonometer. IFS was diagnosed based on the presence of space-occupying interface fluid on anterior segment optical coherence tomography images. After a trabeculectomy was performed, the IOP decreased to 10 mm Hg, and GAT measurement became possible. However, the corneal fold remained visible in the flap interface. Six months later, the IOP in the left eye increased, and a trabeculectomy was performed during the early stages of this increase in IOP. Following this procedure, the IOP decreased, and visual acuity remained stable. In glaucoma cases that involve a prior increase in IOP, IOP can continue to increase during the disease course even if temporary control of IOP has been achieved. If LASIK is performed in such cases, the treatment of glaucoma becomes insufficient because of underestimation of the typical IOP. In fact, the measurement of IOP can become difficult because of high-IOP levels. Therefore, LASIK should not be performed on patients with glaucoma who are at high risk of elevated IOP. PMID:26426645

  8. Effects of systemic domestic recombinant human erythropoietin on HIF-1α expression in the retina in a rabbit model of acute high intraocular pressure

    Yan-ping Song; Jian-ming Wang; Mei Zhang; Na Hui; Shi-ping Zhao; Kai Hu

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the expression of hypoxia inducible faetor-1α (HIF-1α) in the retina of rabbits with acute high intraocular pressure and to investigate the mechanism of systemic domestic recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) protecting the retina from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods First, control group and model group were established in rabbit eyes. The acute high intraocular pressure model was established by saline perfusion into anterior chamber, and then hypodermic injection of domestic rhEPO was made. HIF-1α protein in the retina was observed by immunohistochemical staining method on days 1, 3, 7 and 14 after retinal ischemla-reperfusion, respectively. Results No cells with HIF-la positive expression were observed in the retina of the control group. Ceils with HIF-1α positive expression in the model group outnumbered those in the control group (P < 0. 01). The resemblance pattern occurred in EPO group but its degree was slightly greater than that in the model group from day 3 after ischemia-reperfusion (P<0.05). Conclusion Domestic rhEPO can down-regulate the expression of HIF-1α in the retina with acute high intraocular pressure, which may be one of the mechanisms that rhEPO protects the retina from ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  9. Effect on intraocular pressure of switching from latanoprost and travoprost monotherapy to timolol fixed combinations in patients with normal-tension glaucoma.

    Igarashi, Ryoko; Togano, Tetsuya; Sakaue, Yuta; Yoshino, Takaiko; Ueda, Jun; Fukuchi, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) of switching from latanoprost and travoprost monotherapy to timolol fixed combinations in Japanese patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). Methods. 27 NTG patients (54 eyes) were compared IOP, superficial punctuate keratitis (SPK) scores, and conjunctival injection scores in eyes treated with prostaglandin (PG) or PG analog/beta-blocker (PG/b) fixed-combination 6 months after the change in therapy. Results. The mean baseline intraocular pressure was 17.4 ± 1.59 mmHg in eyes receiving PG therapy only and 17.4 ± 1.69 mmHg in eyes switched to PG/b. Switching to fixed combination therapy from PG monotherapy, the mean IOP was 13.1 ± 1.79 mmHg (P < 0.001)  (-24.71% reduction from baseline) at 6 months. The mean conjunctival injection score was 0.69 for eyes on PG monotherapy and 0.56 for eyes on fixed combination therapy (P = 0.028). The mean SPK scores were 0.46 and 0.53. This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.463). Conclusions. Switching from PG monotherapy to PG/b fixed combination therapy for NTG resulted in a greater intraocular pressure reduction than PG alone without increasing the number of instillations. PMID:25505978

  10. Effect on Intraocular Pressure of Switching from Latanoprost and Travoprost Monotherapy to Timolol Fixed Combinations in Patients with Normal-Tension Glaucoma

    Ryoko Igarashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the effect on intraocular pressure (IOP of switching from latanoprost and travoprost monotherapy to timolol fixed combinations in Japanese patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG. Methods. 27 NTG patients (54 eyes were compared IOP, superficial punctuate keratitis (SPK scores, and conjunctival injection scores in eyes treated with prostaglandin (PG or PG analog/beta-blocker (PG/b fixed-combination 6 months after the change in therapy. Results. The mean baseline intraocular pressure was 17.4±1.59 mmHg in eyes receiving PG therapy only and 17.4±1.69 mmHg in eyes switched to PG/b. Switching to fixed combination therapy from PG monotherapy, the mean IOP was 13.1±1.79 mmHg (P<0.001  (-24.71% reduction from baseline at 6 months. The mean conjunctival injection score was 0.69 for eyes on PG monotherapy and 0.56 for eyes on fixed combination therapy (P=0.028. The mean SPK scores were 0.46 and 0.53. This difference was not statistically significant (P=0.463. Conclusions. Switching from PG monotherapy to PG/b fixed combination therapy for NTG resulted in a greater intraocular pressure reduction than PG alone without increasing the number of instillations.

  11. Comparison of intraocular pressure lowering effect of latanoprost and timolol combination versus latanoprost alone in primary open angle glaucoma

    To compare the intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering effect of topical drug combination (Latanoprost and Timolol) with Latanoprost alone in patients of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG). Study Design: Randomized controlled Trials (RCT). Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology (AFIO) Rawalpindi from December 2009 to May 2011. Patients and Methods: A total of 240 eyes of 120 patients (68 males and 52 females) were included in the study. The patients were randomized into two groups of 60 each using random numbers table. Group A (60 patients, 120 eyes) were put on topical drug combination of Latanoprost and Timolol eye drops and Group B (60 patients, 120 eyes) were treated with topical Latanoprost eye drops alone. IOP assessments were done at baseline, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks intervals after initiation of treatment. Results: Both the groups were age matched with mean age in Group A was 56.39 ± 8.50 years and in Group B was 55.61 ± 8.95 years (p=0.09). Both groups showed significant IOP decrease from the baseline at each follow up interval. However after 8 weeks of start of treatment, pressure lowering effect in group A (14.73 ± 2.50 mmHg) was significantly more as compared to Group B (9.10 ± 2.51 mmHg) (p<0.001). Conclusion: Combination therapy of Latanoprost and Timolol is more effective as compared to monotherapy with Latanoprost in lowering IOP of patients with POAG. (author)

  12. The Effect of Nd: YAG Laser Capsulotomy on Visual Acuity, Intraocular Pressure, Central Corneal Thickness, and Refractive Status

    Nihat Polat

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, intraocular pressure (IOP, central corneal thickness (CCT, and spherical equivalent (SE before and after Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy. Materials and Methods: This study included 68 patients (40 men, 28 women who had posterior capsule opacification. The subjects underwent Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy with a minimal energy and shooting number. BCVA, IOP, CCT, and SE were measured before and 1 week, 1 and 3 months after laser capsulotomy. The post-treatment measurements were compared with the pre-treatment ones statistically. Results: There were statistically significant differences between pre- and post-laser BCVA values at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months (p0.05. There were statistically significant differences between pre- and post-laser SE values at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months (p<0.001. The SE value at 1 week was not statistically significantly different from those at 1 and 3 months (p=0.068 and p=0.541, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between pre- and post-laser CCT values at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months (p<0.001, however, no statistically significant differences were found between the CCT measurement at 1 week and those at 1 and 3 months (p=0.296 and p=0.304, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between pre- and post-laser IOP values at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months (p<0.001, while there were no statistically significant differences between IOP measurements at 1 week and those at 1 and 3 months (p=0.438 and p=0.664, respectively. Conclusion: Substantial changes were observed, especially at first postoperative week, for BCVA, IOP, CCT, and SE in patients with posterior capsule opacification who underwent Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 275-9

  13. Comparing acromegalic patients to healthy controls with respect to intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, and optic disc topography findings

    Emine Sen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to compare the intraocular pressure (IOP, central corneal thickness (CCT, and optic disc topography findings of biochemically controlled acromegalic patients and the control group and to evaluate the effect of the duration of acromegaly and serum growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 levels on these ocular parameters. Materials and Methods: IOP measurement with Goldmann applanation tonometry, CCT measurement with ultrasonic pachymetry, and topographic analysis with Heidelberg retinal tomograph III were performed on 35 biochemically controlled acromegalic patients and 36 age- and gender-matched controls. Results: Mean IOP and CCT were 14.7 ± 2.9 mmHg and 559.5 ± 44.9 μm in the acromegaly patients and 13.0 ± 1.6 mmHg and 547.1 ± 26.7 μm in controls (P = 0.006 and P = 0.15, respectively. A significant moderate correlation was found between the duration of acromegaly and CCT (r = 0.391 and IOP (r = 0.367. Mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness was significantly lower in the acromegalic patients (0.25 ± 0.05 mm as compared to controls (0.31 ± 0.09 mm (P = 0.01. A significant moderate correlation was detected between IGF-1 level and disc area (r = 0.362, cup area (r = 0.389 and cup volume (r = 0.491. Conclusion: Biochemically controlled acromegalic patients showed significantly higher CCT and IOP levels and lower RNFL thickness compared to healthy controls and the duration of disease was correlated with CCT and IOP levels.

  14. Clinical utility and differential effects of prostaglandin analogs in the management of raised intraocular pressure and ocular hypertension

    Anne J Lee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anne J Lee1,2, Peter McCluskey2,31Manchester Royal Eye Hospital, Manchester, UK; 2University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 3Sydney Eye Hospital, Sydney, AustraliaAbstract: Prostaglandin analogs (PGA are powerful topical ocular hypotensive agents available for the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP. Latanoprost 0.005% and travoprost 0.004% are prodrugs and analogs of prostaglandin F2a. Bimatoprost 0.03% is regarded as a prostamide, and debate continues as to whether it is a prodrug. The free acids of all 3 PGAs reduce IOP by enhancing uveoscleral and trabecular outflow via direct effects on ciliary muscle relaxation and remodeling of extracellular matrix. The vast majority of clinical trials demonstrate IOP-lowering superiority of latanoprost, bimatoprost and travoprost compared with timolol 0.5%, brimonidine 0.2%, or dorzolamide 2% monotherapy. Bimatoprost appears to be more efficacious in IOP-lowering compared with latanoprost, with weighted mean difference in IOP reduction documented in one meta-analysis of 2.59% to 5.60% from 1- to 6-months study duration. PGAs reduce IOP further when used as adjunctive therapy. Fixed combinations of latanoprost, bimatoprost or travoprost formulated with timolol 0.5% and administered once daily are superior to monotherapy of its constituent parts. PGA have near absence of systemic side effects, although do have other commonly encountered ocular adverse effects. The adverse effects of PGA, and also those found more frequently with bimatoprost use include ocular hyperemia, eyelash growth, and peri-ocular pigmentary changes. Iris pigmentary change is unique to PGA treatment. Once daily administration and near absence of systemic side effects enhances tolerance and compliance. PGAs are often prescribed as first-line treatment for ocular hypertension and open-angle glaucoma.Keywords: prostaglandin analog, glaucoma, ocular hypertension, latanoprost, bimatoprost, travoprost

  15. Estudo da correlação entre pressão intra-ocular e espessura corneana central (projeto glaucoma Intraocular pressure vs central corneal thickness:a comparative study (glaucoma project

    Kenji Sakata

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Avaliar a distribuição da espessura corneana central (ECC e sua relação com a pressão intra-ocular (PIO em um grupo de pacientes e demonstrar a utilidade da paquimetria para avaliar a PIO em casos selecionados. Métodos: A espessura corneana central foi determinada em 167 pacientes com mais de 40 anos de idade (319 olhos por meio de paquimetria ultra-sônica. A pressão intra-ocular foi medida com tonômetro de aplanação de Goldmann. Resultados: A ECC média dos 319 olhos foi 0,5173 + 0,0377 mm, sendo o valor máximo 0,656 mm e o mínimo 0,430 mm. A PIO média foi 16,44 + 3,88 mmHg, a pressão máxima 30 mmHg e a pressão mínima 8 mmHg. Foi observada uma regressão linear de 0,13677 nas variáveis analisadas (p=0,0145, não havendo diferença entre sexo e idade. Dividiu-se as observações em dois grupos: grupo I -- PIO £ 21 mmHg -- com 285 olhos que apresentaram uma ECC média de 0,517 + 0,0376; e o grupo II -- PIO > 21 mmHg -- com 34 olhos que apresentaram uma ECC média de 0,519 + 0,0393. Conclusão: Observou-se uma regressão linear entre PIO e ECC, ou seja, quanto maior a ECC maior será a PIO. Demonstrou-se a utilidade da paquimetria corneana na avaliação da PIO daqueles pacientes em que esta estava falsamente aumentada ou diminuída na tonometria de aplanação, direcionando a terapêutica a pacientes realmente portadores de glaucoma.Purpose: To evaluate the distribution of the central corneal thickness (CCT and its relationship with the intraocular pressure (IOP in a group of patients and to demonstrate the usefulness of the pachymeter to evaluate IOP in selected cases. Methods: The central cornea thickness of 167 patients over 40 years old (319 eyes was determined using ultrasonic pachymetry. The intraocular pressure was measured by the "Goldmann" applanation tonometer.Results: The CCT average of the 319 eyes was 0.5173 + 0.0377mm, the maximum value being 0.656mm and the minimum value 0.430mm. The IOP average was

  16. Comparison of Intraocular Pressure, Blood Pressure, Ocular Perfusion Pressure and Blood Flow Fluctuations During Dorzolamide Versus Timolol Add-On Therapy in Prostaglandin Analogue Treated Glaucoma Subjects

    Ruta Barsauskaite

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the effects of dorzolamide and timolol add-on therapy in open-angle glaucoma (OAG patients previously treated with prostaglandin analogue (Pg, by evaluating fluctuations in the intraocular (IOP, blood (BP, ocular perfusion pressures (OPP and retrobulbar blood flow (RBF parameters. Methods: 35 OAG patients (35 eyes, 31 women (88.6% age 63.3 (8.9 years were evaluated in a 3 month randomized, cross-over, single-masked study. During the experiments BP, heart rate, IOP and OPP were assessed 4 times per day (8–12–16–20 h. RBF was measured twice per day (8–20 h using Color Doppler imaging in the ophthalmic (OA, central retinal (CRA, nasal (nSPCA and temporal (tSPCA posterior ciliary arteries. In each vessel, peak systolic velocity (PSV and end-diastolic velocity (EDV were assessed and vascular resistance (RI calculated. Results: Both add-on therapies lowered IOP in a statistically significant manner from 15.7 ± 2.4 mmHg at latanoprost baseline to 14.9 ± 2.2 mmHg using dorzolamide (p < 0.001 and 14.2 ± 1.9 mmHg using timolol (p < 0.001. The IOP lowering effect was statistically significant at 20 h, favoring timolol as compared to dorzolamide (1.4 ± 2.4 vs. 0.2 ± 2.1 mmHg, (p < 0.05. Dorzolamide add-on therapy showed smaller IOP (2.0 ± 1.4, SPP (13.3 ± 7.9, systolic BP (13.5 ± 8.7 and diastolic BP (8.4 ± 5.4 fluctuations as compared to both latanoprost baseline or timolol add-on therapies. Higher difference between morning and evening BP was correlated to decreased evening CRA EDV in the timolol group (c = −0.41; p = 0.01. With increased MAP in the morning or evening hours, we found increased evening OA RI in timolol add-on group (c = 0.400, p = 0.02; c = 0.513, p = 0.002 accordingly. Higher MAP fluctuations were related to impaired RBF parameters during evening hours-decreased CRA EDV (c = −0.408; p = 0.01, increased CRA RI (c = 0.576; p < 0.001 and tSPCA RI (c = 0.356; p = 0.04 in the dorzolamide group and

  17. Analysis of the effects of non-supine sleeping positions on the stress, strain, deformation and intraocular pressure of the human eye

    Volpe, Peter A.

    This thesis presents analytical models, finite element models and experimental data to investigate the response of the human eye to loads that can be experienced when in a non-supine sleeping position. The hypothesis being investigated is that non-supine sleeping positions can lead to stress, strain and deformation of the eye as well as changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) that may exacerbate vision loss in individuals who have glaucoma. To investigate the quasi-static changes in stress and internal pressure, a Fluid-Structure Interaction simulation was performed on an axisymmetrical model of an eye. Common Aerospace Engineering methods for analyzing pressure vessels and hyperelastic structural walls are applied to developing a suitable model. The quasi-static pressure increase was used in an iterative code to analyze changes in IOP over time.

  18. Repeatability of intraocular pressure measurements with Icare PRO rebound, Tono-Pen AVIA, and Goldmann tonometers in sitting and reclining positions

    Schweier, Caterina; Hanson, James VM; Funk, Jens; Töteberg-Harms, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background: Icare PRO (ICP) is a new Rebound tonometer that is able to measure intraocular pressure (IOP) in both sitting and reclining positions. In this study, the gold standard Goldmann tonometer (GAT) was compared to ICP and Tono-Pen AVIA (TPA). Hypothesis was that repeatability of GAT is superior to ICP and TPA. Methods: 36 eyes of 36 healthy caucasian individuals, 13 male and 26 females, 17 right and 19 left eyes have been included in this prospective, randomized, cross-sectional study....

  19. Repeatability of intraocular pressure measurements with Icare PRO rebound, Tono-Pen AVIA, and Goldmann tonometers in sitting and reclining positions

    Schweier, Caterina; Hanson, James VM; Funk, Jens; Töteberg-Harms, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background Icare PRO (ICP) is a new Rebound tonometer that is able to measure intraocular pressure (IOP) in both sitting and reclining positions. In this study, the gold standard Goldmann tonometer (GAT) was compared to ICP and Tono-Pen AVIA (TPA). Hypothesis was that repeatability of GAT is superior to ICP and TPA. Methods 36 eyes of 36 healthy caucasian individuals, 13 male and 26 females, 17 right and 19 left eyes have been included in this prospective, randomized, cross-sectional study. T...

  20. The effect of changes in intraocular pressure on the risk of primary open-angle glaucoma in patients with ocular hypertension: an application of latent class analysis

    Gao Feng; Miller J; Miglior Stefano; Beiser Julia A; Torri Valter; Kass Michael A; Gordon Mae O

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is one of the leading causes of blindness in the United States and worldwide. While lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) has been proven to be effective in delaying or preventing the onset of POAG in many large-scale prospective studies, one of the recent hot topics in glaucoma research is the effect of IOP fluctuation (IOP lability) on the risk of developing POAG in treated and untreated subjects. Method In this paper, we analyzed data fr...

  1. Intraocular Pressure Changes in Non-Glaucomatous Patients Receiving Intravitreal Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Agents

    Kiddee, Weerawat; Montriwet, Mayuree

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To study the prevalence of sustained intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation associated with intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents. Methods Prospective comparative study. Non-glaucomatous patients scheduled to receive intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF therapy were recruited from an outpatient eye clinic, Songklanagarind Hospital between April 2013 and March 2014. The IOP was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometer before and at 1 hour, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after injection. The IOP was compared using the repeated measures analysis. Sustained IOP elevation was defined as either an IOP > 21 mmHg or an increase from baseline ≥ 5 mmHg on two consecutive visits. Results Seventy eyes of 54 patients met the inclusion criteria. The most common diagnosis was diabetic macular edema (48%). The mean IOP ± standard deviation (SD) before treatment was 13.7 ± 2.8 mmHg. The means ± SDs after treatment at 1 hour, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months were 11.3 ± 2.6, 13.7 ± 3.6, 14.1 ± 3.3, 14.0 ± 2.3, and 13.7 ± 2.4 mmHg, respectively. A mean of IOP difference at 1 hour postinjection and at baseline was −2.36 ± 2.5 mmHg (P < 0.001). Four of 70 treated eyes (5.7%) developed sustained IOP elevation (IOP ≥ 5 mmHg from baseline on two consecutive visits). The IOP returned to baseline levels after 1 month, in three eyes. One eye had sustained IOP elevation at 3 and 6 months follow-up. Thereafter, IOP returned to baseline level. There was no need of anti-glaucoma medication. Conclusions After receiving intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF agent, a small proportion of non-glaucomatous eyes developed a sustained IOP elevation without requiring IOP-lowering treatment. At 1 hour postinjection, there was a significant reduction of the mean IOP compared with the baseline level. PMID:26360382

  2. Changes in the retrobulbar hemodynamic parameters after decreasing the elevated intraocular pressure in primary open-angle glaucoma patients

    Marjanović Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ocular blood flow (OBF disturbances could be involved both in the pathogenesis and in progression of glaucomatous damage. Objective. The aim of the study was to compare the retrobulbar hemodynamic parameters in the ophthalmic artery (OA, central retinal artery (CRA and short posterior cilliary arteries (SPCA after decreasing the elevated intraocular pressure (IOP in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG patients by using color Doppler imaging (CDI. Methods. We examined 60 patients (21 male and 39 female with diagnosed and treated POAG. Thirtynine patients had increased IOP (>25 mm Hg. Peak-systolic velocity (PSV, end-diastolic velocity (EDV, Pourcelot resistance index (RI, and pulsatility index (PI were assessed in the OA, CRA, and SPCA. IOP was measured both with the Goldmann Applanation tonometer (GAT and with the Dynamic Contour tonometer (DCT, three times respectively. Ocular pulse amplitude (OPA was measured using DCT. Results. The retrobulbar parameters between the baseline and after IOP reduction showed no difference in measurements. After Bonferroni correction (p≤0.0056, alpha/9 statistical significance was recorded only in the following retrobulbar hemodynamic parameters; DCT (29.8±6.2 vs. 15.5±5.0, GAT (33.8±9.0 vs. 15.0±6.6 and OPA measurements (4.3±1.0 vs. 3.0±1.6, as compared to the baseline. There was no correlation between the changes in IOP measured with either DCT or GAT and changes in the hemodynamic parameters (p>0.05 for all. Pearson correlation coefficient (95% CI showed very good correlation for IOP measurements between DCT and GAT: at baseline 0.83 (0.71 to 0.90 and at the end 0.71 (0.55 to 0.83; p0.05. Conclusion. There was a lack of correlation between the changes in IOP measured with either DCT or GAT and the changes in the hemodynamic parameters.

  3. The Effects of Nd: YAG Laser Capsulotomy on Visual Acuity, Macular Thickness, and Intraocular Pressure in Diabetic Patients

    Elif Betül Türkoğlu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare macular thickness, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, and intraocular pressure (IOP changes after Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy for posterior capsule opacification (PCO in diabetic and non-diabetic eyes. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six eyes of 25 diabetic patients and 40 eyes of 25 non-diabetic patients were included. All patients was treated with Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy. Macular thickness measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT, IOP, and BCVA were evaluated before and 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after the procedure. Results: There was no difference between the two groups in age, gender, and applied laser technique. The time interval between cataract surgery and laser capsulotomy was shorter in the group of diabetic patients (p=0.009. In both groups, BCVA was significantly increased 1 week after laser capsulotomy (respectively, p=0.023, p=0.016. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. There was no significant difference in macular thickness before and after the procedure between the two groups (p>0.05. However, in group 1, cystoid macular edema was observed in 2 eyes during follow-up. Despite prophylactic treatment, IOP remained around 21-30 mmHg in 3 patients in group 1 and 4 patients in group 2 at first day and at the end of the 1st week. IOP was controlled except in one glaucoma patient. In the two groups, IOP values before and after laser capsulotomy were not statistically significantly different (p>0.05. At first day, +2 cells in the anterior chamber were detected in 3 patients in group 1 and in 2 patients in group 2; at 1 week after routine topical steroid treatment, anterior chamber reaction was not observed. Conclusion: It is known that there is a breakdown in the blood-aqueous and inner blood-retinal barriers in diabetes, however, no difference was determined in visual improvement, macular thickness, and IOP when comparing diabetic to non-diabetic eyes. We

  4. Travoprost with sofZia® preservative system lowered intraocular pressure of Japanese normal tension glaucoma with minimal side effects

    Mizoue S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Shiro Mizoue,1 Tadashi Nakano,2 Nobuo Fuse,3 Aiko Iwase,4 Shun Matsumoto,5 Keiji Yoshikawa6 On behalf of the IOP CHANGE Study Group7 1Department of Ophthalmology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Integrative Genomics, Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization, Miyagi, Japan; 4Tajimi Iwase Eye Clinic, Gifu, Japan; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Teishin Hospital, 6Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 7IOP CHecked and Assessed in Normal tension Glaucoma by Exceptional Glaucomatologists Study Group, Japan Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of travoprost with sofZia® preservative system for lowering the intraocular pressure (IOP of Japanese normal tension glaucoma (NTG patients. Methods: In this prospective, multicenter, open-label study, Japanese NTG patients with baseline IOPs <20 mmHg were enrolled after three consecutive time measurements taken at screening and baseline visits. Travoprost with sofZia® was instilled once daily. Lowering effect on IOP, conjunctival hyperemia, superficial punctate keratopathy, and adverse events were examined at week 4, 8, and 12 after drug instillation. Results: One-hundred and three of the 107 enrolled patients (baseline IOP =15.2±2.0 mmHg [mean ± standard deviation] completed the study. The mean IOP value as well as percent reduction was significantly reduced at each visit after travoprost with sofZia® initiation (P<0.0001. The conjunctival hyperemia score was 1 or less throughout the study, though it increased significantly over time. No significant change was observed in superficial punctate keratopathy. The cumulative incidence of side effects such as eyelash changes, eyelid pigmentation, and deepening of the upper lid was 47.6%, 27.2%, and 16.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Travoprost preserved with sofZia® effectively lowered the IOP of Japanese NTG patients. It was

  5. Estimated Trans-Lamina Cribrosa Pressure Differences in Low-Teen and High-Teen Intraocular Pressure Normal Tension Glaucoma: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Si Hyung Lee

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between estimated trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD and prevalence of normal tension glaucoma (NTG with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure (IOP using a population-based study design.A total of 12,743 adults (≥ 40 years of age who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES from 2009 to 2012 were included. Using a previously developed formula, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP in mmHg was estimated as 0.55 × body mass index (kg/m2 + 0.16 × diastolic blood pressure (mmHg-0.18 × age (years-1.91. TLCPD was calculated as IOP-CSFP. The NTG subjects were divided into two groups according to IOP level: low-teen NTG (IOP ≤ 15 mmHg and high-teen NTG (15 mmHg < IOP ≤ 21 mmHg groups. The association between TLCPD and the prevalence of NTG was assessed in the low- and high-teen IOP groups.In the normal population (n = 12,069, the weighted mean estimated CSFP was 11.69 ± 0.04 mmHg and the weighted mean TLCPD 2.31 ± 0.06 mmHg. Significantly higher TLCPD (p < 0.001; 6.48 ± 0.27 mmHg was found in the high-teen NTG compared with the normal group. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in TLCPD between normal and low-teen NTG subjects (p = 0.395; 2.31 ± 0.06 vs. 2.11 ± 0.24 mmHg. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that TLCPD was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in the high-teen IOP group (p = 0.006; OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.15, but not the low-teen IOP group (p = 0.636. Instead, the presence of hypertension was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in the low-teen IOP group (p < 0.001; OR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.16.TLCPD was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in high-teen IOP subjects, but not low-teen IOP subjects, in whom hypertension may be more closely associated. This study suggests that the underlying mechanisms may differ between low-teen and high-teen NTG patients.

  6. Influence of low-density polyethylene addition on coking pressure

    Melendi, Sonia; Barriocanal, C.; R. Alvarez; M.A. Diez

    2014-01-01

    Different amounts of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were added to a bituminous coal used to produce metallurgical coke. The effect of the plastic waste on the carbonization process and more exactly, on the coking pressure were investigated. A movable wall oven at semi-pilot scale was used for measuring coking pressure generated. It was found that coking pressure increases for low LDPE addition levels (1-3 wt.%); however higher amounts of LDPE reduce coking pressure. To explain this behavior ...

  7. Reduction of intraocular pressure and improvement of vision after cataract surgeries in angle closure glaucoma with concomitant cataract patients

    Zhang, Zong-Mei; Niu, Qing; Nie, Yan; Zhang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study is to compare the efficacy of three different cataract surgeries in eyes with angle closure glaucoma (ACG) with concomitant cataract. Methods: A retrospective comparative analysis of 106 ACG patients (112 eyes) with concomitant cataract was conducted between February, 2012 and February, 2014. Clinical outcomes of ACG patients with concomitant cataract underwent phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation (group A, n = 34, 36 eyes, angle closure < 180°); combine...

  8. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate intraocular pressure following sub-Tenon′s local anesthesia for cataract surgery: With and without hyaluronidase added to anesthetic solution

    Naif Al-Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate effect on intraocular pressure (IOP during sub-Tenon′s local anesthesia (LA during cataract surgery with 4 ml of anesthetic injected without and with addition of hyluronidase to anesthetic solution. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled study included 65 eyes of 65 patients undergoing phacoemulsification and lens implant for cataract. The patients were randomized to a standardized procedure of administration of 4 ml of sub-Tenon′s LA without and with addition of 15 IU/ml hylaluronidase to 2% lidocaine (control group and intervention group respectively. IOP measurements were carried out immediately prior to and at 2, 5, and 10 and 15 min after sub-Tenon′s injection using a hand held tonometer (Tonopen. Results: All patients achieved satisfactory akinesia and complete analgesia during surgery. The mean age of patients in control group was 59.56 ± 14.3 years, and 61.77 ± 11.91 years in intervention group (P = 0.507. The mean preinjection and 15 min IOP was 19.16 ± 4.39 and 20.21 ± 5.49 mm Hg, respectively in control group (P = 0.220; and 19.81 ± 3.8 and 19.68 ± 5.19 mmHg respectively in intervention group (P = 0.911. No statistical difference from baseline was detected between preinjection and at 2, 5, 10, and 15 min after injection in control (P = 0.124, 0.310, 0.804, 0.220, respectively and intervention group (P = 0.367, 0.879, 0.765, 0.911 respectively. Conclusion: No significant rise in IOP occurs following injection of sub-Tenon′s LA, when up to 4 ml of anesthetic is injected. The addition of hyaluronidase to 2% lignocaine has no beneficial lowering effect on IOP in sub-Tenon′s LA. Hence, the practice of addition of this agent may not be necessary during cataract surgery.

  9. 眼压磁力连续测量原理与方法%Principle and method of continuous measurement of intraocular pressure based on magnetic force

    康宜华; 周雪芬; 张虹; 陈威

    2011-01-01

    为解决青光眼患者的24h眼压连续测量问题,提出了一种眼压磁力连续测量原理,采用2个永久磁铁同极靠近产生的排斥力对眼球施加压力,通过求解排斥力-距离曲线上波动点处的压力或波动点后的斜率计算得到眼压值.给出了测量系统结构及其磁排斥力仿真计算结果,对猪眼的实验结果显示,眼内压的大小和排斥力-距离曲线波动点处的压力值存在对应关系,该方法可以作为眼压24h连续测量的有效途径.%To solve the problem of the 24h continuous measurements of intraocular pressure (IOP) of the glaucoma patients, a new principle and method based on magnetic force is presented. The pressure to eyeball is produced using the repulsive force generated by two permanent magnets when they are closed by facing the same magnetic pole. The lOP is obtained by calculating the pressure of the fluctuating dot or the rake ratio after the fluctuating dot of the repulsive force-distance curve. The structure of the detecting system and the result of the magnetic simulation of two permanent magnets are given. The results of the pig eye experiments indicate that IOP is relative to the pressure of the fluctuating dot of the repulsive force-distance curve. As a result, the principle and method proposed is feasible for the 24h continuous measurement of intraocular pressure.

  10. Effects of Latanoprost 0.005%/Timolol Maleate 0.5% and Dorzolamide 2%/Timolol Maleate 0.5% Fixed Combinations on 24-hour Intraocular Pressure in Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    Berna Yüce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the effects of latanoprost/timolol maleate and dorzolamid/timolol maleate fixed combinations on-24 hours intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma. Ma te ri als and Met hod: Forty-eight eyes of 24 patients with open-angle glaucoma were enrolled in the study. They were randomized to receive fixed combinations of either latanoprost/timolol maleate (Group 1 - 24 eyes of 12 patients or dorzolamid/timolol maleate (Group 2 - 24 eyes of 12 patients. Patients who achieved intraocular pressure of ≤ 21 mmHg 3 weeks after combined therapy were hospitalized and intraocular pressure was monitored at hour 06:00, 10:00, 14:00, 18:00, 22:00 and 02:00 for 24 hours. Diurnal and nocturnal fluctuations were determined by measurements done between 06:00 and 18:00 hours and between 22:00 and 02:00, respectively. Mean intraocular pressure and fluctuations of intraocular pressure between the two groups were compared. Re sults: There was no difference between the groups in terms of age, sex, visual acuity and cup/disc ratio (p>0.05. Three weeks after combined therapy, all patients achieved target intraocular pressure of ≤ 21 mmHg. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups with regard to mean intraocular pressure over 24 hours (17.1±2.3 mmHg and 17.27±2.3 mmHg for Group 1 and Group 2, respectively; p>0.05. Diurnal fluctuations were 3.6 mmHg for Group 1 and 4.7 mmHg for Group 2; nocturnal fluctuations were 4.3 mmHg for Group 1 and 2.3 mmHg for Group 2. Diurnal fluctuations in Group 1 were lower than in Group 2, while nocturnal fluctuations were lower in Group 2 than in Group 1 (p<0.05. Dis cus si on: Both latanoprost/timolol maleate and dorzolamid/timolol maleate fixed combinations are effective for 24-hour intraocular pressure control. Latanoprost/timolol maleate fixed combination is superior to dorzolamid/timolol maleate in controlling diurnal fluctuations, while dorzolamid/timolol maleate is

  11. Estudo do comportamento da pressão intra-ocular em pacientes diabéticos, hipertensos e normais (Projeto Glaucoma Analysis of the intraocular pressure in diabetics, hypertensive and normal patients (Glaucoma Project

    Kenji Sakata

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analisar os valores da pressão intra-ocular (PIO entre diferentes grupos de pacientes (diabéticos, hipertensos com ou sem retinopatia e a população normal. Métodos: Realizou-se a aferição da pressão intra-ocular (PIO em um total de 924 olhos de 482 pacientes com idade igual ou maior que 40 anos (x=56,70; dp=11,89 examinados segundo um protocolo de estudo que incluiu medida da PIO, pressão arterial e glicemia, além da fundoscopia. A determinação da PIO foi obtida pelo tonômetro de aplanação de "Goldmann" e a glicemia foi aferida por meio de tiras reativas (Dextrostix -- Bayer. Em seguida, os pacientes foram divididos em 7 (sete grupos: hipertensos, hipertensos com retinopatia, diabéticos, diabéticos com retinopatia, hipertensos e diabéticos, hipertensos e diabéticos com retinopatia e a população controle. Resultados: Pelo teste de ANOVA-uma via, numa distribuição normal no nível de significância de 5%, observou-se que o valor médio da PIO é significativamente maior no grupo de pacientes hipertensos sem retinopatia (média PIO=16,10, no grupo dos hipertensos com retinopatia (média PIO=16,33 e no grupo de diabéticos e hipertensos com retinopatia retinopatia (média PIO=16,95. Conclusões: Observou-se que o valor médio da PIO é progressivamente mais elevado conforme o tempo de evolução da doença hipertensiva e também quando esta se encontra associada à diabetes mellitus.Purpose: To correlate the values of intraocular pressure (IOP obtained by applanation tonometer (Haag-Streit, Bern, Switzerland in patients with diabetes mellitus (with or without diabetic retinopathy, hypertension (with or without hyper-tensive diabetic retinopathy and the normal population. Patients and Methods: Subjects participating in the Glau-coma Project (n = 924, 40 or more years old were examined according to standard protocols including IOP measu-rement, fundoscopy, blood pressure and glucose deter-mination. Patients were

  12. Comportamento da pressão intra-ocular segundo os efeitos cardiorrespiratórios e hemodinâmicos induzidos pela anestesia com desflurano, em cães submetidos à hipovolemia experimental Behavior of intraocular pressure according to cardiorespiratory and hemodynamic effects induced by desflurane in dogs subjected to experimental hypovolemia

    Ivia Carmem Talieri

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Observar o comportamento da pressão intra-ocular, segundo os efeitos cardiorrespiratórios e hemodinâmicos induzidos pela anestesia geral com desflurano, em cães submetidos à hipovolemia experimental. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 18 cães, machos e fêmeas, com peso entre 10 e 15 kg. A hipovolemia foi realizada retirando-se 40 ml de sangue/kg de peso. A seguir, a anestesia foi induzida com desflurano através de máscara facial, até que a intubação orotraqueal fosse permitida. A pressão intra-ocular foi medida por tonometria de aplanação. Valores para freqüência cardíaca, débito cardíaco, pressão arterial média, pressão venosa central e pressão parcial de CO2 ao final da expiração e freqüência respiratória foram mensurados. Os parâmetros da avaliação foram registrados após a instrumentalização e antes de qualquer outro procedimento (T0, quinze minutos depois da indução da hipovolemia experimental (T45 e após 30 minutos da indução anestésica (T75. RESULTADOS: A pressão intra-ocular apresentou relação direta somente com a pressão parcial de CO2 no final da expiração. CONCLUSÕES: Não foi possível estabelecer correlação entre alterações da pressão arterial média e da pressão venosa central com a pressão intra-ocular e houve relação direta entre os valores da pressão intra-ocular e os de ETCO2.PURPOSE: To observe the behavior of intraocular pressure according to the cardiopulmonary and hemodynamic effects induced by desflurane in dogs subjected to experimental hypovolemia. METHODS: Eighteen healthy male and female mongrel dogs, weighing between 10 and 15 kg were used. Hypovolemia was induced by withdrawal of 40 ml blood/kg body weight. Then anesthesia was induced with desflurane by mask until tracheal intubation was permitted. Intraocular pressure was measured with applanation tonometry. Heart rate, cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, end-tidal concentration

  13. Base Oil-Extreme Pressure Additive Synergy in Lubricants

    Extreme pressure (EP) additives are those containing reactive elements such as sulfur, phosphorus, and chlorine. In lubrication processes that occur under extremely severe conditions (e.g., high pressure and/or slow speed), these elements undergo chemical reactions generating new materials (tribofi...

  14. Involvement of adenosine A2a receptor in intraocular pressure decrease induced by 2-(1-octyn-1-yl)adenosine or 2-(6-cyano-1-hexyn-1-yl)adenosine.

