WorldWideScience

Sample records for additional energy savings

  1. Saving Energy

    2006-01-01

    More and more Chinese consumers are beginning to think about their energy-saving needs when buying apartments. The energy-saving estate market is huge, which provides great opportunities for companies in the business, especially foreign investors. But just how big is this market and how is it developing? Which fields in this industry are suitable for foreign businesses? With these questions in mind, Beijing Review spoke with Li Shuren, Vice Secretary General of the China Real Estate and Housing Research ...

  2. Saving Water Saves Energy

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as well as for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energy consumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigating landscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport and treat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19 percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32 percent of natural gas consumption is related to water. There is a critical interdependence ...

  3. Yield Improvement and Energy Savings Uing Phosphonates as Additives in Kraft pulping

    Ulrike W. Tschirner; Timothy Smith

    2007-03-31

    Project Objective: Develop a commercially viable modification to the Kraft process resulting in energy savings, increased yield and improved bleachability. Evaluate the feasibility of this technology across a spectrum of wood species used in North America. Develop detailed fundamental understanding of the mechanism by which phosphonates improve KAPPA number and yield. Evaluate the North American market potential for the use of phosphonates in the Kraft pulping process. Examine determinants of customer perceived value and explore organizational and operational factors influencing attitudes and behaviors. Provide an economic feasibility assessment for the supply chain, both suppliers (chemical supply companies) and buyers (Kraft mills). Provide background to most effectively transfer this new technology to commercial mills.

  4. Measuring industrial energy savings

    Accurate measurement of energy savings from industrial energy efficiency projects can reduce uncertainty about the efficacy of the projects, guide the selection of future projects, improve future estimates of expected savings, promote financing of energy efficiency projects through shared-savings agreements, and improve utilization of capital resources. Many efforts to measure industrial energy savings, or simply track progress toward efficiency goals, have had difficulty incorporating changing weather and production, which are frequently major drivers of plant energy use. This paper presents a general method for measuring plant-wide industrial energy savings that takes into account changing weather and production between the pre and post-retrofit periods. In addition, the method can disaggregate savings into components, which provides additional resolution for understanding the effectiveness of individual projects when several projects are implemented together. The method uses multivariable piece-wise regression models to characterize baseline energy use, and disaggregates savings by taking the total derivative of the energy use equation. Although the method incorporates search techniques, multi-variable least-squares regression and calculus, it is easily implemented using data analysis software, and can use readily available temperature, production and utility billing data. This is important, since more complicated methods may be too complex for widespread use. The method is demonstrated using case studies of actual energy assessments. The case studies demonstrate the importance of adjusting for weather and production between the pre- and post-retrofit periods, how plant-wide savings can be disaggregated to evaluate the effectiveness of individual retrofits, how the method can identify the time-dependence of savings, and limitations of engineering models when used to estimate future savings

  5. Saving energy and reducing pollution by use of emulsified palm-biodiesel blends with bio-solution additive

    Chen, Kang-Shin; Lin, Yuan-Chung [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804 (China); Hsieh, Lien-Te [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology. Pingtung 912 (China); Lin, Long-Full [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kun Shan University, Tainan County 710 (China); Wu, Chia-Chieh [Postgraduate Programs in Management, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung County 840 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Advances in biodiesel, emulsified diesel and artificial chemical additives are driven by consumer demand to save energy and reduce emissions from diesel engines. However, the effect of emulsified bio-solution/palm-biodiesel/diesel blends in diesel engines has not been assessed. Experimental results in this work demonstrate that the emulsified bio-solution/palm-biodiesel/diesel blends have the advantage in saving energy and reducing emissions of both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particulate matter (PM) from diesel engines. When comparing with P0 (premium diesel fuel as base fuel), E16P20 fuel (16 vol% bio-solution + 20 vol% palm-biodiesel + 64 vol% P0, an additional 1 vol% surfactant) saved 12.4% fuel consumption and reduced emissions of PM by 90.1%, total PAHs by 69.3%, and total BaP{sub eq} (benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration) by 69.6%. Emulsified palm-biodiesel with bio-solution can be considered as a clean and alternative fuel. (author)

  6. Energy saving certificates

    The French ministry of economy, finances and industry and the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) have organized on November 8, 2005, a colloquium for the presentation of the energy saving certificates, a new tool to oblige the energy suppliers to encourage their clients to make energy savings. This document gathers the transparencies presented at this colloquium about the following topics: state-of-the-art and presentation of the energy saving certificates system: presentation of the EEC system, presentation of the EEC standard operations; the energy saving certificates in Europe today: energy efficiency commitment in UK, Italian white certificate scheme, perspectives of the different European systems. (J.S.)

  7. Potential energy savings

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    This chapter describes the chosen methods for estimating the potential energy savings if ordinary window glazing is exchanged with aerogel glazing as well as commercial low-energy glazings.......This chapter describes the chosen methods for estimating the potential energy savings if ordinary window glazing is exchanged with aerogel glazing as well as commercial low-energy glazings....

  8. Energy Savings Lifetimes and Persistence

    Hoffman, Ian M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Billingsley, Megan A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This technical brief explains the concepts of energy savings lifetimes and savings persistence and discusses how program administrators use these factors to calculate savings for efficiency measures, programs and portfolios. Savings lifetime is the length of time that one or more energy efficiency measures or activities save energy, and savings persistence is the change in savings throughout the functional life of a given efficiency measure or activity. Savings lifetimes are essential for assessing the lifecycle benefits and cost effectiveness of efficiency activities and for forecasting loads in resource planning. The brief also provides estimates of savings lifetimes derived from a national collection of costs and savings for electric efficiency programs and portfolios.

  9. Teaching children to save energy

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Energy-saving programmes are increasingly targeted at children to encourage household energy conservation. A study involving the assignment of energy-saving interventions to Girl Scouts shows that a child-focused intervention can improve energy-saving behaviours among children and their parents....

  10. Energy savings in Polish buildings

    Markel, L.C.; Gula, A.; Reeves, G.

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration of low-cost insulation and weatherization techniques was a part of phase 1 of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficient Project. The objectives were to identify a cost-effective set of measures to reduce energy used for space heating, determine how much energy could be saved, and foster widespread implementation of those measures. The demonstration project focused on 4 11-story buildings in a Krakow housing cooperative. Energy savings of over 20% were obtained. Most important, the procedures and materials implemented in the demonstration project have been adapted to Polish conditions and applied to other housing cooperatives, schools, and hospitals. Additional projects are being planned, in Krakow and other cities, under the direction of FEWE-Krakow, the Polish Energie Cities Network, and Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa.

  11. Locomotive energy savings possibilities

    Leonas Povilas LINGAITIS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic indicators of electrodynamic braking have not been properly estimated. Vehicles with alternative power trains are transitional stage between development of pollution- free vehicles. According to these aspects the investigation on conventional hybrids drives and their control system is carried out in the article. The equation that allows evaluating effectiveness of regenerative braking for different variants of hybrid drive are given. Presenting different types of locomotive energy savings power systems, which are using regenerative braking energy any form of hybrid traction vehicles systems, circuit diagrams, electrical parameters curves.

  12. Energy saving synergies in national energy systems

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In the transition towards a 100% renewable energy system, energy savings are essential. The possibility of energy savings through conservation or efficiency increases can be identified in, for instance, the heating and electricity sectors, in industry, and in transport. Several studies point...... to various optimal levels of savings in the different sectors of the energy system. However, these studies do not investigate the idea of energy savings being system dependent. This paper argues that such system dependency is critical to understand, as it does not make sense to analyse an energy saving...... without taking into account the actual benefit of the saving in relation to the energy system. The study therefore identifies a need to understand how saving methods may interact with each other and the system in which they are conducted. By using energy system analysis to do hourly simulation...

  13. Energy Savings from Industrial Water Reductions

    Rao, Prakash; McKane, Aimee; de Fontaine, Andre

    2015-08-03

    Although it is widely recognized that reducing freshwater consumption is of critical importance, generating interest in industrial water reduction programs can be hindered for a variety of reasons. These include the low cost of water, greater focus on water use in other sectors such as the agriculture and residential sectors, high levels of unbilled and/or unregulated self-supplied water use in industry, and lack of water metering and tracking capabilities at industrial facilities. However, there are many additional components to the resource savings associated with reducing site water use beyond the water savings alone, such as reductions in energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, treatment chemicals, and impact on the local watershed. Understanding and quantifying these additional resource savings can expand the community of businesses, NGOs, government agencies, and researchers with a vested interest in water reduction. This paper will develop a methodology for evaluating the embedded energy consumption associated with water use at an industrial facility. The methodology developed will use available data and references to evaluate the energy consumption associated with water supply and wastewater treatment outside of a facility’s fence line for various water sources. It will also include a framework for evaluating the energy consumption associated with water use within a facility’s fence line. The methodology will develop a more complete picture of the total resource savings associated with water reduction efforts and allow industrial water reduction programs to assess the energy and CO2 savings associated with their efforts.

  14. Energy conservation. Federal shared energy savings contracting

    A number of impediments have discouraged federal agencies from using shared energy savings contracts. As of November 30, 1988, only two federal agencies - the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) and the Department of the Army -had awarded such contracts even though they can yield significant energy and cost savings. The three major impediments we identified were uncertainty about the applicability of a particular procurement policy and practice, lack of management incentives, and difficulty in measuring energy and cost savings. To address the first impediment, the Department of Energy (DOE) developed a manual on shared energy savings contracting. The second impediment was addressed when the 100th Congress authorized incentives for federal agencies to enter into shared savings contracts. DOE addressed the third impediment by developing a methodology for calculating energy consumption and cost savings. However, because of differing methodological preferences, this issue will need to be addressed on a contract-by-contract basis. Some state governments and private sector firms are using performance contracts to reduce energy costs in their buildings and facilities. We were able to identify six states that were using performance contracts. Five have established programs, and all six states have projects under contract. The seven energy service companies we contacted indicated interest in federal shared energy savings contracting

  15. Energy. Saving 'Private' Areva

    While Areva keeps on loosing money (billions of euros for 2014), the saving of this company is at stake. Staff is already planned to be reduced in La Hague, and other staff reductions might occur after the failure of a previous strategic plan. Various activities could be sold (dismantling, mining). The article outlines the difficult relationships between Areva and EDF and the problems also faced by EDF. Some actors think that Areva should remain independent from EDF in order to be free to compete on international bidding. The rapprochement between these two companies is said to be necessary for the Ministry but seems very difficult to achieve

  16. Adopting Energy Saving Technology: Inertia or Incentives?

    Peter A. Groothuis; Tanga McDaniel Mohr

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to improve efficiency of electrical markets the U.S. government hopes to encourage changing household use patterns, such as dishwasher and clothes dryer use, to off-peak times. One strategy has been to subsidize the installation of smart meters. In addition the government has encouraged electrical energy conservation by providing incentives for energy saving technologies such as the purchase of energy star appliances or increased insulation in the home. Households have sometimes ...