    Konno, Takashi; Murakami, Akira; Uchibori, Takehiro; Nagai, Akihiko; Kogi, Kentaro; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to clarify the mechanism for the decrease in intraocular pressure by 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives in rabbits. The receptor binding analysis revealed that 2-(1-octyn-1-yl)adenosine (2-O-Ado) and 2-(6-cyano-1-hexyn-1-yl)adenosine (2-CN-Ado) selectively bound to the A(2a) receptor with a high affinity. Ocular hypotensive responses to 2-O-Ado and 2-CN-Ado were inhibited by the adenosine A(2a)-receptor antagonist 1,3,7-trimethyl-8-(3-chlorostyryl)xanthine (CSC), but not by the adenosine A(1)-receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) or the adenosine A(2b)-receptor antagonist alloxazine. In addition, 2-O-Ado and 2-CN-Ado caused an increase in outflow facility, which was inhibited by CSC, but not by DPCPX or alloxazine. Moreover, 2-O-Ado and 2-CN-Ado increased cAMP in the aqueous humor, and the 2-O-Ado-induced an increase in cAMP was inhibited by CSC. These results suggest that 2-O-Ado and 2-CN-Ado reduced intraocular pressure via an increase in outflow facility. The ocular hypotension may be mainly mediated through the activation of adenosine A(2a) receptor, although a possible involvement of adenosine A(1) receptor cannot be completely ruled out. 2-O-Ado and 2-CN-Ado are useful lead compounds for the treatment of glaucoma. PMID:15821340

  15. Corneal thickness and daily curve of intraocular pressure in suspected and glaucomatous patients Espessura corneana e curva diária de pressão intra-ocular em pacientes suspeitos e glaucomatosos

    Sebastião Cronemberger

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate in suspected and glaucomatous patients the correlation between central corneal thickness (CCT and intraocular pressure (IOP, measured during the daily curve of intraocular pressure (DCPo, including CCT and IOP measurements in bed at 6 am. The ocular axial length was also compared. METHODS: 114 eyes from 73 patients, 30 eyes suspected of glaucoma (group I and 84 eyes with chronic open-angle glaucoma (group II were prospectively studied. Both groups were subjected to DCPo with measurements of IOP at 9 am, 12 pm, 6 pm, 10:30 pm and on the next day at 6 am in bed and in darkness before the patient gets up. Using the ultrasonic DGH 5100® device, CCT measurements were performed at 9 am, 6 pm, 10:30 pm and the next day at 6 am in bed before the patient gets up. The ocular axial length was also measured. RESULTS: In the total sample and, separately in each group, the mean IOP was more elevated in bed at 6 am. There were no significant CCT changes during the day within each group or between both groups. No statistically significant difference was found between the mean ocular axial length of both groups. CONCLUSIONS: In suspected and glaucomatous patients, there were no statistically significant CCT variations during the day; therefore, only one CCT measurement is sufficient. Also, there was no statistically significant difference between ocular axial length of both groups.OBJETIVO: Verificar em pacientes suspeitos de glaucoma e glaucomatosos se existe correlação entre a espessura corneana central (ECC e a pressão intra-ocular (Po, medidos durante a curva diária de pressão intra-ocular (CDPo, incluindo-se as medidas da ECC e da Po às 6:00 horas da manhã no leito. Avaliar também comparativamente o diâmetro axial ântero-posterior (Diâm. axial em ambos os grupos. MÉTODOS: 114 olhos de 73 pacientes selecionados no Serviço de Glaucoma do Hospital São Geraldo, foram divididos em dois grupos: grupo I - pacientes suspeitos de

  16. Roles of PI3K and JAK pathways in viability of retinal ganglion cells after acute elevation of intraocular pressure in rats with different autoimmune backgrounds

    Wang Ningli

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently showed that whereas inhibition of PI3K/akt or JAK/STAT pathway promoted retinal ganglion cell (RGC survival after optic nerve (ON injury in Fischer 344 (F344 rats, the same inhibition resulted in aggravated RGC loss after acute intraocular pressure (IOP elevation in Sprague Dawley (SPD rats. In addition, the responses of macrophages to ON injury and acute IOP elevation were different between F344 and Lewis rats, i.e., different autoimmune profiles. Using an acute IOP elevation paradigm in this study, we investigated 1 whether autoimmune background influences PI3K/akt and JAK/STAT functions by examining the effect of PI3K/akt and JAK/STAT pathway inhibition on RGC survival in F344 and Lewis rats, and 2 whether differential actions of macrophages occur in PI3K/akt and JAK/STAT pathways-dependent modulation of RGC survival. IOP elevation was performed at 110 mmHg for 2 hours. PI3K/akt and JAK/STAT pathway inhibitors were applied intravitreally to block their respective pathway signaling transduction. Because macrophage invasion was seen in the eye after the pathway inhibition, to examine the role of these pathways independent of macrophages, macrophages in the retina were removed by intravitreal application of clodronate liposomes. Viable RGCs were retrogradely labelled by FluoroGold 40 hours before animal sacrifice. Results Similar to what was previously observed, significantly more RGCs were lost in Lewis than F344 rats 3 weeks after acute IOP elevation. As in SPD rats, inhibition of the PI3K/akt or JAK/STAT pathway increased the loss of RGCs in both F344 and Lewis rats. Removal of macrophages in the eye by clodronate liposomes reduced RGC loss due to pathway inhibition in both strains. Conclusion This study demonstrates that following acute IOP elevation 1 PI3K/akt and JAK/STAT pathways mediate RGC survival in both F344 and Lewis rats, 2 autoimmune responses do not influence the functions of these two pathways

  17. The study on the changes of NCT measured intraocular pressure before and after LASIK%LASIK术后非接触式眼压计测量值的变化

    郭萌; 陈剑; 刘珏

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the factors affecting noncontact tonometer measurement of intraocular pres-sure after laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIK). Methods The intraocular pressure readings of 159 cases were measured with noncontact tonometer(NCT) before and six months after LASIK was performed. Results The intraocular pressure readings after LASIK were much lower than that before LASIK with statistically significant difference. Conclusion The intraocular pressure readings are lower after LASIK, whcich may be caused by the changes in corneal thickness because of laser treatment.%目的 探讨准分子激光原位角膜磨镶术(LASIK)后影响眼压测量值的因素.方法 对实施准分子激光原位角膜磨镶术(LAISK)的159例患者,于术前和术后6个月分别以非接触式眼压计测量眼压,分析眼压变化的原因.结果 LASIK术后眼压测量值明显低于术前,差异有统计学意义.结论 LASIK术后眼压明显下降,这与激光切削角膜变薄有关.

  18. Role of fixed-combination brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension

    Henny JM Beckers

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Henny JM Beckers, Jan SAG Schouten, Carroll AB WebersUniversity Eye Clinic, Maastricht, The NetherlandsAbstract: Brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% is a new fixed-combination for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Brinzolamide/timolol has a favorable safety profile, with an incidence of ocular burning and stinging <5%. Published data show that brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% and dorzolamide 2%/timolol 0.5% have similar efficacies for lowering intraocular pressure (IOP. There is some evidence that brinzolamide/timolol may be more comfortable. Although patients receiving brinzolamide/timolol may experience more blurred vision on instillation, some data show a preference for brinzolamide/timolol over dorzolamide/timolol. Although available data to assess the role of brinzolamide/timolol in daily clinical practice are still limited, these first results suggest the agent to be a reasonable alternative for patients who do not reach target IOP with monotherapy.

  19. Effects of brinzolamide vs timolol as an adjunctive medication to latanoprost on circadian intraocular pressure control in primary open-angle glaucoma Japanese patients

    Makoto Ishikawa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Makoto Ishikawa1,2, Takeshi Yoshitomi11Department of Ophthalmology, Akita University Faculty of Medicine, Akita, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Ogachi Central Hospital, Akita, JapanPurpose: To study the effect of the concomitant use of brinzolamide and latanoprost on the 24-hour variation in intraocular pressure (IOP in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG patients first treated with timolol and latanoprost.Methods: We studied 30 eyes from 30 POAG patients previously treated with latanoprost monotherapy. After a washout of four weeks in both eyes, all patients were treated with 0.5% timolol and latanoprost. Three months after the initiation of treatment with timolol and latanoprost, the 24-hour IOP variation was measured. Thereafter, all patients were treated with concomitant 1% brinzolamide and latanoprost. Three months after changing the therapeutic regimen, the 24-hour IOP variation was measured a second time. Latanoprost was administered once a day, and timolol and brinzolamide were twice a day. IOP was measured with a noncontact tomometer.Results: On treatment with brinzolamide and latanoprost, a significant decrease in IOP compared to timolol and latanoprost was observed at all time points except at 3 PM and 6 PM. As a group, the patients had a significantly lower diurnal mean IOP and nocturnal mean IOP during treatment with brinzolamide and latanoprost than with timolol and latanoprost.Conclusions: Treatment of POAG with a combination of brinzolamide and latanoprost demonstrated improved hypotensive effects compared with timolol and latanoprost during a 24-hour period.Keywords: circadian intraocular pressure, adverse effects, timolol, brinzolamide

  20. Variação da pressão intraocular após teste submáximo de força no treinamento resistido Intraocular pressure variation after submaximal strength test in resistance training

    Marcelo Conte

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a variação da pressão intraocular (PIO decorrente da aplicação do teste de predição para uma repetição máxima (1RM. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados em estudo observacional 145 calouros (22,04 ± 4,17 anos; de ambos os sexos do curso de Educação Física da Escola Superior de Educação Física de Jundiaí (ESEFJ. Os critérios de exclusão foram: opacidade de meios, alteração de globo ocular ou ausência de globo ocular. Todos os participantes assinaram o Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido. A avaliação da PIO foi determinada por duas medidas consecutivas com o tonômetro de Perkins: i pré-teste: antes do teste de 1RM e ii pós-teste: logo após a realização do teste. O teste de 1RM consistiu em predizer o valor de uma repetição máxima através de repetições até a fadiga. Foram utilizados os seguintes exercícios resistidos: supino, pulley dorsal, desenvolvimento, rosca direta e leg press 45º. Como procedimento estatístico foi empregado o teste "t" de Student pareado. RESULTADOS: Ocorreu redução da PIO após a realização do teste de predição de 1RM: 13,48 ± 3,32 vs.10,20 ± 3,72 mmHg (pPURPOSE: To verify the intraocular pressure (IOP after sub-maximal strength test. METHODS: 145 Physical Education freshmen (22.04 ± 4.17 years old; female and male from Superior Physical Education School of Jundiaí (ESEFJ were evaluated in an observacional study. The exclusion criteria were: media opacity and eyeball absence or changes. All subjects agreed to take part in this research and signed up the Informed Consent. IOP was measured by Perkins tonometer: i pretest: just before the submaximal strength test performance and ii post-test: immediately after the strength test. The strength test consisted in the one-repetition-maximum-assessment through repetition until fatigue. Resistance training exercises such as bench press, pulley dorsal high, shoulder press, arm curl and leg press 45º were performed

  1. ASSESSMENT OF THE FACTORS INFLUENCING AND COMPARING THE INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE WITH THE HELP OF SCHIOTZ INDENTATION TONOMETER AND GOLDMANN’S APPLANATION TONOMETER: A CLINICAL STUDY

    Mridula V Amarnath, Christina Samuel, Sundararajan D

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intraocular pressure (IOP is the fluid pressure inside the eye and is maintained by the equilibrium between the forces determining the formation of aqueous humour and the alteration in the resistance to its outflow. IOP is important to evaluate patients who are at an increased risk of glaucoma. Clinically measurement of IOP is based on principles of indentation and applanation and such a method is called Tonometry. The tonometers used today are the Schiotz Indentataion Tonometer (ST and the Goldmann’s Applanation Tonometer (GAT. However the latter is accepted as the standard one. Aim: 1 To estimate the normal mean IOP for the population under study.2 To study the various factors- age, sex, refractive errors that influence the IOP.3 Merits and demerits of the individual tonometers. Method: A sample size of 100 cases of 200 sets of eyes was taken and divided into 2 groups, Group A with emmetropia, myopia, hypermetropia of both sexes and Group B with frank glaucomatous changes of both sexes. 3 consecutive measurements with GAT were recorded in each eye followed by ST with 5.5gm weight first followed by ST with 7.5gm weight. The whole database was recorded and statistically analysed. Results: Out of the total 200 eyes studied, Group A consisted of 168 apparently normal eyes which included emmetropes, myopes and hypermetropes and Group B comprised of 32 eyes which were frank glaucomatous cases with glaucomatous field defects. On estimating the mean IOP with the help of GAT and ST between the 2 eyes there was not a significant difference. On comparing the refractive status, myopes showed a higher IOP than hypermetropes and emmetropes. With both GAT and ST females had higher IOP than males. The mean IOP increased as age progressed. Group B studies which had frank glaucoma cases showed that the IOP measured with GAT was higher and more accurate to the actual IOP value whereas the readings with Schiotz were variable and unreliable

  2. A 5.2GHz, 0.5mW RF powered wireless sensor with dual on-chip antennas for implantable intraocular pressure monitoring

    Arsalan, Muhammad

    2013-06-01

    For the first time a single chip implantable wireless sensor system for Intraocular Pressure Monitoring (IOPM) is presented. This system-on-chip (SoC) is battery-free and harvests energy from incoming RF signals. The chip is self-contained and does not require external components or bond wires to function. This 1.4mm3 SoC has separate 2.4GHz-transmit and 5.2GHz-receive antennas, an energy harvesting module, a temperature sensor, a 7-bit TIQ Flash ADC, a 4-bit RFID, a power management and control unit, and a VCO transmitter. The chip is fabricated in a standard 6-metal 0.18μm CMOS process and is designed to work with a post-processed MEMS pressure sensor. It consumes 513μW of peak power and when implanted inside the eye, it is designed to communicate with an external reader using on-off keying (OOK). © 2013 IEEE.

  3. Efficacy of trabeculectomy with persistent high intraocular pressure%持续高眼压状态下小梁切除术的临床疗效

    刘慧霞; 高平; 张康玉; 金伟

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨急性闭角型青光眼持续高眼压状态下行小梁切除术的临床疗效.方法 对33例33眼眼压控制不良(大于30 mmHg)的急性闭角型青光眼患者进行小梁切除术,观察术后视力、眼压,术中、术后并发症.结果 1例术中出现爆发性脉络膜上腔出血,1例术后第2d出现局部脉络膜浅脱离,经扩瞳、激素治疗后恢复,其他所有患者手术均顺利完成,未出现眼内出血、恶性青光眼等并发症.术后随访3~12个月,所有患者无需任何药物,眼压均控制在正常范围(8~17 mmHg).术后视力提高31眼,视力不变1眼,视力下降1眼.结论 对急性闭角型青光眼持续高眼压患者,为避免视功能进一步损害,应尽早行手术治疗,小梁切除术是安全有效的措施.%Objective To assess the efficacy of trabeculectomy for primary acute angle-closure glaucome (PACG) with persistent high intraocular pressure(IOP).Methods A retrospective analysis of post-operative visual acuity,intraocular pressure,intra-operative and postoperative complications was performed after trabeculectomy in 33 eyes of 33 patients with PACG and whose IOP was more than 30 mmHg.Results Massive choroidal hemorrhage was observed in one patient (1eye) during surgery.One patient(1 eye)encountered mild choroidal detachment in day 2 post-surgery.Completely cure was achieved after mydriasis and administration of corticoid.All patients did not suffer other severe complications,such as intraocular hemorrhage and malignant glaucoma.Satisfactory IOP control in normal range 8-17 mmHg (1kpa=7.5mmHg)was achieved in all patients without anti-glaucoma medications during 3-12 months of follow-up evaluation.The postoperative visual acuity improved in 31 eyes,remained unchanged in 1 eye,and decreased in 1 eye.Conclusion Trabeculectomy for primary acute angleclosure glaucoma with persistent high IOP is safe and effective.To prevent further damage to visual function,trabeculectomy should be

  4. Estudo do comportamento da pressão intra-ocular em pacientes diabéticos, hipertensos e normais (Projeto Glaucoma) Analysis of the intraocular pressure in diabetics, hypertensive and normal patients (Glaucoma Project)

    Kenji Sakata; Maurício Maia; Leonardo Matsumoto; Emerson K. Oyamaguchi; Ana Cristina A. Carvalho; Northon Knoblauch; Adilson Gil Oliveira Filho

    2000-01-01

    Objetivo: Analisar os valores da pressão intra-ocular (PIO) entre diferentes grupos de pacientes (diabéticos, hipertensos com ou sem retinopatia) e a população normal. Métodos: Realizou-se a aferição da pressão intra-ocular (PIO) em um total de 924 olhos de 482 pacientes com idade igual ou maior que 40 anos (x=56,70; dp=11,89) examinados segundo um protocolo de estudo que incluiu medida da PIO, pressão arterial e glicemia, além da fundoscopia. A determinação da PIO foi obtida pelo tonômetro d...

  5. A combined analysis of four observational studies evaluating the intraocular pressure-lowering ability and tolerability of bimatoprost 0.01% in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension

    Stevens A; Iliev ME; de Jong L; Grobeiu I; Hommer A

    2016-01-01

    Annemie Stevens,1 Milko E Iliev,2 Leo de Jong,3 Ioana Grobeiu,4 Anton Hommer5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 4Allergan Holdings Ltd, Marlow, UK; 5Private Office, Vienna, Austria Objective: Combine and evaluate data from four clinical practice studies investigating the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lower...

  6. Influência da idade no comportamento da pressão intraocular em uma população da região Sul-brasileira Influence of age on intraocular pressure in a South brazilian population

    Viviane Mayumi Sakata

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar influência da idade no comportamento da pressão intraocular (PIO em população acima de 40 anos. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo observacional transversal realizado no município de Piraquara - PR, a PIO foi aferida através da tonometria de Goldmann. Todos os indivíduos foram submetidos a exame de triagem, sendo os suspeitos de glaucoma ou hipertensão ocular encaminhados ao atendimento de retorno para realização de exame oftalmológico completo. Para fins de análise estatística, os pacientes foram divididos em grupos etários (40-49; 50-59; 60-69 e acima de 70 anos. Posteriormente todos os pacientes portadores de glaucoma ou suspeita, hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS ou Diabetes mellitus (DM foram excluídos. RESULTADOS: Avaliaram-se 3360 indivíduos com média de idade de 54,04 ± 10,52 anos, sendo 59,79% do sexo feminino. Não se observou diferença estatisticamente significativa entre a média da PIO nos diferentes grupos etários (p=0,19; teste ANOVA. Da mesma forma, não foi observada correlação significativa entre a PIO e a idade (p = 0,11; correlação linear de Pearson. Após exclusão dos indivíduos portadores de HAS (1671, DM (n=360, glaucoma ou suspeita de glaucoma (n=161 não se observou diferença estatisticamente significativa entre a média da PIO e a idade (p=0,17; teste ANOVA. No entanto, uma fraca correlação negativa, porém significativa, foi encontrada entre PIO e idade (p=0,03; R=-0,055, correlação linear Pearson. CONCLUSÃO: Na presente amostra, não foi observada influência significativa da idade na PIO, entretanto, após a exclusão de indivíduos com glaucoma, HAS e DM, observou-se uma fraca correlação linear negativa e significativa entre as duas variáveis.PURPOSE: To assess the influence of age on intra-ocular pressure (IOP in subjects aged over 40 years old. METHODS: This transversal and observational study realized at Piraquara city (PR measured the IOP using Goldmann applanation

  7. 5.2-GHz RF Power Harvester in 0.18-/spl mu/m CMOS for Implantable Intraocular Pressure Monitoring

    Ouda, Mahmoud H.

    2013-04-17

    A first fully integrated 5.2-GHz CMOS-based RF power harvester with an on-chip antenna is presented in this paper. The design is optimized for sensors implanted inside the eye to wirelessly monitor the intraocular pressure of glaucoma patients. It includes a five-stage RF rectifier with an on-chip antenna, a dc voltage limiter, two voltage sensors, a low dropout voltage regulator, and MOSCAP based on-chip storage. The chip has been designed and fabricated in a standard 0.18-μm CMOS technology. To emulate the eye environment in measurements, a custom test setup is developed that comprises Plexiglass cavities filled with saline solution. Measurements in this setup show that the proposed chip can be charged to 1 V wirelessly from a 5-W transmitter 3 cm away from the harvester chip. The energy that is stored on the 5-nF on-chip MOSCAP when charged to 1 V is 2.5 nJ, which is sufficient to drive an arbitrary 100-μW load for 9 μs at regulated 0.8 V. Simulated efficiency of the rectifier is 42% at -7 dBm of input power.

  8. Relationship between Corneal Thickness,Corneal Curva-ture,and Intraocular Pressure before and after Laser Treat-ment for Simple Myopia

    Ahmad MA; Edrees MH; Jafarzadehpur E

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:To determine the relationship of central corneal thickness (CCT), curvature (CC), and intraocular pressure (IOP) as determinative factors for corneal biomechanics and in refractive surgery. Methods:.The study investigated 48 eyes from subjects who visited the Excimer Laser Surgery Clinic at the Department of Ophthalmology. The refractive error, IOP, CCT, and CC were measured in all participants. After 3 months, all exami-nations were repeated. Results:.Linear regression demonstrated a significant positive relationship between pre- and postoperative CCT,.CC,.and IOP values..The IOP showed a significant correlation with CCT (P=0.033) for pre-PRK, but no significant relationship was seen post-PRK. The CCT also correlated significantly with CC both pre-and post-PRK (P<0.05). Conclusion:.The IOP was significantly correlated with CCT before PRK, but its behavior differed after surgery. Nearly the same correlation was seen between CCT and CC before and after the PRK;.nevertheless,.IOP measurements should be calculated or estimated more precisely after PRK based on CCT corrections.

  9. Short-Term Intraocular Pressure Elevations after Combined Phacoemulsification and Implantation of Two Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stents: Prednisolone versus Loteprednol

    Qianqian Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the effects of prednisolone and of loteprednol after combined phacoemulsification and trabecular micro-bypass stent implantation (phaco-iStent. Methods. Patients who underwent phaco-iStent between April 2013 and November 2014 were identified by retrospective chart review. Postoperatively, they received either prednisolone (n=38 or loteprednol (n=58. Baseline data was compared. Primary outcomes including intraocular pressure (IOP and number of glaucoma medications (NGM were analyzed at preoperative visit, postoperative day 1, weeks 1-2, weeks 3-4, and months 2-3. Results. Both groups had similar preoperative parameters (p>0.05. The mean IOP spike occurred at postoperative weeks 1-2 with an increase of 2.21 ± 7.30 mmHg in the loteprednol group and 2.54 ± 9.28 mmHg in the prednisolone group. It decreased by weeks 3-4 in both groups and continued to improve at months 2-3. NGM showed significant reduction (p0.05. The proportions of patients needing paracentesis were similar between the two groups. Conclusion. Similar early IOP elevations after combined phaco-iStent occurred with both prednisolone and loteprednol. Facilitated glucocorticoid infusion, altered aqueous humor outflow, and local inflammation may be contributing factors.

  10. Short-Term Intraocular Pressure Elevations after Combined Phacoemulsification and Implantation of Two Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stents: Prednisolone versus Loteprednol

    Wang, Qianqian; Harasymowycz, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare the effects of prednisolone and of loteprednol after combined phacoemulsification and trabecular micro-bypass stent implantation (phaco-iStent). Methods. Patients who underwent phaco-iStent between April 2013 and November 2014 were identified by retrospective chart review. Postoperatively, they received either prednisolone (n = 38) or loteprednol (n = 58). Baseline data was compared. Primary outcomes including intraocular pressure (IOP) and number of glaucoma medications (NGM) were analyzed at preoperative visit, postoperative day 1, weeks 1-2, weeks 3-4, and months 2-3. Results. Both groups had similar preoperative parameters (p > 0.05). The mean IOP spike occurred at postoperative weeks 1-2 with an increase of 2.21 ± 7.30 mmHg in the loteprednol group and 2.54 ± 9.28 mmHg in the prednisolone group. It decreased by weeks 3-4 in both groups and continued to improve at months 2-3. NGM showed significant reduction (p 0.05). The proportions of patients needing paracentesis were similar between the two groups. Conclusion. Similar early IOP elevations after combined phaco-iStent occurred with both prednisolone and loteprednol. Facilitated glucocorticoid infusion, altered aqueous humor outflow, and local inflammation may be contributing factors. PMID:26266045

  11. First-line latanoprost therapy in ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma patients: a 3-month efficacy analysis stratified by initial intraocular pressure

    Rouland Jean

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-masked trials have shown latanoprost instilled once daily to be at least as effective as and generally superior to timolol administered twice daily and to be as effective as other frequently prescribed prostaglandin analogues. This study prospectively assessed the efficacy of latanoprost monotherapy in a large cohort of treatment-naive patients with a broad range of baseline intraocular pressure (IOP levels treated in actual clinical practice settings. Methods This prospective, open-label, multicenter, uncontrolled, phase IV study included treatment-naive ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma subjects initiating latanoprost once daily (evening. IOP levels were measured at baseline and after 1 and 3 months. The primary efficacy outcome was mean change in IOP from baseline to month 3. Analyses were stratified by baseline IOP: ≥ 20 and vs ≥ 24 mmHg. Results Efficacy analyses (intent to treat included 572 subjects: 20 to vs -9.2 ± 3.7 mmHg, respectively; -28.0 ± 10.6% vs -34.1 ± 11.9%, respectively. An IOP reduction of ≥ 30% from baseline to month 3 was noted in 48.4% and 65.6% of subjects, respectively (p Conclusions This "real world" study found once-daily latanoprost to be effective and safe in treatment-naive ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma patients. Patients with baseline IOP levels of 20 to Trial Registration Trial Registration Number: NCT00647101

  12. Bioinformatics analysis of potential essential genes that response to the high intraocular pressure on astrocyte due to glaucoma

    Yang; Yang; Jing-Zhu; Duan; Yu; Di; Dong-Mei; Gui; Dian-Wen; Gao

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the gene expression response and predict the network in cell due to pressure effects on optic nerve injury of glaucoma.METHODS: We used glaucoma related microarray data in public database [Gene Expression Omnibus(GEO)] to explore the potential gene expression changes as well as correspondent biological process alterations due to increased pressure in astrocytes during glaucoma development.RESULTS: A total of six genes were identified to be related with pressure increasing. Through the annotation and network analysis, we found these genes might be involved in cell morphological remodeling, angiogenesis,mismatch repair.CONCLUSION: Increasing pressure in glaucoma on astrocytes might cause gene expression alterations,which might induce some cellular responses changes.

  13. Maintained reduction of intraocular pressure by prostaglandin F2 alpha-1-isopropyl ester applied in multiple doses in ocular hypertensive and glaucoma patients.

    Camras, C B; Siebold, E C; Lustgarten, J S; Serle, J B; Frisch, S C; Podos, S M; Bito, L Z

    1989-09-01

    In a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study, 0.25 microgram (n = 11) or 0.5 microgram (n = 13) of prostaglandin F2 alpha-1-isopropyl ester (PGF2 alpha-IE) was applied topically twice daily for 8 days to one eye of ocular hypertensive or chronic open-angle glaucoma patients. Compared with contralateral, vehicle-treated eyes, PGF2 alpha-IE significantly (P less than 0.05) reduced intraocular pressure (IOP), beginning 4 hours after the first 0.5-microgram dose and lasting at least 12 hours after the fourteenth dose, with a significant (P less than 0.005) mean reduction of 4 to 6 mmHg maintained throughout the last day of therapy with either dose. A contralateral effect was not observed. Mean tonographic outflow facility was significantly (P less than 0.05) higher in PG-treated compared with vehicle-treated eyes (0.17 +/- 0.02 versus 0.12 +/- 0.01 microliter/minute/mmHg, respectively; +/- standard error of the mean) for the 0.5 microgram dose. Conjunctival hyperemia reached a maximum at 30 to 60 minutes after PGF2 alpha-IE application. Some patients reported mild irritation lasting several minutes after some doses. Visual acuity, accommodative amplitude, pupillary diameter, aqueous humor flare, anterior chamber cellular response, Schirmer's test, pulse rate, and blood pressure were not significantly altered. Our findings show that PGF2 alpha-IE is a potent ocular hypotensive agent and a promising drug for glaucoma therapy. PMID:2780003

  14. Influência da idade no comportamento da pressão intraocular em uma população da região Sul-brasileira Influence of age on intraocular pressure in a South brazilian population

    Viviane Mayumi Sakata; Lisandro Massanori Sakata; Mariann Yabiku; Newton Parreira Duarte Filho; Ana Tereza Ramos Moreira; Kenji Sakata

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Verificar influência da idade no comportamento da pressão intraocular (PIO) em população acima de 40 anos. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo observacional transversal realizado no município de Piraquara - PR, a PIO foi aferida através da tonometria de Goldmann. Todos os indivíduos foram submetidos a exame de triagem, sendo os suspeitos de glaucoma ou hipertensão ocular encaminhados ao atendimento de retorno para realização de exame oftalmológico completo. Para fins de análise estatística, os pa...

  15. Central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, and degree of myopia in an adult myopic population aged 20 to 40 years in southeast Spain: determination and relationships

    Manuel Garcia-Medina

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Manuel Garcia-Medina1, Jose Javier Garcia-Medina2,3, Pablo Garrido-Fernandez1, Jose Galvan-Espinosa1, Jesus Martin-Molina1, Carlos Garcia-Maturana4, Sergio Perez-Pardo1, Maria Dolores Pinazo-Duran3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Torrecardenas Hospital, Almeria, Spain; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Huercal Overa Hospital, Almeria, Spain; 3Ophthalmology Research Unit “Santiago Grisolia”, University Hospital Doctor Peset, Valencia, Spain; 4University of Sevilla, SpainObjective: To determine the values of, and study the relationships among, central corneal thickness (CCT, intraocular pressure (IOP, and degree of myopia (DM in an adult myopic population aged 20 to 40 years in Almeria (southeast Spain. To our knowledge this is first study of this kind in this region.Methods: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was done in which a sample of 310 myopic patients (620 eyes aged 20 to 40 years was selected by gender- and age-stratified sampling, which was proportionally fixed to the size of the population strata for which a 20% prevalence of myopia, 5% epsilon, and a 95% confidence interval were hypothesized. We studied IOP, CCT, and DM and their relationships by calculating the mean, standard deviation, 95% confidence interval for the mean, median, Fisher’s asymmetry coefficient, range (maximum, minimum, and the Brown-Forsythe’s robust test for each variable (IOP, CCT, and DM.Results: In the adult myopic population of Almeria aged 20 to 40 years (mean of 29.8, the mean overall CCT was 550.12 µm. The corneas of men were thicker than those of women (P = 0.014. CCT was stable as no significant differences were seen in the 20- to 40-year-old subjects’ CCT values. The mean overall IOP was 13.60 mmHg. Men had a higher IOP than women (P = 0.002. Subjects over 30 years (13.83 had a higher IOP than those under 30 (13.38 (P = 0.04. The mean overall DM was -4.18 diopters. Men had less myopia than women (P < 0.001. Myopia was stable in the

  16. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Measurements Using a NT-530P Noncontact Tono/Pachymeter and Correlation of Central Corneal Thickness with Intraocular Pressure

    Kamiya, Kazutaka; Fujiwara, Kazuko; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the repeatability and reproducibility of intraocular pressure (IOP) and central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements using a noncontact tono/pachymeter (NT-530P) and to assess the correlation of CCT with IOP. Methods. Forty-six eyes of healthy volunteers were measured by two examiners. Three consecutive measurements per eye were performed. Repeatability was assessed using the coefficient of variation, and reproducibility was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. Linear correlations were used to determine agreement between CCT and noncorrected IOP and CCT and corrected IOP, which was calculated using a formula built into the NT-530P. Results. The coefficient of variation for IOP was 6.4% and for CCT was 0.4%. The 95% limits of agreement between examiners were −0.17 ± 1.42 mmHg (range: −2.95 to 2.61 mmHg) for IOP, −0.93 ± 4.37 μm (range: −9.50 to 7.64 μm) for CCT. The corrected IOP was significantly higher than the noncorrected IOP (P = 0.010.3). The noncorrected IOP significantly correlated with CCT (r = −0.4883, P = 0.0006). The corrected IOP showed no significant correlation with CCT (r = −0.0285, P = 0.8509). Conclusions. NT-530P offered repeatability and reproducibility in both IOP and CCT measurements. The corrected IOP calculated using the NT-530P was independent of the CCT, suggesting that this IOP may be less influenced by the central corneal thickness. PMID:24222904

  17. Numerical analysis of specific absorption rate in the human head due to a 13.56 MHz RFID-based intra-ocular pressure measurement system

    A modern wireless intra-ocular pressure monitoring system, based on 13.56 MHz inductively coupled data transmission, was dosimetrically analyzed with respect to the specific absorption rate (SAR) induced inside the head and the eye due to the electromagnetic field exposure caused by the reader antenna of the transmission system. The analysis was based on numerical finite difference time domain computations using a high resolution anatomical eye model integrated in a modern commercially available anatomical model of a male head. Three different reader antenna configurations, a 7-turn elliptic (30 mm × 50 mm) antenna at 12 mm distance from the eye, a flexible circular antenna (60 mm diameter, 8 turns on 2 mm substrate) directly attached to the skin, and a circular 7-turn antenna (30 mm diameter at 12 mm distance to the eye) were analyzed, respectively. Possible influences of the eye-lid status (closed or opened) and the transponder antenna contained in a contact lens directly attached to the eye were taken into account. The results clearly demonstrated that for typical reader antenna currents required for proper data transmission, the SAR values remain far below the limits for localized exposure of the head, as defined by the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Particularly the induced SAR inside the eye was found to be substantially (orders of magnitudes for typical reader antenna currents in the order of 1 A turn) below values which have been reported to be critical with respect to thermally induced adverse health effects in eye tissues. (note)

  18. A Case of Sustained Intraocular Pressure Elevation after Multiple Intravitreal Injection of Ranibizumab and Aflibercept for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Matsubara, Hisashi; Miyata, Ryohei; Kobayashi, Maki; Tsukitome, Hideyuki; Ikesugi, Kengo; Kondo, Mineo

    2016-01-01

    Intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents are widely used to treat neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Although these treatments are effective, multiple injections have recently been recommended to ensure that there is a good long-term prognosis. However, sustained intraocular pressure (IOP) elevations have been reported to develop after multiple injections of anti-VEGF agents. We present our findings of a case of uncontrolled and persistent IOP elevation after switching from intravitreal ranibizumab injections to intravitreal aflibercept injections. A 74-year-old Japanese man without a history of glaucoma underwent 22 ranibizumab injections for nAMD and suddenly developed an elevated IOP after the 22nd injection. Although the subsequent medical treatment led to normalization of his IOP, the subretinal fluid under the central fovea remained even after the 25th injection of ranibizumab. Thus, ranibizumab treatment was switched to bimonthly intravitreal aflibercept injections in conjunction with glaucoma medications. His IOP recovered to within the normal range; however, after the 11th aflibercept injection, there was a sudden elevation of his IOP in spite of the continued glaucoma medications. Due to this sustained IOP elevation, his aflibercept injections were suspended for 16 weeks. Because his IOP could not be normalized by a full glaucoma medication regimen, the patient underwent trabeculotomy, which resulted in a lowering of the IOP to normal levels. We conclude that patients who receive serial intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF agents need to be closely monitored because severe and sustained ocular hypertension can develop.

  19. The effect of changes in intraocular pressure on the risk of primary open-angle glaucoma in patients with ocular hypertension: an application of latent class analysis

    Gao Feng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG is one of the leading causes of blindness in the United States and worldwide. While lowering intraocular pressure (IOP has been proven to be effective in delaying or preventing the onset of POAG in many large-scale prospective studies, one of the recent hot topics in glaucoma research is the effect of IOP fluctuation (IOP lability on the risk of developing POAG in treated and untreated subjects. Method In this paper, we analyzed data from the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS and the European Glaucoma Prevention Study (EGPS for subjects who had at least 2 IOP measurements after randomization prior to POAG diagnosis. We assessed the interrelationships among the baseline covariates, the changes of post-randomization IOP over time, and the risk of developing POAG, using a latent class analysis (LCA which allows us to identify distinct patterns (latent classes of IOP trajectories. Result The IOP change in OHTS was best described by 6 latent classes differentiated primarily by the mean IOP levels during follow-up. Subjects with high post-randomization mean IOP level and/or large variability were more likely to develop POAG. Five baseline factors were found to be significantly predictive of the IOP classification in OHTS: treatment assignment, baseline IOP, gender, race, and history of hypertension. In separate analyses of EGPS, LCA identified different patterns of IOP change from those in OHTS, but confirmed that subjects with high mean level and large variability were at high risk to develop POAG. Conclusion LCA provides a useful tool to assess the impact of post-randomization IOP level and fluctuation on the risk of developing POAG in patients with ocular hypertension. The incorporation of post-randomization IOP can improve the overall predictive ability of the original model that included only baseline risk factors.

  20. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Measurements Using a NT-530P Noncontact Tono/Pachymeter and Correlation of Central Corneal Thickness with Intraocular Pressure

    Fusako Fujimura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the repeatability and reproducibility of intraocular pressure (IOP and central corneal thickness (CCT measurements using a noncontact tono/pachymeter (NT-530P and to assess the correlation of CCT with IOP. Methods. Forty-six eyes of healthy volunteers were measured by two examiners. Three consecutive measurements per eye were performed. Repeatability was assessed using the coefficient of variation, and reproducibility was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. Linear correlations were used to determine agreement between CCT and noncorrected IOP and CCT and corrected IOP, which was calculated using a formula built into the NT-530P. Results. The coefficient of variation for IOP was 6.4% and for CCT was 0.4%. The 95% limits of agreement between examiners were −0.17±1.42 mmHg (range: −2.95 to 2.61 mmHg for IOP, −0.93±4.37 μm (range: −9.50 to 7.64 μm for CCT. The corrected IOP was significantly higher than the noncorrected IOP (P=0.010.3. The noncorrected IOP significantly correlated with CCT (r=−0.4883, P=0.0006. The corrected IOP showed no significant correlation with CCT (r=−0.0285, P=0.8509. Conclusions. NT-530P offered repeatability and reproducibility in both IOP and CCT measurements. The corrected IOP calculated using the NT-530P was independent of the CCT, suggesting that this IOP may be less influenced by the central corneal thickness.

  1. Efeitos da infusão contínua de cetamina sobre a pressão intra-ocular em cães hipovolêmicos anestesiados com desflurano Effects of continuous infusion of ketamine on intraocular pressure in hypovolemic dogs during desflurane anesthesia

    C.S. Honsho

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se os efeitos de duas doses de cetamina, administradas em infusão contínua, sobre a pressão intra-ocular (PIO de 18 cães submetidos à hipovolemia e à anestesia com desflurano. Promoveu-se a hipovolemia em todos os cães, retirando-se 40 ml de sangue/kg de peso. A anestesia foi induzida com desflurano, através de máscara facial, até que a intubação orotraqueal fosse permitida. Decorridos 30 minutos, para estabilização dos parâmetros, iniciou-se a infusão contínua de cetamina. Os cães foram distribuídos, aleatoriamente, em três grupos (n= 6. O grupo I (controle recebeu solução salina estéril; o grupo II (GII recebeu cetamina, na dose de 100mig/kg/min, e o grupo III (GIII, cetamina na dose de 200mig/kg/min. A PIO foi medida por tonometria de aplanação. Foram mensurados freqüência cardíaca (FC, ritmo cardíaco, pressão arterial média (PAM, débito cardíaco (DC, pressão venosa central (PVC e pressão parcial de CO2 no final da expiração (ETCO2. O desflurano não influenciou os resultados da PIO, porém observou-se discreta ação da cetamina em todos os grupos. Foi possível estabelecer relação direta entre os valores de PIO e de ETCO2. A PIO apresentou relação direta somente com a ETCO2.Effects of two dosages of continuous infusion of ketamine on the intraocular pressure (IOP of 18 dogs, subjected to hypovolemia and anesthesia with desflurane were studied. Hypovolemia was induced in all dogs by withdrawal of 40ml of blood/kg of body weight. Initially, anesthesia was induced through face mask and then by tracheal intubation. After a delay of 30 minutes, for parameters stabilization, continuous infusion of ketamine was initiated. Dogs were randomly allotted in three groups (n =6: group I (control group received continuous infusion of saline solution, group II received 100mug/kg/min of ketamine and group III received 200mug/kg/min of ketamine. IOP was measured by applanation tonometry. It was not possible

  2. The effect of phacoemulsification on late bleb failure or intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma: a systematic review

    Peponis VG

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Vasileios G Peponis,* Spyridon E Chalkiadakis,* Michail C Katzakis, Efstratios A ParikakisOphthalmiatreio Athens Eye Hospital, Second Ophthalmology Department, Athens, Greece*These authors contributed equally in writing the manuscriptAbstract: The purpose of our systematic review is to document the adverse events that follow phacoemulsification in eyes with trabeculectomy due to glaucoma and to determine whether phacoemulsification jeopardizes the survival of the trabeculectomy. Our research was based on English- and non-English-language articles obtained using the Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Scopus databases. Additional studies were identified by searching bibliographies in the British Library and abstracts presented at the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology annual meetings. Search terms included randomized controlled trial, controlled clinical trial, random allocation, double-blind method, matched studies and trabeculectomy failure, glaucoma-filtering operation failure, bleb failure and cataract surgery or phacoemulsification. Only prospective or retrospective matched studies testing the survival of a trabeculectomy alone versus clear corneal phacoemulsification after a trabeculectomy in patients with glaucoma were included. Data were independently extracted by two authors using predefined data fields. PubMed yielded 152 results, Scopus 235, Embase 222, and Web of Science (science citation index 216. We read the abstracts of all the trials, and after reading the full text of 31 studies, we decided that 13 studies should be comprehensively evaluated. Current evidence does not allow us to draw safe conclusions on the scientific question so far.Keywords: bleb failure, cataract, glaucoma, phacoemulsification, trabeculectomy

  3. Tribological performance of ashless antiwear additives under extreme pressure conditions

    Kim, Bohoon

    Zinc diakyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP) has been used in engine oil for several decades as an antiwear additive. However, ZDDP is the primary source of P, S and Zn in the exhaust, which results in frequent maintenance or replacement of exhaust gas treatment systems. The use of ashless additives is more desirable because of recent environmental regulations. The main goal of this research was to develop a fundamental understanding of how ashless compounds protect the tribological surface in comparison to ZDDP. X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) has been performed on tribo and thermal films in order to investigate the chemical properties of films generated from ashless antiwear additives like chemical structure as well as chemical composition. In order to achieve this objective, three approaches were used. First, the relationships between ashless thiophosphates and wear properties under extreme pressure were examined. Ashless antiwear additives properly form their tribofilms on the sliding steel surface, reacting with iron (Fe) which is originated from the substrate. The tribofilms consist of iron phosphates, iron sulfides, and iron sulfates that have lower reduced modulus and hardness compared to tribofilms from ZDDP. However, they are still sufficiently stiff to prevent asperity contact and provide antiwear behavior. In addition, the thickness of protective tribofilms formed with ashless thiophosphates was found to be thicker than the ones formed when ZDDP was used under identical tribological conditions. Secondly, in order to understand the mechanism of tribofilm generation of metal free additives, a fundamental understanding of thermal decomposition of ashless antiwear chemistries and their influence on thermal film formation was derived. The decomposed P- and S- containing products of ZDDP reacted with the metal surface and their own metal cations forming thermal films. In case of metal free dithiophosphates, sulfur species initially formed on

  4. Influence of gross saponins from tribulus terrestris L on SOD activity and MDA content for chronic high intraocular pressure in rabbit%白蒺藜皂苷对慢性高眼压兔视网膜SOD活性和MDA含量的影响

    李诺; 黄丽娜; 曾平

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To observe influence of gross saponins from tribulus terrestris L (GSTT) on SOD activity and MDA content for chronic high intraocular pressure in rabbit, and discusses the retina oxidative damage inhibition on chronic high intraocular pressure model of rabbit. METHODS: Totally 24 healthy New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups; normal control group (A group); high intraocular pressure model blank group (B group); high intraocular pressure model with GSTT treated group (C group); high intraocular pressure model with Erigeron brevicapas hand mass ( EBHM) treated group (D group). High intraocular pressure model was induced by 20g/L methylcellulose injection into the anterior chamber in B group, C group and D group. D group was injected 5 mg/kg GSTT and C group was injected 4. 5mg/kg EBHM and measured intraocular pressure with Schiotz tonometer every day for 4 weeks. The retina tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD) and maleic dialdehyde(MDA) content were detected 28 days later. RESULTS: After glaucoma model of rabbit eyes were established, the intraocular pressure during observation period was maintained in 32-39mmHg; High intraocular pressure model blank group and normal control group, EBHM treatment group, GSTT treatment group were compared, the differences of retina MDA, SOD content had statistical significance (P0. 05); EBHM treatment group, GSTT te atment group and normal o ntrol group were compared, the content of MDA in the retina was still slightly higher (P0.05),EBHM治疗组、GSTT组与正常对照组比较视网膜中MDA的含量仍略高(P<0.05),SOD的含量略降低(P<0.05).结论:白蒺藜皂苷能有效提高慢性高眼压下兔视网膜中SOD活性,降低MDA含量,从而对持续性高眼压视网膜氧化应激具有保护作用.

  5. Bilateral Primary Intraocular Lymphoma

    Mehrdad Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of bilateral primary intraocular lymphoma. Case report: A 33-year-old man presented with bilateral blurred vision since two years ago. Examination revealed large keratic precipitates, anterior chamber reaction, posterior subcapsular cataracts, and vitreous infiltration. After a short trial of topical and periocular steroids, diagnostic 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed and cytologic evaluation of the aspirate confirmed a diagnosis of intraocular lymphoma. The patient was subsequently managed with intravitreal methotrexate in both eyes and responded favorably. Central nervous system workup for lymphoma was negative. Conclusion: Primary intraocular lymphoma should be considered in young adults suffering from chronic recalcitrant panuveitis.

  6. A Joint Model for Prognostic Effect of Biomarker Variability on Outcomes: long-term intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuation on the risk of developing primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG)

    Gao, Feng; Miller, J Philip; Miglior, Stefano; Beiser, Julia A.; Torri, Valter; Kass, Michael A; Gordon, Mae O.

    2011-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is among the leading causes of blindness in the United States and worldwide. While numerous prospective clinical trials have convincingly shown that elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a leading risk factor for the development of POAG, an increasingly debated issue in recent years is the effect of IOP fluctuation on the risk of developing POAG. In many applications, this question is addressed via a “naïve” two-step approach where some sample-based estimat...

  7. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of 2% dorzolamide and 0.5% betaxolol in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure. Dorzolamide Comparison Study Group.

    Rusk, C; Sharpe, E; Laurence, J; Polis, A; Adamsons, I

    1998-01-01

    A multicenter, parallel-design, randomized, double-masked study was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of 2% dorzolamide with those of 0.5% betaxolol in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure (i.o.p). A total of 311 adults with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma were randomly allocated to receive either 2% dorzolamide administered topically TID or 0.5% betaxolol administered topically BID plus placebo administered topically QD for 12 weeks. After the washout of previous ocular hypotensive drugs, patients with IOP > or = 23 mm Hg in at least one eye at 10 AM or 4 PM on study day 1 were randomly allocated to receive one of the study treatments. Throughout the study, IOP was measured 2 and 8 hours after instillation of study medication for the morning peak effect (hour 2) and afternoon trough effect (hour 8). After 12 weeks of therapy, the mean change in IOP was not significantly different between the dorzolamide and betaxolol treatment groups at hour 8 (-3.6 mm Hg in both groups) or hour 2 (-5.4 vs -5.3 mm Hg, respectively). The differences between treatments (and 95% CIs associated with these differences) in mean IOP changes from baseline were 0.02 mm Hg (-0.870 to 0.901) for hour 8 and -0.14 mm Hg (-0.959 to 0.685) for hour 2. The ocular adverse experience (AE) most frequently reported by patients was ocular burning and/or stinging, and the most frequently reported nonocular AEs were taste perversion, upper respiratory infection, and headache. Only the incidence of taste perversion was significantly different between treatment groups (14.6% for the dorzolamide group and 0.0% for the betaxolol group). Two percent of patients in each treatment group discontinued the study due to AEs. This study confirmed the similar IOP-lowering effect of 2% dorzolamide and 0.5% betaxolol. Both treatments were generally well tolerated, and their safety profiles were similar. PMID:9663361

  8. Intraocular pressure-lowering effects of commonly used fixed-combination drugs with timolol: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Jin-Wei Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The first goal of medical therapy in glaucoma is to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP, and the fixed-combination medications are needed to achieve sufficiently low target IOP. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate IOP-lowering effect of the commonly used fixed-combination drugs containing 0.5% timolol. METHODS: Pertinent publications were identified through systematic searches. Over 85% of the patients had to be diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG or ocular hypertension (OHT. Forty-one randomized clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. The main efficacy measures were the absolute and relative values of mean diurnal IOP reduction, and the highest and lowest IOP reductions on the diurnal IOP curve. The pooled 1- to 3-month IOP-lowering effects after a medicine-free washout period was calculated by performing meta-analysis using the random effects model, and relative treatment effects among different fixed combinations were assessed using a mixed-effects meta-regression model. RESULTS: The relative reductions for mean diurnal IOP were 34.9% for travoprost/timolol, 34.3% for bimatoprost/timolol, 33.9% for latanoprost/timolol, 32.7% for brinzolamide/timolol, 29.9% for dorzolamide/timolol, and 28.1% for brimonidine/timolol. For the highest IOP decrease, relative reductions ranged from 31.3% for dorzolamide/timolol to 35.5% for travoprost/timolol; for the lowest IOP decrease, those varied from 25.9% for dorzolamide/timolol to 33.1% for bimatoprost/timolol. Both latanoprost/timolol and travoprost/timolol were more effective in lowering mean diurnal IOP than brimonidine/timolol (WMD: 5.9 and 7.0 and dorzolamide/timolol (WMD: 3.8 and 3.3. CONCLUSIONS: All six commonly used fixed-combination drugs containing timolol can effectively lower IOP in patients with POAG and OHT, and both latanoprost/timolol and travoprost/timolol might achieve better IOP-lowering effects among the six fixed

  9. Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure and Glaucoma

    Jonas, Jost B; Ningli Wang

    2013-01-01

    Eyes with normal-pressure glaucoma and those with high-pressure glaucoma can show a similar optic nerve head appearance, while eyes with vascular optic neuropathies show a markedly different optic disc appearance. Factors in addition to intraocular pressure (IOP) may thus play a role in the pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Clinical and experimental studies showed that (1) physiologic associations between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure, systemic arterial blood pressure, IOP a...

  10. Bilateral intraocular dirofilariasis

    Viney Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular dirofilariasis mostly presents as a subconjunctival or eyelid lesion. [1] Intraocular dirofilarial infestation is rare. [2],[3] We report a case of a young woman who was accidentally detected to have a live motile worm in the anterior segment in one eye and a cystic lesion on the optic disc in the other eye. To our knowledge, bilateral intraocular dirofilariasis has never been reported.

  11. Bilateral Primary Intraocular Lymphoma

    Mehrdad Karimi; Masoud Soheilian; Mozhgan Rezaei Kanavi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report a case of bilateral primary intraocular lymphoma. Case report: A 33-year-old man presented with bilateral blurred vision since two years ago. Examination revealed large keratic precipitates, anterior chamber reaction, posterior subcapsular cataracts, and vitreous infiltration. After a short trial of topical and periocular steroids, diagnostic 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed and cytologic evaluation of the aspirate confirmed a diagnosis of intraocular lympho...

  12. Phacolytic glaucoma-its treatment by planned extracapsular cataract extraction with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation

    Singh Gurdeep

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Phacolytic glaucoma has traditionally been treated with intracapsular lens extraction to avoid any anaphylaxis. Various mechanisms have been described for the rise of intraocular pressure in these cases. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the response of extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation (PC IOL in five cases of phacolytic glaucoma that occurred between March 1989 and August 1990. A planned extracapsular cataract extraction with can-opener capsulectomy was done in all the cases with placement of a sulcus-fixated modified J-loop Sinskey design intraocular lens. With a mean follow-up period of two years, all patients (100% maintained a normal postoperative intraocular pressure of less than 20 mm Hg without any additional medical therapy. The final best-corrected visual acuity in 4 cases (80% was 6/12 or better, while in one case it was 6/24 due to a senile maculopathy. These results show that ECCE with PC IOL implantation is a safe and efficacious method of visual rehabilitation in cases of phacolytic glaucoma

  13. 局部麻醉剂引起的眼压改变%Changes in intraocular pressure after topical anaesthetic instillation

    Javier A Montero; Jose M Ruiz-Moreno; Marta Fernandez-Munoz; M.Isabel Rodriguez-Palacios

    2006-01-01

    · AIM: To determine the influence of topical anaesthetic drops, age and central corneal thickness (CCT) in the determination of intraocular pressure (IOP) by non contact tonometry (NCT). · METHODS: Ninety-three eyes from 47 patients were examined for CCT and lOP by NCT before and after the instillation of topical anaesthetic drops.· RESULTS: Average age was 66.4 (SD 16, range 34 to 88years-of-age). Thirty one patients were female and 16 were male. Average basal IOP was 16.0 mmHg (SD 4.0, range 8.5to 26.1). IOP pressure one minute after topical anesthesia instillation was 15.0 mmHg (SD 3.8, range 7.7 to 26.7), and 14.9 mm Hg (SD 3.9, range 7.6 to 26.3) five minutes after the instillation. The differences were statistically significant for the 0 to 1 minute lapse (P=0.0007) and for the 0 to 5minute lapse (P=0.0003), but not for the 1 to 5 minute lapse (P=0.27) (Student's t test for paired data). Average CCT before topical anaesthetic drops was 565.4 microns. Simple linear regression analysis demonstrated absence of significant variation between age and IOP changes and between CCT and IOP changes,· CONCLUSION: Our study confirms that the instillation of topical anaesthetics causes a reduction in IOP, which is progressive during the first 5 minutes after instillation. This IOP reduction does not seem to be associated with basal CCT or age.%目的:确定局麻药,年龄和角膜中央厚度对非接触眼压计眼压测量值的影响.方法:记录47例93眼滴局麻药前后角膜中央厚度和非接触眼压计眼压测量值.结果:在47例中女31例,男16例;平均年龄66.4岁(标准差16,范围34~88岁);平均基础眼压16.0 mmHg(标准差4.0,范围8.5~26.1 mmHg).滴局麻药后1 min平均眼压16.0 mmHg(标准差3.8,范围7.7~26.7 mmHg),5 min平均眼压14.9 mmHg(标准差3.9,范围7.6~26.3).0~1 min(P=0.0007)和0~5 min(P=0.0003)的数值差异有统计学意义,1~5 min(P=0.27)的数值差异无统计学意义(配对资料t检验).滴局麻

  14. A comparative study of central corneal thickness (CCT and intraocular pressure (IOP in University of KwaZulu-Natal students of Black and Indian ethnicity*

    Z. Sardiwalla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thisstudy compared central corneal thickness (CCT and intraocular pressure (IOP of Black and Indian students from the University of Kwa-Zulu-Natal. Two hundred (100 Black and 100 Indi-an participants of both genders aged 18-25 years (mean and standard deviation; 20.1±1.6 years participated in this study. CCT and IOP were measured for the right eye of each participant using a Tono-Pachymeter (NT530P and a Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT respectively. Data was analyzed with descriptive, t-test and Pearson’s cor-relation statistics. In the total sample (N = 200, the mean CCT value was 519.5 ± 38.6 μm and CCT was higher in the Indians (526.5 ± 37.2 µm than in the Blacks (512.4 ± 38.9 µm (p = 0.01.  Also, it was higher in the females (522.3 µm than in males (516.7 µm, but the difference was insignificant (p = 0.07. The mean CCT was higher in the Indian males (520.1 µm than in the Black males (513.2 µm, but the difference was insignificant (p=0.39.  However, it was significantly higher in the Indian females (533 µm than in the Black females (511.6 µm (p = 0.003. In the total sample, the mean IOP was 14.6 mmHg and IOP was greater in Indiansthan Blacks (mean = 15.3 ± 2.9 mmHg and 13.8 ± 2.6 mmHg respectively (p = 0.01. Also, the mean IOP (N = 200 value was slightly higher in the females (14.7 mmHg than in males (14.5 mmHg (p = 0.51. The mean IOP was higher in the Indian males (15.0 mmHg than in the Black males (14.0 mmHg (p = 0.07 and the mean IOP value was higher in the Indian females (15.7 mmHg than in the Black females (13.6 mmHg (p < 0.001. The higher mean IOP value in the Indian than Black participants was attributed to the higher mean CCT values. A positive, but inconsistent association between CCT and IOP was found in this study, the coefficient in the total sample (r = 0.382, p = 0.000, in the Blacks (r = 0.196, p = 0.05 and in Indians (r = 0.498, p = 0.000. A national population study comparing CCT and IOP in the various

  15. Effect of 3 years of treatment with a dorzolamide/timolol (1%/0.5% combination on intraocular pressure

    Takeda S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sakurako Takeda,1,2 Tatsuya Mimura,1 Masao Matsubara1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women’s Medical University Medical Center East, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Nippori Clinic, Medical Center East, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the effect on the intraocular pressure (IOP of a dorzolamide/timolol (1%/0.5% fixed combination (DTFC ophthalmic agent for 3 years.Participants: A total of 19 consecutive patients who had previously been treated with monotherapy or any combination of a beta-blocker, carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, or prostaglandin analog, for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG (n=5 or normal tension glaucoma (N=14 were enrolled.Methods: Patients were switched to DTFC from their prior glaucoma therapy. The IOP was measured at intervals of 4–6 weeks for 3 years. Treatment failure was defined as an increase of IOP by ≥10% from baseline after switching to DTFC.Results: The average IOP decreased significantly from 14.1±2.9 mmHg at baseline to 12.2±2.2, 11.8±2.4, 12.1±2.5, 11.6±1.8, and 12.1±2.7 mmHg at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively, after switching therapy (all P<0.05. The mean percent decrease of IOP was 12.0%±13.0%, 14.5%±14.2%, 12.2%±18.7%, 16.0%±12.8%, and 12.8%±15.2% at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively, after switching. Univariate or multivariate analysis revealed the percent decrease of IOP was associated with the type of glaucoma (POAG at 3 and 12 months, and with the baseline IOP at 3, 12, 24, and 36 months. Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated that the percentage of patients who remained on treatment with DTFC was 94.7%, 94.7%, 84.2%, 78.9%, and 78.9% at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively. Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that the type of glaucoma (POAG was associated with an increased risk of failure to control the IOP.Conclusion: The IOP-lowering effect of DTFC was demonstrated for 3 years in this

  16. Comparison of the Effects of Dorzolamide/Timolol Fixed Combination versus Latanoprost on Intraocular Pressure and Ocular Perfusion Pressure in Patients with Normal-Tension Glaucoma: A Randomized, Crossover Clinical Trial.

    Na Young Lee

    Full Text Available To assess the noninferiority of a dorzolamide-timolol fixed combination (DTFC versus latanoprost in terms of intraocular pressure (IOP and to compare blood pressure (BP, ocular perfusion pressure (OPP and diastolic ocular perfusion pressure (DOPP between the latanoprost and DTFC groups in patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG.Prospective, interventional, randomized, single-blinded, crossover design study. Patients with newly diagnosed NTG that had not been treated with a glaucoma medication in the most recent 2 months were recruited. In total, 44 patients with NTG were randomly allocated to one of two groups. Patients in group A were treated with DTFC, lubricant, and latanoprost for 4 weeks each, whereas patients in group B were treated with latanoprost, lubricant, and DTFC for 4 weeks each. Patients were examined on day 1 (without medication, week 4 (under medication, week 8 (without medication, and week 12 (under medication. At weeks 4 and 12, diurnal IOP, systolic and diastolic BP, and OPP were measured at 8:00 AM, 10:00 AM, 12:00 PM, 4:00 PM, and 8:00 PM.Baseline demographic characteristics showed no difference in terms of age, sex, central corneal thickness, spherical equivalent, or stage of glaucoma between the groups. The between-group difference was -0.19 ± 0.18 mmHg (mean ± SE, upper bound of one-sided 95% CI, 0.12. Diurnal IOP showed no difference between the groups with an average IOP reduction of 13.1% using latanoprost and 12.3% using DTFC. Diurnal systolic and diastolic BP were lower in the DTFC group than the latanoprost group; however, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant. Diurnal OPP and DOPP also showed no statistically significant difference between the groups.IOP lowering efficacy of DTFC was noninferior to that of latanoprost in newly diagnosed NTG patients. There was no difference in BP, OPP, or DOPP between the latanoprost and DTFC groups. This prospective, randomized, single

  17. Análise da pressão intra-ocular após ceratectomia fotorrefrativa com excimer laser Intraocular pressure analysis after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy

    Christiane Rolim de Moura

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Comparar os valores pré-operatórios da pressão intra-ocular (Po com os valores pós-operatórios em pacientes submetidos à ceratectomia fotorrefrativa com excimer laser, bem como, avaliar os efeitos do uso de corticosteróide tópico na Po nesse grupo.Pacientes e métodos: Foram analisados retrospectivamente 122 pacientes submetidos à ceratectomia fotorrefrativa com excimer laser para correção de miopia, no período de fevereiro de 1994 a dezembro de 1996. Esse grupo teve sua Po tomada com o tonômetro de aplanação de Goldmann no pré-operatório, 30º e 60º dias e sexto mês pós-operatório. Receberam cuidados pós-operatórios padronizados, incluindo o uso de corticosteróide tópico.Resultados: Foi observado um aumento estatisticamente significante em relação aos valores pré-operatórios nas médias da Po no 30º dia pós-operatório, ao passo que no pós-operatório de seis meses obteve-se diminuição estatisticamente significante nos valores médios da Po em relação ao pré-operatório.Conclusão:Nas fases iniciais do período pré-operatório, observou-se um aumento da Po possivelmente relacionado ao uso de corticosteróides. Após 6 meses, os valores da Po foram estatisticamente menores que os pré-operatórios.Purpose: To compare the preoperative and postoperative values of IOP in a group of patients after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK and to evaluate the sensitivy to steroid drops. Methods:One hundred and twenty-two patients who un-derwent PRK from February 1994 to December 1996 were analized retrospectively. IOP measurements were taken with a Goldmann applanation tonometer preoperatively and postoperatively on the 30th, 60th and 180th day. All of them received the same postoperative routine, including steroid drops.Results: Comparing with the preoperative values, there was a statistically significant increase in IOP on the 30th postoperative day, while there was a statistically significant decrease in IOP

  18. Vanadium and niobium additions in pressure vessel steels

    Xu, Peiyuan.

    1992-01-01

    A statistically designed series of vanadium and niobium microalloyed C-Mn HSLA steels was used for an investigation of heat-affected zone (HAZ) toughness in multipass welds. The vanadium additions were in the range 0.005 to 0.097 Wt.% and the niobium additions were in the range 0.004 to 0.06 Wt.%. GMAW processes with welding heat inputs of 3kJ/mm and 5kJ/mm and post-weld heat treatments (PWHT) at additions of microalloy elements V and Nb on multipass HAZ toughness in the as-welded and PWHT conditions was confirmed. the 50 Joule transition temperature (TT50J) for HAZs in all weld conditions correlated with maximum HAZ hardness. Increases in HAZ hardness and TT50J caused by PWHT were observed. Hence PWHT is not recommended for V/Nb microalloyed HLSA steels. The randomly distributed precipitation of V and Nb carbides (V,Nb)C, including dislocation precipitation and matrix precipitation with particle sizes of 5-15nm, is the predominant alloy carbide precipitate morphology in these steels. Banded morphology of (V,Nb)C precipitation is rarely observed in the HAZ. The volume fraction of (V,Nb)C precipitates increases as increasing V and/or Nb contents in the experimental heats. The volume fraction of precipitates also increases with increasing the PWHT time. The crack initiation sites in Charpy specimens of HAZs tested at the approximate transition temperature are shifted from the highest stress triaxiality location to a higher hardness location. This is found to be characteristic of fracture in the multipass HAZ of the microalloyed steel. An analytical study shows that the influences of additions of microalloy elements V and Nb on yield stress, [sigma][sub y8], and fracture stress, [sigma][sub f], eventuate in the increase of transition temperature in these materials.

  19. Efeitos da leitura, exercício e exercício sob leitura na pressão intra-ocular de portadores de glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto ou hipertensão ocular controlados clinicamente com medicação tópica Effects of reading, exercise and exercise combined with reading on intraocular pressure for patients sustaining primary glaucoma (open angle or ocular hypertension, both clinically controlled with topic medication

    Alice Maria Corrêa Medina

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a pressão intra-ocular (Po em indivíduos usuários de análogos de prostaglandina, prostamida ou beta-bloqueador em portadores de glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto ou hipertensão ocular após leitura, exercício e exercício sob leitura. MÉTODOS: Quarenta indivíduos (79 olhos, subdivididos em 5 grupos: G1 (portadores de hipertensão arterial e glaucoma ou hipertensão ocular usando análogos de prostaglandinas ou prostamidas; G2 (portadores de hipertensão arterial e glaucoma ou hipertensão ocular usando beta-bloqueador; G3 (indivíduos sem hipertensão arterial e portadores de glaucoma ou hipertensão ocular em uso de análogos de prostaglandinas ou prostamidas; G4 (indivíduos sem hipertensão arterial e portadores de glaucoma ou hipertensão ocular em uso de beta-bloqueador e G5 (indivíduos sem hipertensão arterial e sem glaucoma ou hipertensão ocular, tiveram a pressão intra-ocular verificada antes e após realizarem leitura, exercício e exercício sob leitura. Cada teste foi realizado em dia distinto e sempre no período vespertino. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na média da pressão intra-ocular inicial e final nos diferentes grupos do estudo quando submetidos à leitura, exercício e exercício sob leitura. CONCLUSÃO: Ler e fazer exercícios individualmente ou concomitantemente, não representa fator de agravo da pressão intra-ocular em portadores de glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto ou hipertensão ocular em usuários de análogos de prostaglandinas ou prostamidas ou beta-bloqueador.PURPOSE: To check intraocular pressure (IOP in individuals using prostaglandin, prostamide or beta-blocker analogues, who sustain either primary open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension after reading, exercise or exercise combined with reading. METHODS: 40 individuals (79 eyes, subdivided in to five groups: G1 (with arterial hypertension and either glaucoma or ocular hypertension, all

  20. Arnold-Chiari畸形手术中眼内压的变化%Changes of intraocular pressure in surgical treatment of Arnold-Chiari malformation

    董媛媛; 蒋忠; 周路阳; 马正良

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察Arnold-Chiari畸形手术中眼内压的变化.方法 选择20例择期行Arnold-Chiari畸形手术的患者,分别于全身麻醉后5 min(T0)、俯卧位后5 min(T1)、俯卧位后30 min(T2)、俯卧位后60 min(T3)、手术结束前俯卧位(T4)、恢复平卧位5 min(T)、平卧位后30 min(T6)测量眼内压,同时记录各时间点平均动脉压(MAP)、心率(HR)、呼气末二氧化碳分压(PETCO2)的变化.俯卧位时,患者头部均采用颅骨钉固定于头架上.结果 术中各时间点MAP、HR、PETCO2比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);患者T1[(20.9±2.5)mm Hg(1mm Hg =0.133 kPa)]、T2[(17.7±1.7)mm Hg]、T3[(23.9±2.4)mm Hg]、T4[(26.3±1.0)mm Hg]眼内压较T0[(9.5±1.5)mm Hg]明显升高(P<0.05),T3较T2明显升高(P<0.05),T4较T3明显升高(P< 0.05);T5(18.6±1.8)mm Hg]较T4明显降低(P<0.05),但相对T0仍明显升高(P< 0.05);T6[(10.3±1.7)mm Hg]基本恢复到T0水平;颅骨钉的置入可能有一过性加剧眼内压升高的可能,T1眼内压较T2明显升高(P<0.05).结论 ArnoldChiari畸形手术中随着体位改变患者眼内压逐渐升高,颅骨钉的置入可使眼内压一过性升高.%Objective To observe the changes of intraocular pressure(IOP)in surgical treatment of Arnold-Chiari malformation.Methods The IOP of 20 patients who underwent surgical treatment of ArnoldChiari malformation were detected by Tono-Pen tonometer at 5 min utes after general anesthesia(T0),5 minutes after prone position(T1),30 minutes after prone position(T2),60 minutes after prone position(T3),prone position before the end of operation(T4),5 minutes after recovery prostration position(Ts)and 30 minutes after prostration position(T6),mean aortic pressure(MAP),heart rate(HR)and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in end tidal(PETCO2)were recorded at the same time.With the prone position,head was fixed bead-holder with skull pin.Results There was no statistical difference in MAP,HR,PEtCO2 at each time point(P> 0

  1. [Individual pressure tolerance--a "target" pressure?].

    Bogdănici, C; Vancea, P P

    1999-01-01

    In literature there are many meanings for the limit between normal and pathological intraocular pressure: "normative pressure", "critic pressure", "individual tolerance pressure" and "target pressure". The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that these terms are synonymous. PMID:10756882

  2. Vanadium and columbium additions in pressure vessel steels

    Xu, P.; Somers, B.R.; Pense, A.W. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). ATLSS Center

    1994-09-01

    A statistically designed series of vanadium and columbium microalloyed C-Mn HSLA steels was used for an investigation of heat-affected zone (HAZ) toughness in post weld heat treated (PWHT) multi-pass welds. The vanadium additions were in the range 0.005 to 0.097 Wt.% and the columbium additions were in the range 0.004 to 0.06 Wt.% GMAW processes with welding heat inputs of 3kJ/mm and 5kJ/mm and post-weld heat treatments at 620 C for 2 10 hours were employed. A degradation of the HAZ toughness with additions of microalloy elements V and Cb in the as-welded and PWHT conditions was revealed. The 50 Joule (37 ft-lb) transition temperature (TT50J) for HAZs in all weld conditions correlated with maximum HAZ hardness. Increases in HAZ hardness and TT50J caused by PWHT were observed. Hence PWHT in some situations may not beneficial for V/Cb microalloyed HLSA steels. The randomly distributed precipitation of V and Cb carbides (V, Cb)C, including dislocation precipitation and matrix precipitation with particle sizes of 5--15 nm, is the predominant alloy carbide precipitate morphology in these steels. The crack initiation sites in Charpy specimens of HAZs tested at the approximate transition temperature are shifted from the highest stress triaxiality, mid-specimen location to an off center higher hardness location. This is found to be characteristic of fracture in the multipass HAZ of the microalloyed steel.

  3. Softec HD hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens: biocompatibility and precision

    Ladan Espandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ladan Espandar1, Shameema Sikder2, Majid Moshirfar31Department of Ophthalmology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: Intraocular lens development is driven by higher patient expectations for ideal visual outcomes. The recently US Food and Drug Administration-approved Softec HD™ lens is an aspheric, hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL. The hydrophilic design of the lens is optimized to address dysphotopsia while maintaining biocompatibility, optical clarity, resistance to damage, and resistance to biocontamination. Aspheric lenses decrease postoperative spherical aberration. The addition of the Softec lens provides clinicians with another option for IOL placement; however, randomized comparative studies of this lens to others already on the market remain to be completed.Keywords: hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens, Softec HD intraocular lens, aspheric intraocular lens, IOL

  4. 快速眼压波动对大鼠眼部血流动力学的影响%Intraocular pressure rapid fluctuation affects rat ocular hemodynamics

    谢茂松; 郑永征; 刘新秀; 徐国兴

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of intraocular pressure(IOP)rapid fluctuations on rat ocular hemodynamics. Methods SD rat model with IOP rapid fluctuations was established. The IOP was decreased from 12 mm Hg (1 mm Hg=0. 133 kPa) to 0 mm Hg within 1 s. 2 minutes later, the IOP was increased from 0 mm Hg to 12 mm Hg within 1 s. The anterior segment photos of rats were taken by slit lamp image analysis system when IOP at 12 mm Hg and 0 mm Hg, while the iris vessels diameter (VD) was measured. The peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), mean velocity (MV), resistant index (RI), pulsatility index (PI) and VD of rats central retinal artery (CRA) and central retinal vein (CRV) were detected and analyzed using color Doppler ultrasonography before and 5, 10, 20, 60s after IOP fluctuations. Results The iris VD was (28.30±5.80) or (59.80±6.40) μm when the IOP was 12 or 0 mm Hg, respectively. Compared with each other, the difference was statistically significant (t=8. 98,P<0.01). When the IOP decreased rapidly, the VD of iris, CRA and CRV expanded immediately; PSV,EDV and MV increased immediately, then decreased slowly; RI and PI decreased immediately. The differences among different periods were statistically significant (P<0.01). The change magnitudes of CRA were bigger than those of CRV. Conversely, when the IOP increased rapidly, the VD of iris, CRA and CRV reduced immediately; PSV, EDV and MV decreased immediately; RI and PI increased immediately. The differences among different periods were statistically significant (P < 0. 01). ConclusionIOP rapid fluctuations can induce dramatic fluctuation of rat ocular hemodynamics.%目的 观察快速眼压波动对大鼠眼部血流动力学的影响。方法 建立快速眼压波动Sprague-Dawley大鼠模型。其眼压在1 s内由12 mm Hg(1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa)下降至0 mm Hg,2 min后于1 s内由0 mm Hg上升至12 mm Hg。采用裂隙灯图像分析系统拍摄大鼠眼压12 mm Hg及0 mm Hg时眼前

  5. Effects of Mirtogenol® on ocular blood flow and intraocular hypertension in asymptomatic subjects

    Steigerwalt, Robert D; Gianni, Belcaro; Paolo, Morazzoni; Bombardelli, Ezio; Burki, Carolina; Schönlau, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The most important variable risk factor for developing glaucoma is intraocular hypertension. Timely lowering of high intraocular pressure (IOP) significantly lowers the likelihood of developing glaucoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the food supplement Mirtogenol® (Mirtoselect® and Pycnogenol®) on IOP and ocular blood flow in a product evaluation study. Methods Thirty-eight asymptomatic subjects with intraocular hypertension were either given Mirtogenol® (20 su...

  6. Pressures for Asymptotically Sub-additive Potentials Under a Mistake Function

    Cheng, Wen-Chiao; Zhao, Yun; Cao, Yongluo

    2010-01-01

    This paper defines the pressure for asymptotically subadditive potentials under a mistake function, including the measuretheoretical and the topological versions. Using the advanced techniques of ergodic theory and topological dynamics, we reveals a variational principle for the new defined topological pressure without any additional conditions on the potentials and the compact metric space.

  7. [Corrrelation between blood pressure levels in patients with glaucoma (Literature review)].

    Ovchinnikov, Yu V; Kuroedov, A V; Baranova, N A; Ibragimova, F M

    2016-01-01

    The problem of correlation between blood pressure levels and intraocular pressure is one of the most talked about. Both, Russian and foreign literature, reflects the heterogeneity of views on the impact of blood pressure changes into the level of intraocular. pressure. At the same time it underestimated the role of systemic cardiovascular changes in the deterioration of visual function in case of primary open-angle glaucoma. Numerous data demonstrate the role of additional factors than average blood pressure levels in advance of glaucoma. More and more researchers tend to assess not only intraocular pressure, but also perfusion pressure as a risk predictor of advance of glaucoma. Correlation between blood pressure level and intraocular pressure has a particular relevance due to the significant improvement of the range of cardiovascular drugs that can affect on intraocular pressure indictors. A number of literature data confirm the need to research variations in blood pressure levels during the day and types of therapy that patients receive. PMID:27120953

  8. Cytomegalovirus retinitis mimicking intraocular lymphoma

    Patrick Gooi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Gooi1, James Farmer2, Bernard Hurley3, Elliott Brodbaker41Department of Ophthalmology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; 2Department of Pathology and Lab Medicine University of Ottawa and The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ottawa Eye Institute and The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 4Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: We present a case of an unusual retinal infiltrate requiring retinal biopsy for definitive diagnosis. A 62-year-old man with treated lymphoma presented with decreased vision in the right eye associated with a white retinal lesion, which extended inferonasally from an edematous disc. Intraocular lymphoma was considered as a diagnosis; thus, the patient was managed with vitrectomy and retinal biopsy. Cytological analysis of the vitreous aspirate could not rule out a lymphoproliferative disorder. The microbial analysis was negative. Histology of the lesion showed extensive necrosis and large cells with prominent nucleoli. To rule out lymphoma, a battery of immunostains was performed and all were negative. However the limited amount of tissue was exhausted in the process. Subsequently, a hematoxylin and eosin (H/E slide was destained, on which a CMV immunostain was performed. This revealed positivity in the nuclei and intranuclear inclusions within the large atypical cells. A diagnosis of CMV retinitis was made. Retinal biopsy may provide a definitive diagnosis and direct patient care toward intravenous gancyclovir in the case of CMV or toward radiation and chemotherapy for intraocular lymphoma. When faced with a limited amount of tissue, destaining regular H/E slides is a possible avenue to performing additional immunohistochemical studies.Keywords: CMV retinitis, retinal biopsy, immunohistochemistry, destaining

  9. Malignant intraocular tumors

    The role of the radiation therapist in the management of malignant intraocular tumors is changing. With more active identification of malignant intraocular tumors, and a better recognization of the manner in which one can deal with problems of radiation sensitivity, radiation techniques of all sorts will be more actively employed in the treatment of these tumors. Special techniques must be selected for appropriate circumstances of management in order to diminish to an absolute minimum the impact upon the lens, the impact upon visual acuity and the impact upon the cornea. Cobalt-60 plaques are being used more commonly in the treatment of melanomas of the choroid, and the role for radiation therapy in the management of retinoblastoma is changing markably to where it may be used as the primary treatment program rather than enucleation. In metastatic disease involving the uveal tract, radiation therapy has assumed the most important role for management. Chemotherapy should be considered as an active adjuvant in the management of not only those individuals with retinoblastoma but also in those identified circumstances where metastases to the uveal tract are being treated. The role for chemotherapy or immunotherapy in malignant melanoma is unclear

  10. Intraocular pressure and its correlation with blood gas parameters in crested caracaras (Caracara plancus anesthetized with isoflurane and sevoflurane Pressão intra-ocular e sua correlação com parâmetros hemogasométricos em caracarás (Caracara plancus anestesiados com isofluorano e sevofluorano

    A.P. Ribeiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The intraocular pressure (IOP and its correlations with arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2 and arterial pH were studied in five crested caracaras (Caracara plancus anesthetized with isoflurane (ISO and sevoflurane (SEV. Baseline IOP values were measured in both eyes (M0. Brachial artery was previously catheterized to obtain blood gas and cardiorespiratory analysis. Anesthesia was induced with 5% ISO and maintained with 2.5% for 40 minutes. IOP measurements and blood samples were evaluated in different moments until the end of the procedure. After recovering, a second anesthesia was induced with 6% SEV and maintained with 3.5%. Parameters were evaluated at the same time points of the previous procedure. IOP reduced significantly (P= 0.012 from M0 at all time points and no significative changes were observed between ISO and SEV anesthesias. Correlation between IOP and PaCO2 and between PIO and blood pH were found only for SEV. IOP and blood pH decreased in parallel with IOP, whereas values of PaCO2 increased in caracaras anesthetized with isoflurane and sevoflurane.Avaliou-se a pressão intra-ocular (PIO e estimaram-se as correlações entre PIO e pressão de dióxido de carbono (PaCO2 e pH arterial de cinco caracarás (Caracara plancus, anestesiados com isofluorano (ISO ou sevofluorano (SEV. Valores basais da PIO foram aferidos em ambos os olhos (M0. Cateterizou-se previamente a artéria braquial para obtenção de parâmetros hemogasométricos e cardiorrespiratórios. Anestesia foi induzida com ISO a 5V% e mantida por 40 minutos com 2,5V%. PIO e amostras de sangue foram avaliadas em diferentes momentos até o final do procedimento. Após recuperação, uma segunda anestesia foi realizada com SEV a 6% e mantida com 3,5%. Os parâmetros foram aferidos nos mesmos momentos estabelecidos previamente. A PIO decresceu significativamente (P=0,012 de M0 em todos os momentos e não houve diferença estatística entre ISO e SEV. Correla

  11. ROLLING CONTACT FATIGUE BEHAVIOR OF CERAMIC BALLS LUBRICATED BY LUBRICANTS WITH EXTREME PRESSURE ADDITIVES

    ZHANG Feng; SONG Baoyu; QU Jianjun; LIU Weimin

    2006-01-01

    An experiment is conducted to investigate the effects of lubricant10#, which contains extreme pressure additives T304 and T305, on the rolling contact fatigue (RCF) life of the contact pairs of a Si3N4 ceramic ball and a steel rod. The experimental investigation is carried out using a ball-rod RCF test rig. The results show that the extreme pressure additives increase the anti-contact-fatigue performance of ceramic balls; When the content of the additives varies from 1% to 5%, the increasing gradient of the RCF life curve decreases; And the oil sample with 1% T305 additive corresponds to the maximal gradient of the RCF life curve, with the RCF life being increased by about 10.77 times.The fatigue surface of the ceramic ball is analyzed with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray electron dispersion analysis(EDAX), and the physical model of extreme pressure additives'increasing the RCF life of the ceramic ball is proposed. It is found that the extreme pressure additives form a corrosive film and a transfer film on the surface of the ceramic ball, which decrease the surface tangential stress, and to increase the surface energy is the most effective means for increasing the RCF life.