  17. Potential energy savings

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The background for the simulations of annual energy consumption and indoor temperature level is described.......The background for the simulations of annual energy consumption and indoor temperature level is described....

  18. Saving Energy Now Compulsory

    2006-01-01

    The buck stops with local governments when it comes to energy consumption Local governments have been told they must take responsibility for cutting energy consumption, after figures for the first half of this year show the country's energy needs are continuing to rise.

  19. Geothermal heating saves energy

    The article reviews briefly a pioneer project for a construction area of 200000 m''2 with residences, business complexes, a hotel and conference centre and a commercial college in Oslo. The energy conservation potential is estimated to be about 60-70 % compared to direct heating with oil, gas or electricity as sources. There will also be substantial reduction in environmentally damaging emissions. The proposed energy central combines geothermal energy sources with heat pump technology, utilises water as energy carrier and uses terrestrial wells for energy storage. A cost approximation is presented

  20. Saving Green on Energy Costs

    Tacke, Diane L.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, colleges and universities have begun efforts to reduce their energy costs, an initiative that can not only save an institution money, but also strengthen relationships across campus. Board leadership has been central to this endeavor in setting goals, prioritizing projects, and financing those projects. Using her experiences with…

  1. Consumer behaviours: Teaching children to save energy

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-08-01

    Energy-saving programmes are increasingly targeted at children to encourage household energy conservation. A study involving the assignment of energy-saving interventions to Girl Scouts shows that a child-focused intervention can improve energy-saving behaviours among children and their parents.

  2. Energy savings predictions from building equipment retrofits

    Yalcintas, M. [Amel Technologies Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This study evaluated the tools currently available for predicting energy savings from retrofit projects. In particular, it addressed the challenges in determining the energy savings associated with equipment retrofits. The main challenges lie in identifying the data after a building's equipment has been replaced. The energy consumption of equipment is sensitive to variations in weather, internal building load such as occupancy, lighting loads, and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment operation schedules. This study focused on energy model development based on the artificial neural networks (ANN) method. The simplicity and nonlinear modeling capabilities of ANN method render it more popular than the multi-linear regression method. The ANN model developed in this study was based on Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm. The retrofit project involved the installation of an energy management systems in the guest rooms of a hotel in Honolulu, Hawaii. The installation of a variable frequency drive (VFD) on the air handling units was also considered. The pre-retrofit and post-retrofit energy measurements were recorded from the chiller plant for a 3 week period. Each measurement included hourly electricity demand recordings. In addition to the chiller plant, the building would save energy from the air handling unit operations with new VFDs. Only the energy savings from the chiller plant were included in this analysis because electricity measurements from the air handling units were not available. The purpose in developing the ANN model for the pre-retrofit period was to estimate the pre-retrofit equipment energy consumption rate for the post-retrofit period. Another aspect of this study was a sensitivity analysis of the weather variables on the ANN model prediction. The expected energy savings in the post-retrofit period were estimated by using the statistical average of the weather data for a particular location. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  3. Saving and gaining energy

    In this interview with Dirk U. Hindrichs from the Schueco International KG company, differences between ecological and economical points of view in general are discussed, as is the world's energy consumption and the visions held by the Schueco company in this respect. The importance of building facades, windows and photovoltaics for his business is discussed, as are solar thermal systems for the production of heat and cold. Further, energy-efficiency and examples of buildings realised internationally are discussed and co-operation with important players in the climate protection area is noted. Hindrichs' opinion, that pro-active actions must be taken by entrepreneurs, is noted.

  4. Models of Energy Saving Systems

    Nørgård, Jørgen Stig

    1999-01-01

    The paper first describes the concepts and methods around energy saving, such as energy chain, energy services, end-use technologies, secondary energy, etc. Next are discussed the problems of defining and adding energy services and hence end-use energy efficiency or intensity. A section is devoted...... to what is termed lifestyle efficiency, including the cultural values and the ability of the economy to provide the services wanted. As explained, integrated resource planning with its optimizing the whole energy chain cannot be combined with sub-optimizing part of it, for instance the supply...... technology only. The need for including also the economic policy in the energy planning is illustrated with what is termed the efficiency pittfall. This points towards difficulties in imaging an integrated resource planning combined with a liberalized market. The three variable parameters, population, energy...

  5. Energy Savings Measure Packages: Existing Homes

    Casey, S.; Booten, C.

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the US. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for given source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home. The dollar value of the maximum annual savings varies significantly by location but typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  6. Energy saving in milk processing

    M. Janzekovic

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to present the justification of replacement of the obsolete system for milk pasteurization and washing of the production line by the newer CIP system (cleaning in place in the dairy. The latter ensures reliable washing and sterilization of lines and machines, which is one of the principal prerequisites for the product quality.Design/methodology/approach: The measurements were performed with the installed equipment CIP Module 5111 - 5116. The cleaning equipment is an 8 line satellite system. The SPS control and the visualization take place through the RAS (Remote - Access network. The visualization data are archived and the visualization is connected to the PC network. The worn Alfa Laval pasteur has been replaced by the new Fischer equipment.Findings: The new CIP system assured 43% water saving, if compared with the old equipment. Saving of washing agents (caustic solution, acid amounted to 11.5%. Due to smaller need for energy (gas, electricity the energy costs were reduced by 19%.Research limitations/implications: The modern system for pasteurization and washing is closely connected with energy saving measures. It allows the production of safe milk products in accordance with HACCP (hazard analyses of critical control points and reduces the hazard of injuries with chemicals.Practical implications: For any company the investments are a decisive factor for its growth and development. Modernization of systems for washing of production lines in dairies assures the cost reduction at all levels and the milk processing into high-quality milk products.Originality/value: The new CIP energy saving system has an influence on the costs of the dairy business activities and the reduction of environment burdening. Owing to the use of new equipment allowing 20 second maintaining time of pasteurization the pasteurization temperature has been reduced from 78°C to 76°C and, thus, the profitability of the pasteurization process has

  7. Risk transfer via energy-savings insurance

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and potential disputes over stipulated savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building diagnostics and commissioning), financial methods are less developed in the energy management arena than in other segments of the economy. Energy-savings insurance (ESI) - formal insurance of predicted energy savings - transfers and spreads both types of risk over a larger pool of energy efficiency projects and reduces barriers to market entry of smaller energy service firms who lack sufficiently strong balance sheets to self-insure the savings. ESI encourages those implementing energy-saving projects to go beyond standard measures and thereby achieve more significant levels of energy savings. Insurance providers are proponents of improved savings measurement and verification techniques, as well as maintenance, thereby contributing to national energy-saving objectives. If properly applied, ESI can potentially reduce the net cost of energy-saving projects by reducing the interest rates charged by lenders, and by increasing the level of savings through quality control. Governmental agencies have been pioneers in the use of ESI and could continue to play a role

  8. Potential Water and Energy Savings from Showerheads

    Biermayer, Peter J.

    2005-09-28

    This paper estimates the benefits and costs of six water reduction scenarios. Benefits and costs of showerhead scenarios are ranked in this paper by an estimated water reduction percentage. To prioritize potential water and energy saving scenarios regarding showerheads, six scenarios were analyzed for their potential water and energy savings and the associated dollar savings to the consumer.

  9. Potential Water and Energy Savings from Showerheads

    Biermayer, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper estimates the benefits and costs of six water reduction scenarios. Benefits and costs of showerhead scenarios are ranked in this paper by an estimated water reduction percentage. To prioritize potential water and energy saving scenarios regarding showerheads, six scenarios were analyzed for their potential water and energy savings and the associated dollar savings to the consumer.

  10. Energy Savings in a Market Economy

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The paper outlines the concept of energy savings as opposed to energy efficency. Afterwards are described briefly the up and down role of energy savings in recent Danish energy policy. It discusses the failure of leaving electricity savings and Integrated Resource Planning to the electricity...... suppliers. The recently debated case of building a new combined heat and powerplants because of the need for the "waste" heat is discussed on the background of a couple of decades of ignoring heat savings. The open and more hidden conflict between a quest for economic growth and energy savings are described...... and discussed. This finally leads to the difficulties in combining a more free market for energy in EU with a strong efforts to save energy. Ideas for electricity and heat saving policies are suggested....

  11. Nano RE Energy-saving Lamp To Be Launched

    2005-01-01

    Revealed from Science Technology Bureau of Ha ErbinDongli District, nano RE energy-saving lamp, which belongs toNational "863 Plan" projects, will be launched to the marketat the beginning of next year. Rare earths are raw materialsfor nano energy-saving lamp. When they are roasted intonano powder, with some additives such as magnesium,powder for lamp will be produced. Compared with presentenergy-saving lamp, nano lamp will save energy by 30%, withservice life of 30,000 - 50,000 hours. Luminosity of the new...

  12. Energy Savings Measure Packages. Existing Homes

    Casey, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  13. Energy saving certificates: instructions for use

    The French decree about energy saving obligations was introduced on May 23, 2006 and defines an energy saving goal of 54 billions of kWh from July 1, 2006 to June 30, 2009. This short article recalls up the mechanism of obligations and energy saving certificates which will be implemented to lower down the energy intensity of France by 2% per year from now to 2015. (J.S.)