  12. Correlação entre os achados à biomicroscopia ultra-sônica de bolhas filtrantes, com ou sem mitomicina C, e a pressão intra-ocular The correlation between ultrasound biomicroscopy of filtering blebs, with or without mitomycin C, and intraocular pressure

    Italo Mundialino Marcon

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar, pela biomicroscopia ultra-sônica (UBM, a presença ou não de bolhas filtrantes antiglaucomatosas, observando sua cavidade, e suas diferenças no diâmetro, altura e espessura da parede, em olhos submetidos à cirurgia de trabeculectomia, com ou sem o uso de mitomicina C (MMC, e avaliar o efeito destas características sobre a pressão intra-ocular (Po. Métodos: De forma aleatória, em um estudo de coorte com duração de seis meses, foram examinados pela UBM 61 olhos de 44 pacientes portadores de glaucoma, submetidos à cirurgia de trabeculectomia, tendo 38 recebido a mitomicina C (MMC e 23 não. Todos os olhos foram examinados e avaliados no pós-operatório pelo UBM, com sonda de 50 MHz, utilizando a técnica descrita por Pavlin em 1991 (Pavlin et al., 1991. Resultados: A altura da bolha filtrante foi de 1,80 ± 0,74 mm nos olhos com MMC e de 1,40 ± 0,53 mm naqueles sem MMC. A espessura da parede da bolha foi de 0,91 ± 0,59 mm nos olhos que receberam a MMC e 0,51 ± 0,45 mm naqueles que não receberam. A Po foi de 12,37 ± 5,45 mmHg nos olhos com MMC e de 14,91 ± 5,48 mmHg nos que não receberam. Conclusões: O estudo pelo UBM demonstrou que foi a altura da bolha o elemento que mais influenciou na diminuição da Po. A espessura da parede foi significativamente maior nos olhos com MMC do que nos sem MMC. A diminuição da Po foi maior nos olhos em que foi utilizada a MMC, com uma diferença média de 2,54 mmHg.Purpose: To evaluate the presence or absence of filtering blebs, its cavities, differences in diameter, height, wall thickness, seen on ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM of eyes submited to trabeculectomy, with or without using mitomicyn C (MMC, and to evaluate the effect of these caracteristics on the intraocular pressure (IOP. Methods: In a nonrandomized fashion, a six-month cohort study of 61 eyes of 44 glaucoma patients examined by UBM, all of which underwent trabeculectomy. Of these, 38 received MMC and 23 did

  13. Intraocular coenurosis: a case report.

    Ibechukwu, B. I.; Onwukeme, K. E.

    1991-01-01

    A case of intraocular coenurosis was clinically diagnosed and treated with praziquantel. The drug destroyed the coenurus, but vision was lost through toxic endophthalmitis and retinal detachment. There were no systemic side effects.

  14. Comparing the efficacy of the monocular trial treatment paradigm with multiple measurements of intraocular pressure before and after treatment initiation in primary open-angle glaucoma

    Koulen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Rohit Krishna, Peter W DeBry, Corey W Waldman, Peter KoulenVision Research Center, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, MO, USAAbstract: The monocular trial has been proposed as a test to help control for diurnal fluctuations in eye pressure when assessing medication effectiveness. We undertook a prospective study to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the monocular trial as a test for determining the effectiveness of a glaucoma medicati...

  15. A combined analysis of four observational studies evaluating the intraocular pressure-lowering ability and tolerability of bimatoprost 0.01% in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension

    Stevens A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Annemie Stevens,1 Milko E Iliev,2 Leo de Jong,3 Ioana Grobeiu,4 Anton Hommer5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 4Allergan Holdings Ltd, Marlow, UK; 5Private Office, Vienna, Austria Objective: Combine and evaluate data from four clinical practice studies investigating the intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering ability, tolerability of and patient adherence to bimatoprost 0.01% therapy in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Methods: Data were combined from four multicenter, prospective, observational studies. Patients (n=2,593 were recruited from 328 sites in Austria, Belgium, Switzerland, and the Netherlands. Assessments were at study entry (baseline and after 10–14 weeks. Results: Bimatoprost 0.01% lowered mean IOP by 5.0 mmHg from baseline to final visit (P<0.0001. Individual IOP goals were achieved in 75.5% of patients. Results were similar in right and left eyes; right-eye data are presented here for brevity. The greatest mean IOP reduction was 6.7±4.7 mmHg (28.8% reduction from baseline to final visit, P<0.0001 in treatment-naïve patients. Switching to bimatoprost 0.01% monotherapy from previous monotherapy reduced mean IOP by a further 3.2±3.6 mmHg (17.2%, P<0.0001. Switching to bimatoprost 0.01% from previous prostaglandin monotherapy reduced mean IOP by 2.9±3.5 mmHg (15.5%, including by 3.1±3.4 mmHg (15.8% and 3.3±4.1 mmHg (16.9% for previous latanoprost and travoprost treatment, respectively (all P<0.0001. IOP reduction in patients previously treated with a fixed combination was 2.7±4.0 mmHg (14.2%, P<0.0001. The most commonly reported adverse events were conjunctival hyperemia (5.2% and eye irritation (4.7%. Tolerability was rated as “very good” or “good” by 90.1% of patients. Adherence was rated by

  16. Fabrication and characterization of Si3N4 ceramics without additives by high pressure hot pressing

    Shimada, M.; Tanaka, A.; Yamada, T.; Koizumi, M.

    1984-01-01

    High pressure hot-pressing of Si3N4 without additives was performed using various kinds of Si3N4 powder as starting materials, and the relation between densification and alpha-beta phase transformation was studied. The temperature dependences of Vickers microhardness and fracture toughness were also examined. Densification of Si3N4 was divided into three stages, and it was found that densification and phase transformation of Si3N4 under pressure were closely associated. The results of the temperature dependence of Vickers microhardness indicated that the high-temperature hardness was strongly influenced not only by the density and microstructure of sintered body but also by the purity of starting powder. The fracture toughness values of Si3N4 bodies without additives were 3.29-4.39 MN/m to the 3/2 power and independent of temperature up to 1400 C.

  17. CHF enhancement in pool boiling system with additives under atmospheric pressure

    In this study, CHF behavior on a small SS304 plate (200 x 50 x 1 mm) at varying inclination angle of the heated surface under atmospheric pressure was studied in pool boiling system with distilled water or several additive solutions. Four fluids, including distilled water, were used to investigate the effect of each additive on CHF at given condition, which were distilled water, boric acid solution (2000, 4000 ppm), TSP (Tri-sodium phosphate) solution (2000, 5000 ppm). All additives showed CHF enhancement effect in comparison with distilled water. The orientation angle was ranged from 5 degrees (near downward facing position) to 90 degrees (vertical position). CHF was increased with the increase of the tilting angle. For the reason of the enhancement with additives, change of heated surface characteristic was discussed. Contact angle was measured, and change of this surface characteristic was discussed as the dominant factor for the enhancement of CHF. (authors)

  18. An additional uncertainty of the throughput generated by the constant pressure gas flowmeter

    Peksa, L.; Gronych, T.; Řepa, P.; Wild, J.; Tesař, J.; Pražák, D.; Krajíček, Z.; Vičar, M.

    2008-03-01

    The lower range limit of constant pressure gas flowmeters is about 10-8 Pa×m3/s. Detrimental gas throughputs caused by leaks and gassing from surfaces prevent from its decrease. Even if the flowmeter is entirely vacuum tight the throughput caused by the outgassing from surfaces can be sufficiently reduced only by pumping at elevated temperature. It can be performed with the flowmeters using directly driven bellows or diaphragm bellows in the volume displacers. Despite it, the lower range limit can hardly be decreased more than several ten times with up to now known designs. An additional uncertainty caused by the difference in pressure at the initial and final instant of measurement will increase at generating small throughputs to the extent that it will kill the measurement.

  19. An additional uncertainty of the throughput generated by the constant pressure gas flowmeter

    The lower range limit of constant pressure gas flowmeters is about 10-8 Paxm3/s. Detrimental gas throughputs caused by leaks and gassing from surfaces prevent from its decrease. Even if the flowmeter is entirely vacuum tight the throughput caused by the outgassing from surfaces can be sufficiently reduced only by pumping at elevated temperature. It can be performed with the flowmeters using directly driven bellows or diaphragm bellows in the volume displacers. Despite it, the lower range limit can hardly be decreased more than several ten times with up to now known designs. An additional uncertainty caused by the difference in pressure at the initial and final instant of measurement will increase at generating small throughputs to the extent that it will kill the measurement

  20. Efecto de la sedación con dexmedetomidina sobre la presión intraocular y el espesor central de la córnea en perros (Effects of the dexmedetomidine sedation on intraocular pressure and on the central cornea thickness in the dog

    Cristóbal-Gómez, L.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available ResumenDeterminar el efecto de la sedación con dexmedetomidinasobre la presión intraocular (PIO y el espesor central de la córnea (ECC en perros Material y métodos: Estudio realizado en 10 perros a los que se midió la PIO y ECC basales y tras administración tópica de tropicamida 1%. Seguidamente sedamos con dexmedetomidina 5µg/kg IV y valoramos PIO y ECC a los 5,10, 15 y 20 minutos post-sedación. Los valores medios se compararon mediante la prueba t de Student para muestras pareadas. Resultados: Los valores medios basales de PIO fueron media ± D.E. 10,95 ± 1,70 mmHg; y 571 ± 21,42 µm para el ECC. No existe asociación significativa entre PIO y ECC (r= -0,2399. La midriasis no varió significativamente los valores de PIO (P= 0,3665 pero sí el ECC (P=5,6109x10-6. La sedación con dexmedetomidina no varía significativamente los valores de PIO ni ECC (P>0,05. Conclusiones midriasis provocada por tropicamida 1% disminuyesignificativamente el ECC pero no la PIO. La sedación condexmedetomidina 5 mg/kg IV no varía significativamente los valores basales de PIO ni del ECC.SummaryObjective: to determine the effects of the dexmedetomidine sedation onintraocular pressure (IOP and on the central corneal thickness (CCT.Material and methods: this study has been performed over 10 dogstreated in the Veterinary Clinical Hospital of Córdoba University. The IOP and the CCT were measured before and after administration of one drop of 1% tropicamide. Thereafter, they were sedated with dexmedetomidine 5 µg/kg IV, and IOP and CCT were evaluated at 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes after sedation. A t-Student test was performed with paired samples of mean values in order to compare both groups.Results: Basal values of IOP were 10.95 ± 1.70 mmHg, whereas CCTmean values were 571 ± 21.42µm. There were no statistically significant association between IOP and CCT (Pearson correlation r= -0.2399.Mydriasis did not significantly change the values of IOP (P= 0

  1. Several issues for the diagnosis and treatment of anterior uveitis with increased intraocular pressure%伴有高眼压的前葡萄膜炎诊治中的一些问题

    王红; 沈琳

    2012-01-01

    Some anterior uveitis lack of severe fibrinous exudation and posterior synechiae of iris, such as viral anterior uveitis, Fuchs syndrome and Posner-Schlossman syndrome, can be manifested as persistent or recurrent elevated intraocular pressure, and its treatment is often difficult. Recently, Singapore scholars described clinical features of cytomegalovirus anterior uveitis in immuocompe-tent patients, and presented a new idea to diagnosis and treatment of the anterior uveitis with ocular hypertension. Though Fuchs syndrome and Posner-Schlossman syndrome have similar clinical manifestations to cytomegalovirus anterior uveitis, and cytomegalovirus infection may be the pathogenesis of the two diseases, whether to join the antiviral therapy for the Fuchs syndrome, Posner-Schlossman syndrome or not, is still a problem worthy of discussion. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 228-233)%某些缺乏严重纤维素性渗出及虹膜后粘连的前葡萄膜炎如病毒性前葡萄膜炎、Fuchs综合征、青光眼睫状体炎综合征等均可表现为持续性或反复性眼压升高,对其治疗常较棘手.最近,新加坡学者对巨细胞病毒性前葡萄膜炎进行了系统分析,对伴有眼压升高的前葡萄膜炎患者提出了新的诊治思路.虽然Fuchs综合征、青光眼睫状体炎综合征与巨细胞病毒性前葡萄膜炎有类似表现,且后两者的发病机制中均有提到巨细胞病毒,但针对后两者的治疗目前仍以对症治疗为主,是否需加入抗病毒治疗,仍需长期的实践探讨.

  2. 玻璃体切除硅油填充术后高眼压临床分析%Clinical analysis of intraocular pressure(IOP) elevation after vitrectomy and silicon oil tamponade

    黄庆; 张军军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the causes and measurements of intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation after vitrectomy. Methods To retrospectively analyze clinical data of thirty-one eyes out of one hundred and sixty patients (one hundred and seventy-eight eyes) which had IOP elevation in early period after vitrectomy from January,2010 to December, 2010. Results The causes of postoperative IOP elevation ate uveitic inflammation (eighteen eyes, 58. 1% ), aphakia (four eyes, 12.9%), steroids ((our eyes, 12.9%), silicon oil tamponade excess (three eyes, 9.7%) and endoph-thalmitis (two eyes, 6.5%). After various treatments such as IOP-lowering medication, stop using of steroids, taken-out part of silicon oil, paracentesis of anterior chamber and change to hign-grade antibiotics, the IOP of all eyes returned to normal. Conclusion The incidence of IOP elevation after vitrectomy is 17.4% and uveitic inflammation is the common cause. Timely prevention and proper measurement can reduce visual damage.%目的 探讨玻璃体切除硅油填充术后高眼压的原因及处理.方法 回顾性分析2010年1月到2010年12月本院160例(178只眼)玻璃体切除硅油填充术后早期发生高眼压31例(31只眼)的临床资料.结果 术后高眼压发生原因如下:葡萄膜炎症反应(18只眼,58.1%)、无晶状体眼(4只眼,12.9%)、激素引发(4只眼,129%)、硅油填充过量(3只眼,9.7%)、眼内炎(2只眼,6.5%).给予降眼压药物、停用激素类药物、硅油部分取出、前房穿刺或换用敏感抗生素等治疗后,眼压均降至正常.结论 玻璃体切除硅油填充术后高眼压在本研究的发生率为17.4%,术后葡萄膜炎症反应为常见原因,及时的预防和处理能减少视功能的损害.

  3. Experimental investigation into the effects of coolant additives on boiling phenomena in pressurized water reactors

    This study investigates the effects of coolant additives like boric acid on boiling phenomena in pressurized water reactors under conditions as realistic as possible. The effects covered range from subcooled boiling to critical boiling conditions (CHF). The focus of this project lies on flow boiling with up to 40 bar and 250 °C in order to generate a data basis for a possible extrapolation to reactor conditions. The results of the experiments are used to implement and validate new models into CFD-Codes in context to a nationwide German joint research project with the specific aim of improving CFD boiling-models. (author)

  4. Primary Phacoemulsification and Intraocular Lens Implantation for Acute Primary Angle-Closure

    Su, Wei-Wen; Chen, Phil Yeong-Fung; Hsiao, Ching-Hsi; Chen, Henry Shen-Lih

    2011-01-01

    Background To investigate the effect of primary phacoemulsification on intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with acute primary angle-closure (PAC) and coexisting cataract. Methodology Sixteen eyes of 14 patients with acute PAC received phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation as initial management for medically uncontrolled IOP in a retrospective chart review. The effects on IOP, vision, anterior chamber depth (ACD), and number of antiglaucoma medications were evaluated. Princi...

  5. Phacolytic glaucoma-its treatment by planned extracapsular cataract extraction with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation

    Singh Gurdeep; Kaur Jagmeet; Mall Sanjay

    1994-01-01

    Phacolytic glaucoma has traditionally been treated with intracapsular lens extraction to avoid any anaphylaxis. Various mechanisms have been described for the rise of intraocular pressure in these cases. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the response of extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation (PC IOL) in five cases of phacolytic glaucoma that occurred between March 1989 and August 1990. A planned extracapsular cataract extractio...

  6. Fabrication of highly dense SiN4 ceramics without additives by high pressure sintering

    Takatori, K.; Shimade, M.; Koizumi, M.

    1984-01-01

    Silicon nitride (Si3N4) is one of candidate materials for the engineering ceramics which is used at high temperatures. The mechanical strengths of hot pressed or sintered Si2N4 ceramics containing some amount of additives, however, are deteriorated at elevated temperatures. To improve the high temperature strength of Si3N4 ceramics, an attempt to consolidate Si3N4 without additives was made by high pressure sintering technique. Scanning electron micrographs of fracture surfaces of the sintered bodies showed the bodies had finely grained and fully self-bonded sintered bodies were 310N sq m at room temperature and 174N/sq m at 1200 C.

  7. Efecto de la sedación con dexmedetomidina sobre la presión intraocular y el espesor central de la córnea en perros (Effects of the dexmedetomidine sedation on intraocular pressure and on the central cornea thickness in the dog)

    Cristóbal-Gómez, L.; Molleda-Carbonell, J.M.; Martín-Suárez, E.

    2009-01-01

    ResumenDeterminar el efecto de la sedación con dexmedetomidinasobre la presión intraocular (PIO) y el espesor central de la córnea (ECC) en perros Material y métodos: Estudio realizado en 10 perros a los que se midió la PIO y ECC basales y tras administración tópica de tropicamida 1%. Seguidamente sedamos con dexmedetomidina 5µg/kg IV y valoramos PIO y ECC a los 5,10, 15 y 20 minutos post-sedación. Los valores medios se compararon mediante la prueba t de Student para muestras pareadas. Result...

  8. Clinical effect of St.John's Wort Extract on intraocular pressure in perioperative period of narrowangle glaucoma%圣约翰草提取物对青光眼围手术期眼压的影响

    岳红云; 徐朝晖; 曹虹; 张百红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To research the matching factor about intraocular pressure in perioperative period by studying the influence of St. John's Wort Extract to intraocular pressure during this time. Methods The 56 narrow - angle glaucoma patients were charged into St. John's Wort Extract group or control group randomly and all cases were treated with carteolol hydrochloride eyedrop by 2 times and Brinzolamide 3 times every day for lowering IOP in 3 days before operation, while the St. John S Wort Extract 300mg was given to the treatment group' s cases everyday before operation for 3 day. Control group was charged with placebo.The same score before St. John' S Wort Extract and before operation between groups was analysed by t test The IOP Of St. JohnS Wort Extract group and cintrol group 7 day. after operation was contrasted by t test and line that the cirrelation coefficient with SPSS 13.0. Results The difference of IOP between before and after the theory of St. JohnS Wort Extract were charged by t test (t =2.017 P =0.046)and the treatment group was significanly higher(8.91 ±2.73mmHg) than the control group(3.66 ± 1.93mmHg),meanwhile,1 week after operation, the IOP of treatment group(6. 37 ± 2.49mmHg)were significantly lower than control (9.25 ± 1.98),the differnece were significantly showed by t test (t = 2. 009 P =0. 041 ). In operation day, HAMA score of control gronp(13. 35 ±2.58)and treatment group(8.67 ±2.32) showed significant difference (t =2.013 P= 0.044) while HAMA score seems positive correlation to IOP in treatment group and control groups cases in operation day (r1 =0. 397 P1 =0. 046, r2 =415 P2 =0. 033). Conclusion St. John's Wort Extract seems the effect of lower IOP for glaucoma operation through modifing anxiety of narrow-angle glaucoma patients.%目的 探讨圣约翰草提取物对抗青光眼术前眼压的影响,研究青光眼围手术期眼压波动诱因及应对策略。方法 56例原发性闭角性青光眼按照随机表顺序随机进入对

  9. Avaliação comparativa do efeito dos colírios de apraclonidina e latanoprost na profilaxia da hipertensão ocular pós capsulotomia com YAG Laser em pacientes não glaucomatosos Profilatic use of apraclonidine and latanoprost to prevent intraocular pressure elevation following Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy

    Juliane de Freitas S. Paranhos

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Comparar a eficácia do latanoprost 0,005% e da apraclonidina 1% na prevenção da hipertensão ocular pós-capsulotomia posterior com YAG laser, em pacientes não- glaucomatosos. Método: Trinta e seis pacientes (36 olhos incluídos foram divididos em três grupos que usaram latanoprost 0,005%, apraclonidina 1% ou placebo. Foram realizadas medidas da pressão ocular antes da instilação de qualquer colírio, 30 minutos após a dilatação, 1 hora e 4 horas após o YAG laser. Resultados: Não houve diferença significativa entre os 3 grupos em relação à idade, pressão ocular inicial e pós-dilatação, assim como em quantidade de energia utilizada. Na primeira hora, tanto para a diferença absoluta quanto para o percentual de alteração da pressão intra-ocular, o grupo da apraclonidina apresentou redução estatisticamente maior em relação ao grupo controle (p 0,05. Na 4a. hora não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos (p > 0,05. As medidas de pressão nos 4 intervalos não apresentaram variação estatisticamente significativa (p > 0,05. A quantidade de energia utilizada não mostrou correlação significativa com o aumento da Po (p > 0,05. Conclusão: A apraclonidina 1% apresentou maior eficácia na profilaxia da hipertensão após capsulotomia posterior com YAG laser quando comparada com latanoprost 0,005%.Purpose: To compare the efficacy of 0.005% latanoprost and 1% apraclonidine in the prevention of an increase of intraocular pressure (IOP after Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy in nonglaucomatous patients. Methods: Thirty-six patients were included and divided in to three groups. Patients received 0.005% latanoprost. 1% apraclonidine or placebo. Four measurements of IOP were made: before instillation of any drug, 30 minutes after cycloplegia, 1 hour and 4 hours after laser. Results: No significant difference was found between the three groups regarding age, initial intraocular pressure, pressure 30 minutes after

  10. Analytical design of intraocular lenses

    Barbero Briones, Sergio; Marcos Celestino, Susana; Dorronsoro Díaz, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for designing intraocular lenses, comprising: the definition of a pseudoaphakic eye model; the definition of a merit function in multiple dimensions, which analytically connects the quality of the image on the retina to the optical and geometric parameters of the pseudoaphakic eye model; and the algorithm optimisation of the previous merit function using analytical and numerical methods in order to obtain one or more minimum globals which provide the optimal ...

  11. Influência da redução medicamentosa da pressão intra-ocular na medida da espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina de olhos hipertensos e glaucomatosos pela polarimetria de varredura a laser The influence of intraocular pressure reduction with medication on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements obtained with scanning laser polarimetry in glaucomatous and hypertensive eyes

    Rodrigo Rezende Gomes Avelino

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da redução da pressão intra-ocular (PIO obtido com o uso de terapia medicamentosa na espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina medida pela polarimetria de varredura a laser (PVL em pacientes glaucomatosos ou hipertensos oculares. MÉTODOS: Trinta e sete olhos de 37 pacientes foram prospectivamente incluídos no estudo e avaliados com a PVL sem uso de medicação ocular hipotensora e num período entre 15 e 30 dias após a instituição de medicação ocular hipotensora, que resultou em redução da PIO de pelo menos 25%. Os parâmetros medidos pela PVL antes e após a redução da PIO foram comparados com o teste t de Student pareado. RESULTADOS: A PIO média dos 37 pacientes diminuiu significativamente de 26,57±4,23 mmHg para 16,54±2,92 mmHg (p0,05. CONCLUSÃO: A redução da PIO com o uso de medicação ocular hipotensora não altera a medida da espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina pela PVL em pacientes com glaucoma ou hipertensão ocular.PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness as measured by scanning laser polarimetry (SLP after the use of medication to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP in glaucomatous or ocular hypertensive patients. METHODS: The authors prospectively enrolled 37 eyes of 37 patients in whom IOP was reduced by more than 25% after the use of medication. The images were obtained before and 15 to 30 days after the introduction of medication. The SLP parameters measured before and after the use of medication were compared using paired Student's t Test. RESULTS: The mean IOP was significantly reduced from 26.57±4.23 mmHg to 16.54 ±2.92 mmHg after the use of medication (p0.05. CONCLUSION: The retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, as measured by SLP, is not affected by the reduction of IOP with medication in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

  12. Pigment dispersion syndrome associated with intraocular lens implantation: a new surgical technique

    M Isabel Canut Jordana

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available M Isabel Canut Jordana1, Daniel Pérez Formigó1, Rodrigo Abreu González2, Jeroni Nadal Reus11Barraquer Ophthalmology Centre, Barcelona, Spain; 2University Hospital of La Candelaria, Tenerife, SpainAims: We report the case of a myopic patient who, after intraocular lens transplant in the posterior chamber, suffered elevated intraocular pressure due to pigment dispersion, with recurrent episodes of blurred vision. The patient was treated with a new surgical technique that can avoid potential iridolenticular contact.Methods: Complete ophthalmologic examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT of the anterior segment were performed.Results: Contact between the pigmentary epithelium and the iris with an intraocular lens was revealed by utrasound biomicroscopy and OCT. In this case, Nd:YAG laser iridotomy and laser iridoplasty were not effective for iridolenticular separation and control of the pigment dispersion. We propose a new technique: stitches on the surface of the iris to obtain good iridolenticular separation and good intraocular pressure control.Conclusion: Stitches on the iris surface should be considered as optional therapy in pigmentary glaucoma secondary to intraocular lens implantation. This surgical technique can avoid potential iridolenticular contacts more definitively.Keywords: pigmentary glaucoma, intraocular lens, optical coherence tomography, laser

  13. Hematoporphyrin derivative photoradiation therapy for the treatment of intraocular tumors

    Hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) photoradiation therapy (PRT) is currently being examined for the treatment of intraocular tumors (retinoblastoma and uveal melanoma). HpD is preferentially retained in malignant tissue and tumorcidal action can be induced when HpD is activated with visible red light. Preclinical studies have been conducted using pigmented rabbits having transplanted intraocular tumors. A dye laser system has been used to generate red light (630 nm) for localized irradiation of ocular tissue following I.V. administration of HpD. The authors have previously reported that acute toxicity to normal retina (in the form of retinal necrosis) can be induced by HpD PRT, and that this damage can be limited to the treatment field. The results of current preclinical studies related to long term ocular toxicity, HpD distribution in ocular tissue and intraocular tumor tissue response following HpD PRT are presented. In addition, initial clinical results of intraocular HpD PRT are described

  14. Survey of Intraocular Antibiotics Prophylaxis Practice after Open Globe Injury in China.

    Bingsheng Lou

    Full Text Available To elucidate the Chinese practice of intraocular antibiotics administration for prophylaxis after open globe injury.A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed online by scanning a Quickmark (QR code with smartphones at the 20th Chinese National Conference of Ocular Trauma in November 2014.A total of 153 (30.6% of all participators at the conference responded. Of the respondents, 20.9% were routinely administered with prophylactic intraocular injection of antibiotics at the conclusion of the primary eye repair, and 56.9% were used only in cases with high risk of endophthalmitis development. The intraocular route of delivery was mainly included with intracameral injection (47.9% and intravitreal injection (42.0%. Cephalosporins (53.8% and vancomycin (42.0% were the main choices of antibiotic agents, followed by fluoroquinolones (24.3%, and aminoglycosides (13.4%. Only 21.9% preferred a combination of two or more two drugs routinely. In addition, significantly more respondents from the referral eye hospital (92.7% replied using intraocular antibiotics injection for prophylaxis compared to those respondents from the primary hospital (69.4% (p = 0.001, Fisher's exact test.Intraocular antibiotics injection for post-traumatic endophthalmitis prophylaxis is widely used in China. However, the choice of antibiotic agents and the intraocular route of delivery vary. A well-designed clinical trial is needed to establish a standardized protocol of intraocular antibiotics administration for post-traumatic endophthalmitis prophylaxis.

  15. Survey of Intraocular Antibiotics Prophylaxis Practice after Open Globe Injury in China

    Tan, Junlian; Yang, Yao; Yuan, Zhaohui; Lin, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate the Chinese practice of intraocular antibiotics administration for prophylaxis after open globe injury. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed online by scanning a Quickmark (QR) code with smartphones at the 20th Chinese National Conference of Ocular Trauma in November 2014. Results A total of 153 (30.6%) of all participators at the conference responded. Of the respondents, 20.9% were routinely administered with prophylactic intraocular injection of antibiotics at the conclusion of the primary eye repair, and 56.9% were used only in cases with high risk of endophthalmitis development. The intraocular route of delivery was mainly included with intracameral injection (47.9%) and intravitreal injection (42.0%). Cephalosporins (53.8%) and vancomycin (42.0%) were the main choices of antibiotic agents, followed by fluoroquinolones (24.3%), and aminoglycosides (13.4%). Only 21.9% preferred a combination of two or more two drugs routinely. In addition, significantly more respondents from the referral eye hospital (92.7%) replied using intraocular antibiotics injection for prophylaxis compared to those respondents from the primary hospital (69.4%) (p = 0.001, Fisher’s exact test). Conclusions Intraocular antibiotics injection for post-traumatic endophthalmitis prophylaxis is widely used in China. However, the choice of antibiotic agents and the intraocular route of delivery vary. A well-designed clinical trial is needed to establish a standardized protocol of intraocular antibiotics administration for post-traumatic endophthalmitis prophylaxis. PMID:27275777

  16. Efeitos da infusão contínua de cetamina sobre a pressão intra-ocular em cães hipovolêmicos anestesiados com desflurano Effects of continuous infusion of ketamine on intraocular pressure in hypovolemic dogs during desflurane anesthesia

    C.S. Honsho; I.C. Talieri; N. Nunes; J.C.D. Moreno; A. P. Souza

    2004-01-01

    Compararam-se os efeitos de duas doses de cetamina, administradas em infusão contínua, sobre a pressão intra-ocular (PIO) de 18 cães submetidos à hipovolemia e à anestesia com desflurano. Promoveu-se a hipovolemia em todos os cães, retirando-se 40 ml de sangue/kg de peso. A anestesia foi induzida com desflurano, através de máscara facial, até que a intubação orotraqueal fosse permitida. Decorridos 30 minutos, para estabilização dos parâmetros, iniciou-se a infusão contínua de cetamina. Os cãe...

  17. Effect of additive oxygen gas on cellular response of lung cancer cells induced by atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet

    Joh, Hea Min; Choi, Ji Ye; Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, T. H.; Kang, Tae-Hong

    2014-01-01

    The atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet driven by pulsed dc voltage was utilized to treat human lung cancer cells in vitro. The properties of plasma plume were adjusted by the injection type and flow rate of additive oxygen gas in atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet. The plasma characteristics such as plume length, electric current and optical emission spectra (OES) were measured at different flow rates of additive oxygen to helium. The plasma plume length and total current decreased wi...

  18. 氯胺酮和异丙酚对小儿眼内压的影响%Effects of anesthesia with ketamine or propofol on intraocular pressure in pediatric patients

    吴蓉蓉; 戴秀萍; 张家东

    2001-01-01

    Objective To observe the influence of intravenous anesthesia with ketamine or propofol on intraocular pressure (IOP) in pediatric patients. Methods 27 pediatric patients, ASA grade Ⅰ~Ⅱ, were divided into ketamine and propofol groups. Basic anesthesia was conducted with ketamine 4~6 mg*kg-1 combined droperidol 0.04~0.1 mg*kg-1 intramuscularly. Anesthesia maintained with continous infusion of 0.04% ketamine or 0.04% propofol following intravenous bolus of ketamine 1 mg*kg-1 or propofol 1 mg*kg-1 in ketamine group and propofol group respectively. IOP, systemic blood pressure(SBP), diastolic blood pressure(DBP), heart rate(HR) and pulse oxygen saturation(SpO2) were measured at 10 minutes after basic anesthesia, 3 minutes after intravenous bolus of ketamine or propofol and end of surgery. Results There were no differences in IOP between two groups after basic anesthesia. IOP increased or decreased significantly after intravenous bolus of ketamine or propofol respectively. IOP in ketamine group decreased near to the level in propofol group at end of surgery. There were no statistic differences in SBP, DBP and HR between two groups priopration. SpO2 did not change (but in one patient decreasing to below 95% ) and significantly decreased within 5 minutes of intravenous bolus of ketamine and propofol respectively. Conclusion Ketamine increases IOP propofol decreases IOP. Ketamine combined propofol can keep from increase of IOP but strength respiration inhibition.%目的观察静脉麻醉药氯胺酮和异丙酚对小儿眼内压的影响。方法选择ASAⅠ~Ⅱ级患儿27例,分为氯胺酮组和异丙酚组。肌注氯胺酮4~6 mg*kg-1和氟哌利多0.04~0.1 mg*kg-1基础麻醉后,氯胺酮组单次静注氯胺酮1 mg*kg-1,继之静滴0.04%氯胺酮,必要时间断追加氯胺酮;异丙酚组单次静注异丙酚1 mg*kg-1,继之静滴0.04%异丙酚,必要时间断追加异丙酚和氯胺酮。分别于基础麻醉后10 min、单

  19. How to Ignite an Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Plasma Torch without Any Additional Igniters.

    Leins, Martina; Gaiser, Sandra; Schulz, Andreas; Walker, Matthias; Schumacher, Uwe; Hirth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This movie shows how an atmospheric pressure plasma torch can be ignited by microwave power with no additional igniters. After ignition of the plasma, a stable and continuous operation of the plasma is possible and the plasma torch can be used for many different applications. On one hand, the hot (3,600 K gas temperature) plasma can be used for chemical processes and on the other hand the cold afterglow (temperatures down to almost RT) can be applied for surface processes. For example chemical syntheses are interesting volume processes. Here the microwave plasma torch can be used for the decomposition of waste gases which are harmful and contribute to the global warming but are needed as etching gases in growing industry sectors like the semiconductor branch. Another application is the dissociation of CO2. Surplus electrical energy from renewable energy sources can be used to dissociate CO2 to CO and O2. The CO can be further processed to gaseous or liquid higher hydrocarbons thereby providing chemical storage of the energy, synthetic fuels or platform chemicals for the chemical industry. Applications of the afterglow of the plasma torch are the treatment of surfaces to increase the adhesion of lacquer, glue or paint, and the sterilization or decontamination of different kind of surfaces. The movie will explain how to ignite the plasma solely by microwave power without any additional igniters, e.g., electric sparks. The microwave plasma torch is based on a combination of two resonators - a coaxial one which provides the ignition of the plasma and a cylindrical one which guarantees a continuous and stable operation of the plasma after ignition. The plasma can be operated in a long microwave transparent tube for volume processes or shaped by orifices for surface treatment purposes. PMID:25938699

  20. Additive pressures of elevated sea surface temperatures and herbicides on symbiont-bearing foraminifera.

    Joost W van Dam

    Full Text Available Elevated ocean temperatures and agrochemical pollution individually threaten inshore coral reefs, but these pressures are likely to occur simultaneously. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the combined effects of elevated temperature and the photosystem II (PSII inhibiting herbicide diuron on several types of symbiotic algae (diatom, dinoflagellate or rhodophyte of benthic foraminifera in hospite. Diuron was shown to evoke a direct effect on photosynthetic efficiency (reduced effective PSII quantum yield ΔF/F'(m, while elevated temperatures (>30 °C, only 2 °C above current average summer temperatures were observed to impact photosynthesis more indirectly by causing reductions in maximum PSII quantum yield (F(v/F(m, interpreted as photodamage. Additionally, elevated temperatures were shown to cause bleaching through loss of chlorophyll a in foraminifera hosting either diatoms or dinoflagellates. A significant linear correlation was found between reduced F(v/F(m and loss of chlorophyll a. In most cases, symbionts within foraminifera proved more sensitive to thermal stress in the presence of diuron (≥ 1 µg L(-1. The mixture toxicity model of Independent Action (IA described the combined effects of temperature and diuron on the photosystem of species hosting diatoms or dinoflagellates convincingly and in agreement with probabilistic statistics, so a response additive joint action can be assumed. We thus demonstrate that improving water quality can improve resilience of symbiotic phototrophs to projected increases in ocean temperatures. As IA described the observed combined effects from elevated temperature and diuron stress it may therefore be employed for prediction of untested mixtures and for assessing the efficacy of management measures.

  1. Microstructure control of Zr-Nb-Sn alloy with Mo addition for HWR pressure tube application

    As a basic research to develop the material for heavy water reactor pressure tube application the effect of Mo addition to Zr-Nb-Sn alloy was studied for the purpose of minimizing the amount of cold working while maintaining a high strength. To select the target alloy system we first designed various alloy compositions and chose Zr-Nb-Sn and Zr-Nb-Mo through multi-regression analysis of the relationship between the basic properties and the compositions. Plasma arc melting was used to produce the alloys and the microstructure change introduced by the processing steps including hot forging, beta-heat treatment, hot rolling, cold rolling and recrystallization heat treatment was investigated. Recrystallization of Zr-Nb-Sn was retarded by adding Mo and this resulted in a fine grain structure in Zr-Nb-Sn-Mo alloy. Beside the retarding effect recrystallization, Mo increased the amount of residual beta phase and showed an indication of precipitation hardening, which added up to the possibility of applying the alloy for the desired usage. (author)

  2. 21 CFR 886.3600 - Intraocular lens.

    2010-04-01

    ... the natural lens of an eye. (b) Classification. Class III. (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraocular lens. 886.3600 Section 886.3600 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3600 Intraocular lens. (a) Identification....

  3. Heat shock protein 27 and its role in retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in rat high intraocular pressure model%大鼠高眼压模型中热休克蛋白27抗体及视网膜神经节细胞凋亡的研究

    欧阳科; 袁援生

    2012-01-01

    .05).结论 随着眼压的升高以及高眼压持续时间的延长,大鼠血清中的HSP27抗体水平逐渐升高,视网膜在高眼压状态下HSP27表达上调.逐渐升高的HSP27抗体水平与RGCs凋亡增加的趋势一致.%Background Glaucoma is common blinding eye diseases characterized by chronic loss of retinal ganglion cells(RGCs).Currently glaucoma pathogenesis is not completely understood,heat shock protein 27 ( HSP27 )may be associated with the pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Objective Through the establishment of a rat model of high intraocular pressure,detection of the expression of HSP27 antibody in serum and RGCs apoptosis to investigate the role of HSP27 in RGCs apoptosis. Methods Fifty-one clean Wistar rats were divided into high intraocular pressure group (34 rats)and sham operation group( 17 rats)using a random number table.An animal model of high intraocular pressure was established in the right eye by the application of bipolar underwater electrocoagulation on vein of sclera surface in the experimental group,and rats with conjunctiva incision only without electric coagulation were served as sham operation (control).The intraocular pressure of rats of the both groups including experimental and control rats was measured 1,2,4,6,8 weeks after operation and then the rats were sacrificed.1 ml serum was collected from these rats to determine the concentration of HSP27 antibody.The retinas of the rats were isolated and homogenated for the extraction and analysis of the retinal protein by Western blot.Apoptosis of RGCs were assayed by TUNEL.The use of the experimental animals followed the Regulations for the Administration of Affair Concerning Experimental Animals by Kunming Medical Collegc. Results Intraocular pressure was elevated significantly after modeling and remained a high value during the expcrimental duration,showing a significant difference among the different groups ( F =318.502,P<0.01 ).However,no significant change in

  4. Effect of oxygen partial pressure during sintering on the microstructure of Mg-PSZ with strontia and silica additions

    The microstructure, average grain size, and density of Mg-PSZ sintered with SrO and SiO2 additions are found to depend on the partial pressure of oxygen in the sintering atmosphere. Over the range of 10-12 to 100 atm, both the average grain size and density increase with oxygen partial pressure, for a constant SrO/SiO2 ratio. The partial pressure of oxygen also affects the microstructural distribution of the remnant liquid phase. At high partial pressures the liquid phase is uniformly distributed, whereas at lower oxygen pressures it is preferentially located near the surface. It is proposed that the microstructure produced by sintering is the result of a competition between liquid-phase-enhanced densification and the migration of the liquid phase to the free surface. The migration is attributed to vaporization of MgO from the liquid phase which increases with decreasing partial pressure of oxygen

  5. The measurement of intraocular pressure by non-contact tonometer through bandage contact lenses%应用非接触性眼压计经绷带型角膜接触镜的眼压测量

    陈约洁; 王爱孙; 郑钦象

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of the measurement of inttrocular pressure (IOP) by non-contact tonometer (NCT) through bandage contact lenses.Methods IOPs were measured by (NCT) in 42 eyes of 42 patients with and without bandage contact lenses for three times each to get the averages.The values of with and without bandage contact lenses were compared.The correlation of the measurements with and without bandage contact lenses was analyzed.Results The measurement with bandage contact lenses appeared greater than the one without bandage contact lenses (15.26±6.81mmHg vs 13.05±6.16mmHg, P <0.05).The difference of IOPs was 2.21±2.04mmHg, with a maximum of 8mmHg, a minimum of-1.5mmHg, and 95% confidence interval (1.58-2.85mmHg).The measurements with bandage contact lenses significantly correlated with the measurements without bandage contact lenses (r =0.96, P <0.01), while the differences of IOPs did not significantly correlated with the native measurement (r =0.17, P =0.28).Conclusions The measurement of intraocular pressure by non-contact tonometer through bandage contact lens is feasible, so it's unnecessary to remove lenses frequently before the procedures, lest the corneas will be injured once more.However, it should be noted that IOPs through bandage contact lenses may be overestimated.%目的 评价非接触性眼压计(non-contact tonometry,NCT)经绷带型角膜接触镜测量眼压的可行性和准确性.方法 选取2013年11月至2014年6月在温州医科大学眼视光医院需要配戴绷带型角膜接触镜的角膜病、角膜外伤及角膜术后患者42例,共42只患眼.应用NCT分别在患者配戴角膜接触镜前、后测量眼压3次取平均值,比较配戴角膜接触镜前后眼压测值,并进行相关分析以判断角膜接触镜对眼压测量的影响.结果 42例患者配戴前的眼压为(13.05±6.16) mmHg,配戴后的眼压为(15.26±6.81) mmHg,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),

  6. USE OF PRESERVATIVE CONTAINING VS PRESERVATIVE FREE INTRAOCULAR STEROID DURING VITRECTOMY

    Nayana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Triamcinolone is a corticosteroid that is used to treat many ophthalmic diseases . Recently, its use has been advocated to aid in visualization of transparent tissue in ophthalmic surgery. It can be used in anterior segment surgery to help manage vitreous loss during complicated cataract surgery. It has been used to visualize the posterior cortical vitreous during pars plana vitrectomy. In addition, it can be useful in the visualization and peeling of the internal limiting membrane. Triamcinolone has been advocated in surgical repair of proliferative vitreoretinopathy both for its visualizing properties and its anti-inflammatory properties. Overall, triamcinolone use in surgery is safe with low incidence of complications including elevated intraocular pressure, cataract and endophthalmitis.

  7. Intraocular nematode with diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis: case report

    Zakariah Sakinah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Live intraocular nematode is a rare occurrence. Nematode can migrate actively within the eye, creating visual symptoms and damaging ocular tissue. Case presentation A 26-year old man presented with painless reduced vision of the left eye for one week duration. It was associated with floaters. Visual acuity on the left eye was hand movement. Anterior segment examination was normal with normal intra-ocular pressure. Fundus examination showed a live nematode lying subretinally at the macular area with macular oedema and multifocal chorioretinal lesions at peripheral retina. There was no vitritis, vasculitis or any retinal hemorrhage. Systemic examination revealed normal findings and laboratory studies only showed leucocytosis with normal eosinophil count and negative serum toxocara antibody. The diagnosis of introcular nematode with diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis was made. He was treated with oral anti-helminths and a course of oral steroid at a reducing dose. The nematode had died evidenced by its immobility during the treatment and finally disintegrated, leaving macular oedema with mottling appearance and mild hyperpigmentation. Multifocal chorioretinal lesions had also resolved. However despite treatment his visual acuity during follow-up had remained poor. Conclusions Cases of intraocular nematode, though not commonly encountered, continue to present the ophthalmologist with the problem of diagnosis and management and hence poorer prognosis to the patient.

  8. Effect of CO2 Insufflation on Intraocular Pressure during Endoscopic Thyroidectomy%腔镜甲状腺手术中颈部CO2充气对眼内压的影响

    高友兵; 刘勇; 张奕; 汪训实; 蔡逊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of carbon dioxide ( CO2 ) insufflation on intraocular pressure ( IOP ) during endoscopic thyroidectomy. Methods 30 cases with thyroid neoplasms were divided into two groups; 15 cases underwent endoscopic thyroidectomy (as group A) and 15 cases underwent conventional open thyroidectomy ( as group B). IOP Was measured before anesthesia ( T0) , at 5 min after tracheal intubation ( Tl) , 10 min after CO2 Insufflation (T2) , 20 min after CO2 Insufflation (T3) ,40 min after CO2 Insufflation (T4) and 10 min after CO2 Insufflation cease(T5). And HR, MAP and PETCO2 were recorded at every time point. Results There was no obvious difference in age, gender, operative duration and preoperative IOP between two groups ( P > 0. 05 ). Compare with T0, the IOP decreased at Tl in both two groups ( P 0. 05 ). The IOP of group A was remarkable higher than that of group B at T2 to T5. The HR and MAP has no statistic difference in intra-group comparison and comparison between two groups (P >0.05). Both PETCO2 of T3 and T4 was higher than that of TO in group A ( P < 0. 05 ) , and also was higher than those of group B at the same time points ( P < 0. 05). Conclusion The IOP will increase in patietits undergoing endoscopic thyroidectomy, which could be harmful to vision.%目的 观察腔镜甲状腺手术中颈部CO2充气对患者眼压的影响. 方法 甲状腺手术患者30例,根据手术方式分为腔镜手术组(A组)和开放手术组(B组),每组各15例.测量两组麻醉前(T0)、麻醉后5 min(T1)、颈部CO2充气10 min(T2)、20 min( T3)、40 min( T4)及停止充气10 min(T5)各个时点的眼压及心率(HR)、平均动脉压(MAP)及呼气末CO2分压(PETCO2). 结果 ①两组患者的年龄、手术时间及术前眼压无显著性差异.②两组患者麻醉诱导后(T1)眼压较麻醉前(T0)均有所下降,差异有显著性(P<0.05).A组患者在颈部充气后眼压呈逐渐上升的趋势,T4时达到最高.手术结束颈部排气10 min

  9. 改良23G 玻璃体切除手术后早期高眼压的危险因素分析%Risk factors of early postoperative high intraocular pressure after improved 23 -gauge vitrectomy

    梁雪梅; 李婧婧; 秦斌

    2014-01-01

    To observe the incidence of high intraocular pressure ( lOP ) and its risk factors in the early stage (within 7d) after 23 - gauge sutureless microincisional vitrectomy. ●METHODS: Retrospective case series study. Totally 98 patients ( 98 eyes ) who had undergone 23 - gauge sutureless microincisional vitrectomy were enrolled. lOP was measured by non-contact tonometry. High lOP was defined as an lOP > 25mmHg at any time within 7d after surgery. The influence of age, sex, side of operation, course of disease, primary disease pre - operation, reoperation, surgical options, type of tamponade, status of lens, surgical time on postoperative high lOP were analyzed. ● RESULTS: High lOP was found in 33 eyes ( 33. 7%) within 7d after surgery. High lOP was found in 8 eyes on postoperative 1d, the incidence was 24. 2% (8 / 33), and 25 eyes was found on postoperative 3d, the incidence was 75. 8% (25 / 33). The incidence of high lOP of male and female were 32. 8% ( 20 / 61 ) and 35. 1% ( 13 / 37 ) respectively. The incidence of high lOP of right and left eye were 36. 8% (21 / 57) and 29. 3% (12 / 41) respectively. There were no significant differences comparing age (Z =-0. 22), sex( χ2 = 0. 057), side of operation( χ2 = 0. 612), course of disease (Z= -0.079) and surgical time (Z= -0. 553) between patients with high lOP and those without it (P>0. 05). Similarly, no statistical significance was found between eyes with gas tamponade and silicone oil tamponade (χ2 = 1. 04), traumatic eyes and non traumatic eyes(χ2 = 0. 044), and retinal detachment eyes and without retinal detachment eyes ( χ2 = 2. 282, P > 0. 05 ). The incidence of high lOP in eyes with several operations was higher than that in eyes with the first operation ( χ2 =5. 211,P ●CONCLUSlON:High lOP occurs commonly in 3d after 23- gauge sutureless microincisional vitrectomy. The risk factors of high lOP are reoperation, combined operations and aphakic eye.%目的:观察改良23G 经结膜免缝合微切口

  10. Drug loading of foldable commercial intraocular lenses using supercritical impregnation.

    Bouledjouidja, A; Masmoudi, Y; Sergent, M; Trivedi, V; Meniai, A; Badens, E

    2016-03-16

    The drug delivery through intraocular lenses (IOLs) allows the combination of cataract surgery act and postoperative treatment in a single procedure. In order to prepare such systems, "clean" supercritical CO2 processes are studied for loading commercial IOLs with ophthalmic drugs. Ciprofloxacin (CIP, an antibiotic) and dexamethasone 21-phosphate disodium (DXP, an anti-inflammatory drug) were impregnated into foldable IOLs made from poly-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (P-HEMA). A first pre-treatment step was conducted in order to remove absorbed conditioning physiological solution. Supercritical impregnations were then performed by varying the experimental conditions. In order to obtain transparent IOLs and avoid the appearance of undesirable foaming, it was necessary to couple slow pressurization and depressurization phases during supercritical treatments. The impregnation yields were determined through drug release studies. For both drugs, release studies show deep and reproducible impregnation for different diopters. For the system P-HEMA/CIP, a series of impregnations was performed to delimit the experimental range at two pressures (80 and 200 bar) in the presence or absence of ethanol as a co-solvent for two diopters (+5.0 D and +21.0 D). Increase in pressure in the absence of a co-solvent resulted in improved CIP impregnation. The addition of ethanol (5 mol%) produced impregnation yields comparable to those obtained at 200 bar without co-solvent. A response surface methodology based on experimental designs was used to study the influence of operating conditions on impregnation of IOLs (+21.0 D) in the absence of co-solvent. Two input variables with 5 levels each were considered; the pressure (80-200 bar) and the impregnation duration (30-240 min). CIP impregnation yields ranging between 0.92 and 3.83 μg CIP/mg IOL were obtained from these experiments and response surface indicated the pressure as a key factor in the process. The DXP impregnation in P-HEMA was

  11. Intravitreal triamcinolone for intraocular inflammation and associated macular edema

    Steven M Couch

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Steven M Couch, Sophie J BakriMayo Clinic Department of Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: Triamcinolone acetonide (TA is a corticosteroid that has many uses in the treatment of ocular diseases because of its potent anti-inflammatory and anti-permeability actions. Intraocular inflammation broadly referred to as uveitis can result from several causes, including the immune system and after ophthalmic surgery. One of the most common reasons for vision loss with uveitis is macular edema. TA has been used for many years as an intravitreal injection for the treatment of ocular diseases. Several case control studies have been reported showing the efficacy of TA in the treatment of intraocular inflammation and associated macular edema caused by Behcet’s disease, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, sympathetic ophthalmia and white dot syndromes. It has also been shown efficacious in cases of pars planitis and idiopathic posterior uveitis. Some authors have reported its use in postoperative cystoid macular edema. Many of the studies on the use of TA in controlling intraocular inflammation and concomitant macular edema showed its effect to be transient in many patients requiring reinjection. Complications can arise from intravitreal injection of TA including elevated intraocular pressure and cataract. Rarely, it can be associated with infectious and non-infectious endophthalmitis. TA may be useful as an adjuvant in the treatment of uveitis and its associated macular edema, especially in patients resistant or intolerant to standard treatment.Keywords: triamcinolone acetonide, Behcet’s disease, sympathetic ophthalmia, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, white dot syndromes, uveitis, cataract surgery, macular edema, endophthalmitis

  12. APPLICATION OF LASER ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TO PRODUCE DIES FOR ALUMINIUM HIGH PRESSURE DIE-CASTING#

    M.F.V.T. Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A number of laser additive manufacturing (LAM technologies can produce fully-dense metal components that potentially offer opportunities to apply the technology in die or mould making (known as rapid tooling. From these LAM technologies, three were selected for evaluation of their suitability as die cavity inserts in the manufacture of high pressure die-casting (HPDC dies. Apart from comparing the different LAM inserts with one another, their performance was also compared with components manufactured in a standard hot work steel. In the HPDC process, the die is unique to each component to be produced. Die cavities in particular are subjected to demanding conditions, such as cyclic heating caused by the introduction of molten aluminium at over 650°C, followed by cooling in water-based die release medium at temperatures around 25°C. Besides cyclic heating, the die cavities are also exposed to pressures exceeding 1500 MPa during the injection of molten aluminium into the cavities. This application of LAM, therefore, poses extreme challenges to the technology. The results of this study confirmed that the metals used in some of the LAM technologies did indeed meet the demanding requirements of the current application, and can lead to significant time- and cost-saving during product or process developments. Based on these findings, a number of recommendations are made for users interested in the application of LAM to produce die cavities.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ’n Aantal laser laagvervaardigingstegnologieë (LLV tegnolgieë is in staat om volledig digte metaalkomponente te lewer, wat tot gevolg het dat hierdie tegnologie potensieel vir vormingsmatrys- of gietmatrysvervaardiging gebruik kan word (bekend as snelgereedskap. Drie van hierdie LLV tegnologieë is gekies vir evaluasie van hulle geskiktheid as gietvorminsetsels tydens die vervaardiging van gietmatryse vir hoë druk matrysgiet (HDMG. Benewens die onderlinge

  13. Effect of Nb additions on the microstructure, thermal stability and mechanical behavior of high pressure Zr phases under ambient conditions

    Research highlights: → We analyze the influence of Nb additions on the shear-induced α → ω → β phase transformations in pure Zr by high pressure torsion (HPT). → Nb reduces the transition pressures and increases the transformation kinetics. → High pressure phases are retained under ambient conditions due to the presence of an internal stress. → Post-HPT annealing allows to fabricate bimodal/biphase nanostructures with enhanced mechanical behavior. - Abstract: This paper analyzes the influence of Nb on the shear-induced α → ω → β transformation taking place when processing Zr by high pressure torsion (HPT) under suitable conditions of pressure and shear. With that purpose, pure Zr and Zr-2.5%Nb were processed by HPT at room temperature and at pressures ranging from 0.25 to 6 GPa using 5 anvil turns. Nb causes a further reduction of the transition pressures, which are already lower when applying shear besides pressure. Thus, the transition pressure to the β phase is reduced at least 100 times in the Zr-Nb alloy. Alloying with Nb decreases the grain size of the transformed phases, significantly enhances their thermal stability and increases their UTS and elongation to failure. Selected post-HPT annealing treatments lead to the development of very tough, multiphase Zr and Zr-Nb with bimodal grain size distributions. The retention of the high pressure phases under ambient conditions is explained by the development of a high internal stress during processing. This stress is measured by synchrotron radiation diffraction at HZB-BESSY II. It is proposed that the presence of Nb reduces the internal stress level required for the retention of the high pressure phases.

  14. Design of an additional heat sink based on natural circulation in pressurized water reactors

    Residual heat removal through the steam generators in Nuclear Power Plant with pressurized water reactors (PWR) or pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWR in pressured vessel or pressured tube types) requires the maintenance of the steam generator inventory and the availability of and appropriate heat sink, which are based on the operability of the steam generators feedwater system. This paper describes the conceptual design of an assured heat removal system which includes only passive elements and is based on natural circulation. The system can supplement the original systems of the plant. The new system includes a condenser/boiler heat exchanger to condense the steam produced in the steam generator, transferring the heat to the water of an open pool at atmospheric pressure. The condensed steam flows back to the steam generators by natural circulation effects. The performance of an Atucha type PHWR nuclear power station with and without the proposed system is calculated in an emergency power case for the first 5000 seconds after the incident. The analysis shows that the proposed system offers the possibility to cool-down the plant to a low energy state during several hours and avoids the repeated actuation of the primary and secondary system safety valves. (Author)

  15. Metal additive manufacturing of a high-pressure micro-pump

    Wits, Wessel W.; Weitkamp, Sander J.; Es, van, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    For the thermal control of future space applications pumped two-phase loops are an essential part to handle the increasing thermal power densities. This study investigates the design of a reliable, leak tight, low-weight and high-pressure micro-pump for small satellite applications. The developed micro-pump uses a piezoelectric disk to create a pressure head and propel the working fluid. The micro-pumps are produced from Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4 V) using Selective Laser Melting (SLM) as a metal...

  16. Metal additive manufacturing of a high-pressure micro-pump

    Wits, Wessel W.; Weitkamp, Sander J.; Es, van J.

    2013-01-01

    For the thermal control of future space applications pumped two-phase loops are an essential part to handle the increasing thermal power densities. This study investigates the design of a reliable, leak tight, low-weight and high-pressure micro-pump for small satellite applications. The developed mi

  17. Intercomparison of techniques for inspection and diagnostics of heavy water reactor pressure tubes. Additional information

    The reports from Argentina, Canada, India, Korea and Romania are presented concerning the projects carried out under the Coordinated Research Program (CRP) I3.30.10 of the International Agency for Atomic Energy - Vienna related to 'Intercomparison of Techniques for Pressure Tube Inspection and Diagnostics'

  18. Choking under Pressure: When an Additional Positive Stereotype Affects Performance for Domain Identified Male Mathematics Students

    Rosenthal, Harriet E. S.; Crisp, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    This research aimed to establish if the presentation of two positive stereotypes would result in choking under pressure for identified male mathematics students. Seventy-five 16 year old men, who had just commenced their AS-level study, were either made aware of their gender group membership (single positive stereotype), their school group…

  19. Periocular migration of an intraocular lens.

    Jenkins, C.

    1992-01-01

    A woman presented with a painful eye 6 weeks after cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation. In the past she had had a sector iridectomy for iris bombé caused by chronic anterior uveitis. On examination the three central corneal sutures were absent, whilst the medial and lateral sutures had broken and were protruding from the section. The eye was quiet and the section intact. Combined clinical and ultrasound examination failed to locate the intraocular lens. Four months postopera...

  20. Intraocular cilia associated with perforating injury

    Gopal Lingam

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case series of penetrating injury complicated by occurrence of intraocular cilia. Methods: Retrospective analysis of charts of 11 eyes of 11 patients with penetrating injury and intraocular cilia, presenting between September 1978 and November 1998. Ten eyes underwent surgery for trauma-related problems such as cataract, vitritis, retinal detachment etc., at which time intraocular cilia were removed. One eye did not have surgery and continues to harbour cilia at the posterior perforation site. Results: Metallic wire was responsible for injury in 6 of 11 eyes with intraocular cilia. Five eyes had significant intraocular inflammation. The cilia were located in the anterior segment in 4 eyes; in the posterior segment in 6 eyes and in both in one eye. At the last follow up, 72.7% had 6/18 or better vision. Poor vision in the rest was due to recurrent retinal detachment (2 eyes and macular scarring (1 eye. Conclusion: Intraocular cilia are more commonly associated with injury by a metallic wire. The presentation and management of an injured eye does not seem to be influenced by the presence of cilia in the eye.

  1. DPPC Monolayers Exhibit an Additional Phase Transition at High Surface Pressure

    Shen, Chen; de la Serna, Jorge B.; Struth, Bernd;

    2015-01-01

    % of lipid with 10% integrated proteins. Among its lipid compounds, di-palmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) dominates (~45wt%). DPPC is the only known lipid that can be compressed to very high surface pressure (~70mN/m) before its monolayer collapses. Most probably, this feature contributes to the...... mechanical stability of the alveoli monolayer. Still, to the best of our knowledge, some details of the compression isotherm presented here and the related structures of the DPPC monolayer were not studied so far. The liquid-expanded/liquid-condensed phase transition of the DPPC monolayer at ~10mN/m is well...... known. Here, we report a second phase transition at elevated surface pressure (~50mN/m). The lateral structure of the monolayer at selected states (8mN/m, 20mN/m, 30mN/m, 40mN/m, 50mN/m, 60mN/m, 70mN/m; covering the whole pressure range of the isotherm) was investigated by grazing incidence X...

  2. Spark plasma sintered tantalum carbide: Effect of pressure and nano-boron carbide addition on microstructure and mechanical properties

    Research highlights: → Spark plasma sintering was used to synthesize 100% dense TaC and TaC-1 wt.% nano-size B4C. → Addition of B4C aided densification and inhibited grain coarsening. → High resolution TEM utilized to elucidate the sintering mechanism in TaC-nano B4C. → Improvement in the mechanical properties was observed by B4C addition. - Abstract: TaC and TaC-1 wt.% B4C powders were consolidated using spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 1850 deg. C and varying pressure of 100, 255 and 363 MPa. The effect of pressure on the densification and grain size is evaluated. The role of nano-sized B4C as sintering aid and grain growth inhibitor is studied by means of XRD, SEM and high resolution TEM. Fully dense TaC samples were produced at a pressure of 255 MPa and higher at 1850 deg. C. The increasing pressure also resulted in an increase in TaC grain size. Addition of B4C leads to an increase in the density of 100 MPa sample from 89% to 97%. B4C nano-powder resists grain growth even at high pressure of 363 MPa. The formation of TaB2/Carbon at TaC grain boundaries helps in pinning the grain boundary and inhibiting grain growth. The effect of B4C addition on hardness and elastic modulus measured by nanoindentation and the indentation fracture toughness has been studied. Relative fracture toughness increased by up to 93% on B4C addition.

  3. Additional pool-swell experiments on a 1/11.7-scale Mark I pressure-suppression model. Final report

    The dynamic response of a Mark I pressure-suppression system during the early air-discharging phase of a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) was studied by means of scale model experiments. The results reported here were performed since the publication of Three Dimensional Pool Swell Modeling of a Mark I Suppression System, EPRI Report NP-906. Additional tests included assessing the effect of vent resistance placement, determining the equality of downcomer pressures, and a number of tests performed to support parallel analytical efforts

  4. Additional pool-swell experiments on a 1/11. 7-scale Mark I pressure-suppression model. Final report

    Kiang, R.L.; Jeuck, P.R. III

    1981-10-01

    The dynamic response of a Mark I pressure-suppression system during the early air-discharging phase of a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) was studied by means of scale model experiments. The results reported here were performed since the publication of Three Dimensional Pool Swell Modeling of a Mark I Suppression System, EPRI Report NP-906. Additional tests included assessing the effect of vent resistance placement, determining the equality of downcomer pressures, and a number of tests performed to support parallel analytical efforts.

  5. Central hemodynamics in risk assessment strategies: additive value over and above brachial blood pressure.

    Yannoutsos, Alexandra; Rinaldi, Elisa R; Zhang, Yi; Protogerou, Athanassios D; Safar, Michel E; Blacher, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Although the clinical relevance of brachial blood pressure (BP) measurement for cardiovascular (CV) risk stratification is nowadays widely accepted, this approach can nevertheless present several limitations. Pulse pressure (PP) amplification accounts for the notable increase in PP from central to peripheral arterial sites. Target organs are more greatly exposed to central hemodynamic changes than peripheral organs. The pathophysiological significance of local BP pulsatility, which has a role in the pathogenesis of target organ damage in both the macro- and the microcirculation, may therefore not be accurately captured by brachial BP as traditionally evaluated with cuff measurements. The predictive value of central systolic BP and PP over brachial BP for major clinical outcomes has been demonstrated in the general population, in elderly adults and in patients at high CV risk, irrespective of the invasive or non-invasive methods used to assess central BP. Aortic stiffness, timing and intensity of wave reflections, and cardiac performance appear as major factors influencing central PP. Great emphasis has been placed on the role of aortic stiffness, disturbed arterial wave reflections and their intercorrelation in the pathophysiological mechanisms of CV diseases as well as on their capacity to predict target organ damage and clinical events. Comorbidities and age-related changes, together with gender-related specificities of arterial and cardiac parameters, are known to affect the predictive ability of central hemodynamics on individual CV risk. PMID:25341861

  6. 阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停综合征患者眼压的变化观察%Stydy on the changes of intraocular pressure in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    赵春梅; 喻昌利; 张云玲; 刘湘云; 刘立杰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the changes of intraocular pressure (IOP) in 24 hours between obstructive sleep apnea syndrome(OSAS) and the non-obstructive sleep apnea syndrome(non-OSAS).Methods Sixty patients with OSAS were divided into two groups:OSAS group(n =30) and non-OSAS group (n =30).The following indicators were detected:(1) Awake oxygen saturation ((HSaO2) %),(2) The lowest oxygen saturation (LSaO2) %) ; (3) Mean oxygen saturation ((MSaO2 %)) ; (4) Oxygen desaturation index ((DI4),time/h:number of times that the hourly oxygen desaturation ≥ 4%) ; (5) The percentage of the time that oxygen saturation ≤ 90% accounts the total time ((SIT90)%) and 24-hour IOP.IOP was measured from early morning 5:00 and measured once every four hours.The measurement results were compared between two groups.Results There was no significant difference on age ((62.60 ± 12.44) years old vs (65.20 ± 10.66)years old,t =1.48),Course of disease ((22.40 ± 6.88) month vs (25.49 ± 7.22) month,t =1.97),gender (The ratio of male to female is(20/10)vs (17/13),x2 =0.007) between the OSAS and the non-OSAS(P >0.05).Value of AHI(h-1) ((27.9 ±6.0) vs (2.5 ±1.1),t =8.78),LSaO2 ((74.7 ±11.7)% vs (91.8 ±5.9)%,t=3.44),SIT90((13.2±12.4)% vs(0.2±1.1)%,t=9.92) and ODI4(h-1) ((28.9 ±13.9)vs (6.1 ±4.1),t =8.09) of OSAS was significantly higher than that of non-OSAS(P <0.05 or P <0.01).Value of IOP of 21:00 o'clock((20.61±4.15)mm Hg vs(19.60 ± 4.03)mm Hg,t =2.18),1:00 o'clock((23.12 ±3.11)mm Hg vs (20.60 ± 3.29) mm Hg,t =4.64) and 5:00 o' clock ((22.82 ± 2.99)mm Hg vs (17.21 ±3.55) mm Hg,t =4.23) of OSAS was significantly higher than that of non-OSAS (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01).The wave ((10.40 ± 2.85)mm Hg vs (8.40 ± 2.55) mm Hg,t =4.15) and maximal ((23.60 ± 3.29) mm Hg vs (21.23 ±3.43)mm-Hg,t =2.60) value of IOP of OSAS was significantly higher than that of non-OSAS(P <0.05 or P <0.01).There was no significant difference on minimum of IOP between the OSAS

  7. Drug-Eluting Intraocular Lenses

    Angel Concheiro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Notable advances in materials science and in surgical techniques make the management of cataract by replacement of the opaque crystalline with an intraocular lens (IOL, one of the most cost-effective interventions in current healthcare. The usefulness and safety of IOLs can be enhanced if they are endowed with the ability to load and to sustain drug release in the implantation site. Drug-eluting IOLs can prevent infections and untoward reactions of eye tissues (which lead to opacification and also can act as drug depots for treatment of several other ocular pathologies. Such a myriad of therapeutic possibilities has prompted the design of drug-IOL combination products. Several approaches are under study, namely combination of the IOL with an insert in a single device, soaking in drug solutions, impregnation using supercritical fluids, coating with drug/polymer layers, and covalent grafting of the drug. The advantages/limitations of each technique are discussed in the present review on selected examples. Although more in vivo data are required, the information already available proves the interest of some approaches in ocular therapeutics.

  8. Developments in Accommodating Intraocular Lenses

    Zeki Tunç

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Technical progress in cataract surgery has decreased the incidence of severe complications in this type of surgery. The introduction of micro incision cataract surgery (MICS (sub- 2.0 mm incision allow the surgeon to achieve better postoperative control of astigmatism and higherorder aberration (HOAs with minimum induction of both. It is believed that multifocal lenses provide very successful results, however, there are limitations to these. Implantation of accommodating intraocular lenses (IOLs is an option to treat presbyopia. The IOLs work by using the continued functionality of the ciliary muscle after cataract removal. Accommodating IOLs were designed to avoid the optical side effects of multifocal IOLs. Two main design concepts exist. First, axial shift concepts rely on anterior axial movement of one or two optics creating accommodative ability. Second, curvature change designs are designed to provide significant amplitudes of accommodation with little physical displacement. Accommodative IOLs to correct astigmatism and HOAs in the future are needed. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 288-93

  9. Surface Modification of Intraocular Lenses

    Qi Huang; George Pak-Man Cheng; Kin Chiu; Gui-Qin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:This paper aimed to review the current literature on the surface modification of intraocular lenses (IOLs).Data Sources:All articles about surface modification of IOLs published up to 2015 were identified through a literature search on both PubMed and ScienceDirect.Study Selection:The articles on the surface modification of IOLs were included,but those on design modification and surface coating were excluded.Results:Technology of surface modification included plasma,ion beam,layer-by-layer self-assembly,ultraviolet radiation,and ozone.The main molecules introduced into IOLs surface were poly (ethylene glycol),polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane,2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine,TiO2,heparin,F-heparin,titanium,titanium nitride,vinyl pyrrolidone,and inhibitors of cytokines.The surface modification either resulted in a more hydrophobic lens,a more hydrophilic lens,or a lens with a hydrophilic anterior and hydrophobic posterior surface.Advances in research regarding surface modification of IOLs had led to a better biocompatibility in both in vitro and animal experiments.Conclusion:The surface modification is an efficient,convenient,economic and promising method to improve the biocompatibility ofIOLs.

  10. Biopsy techniques for intraocular tumors.

    Rishi, Pukhraj; Dhami, Abhinav; Biswas, Jyotirmay

    2016-06-01

    Biopsy involves the surgical removal of a tissue specimen for histopathologic evaluation. Most intraocular tumors are reliably diagnosed based on the clinical evaluation or with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. However, accurately diagnosing a small percentage of tumors can be challenging. A tissue biopsy is thus needed to establish a definitive diagnosis and plan the requisite treatment. From fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to surgical excision, all tissue collection techniques have been studied in the literature. Each technique has its indications and limitations. FNAB has been reported to provide for 88-95% reliable and safe ophthalmic tumor diagnosis and has gained popularity for prognostic purposes and providing eye conserving treatment surgeries. The technique and instrumentation for biopsy vary depending upon the tissue involved (retina, choroid, subretinal space, vitreous, and aqueous), suspected diagnosis, size, location, associated retinal detachment, and clarity of the media. The cytopathologist confers a very important role in diagnosis and their assistance plays a key role in managing and planning the treatment for malignancies. PMID:27488148

  11. Biopsy techniques for intraocular tumors

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopsy involves the surgical removal of a tissue specimen for histopathologic evaluation. Most intraocular tumors are reliably diagnosed based on the clinical evaluation or with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. However, accurately diagnosing a small percentage of tumors can be challenging. A tissue biopsy is thus needed to establish a definitive diagnosis and plan the requisite treatment. From fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB to surgical excision, all tissue collection techniques have been studied in the literature. Each technique has its indications and limitations. FNAB has been reported to provide for 88-95% reliable and safe ophthalmic tumor diagnosis and has gained popularity for prognostic purposes and providing eye conserving treatment surgeries. The technique and instrumentation for biopsy vary depending upon the tissue involved (retina, choroid, subretinal space, vitreous, and aqueous, suspected diagnosis, size, location, associated retinal detachment, and clarity of the media. The cytopathologist confers a very important role in diagnosis and their assistance plays a key role in managing and planning the treatment for malignancies.

  12. Surface Modification of Intraocular Lenses

    Qi Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper aimed to review the current literature on the surface modification of intraocular lenses (IOLs. Data Sources: All articles about surface modification of IOLs published up to 2015 were identified through a literature search on both PubMed and ScienceDirect. Study Selection: The articles on the surface modification of IOLs were included, but those on design modification and surface coating were excluded. Results: Technology of surface modification included plasma, ion beam, layer-by-layer self-assembly, ultraviolet radiation, and ozone. The main molecules introduced into IOLs surface were poly (ethylene glycol, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine, TiO 2 , heparin, F-heparin, titanium, titanium nitride, vinyl pyrrolidone, and inhibitors of cytokines. The surface modification either resulted in a more hydrophobic lens, a more hydrophilic lens, or a lens with a hydrophilic anterior and hydrophobic posterior surface. Advances in research regarding surface modification of IOLs had led to a better biocompatibility in both in vitro and animal experiments. Conclusion: The surface modification is an efficient, convenient, economic and promising method to improve the biocompatibility of IOLs.

  13. Effect of additive oxygen gas on cellular response of lung cancer cells induced by atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet.

    Joh, Hea Min; Choi, Ji Ye; Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, T H; Kang, Tae-Hong

    2014-01-01

    The atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet driven by pulsed dc voltage was utilized to treat human lung cancer cells in vitro. The properties of plasma plume were adjusted by the injection type and flow rate of additive oxygen gas in atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet. The plasma characteristics such as plume length, electric current and optical emission spectra (OES) were measured at different flow rates of additive oxygen to helium. The plasma plume length and total current decreased with an increase in the additive oxygen flow rate. The electron excitation temperature estimated by the Boltzmann plot from several excited helium emission lines increased slightly with the additive oxygen flow. The oxygen atom density in the gas phase estimated by actinometry utilizing argon was observed to increase with the additive oxygen flow. The concentration of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) measured by fluorescence assay was found to be not exactly proportional to that of extracellular ROS (measured by OES), but both correlated considerably. It was also observed that the expression levels of p53 and the phospho-p53 were enhanced in the presence of additive oxygen flow compared with those from the pure helium plasma treatment. PMID:25319447

  14. Effects of reduced pressure and additives on streamers in white oil in long point-plane gap

    Dung, N. V.; Høidalen, H. K.; Linhjell, D.; Lundgaard, L. E.; Unge, M.

    2013-06-01

    Recent experiments show that modern dielectric liquids behave differently from traditional mineral oil, particularly with respect to breakdown voltages for lightning impulse. This paper describes an experimental investigation addressing underlying reasons for this. The influences of reduced pressure and additives on streamers in white oil were investigated under both positive and negative polarities using an 8 cm long point-plane gap. Reduced pressure significantly accelerates streamers, thus increasing stopping length and reducing both breakdown and acceleration voltages. With increasing applied voltage, different typical propagation modes of streamers were recorded for both polarities. A low ionization potential additive strongly affects positive streamers. It significantly changes streamer velocity and reduces the breakdown voltage but increases the acceleration voltage where breakdown streamer velocity increases drastically. Adding an electron scavenger influences streamers of both polarities, but it mainly increases the velocity of negative streamers and results in a reduction of both the breakdown and the acceleration voltages. The propagation mechanisms of streamers are also discussed.

  15. Effects of reduced pressure and additives on streamers in white oil in long point-plane gap

    Recent experiments show that modern dielectric liquids behave differently from traditional mineral oil, particularly with respect to breakdown voltages for lightning impulse. This paper describes an experimental investigation addressing underlying reasons for this. The influences of reduced pressure and additives on streamers in white oil were investigated under both positive and negative polarities using an 8 cm long point-plane gap. Reduced pressure significantly accelerates streamers, thus increasing stopping length and reducing both breakdown and acceleration voltages. With increasing applied voltage, different typical propagation modes of streamers were recorded for both polarities. A low ionization potential additive strongly affects positive streamers. It significantly changes streamer velocity and reduces the breakdown voltage but increases the acceleration voltage where breakdown streamer velocity increases drastically. Adding an electron scavenger influences streamers of both polarities, but it mainly increases the velocity of negative streamers and results in a reduction of both the breakdown and the acceleration voltages. The propagation mechanisms of streamers are also discussed. (paper)

  16. Water properties and structure of pork sausages as affected by high-pressure processing and addition of carrot fibre

    Møller, Sandie Mejer; Grossi, Alberto Blak; Christensen, Mette;

    2011-01-01

    The effects of high-pressure processing (HPP) and addition of carrot fibre on pork sausages have been studied using NMR T(2) relaxometry and measurements of water-binding capacity (WBC) by centrifugation. Significant effects of temperature (raw, 40, 50, or 60°C), holding time (1s, 3, 6, or 9min......), and addition of carrot fibre on the distribution and mobility of water were found. However, the effect of carrot fibre could not be explained by structural changes in the sausages when examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Correlations between T(2) relaxation measurements and WBC...

  17. Late opacification of a hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens

    Al-Bdour Muawyah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation is considered to be a safe procedure in most cases. However, the new advances in the surgical technique namely phacoemulsification and hence the increased use of foldable intraocular lenses have given rise to new complications including late opacification of intraocular lenses. In this case we report late opacification of a foldable hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens and the surgical technique for its exchange.

  18. 21 CFR 886.4300 - Intraocular lens guide.

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4300 Intraocular lens guide. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens guide is a device intended to be inserted into the eye during surgery to direct... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraocular lens guide. 886.4300 Section...

  19. Bionic intraocular lens with variable focus and integrated structure

    Liang, Dan; Wang, Xuan-Yin; Du, Jia-Wei; Xiang, Ke

    2015-10-01

    This paper proposes a bionic accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) for ophthalmic surgery. The designed lens has a solid-liquid mixed integrated structure, which mainly consists of a support ring, elastic membrane, rigid lens, and optical liquid. The lens focus can be adjusted through the deformation of the lens front surface when compressed. The integrated structure of the IOL is presented, as well as a detailed description of the lens materials and fabrication process. Images under different radial pressures are captured, and the lens deformation process, accommodating range, density, and optical property are analyzed. The designed lens achieves a 14.6 D accommodating range under a radial pressure of 51.4 mN and a 0.24 mm alteration of the lens outer radius. The deformation property of the lens matches well with the characteristic of the eye and shows the potential to help patients fully recover their vision accommodation ability after the cataract surgery.

  20. Feline intraocular sarcoma associated with phthisis bulbi

    E. Perlmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of feline intraocular sarcoma were reported in stray cats that presented blindness and hypotonia of the affected eye for years before the tumor development. Phthisis bulbi, a final stage of a severe inflammation of the eye, is frequently unmonitored because eyes are blind, small, opaque, and not painful. Yet, this report shows that monitoring and early enucleation of eyes of cats with phthisis bulbi are important and should be considered as a treatment option, because feline intraocular sarcoma is an aggressive tumor that significantly decreases live expectancy.

  1. Spray nozzles, pressures, additives and stirring time on viability and pathogenicity of entomopathogenic nematodes (nematoda: rhabditida for greenhouses.

    Grazielle Furtado Moreira

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate different strategies for the application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN. Three different models of spray nozzles with air induction (AI 11003, TTI 11003 and AD-IA 11004, three spray pressures (207, 413 and 720 kPa, four different additives for tank mixtures (cane molasses, mineral oil, vegetable oil and glycerin and the influence of tank mixture stirring time were all evaluated for their effect on EPN (Steinernema feltiae viability and pathogenicity. The different nozzles, at pressures of up to 620 kPa, were found to be compatible with S. feltiae. Vegetable oil, mineral oil and molasses were found to be compatible adjuvants for S. feltiae, and stirring in a motorized backpack sprayer for 30 minutes did not impact the viability or pathogenicity of this nematode. Appropriate techniques for the application of nematodes with backpack sprayers are discussed.