  14. 78 FR 20097 - Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    2013-04-03

    ... ESPCs at 10 CFR part 436, Subpart B. (See, 60 FR 18334.) To facilitate and accelerate the use of ESPCs... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Savings Performance Contracts AGENCY: Office of... improvements to Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPCs). ESPCs allow Federal agencies to implement...

  15. Energy supply and energy saving in Ukraine

    V.M. Ilchenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main problems and solutions of energy saving and energy supply in Ukraine. Low energy efficiency has become one of the main factors of the crisis in the Ukrainian economy. The most relevant scientific and methodical approaches to assessment of the level of energy consumption and saving are indicated. The comparative analysis of annual energy use has been made. A potential to solve energy supply problems is strongly correlated with the ability to ensure the innovative development of economy for efficient and economical use of existing and imported energy resources. The ways for reducing of energy resource consumption have been suggested. Creation of technological conditions for the use of alternative energy sources is considered to be rational also. The development of renewable sources of energy (alternative and renewable energy sources will provide a significant effect in reducing the use of traditional energy sources, harmful emissions and greenhouse gas. Under these conditions, increasing of energy efficiency of economy and its competitiveness can be real. Improvement of environmental and social conditions of citizens of the country will mark a positive step towards the EU, and also will cancel some problems of the future generation.

  16. Values and Technologies in Energy Savings

    Nørgård, Jørgen Stig

    2000-01-01

    ´s behavioural pattern and lifestyles. Deliberate changes in social values are illustrated by a historical example. From the side of technology the basic principles in the economy of energy savings are briefly described. The marginally profitable energy savings provides an economic saving. The application of...... this saving can cause what is called the rebound effect, which reduces the savings obtained from the technology. Ways to avoid this effect are suggested, and they require value changes, primarly around frugality, consumption, and hard-working. There are indications that some of the necessary changes...

  17. Light Pipe Energy Savings Calculator

    Owens, Erin; Behringer, Ernest R.

    2009-04-01

    Dependence on fossil fuels is unsustainable and therefore a shift to renewable energy sources such as sunlight is required. Light pipes provide a way to utilize sunlight for interior lighting, and can reduce the need for fossil fuel-generated electrical energy. Because consumers considering light pipe installation may be more strongly motivated by cost considerations than by sustainability arguments, an easy means to examine the corresponding costs and benefits is needed to facilitate informed decision-making. The purpose of this American Physical Society Physics and Society Fellowship project is to create a Web-based calculator to allow users to quantify the possible cost savings for their specific light pipe application. Initial calculations show that the illumination provided by light pipes can replace electric light use during the day, and in many cases can supply greater illumination levels than those typically given by electric lighting. While the installation cost of a light pipe is significantly greater than the avoided cost of electricity over the lifetime of the light pipe at current prices, savings may be realized if electricity prices increase.

  18. Advertising energy saving programs: The potential environmental cost of emphasizing monetary savings.

    Schwartz, Daniel; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Lave, Lester

    2015-06-01

    Many consumers have monetary or environmental motivations for saving energy. Indeed, saving energy produces both monetary benefits, by reducing energy bills, and environmental benefits, by reducing carbon footprints. We examined how consumers' willingness and reasons to enroll in energy-savings programs are affected by whether advertisements emphasize monetary benefits, environmental benefits, or both. From a normative perspective, having 2 noteworthy kinds of benefit should not decrease a program's attractiveness. In contrast, psychological research suggests that adding external incentives to an intrinsically motivating task may backfire. To date, however, it remains unclear whether this is the case when both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations are inherent to the task, as with energy savings, and whether removing explicit mention of extrinsic motivation will reduce its importance. We found that emphasizing a program's monetary benefits reduced participants' willingness to enroll. In addition, participants' explanations about enrollment revealed less attention to environmental concerns when programs emphasized monetary savings, even when environmental savings were also emphasized. We found equal attention to monetary motivations in all conditions, revealing an asymmetric attention to monetary and environmental motives. These results also provide practical guidance regarding the positioning of energy-saving programs: emphasize intrinsic benefits; the extrinsic ones may speak for themselves. PMID:25581089

  19. User behaviour impact on energy savings potential

    Rose, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    When buildings are to undergo energy upgrading in Denmark, the national compliance checker, Be10, is often used to calculate expected energy savings for different energy-saving measures. The Be10 calculation is, however, very dependent on a variety of standard assumptions concerning the building...... and the residents' behaviour and if these defaults do not reflect actual circumstances, it can result in non-realisation of expected energy savings. Furthermore, a risk also exists that residents' behaviour change after the energy upgrading, e.g. to obtain improved comfort than what was possible...... before the upgrading and this could lead to further discrepancies between the calculated and the actual energy savings. This paper presents an analysis on how residents’ behaviour and the use of standard assumptions may influence expected energy savings. The analysis is performed on two typical single...

  20. Implementation of Energy Saving Controller for Electromagnetic Ballast Fluorescent Lamps

    Xiong, Zhi; Barsoum, Cheong; Barsoum, N. N.

    2010-06-01

    Fluorescent lamps have proven to be the most efficient lighting device. However, energy losses have been found in electromagnetic ballast due to high harmonic distortion and low power factor so energy is consumed unnecessarily. In today's energy demanding environment, energy efficiency of fluorescent lamps can be improved by introducing an energy saving controller in the electromagnetic ballast. The energy saving controller limits the supply voltage to an optimum level which tends to reduce the power losses in electromagnetic ballasts and fluorescent lamps. It is also anticipated that the energy saving controller has desirable characteristics of high power factor with dimmable illuminance level control. In comparison to electronic dimmable ballast, integration an energy saving controller with electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps results in less power consumption, dimmable illuminance control and longer life span at a much lower installation cost. Furthermore, there is no replacement cost for integrating the energy saving controller with existing electromagnetic fluorescent lamps system. In this paper, experimental works have been performed to investigate hardware implementation of the system which further supported by simulation on MATLAB Simulink. Experimental results based on the proposed energy saving controller showed that electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps can be dimmed without any problems down to 50% illuminance level output. In addition, experimental results show that 37.5% power consumption can be saved by reducing 15% of the supply voltage.

  1. Energy Savers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home

    None

    2014-05-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances.

  2. Energy Savers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home

    None

    2011-12-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances.

  3. Energy savings in Danish residential building stock

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    A large potential for energy savings exists in the Danish residential building stock due to the fact that 75% of the buildings were constructed before 1979 when the first important demands for energy performance of building were introduced. It is also a fact that many buildings in Denmark face...... comprehensive renovations in the coming years and in connection with this renovation process energy saving measures can be implemented relatively inexpensive and cost effective. This opportunity should be used to insure the buildings in the future as far as energy consumption is concerned. This paper gives a...... short account of the technical energy-saving possibilities that are present in existing dwellings and presents a financial methodology used for assessing energy-saving measures. In order to estimate the total savings potential detailed calculations have been performed in a case with two typical...

  4. Risk transfer via energy savings insurance; TOPICAL

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency improvements are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and apprehension about potential disputes over these savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building commissioning), financial risk transfer techniques are less developed in the energy management arena than in other more mature segments of the economy. Energy Savings Insurance (ESI) - formal insurance of predicted energy savings - is one method of transferring financial risks away from the facility owner or energy services contractor. ESI offers a number of significant advantages over other forms of financial risk transfer, e.g. savings guarantees or performance bonds. ESI providers manage risk via pre-construction design review as well as post-construction commissioning and measurement and verification of savings. We found that the two mos t common criticisms of ESI - excessive pricing and onerous exclusions - are not born out in practice. In fact, if properly applied, ESI can potentially reduce the net cost of energy savings projects by reducing the interest rates charged by lenders, and by increasing the level of savings through quality control. Debt service can also be ensured by matching loan payments to projected energy savings while designing the insurance mechanism so that payments are made by the insurer in the event of a savings shortfall. We estimate the U.S. ESI market potential of$875 million/year in premium income. From an energy-policy perspective, ESI offers a number of potential benefits: ESI transfers performance risk from the balance sheet of the entity implementing the energy savings project, thereby freeing up capital otherwise needed to ''self-insure'' the savings. ESI reduces barriers to market entry of smaller energy services firms who do not have sufficiently strong balance sheets to self

  5. Risk transfer via energy savings insurance

    Mills, Evan

    2001-10-01

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency improvements are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and apprehension about potential disputes over these savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building commissioning), financial risk transfer techniques are less developed in the energy management arena than in other more mature segments of the economy. Energy Savings Insurance (ESI) - formal insurance of predicted energy savings - is one method of transferring financial risks away from the facility owner or energy services contractor. ESI offers a number of significant advantages over other forms of financial risk transfer, e.g. savings guarantees or performance bonds. ESI providers manage risk via pre-construction design review as well as post-construction commissioning and measurement and verification of savings. We found that the two mos t common criticisms of ESI - excessive pricing and onerous exclusions - are not born out in practice. In fact, if properly applied, ESI can potentially reduce the net cost of energy savings projects by reducing the interest rates charged by lenders, and by increasing the level of savings through quality control. Debt service can also be ensured by matching loan payments to projected energy savings while designing the insurance mechanism so that payments are made by the insurer in the event of a savings shortfall. We estimate the U.S. ESI market potential of $875 million/year in premium income. From an energy-policy perspective, ESI offers a number of potential benefits: ESI transfers performance risk from the balance sheet of the entity implementing the energy savings project, thereby freeing up capital otherwise needed to ''self-insure'' the savings. ESI reduces barriers to market entry of smaller energy services firms who do not have sufficiently strong balance

  6. Potential energy savings and thermal comfort

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed.......The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed....

  7. Research on ZWR Concrete Energy Saving Synergist

    Hu Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    ZWR concrete energy saving synergist used in commodity concrete, were carried out experimental research and engineering application. The results show that the energy-boosters, in ensuring the overall performance of the concrete situation, as its content is 0.6% to 1% in cementitious material can reduce the amount of cement by 10% to 15%, significantly reduces production costs. Without changing the working properties and structural performance of the concrete, this energy saving synergist can ...

  8. Maximizing Residential Energy Savings: Net Zero Energy House (ZEH) Technology Pathways

    Anderson, R.; Roberts, D.