  2. Effect of hemodialysis on intraocular lens power calculation.

    Çalışkan, Sinan; Çelikay, Osman; Biçer, Tolga; Aylı, Mehmet Deniz; Gürdal, Canan

    2016-03-01

    Background To evaluate changes in ocular biometric parameters after hemodialysis (HD) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods Forty eyes of 40 patients undergoing HD were included in this cross-sectional study. Keratometry (K) readings, white-to-white (WTW) distance, central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), pupil diameter, lens thickness (LT), axial length (AL), and intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation were measured with Lenstar LS 900 (Haag Streit AG, Koeniz, Switzerland) before and after hemodialysis. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured with a non-contact tonometer (Tonopachy NT-530P, Nidek Co., LTD, Tokyo, Japan). Main outcomes were changes in biometric parameters after HD. Reliability of the measurements (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs)) and the effect size (Cohen's d) were also calculated. Results Mean difference in AL before and after HD was -0.041 ± 0.022 mm with ICCs > 0.90 (p  0.90 (p = 0.041 and Cohen's d = 0.20). Hemodialysis had no significant effect on K readings, WTW distance, CCT, ACD, LT, or IOP. Conclusion Axial length and pupil diameter increase after HD with small effect size, while HD does not significantly affect IOL power calculations. PMID:26707804

  3. The case for intraocular delivery of PPAR agonists in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy.

    Treacy, Maxwell P

    2012-09-01

    Systemic therapeutics targeting the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors have been found to be beneficial in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, we provide a rationale for the use of these therapeutics as intraocular agents. In addition, we introduce the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and describe their functions in response to the drugs.

  4. DESIGN OF THE MULTIORDER INTRAOCULAR LENSES

    V. G. Kolobrodov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intraocular lenses (IOLs are used to replace the natural crystalline lens of the eye. Just few basic designs of IOLs are used clinically. Multiorder diffractive lenses (MODL which operate simultaneously in several diffractive orders were proposed to decrease the chromatic aberration. Properties analysis of MODL showed a possibility to use them to develop new designs of IOLs. The purpose of this paper was to develop a new method of designing of multiorder intraocular lenses with decreased chromatic aberration. The theoretical research of the lens properties was carried out. The diffraction efficiency dependence with the change of wavelength was studied. A computer simulation of MODL in a schematic model of the human eye was carried out. It is found the capability of the multiorder diffractive lenses to focus polychromatic light into a segment on the optical axis with high diffraction efficiency. At each point of the segment is present each component of the spectral range, which will build a color image in combination. The paper describes the new design method of intraocular lenses with reduced chromaticism and with endless adaptation. An optical system of an eye with an intraocular lens that provides sharp vision of objects located at a distance of 700 mm to infinity is modeled.

  5. Significance of intraocular lens power calculation.

    M. Singh; Dahalan, A

    1987-01-01

    A total of 94 patients underwent extracapsular cataract extraction and insertion of Sinsky style two-loop posterior chamber intraocular lenses. Forty-six eyes received a standard power IOL and 48 eyes were given a preoperatively calculated IOL. A significant difference was found in the two groups with regard to the postoperative refractive error and uncorrected visual acuity.

  6. Design and analysis of a piezoelectric material based touch screen with additional pressure and its acceleration measurement functions

    Touch screens are becoming more and more prevalent in everyday environments due to their convenience and humanized operation. In this paper, a piezoelectric material based touch screen is developed and investigated. Piezoelectric ceramics arrayed under the touch panel at the edges or corners are used as tactile sensors to measure the touch positioning point similarly to conventional touch screens. However, additional touch pressure and its acceleration performance can also be obtained to obtain a higher-level human–machine interface. The piezoelectric ceramics can also be added to a traditional touch screen structure, or they can be used independently to construct a novel touch screen with a high light transmittance approach to a transparent glass. The piezoelectric ceramics were processed from PZT piezoelectric ceramic powder into a round or rectangular shape. According to the varied touch position and physical press strength of a finger, or even a gloved hand or fingernail, the piezoelectric tactile sensors will have different output voltage responses. By calculating the ratio of different piezoelectric tactile sensors’ responses and summing up all piezoelectric tactile sensors’ output voltages, the touch point position, touch pressure and touch force acceleration can be detected. A prototype of such a touch screen is manufactured and its position accuracy, touch pressure and response speed are measured in detail. The experimental results show that the prototype has many advantages such as high light transmittance, low energy cost and high durability. (paper)

  7. Characterizing intraocular tumors with photoacoustic imaging

    Xu, Guan; Xue, Yafang; Gursel, Zeynep; Slimani, Naziha; Wang, Xueding; Demirci, Hakan

    2016-03-01

    Intraocular tumors are life-threatening conditions. Long-term mortality from uveal melanoma, which accounts for 80% of primary intraocular tumors, could be as high as 25% depending on the size, ciliary body involvement and extraocular extension. The treatments of intraocular tumors include eye-sparing approaches such as radiotherapy and thermotherapy, and the more aggressive enucleation. The accurate diagnosis of intraocular tumors is thereby critical in the management and follow-up of the patients. The diagnosis of intraocular tumors is usually based on clinical examination with acoustic backscattering based ultrasonography. By analyzing the high frequency fluctuations within the ultrasound (US) signals, microarchitecture information inside the tumor can be characterized. However, US cannot interrogate the histochemical components formulating the microarchitecture. One representative example is the inability of US imaging (and other contemporary imaging modalities as well) in differentiating nevoid and melanoma cells as the two types of cells possesses similar acoustic backscattering properties. Combining optical and US imaging, photoacoustic (PA) measurements encode both the microarchitecture and histochemical component information in biological tissue. This study attempts to characterize ocular tumors by analyzing the high frequency signal components in the multispectral PA images. Ex vivo human eye globes with melanoma and retinoblastoma tumors were scanned using less than 6 mJ per square centimeters laser energy with tunable range of 600-1700 nm. A PA-US parallel imaging system with US probes CL15-7 and L22-14 were used to acquire the high frequency PA signals in real time. Preliminary results show that the proposed method can identify uveal melanoma against retinoblastoma tumors.

  8. Management of dislocated intraocular implants.

    Chan, C K; Agarwal, A; Agarwal, S; Agarwal, A

    2001-12-01

    Implant dislocation may occur in the absence of appropriate capsular or zonular support (PCIOL) (11,35,53) or following traumatic injury to anterior ocular tissues (ACIOL). (11,19,20) Other factors (e.g., advanced patient age, high myopia, previous vitrectomy, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, and certain connective tissue disorders) also may predispose implant dislocation. (9,52) Although reported for all types of IOLs, implant dislocation is becoming more manageable because of the advancement of surgical techniques. A dislocated ACIOL or PCIOL may be explanted, exchanged, or repositioned. (11,48,71) Repositioning the dislocated PCIOL in the ciliary sulcus with modern vitreoretinal techniques provides an optimal environment for visual recovery. (11,71) Implant repositioning techniques generally may be categorized into the external or the internal approaches. (8,11) The former involves external suturing methods for a primary or secondary implant in the absence of adequate capsular or zonular support (15,16,31,42,56,60,61,64,66,73,76) and the latter is achieved through modern pars plana techniques. 8,11,62,69) Recently, several implant repositioning methods gaining increasing acceptance include the scleral loop fixation, (45) the snare approach, (43) the use of the 25-gauge implant forceps, (13) temporary haptic externalization, (8,11,36,71) and the use of perfluorocarbon liquids. (1,28,40,41,44) The temporary haptic externalization method combines the best features of the external and the internal approaches, avoids complex intraocular maneuvers, and allows precise scleral fixation of the dislocated IOL on a consistent basis. (8,11,71) Endoscopy provides the surgeon with optimal viewing of the anterior retropupillary anatomy that is often difficult to appreciate (e.g., capsular-zonular complex, ciliary sulcus, anterior retina, and vitreous base). (6,11) As a result, precise haptic placement is possible during the repositioning process. (6,11) However, a three

  9. Green technology effect of injection pressure, timing and compression ratio in constant pressure heat addition cycle by an eco-friendly material.

    Karthikayan, S; Sankaranarayanan, G; Karthikeyan, R

    2015-11-01

    Present energy strategies focus on environmental issues, especially environmental pollution prevention and control by eco-friendly green technologies. This includes, increase in the energy supplies, encouraging cleaner and more efficient energy management, addressing air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. Biofuels provide the panorama of new fiscal opportunities for people in rural area for meeting their need and also the demand of the local market. Biofuels concern protection of the environment and job creation. Renewable energy sources are self-reliance resources, have the potential in energy management with less emissions of air pollutants. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependability on imported crude oil with connected economic susceptibility, reduce greenhouse gases, other pollutants and invigorate the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. The use of neat paradise tree oil and induction of eco-friendly material Hydrogen through inlet manifold in a constant pressure heat addition cycle engine (diesel engine) with optimized engine operating parameters such as injection timing, injection pressure and compression ratio. The results shows the heat utilization efficiency for neat vegetable oil is 29% and neat oil with 15% Hydrogen as 33%. The exhaust gas temperature (EGT) for 15% of H2 share as 450°C at full load and the heat release of 80J/deg. crank angle for 15% Hydrogen energy share. PMID:26025643

  10. Effect of cerium addition on oxidation behavior of 2SCr20Ni alloy under lowoxygen partial pressure

    SHAO Mingzeng; CUI Lishan; ZHENG Yanjun; XING Linlin

    2012-01-01

    The influence of Ce addition on the oxidation behavior of 25Cr20Ni alloy at 950 ℃ under low oxygen partial pressure was investigated.The oxidized samples were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS),and scratch tester to obtain the oxide phases,morphology,thickness,composition and adhesion property of the oxide scales.The experiment results indicated that a small amount of Ce addition (0.02 wt.% or 0.05 wt.%) promoted oxidation resistance and inhibited the growth of the needlelike oxide.The Ce addition also decreased the formation of MnCr2O4 but promoted the SiO2 formation underneath the Cr2O3,which largely contributed to the improvement of oxide scale spallation resistance.For the sample with 0.3 wt.% Ce addition,the oxidation rate significantly increased and the spallation resistance of the oxide scale decreased.

  11. Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoplatelets with Excellent Tribological Properties under High Contact Pressure as Water-Based Lubricant Additives

    Wang, Hongdong; Liu, Yuhong; Chen, Zhe; Wu, Bibo; Xu, Sailong; Luo, Jianbin

    2016-03-01

    High efficient and sustainable utilization of water-based lubricant is essential for saving energy. In this paper, a kind of layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoplatelets is synthesized and well dispersed in water due to the surface modification with oleylamine. The excellent tribological properties of the oleylamine-modified Ni-Al LDH (NiAl-LDH/OAm) nanoplatelets as water-based lubricant additives are evaluated by the tribological tests in an aqueous environment. The modified LDH nanoplatelets are found to not only reduce the friction but also enhance the wear resistance, compared with the water-based cutting fluid and lubricants containing other particle additives. By adding 0.5 wt% LDH nanoplatelets, under 1.5 GPa initial contact pressure, the friction coefficient, scar diameter, depth and width of the wear track dramatically decrease by 83.1%, 43.2%, 88.5% and 59.5%, respectively. It is considered that the sufficiently small size and the excellent dispersion of NiAl-LDH/OAm nanoplatelets in water are the key factors, so as to make them enter the contact area, form a lubricating film and prevent direct collision of asperity peaks. Our investigations demonstrate that the LDH nanoplatelet as a water-based lubricant additive has a great potential value in industrial application.

  12. Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoplatelets with Excellent Tribological Properties under High Contact Pressure as Water-Based Lubricant Additives.

    Wang, Hongdong; Liu, Yuhong; Chen, Zhe; Wu, Bibo; Xu, Sailong; Luo, Jianbin

    2016-01-01

    High efficient and sustainable utilization of water-based lubricant is essential for saving energy. In this paper, a kind of layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoplatelets is synthesized and well dispersed in water due to the surface modification with oleylamine. The excellent tribological properties of the oleylamine-modified Ni-Al LDH (NiAl-LDH/OAm) nanoplatelets as water-based lubricant additives are evaluated by the tribological tests in an aqueous environment. The modified LDH nanoplatelets are found to not only reduce the friction but also enhance the wear resistance, compared with the water-based cutting fluid and lubricants containing other particle additives. By adding 0.5 wt% LDH nanoplatelets, under 1.5 GPa initial contact pressure, the friction coefficient, scar diameter, depth and width of the wear track dramatically decrease by 83.1%, 43.2%, 88.5% and 59.5%, respectively. It is considered that the sufficiently small size and the excellent dispersion of NiAl-LDH/OAm nanoplatelets in water are the key factors, so as to make them enter the contact area, form a lubricating film and prevent direct collision of asperity peaks. Our investigations demonstrate that the LDH nanoplatelet as a water-based lubricant additive has a great potential value in industrial application. PMID:26951794

  13. Effects of topical levobunolol or fixed combination of dorzolamide-timolol or association of dorzolamide-levobunolol on intraocular pressure, pupil size, and heart rate in healthy cats Efeitos da aplicação tópica do levobunolol, da combinação fixa de dorzolamidatimolol ou da associação de dorzolamida com levobunolol sobre a pressão intra-ocular, o diâmetro pupilar e a freqüência cardíaca em gatos saudáveis

    A.P. Ribeiro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of topical levobunolol with the fixed combination of 2% dorzolamide-0.5% timolol and the association of 2% dorzolamide with 0.5% levobunolol on intraocular pressure (IOP, pupil size (PS, heart rate (HR, and conjunctival hyperemia in eighteen halthy cats were investigated and compared. IOP, PS, HR, and conjuntival hyperemia were daily recorded at three times (9a.m., 2p.m., and 6p.m.. Three groups were formed (n=6, and one eye of each animal was randomly selected and treated with topical levobunolol (L, or commercial combination of dorzolamide-timolol (DT, or the association of dorzolamide with levobunolol (DL. The first day (0 consisted of recording of baseline values. On the next four consecutive days, drugs were instilled at 8a.m. and 8p.m. and measurements were taken at the same times fore cited. Comparing with the baseline values, all evaluated parameters significantly decreased (PEstudaram-se e compararam-se os efeitos do levobunolol, da combinação fixa de dorzolamida 2%-timolol 0,5% e da associação de dorzolamida 2% com levobunolol 0,5% sobre a pressão intra-ocular (PIO, o diâmetro pupilar (DP, a freqüência cardíaca (FC e a hiperemia conjuntival em 18 gatos saudáveis. PIO, DP, FC e hiperemia conjuntival foram aferidos diariamente, em três horários distintos (9h, 14h e 18h. Três grupos foram formados (n=6 e um olho de cada animal recebeu, aleatoriamente, uma gota de levobunolol (L, ou a combinação comercial à base de dorzolamida-timolol (DT, ou a associação de dorzolamida com levobunolol (DL. Parâmetros basais foram aferidos no primeiro dia (dia 0. Nos quatro dias consecutivos, os fármacos foram instilados às 8h e 20h e os parâmetros aferidos nos mesmos horários. Todos os parâmetros decresceram significativamente em relação aos valores basais (P<0,001 e não se observou hiperemia conjuntival. O levobunolol reduziu significativamente a PIO, o DP e a FC e o foi o fármaco que mais reduziu a FC. Não se

  14. Mechanical properties of pressure-less sintered ZrB{sub 2} with molybdenum, iron and carbon additives

    Mousavi, Mahsa Jalal, E-mail: Mahsa_mousavi62@yahoo.com [Ceramic Department, Imam Khomeini International University, P. O. Box: 34149-16818, Ghazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zakeri, Mohammad; Rahimipour, Mohammadreza [Ceramic Department, Materials and Energy Research Center, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amini, Elham [Ceramic Department, Imam Khomeini International University, P. O. Box: 34149-16818, Ghazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-08

    ZrB{sub 2} powder was successfully densified with Mo, Fe and carbon as sintering aid by pressure-less sintering method. Effects of the above additives were investigated on the densification, microstructure and mechanical properties (hardness, fracture toughness and compressive strength) of sintered samples. It was observed that the ZrB{sub 2} samples with 10 wt%Fe and 15 wt%Mo with 1 wt%C had the maximum density. The maximum compressive strength and fracture toughness of 425 MPa and 12.5 MPa m{sup 1/2} were obtained for ZrB{sub 2}–10 wt%Mo–1 wt%C, respectively. Fracture toughness of ZrB{sub 2}–10 wt%Fe was significantly improved at higher carbon content (2 wt%)

  15. Additive influence of extracellular pH, oxygen tension, and pressure on invasiveness and survival of human osteosarcoma cells

    TakaoMatsubara

    2013-07-01

    RESULTS: Within the acidic–hypoxic–pressurized conditions that simulate the microenvironment at a tumor’s center, invasive genes were upregulated, but the cell cycle was downregulated. The combined influence of acidosis, hypoxia, and IFP promoted invasiveness and angiogenesis to a greater extent than did pH, pO2, or eIFP individually. Significant cell death after brief exposure to acidic conditions occurred in each cell line during acclimation to acidic media, while prolonged exposure to acidic media resulted in reduced cell death. Furthermore, 48-hour exposure to acidic conditions promoted tumor invasiveness in the Matrigel assay. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that tumor microenvironmental parameters—particularly pH, pO2, and eIFP—additively influence tumor proliferation, invasion, metabolism, and viability to enhance cell survival.

  16. The Visual Effects of Intraocular Colored Filters

    Billy R. Hammond

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern life is associated with a myriad of visual problems, most notably refractive conditions such as myopia. Human ingenuity has addressed such problems using strategies such as spectacle lenses or surgical correction. There are other visual problems, however, that have been present throughout our evolutionary history and are not as easily solved by simply correcting refractive error. These problems include issues like glare disability and discomfort arising from intraocular scatter, photostress with the associated transient loss in vision that arises from short intense light exposures, or the ability to see objects in the distance through a veil of atmospheric haze. One likely biological solution to these more long-standing problems has been the use of colored intraocular filters. Many species, especially diurnal, incorporate chromophores from numerous sources (e.g., often plant pigments called carotenoids into ocular tissues to improve visual performance outdoors. This review summarizes information on the utility of such filters focusing on chromatic filtering by humans.

  17. Adherence of Staphylococcus epidermidis to intraocular lenses.

    Griffiths, P G; Elliot, T. S.; McTaggart, L

    1989-01-01

    We have demonstrated, with an in vitro model, that Staphylococcus epidermidis is able to colonise intraocular lenses. Adherent organisms were quantitated by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and viable counting. Bacterial adherence was associated with production of a polysaccharide glycocalyx. Organisms which were attached to the lenses were resistant to apparently bactericidal concentrations of antibiotics, as determined by conventional testing. We speculate on the role of colo...

  18. Intraocular eyelash after uneventful cataract surgery

    Knyazer, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Boris Knyazer, Jaime Levy, Itamar Klemperer, Tova LifshitzDepartment of Ophthalmology, Soroka University Medical Center, Ben-Gurion, University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, IsraelIntroduction: Intraocular eyelash is an uncommon complication after cataract surgery. We report a very rare case of corneal foreign body after uneventful phacoemulsification surgery. Methods: A 66-year-old man referred to our outpatient ophthalmology clinic for routine examination one week after uneventful phacoemulsifi...

  19. Evaluating the method increasing of toric intraocular lenses rotational stability

    G. A. Fedjashev

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To suggest a safe and effective way to improve the rotational stability of the position of toric the intraocular lenses in the capsular bag.Patients and methods.86 patients (97 eyes) with corneal astigmatism undergoing cataract surgery and Acrysof Toric (Alcon, USA) intraocular lens implantation. In 42 patients (47 eyes), the intraocular lens (IOL) were implanted in accordance with the proposed invention.Results. Average rotation angle IOL implanted by traditional technology was 2,2±...

  20. Quality of vision through diffractive bifocal intraocular lenses.

    Jay, J L; Chakrabarti, H S; Morrison, J D

    1991-01-01

    Two elderly women have each received a monofocal intraocular lens in one eye and a 3M diffractive bifocal intraocular lens in the other eye. Both eyes were shown to have equivalent retinal/neural function by measuring contrast sensitivity to laser interference fringes which bypassed refractive and other defects of the ocular media. The eyes with a bifocal intraocular lens displayed a much greater depth of focus, though at the expense of diminished contrast sensitivity compared with the normal...

  1. File list: DNS.Oth.05.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Oth.05.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular mm9 DNase-seq Others Lenses, Intraocular http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Oth.05.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular.bed ...

  2. File list: DNS.Oth.10.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Oth.10.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular mm9 DNase-seq Others Lenses, Intraocular http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Oth.10.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular.bed ...

  3. File list: DNS.Oth.20.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Oth.20.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular mm9 DNase-seq Others Lenses, Intraocular http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Oth.20.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular.bed ...

  4. File list: DNS.Oth.50.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Oth.50.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular mm9 DNase-seq Others Lenses, Intraocular http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Oth.50.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular.bed ...

  5. On the performance of low pressure die-cast Al-Cu based automotive alloys: Role of additives

    Zaki, Gergis Adel

    The present study focuses on the effect of alloying elements, namely, strontium (Sr), titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), scandium (Sc) and silver(Ag) individually or in combination, on the performance of a newly developed Al-2%Cu based alloy. A total of thirteen alloy compositions were used in the study. Tensile test bar castings were prepared employing the low pressure die casting (LPDC) technique. The test bars were solution heat treated at 495°C for 8 hours, followed by quenching in warm water, and then subjected to different isochronal aging treatments using an aging time of 5 hours and aging temperatures of 155°C, 180°C, 200°C, 240°C and 300°C. Tensile testing of as-cast and heat-treated test bars was carried out at room temperature using a strain rate of 4 x 10-4s-1. Five test bars were used per alloy composition/condition. Hardness measurements were also carried out on these alloys using a Brinell hardness tester. The microstructures of selected samples were examined using optical microscopy and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The results showed that adding Ti in the amount of 0.15 wt% in the form of Al-5%Ti-1%B master alloy is sufficient to refine the grains in the cast structure in the presence of 200 ppm Sr (0.02 wt%). Addition of Zr and Sc did not contribute further to the grain refining effect. The main role of addition of these two elements appeared in the formation of complex compounds with Al and Ti. Their presence resulted in extending the aging temperature range before the onset of softening. Mathematical analysis of the hardness and tensile data was carried out using the Minitab statistical software program. It was determined that the alloy containing (0.5wt% Zr + 0.15wt% Ti) is the most effective in maximizing the alloy tensile strength over the range of aging temperatures, from 155°C to 300°C. Addition of Ag is beneficial at high aging temperatures, in the range of 240°C-300°C. However, it is less effective compared to the (Zr + Ti

  6. Comparação pressórica e visual entre a facoesclerectomia profunda não penetrante e a facotrabeculectomia Intraocular pressure and visual results from combined surgery: phacoemulsification with non penetrating deep sclerectomy and phacoemulsification with trabeculectomy

    Juliana Almodin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O presente estudo tem como objetivo comparar os resultados do controle pressórico e acuidade visual (AV entre a facoesclerectomia profunda não penetrante (FACOEPNP e facotrabeculectomia (FACOTREC. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, retrospectivo através da revisão de prontuários. Foram selecionados 148 olhos de 127 pacientes submetidos à cirurgia no período de janeiro de 1998 a janeiro de 2007 do Instituto de Oftalmologia Tadeu Cvintal em portadores de glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto (GPAA com diagnóstico de catarata coexistente. Destes pacientes 77 eram do sexo feminino, sendo que 49 (59% foram submetidos à FACOEPNP e 28 (63,6% foram submetidos à FACOTREC. Cinquenta pacientes eram do sexo masculino sendo, 34 (41% submetidos à FACOEPNP e 16 (36,4% a FACOTREC. O estudo teve duração de 12 meses e os pacientes tiveram pressão intraocular (PIO (tonômetro de Goldmann e AV (LogMar aferidos no pré-operatório e um ano após o procedimento cirúrgico, além do número de medicações hipotensoras oculares que foram adicionados no pósoperatório. RESULTADOS: Os grupos se mostraram homogêneos quanto a AV pré (p = 0,067, AV pós (p = 0,924 e variação da AV (p = 0,099. A média de variação de AV no grupo FACOTREC foi de -0,31 (dp = 0,59 (p PURPOSE: the aim of the present study is to compare the intraocular pressure (IOP and visual acuity (VA after combined surgery: phacoemulsification with non penetrating deep sclerectomy and phacoemulsification with trabeculectomy. METHODS: this is an observacional and retrospective study by chart review. We selected 148 eyes from 127 patients from Tadeu Cvintal Ophthalmolgy Institute during January 1998 thru January 2007. All patients had primary angle glaucoma and cataract. Seventy seven patients were female, 49 (59% had phacoemulsification with non penetrating deep sclerectomy and 28 (63,6% had phacoemulsification with trabeculectomy. Fifty patients were male, 34 (41% had

  7. A dominant role of oxygen additive on cold atmospheric-pressure He + O{sub 2} plasmas

    Yang, Aijun; Liu, Dingxin, E-mail: liudingxin@gmail.com, E-mail: xhw@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Rong, Mingzhe; Wang, Xiaohua, E-mail: liudingxin@gmail.com, E-mail: xhw@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Centre for Plasma Biomedicine, State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Kong, Michael G. [Centre for Plasma Biomedicine, State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23508 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    We present in this paper how oxygen additive impacts on the cold atmospheric-pressure helium plasmas by means of a one-dimensional fluid model. For the oxygen concentration [O{sub 2}] > ∼0.1%, the influence of oxygen on the electron characteristics and the power dissipation becomes important, e.g., the electron density, the electron temperature in sheath, the electron-coupling power, and the sheath width decreasing by 1.6 to 16 folds with a two-log increase in [O{sub 2}] from 0.1% to 10%. Also the discharge mode evolves from the γ mode to the α mode. The reactive oxygen species are found to peak in the narrow range of [O{sub 2}] = 0.4%–0.9% in the plasmas, similar to their power-coupling values. This applies to their wall fluxes except for those of O* and O{sub 2}{sup −}. These two species have very short lifetimes, thus only when generated in boundary layers within several micrometers next to the electrode can contribute to the fluxes. The dominant reactive oxygen species and the corresponding main reactions are schematically presented, and their relations are quantified for selected applications.

  8. Laboratory analyses of two explanted hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses

    Yunhai Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two three-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs were explanted from two patients at 7 and 9 years, respectively, after implantation, because of poor fundus visualisation and/or a clinically significant decrease in visual acuity related to their opacified IOLs. In addition to light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy was used for the first time to observe the explanted IOLs. The clinical aspect seemed to correspond to the phenomenon of surface light scattering, while laboratory analyses showed dense glistenings in the central layer of the IOL optic, which had no change next to the surface. Further studies on these phenomena are needed.

  9. Acute Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Associated with Intraocular Silicone Oil Tamponade

    Mehmet Yasin Teke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Many systemic and ocular factors may cause acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO. Herein, we aimed to describe a case of CRAO due to intraocular silicone oil (SO tamponade. To the best of our knowledge, a case like our has not been reported previously. A 58-yearold male patient had undergone combined pars plana vitrectomy-lensectomy and intraocular SO for lens luxation and vitreus hemorrhage associated with a blunt ocular trauma in his right eye. Two weeks after the surgery, he presented with acute vision loss in the same eye. He was diagnosed with acute CRAO and it should be related with mechanical press or raised intraocular pressure (IOP associated with SO. He was treated by partial removal of SO immediately. In spite of the regression of retina edema, his visual acuity did not improve due to optic atrophy. SO may cause CRAO due to raised IOP and/or its mechanical pressure and this complication must be kept in mind. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2012; 42: 238-40

  10. Intraocular lymphoma after cardiac transplantation: Magnetic resonance imaging findings

    We report a case of intraocular lymphoma in a 65-year-old man, 15 months after cardiac transplantation. On Magnetic Resonance (MR) images, the iris and the anterior chamber of the right eye were found to be involved with an enhancing soft-tissue lesion. To our knowledge, this is the first case of post-transplantation intraocular lymphoma evaluated with MR imaging.

  11. Intraocular lymphoma after cardiac transplantation: Magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Kim, Yi Kyung; Kim, Hyung Jin; Woo, Kyung In; Kim, Yoon Duck [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    We report a case of intraocular lymphoma in a 65-year-old man, 15 months after cardiac transplantation. On Magnetic Resonance (MR) images, the iris and the anterior chamber of the right eye were found to be involved with an enhancing soft-tissue lesion. To our knowledge, this is the first case of post-transplantation intraocular lymphoma evaluated with MR imaging.

  12. Pseudoexfoliation material on posterior chamber intraocular lenses

    Rocha-Bastos RA; Silva SE; Prézia F; Falcão-Reis F; Melo AB

    2014-01-01

    Ricardo António da Rocha-Bastos,1 Sérgio Estrela Silva,1 Flávio Prézia,1 Fernando Falcão-Reis,1,2 António B Melo11Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital São João, Alameda Prof Hernâni Monteiro, Porto, Portugal; 2Department of Sense Organs, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Prof Hernâni Monteiro, Porto, PortugalAbstract: The presence of pseudoexfoliation material on the surface of an intraocular lens (IOL) is a ...

  13. Suprathermal particle addition to solar wind pressure: possible influence on magnetospheric transmissivity of low energy cosmic rays?

    Bobik, P; Consolandi, C; Della Torre, S; Gervasi, M; Grandi, D; Kudela, K; La Vacca, G; Mallamaci, M; Pensotti, S; Rancoita, P G; Rozza, D; Tacconi, M

    2013-01-01

    Energetic (suprathermal) solar particles, accelerated in the interplanetary medium, contribute to the solar wind pressure, in particular during high solar activity periods. We estimated the effect of the increase of solar wind pressure due to suprathermal particles on magnetospheric transmissivity of galactic cosmic rays in the case of one recent solar event.

  14. Intraocular penetration of sequentially instilled topical moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and levofloxacin

    Koji Sugioka

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Koji Sugioka1, Masahiko Fukuda1, Shohei Komoto1, Motoki Itahashi1, Masakazu Yamada2, Yoshikazu Shimomura11Department of Ophthalmology, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osaka-Sayama City, Osaka, Japan; 2Division for Vision Research, National Institute of Sensory Organs, National Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: The objective of the study was to compare the intraocular penetration levels of the newer fluoroquinolones, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and levofloxacin in the rabbit’s cornea, aqueous humor, and conjunctiva after topical instillation.Methods: 0.5% moxifloxacin, 0.3% gatifloxacin, and 0.5% levofloxacin were instilled in random sequence in both eyes of nine New Zealand White rabbits at two-minute intervals. Instillation was repeated every 15 minutes for a total of three drops of each fluoroquinolone per eye. Three additional animals had only moxifloxacin instilled bilaterally using the same schedule. Sixty minutes after the final instillation, the rabbits were sacrificed for determination of corneal, aqueous humor, and conjunctival fluoroquinolone concentrations using highperformance liquid chromatography.Results: Moxifloxacin achieved significantly higher concentrations than levofloxacin and gatifloxacin in the cornea (P = 0.0102 and P = 0.0006, respectively, aqueous humor (P = 0.0015 and P < 0.0001, respectively, and conjunctiva (P = 0.0191 and P = 0.0236, respectively. Conclusions: 0.5% moxifloxacin eyedrops provided superior intraocular penetration in rabbits’ eyes compared with the two other fluoroquinolones, 0.5% levofloxacin and 0.3% gatifloxacin.Keywords: fluoroquinolone, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, penetration, rabbit

  15. Design of a Test Bench for Intraocular Lens Optical Characterization

    Alba-Bueno, Francisco; Vega, Fidel; Millán, María S.

    2011-01-01

    The crystalline lens is the responsible for focusing at different distances (accommodation) in the human eye. This organ grows throughout life increasing in size and rigidity. Moreover, due this growth it loses transparency through life, and becomes gradually opacified causing what is known as cataracts. Cataract is the most common cause of visual loss in the world. At present, this visual loss is recoverable by surgery in which the opacified lens is destroyed (phacoemulsification) and replaced by the implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL). If the IOL implanted is mono-focal the patient loses its natural capacity of accommodation, and as a consequence they would depend on an external optic correction to focus at different distances. In order to avoid this dependency, multifocal IOLs designs have been developed. The multi-focality can be achieved by using either, a refractive surface with different radii of curvature (refractive IOLs) or incorporating a diffractive surface (diffractive IOLs). To analyze the optical quality of IOLs it is necessary to test them in an optical bench that agrees with the ISO119679-2 1999 standard (Ophthalmic implants. Intraocular lenses. Part 2. Optical Properties and Test Methods). In addition to analyze the IOLs according to the ISO standard, we have designed an optical bench that allows us to simulate the conditions of a real human eye. To do that, we will use artificial corneas with different amounts of optical aberrations and several illumination sources with different spectral distributions. Moreover, the design of the test bench includes the possibility of testing the IOLs under off-axis conditions as well as in the presence of decentration and/or tilt. Finally, the optical imaging quality of the IOLs is assessed by using common metrics like the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the Point Spread Function (PSF) and/or the Strehl ratio (SR), or via registration of the IOL's wavefront with a Hartmann-Shack sensor and its

  16. Design of a Test Bench for Intraocular Lens Optical Characterization

    The crystalline lens is the responsible for focusing at different distances (accommodation) in the human eye. This organ grows throughout life increasing in size and rigidity. Moreover, due this growth it loses transparency through life, and becomes gradually opacified causing what is known as cataracts. Cataract is the most common cause of visual loss in the world. At present, this visual loss is recoverable by surgery in which the opacified lens is destroyed (phacoemulsification) and replaced by the implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL). If the IOL implanted is mono-focal the patient loses its natural capacity of accommodation, and as a consequence they would depend on an external optic correction to focus at different distances. In order to avoid this dependency, multifocal IOLs designs have been developed. The multi-focality can be achieved by using either, a refractive surface with different radii of curvature (refractive IOLs) or incorporating a diffractive surface (diffractive IOLs). To analyze the optical quality of IOLs it is necessary to test them in an optical bench that agrees with the ISO119679-2 1999 standard (Ophthalmic implants. Intraocular lenses. Part 2. Optical Properties and Test Methods). In addition to analyze the IOLs according to the ISO standard, we have designed an optical bench that allows us to simulate the conditions of a real human eye. To do that, we will use artificial corneas with different amounts of optical aberrations and several illumination sources with different spectral distributions. Moreover, the design of the test bench includes the possibility of testing the IOLs under off-axis conditions as well as in the presence of decentration and/or tilt. Finally, the optical imaging quality of the IOLs is assessed by using common metrics like the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the Point Spread Function (PSF) and/or the Strehl ratio (SR), or via registration of the IOL's wavefront with a Hartmann-Shack sensor and its

  17. Design of a Test Bench for Intraocular Lens Optical Characterization

    Alba-Bueno, Francisco; Vega, Fidel; Millan, Maria S, E-mail: francisco.alba-bueno@upc.edu, E-mail: fvega@oo.upc.edu, E-mail: millan@oo.upc.edu [Departamento de Optica y Optometria, Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, C/ Violinista Vellsola 37, 08222 Terrassa (Spain)

    2011-01-01

    The crystalline lens is the responsible for focusing at different distances (accommodation) in the human eye. This organ grows throughout life increasing in size and rigidity. Moreover, due this growth it loses transparency through life, and becomes gradually opacified causing what is known as cataracts. Cataract is the most common cause of visual loss in the world. At present, this visual loss is recoverable by surgery in which the opacified lens is destroyed (phacoemulsification) and replaced by the implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL). If the IOL implanted is mono-focal the patient loses its natural capacity of accommodation, and as a consequence they would depend on an external optic correction to focus at different distances. In order to avoid this dependency, multifocal IOLs designs have been developed. The multi-focality can be achieved by using either, a refractive surface with different radii of curvature (refractive IOLs) or incorporating a diffractive surface (diffractive IOLs). To analyze the optical quality of IOLs it is necessary to test them in an optical bench that agrees with the ISO119679-2 1999 standard (Ophthalmic implants. Intraocular lenses. Part 2. Optical Properties and Test Methods). In addition to analyze the IOLs according to the ISO standard, we have designed an optical bench that allows us to simulate the conditions of a real human eye. To do that, we will use artificial corneas with different amounts of optical aberrations and several illumination sources with different spectral distributions. Moreover, the design of the test bench includes the possibility of testing the IOLs under off-axis conditions as well as in the presence of decentration and/or tilt. Finally, the optical imaging quality of the IOLs is assessed by using common metrics like the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the Point Spread Function (PSF) and/or the Strehl ratio (SR), or via registration of the IOL's wavefront with a Hartmann-Shack sensor and its

  18. Effect of intraocular lens implantation on combined extracapsular cataract extraction with trabeculectomy: a comparative study.

    Neumann, R.; Zalish, M.; Oliver, M.

    1988-01-01

    In an attempt to assess the effect of posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) implantation on the outcome of combined extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) and trabeculectomy we compared 23 eyes subjected to ECCE and trabeculectomy with 23 eyes subjected to a triple procedure-that is, with the addition of IOL implantation. The results showed that IOL implantation did not have a detrimental effect on postoperative IOP reduction, gain in visual acuity, or needs for antiglaucoma medication. ...

  19. Use of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose 2% for removing adherent silicone oil from silicone intraocular lenses

    Wong, S Chien; Ramkissoon, Yashin D; Lopez, Mauricio; Page, Kristopher; Ivan P. Parkin; Sullivan, Paul M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background / aims: To investigate the effect of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) on the physical interaction (contact angle) between silicone oil and a silicone intraocular lens (IOL). Methods: In vitro experiments were performed, to determine the effect of HPMC (0.5%, 1% or 2%), with or without an additional simple mechanical manoeuvre, on the contact angle of silicone oil at the surface of both silicone and acrylic (control) IOLs. A balanced salt solu...

  20. The case for intraocular delivery of PPAR agonists in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy

    Treacy Maxwell P; Hurst Tara P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Systemic therapeutics targeting the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors have been found to be beneficial in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, we provide a rationale for the use of these therapeutics as intraocular agents. In addition, we introduce the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and describe their functions in response to the drugs. Discussion Based on the evidence of large-scale clinical studies investigating the systemic admini...

  1. Relationship of the efficacy of latanoprost in lowering intraocular pressure and the genetic polymorphism of prostaglandin receptor gene%拉坦前列素降眼压疗效与前列腺素受体基因多态性的相关性研究

    宋尧; 赵秀丽; 马科

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察拉坦前列素降眼压疗效与前列腺素受体基因( PTGFR)多态性的相关性。方法纳入临床确诊的高眼压症患者和原发性开角型青光眼患者70例,用荧光染色原位杂交法确定PTGFR基因单核苷酸多态性( SNPs )位点rs3766355、rs3753380的基因型,分析其与拉坦前列素降眼压疗效的关系。结果65例原发性开角型青光眼患者和高眼压症患者前列腺素受体的rs3766355位点 CC +CA 型的有效率高于 AA 型( P <0.05);rs3753380位点TT+TC型较CC型的有效率差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。结论 PTGFR基因rs3766355位点基因多态性与拉坦前列素的降眼压疗效可能相关。%Objective To study the association between the efficacy of latanoprost in lowing intraocular pressure and genetic polymorphisms of prostaglandin receptor ( PTGFR ) gene.Methods A pharmacogenetic analysis was performed by using fluorescence in situ hybridization ( FISH) to analyze the genotype of single nucleotide polymorphism ( SNPs ) ( rs3766355 , rs3753380 ) in patients with ocular hypertension and primary open -angle glaucoma who were treated with latanoprost.Results Sixty -five partients completed follow -up.The CC +CA genotypes in rs3766355 may be of high response to latanoprost versus AA genotype in patients with ocular hypertension or primary open -angle glau-coma(P0.05 ).Conclusion SNP of rs3766355 in PTGFR may be associated with the effect of latanoprost.