    2008-11-01

    To meet current U.S. Department of Energy zero-energy home performance goals, new technologies and solutions must increase whole-house efficiency savings by an additional 40% relative to those provided by best available components and systems.

  9. Energy saving opportunities in Jordanian pharmaceutical industries

    Areen Al-Ali

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of energy consumption saving opportunities in Jordanian pharmaceutical industry has been carried out in this paper, current status of energy consumption, possible saving techniques, and recommendations that could be implemented successfully through Energy Saving Program (ESP is explored. All variables that influence energy consumption are considered accordingly using a suitable methodology. This methodology integrates a simulation programs into the analysis process; thereafter an accurate analysis and a reliable assessment for energy consumption is provided. HAP 4.41software has been used to simulate and to calculate energy consumption and costs. One biggest Jordanian pharmaceutical facility that produces Penicillin and Cephalosporin products is considered as an illustrative example, the facility consists of four main energy consumption centers and includes consuming systems namely; HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning system, lighting, compressed air, steam boilers, and miscellaneous equipments like computers, refrigerators, fume hoods, etc. Historical energy consumption quantities are estimated, details of energy data are tabulated accordingly input data files for the computer simulation method using HAP 4.41 are created. Energy saving recommendations has been decided and incorporated into the ESP system. The paper concluded with a good quality room of energy saving opportunities that mirrored positively on the national energy bill with a reduction of 13% of the total annual energy consumption.

  10. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings for Small Office Buildings

    Thornton, Brian A.; Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Lane, Michael D.; Liu, Bing

    2010-04-30

    The Technical Support Document (TSD) for 50% energy savings in small office buildings documents the analysis and results for a recommended package of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) referred to as the advanced EEMs. These are changes to a building design that will reduce energy usage. The package of advanced EEMs achieves a minimum of 50% energy savings and a construction area weighted average energy savings of 56.6% over the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 for 16 cities which represent the full range of climate zones in the United States. The 50% goal is for site energy usage reduction. The weighted average is based on data on the building area of construction in the various climate locations. Cost-effectiveness of the EEMs is determined showing an average simple payback of 6.7 years for all 16 climate locations. An alternative set of results is provided which includes a variable air volume HVAC system that achieves at least 50% energy savings in 7 of the 16 climate zones with a construction area weighted average savings of 48.5%. Other packages of EEMs may also achieve 50% energy savings; this report does not consider all alternatives but rather presents at least one way to reach the goal. Design teams using this TSD should follow an integrated design approach and utilize additional analysis to evaluate the specific conditions of a project.

  11. BGP Ltd Adopts Energy-saving Technology

    2003-01-01

    @@ An exploration subsidiary of China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), the country's largest oil company, has agreed to use energy-saving technology developed by a Beijing firm in an attempt to slash costs.

  12. Energy Savings Thanks to French Textile Machinery

    2010-01-01

    The French Textile Machinery Manufacturers’ Association (UCMTF) has presented,during a seminar it organized for textile professionals and students,the spectacular energy savings achieved thanks to state of the art

  13. Public-opinion poll on energy saving

    A public-opinion poll was carried out on energy saving from November 26 to December 2, 1981, across the country. The number of persons participated in the survey was 5,000, whose age was 20 and above. The recovery ratio was 4,007 persons (80.1 %). The results of the survey and also the question-answer form are given with respective percentages. The questions were in the following three categories: (1) cognizance of energy saving - space-heating temperature, energy saving conscience use of private cars, purchase of highenergy consumption appliances; (2) energy for future - energy consumption, energy consumption trend, new types of energy, main sources of power generation, nuclear power in the overall electric power, apprehension toward nuclear power plants, safety measures in nuclear power plants; (3) governmental energy policy measures. (J.P.N.)

  14. Savings impact of a corporate energy manager

    This paper discusses the cost savings impact of employing an energy manager with a 16,000-employee corporation. The corporation, Canada's second largest airline, is currently operating nearly 3,000,000 ft2 of mixed-use facilities spread across the country, with an annual energy budget for ground facilities of over Cdn $4,000,000. This paper outlines the methodology used by the energy manager to deploy an energy management program over a two-year period between April 1995 and May 1997. The paper examines the successes and the lessons learned during the period and summarizes the costs and benefits of the program. The energy manager position was responsible for developing an energy history database with more than 100 active accounts and for monitoring and verifying energy savings. The energy manager implemented many relatively low-cost energy conservation measures, as well as some capital projects, during the first two years of the program. In total, these measures provided energy cost savings of $210,000 per year, or 5% of the total budget. In each case, technologies installed as part of the energy retrofit projects provided not only cost savings but also better control, reduced maintenance, and improved working conditions for employees

  15. Dual-Cell HSDPA for Network Energy Saving

    Micallef, Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    consumption. This paper proposes an energy saving feature that exploits variations in network traffic. Based on the individual load of each sector, the feature determines if the secondary carrier is detrimental for reaching some pre-set minimum requirements. Each sector is allowed to switch off one of their...... two carriers, during periods of low network traffic. It is concluded that an energy saving ranging between 14% and 36% is possible. This saving comes without degradation of network performance.......-Cell HSDPA (or Dual-Carrier HSDPA). This feature allows for a single user to be simultaneously scheduled over two carriers, effectively doubling its achievable data rate. The addition of a secondary carrier will require additional radio equipment at the base station site, increasing the overall energy...

  16. Negotiated agreements - blueprint for energy saving

    A 5-step model for achieving energy saving targets which are set out in Climate Change Levy (CCL) Negotiated Agreements is presented. The model for energy management and conservation entails the development of an energy policy, planning and organising involving formalised responsibilities for achieving the objectives of the energy policy, monitoring and control of plans, management reports on energy use, and regular reviews. Web addresses for CCL documents and information are provided

  17. Electric energy savings from new technologies

    Moe, R.J.; Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for ten technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all ten technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Thus, the savings projected here represent between 4% and 14% of total consumption projected for 2000. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference forecast, reducing projected electricity consumption from what it otherwise would have been, the savings estimated here should not be directly subtracted from the reference forecast.

  18. Saving Building Energy through Advanced Control Strategies

    Stephen Treado

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of the relationship between building energy usage and building control system operation and performance. A method is presented for estimating the energy saving potential of improvements in building and control system operation, including the relative impact of recommssioning and hardware and software upgrades, based on a subjective assessment of the level of energy efficient design and the energy usage of the building relative to similar buildings as indicated by the Energy Utilization Index for the building. The method introduces a Building Design Index and a Building Operating Index to evaluate building energy performance versus similar buildings, and uses these indices to estimate potential savings and effectiveness of control system improvements.

  19. When financiers are concerned with energy saving

    Innovative financial systems allow to finance investments for the energy efficiency improvement of public or residential buildings. Such solutions are implemented in Belgium and Germany. They are based on the association between a financial company, an energy supplier who makes an energy audit and the building owner who refunds the investments with the saving made on the space heating and power consumption of the building. Short paper. (J.S.)

  20. Acquiring energy savings in manufactured housing

    In 1991, the Northwest utilities faced a complex situation. They needed new sources of electrical power to avoid future deficits. A significant block of energy savings was available in the manufactured housing sector in the form of energy savings from increased insulation to new manufactured homes. The manufacturers were interested in saving the electricity in the homes, but would only deal with the utility sector as a whole. Half of the homes targeted were sited in investor-owned utility (IOU) service territories, and half in the public sector made up of utilities that purchased some or all of their electricity from the Bonneville Power Administration. Utilities agreed to acquire energy from manufacturers In the form of thermal efficiency measures specified by the Bonneville Power Administration. The program that resulted from over one year of negotiations was called the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program, or MAP. Manufacturers, the utilities, State Energy Offices, the Northwest Power Planning Council and Bonneville all worked closely and with tenacity to build the program that went into effect on April 1, 1992, and should save the region between 7 and 9 megawatts, enough energy to supply 11,000 homes in the Northwest

  1. Saving energy: what matters now

    Burberry, Peter (Manchester Univ. (UK). Inst. of Science and Technology)

    1991-02-13

    The oil crisis of the '70s led towards energy efficiency, using energy more cost effectively. Now the agenda is different. With coming climate change and increasing pollution we must each use less energy, and this changes our design priorities. (author).

  2. Behaviour: Seeing heat saves energy

    Steg, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Household energy conservation can help to significantly lower energy consumption. Visual cues provided by thermal imaging of heat loss in buildings are now shown to increase energy conserving behaviours and implementations among homeowners more effectively than just performing carbon footprint audits.

  3. Energy saving concepts relating to induction generators

    Nola, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Energy saving concepts relating to induction generators are presented. The first describes a regenerative scheme using an induction generator as a variable load for prime movers under test is described. A method for reducing losses in induction machines used specifically as wind driven generators is also described.

  4. Reactors Save Energy, Costs for Hydrogen Production

    2014-01-01

    While examining fuel-reforming technology for fuel cells onboard aircraft, Glenn Research Center partnered with Garrettsville, Ohio-based Catacel Corporation through the Glenn Alliance Technology Exchange program and a Space Act Agreement. Catacel developed a stackable structural reactor that is now employed for commercial hydrogen production and results in energy savings of about 20 percent.

  5. To build an energy-saving society

    2005-01-01

    @@ To speed up the development of cycling economy and build an energy-saving society is the key point of work in the coming years for the General Administration of Qualitv Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People's Republic of China(AQSIQ).

  6. Energy Savings From System Efficiency Improvements in Iowa's HVAC SAVE Program

    Yee, S. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Baker, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Wells, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this project is to explore the energy savings potential of maximizing furnace and distribution system performance by adjusting operating, installation, and distribution conditions. The goal of the Iowa HVAC System Adjusted and Verified Efficiency (SAVE) program is to train contractors to measure installed system efficiency as a diagnostic tool to ensure that the homeowner achieves the energy reduction target for the home rather than simply performing a tune-up on the furnace or having a replacement furnace added to a leaky system. The PARR research team first examined baseline energy usage from a sample of 48 existing homes, before any repairs or adjustments were made, to calculate an average energy savings potential and to determine which system deficiencies were prevalent. The results of the baseline study of these homes found that, on average, about 10% of the space heating energy available from the furnace was not reaching the conditioned space. In the second part of the project, the team examined a sample of 10 homes that had completed the initial evaluation for more in-depth study. For these homes, the diagnostic data shows that it is possible to deliver up to 23% more energy from the furnace to the conditioned space by doing system tune ups with or without upgrading the furnace. Replacing the furnace provides additional energy reduction. The results support the author's belief that residential heating and cooling equipment should be tested and improved as a system rather than a collection of individual components.