  2. Evaluation of intra ocular pressure and hemodynamic change following intubation with Maccoy, Macintosh and Video laryngoscope

    Hamid Khosro Zamiri; Mehrdad Noroozi; Siavash Moradi; Mohammad Shabani; Ali Sharifi; Mohammad Ali Haghbin

    2013-01-01

    Background & Objective: The induction of anesthesia, laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation can be associated with adverse hemodynamic response and increased intraocular pressure. The aim of this study was to evaluate intraocular pressure and hemodynamic changes after laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation with three methods of laryngoscopy (Macintosh, Maccoy and Video laryngoscope).Materials & Methods: One hundred and eighty patients with American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) classifi...

  3. Pseudoexfoliation material on posterior chamber intraocular lenses

    Rocha-Bastos RA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ricardo António da Rocha-Bastos,1 Sérgio Estrela Silva,1 Flávio Prézia,1 Fernando Falcão-Reis,1,2 António B Melo11Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital São João, Alameda Prof Hernâni Monteiro, Porto, Portugal; 2Department of Sense Organs, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Prof Hernâni Monteiro, Porto, PortugalAbstract: The presence of pseudoexfoliation material on the surface of an intraocular lens (IOL is a rare finding. We report a series of seven cases with different patterns of pseudoexfoliation material deposition on the posterior chamber IOLs, recognized 2–20 years after cataract surgery. Six patients had an IOL implanted in the capsular bag and one in the ciliary sulcus. Two patients had undergone posterior capsulotomy. Although the pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical significance of this finding remain unknown, the careful follow-up of pseudophakic patients with known or suspected pseudoexfoliation syndrome is essential to monitor the development or progression of glaucoma, since deposition of pseudoexfoliation material continues even after cataract surgery.Keywords: intraocular lens, glaucoma, exfoliation syndrome, cataract

  4. Dissociative anesthetic combination reduces intraocular pressure (IOP in rabbits

    Ewaldo de Mattos-Junior

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate the effects of three anesthetic combinations, ketamine-midazolam, ketamine-xylazine and tiletamine-zolazepam, on IOP in rabbits. In a experimental, blind, randomized, crossover study, six rabbits were anesthetized with each of 3 treatments in random order. Groups KM (ketamine, 30 mg/kg + midazolam, 1 mg/kg; KX (ketamine, 30 mg/kg + xylazine, 3 mg/kg; and TZ (tiletamine + zolazepam, 20 mg/kg. The drugs were mixed in the same syringe injected intramuscularly (IM into the quadriceps muscle. IOP was measured before drug administration (baseline and at 5-minute intervals for 30 minutes. The data were analyzed by a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test. All groups had significant decreases in IOP compared to baseline (p 0.05. Administration of either ketamine-midazolam, ketamine-xylazine, or tiletamine-zolazepam similarly decrease IOP in rabbits within 30 minutes of injection.

  5. [Results of intraocular lens implantation in cataract complicated by medium and high myopia].

    Plotnikova, Iu A; Chuprov, A D; Volkov, D V

    2001-01-01

    Results of surgical treatment of cataract complicated by medium and high myopia are analyzed. The main group consisted of 90 patients (96 eyes) subjected to extracapsular cataract extraction with implantation of posterior-chamber intraocular lenses and the reference group of 128 patients in whom cataract was extracted without implantation of artificial lens. The study included creation of a mathematical model of myopic eye with estimation of pressure fluctuations in various zones of the eye, developing during transposition of the vitreous during patient's movements (head movements, jumps, falling) and the damping effect of the lens in the ocular system. It was proven by mathematical calculations that transpositions of jelly fractions of the vitreous decreased by 70% in an eye with the lens in comparison with their transposition in aphakia. Clinical studies demonstrated the efficiency of intraocular correction of aphakia in high myopia: implantation of an intraocular lens decreases the risk of detachment of the retina during the postoperative period and helps attain the desired refraction. PMID:11765458

  6. Clinical Observation of 126 Cases of Sutureless Phacoemulsification with PMMA Intraocular Lens Implantation

    Yanshuang Yan; Zhengxing Mao

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To observe the safety and effect of sutureless phacoemulsification with PMMA intraocular lens (IOL) implantation.Methods: One-hundred and twenty-six cases (126 eyes) of sutureless phacoemulsification with PMMA intraocular lens (IOL) implantation were retrospected and evaluated. The surgeries were performed through a limbal tunnel incision. PMMA IOLs with 5.5mm or 6.0mm in diameter were implanted.Results: The follow-up was 3~20 months. Visual acuity of 0. 5 or better was obtained in 120 cases (95.2%), and that of 1.0 or better was obtained in 89 cases (70. 6% ).Intra-operative complications included posterior capsule rupture in 9 cases (7. 1% ) and iris injury in 7 cases(5.6% ). Postoperative complications included early corneal edema in 96 cases(76.2% ), transient intraocular pressure elevation in 5 cases(4. 3%),remnant of cortex in 1 case and leakage of incision in 1 case. M1 were properly managed with good results.Conclusion: Sutureless phacoemulsification with PMMA IOL implantation is safe even in grass-root hospitals where cataracts are harder.

  7. The effectiveness of early lens extraction with intraocular lens implantation for the treatment of primary angle-closure glaucoma (EAGLE: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Chew Paul

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness. Although primary open-angle glaucoma is more common, primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG is more likely to result in irreversible blindness. By 2020, 5·3 million people worldwide will be blind because of PACG. The current standard care for PACG is a stepped approach of a combination of laser iridotomy surgery (to open the drainage angle and medical treatment (to reduce intraocular pressure. If these treatments fail, glaucoma surgery (eg, trabeculectomy is indicated. It has been proposed that, because the lens of the eye plays a major role in the mechanisms leading to PACG, early clear lens extraction will improve glaucoma control by opening the drainage angle. This procedure might reduce the need for drugs and glaucoma surgery, maintain good visual acuity, and improve quality of life compared with standard care. EAGLE aims to evaluate whether early lens extraction improves patient-reported, clinical outcomes, and cost-effectiveness, compared with standard care. Methods/Design EAGLE is a multicentre pragmatic randomized trial. All people presenting to the recruitment centres in the UK and east Asia with newly diagnosed PACG and who are at least 50 years old are eligible. The primary outcomes are EQ-5D, intraocular pressure, and incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY gained. Other outcomes are: vision and glaucoma-specific patient-reported outcomes, visual acuity, visual field, angle closure, number of medications, additional surgery (e.g., trabeculectomy, costs to the health services and patients, and adverse events. A single main analysis will be done at the end of the trial, after three years of follow-up. The analysis will be based on all participants as randomized (intention to treat. 400 participants (200 in each group will be recruited, to have 90% power at 5% significance level to detect a difference in EQ-5D score between the two groups of 0·05

  8. New Management of Angle-closure Glaucoma by Phacoemulsification with Foldable Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lens Implantation

    Jian Ge; Yan Guo; Yizhi Liu; Mingkai Lin; Yehong Zhuo; Bing Chen; Xiuqi Chen

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the management of angle-closure glaucoma by phacoemulsification with foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) implantation. Design: Retrospective, noncontrolled interventional case series.Participants: In 36 eyes with angle-closure glaucoma (ACG), there were 18 eyes with primary acute angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), 14 eyes with primary chronic angle-closure glaucoma (PCCG), 3 eyes with secondary acute angle-closure glaucoma (SACG) and 1 eye with secondary chronic angle-closure glaucoma (SCCG).Intervention: Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation.Main Outcome Measures: Postoperative visual acuity, IOP, axial anterior chamber depth.Results: After a mean postoperative follow-up time of 8.81 ± 7.45 months, intraocular pressure was reduced from a preoperative mean of 23.81 ± 17.84 mmHg to a postoperative mean of 12.54 ± 4. 73 mmHg ( P = 0. 001 ). Mean anterior chamber depth was 1.75 ± 0.48 mm preoperatively and 2.29 ± 0.38 mm postoperatively ( P = 0. 000).Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity in 36 eyes ranged from 0. 01 to 0. 7 (20/200 to 20/30) postoperatively, which was better than preoperative VA ranging from hand movement to 0.4 (20/50) ( P= 0. 000).Conclusion: Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber foldable intraocular lens implantation can be a good alternative in treating angle-closure glaucoma. Eye Science 2000; 16:22 ~ 28.

  9. New Management of Angle-closure Glaucoma by Phacoemulsification with Folable Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lens Implantation

    JianGE; YanGuo; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the management of angle-closure glaucoma by phacoemulsification with foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOIL)implantation.Design:Retrospective,noncontrolled interventional case series.Participants:In 36 eyes with angle -closure glaucoma(ACG).there were 18eyes with primary acute angle-closure glaucoma(PACG),14 eyes with primary chonic angle -closure glaucoma(PCCG),3 eyes with secondary acute angle-closure glaucoma (SACG) and 1 eye with secondary chronic angle -closure glaucoma(SCCG).Intervention:Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation.Main Outcome Measures:Postoperative visual acuity,IOP,axial anterior chamber depth.Results:After a mean postoperative follow -time of 8.81±7.45 months,intraocular pressure was reduced from a preoperative mean of 23.81±17.84 mmHg to a postoperative mean of 12.54±4.73mmHg(P=0.001).Mean anterior chamber depth was 1.75±0.48 mm preoiperatively and 2.29±0.38mm postoperatively(P-0.000).Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity in 36 eyes ranged from 0.01 to 0.7(20/200 to 20/30)postoperatively,which was better than preoperative VA ranging from hand movement to 0.4(20/50)(P=0.000).Conclusion:Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber foldable intraocular lens implantation can be a good alternative in treating angle-closure glaucoma.Eye Science2000;16:22-28.

  10. MicroRNA profiling in intraocular medulloepitheliomas.

    Deepak P Edward

    Full Text Available To study the differential expression of microRNA (miRNA profiles between intraocular medulloepithelioma (ME and normal control tissue (CT.Total RNA was extracted from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE intraocular ME (n=7 and from age matched ciliary body controls (n=8. The clinical history and phenotype was recorded. MiRNA profiles were determined using the Affymetrix GeneChip miRNA Arrays analyzed using expression console 1.3 software. Validation of significantly dysregulated miRNA was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. The web-based DNA Intelligent Analysis (DIANA-miRPath v2.0 was used to perform enrichment analysis of differentially expressed (DE miRNA gene targets in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway.The pathologic evaluation revealed one benign (benign non-teratoid, n=1 and six malignant tumors (malignant teratoid, n=2; malignant non-teratoid, n = 4. A total of 88 miRNAs were upregulated and 43 miRNAs were downregulated significantly (P<0.05 in the tumor specimens. Many of these significantly dysregulated miRNAs were known to play various roles in carcinogenesis and tumor behavior. RT-PCR validated three significantly upregulated miRNAs and three significantly downregulated miRNAs namely miR-217, miR-216a, miR-216b, miR-146a, miR-509-3p and miR-211. Many DE miRNAs that were significant in ME tumors showed dysregulation in retinoblastoma, glioblastoma, and precursor, normal and reactive human cartilage. Enriched pathway analysis suggested a significant association of upregulated miRNAs with 15 pathways involved in prion disease and several types of cancer. The pathways involving significantly downregulated miRNAs included the toll-like receptor (TLR (p<4.36E-16 and Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB signaling pathways (p<9.00E-06.We report significantly dysregulated miRNAs in intraocular ME tumors, which exhibited abnormal profiles in other cancers as well such as retinoblastoma and glioblastoma. Pathway analysis

  11. Lente intra-ocular multifocal difrativa apodizada: resultados Diffractive apodized multifocal intraocular lens: results

    Virgilio Centurion

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Mostrar os resultados visuais e refracionais com lente intra-ocular multifocal difrativa apodizada. MÉTODOS: Estudo de 100 olhos de 50 pacientes com catarata, submetidos à facoemulsificação com implante bilateral de lente intra-ocular (LIO multifocal difrativa apodizada. Foi avaliada a acuidade visual binocular sem e com correção para longe e perto, a previsibilidade refracional e a freqüência de uso de óculos. RESULTADOS: A acuidade visual sem correção para longe foi de e " 20/30 em 97,56% dos olhos operados e e" J2 em 100%, sendo que 82% dos pacientes nunca usam óculos e 16% usam de forma esporádica. CONCLUSÃO: A LIO multifocal difrativa apodizada mostrou ser uma opção previsível, reproduzível e segura na correção dos vícios de refração para longe e perto durante a cirurgia da catarata, permitindo elevado índice de independência ao uso de óculos.OBJECTIVE: To show visual and refraction results using multifocal diffractive apodized intraocular lens. METHODS: The study of 100 eyes of 50 patients with cataract, submitted to phacoemulsification with bilateral implant of multifocal diffractive apodized intraocular lens (IOL. Binocular visual acuity was evaluated with and without correction for near and distance, and refraction previsibility and frequency of wearing glasses. RESULTS: Visual acuity without correction for distance was e" 20/30 in 97.56% of eyes operated on and e" J2 in 100%, of these 82% of patients never wear glasses and 16% wear glasses sporadically. CONCLUSION: Multifocal diffractive apodized IOL proved to be a foreseeable option, reproducible and safe in the correction of refraction errors for distance and near during cataract surgery, enabling a high rate of independence from the use of glasses.

  12. Small-Gauge Pars Plana Vitrectomy for the Management of Symptomatic Posterior Vitreous Detachment after Phacoemulsification and Multifocal Intraocular Lens Implantation: A Pilot Study from the Pan-American Collaborative Retina Study Group

    Navarro, Rodrigo M.; Machado, Leonardo M.; Ossires Maia; Lihteh Wu; Farah, Michel E.; Octaviano Magalhaes; J Fernando Arevalo; Mauricio Maia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the efficacy of 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for symptomatic posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) on visual acuity (VA) and quality after multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs). Methods. In this prospective case series, patients who developed symptomatic PVD and were not satisfied with visual quality due to floaters and halos after multifocal IOL implantation underwent PPV. Examinations included LogMAR uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), intraocular pressure, biomicro...

  13. Intraocular lens employed for cataract surgery

    Roszkowska, A. M.; Torrisi, L.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to illustrate the techniques of cataract surgery with implantation of intraocular lenses and some physical properties of the used materials. The new technology, coupled with extensive experience and the studied cases, permits to increase the standardization and accuracy of the engravings, by reducing the use and handling of surgical instruments inside the eye. At present it is possible to replace the cataract with crystalline lenses based on biopolymers such as PMMA, silicone, acrylic hydrophilic and hydrophobic acrylic. These materials are increasingly able to replace the natural lens and to ensure the fully functional of the eye. The role of femtosecond lasers in cataract surgery, to assist or replace several aspects of the manual cataract surgery, are discussed.

  14. Intraocular lens employed for cataract surgery

    The aim of this paper is to illustrate the techniques of cataract surgery with implantation of intraocular lenses and some physical properties of the used materials. The new technology, coupled with extensive experience and the studied cases, permits to increase the standardization and accuracy of the engravings, by reducing the use and handling of surgical instruments inside the eye. At present it is possible to replace the cataract with crystalline lenses based on biopolymers such as PMMA, silicone, acrylic hydrophilic and hydrophobic acrylic. These materials are increasingly able to replace the natural lens and to ensure the fully functional of the eye. The role of femtosecond lasers in cataract surgery, to assist or replace several aspects of the manual cataract surgery, are discussed.

  15. Computational modeling of intraocular gas dynamics

    Noohi, P.; Abdekhodaie, M. J.; Cheng, Y. L.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a computational model to simulate the dynamics of intraocular gas behavior in pneumatic retinopexy (PR) procedure. The presented model predicted intraocular gas volume at any time and determined the tolerance angle within which a patient can maneuver and still gas completely covers the tear(s). Computational fluid dynamics calculations were conducted to describe PR procedure. The geometrical model was constructed based on the rabbit and human eye dimensions. SF6 in the form of pure and diluted with air was considered as the injected gas. The presented results indicated that the composition of the injected gas affected the gas absorption rate and gas volume. After injection of pure SF6, the bubble expanded to 2.3 times of its initial volume during the first 23 h, but when diluted SF6 was used, no significant expansion was observed. Also, head positioning for the treatment of retinal tear influenced the rate of gas absorption. Moreover, the determined tolerance angle depended on the bubble and tear size. More bubble expansion and smaller retinal tear caused greater tolerance angle. For example, after 23 h, for the tear size of 2 mm the tolerance angle of using pure SF6 is 1.4 times more than that of using diluted SF6 with 80% air. Composition of the injected gas and conditions of the tear in PR may dramatically affect the gas absorption rate and gas volume. Quantifying these effects helps to predict the tolerance angle and improve treatment efficiency.

  16. Validation of the integration of technology that measures additional “vascular” indices into an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring system

    Kotovskaya, Yulia V; Kobalava, Zhanna D; Orlov, Artemy V

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to validate the novel integration of oscillometric (Vasotens®) technology into a BPLab® ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring system to measure central BP, the aortic augmentation index, and pulse wave velocity (PWV) compared with the recommended and widely accepted tonometric method. Methods The ARTERY Society guidelines for comparison of PWV measurement techniques were used as the basis for recruitment of 99 individuals (mean age 44±19 years, 5...

  17. Validation of the integration of technology that measures additional “vascular” indices into an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring system

    Kotovskaya YV; Kobalava ZD; Orlov AV

    2014-01-01

    Yulia V Kotovskaya,1 Zhanna D Kobalava,1 Artemy V Orlov21Propedeutics Department, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, 2Competitive System Analysis Department (No 65), National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow, RussiaBackground: The objective of this study was to validate the novel integration of oscillometric (Vasotens®) technology into a BPLab® ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring system to measure central BP, the aortic augmentation index, and pulse wave ve...

  18. Patient acceptability of the Tecnis® multifocal intraocular lens

    Sood P

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Priyanka Sood1, Maria A Woodward21Emory Eye Center, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Kellogg Eye Center, Ann Arbor, MI, USAAbstract: Cataract surgery has evolved. The goal of the surgeon includes both restoration of vision and refinement of vision. Patients' desire for spectacle independence has driven the market for presbyopia-correcting cataract surgery and development of novel intraocular lens (IOL designs. The Tecnis® Multifocal Intraocular Lens incorporates an aspheric, modified anterior prolate IOL with a diffractive multifocal lens design. The design aims to minimize spherical aberration and improve range of focus. The purpose of this review is to assess patient acceptability of the Tecnis® multifocal intraocular lens.Keywords: Tecnis®, intraocular lens, multifocal, presbyopia 

  19. Polymer-additive extraction via pressurized fluids and organic solvents of variously cross-linked poly(methylmethacrylates).

    Nazem, N; Taylor, L T

    2002-04-01

    Variously cross-linked poly(methylmethacrylates) (PMMAs) are synthesized with three additives incorporated at theoretically 1000 microg of the additive per gram of prepared polymer. The additives are Irganox 1010, Irganox 1076, and Irgafos 168. The in-house" synthesized polyacrylates are then subjected to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to determine if additive recovery is a function of percent cross-linking. Although considerable work in this regard has been performed with non-cross-linked polyolefins, the literature is lacking regarding polyacrylates. Some additive degradation apparently occurs during the synthesis, as judged by the increased complexity of the extract high-performance liquid chromatographic trace and the low percent recoveries observed especially for the Irganoxes. For low polymer cross-linking (1%), it appears that both PMMA synthetic reproducibility and readily observed polymer swelling during SFE are serious issues that adversely affect additive percent recovery and precision of results. Higher percent cross-linking yields more consistent analytical data than low percent cross-linking, even though the amount of additive extracted in all PMMA samples (regardless of cross-linking percentage) is essentially the same whether the extraction is via SFE or liquid-solid extraction with methylene chloride. Results for comparably cross-linked poly(ethylmethacrylate) and poly(butylmethacrylate) are similar to PMMA. PMID:12004935

  20. Proof of Concept of Crack Localization Using Negative Pressure Waves in Closed Tubes for Later Application in Effective SHM System for Additive Manufactured Components

    Michaël F. Hinderdael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufactured components have a different metallurgic structure and are more prone to fatigue cracks than conventionally produced metals. In earlier papers, an effective Structural Health Monitoring solution was presented to detect fatigue cracks in additive manufactured components. Small subsurface capillaries are embedded in the structure and pressurized (vacuum or overpressure. A crack that initiated at the component’s surface will propagate towards the capillary and finally breach it. One capillary suffices to inspect a large area of the component, which makes it interesting to locate the crack on the basis of the pressure measurements. Negative pressure waves (NPW arise from the abrupt encounter of high pressure fluid with low pressure fluid and can serve as a basis to locate the crack. A test set-up with a controllable leak valve was built to investigate the feasibility of using NPW to localize a leak in closed tubes with small lengths. Reflections are expected to occur at the ends of the tube, possibly limiting the localization accuracy. In this paper, the results of the tests on the test set-up are reported. It will be shown that the crack could be localized with high accuracy (millimeter accuracy which proves the concept of crack localization on basis of NPW in a closed tube of small length.

  1. Softec HD hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens: biocompatibility and precision

    Ladan Espandar; Shameema Sikder; Majid Moshirfar

    2011-01-01

    Ladan Espandar1, Shameema Sikder2, Majid Moshirfar31Department of Ophthalmology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: Intraocular lens development is driven by higher patient expectations for ideal visual outcomes. The recently US Food and Drug Administration-approved Softec HD™ lens is an aspheric, hydrophilic acrylic intraocular le...

  2. Patient acceptability of the Tecnis® multifocal intraocular lens

    Woodward, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Priyanka Sood1, Maria A Woodward21Emory Eye Center, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Kellogg Eye Center, Ann Arbor, MI, USAAbstract: Cataract surgery has evolved. The goal of the surgeon includes both restoration of vision and refinement of vision. Patients' desire for spectacle independence has driven the market for presbyopia-correcting cataract surgery and development of novel intraocular lens (IOL) designs. The Tecnis® Multifocal Intraocular Lens incorporates an aspheric, modified anter...

  3. Patient acceptability of the Tecnis® multifocal intraocular lens

    Sood, Priyanka; Woodward, Maria A.

    2011-01-01

    Cataract surgery has evolved. The goal of the surgeon includes both restoration of vision and refinement of vision. Patients’ desire for spectacle independence has driven the market for presbyopia-correcting cataract surgery and development of novel intraocular lens (IOL) designs. The Tecnis® Multifocal Intraocular Lens incorporates an aspheric, modified anterior prolate IOL with a diffractive multifocal lens design. The design aims to minimize spherical aberration and improve range of focus....

  4. Intraocular Gnathostomiasis: Report of a Case and Review of Literature

    Pillai, Gopal S.; Kumar, Anil; Radhakrishnan, Natasha; Maniyelil, Jayasree; Shafi, Tufela; Dinesh, Kavitha R.; Karim, Shamsul

    2012-01-01

    Intraocular gnathostomiasis is a rare parasitic infection caused by the third-stage larvae of spiruroid nematode Gnanthostoma spp. seen mostly in tropical and subtropical regions. It is a food-borne zoonosis caused by ingestion of raw or undercooked freshwater fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, all of which are known to harbor advanced third-stage larvae of Gnanthostoma spp. To date, 74 cases of intraocular gnathostomiasis have been reported from 12 different countries. Only four...

  5. Validation of the integration of technology that measures additional “vascular” indices into an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring system

    Kotovskaya YV

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Yulia V Kotovskaya,1 Zhanna D Kobalava,1 Artemy V Orlov21Propedeutics Department, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, 2Competitive System Analysis Department (No 65, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow, RussiaBackground: The objective of this study was to validate the novel integration of oscillometric (Vasotens® technology into a BPLab® ambulatory blood pressure (BP monitoring system to measure central BP, the aortic augmentation index, and pulse wave velocity (PWV compared with the recommended and widely accepted tonometric method.Methods: The ARTERY Society guidelines for comparison of PWV measurement techniques were used as the basis for recruitment of 99 individuals (mean age 44±19 years, 52 males. The standard for comparison was the conventional “classic” SphygmoCor device.Results: Accordance of the two methods was satisfactory (r=0.98, mean difference of 2.9±3.5 mmHg for central systolic BP; r=0.98, mean difference of −1.1±2.3 mmHg for central diastolic BP; r=0.83, mean difference of −2.6%±13% for aortic augmentation index; r=0.85, mean difference of 0.69±1.4 for PWV.Conclusion: The performance of Vasotens algorithms using an oscillometric ambulatory BP monitoring system is feasible for accurate diagnosis, risk assessment, and evaluation of the effects of antihypertensive drugs.Keywords: validation study, ambulatory, 24-hour, monitoring, arterial stiffness, pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, central blood pressure

  6. Mechanisms of radical formation in beef and chicken meat during high pressure processing evaluated by electron spin resonance detection and the addition of antioxidants.

    Bolumar, Tomas; Andersen, Mogens L; Orlien, Vibeke

    2014-05-01

    The generation of radicals during high pressure (HP) processing of beef loin and chicken breast was studied by spin trapping and electron spin resonance detection. The pressurization resulted in a higher level of spin adducts in the beef loin than in the chicken breast. It was shown that radicals were formed in the sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar fractions as well as in the non-soluble protein fraction due to the HP treatment, indicating that other radicals than iron-derived radicals were formed, and most likely protein-derived radicals. The addition of iron as well as the natural antioxidants caffeic acid, rosemary extract, and ascorbic acid resulted in an increased formation of radicals during the HP treatment, whereas addition of ethylendiamintetraacetic acid (EDTA) reduced the radical formation. This suggests that iron-species (protein-bound or free) catalyses the formation of radicals when meat systems are submitted to HP. PMID:24360471

  7. Influence of Additive Gas on Electrical and Optical Characteristics of Non-equilibrium Atmospheric Pressure Argon Plasma Jet

    Electrical and optical properties of an argon plasma jet were characterized. In particular, effects of an additive gas, namely nitrogen or oxygen, on these properties were studied in detail. The plasma jet was found to be of a glow-like discharge, which scarcely changed upon the injection of an additive gas, either directly or through a glass capillary. Optical emission spectroscopy characterization revealed that excited argon atoms were the predominant active species in this plasma jet. Metastable argon atoms were highly quenched, and N2(C3Πu) became the main energy carrier following nitrogen injection. When oxygen was added to the afterglow zone through a glass capillary, no significant quenching effect was observed and the number of oxygen atoms decreased with the increase in oxygen concentration. Finally, to demonstrate an application of this plasma jet, a high-density polyethylene surface was treated with argon, argon/nitrogen, and argon/oxygen plasmas.

  8. The effects of CO addition on the autoignition of H-2, CH4 and CH4/H-2 fuels at high pressure in an RCM

    Gersen, Sander; Darmeveil, Harry; Levinsky, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Autoignition delay times of stoichiometric and fuel-lean (phi = 0.5) H-2, H-2/CO, CH4, CH4/CO, CH4/H-2 and CH4/CO/H-2 mixtures have been measured in an Rapid Compression Machine at pressures ranging from 20 to 80 bar and in the temperature range 900-1100K. The effects of CO addition on the ignition

  9. A study of brachytherapy for intraocular tumor

    Our purpose of this study is to perform brachytherapy for intraocular tumor. The result were as followed. 1. Eye model was determined as a 25 mm diameter sphere. Ir-192 was considered the most appropriate as radioisotope for brachytherapy, because of the size, half, energy and availability. 2. Considering the biological response with human tissue and protection of exposed dose, we made the plaques with gold, of which size were 15 mm, 17 mm and 20 mm in diameter, and 1.5 mm in thickness. 3. Transmission factor of plaques are all 0.71 with TLD and film dosimetry at the surface of plaques and 0.45, 0.49 at 1.5 mm distance of surface, respectively. 4. As compared the measured data for the plaque with Ir-192 seeds to results of computer dose calculation model by Gary Luxton et al. and CAP-PLAN (Radiation Treatment Planning System), absorbed doses are within ±10% and distance deviations are within 0.4 mm. Maximum error is -11.3% and 0.8 mm, respectively. 7 figs, 2 tabs, 28 refs. (Author)

  10. EXTERIOR PRESSURE OF THE GASEOUS MEDIUM AS AN ADDITIONAL TECHNOLOGICAL FACTOR FOR OPTIMIZING THE VAPORIZATION PROCESS IN THE PRODUCTION OF CELLULAR SILICATE CONCRETE

    A. A. Rezanov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. The quality of silicate porous concrete is largely determined by vapor-ization processes at the stage of the formation of the macrostructure of the obtained material. In the production of cellular concrete with the use of injection molding, the existing manufacturing technologies do not enable the expeditious handling of the vaporization process. This is why there is a growing need to develop additional efficient methods of handling the vaporization process thus improving cellular silicate concrete.Results. Based on modelling and detailed examination of the balance of pressure affecting devel-oping gas pores, mechanisms and factors governing a defect-free structure are found. An additional governing factor, which is a pressure of the external gaseous medium, was discovered. The approaches to handling the vaporization process have been developed and a plant fitted with a system of automatic control of vaporization process by conscious operative pressuring effect from the external gaseous phase on a poring mixture has been designed.Conclusions. Theoretical validation along with the results of the experimental study help to arrive at the conclusion about the efficiency of the suggested system in controlling vaporization that could provide a good addition to the traditional injection molding and make it more susceptible against varying characteristics of raw materials.

  11. Cuerpo extraño intraocular en el segmento posterior Intraocular foreign bodies in the posterior segment

    Diley Pérez García

    2012-01-01

    ; the knowledge of the physicians and the available necessary equipment for surgery, and the postoperative care conditions. There are controversies regarding the intraocular foreign bodies extraction timing, nevertheless, management should be personalized based on the particular conditions of a case. In the event of endophthalmitis, the prophylaxis with systemic antibiotics is recommended in addition of the use of intravitreal antibiotics for high risk patients. One should early diagnose or promptly detect complications such as retinal detachment, endophthalmitis and vitreous and retinal proliferation that have been linked to poor visual prognosis.

  12. Are blood pressure and diabetes additive or synergistic risk factors? outcome in 8494 subjects randomly recruited from 10 populations

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Hansen, Tine W; Li, Yan;

    2011-01-01

    were not different from those of diabetic patients (P-values for interaction, 0.09¿P¿0.72). In conclusion, in a large international population-based database, both diabetes mellitus and BP contributed equally to the risk of cardiovascular complications without evidence for a synergistic effect...... patients) enrolled in prospective population studies in 10 countries. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression, we assessed the additive as opposed to the synergistic effects of BP and diabetes in relation to a composite cardiovascular endpoint by testing the significance of appropriate interaction terms......, daytime, or nighttime, systolic or diastolic ambulatory BP (P for interaction, 0.07¿P¿0.97). The only exception was a borderline synergistic effect between diabetes and daytime diastolic BP in relation to the composite cardiovascular endpoint (P=0.04). In diabetic patients, with normotension as the...

  13. Retropupillary iris-claw intraocular lens in ectopia lentis in Marfan syndrome

    Faria, Mun Yueh; Ferreira, Nuno; Neto, Eliana

    2016-01-01

    Objective To report visual outcomes, complication rate, and safety of retropupillary iris-claw intraocular lens (ICIOL) in ectopia lentis in Marfan syndrome (MFS). Design Retrospective study. Methods Six eyes of three MFS patients with ectopia lentis underwent surgery for subluxation lens and retropupillary ICIOL implantation from October 2014 to October 2015 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Santa Maria Hospital in Lisbon, Portugal. Demographics, preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and intraocular pressure were evaluated. Endothelium cell count was assessed using specular microscopy; anterior chamber depth was measured using Pentacam postoperatively; and intraocular lens position was viewed by ultrasound biomicroscopy. All patients were female; mean age was 20±14.264 years (range: 7–38 years). Results The average follow-up period was 6.66 months (range: 4–16 months). Preoperative BCVA was 0.568±0.149 logMAR units, and postoperative BCVA was 0.066±0.121 logMAR units. The mean BCVA gain was −0.502±0.221 on the logMAR scale. Postoperative average astigmatism and intraocular pressure were 1.292±0.697 mmHg (range: 0.5–2.25 mmHg) and 16 mmHg (range: 12–18 mmHg), respectively. The average endothelial cell density decreased from 3,121±178 cells/mm2 before surgery to 2,835±533 cells/mm2 after surgery (measured at last follow-up visit) and in the last follow-up, representing an average endothelial cell loss of 9.16%. Mean anterior chamber depth was 4.01 mm (±0.77 mm), as measured by Pentacam. No complications were found intra- or postoperatively in any of the six studied eyes. Conclusion Retropupillary ICIOL implantation is a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of aphakia in MFS eyes, without capsular support after surgery for ectopia lens. The six eyes that underwent lensectomy and retropupillary ICIOL implantation have had excellent visual outcomes with no complications so far. PMID:27382335

  14. Densiron® 68 as an intraocular tamponade for complex inferior retinal detachments

    Hussain RN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Rumana N Hussain, Somnath BanerjeeLeicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, UKIntroduction: Densiron® 68 is a high-density liquid used to tamponade inferior retinal detachments. We present a case series of 12 patients treated with Densiron as an intraocular tamponade agent.Methods: A retrospective analysis of 12 eyes in 12 patients was carried out. The primary endpoint was anatomic reattachment of the retina following removal of Densiron oil.Results: All patients had inferior detachments; 33% had associated proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR. Densiron was utilized as a primary agent in five patients (42%; the remaining patients had prior unsuccessful surgery for retinal reattachment, including pars plana vitrectomy, cryotherapy, laser, encirclement, gas (C3F8 or C2F6, or silicone oil. Eleven patients (91% had successful reattachment of the retina at 3 months following removal of Densiron; one patient had extensive PVR, total retinal detachment, preretinal macula fibrosis, and chronic hypotony, and surgical intervention was unsuccessful. Six patients (50% had raised intraocular pressure (IOP, resolving in the majority of cases following Densiron removal; two patients had long-term raised IOP requiring topical or surgical therapy. Of the six phakic patients, 50% developed significant cataract in the operated eye. Of those with successful retinal reattachment, visual outcome was variable, with 36% patients gaining two to four lines on Snellen, 27% remaining objectively the same, and 36% losing one to two lines.Conclusion: The anatomic success rate is high (91% in patients requiring Densiron tamponade for inferior retinal detachments with or without evidence of PVR either as a primary or secondary intervention. A common complication is raised IOP; however, this most often resolves following removal of the oil.Keywords: intraocular tamponade, silicone oil, retinal detachment, retinal reattachments

  15. Evaluation of the motion of surgical instruments during intraocular surgery

    Hubschman, J-P; Son, J; Allen, B; Schwartz, S D; Bourges, J-L

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Robot assistance in ocular microsurgery could improve precision, dexterity, save time or prevent complications by task automation, and provide access to ocular surgery in undeserved countries by teleoperation. However, to design robotic devices, the range of motion of surgical instruments needs to be precisely quantified. Methods An electromagnetic tracking system was developed for intraocular surgery in order to quantify the movements of ophthalmic surgeons. Kinematics of surgical steps during phacoemulsification and pars plana vitrectomy procedures were determined by measuring the maximum translation and angular range of motion of intraocular surgical tools in the three planes. Conclusion Important variations in amplitudes of rotation and translation were measured between both hands and between surgical tasks. These parameters may be used to develop a robotic intraocular surgical system or to improve training. PMID:21527954

  16. Epithelial Downgrowth after Intraocular Surgery Treated with Intracameral 5-Fluorouracil

    Nina Ni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To present the clinical and histopathologic correlation of two cases of epithelial downgrowth (EDG after prior intraocular surgery. Methods. Observational case reports. Results. We present two cases of EDG occurring after intraocular surgery. In both cases, after two anterior chamber injections of 5-fluorouracil (5FU, the area of EDG initially regressed. In Case 1, a limited area of EDG eventually recurred, and penetrating keratoplasty with cryotherapy was curative. In Case 2, subsequent corneal edema required Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty, and the patient remained clinically free of EDG without further treatment. Conclusion. Intracameral 5FU may have a role in the treatment of EDG after intraocular surgery, though its precise utilization and impact remain to be defined.

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    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular mm9 Unclassified Others Lenses, Intraocular SR...X1127448 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular.bed ...

  8. File list: InP.Oth.10.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Oth.10.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular mm9 Input control Others Lenses, Intraocular S...RX957681,SRX957691,SRX957693 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Oth.10.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular.bed ...

  9. File list: Oth.Oth.10.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Oth.10.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular mm9 TFs and others Others Lenses, Intraocular ...SRX957680 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Oth.10.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular.bed ...

  10. File list: NoD.Oth.10.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Oth.10.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular mm9 No description Others Lenses, Intraocular ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Oth.10.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular.bed ...

  11. File list: NoD.Oth.05.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Oth.05.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular mm9 No description Others Lenses, Intraocular ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Oth.05.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular.bed ...

  12. File list: NoD.Oth.50.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Oth.50.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular mm9 No description Others Lenses, Intraocular ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Oth.50.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular.bed ...

  13. File list: Pol.Oth.20.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Oth.20.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular mm9 RNA polymerase Others Lenses, Intraocular ...SRX957689 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Oth.20.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular.bed ...

  14. File list: Pol.Oth.10.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Oth.10.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular mm9 RNA polymerase Others Lenses, Intraocular ...SRX957689 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Oth.10.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.Oth.20.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Oth.20.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular mm9 TFs and others Others Lenses, Intraocular ...SRX957680 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Oth.20.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular.bed ...

  16. File list: Oth.Oth.05.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Oth.05.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular mm9 TFs and others Others Lenses, Intraocular ...SRX957680 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Oth.05.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular.bed ...

  17. File list: His.Oth.10.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Oth.10.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular mm9 Histone Others Lenses, Intraocular SRX9576...85,SRX957687,SRX957695,SRX957683 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Oth.10.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular.bed ...

  18. Effects of the Dietary Addition of Amaranth (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) Protein Isolate on Antioxidant Status, Lipid Profiles and Blood Pressure of Rats.

    Lado, María B; Burini, Julieta; Rinaldi, Gustavo; Añón, María C; Tironi, Valeria A

    2015-12-01

    The effects of the dietary addition of 2.5% (w/w) Amaranthus mantegazzianus protein isolate (AI) on blood pressure, lipid profiles and antioxidative status of Wistar rats were evaluated. Six diets were used to feed animals during 28 days: (base (AIN93G), Chol (cholesterol 1%, w/w), CE (α-tocopherol 0.005%, w/w), CholE (cholesterol 1% (w/w) + α-tocopherol 0.005%, w/w), CAI (AI 2.5% w/w), CholAI (cholesterol 1% (w/w) + AI 2.5%, w/w). Lipid profiles of plasma and liver and faecal cholesterol content were analyzed. Antioxidant status was evaluated by the ferric reducing activity of plasma (FRAP), the 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in plasma and liver. Blood pressure was measured in the tail artery of rats. CholA group presented a significant (α < 0.05) reduction (16%) in the plasma total cholesterol. In liver, the intake of cholesterol (Chol group) induced a significant increment in cholesterol and triglycerides (2.5 and 2.3 times, respectively), which could be decreased (18% and 47%, respectively) by the addition of AI (CholA group). This last group also showed an increased faecal cholesterol excretion (20%). Increment (50%) in FRAP values, diminution of TBA value in plasma and liver (70% and 38%, respectively) and diminution of SOD activity (20%) in plasma of CholA group suggest an antioxidant effect because of the intake of AI. In addition, CA and CholA groups presented a diminution (18%) of blood pressure after 28 days. PMID:26497504

  19. Corrigendum: Softec HD hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens: biocompatibility and precision

    Espandar L

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Espandar L, Sikder S, Moshirfar M. Softec HD hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens: biocompatibility and precision. Clin Ophthalmol. 2011;5:65–70.There was an error in the reported optic size of Lenstec’s Softec HD intraocular lens, which was reported to be 5.5 mm in Espandar et al’s work, but is 5.75 mm.Please see the specifications on Lenstec’s Web site for further details (see http://www.lenstec.com/lenstec/hd_specs.html.Read the original article

  20. Development and experimental verification of an intraocular scattering model

    Jiang, Chong-Jhih; Jhong, Tian-Siang; Chen, Yi-Chun; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2011-10-01

    An intraocular scattering model was constructed in human eye model and experimentally verified. According to the biometric data, the volumetric scattering in crystalline lens and diffusion at retina fundus were developed. The scattering parameters of cornea, including particle size and obscuration ratio, were varied to make the veiling luminance of the eye model matching the CIE disability glare general formula. By replacing the transparent lens with a cataractous lens, the disability glare curve of cataracts was generated and compared with that of transparent lenses. The MTF of the intraocular scattering model showed nice correspondence with the data measured by a double-pass experiment.