  7. Save Energy Now Assessments Results 2008 Detailed Report

    Wright, Anthony L [ORNL; Martin, Michaela A [ORNL; Nimbalkar, Sachin U [ORNL; Quinn, James [U.S. Department of Energy; Glatt, Ms. Sandy [DOE Industrial Technologies Program; Orthwein, Mr. Bill [U.S. Department of Energy

    2010-09-01

    In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of the largest U.S. manufacturing plants. DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) responded to the Secretary's campaign with its Save Energy Now initiative, featuring a new and highly cost-effective form of energy savings assessment. The approach for these assessments drew heavily on the existing resources of ITP's technology delivery component. Over the years, ITP Technology Delivery has worked with industry partners to assemble a suite of respected software tools, proven assessment protocols, training curricula, certified energy experts, and strong partnerships for deployment. The Save Energy Now assessments conducted in calendar year 2006 focused on natural gas savings and targeted many of the nation's largest manufacturing plants - those that consume at least 1 TBtu of energy annually. The 2006 Save Energy Now assessments focused primarily on assessments of steam and process heating systems, which account for an estimated 74% of all natural gas use by U.S. manufacturing plants. Because of the success of the Save Energy Now assessments conducted in 2006 and 2007, the program was expanded and enhanced in two major ways in 2008: (1) a new goal was set to perform at least 260 assessments; and (2) the assessment focus was expanded to include pumping, compressed air, and fan systems in addition to steam and process heating. DOE ITP also has developed software tools to assess energy efficiency improvement opportunities in pumping, compressed air, and fan systems. The Save Energy Now assessments integrate a strong training component designed to teach industrial plant personnel how to use DOE's opportunity assessment software tools. This approach has the advantages of promoting strong buy-in of plant personnel for the assessment and its outcomes and preparing them better to

  8. How to estimate realistic energy savings in Energy Performance Certificates

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Altmann, Nagmeh; Berecová, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Given the fact that most MS use fixed or other kinds of default values as boundary condition input for energy performance calculations, it is not surprising that the calculated energy performance differs from the measured energy consumption. As a consequence, the calculated energy savings due to...... suggested building energy upgrading in the EPC will also deviate from the actual achieved energy savings. Adjusting input boundary condition to the actual values, will often result in realistic (comparable with measured energy consumption) calculated energy demands. This even happens in simple, quasi...... stationary calculation tools using monthly average values. The optimum solution for energy performance certificates and calculating realistic energy savings is to have two calculations. One calculation, using default values to calculate the label itself, and one with actual input parameters for calculating...

  9. ENERGY SAVING MODES DEFINITION OF TRAINS HANDLING

    D. M. Kyslyi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Traction calculations with the definition of energy-efficient trajectories provide search for rational energy consumption depending on the time course of the train. When selecting energy-efficient trajectory of the train and the development of regime charts conducting trains must take into account variables such as: the profile of the site, weight train, locomotive series, etc. When increasing the speed of the growth it occurs the resistance movement, which is proportional to the square of the speed, which leads to higher costs of fuel and energy resources. In contrast, the reduction of costs due to the decrease in speed leads to an increase in travel time of the train, which should be consistent with the timetable and other technical and economic parameters, depending on the speed. The article describes one way to reduce the cost of energy for traction. The aim of the article is to reduce energy consumption by identifying energy-saving control modes. It occurs with the locomotive optimization function of control actions on the running time of the train and the flow of energy in the management of the train from the end of the acceleration to go to the coasts. Methodology. The technique of choice of energy saving path of the train and power control and electric locomotives with electric transmission provides the calculation of multiple paths with variable input data and parameters of the composition of the train situation. The methodology takes into account the uniform mathematical methods of search and parametric optimization. For uniformity of motion needed to slow down the accelerating forces are balanced. Findings. On the basis of calculations of multiple advanced algorithms determine the trajectories of energy-saving trains, built multiparametric locomotive power control function, which can reduce energy consumption by 11 to 13% depending on the weight of the train and the train situation. Originality. The author obtained the energy-saving

  10. Energy Saving Potential in Existing Compressors

    Cipollone, Roberto; Vittorini, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The Compressed Air Sector (CAS) is responsible for a relevant part of energy consumption, accounting for a mean 10% of the world-wide electricity needs. This ensures about the importance of the CAS issue when sustainability, in terms of energy saving and CO2 emissions reduction, is in question. Since the compressors alone account for a mean 15% of the industry overall electricity consumption, it appears vital to pay attention towards machine performances. The paper deals with compressor techn...

  11. Structured packing: an opportunity for energy savings

    This work emphasizes the advantages about the use of structured packing. This type of packings allows by its geometry to reduce the processing time giving energy savings and throw down the production costs in several industries such as heavy water production plants, petrochemical industry and all industries involved with separation processes. There is a comparative results of energy consumption utilizing the structured vs. Raschig packings. (Author)

  12. Measuring the Energy Savings from Tree Shade

    Maher, Joe

    2013-01-01

    The energy savings from tree shade coincide with peak electricity demand during summer months, creating an opportunity for utilities to use tree protection policies as demand side management tools. We apply a quasi-experimental research design to identify the change in residential energy caused by tree removals using three unique micro-level datasets from Gainesville, Florida. These datasets include (i) a twelve year panel of monthly household electricity billing data for 30,000 homes service...

  13. Decentralized energy-saving hydraulic concepts for mobile working machines

    Lodewyks, Johann; Zurbrügg, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The high price of batteries in working machines with electric drives offer a potential for investment in energy-saving hydraulic systems. The decentralized power network opens up new approaches for hydraulic- and hybrid circuits. In addition, the regeneration of energy can be used at any point of the machine. For the example of an excavator arm drive with a double cylinder two compact hydraulic circuits are presented, which relieve a central hydraulic system.

  14. Comparison of Software Models for Energy Savings from Cool Roofs

    New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL; Huang, Yu (Joe) [White Box Technologies; Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2014-01-01

    A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the United States Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs modern web technologies, usability design, and national average defaults as an interface to annual simulations of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim in order to provide estimated annual energy and cost savings. In addition to cool reflective roofs, RSC simulates multiple roof and attic configurations including different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance roof surfaces, duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple substrate types, and insulation levels. A base case and energy-efficient alternative can be compared side-by-side to estimate monthly energy. RSC was benchmarked against field data from demonstration homes in Ft. Irwin, California; while cooling savings were similar, heating penalty varied significantly across different simulation engines. RSC results reduce cool roofing cost-effectiveness thus mitigating expected economic incentives for this countermeasure to the urban heat island effect. This paper consolidates comparison of RSC s projected energy savings to other simulation engines including DOE-2.1E, AtticSim, Micropas, and EnergyPlus, and presents preliminary analyses. RSC s algorithms for capturing radiant heat transfer and duct interaction in the attic assembly are considered major contributing factors to increased cooling savings and heating penalties. Comparison to previous simulation-based studies, analysis on the force multiplier of RSC cooling savings and heating penalties, the role of radiative heat exchange in an attic assembly, and changes made for increased accuracy of the duct model are included.

  15. Investigation of Energy Saving Possibilities in Buildings

    Edita Milutienė

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Buildings sector is the largest single energy end-user in the EU. There are numerous possibilities to save energy in buildings. This research deals with the analysis of the possibilities to save energy in buildings of northern latitudes by applying a passive solar energy technique. The article presents results of solar radiation monitoring in Vilnius for a 12 years period and assessment of the possibilities to save heat energy. Data could be used in designing solar houses, calculating passive solar energy gains and evaluating CO2 emissions reduction.

  16. Daylight metrics and energy savings

    Mardaljevic, John; Heschong, Lisa; Lee, Eleanor

    2009-12-31

    The drive towards sustainable, low-energy buildings has increased the need for simple, yet accurate methods to evaluate whether a daylit building meets minimum standards for energy and human comfort performance. Current metrics do not account for the temporal and spatial aspects of daylight, nor of occupants comfort or interventions. This paper reviews the historical basis of current compliance methods for achieving daylit buildings, proposes a technical basis for development of better metrics, and provides two case study examples to stimulate dialogue on how metrics can be applied in a practical, real-world context.

  17. Energy savings brought to bear.

    2009-01-01

    Health Estate Journal reports on wide-ranging and successful work undertaken by the Medway Maritime Hospital's estates team to cut energy consumption at, and reduce the carbon footprint of, the Kent hospital since the Medway NHS Foundation Trust signed up, last August, to the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers' (CIBSE) 2008 "100 Hours of Carbon Clean Up" campaign. PMID:19192595

  18. Energy saving certificates: an improved instrument

    This report first presents Energy Saving Certificates as one of among other instruments aimed at reducing energy consumption, and indicates how the French consumer is concerned. The benefits of this instrument are outlined: low cost, autonomy, awareness-raising, quantitative assessment of achieved energy savings. Its objectives and results since its creation in 2006 are commented, and the report outlines that this type of instrument is spreading over Europe. The authors show that its efficiency has been improved along the years due to a periodic review of standardised operation sheets, a simplification of the declaration, and an optimization of related programmes. Besides, targets have been better identified. The report outlines that assessment and controls must however be strengthened in order to reduce financial risks and potential drifts. Answers to this report by the concerned minister and ADEME are provided

  19. Energy savings at the refinery of Tirlemont

    Braeckman, M.

    1985-03-01

    The paper describes energy savings achieved at the Tirlemont sugar refinery during the past ten years, and the old flow-sheet used at Tirlemont is explained. Using this scheme, the different actions we have performed to economize energy are described. In a following chapter, it is talked about the local energy saving investments realized in the seventies, and finally, a more detailed information follows, concerning the complete reneal of the cristallization in the Tirlemont plant. The new adopted scheme is compared with the former, and the paper concludes with a graph showing that fuel consumption per 100 kg of white sugar produced has been reduced from ca. 37 to 14 kg within five years.