  1. Influencing factors of high intraocular pressure during stable period after implantable collamer lens%有晶体眼后房型人工晶体植入术后稳定期高眼压发生的相关因素分析

    胡春明; 谢汉平; 汪辉; 罗启惠

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate influencing factors of high intraocular pressure (IOP) during stable period (1 to 3 months) after implantable collamer lens (ICL) and therapeutic efficacy. Methods Clinical data of 79 high myopia patients ( 155 eyes) who received ICL from January to December in 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. They were 36 males and 43 females, with an age ranging from 18 to 46 (mean 23. 84 ?6. 54) , and were followed up within 6 months post-operatively. IOP, uncorrected visual acuity, best corrected visual acuity, refractive diopter, slit lamp examination, gonioscopy, coneal endocellion, central anterior chamber depth (ACD) , lens thickness, axial length, vault and trabecular-iris angle (TIA) were observed and analyzed. Results Eight patients (16 eyes) experienced high IOP during stable period post-operatively with an incidence of 10. 32% (16/155). Non-high IOP after ICL was found in 71 patients ( 139 eyes). Fourteen eyes (87.5%) out of 16 eyes were treated with drops and good outcomes were obtained, but the left 2 eyes (12. 5% ) had to turn to surgery which were uncontrollable with drops. Pre- and post-operative ACD, post-operative vault and TIA were closely related to high IOP during stable period after ICL( P < 0. 05 , P < 0. 01). Post-operative TIA was an independent influencing factor for high IOP after ICL. IOP and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were 26.13 +3.56 mmHg and 0. 69 +0. 20 in stable period, 19.98 +2.51 mmHg and 0.80 + 0. 19 in 1 week after treatment, and 17. 58 +2. 30 mmHg and 0. 84 +0. 19 at the end of follow-up. There were significant difference between those of the stable period with those of later 2 time points (P < 0. 05 , P < 0. 01). Conclusion High IOP during stable period after ICL may be related to not matching good enough between ICL and eye ball, which induces chronic inflammation for long time.%目的 探讨有晶体眼后房型人工晶体(implantable collamer lens,ICL)植入术后稳定期发生高眼压的相关影

  2. Effect of Mn and Cr addition on the properties of extra heavy gauge Mn-Mo-Ni steel plates for pressure vessels

    Effects of Mn and Cr addition on tensile properties and low temperature toughness have been investigated with extra heavy gauge pressure vessel steel plates that have the chemical composition of 0.12%C-1.4%Mn-0.3%Mo-0.75%Ni, then the results have been discussed with metallurgical view points. The Cr addition, not less effectively than the increase of Mn content, increases the tensile strength at both room temperature and 350degC, with less deterioration of Charpy absorbed energy. With the cooling rates that are equivalent to those at quenching of such extra heavy gauge plates as 150mm thick, the Cr addition works to suppress the elevation of starting temperatures of bainitic transformation (Bs). This suppression of elevation of Bs could be the reason for the improvement of tensile strength with Cr addition. The Cr addition also changes the morphology of cementite in the region surrounded by acicular ferrite (carbide free bainite) from lamellar one to small sized granular one. This morphological change of cementite could lighten the deterioration of the Charpy absorbed energy through lowering the possibilities of crack initiation. (author)

  3. Low pressure hot pressing of B4C matrix ceramic composites improved by Al2O3 and TiC additives

    B4C matrix ceramic composites toughened by Al2O3 and TiC were prepared by low pressure hot pressing. The relative density, Vickers hardness, fracture toughness and flexural strength of the new fabricated composites were measured. Microstructure observations of the fracture surfaces and the indentation cracks of the B4C matrix ceramic composites were analyzed, and an X-ray diffraction phase analysis was performed. The experiment results showed that chemical reactions took place during the low pressure hot pressing process and resulted in the B4C/Al2O3/TiB2 composite. The densification rate of the B4C matrix ceramic composites was enhanced and the mechanical properties were improved via the introduction of Al2O3 and TiC additives. The Vickers hardness, fracture toughness and flexural strength of the composite with the addition of 4.7 wt.% Al2O3 and 10 wt.% TiC were 24.8 GPa, 4.8 MPa m1/2 and 445 MPa, respectively.

  4. Microscopic and spectroscopic investigation of an explanted opacified intraocular lens

    Simon, V., E-mail: viosimon@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics and Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences, 400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Radu, T.; Vulpoi, A. [Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics and Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences, 400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Rosca, C. [Optilens Clinic of Ophthalmology, 400604 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Eniu, D. [Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Molecular Sciences, 400349 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Changes on intraocular lens (IOL) surface after implantation. • Partial opacification of IOL central area. • Elemental composition on IOL surface prior to and after implantation. • First XPS depth profiling examination of the opacifying deposits. • Cell-mediated hydroxyapatite structuring. - Abstract: The investigated polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lens explanted an year after implantation presented a fine granularity consisting of ring-like grains of about 15 μm in diameter. In order to evidence the changes occurred on intraocular lens relative to morphology, elemental composition and atomic environments, microscopic and spectroscopic analyses were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDS), and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies. The results revealed that the grains contain hydroxyapatite mineral phase. A protein layer covers the lens both in opacified and transparent zones. The amide II band is like in basal epithelial cells. The shape and size of the grains, and the XPS depth profiling results indicate the possibility of a cell-mediated process involving lens epithelial cells which fagocitated apoptotic epithelial cells, and in which the debris derived from cell necrosis were calcified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation on explanted intraocular lenses using XPS depth profiling in order to examine the inside of the opacifying deposits.

  5. Controversies in intraocular lens implantation in pediatric uveitis.

    Phatak, Sumita; Lowder, Careen; Pavesio, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Cataract is one of the most common and visually debilitating complications of pediatric uveitis. It develops as a consequence of chronic inflammation and steroid use and is seen most often in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis. Cataract extraction with intraocular lens (IOL) insertion has been carried out with a measure of success in non-uveitic pediatric eyes, but in cases of uveitis, multiple factors affect the final outcome. Chronic inflammation and its sequelae such as band keratopathy, posterior synechiae, and cyclitic membranes make surgical intervention more challenging and outcome less certain. Postoperative complications like increased inflammation, glaucoma, posterior capsular opacification, retrolental membranes, and hypotony may compromise the visual outcome. Early refractive correction is imperative in pediatric eyes to prevent amblyopia. The use of contact lenses and intraocular lenses in pediatric uveitic eyes were fraught with complications in the past. Surgical interventions such as vitreo-lensectomy followed by contact lens fitting and small incision cataract surgery followed by different types of intraocular lenses have been utilized, and many reports have been published, albeit in small patient groups. This review analyzes and discusses the existing literature on intraocular lens implantation in cases of pediatric uveitic cataract surgery. PMID:27009616

  6. Unilateral phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in a dachshund

    Kopala, Robyn L.

    2008-01-01

    A 1.5-year-old, spayed, female dachshund was presented with a cataract and lens-induced uveitis in the left eye. The cataract progressed from immature to hypermature in 4 months. Phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation was performed and the dog remains visual in the left eye 1 year post-surgery.

  7. Combined aniridic intraocular lens implantation and vitreoretinal surgery

    Mehta, Hijab; Jayadev, Chaitra; Natarajan, S

    2007-01-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with post-traumatic aniridia. We describe the combined surgery done to treat both aniridia and epiretinal membrane simultaneously. A combined aniridia intraocular lens and vitreoretinal surgery was done. The case report highlights the advantage of combined surgery in terms of cost factor and surgical time. PMID:17699956

  8. Combined aniridic intraocular lens implantation and vitreoretinal surgery

    Mehta Hitendra; Mehta Hijab; Jayadev Chaitra; Natarajan S

    2007-01-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with post-traumatic aniridia. We describe the combined surgery done to treat both aniridia and epiretinal membrane simultaneously. A combined aniridia intraocular lens and vitreoretinal surgery was done. The case report highlights the advantage of combined surgery in terms of cost factor and surgical time.

  9. Combined aniridic intraocular lens implantation and vitreoretinal surgery

    Mehta Hitendra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old man presented with post-traumatic aniridia. We describe the combined surgery done to treat both aniridia and epiretinal membrane simultaneously. A combined aniridia intraocular lens and vitreoretinal surgery was done. The case report highlights the advantage of combined surgery in terms of cost factor and surgical time.

  10. Antireflection coatings for intraocular lenses of sapphire and fianite

    Broadband antireflection coatings for intraocular lenses of sapphire and fianite are calculated and implemented practically. Their residual reflectance in the liquid with a refracting index of 1.336 is below 0.2% from each face virtually over the entire visible region. 7 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Intraocular inflammation following endotamponade with high-density silicone oil.

    Theelen, T.; Tilanus, M.A.D.; Klevering, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of a mixture of silicone oil and partially fluorinated alkanes (high-density silicone oil) has recently been suggested as intraocular tamponade in complicated retinal detachment of the inferior quadrants. We describe a series of patients who developed a clinical picture resemblin

  12. The effect of ionizing radiation on intraocular lenses

    Background: The native crystalline lens is the principal shield against ultraviolet radiation (UV), damage to the human retina. Every year in the United States, more than one million patients undergo removal of the natural lens in the course of cataract surgery (phakectomy), at which time an intraocular lens (IOL) is placed in the lens capsule. The IOL thenceforth serves as the principal barrier to ultraviolet radiation over the life of the implant, potentially for decades. The synthetic organic molecules of which IOLs are composed offer little UV protection unless ultraviolet-absorbing chromophores are incorporated into the lens material during manufacture. However, chromophores are alkenes potentially subject to radiolytic degradation. It is unknown whether ionizing radiation at clinical doses (e.g., to the brain or in the head-and-neck region) affects the UV-absorbing capacity of chromophore-bearing IOLs and consequently exposes the retina to potentially chronic UV damage. In addition, the polymers of which IOLs are composed are themselves subject to radiation damage, which theoretically might result in optical distortion in the visible light range. Objective: To determine whether megavoltage photon ionizing radiation alters the absorption spectra of ultraviolet-shielding polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and organopolysiloxane (silicone) intraocular lenses (IOLs) in the UV (280 nm ≤ λ < 400 nm), visible (400 nm ≤ λ ≤ 700 nm), and low-end near-infrared (700 nm < λ ≤ 830 nm) ranges. Design: Prospective, nonrandomized trial of dose-paired IOL cohorts. Methods: Fourteen IOLs, seven of PMMA (Chiron 6842B) and seven of silicone (IOLAB L141U), were paired and examined for absorption spectra in 1-nm intervals over the range λ = 280-830 nm on a Cary 400 deuterium and quartz halogen source-lamp UV/visible spectrophotometer before and after undergoing megavoltage ionizing irradiation to doses of 2, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 100 Gray, respectively. Because of

  13. Group additivity calculation of the standard molal thermodynamic properties of aqueous amino acids, polypeptides and unfolded proteins as a function of temperature, pressure and ionization state

    J. M. Dick

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculation of the chemical speciation of proteins and the limits of protein metastability affords a quantitative understanding of the biogeochemical constraints on the distribution of proteins within and among different organisms and chemical environments. These calculations depend on accurate determination of the ionization states and standard molal Gibbs free energies of proteins as a function of temperature and pressure, which are not generally available. Hence, to aid predictions of the standard molal thermodynamic properties of ionized proteins as a function of temperature and pressure, calculated values are given below of the standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25°C and 1 bar and the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equations of state parameters of the structural groups comprising amino acids, polypeptides and unfolded proteins. Group additivity and correlation algorithms were used to calculate contributions by ionized and neutral sidechain and backbone groups to the standard molal Gibbs free energy (Δ G°, enthalpy (Δ H°, entropy (S°, isobaric heat capacity (C°P, volume (V° and isothermal compressibility (κ°T of multiple reference model compounds. Experimental values of C°P, V° and κ°T at high temperature were taken from the recent literature, which ensures an internally consistent revision of the thermodynamic properties and equations of state parameters of the sidechain and backbone groups of proteins, as well as organic groups. As a result, Δ G°, Δ H°, S° C°P, V° and κ°T of unfolded proteins in any ionization state can be calculated up to T~-300°C and P~-5000 bars. In addition, the ionization states of unfolded proteins as a function of not only pH, but also temperature and pressure can be calculated by taking account of the degree of ionization of the sidechain and backbone groups present in the sequence. Calculations of this

  14. Instrumentation of a Charpy-pendulum. Additional data obtained from it and its application to nuclear reactor pressure vessels surveillance programs

    Charpy test gives information about a material dynamic fracture behavior. In a plain Charpy test, this information is the absorbed energy during fracture of the specimen, lateral deformation and the percentage of ductile fracture of the specimen. These parameters can then be used for the determination of the material response to a dynamic applied load, and are used at present to determine the brittle-ductile transition temperature of a material. However, there is a lot of additional information that can be obtained from a Charpy test, which is vital for the case of surveillance programs of nuclear power plants, where it is necessary to get the most available information from the specimens to be tested, because each one of them was irradiated for many years under temperature and neutronic flux conditions similar to that of the internal surface of the reactor pressure vessel, which converts these specimens in unique and very expensive ones. This additional information can be obtained from the curve that determines the evolution of the applied force to the specimen throughout the time involved in its fracture. It was possible to instrument a Charpy pendulum at a fraction of the cost necessary to buy an instrumentation package like the ones available in the market, and since the instrumentation equipment obtained is easy to transport. It has the additional advantage that can be used to instrument any other pendulum replacing only the hammer of the pendulum with a instrumented one for that pendulum. (author)

  15. A plan for directional dark matter sensitivity in high-pressure xenon detectors through the addition of wavelength shifting gaseous molecules

    Gehman, V. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Nygren, D.; Oliveira, C. A. B.; Renner, J.

    2013-10-01

    Xenon is an especially attractive candidate for both direct WIMP and 0νββ decay searches. Although the current trend has exploited the liquid phase, the gas phase xenon offers remarkable performance advantages for: energy resolution, topology visualization, and discrimination between electron and nuclear recoils. The NEXT-100 experiment, now under construction in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory, Spain, will operate at ~ 15 bars with 100 kg of 136Xe for the 0νββ decay search. We will describe recent results with small prototypes, indicating that NEXT-100 can provide about 0.5% FWHM energy resolution at the decay's Q value (2457.83 keV), as well as rejection of γ-rays with topological cuts. However, sensitivity goals for WIMP dark matter and 0νββ decay searches indicate the probable need for ton-scale active masses. NEXT-100 provides the springboard to reach this scale with xenon gas. We describe a scenario for performing both searches in a single, high-pressure, ton-scale xenon gas detector, without significant compromise to either. In addition, even in a single ton-scale, high-pressure xenon gas TPC, an intrinsic sensitivity to the nuclear recoil direction may exist. This plausibly offers an advance of more than two orders of magnitude relative to current low-pressure TPC concepts. We argue that, in an era of deepening fiscal austerity, such a dual-purpose detector may be possible at acceptable cost, within the time frame of interest, and deserves our collective attention.

  16. Fixed-combination treatments for intraocular hypertension in Chinese patients – focus on bimatoprost-timolol

    Fang Y

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Yuan Fang,1,* Zhihong Ling,1,* Xinghuai Sun1–4 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 2Shanghai Key Laboratory of Visual Impairment and Restoration, 3Key Laboratory of Myopia, Ministry of Health, 4State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Institutes of Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Glaucoma is a common eye disease that can lead to irreversible vision loss if left untreated. The early diagnosis and treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma is challenging, and visual impairment in Chinese glaucoma patients is a serious concern. Most of these patients need more than one topical antiglaucoma agent to control their intraocular pressures (IOPs. In the People’s Republic of China, the daily cost of different glaucoma medication varies greatly, and the treatment habits differ throughout the country. Prostaglandin analogs (PGAs are recommended as first-line monotherapy, because of their efficacy and low risk of systemic side effects. Fixed-combination drops, particularly PGA-based fixed combinations, have recently been developed and used in patients with progression or who have failed to achieve their target IOPs. Here, we reviewed the current literature on the use of bimatoprost-timolol fixed combination (BTFC in the People’s Republic of China. BTFC has achieved good efficacy and tolerability in Chinese clinical trials. In addition, BTFC is more cost effective compared with other fixed combinations available in the People’s Republic of China. Fixed-combination drops may offer benefits, such as keeping the ocular surface healthy, convenience of administration, and improvement in long-term adherence and quality of life. Therefore, BTFC has great potential for the treatment of Chinese glaucoma patients. However, the long-term efficacy of BTFC, comparisons

  17. Liquid density of oxygenated additives to biofuels: 2-Butanol at pressures up to 140 MPa and temperatures from (293.15 to 393.27) K

    Highlights: • New density data for 2-butanol are reported. • The pressure and temperature intervals are (0.1 to 140) MPa and (293.15 to 393.27) K. • 159 measured data points were fitted to a Tait-like equation. • Experimental data points have been compared to Cibulka’s correlation. • The isobaric expansivity and the isothermal compressibility have been derived. - Abstract: This work reports new density data (159 points) of 2-butanol at seven temperatures between (293.15 and 393.27) K and 23 pressures from (0.1 to 140) MPa (every 5 or 10 MPa). An Anton Paar vibrating tube densimeter, calibrated with an uncertainty of ±0.7 · 10−3 g · cm−3, was used to perform these measurements. The experimental density data were fitted with the Tait-like equation with low standard deviations. In addition, the isobaric thermal expansivity and the isothermal compressibility have been derived from the Tait-like equation

  18. Liquid density of oxygenated additive 2-propanol at pressures up to 140 MPa and from 293.15 K to 403.15 K

    Highlights: ► New density data for 2-propanol are reported. ► The pressure and temperature intervals are 0.1–140 MPa and 293.15–403.15 K. ► 175 measured data points were fitted to a Tait-like equation. ► Experimental data points have been compared to Cibulka’s correlation. ► The isobaric expansivity and the isothermal compressibility have been derived. - Abstract: This work reports new density data (175 points) of 2-propanol at 12 temperatures between 293.15 and 403.15 K (every 10 K), and 15 pressures from 0.1 to 140 MPa (every 10 MPa). An Anton Paar vibrating tube densimeter, calibrated with an uncertainty of ±0.5 kg·m−3 was used to perform these measurements. The experimental density data were fitted with the Tait-like equation with low standard deviations. In addition, the isobaric thermal expansivity and the isothermal compressibility have been derived from the Tait-like equation.

  19. Effect of high-pressure/temperature (HP/T) treatments of in-package food on additive migration from conventional and bio-sourced materials.

    Mauricio-Iglesias, M; Jansana, S; Peyron, S; Gontard, N; Guillard, V

    2010-01-01

    Migration was assessed during and after two high-pressure/temperature (HP/T) treatments intended for a pasteurization (800 MPa for 5 min, from 20 to 40 degrees C) and a sterilization treatment (800 MPa for 5 min, from 90 to 115 degrees C) and were compared with conventional pasteurization and sterilization, respectively. The specific migration of actual packaging additives used as antioxidants and ultraviolet light absorbers (Irganox 1076, Uvitex OB) was investigated in a number of food-packaging systems combining one synthetic common packaging (LLDPE) and a bio-sourced one (PLA) in contact with the four food-simulating liquids defined by European Commission regulations. After standard HP/T processing, migration kinetics was followed during the service life of the packaging material using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) spectroscopy. LLDPE withstood the high-pressure sterilization, whereas it melted during the conventional sterilization. No difference was observed on migration from LLDPE for both treatments. In the case of PLA, migration of Uvitex OB was very low or not detectable for all the cases studied. PMID:19809898

  20. Intraocular infections in the neonatal intensive care unit

    Sisk RA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hassan A Aziz1, Audina M Berrocal1,2, Robert A Sisk1, Kristin Hartley1, Magaly Diaz-Barbosa2, Rose A Johnson2, Ditte Hess1, Sander R Dubovy1, Timothy G Murray1, Harry W Flynn Jr11Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 2Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to report on the incidence and treatment outcomes of endogenous endophthalmitis among newborns in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of a single medical center.Methods: This was a noncomparative, retrospective case series of endogenous endophthalmitis among infants at the Jackson Memorial Hospital NICU treated between March 1, 2002 and March 1, 2007.Results: Of 4323 infants admitted to the NICU, seven eyes of six (0.139% infants (two males, four females were diagnosed with endophthalmitis during the study period. Four patients were born prematurely with a mean gestational age of 27.5 weeks and a mean birth weight of 1153 g. Retinopathy of prematurity was reported in two of the six patients. Mean follow-up was 3.5 years. The diagnosis was confirmed by positive cultures or polymerase chain reaction testing at a median age of 34 postnatal days. Positive cultures included Candida albicans (n = 4, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 1, and Herpes simplex type 2 (n = 1. All patients received systemic treatment and five received adjunctive ophthalmic interventions, including intravitreal antibiotics in five eyes of four patients and vitrectomy with pars plana lensectomy in three eyes. One patient underwent primary enucleation and another had delayed evisceration. In the remaining five eyes, there was a normal appearing posterior segment and normal intraocular pressures at last follow-up.Conclusion: Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare complication in infants in the NICU, but may occur in patients with candidemia, bacteremia, retinopathy of prematurity, and low birth weight. Despite early and

  1. Long-term change in intraocular pressure after extracapsular cataract extraction with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation versus phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation in Indians

    Virendra K Pal

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Significant IOP reduction may be expected after cataract surgery with either ECCE or phacoemulsification with IOL implantation. The lowering of IOP became statistically significant at about 2 months post-operatively, but became almost stable after the 4 th month.

  2. Use of a Toric Intraocular Lens and a Limbal-Relaxing Incision for the Management of Astigmatism in Combined Glaucoma and Cataract Surgery

    Gibbons, Allister

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We report the surgical management of a patient with glaucoma undergoing cataract surgery with high preexisting astigmatism. A combination of techniques was employed for her astigmatism management. Methods A 76-year-old female with 5.5 dpt of corneal astigmatism underwent surgery in her left eye consisting of one-site trabeculectomy, phacoemulsification, toric intraocular lens implantation and a single inferior limbal-relaxing incision. Results Intraocular pressure control was achieved with no medication at 11 mm Hg; before the filtering procedure, the pressure was 16 mm Hg on two topical drugs. Astigmatism was reduced to 0.75 dpt, and both corrected and uncorrected visual acuity improved. Conclusions Astigmatism management can have a good outcome in combined procedures. We encourage surgeons to address astigmatism in the preoperative planning of patients undergoing glaucoma surgery associated with phacoemulsification.

  3. Effects of N2O and O2 addition to nitrogen Townsend dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure on the absolute ground-state atomic nitrogen density

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami

    2012-11-27

    Absolute ground-state density of nitrogen atoms N (2p3 4S3/2) in non-equilibrium Townsend dielectric barrier discharges (TDBDs) at atmospheric pressure sustained in N2/N2O and N2/O2 gas mixtures has been measured using Two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) spectroscopy. The quantitative measurements have been obtained by TALIF calibration using krypton as a reference gas. We previously reported that the maximum of N (2p3 4S3/2) atom density is around 3 × 1014 cm-3 in pure nitrogen TDBD, and that this maximum depends strongly on the mean energy dissipated in the gas. In the two gas mixtures studied here, results show that the absolute N (2p3 4S3/2) density is strongly affected by the N2O and O2 addition. Indeed, the density still increases exponentially with the energy dissipated in the gas but an increase in N2O and O2 amounts (a few hundreds of ppm) leads to a decrease in nitrogen atom density. No discrepancy in the order of magnitude of N (2p3 4S3/2) density is observed when comparing results obtained in N2/N2O and N2/O2 mixtures. Compared with pure nitrogen, for an energy of ∼90 mJ cm-3, the maximum of N (2p3 4S3/2) density drops by a factor of 3 when 100 ppm of N2O and O2 are added and it reduces by a factor of 5 for 200 ppm, to reach values close to our TALIF detection sensitivity for 400 ppm (1 × 1013 cm -3 at atmospheric pressure). © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Temperature, pressure, and electrochemical constraints on protein speciation: Group additivity calculation of the standard molal thermodynamic properties of ionized unfolded proteins

    J. M. Dick

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations can be used to quantify environmental constraints on the speciation of proteins, such as the pH and temperature dependence of ionization state, and the relative chemical stabilities of proteins in different biogeochemical settings. These calculations depend in part on values of the standard molal Gibbs energies of proteins and their ionization reactions as a function of temperature and pressure. Because these values are not generally available, we calculated values of the standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25°C and 1 bar as well as the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equations of state parameters of neutral and charged zwitterionic reference model compounds including aqueous amino acids, polypeptides, and unfolded proteins. The experimental calorimetric and volumetric data for these species taken from the literature were combined with group additivity algorithms to calculate the properties and parameters of neutral and ionized sidechain and backbone groups in unfolded proteins. The resulting set of group contributions enables the calculation of the standard molal Gibbs energy, enthalpy, entropy, isobaric heat capacity, volume, and isothermal compressibility of unfolded proteins in a range of proton ionization states to temperatures and pressures exceeding 100°C and 1000 bar. This approach provides a useful frame of reference for thermodynamic studies of protein folding and complexation reactions. It can also be used to assign provisional values of the net charge and Gibbs energy of ionized proteins as a function of temperature and pH. Using these values, an Eh-pH diagram for a reaction representing the speciation of extracellular proteins from Pyrococcus furiosus and Bacillus subtilis was generated. The predicted predominance limits of these proteins correspond with the different electrochemical conditions of hydrothermal vents and soils. More comprehensive calculations of this kind may reveal pervasive

  5. Determination of heparin on intraocular lens surfaces by ion chromatography.

    Ander, B; Karlsson, A; Ohrlund, A

    2001-05-11

    A sensitive and selective method has been developed for the determination of heparin on heparin coated PMMA, poly(methyl methacrylate), intraocular lenses. Heparin was hydrolysed to glucosamine and glucuronic acid, and the content of glucosamine was determined using ion chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. In order to verify that a complete hydrolysis was obtained for the heparin on the coated intraocular lenses, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) was used for analysing traces of sulphur on the lens surfaces. The sensitivity of the method allows quantitative determination of 150 ng of heparin on one individual lens. The new method was compared to a standard spectrophotometric method, measuring the colour intensity of a heparin toluidine blue complex. Correlation between the methods was shown for samples prepared from PMMA lenses coated with different amounts of heparin. PMID:11403462

  6. 2-(1-Hexyn-1-yl)adenosine-induced intraocular hypertension is mediated via K+ channel opening through adenosine A2A receptor in rabbits.

    Konno, Takashi; Uchibori, Takehiro; Nagai, Akihiko; Kogi, Kentaro; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2005-08-22

    The present study was performed to clarify the mechanism of change in intraocular pressure by 2-(1-hexyn-1-yl)adenosine (2-H-Ado), a selective adenosine A2 receptor agonist, in rabbits. 2-H-Ado (0.1%, 50 microl)-induced ocular hypertension (E(max): 7.7 mm Hg) was inhibited by an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist 1,3,7-trimethyl-8-(3-chlorostyryl)xanthine, ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker glibenclamide or 5-hydroxydecanoic acid, but not by an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, an adenosine A2B receptor antagonist alloxazine or a cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The outflow facility induced by 2-H-Ado seems to be independent of increase in intraocular pressure or ATP-sensitive K+ channel. In contrast, the recovery rate in intraocular pressure decreased by hypertonic saline was accelerated by 2-H-Ado, and this response was dependent on ATP-sensitive K+ channel. These results suggest that 2-H-Ado-induced ocular hypertension is mediated via K+ channel opening through adenosine A2A receptor, and this is probably due to aqueous formation, but independent of change in outflow facility or prostaglandin production. PMID:16023100

  7. Surgical management of astigmatism with toric intraocular lenses

    Ventura, Bruna V.; Li Wang; Weikert, Mitchell P.; Shaun B. Robinson; Koch, Douglas D.

    2014-01-01

    Correction of corneal astigmatism is a key element of cataract surgery, since post-surgical residual astigmatism can compromise the patient's uncorrected visual acuity. Toric intraocular lenses (IOLs) compensate for corneal astigmatism at the time of surgery, correcting ocular astigmatism. They are a predictable treatment. However, accurate measurement of corneal astigmatism is mandatory for choosing the correct toric IOL power and for planning optimal alignment. When calculating the power of...

  8. Black intraocular lens: another cosmetic approach to leukocoria

    Pedrosa, C; Pina, S.; Azevedo, A.; Pêgo, P; Feijóo, B; Prieto, I

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – To present a case report of a black intraocular lens implantation for cosmetic improvement of a blind eye with leukocoria. Setting – Ophthalmology Department - Professor Dr. Fernando Fonseca Hospital, EPE - Amadora, Lisboa, Portugal Methods – We report a 32-year-old woman who was evaluated because of the undesired cosmetic appearance of her amblyopic left eye with exotropia and leukocoria due to traumatic cataract and total retinal detachment during childhood. The Examination ...

  9. Single-optic positional accommodating intraocular lenses: a review

    Tomás Juan, Javier; Piñero Llorens, David Pablo; Larrañaga Murueta-Goyena, Ane

    2014-01-01

    Presbyopia is an age-related physiological condition that causes a gradual loss in the ability to focus on near objects, secondary to changes in zonular fibers, ciliary muscle and crystalline lens. Different surgical approaches are being pursued to surgically compensate presbyopia, such as corneal techniques or implantation of multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs); however, their inability to restore accommodation has led to the development of single-optic positional accommodative IOLs. The ax...

  10. Composition of intraocular foreign bodies: experimental study of ultrasonographic presentation

    Márcio Augusto Nogueira Costa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the reliability of ultrasound in determining the size and identify the sonographic features and artifacts generated by intraocular foreign bodies of different materials. METHODS: Experimental study using 36 enucleated porcine eyes. Fragments of nine different compositions (wood, glass, plastic, cardboard, iron, aluminum, lead, powder and concrete and similar dimensions (4 mm were implanted via scleral incision into the vitreous cavity of 36 porcine eyes, four eyes were used for each material. Ultrasound examination was performed in all eyes using the contact technique, conductive gel and 10-MHz transducer (EZScan, Sonomed. RESULTS: Considering the material fragments of gunpowder, lead, concrete, aluminum, wood and glass, the size determined by ultrasound was considered statistically similar to the actual size. The material iron presented ultrasound-determined dimension statistically smaller than its actual size. Cardboard and plastic materials showed ultrasound-determined measurements far greater than the actual. All fragments of intraocular foreign bodies demonstrated hyper-reflective interfaces, irrespective of their composition. Whereas the artifacts generated by different materials, it was found that the materials iron, aluminum and lead showed reverberation of great extent. The material wood showed no reverberation. The length of the reverberation artifact for the materials iron, glass, aluminum and cardboard was lower when compared to other materials. All materials presented posterior shadowing artifact, with the exception of aluminum. CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography was considered a reliable technique to determine the size of intraocular foreign bodies in pigs, with little influence caused by its composition. Ultrasound artifacts generated were considered material-dependent and can assist the examiner to identify the nature of a foreign body of unknown etiology. Ultrasonography aided the surgeon to identify, locate and

  11. The dangers of metal-loop intraocular lenses.

    Shepard, D D

    1977-10-01

    The author implanted 500 intraocular lenses (IOLs) during intracapsular surgery. Data from the 60 lenses with metal posterior loops showed a markedly high incidence of complication compared to plastic loops: twice as many overall complications, three times the cystoid mascular edema, three times the rate for subsequent corrective surgical procedures, and 30 times more IOLs had to be removed. IOL manufacturers are advised to abandon metal loops for intracapsular implantation. Polypropylene is suggested as the apparent ideal loop material. PMID:304550

  12. PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTIONS TO CATARACT SURGERY WITH INTRAOCULAR LENS IMPLANTATION

    Chaudhury, S.; Chakraborty, P.K.; Gurunadh, V.S.; Ratha, P.

    1995-01-01

    A prospective study of fifty patients who underwent cataract surgery with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation was undertaken. Factors aggravating and allaying pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative anxiety were studied A good doctor-patient relations/lip, confidence in the ophthalmologist, and knowledge of successful surgery with IOL implantation in an acquaintance were the major anxiety relieving factors. The main anxiety provoking factors were concerns about the success of surger...

  13. An Unusual Case of Marble Intraocular Foreign Body

    Omoti Afekhide; Dawodu Oseluese; Ogbeide Osesogie

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a case of marble intraocular foreign body that developed toxic complications during surgery. The patient is a 25 years old male who presented to the University of Benin Teaching Hospital with a history of trauma to the right eye while cutting marble. He was examined, had an ocular ultrasound scan and subsequently had an extracapsular cataract extraction. His visual acuity in the right eye was light perception. There was an entry point on the cornea, the lens was opaque, t...

  14. A clinical study of effect of oral atenolol on normal intraocular pressure and systemic blood pressure

    Chauhan Jugal

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Atenolol is a newer betablocker, widely used as an antihypertensive drug. It cause a large and rapid fall in IOP when used orally and topically. A total of 33 patients both having normal and raised IOP were included in the study. The drug was given in a dose of 50 mg. tab. orally once a day for 7 days at 8 A.M. and IOP recorded after 24 hours, 72 hours and on 7th day. It produces significant and sustained fall in IOP in both normal and raised IOP patients besides lowering of systematic B.P. and pulse rate. The IOP on patients with systemic hypertension with Atenolol will be reduced and stoppage of therapy may cause glaucoma damage.

  15. Intraocular lens exchange through a 3.2-mm corneal incision for opacified intraocular lenses

    Kubaloglu Anil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to evaluate visual and refractive results and complications of intraocular lens (IOL exchange through a 3.2 mm corneal incision for opacified IOLs. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study comprised 33 eyes of 32 patients with IOL opacification requiring an IOL exchange between July 2003 and March 2007. Exchange surgery was performed through a 3.2-mm temporal clear corneal incision followed by implantation of a new foldable hydrophobic IOL. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA, topographical astigmatism, and refractive cylinder were evaluated. Surgically induced astigmatism (SIA was calculated and complications were recorded. Results: Opacification was observed in 25 eyes (76% with Aqua-Sense, 3 eyes (9% with Hydroview, 3 eyes (9% with MemoryLens IOLs, and 2 eyes (6% with DgR. The mean follow-up period was 36.54 months. An uneventful IOL exchange was achieved in 18 eyes (55%. Zonular dehiscence occurred in 9 eyes (27%, and posterior capsule tear developed in 4 eyes (12%. The mean preoperative BSCVA (mean ± standard deviation, decimal scale was 0.13 ± 0.08 (mean: 20/150, range 20/2000 to 20/60 and improved to 0.63 ± 0.18 (mean: 20/32, range 20/60 to 20/20, P < 0.001. The mean SIA was 0.70 D. Seven eyes (21% had 0.5 D or lower SIA. Conclusion: IOL exchange is a technically challenging procedure with potential risks of reversing the advantages of a prior small-incision cataract surgery. The use of a small corneal incision for IOL exchange could preserve the advantages of modern phacoemulsification surgery with acceptable SIA related to the procedure.

  16. Evaluating the method increasing of toric intraocular lenses rotational stability

    G. A. Fedjashev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To suggest a safe and effective way to improve the rotational stability of the position of toric the intraocular lenses in the capsular bag.Patients and methods.86 patients (97 eyes with corneal astigmatism undergoing cataract surgery and Acrysof Toric (Alcon, USA intraocular lens implantation. In 42 patients (47 eyes, the intraocular lens (IOL were implanted in accordance with the proposed invention.Results. Average rotation angle IOL implanted by traditional technology was 2,2±2,0 degrees during 12 months. In patients with IOL implanted by the proposed method, the average angle of rotation of the IOL in all operated eyes was significantly lower and amounted to 0,8±1,2 degrees (p <0,05. Сonclusion. The proposed method of fixing the toric IOL provides for prevention the IOL rotation and decentration relative to the eye optical axis, take steps to prevent phimosis anterior lens capsule, maintaining high visual function for a long time, and as there is no need for repeated surgery.

  17. Sunlight exposure as risk factor for intraocular malignant melanoma

    In a case-control study, the authors compared 444 patients with intraocular malignant melanoma with matched controls to evaluate the role of exposure to ultraviolet radiation and other risk factors in the pathogenesis of this tumor. Persons born in the southern United States had a relative risk of 2.7 (95 per cent confidence interval, 1.3 to 5.9) as compared with those born in the North. Subjects with brown eyes were protected as compared with those with blue eyes (relative risk, 0.6; 95 per cent confidence interval, 0.4 to 0.8), but complexion and hair color were not important risk factors. Patients with intraocular malignant melanoma were also more likely to have spent time outdoors in their gardens, to have sunbathed, and to have used sunlamps. Rarely wearing hats, visors, or sunglasses while in the sun was a risk factor for the disease (relative risk, 1.9; 95 per cent confidence interval, 1.6 to 2.2). These data suggest that sunlight exposure is an important risk factor for intraocular melanoma

  18. An unusual case of marble intraocular foreign body

    Omoti Afekhide

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a case of marble intraocular foreign body that developed toxic complications during surgery. The patient is a 25 years old male who presented to the University of Benin Teaching Hospital with a history of trauma to the right eye while cutting marble. He was examined, had an ocular ultrasound scan and subsequently had an extracapsular cataract extraction. His visual acuity in the right eye was light perception. There was an entry point on the cornea, the lens was opaque, there was vitreous haemorrhage and the intraocular foreign body was localized in the posterior part of the posterior segment by ultrasound scan. He had extracapsular cataract extraction. During anterior capsulotomy, the cornea suddenly and rapidly became cloudy with a brownish tinge and the corneal epithelium started desquamating.Marble on its own may not be toxic but the other chemicals including cement, used in the processing of the marble were responsible for this delayed toxicity. Ultrasound scan is valuable in localisation of intraocular foreign bodies.

  19. Successful Removal of Large Intraocular Foreign Body by 25-Gauge Microincision Vitrectomy Surgery

    Hiroshi Kunikata; Megumi Uematsu; Toru Nakazawa; Nobuo Fuse

    2011-01-01

    We describe a new technique for removing a large intraocular foreign body by 25-gauge microincision vitrectomy surgery (25G-MIVS). Noncomparative interventional case series were performed at a single centre. Two patients with a long smooth intraocular vitreal foreign body underwent phacoemulsification and aspiration, intraocular lens implantation, 25G-MIVS, and extraction of the foreign body. The foreign body was removed through a posterior capsulorhexis, anterior continuous curvilinear capsu...

  20. Bilateral spontaneous dislocation of posterior chamber intraocular lens in a patient with gyrate atrophy

    Michael Kinori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a patient with gyrate atrophy, a rare metabolic disease, who had bilateral late spontaneous posterior dislocation of in-the-bag posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL. He underwent pars plana vitrectomy, PCIOL retrieval and anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation in both eyes. This report may imply that patients with gyrate atrophy are at risk for spontaneous dislocation of intraocular lenses.