  20. The EU must triple its energy saving policy effect

    Wesselink, B.; Eichhammer, W.; Harmsen, R.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of EU energy savings policy must triple to achieve the bloc’s 2020 energy savings goal. But such efforts could get a much better foundation if European leaders set a binding energy consumption target, rather than the current indicative savings target. The evidence for such conclusion is p

  1. Energy saving lamps in the discussion; Energiesparlampen in der Diskussion

    NONE

    2010-12-01

    In the contribution under consideration the following questions according to energy saving lamp are discussed: (a) Mercury from broken energy saving lamp - a health problem?; (b) Why did the Federal Environmental Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) measure the mercury emissions from energy saving lamps?; (c) Which consequences does the Federal Environmental Agency draw from the investigations?.

  2. The possibility to save energy with an energy price increase

    Gas price increase results in the saving of energy. However, the use of another tariff structure can also be applied to save energy. Six tariff structures are compared for their energy conservation stimulating effects. The tariff structures are the present structure, a fixed structure, a limited degressive structure, a variable structure, a progressive structure, and a degressive structure. The variable and the progressive tariff structure result in a larger financial incentive to save energy than the present structure for equal costs for households and equal income for the energy utilities. The effect of the progressive tariff structure can be compared with a 50% energy tax. The alternative tariff structures are commented on request by a policy employee of EnergieNed, the Association of Energy Distribution Companies in the Netherlands. 2 figs

  3. Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems

    Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

  4. China energy-water nexus: Assessing the water-saving synergy effects of energy-saving policies during the eleventh Five-year Plan

    Highlights: • Energy and water limit China’s sustainable development. • Current energy policies fail to address water saving issues. • The energy-water coefficient is estimated for both direct use and indirect use. • Water saving effects associated with energy-saving policies is calculated. • Water-energy nexus should be enhanced in key industrial sectors. - Abstract: Energy and water have become major factors limiting sustainable development in China. Energy efficiency and optimization of water management are critical for the healthy growth of the Chinese economy. Current national energy policies fail to adequately address water use issues. Similarly, current water policies do not consider the impact of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently, few studies have investigated the relationship between energy consumption and water use. The present study analyzes the energy-water nexus in Chinese industries using input–output tables. Coefficients that characterize the relationship between energy consumption and water are used to describe the supply-consumption relationship between the water supply and primary energy sectors. Next, we calculate the water-saving effects associated with the enforcement of energy-saving policies in selected industrial sectors during the eleventh Five-year Plan, from 2005 to 2010. These calculations address the ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, petrochemical engineering, building materials, and electricity industries as well as key light industries. Our findings indicate that energy-saving efforts in these industries will result in savings in water consumption. This study suggests that a cooperative relationship between water and energy conservation efforts should be an important factor in creating policies that encourage simultaneous savings of both resources. Additionally, the study indicates that government should promote water- and energy-saving techniques in key industrial sectors to encourage

  5. Will Renewable Energy Save Our Planet?

    Bojić, Milorad

    2010-06-01

    This paper discusses some important fundamental issues behind application of renewable energy (RE) to evaluate its impact as a climate change mitigation technology. The discussed issues are the following: definition of renewable energy, concentration of RE by weight and volume, generation of electrical energy and its power at unit area, electrical energy demand per unit area, life time approach vs. layman approach, energy return time, energy return ratio, CO2 return time, energy mix for RES production and use, geographical distribution of RES use, huge scale of energy shift from RES to non-RES, increase in energy consumption, Thermodynamic equilibrium of earth, and probable solutions for energy future of our energy and environmental crisis of today. The future solution (that would enable to human civilization further welfare, and good living, but with lower release of CO2 in atmosphere) may not be only RES. This will rather be an energy mix that may contain nuclear energy, non-nuclear renewable energy, or fossil energy with CO2 sequestration, efficient energy technologies, energy saving, and energy consumption decrease.

  6. Barriers to investments in energy saving technologies. Case study for the industry

    Masselink, Dirk Jan

    2007-01-01

    To realise future energy saving targets, the government needs to increase energy reduction rates. One option to increase energy savings is found in removing barriers to investments in cost-effective energy saving technologies. Many technologies save energ

  7. Energy Savings Potential of Radiative Cooling Technologies

    Fernandez, Nicholas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Alvine, Kyle J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP), conducted a study to estimate, through simulation, the potential cooling energy savings that could be achieved through novel approaches to capturing free radiative cooling in buildings, particularly photonic ‘selective emittance’ materials. This report documents the results of that study.

  8. Investing EU ETS auction revenues into energy savings

    Sijm, J.P.M.; Boonekamp, P.G.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Summerton, P.; Pollitt, H.; Billington, S. [Cambridge Econometrics CE, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    The overall objective of this study is to analyse the effects of using EU ETS auction revenues to stimulate investments in energy savings in three key target sectors, i.e. Households, Tertiary and Industry (including both ETS and non-ETS industrial installations). The scenarios used refer basically to the situation before the recent agreement on the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) and include (a mixture of) different policy options to enhance energy savings in the target sectors, in particular (1) reducing the ETS cap, (2) introducing an Energy Efficiency Obligation (EEO) for energy suppliers or distributors, and/or (3) using ETS auction revenues to support additional (private) investments in raising energy efficiency. In order to meet this objective a variety of different policy scenarios have been defined and analysed by means of the 'Energy-Environment-Economy Model for Europe (E3ME)'. The study presents and discusses a large variety of scenario modelling results by the year 2020 at the EU27 level. These results refer to, among others, energy savings, GHG emissions, the ETS carbon price, household electricity bills and to changes in some macro- or socio-economic outcomes such as GDP, inflation, employment or international trade. Finally, the study discusses some policy findings and implications, including options to enhance the effectiveness of some EE policies, in particular those having a potential adverse effect on the ETS carbon price.

  9. Estimating the energy saving potential of telecom operators in China

    A set of models are employed to estimate the potential of total energy saved of productions and segmented energy saving for telecom operators in China. During the estimation, the total energy saving is divided into that by technology and management, which are derived from technical reform and progress, and management control measures and even marketing respectively, and the estimating methodologies for energy saving potential of each segment are elaborated. Empirical results from China Mobile indicate that, first, the technical advance in communications technology accounts for the largest proportion (70%–80%) of the total energy saved of productions in telecom sector of China. Second, technical reform brings about 20%–30% of the total energy saving. Third, the proportions of energy saving brought by marketing and control measures appear relatively smaller, just less than 3%. Therefore, China's telecom operators should seize the opportunity of the revolution of communications network techniques in recent years to create an advanced network with lower energy consumption

  10. Incorporating Non-energy Benefits into Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    Larsen, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Gilligan, Donald; Singer, Terry

    2012-06-01

    This paper evaluates the issue of non-energy benefits within the context of the U.S. energy services company (ESCO) industry?a growing industry comprised of companies that provide energy savings and other benefits to customers through the use of performance-based contracting. Recent analysis has found that ESCO projects in the public/institutional sector, especially at K-12 schools, are using performance-based contracting, at the behest of the customers, to partially -- but not fully -- offset substantial accumulated deferred maintenance needs (e.g., asbestos removal, wiring) and measures that have very long paybacks (roof replacement). This trend is affecting the traditional economic measures policymakers use to evaluate success on a benefit to cost basis. Moreover, the value of non-energy benefits which can offset some or all of the cost of the non-energy measures -- including operations and maintenance (O&M) savings, avoided capital costs, and tradable pollution emissions allowances-- are not always incorporated into a formal cost-effectiveness analysis of ESCO projects. Nonenergy benefits are clearly important to customers, but state and federal laws that govern the acceptance of these types of benefits for ESCO projects vary widely (i.e., 0-100percent of allowable savings can come from one or more non-energy categories). Clear and consistent guidance on what types of savings are recognized in Energy Savings agreements under performance contracts is necessary, particularly where customers are searching for deep energy efficiency gains in the building sector.

  11. Energy saving dc-dc converter circuit

    An energy saving dc-dc converter circuit is disclosed having two energy efficient means which operate in tandem, an energy conserving means and a voltage doubling means. These energy efficient means are applied in combination with elements commonly found in dc-dc converter circuits, namely an ac voltage generator, a transformer for stepping up the generated ac voltage, and means for storing the converted dc voltage. The energy conserving means is connected to the dc voltage storage means. It comprises a resettable inhibit circuit which cuts off the provision of dc voltage for conversion for a predetermined interval when the output of the converter exceeds a predetermined level. The voltage doubling means is reponsive to outputs of the inhibit circuit of the energy conserving means and the ac voltage generator. It provides a phase inverted waveform of the generated ac voltage on one of two leads to the ac voltage step-up transformer

  12. Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making

    Oikonomou, V.; Becchis, F.; Steg, L.; Russolillo, D.

    2009-01-01

    Departing from the concept of rational use of energy, the paper outlines the microeconomics of end-use energy saving as a result of frugality or efficiency measures. Frugality refers to the behaviour that is aimed at energy conservation, and with efficiency we refer to the technical ratio between en

  13. About energy saving and increase of energy efficiency in buildings

    L.L. Goshka

    2010-01-01

    In the article the analysis of National law №261 "Energy saving and increase of energy efficiency..." from the point of view of building systems is given. The recommendations for modernization of heat, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems taking into account energy efficiency requirements are given.

  14. SAVE ENERGY FOR BETTER FUTURE%SAVE ENERGY FOR BETTER FUTURE

    2011-01-01

    Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao called for intensified efforts to save energy and reduce emissions over the next five years to ease climate change and promote sustainable development. The country fulfilled most of its binding energy-saving and emission reduction goals set out in the nation's l lth Five-Year Plan period (2006-2010). China's energy consumption grew at an annual rate of 6.6 percent over the last five years, much slower than the 11.2-percent increase in the country's economic growth.

  15. Chinese hotel general managers' perspectives on energy-saving practices

    Zhu, Yidan

    As hotels' concern about sustainability and budget-control is growing steadily, energy-saving issues have become one of the important management concerns hospitality industry face. By executing proper energy-saving practices, previous scholars believed that hotel operation costs can decrease dramatically. Moreover, they believed that conducting energy-saving practices may eventually help the hotel to gain other benefits such as an improved reputation and stronger competitive advantage. The energy-saving issue also has become a critical management problem for the hotel industry in China. Previous research has not investigated energy-saving in China's hotel segment. To achieve a better understanding of the importance of energy-saving, this document attempts to present some insights into China's energy-saving practices in the tourist accommodations sector. Results of the study show the Chinese general managers' attitudes toward energy-saving issues and the differences among the diverse hotel managers who responded to the study. Study results indicate that in China, most of the hotels' energy bills decrease due to the implementation of energy-saving equipments. General managers of hotels in operation for a shorter period of time are typically responsible for making decisions about energy-saving issues; older hotels are used to choosing corporate level concerning to this issue. Larger Chinese hotels generally have official energy-saving usage training sessions for employees, but smaller Chinese hotels sometimes overlook the importance of employee training. The study also found that for the Chinese hospitality industry, energy-saving practices related to electricity are the most efficient and common way to save energy, but older hotels also should pay attention to other ways of saving energy such as water conservation or heating/cooling system.

  16. Energy saving screw compressor technology; Energiebesparende schroefcompressortechnologie

    Moeller, A. [RefComp, Lonigo (Italy); Neus, M. [Delta Technics Engineering, Breda (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    Smart solutions to reduce the energy consumption are continuously part of investigation in the refrigeration technology. This article subscribed the technology on which way energy can be saved at the operation of screw compressors which are used in air conditioners and refrigerating machinery. The combination of frequency control and Vi-control (intrinsic volumetric ratio) such as researched in the laboratory of RefComp is for the user attractive because the energy efficiency during part load operation is much better. Smart uses of thermodynamics, electric technology and electronic control are the basics of these applications. According to the manufacturer's information it is possible with these new generation screw compressors to save approx. 26% energy in comparison with the standard screw compressor. [Dutch] In dit artikel wordt de technologie omschreven waarmee veel energie bespaard kan worden bij schroefcompressoren die worden gebruikt in airconditioningsystemen en koel- en vriesinstallaties. De combinatie van frequentieregeling en Vi- regeling (Vi is de intrinsieke volumetrische verhouding) zoals onderzocht in het laboratorium van RefComp biedt de gebruiker veel voordelen doordat de energie-efficintie van de compressor tijdens deellast enorm wordt verbeterd. Slim gebruik van thermodynamika, elektrotechniek en elektronica vormen de basis van deze toepassing. Volgens de fabrikant kan met deze nieuwe generatie schroefcompressoren circa 26 procent op het energiegebruik tijdens deellast worden bespaard in vergelijking met de standaard serie schroefcompressoren.

  17. Good practice in saving energy at school

    Veronesi, Paola; Bonazzi, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    We teach students between 14 and 18 years old at a high school in Italy. In the first class, one of the topics we treat is related to the atmosphere. The students learn the composition of air, the importance of the natural greenhouse effect in keeping the average temperature of the planet and how human activity is increasing the level of greenhouse gases, enhancing greenhouse effect and causing global warming. It is possible to reach this knowledge using different materials and methods such as schoolbooks, articles, websites or films, individual or group work, but as students gradually become aware of the problem of climate change due to global warming, it is necessary to propose a solution that can be experienced and measured by students. This is the aim of the project "Switch off the light, to switch on the future". The project doesn't need special materials to be carried out but all the people in the community who work and "live" at school should participate in it. The project deals directly with saving electric energy, by changing the habits of the use of electricity. Saving electric energy means saving CO2 emitted to atmosphere, and consequently contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gases emission. Normally, lights in the school are switched on in the early morning and switched off at the end of lessons. Nobody is responsible to turn out the lights in classes, so students choose one or two "Light guardians" who are responsible for the light management. Simple rules for light management are written and distributed in the classes so that the action of saving energy is spread all over the school. One class participates in the daily data collection from the electricity meter, before and after the beginning of the action. At the end of the year the data are treated and presented to the community, verifying if the electric consumption has been cut down or not. This presentation is public, with students who directly introduce collected data, results and

  18. Qualitative assessment of the CEE arrangement - Second period 2011-2013. The Certificates of Energy Savings: an arrangement which catalyses decision by households for energy saving works. Synthesis

    After previous assessments on energy savings, costs, and potentials, this publication reports a qualitative assessment of the CEE arrangement (certificate of energy savings). The objective is to get a better insight into decision making by the final consumer. After a brief presentation of the survey methodology, the report describes the CEEs as a catalyst for higher performance works. The survey highlighted the incentive effect of the CEE premium, and the lever effect of advice and information. The report also outlines that the CEE is an additional tool to other public aids. It indicates that works are highly motivated by a search for energy savings, and are actually efficient to meet this objective

  19. Natural gas decompression energy recovery: Energy savings potential in Italy

    This paper surveyed the natural gas distribution systems employed in the Italian civil, industrial and thermoelectric sectors to identify those installations which can make use of gas decompression energy recovery systems (consisting of turbo-expanders or alternative expanders) to economically generate electric power. Estimates were then made of the total amount of potential energy savings. The study considered as eligible for energy savings interventions only those plants with a greater than 5,000 standard cubic meter per hour plant capacity. It was evaluated that, with suitable decompression equipment installed at 50 key installations (33 civil, 15 industrial), about 200 GWh of power could be produced annually, representing potential savings of about 22,000 petroleum equivalent tonnes of energy. A comparative analysis was done on three investment alternatives involving inputs of varying amounts of Government financial assistance

  20. Contemporary energy storage sources. Energy saving

    The development of renewable energy system for electricity production is impede because of needs to be stabilized with nearly equivalent installed power of energy storage devices. The development of more electrical energy storage facilities will be extremely important for electricity generation in the future. Using hydro pumping, combined with a long life and fast charge/discharge rate, highly efficient contemporary power energy storage as Altairnano lithium ion battery, currently is seems to be the best solution for fast penetration rate of wind and solar energy systems

  1. Energy saving opportunities of energy efficient air nozzles

    Slootmaekers, Tim; Slaets, Peter; Bartsoen, Tom; Malfait, Lieven; Vanierschot, Maarten

    2015-12-01

    Compressed air is a common energy medium. The production of compressed air itself is not a very efficient process. Avoiding any unnecessary losses of air can lead to large reductions in electricity consumption. Since blowing applications are one of the main domains were compressed-air is used, any reduction in the mass flow needed for operation can lead to significant energy savings. In this paper the normal volumetric flow rate and generated impact force are compared between a stepped nozzle and a so called energy saving nozzle which allows extra air from the surroundings to be entrained. These two different nozzle geometries are used in industrial blowing applications. Until now there was no study available which compares the impact forces and volumetric flow rates for these types of nozzles. The flow field of the two nozzles was calculated by CFD simulations. The impact forces and volumetric flow rates are calculated out of this flow field. Each nozzle was simulated with three different input pressures. The nozzles were simulated with an input pressure of 3, 4 and 5 barg. The energy saving nozzle consumes only 1 % less volumetric flow rate then the stepped nozzle at the same inlet pressure. The replacement of a stepped nozzle with an energy saving nozzle will not immediately result in a decrease in input volumetric flow rate. The pressure at the inlet of the energy saving nozzle has to be reduced as well. After reducing the input pressure the energy saving nozzle generates the same impact force than the stepped nozzle. Hereby a decrease of 4.5 % in input volumetric flow rate was possible. The energy cost will decrease with 4.5 % as well because the normal volumetric flow rate is directly proportional to the energy cost. The replacement of a stepped nozzle with an energy saving nozzle while maintaining the same inlet pressure is only useful when the impact force from the stepped nozzle is not sufficient. The energy saving nozzle can generate 5.6 % more impact

  2. Energy Savings Potential and Research & Development Opportunities for Commercial Refrigeration

    none,

    2009-09-01

    This study documents the energy consumption of commercial refrigeration equipment (CRE) in the U.S. and evaluated the energy savings potential of various technologies and energy efficiency measures that could be applied to such equipment. The study provided an overview of CRE applications, assessed the energy-savings potential of CRE in the U.S., outline key barriers to adoption of energy-savings technologies, and recommended opportunities for advanced energy saving technology research. The study was modeled after an earlier 1996 report by Arthur D. Little, Inc., and updated key information, examined more equipment types, and outlined long-term research and development opportunities.

  3. Energy conservation, energy efficiency and energy savings regulatory hypotheses - taxation, subsidies and underlying economics

    Trumpy, T. [International Legal Counsel, Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-01

    More efficient use of energy resources can be promoted by various regulatory means, i.e., taxation, subsidies, and pricing. Various incentives can be provided by income and revenue tax breaks-deductible energy audit fees, energy saving investment credits, breaks for energy saving entrepreneurs, and energy savings accounts run through utility accounts. Value added and excise taxes can also be adjusted to reward energy saving investments and energy saving entrepreneurial activity. Incentives can be provided in the form of cash refunds, including trade-in-and-scrap programs and reimbursements or subsidies on audit costs and liability insurance. Pricing incentives include lower rates for less energy use, prepayment of deposit related to peak load use, electronically dispatched multiple tariffs, savings credits based on prior peak use, and subsidized {open_quotes}leasing{close_quotes} of more efficient appliances and lights. Credits, with an emphasis on pooling small loans, and 5-year energy savings contracts are also discussed.

  4. Saving Energy Through Advanced Power Strips (Poster)

    Christensen, D.

    2013-10-01

    Advanced Power Strips (APS) look just like ordinary power strips, except that they have built-in features that are designed to reduce the amount of energy used by many consumer electronics. There are several different types of APSs on the market, but they all operate on the same basic principle of shutting off the supply power to devices that are not in use. By replacing your standard power strip with an APS, you can signifcantly cut the amount of electricity used by your home office and entertainment center devices, and save money on your electric bill. This illustration summarizes the different options.

  5. Potential cost savings from investments in energy-conserving irrigation systems

    Patton, W.P.; Wilfert, G.L.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.; Sherman, K.L.

    1982-10-01

    A comparative analysis is presented of the levelized costs of selected irrigation systems, with an emphasis on the costs and benefits of energy savings. The net economic benefits are evaluated, measured as energy cost savings minus additional capital and operating costs, of some energy-conserving systems. Energy use in irrigation and descriptions of both the conventional and the energy-saving technologies involved in the analysis are discussed. The approach used in the analysis is outlined, and comparative analysis results are discussed. Detailed cost information is presented by state. (LEW)

  6. Factors influencing energy-saving behavior of urban households in Jiangsu Province

    In this research, the willingness of households to adopt different energy-saving behavior has been analyzed, and factors influencing energy-saving behavior in Jiangsu Province, China, have been examined. The study builds on a broad and practical conceptual framework that embraces three types of energy-saving behavior and four dimensions of influencing factors, including socio-demographics, energy-saving awareness, behavioral ability, and situational factors. The empirical results are based on an Internet survey that was sent out to 638 households. The results indicate that socio-demographic characteristics, including age, gender, income level, household structure, and educational background, are all important factors influencing energy-saving behavior. At present, respondents adopt the usage-reduction type of behavior more often than the other two types, which require a greater capacity to pay for energy-efficient products and a higher level of energy-saving awareness. Situational factors have significant positive moderating effects when the variables of behavioral ability and energy-saving awareness act on energy-saving behavior. In addition, the results also show that spatial differences exist among the three regions of Jiangsu Province. Finally, some implications of these results for the design of future incentive policies and measures to encourage energy-saving behavior are presented. -- Highlights: •A broad and practical conceptual framework of energy-saving behaviors is built. •Socio-demographic characteristics are determinants of energy-saving behavior. •Respondents adopt the usage-reduction type more often than the other two types. •Situational factors have positive moderating effects on the other two variables. •Spatial differences exist among the three regions of Jiangsu Province

  7. SWEEP - Save Water & Energy Education Program

    Sullivan, Gregory P.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Hillman, Tim C.; Hadley, Adam; Ledbetter, Marc R.; Payson, David R.

    2001-05-03

    The objective of this study was to develop, monitor, analyze, and report on an integrated resource-conservation program highlighting efficient residential appliances and fixtures. The sites of study were 50 homes in two water-constrained communities located in Oregon. The program was designed to maximize water savings to these communities and to serve as a model for other communities seeking an integrated approach to energy and water resource efficiency. The program included the installation and in-place evaluation of energy- and water-efficient devices including the following: horizontal axis clothes washers (and the matching clothes dryers), resource-efficient dishwashers, an innovative dual flush low-flow toilet, low-flow showerheads, and faucet aerators. The significance of this activity lies in its integrated approach and unique metering evaluation of individual end-use, aggregated residential total use, and system-wide energy and water benefits.

  8. Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making

    Oikonomou, V. [SOM, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Becchis, F. [POLIS Department, University of East Piedmont, via Duomo, 6-13100 Vercelli (Italy); Steg, L. [Faculty of Behavioural and Social Sciences, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 72 9700 AB (Netherlands); Russolillo, D. [Fondazione per l' Ambiente ' T. Fenoglio' , Via Gaudenzio Ferrari 1, I-10124 Torino (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    Departing from the concept of rational use of energy, the paper outlines the microeconomics of end-use energy saving as a result of frugality or efficiency measures. Frugality refers to the behaviour that is aimed at energy conservation, and with efficiency we refer to the technical ratio between energy input and output services that can be modified with technical improvements (e.g. technology substitution). Changing behaviour from one side and technology from the other are key issues for public energy policy. In this paper, we attempt to identify the effects of parameters that determine energy saving behaviour with the use of the microeconomic theory. The role of these parameters is crucial and can determine the outcome of energy efficiency policies; therefore policymakers should properly address them when designing policies. (author)

  9. Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making

    Departing from the concept of rational use of energy, the paper outlines the microeconomics of end-use energy saving as a result of frugality or efficiency measures. Frugality refers to the behaviour that is aimed at energy conservation, and with efficiency we refer to the technical ratio between energy input and output services that can be modified with technical improvements (e.g. technology substitution). Changing behaviour from one side and technology from the other are key issues for public energy policy. In this paper, we attempt to identify the effects of parameters that determine energy saving behaviour with the use of the microeconomic theory. The role of these parameters is crucial and can determine the outcome of energy efficiency policies; therefore policymakers should properly address them when designing policies.

  10. Defining The Energy Saving Potential of Architectural Design

    Naboni, Emanuele; Malcangi, Antonio; Zhang, Yi;

    2015-01-01

    Designers, in response to codes or voluntary " green building " programs, are increasingly concerned with building energy demand reduction, but they are not fully aware of the energy saving potential of architectural design. According to literature, building form, construction and material choices...... different occupant behaviour. The research shows the best solution for each of the climates and compares them with Olgyay´s findings. Finally, for each climate the energy saving potential is defined and then compared to Lechner's conclusions. Defining The Energy Saving Potential of Architectural Design (PDF...... Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279885641_Defining_The_Energy_Saving_Potential_of_Architectural_Design [accessed Jan 21, 2016]....

  11. Teelt en energie 2SaveEnergy kas

    Kempkes, F.L.K.; Janse, J.

    2016-01-01

    Energy savings through a greenhouse cover of insulation glass requires a large investment. In the search for a cheaper alternative by a consortium of companies consisting of VDH Plastic Greenhouses, Van der Valk Horti Systems, AGC Chemicals Europe en Boal Systems a Glass-Film-greenhouse cover, better known as the 2SaveEnergy greenhouse concept was realized in summer 2014. The combination of clear glass with a diffuse ETFE film and a double screen mounted at a distance of only a few centimetre...

  12. Breakthrough Energy Savings with Waterjet Technology

    Lee W. Saperstein; R. Larry Grayson; David A. Summers; Jorge Garcia-Joo; Greg Sutton; Mike Woodward; T.P. McNulty

    2007-05-15

    Experiments performed at the University of Missouri-Rolla's Waterjet Laboratory have demonstrated clearly the ability of waterjets to disaggregate, in a single step, four different mineral ores, including ores containing iron, lead and copper products. The study focused mainly on galena-bearing dolomite, a lead ore, and compared the new technology with that of traditional mining and milling to liberate the valuable constituent for the more voluminous host rock. The technical term for the disintegration of the ore to achieve this liberation is comminution. The potential for energy savings if this process can be improved, is immense. Further, if this separation can be made at the mining face, then the potential energy savings include avoidance of transportation (haulage and hoisting) costs to move, process and store this waste at the surface. The waste can, instead, be disposed into the available cavities within the mine. The savings also include the elimination of the comminution, crushing and grinding, stages in the processing plant. Future prototype developments are intended to determine if high-pressure waterjet mining and processing can be optimized to become cheaper than traditional fragmentation by drilling and blasting and to optimize the separation process. The basic new mining process was illustrated in tests on two local rock types, a low-strength sandstone with hematite inclusions, and a medium to high-strength dolomite commonly used for construction materials. Illustrative testing of liberation of minerals, utilized a lead-bearing dolomite, and included a parametric study of the optimal conditions needed to create a size distribution considered best for separation. The target goal was to have 50 percent of the mined material finer than 100 mesh (149 microns). Of the 21 tests that were run, five clearly achieved the target. The samples were obtained as run-of-mine lumps of ore, which exhibited a great deal of heterogeneity within the samples. This

  13. Economic evaluation of energy saving measures in a common type of Greek building

    This paper deals with the economic analysis and evaluation of various energy saving measures in the building sector, focusing on a domestic detached house in Greece, i.e. in a typical Mediterranean climate. In order to detect the energy saving measures that, in addition to energy benefits, can also provide economic profits, the study examines the following measures: all kinds of insulation; upgrading of the heating system; use of thermal solar systems; upgrading of lighting; upgrading of electric appliances; upgrading of the cooling system. The economic evaluation methods used for ranking the energy saving measures are the Net Present Value, the Internal Rate of Return, the Savings to Investment Ratio and the Depreciated Payback Period. It has been found that amongst the most effective energy saving methods are the upgrading of lighting, the insulation of the roof of the building and the installation of an automatic temperature control system.

  14. Household preferences for energy-saving measures : A conjoint analysis

    Poortinga, Wouter; Steg, Linda; Vlek, Charles; Wiersma, Gerwin

    2003-01-01

    Studies on household energy use generally focus on social and psychological factors influencing the acceptability of energy-saving measures. However, the influence of physical characteristics of energy-saving measures on their acceptability is largely ignored. In this study, preferences for differen

  15. Group Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit for 30% Energy Savings: Washington, D.C. (Fact Sheet)

    2013-11-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes - such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost-effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study's results will be used to identify cost effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

  16. Community based social marketing for implementation of energy saving targets at local level

    Dalia Streimikiene

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction policies at local level need to be investigated and new tools for climate change mitigation are necessary seeking to achieve GHG emission targets in Lithuania. Most Lithuanian municipalities have signed Covenant of Mayors and have prepared local energy action plans. However, all these plans include just energy saving measures on supply side and renovation of buildings. Nevertheless, the significant energy savings and GHG emission reductions can be achieved through behavioural changes. The aim of the paper is to apply community based social marketing approach in assessment of achievable energy saving and GHG emission reduction targets set by local energy action plans. The paper presents the results of case study implemented in Kaunas region municipality. The case study was conducted by creating focus groups and applying two scenarios: baseline or doing nothing and climate change mitigation scenario including intervention measures. The results of case study revealed that the total energy consumption reduction target set in Sustainable energy development strategy of Kaunas region county - 11% - can be achieved by combining results of energy consumption reduction in both focus groups. The survey conducted after study finalization revealed that respondents were provided with a lot of additional knowledge during the study and achieved real money savings. The major barriers of energy savings in households are related with the lack of information on energy savings and GHG emission reduction.

  17. Energy-saving strategies with personalized ventilation in cold climates

    Shiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2009-01-01

    In this study the influence of the personalized supply air temperature control strategy on energy consumption and the energy-saving potentials of a personalized ventilation system have been investigated by means of simulations with IDA-ICE software. GenOpt software was used to determine the optimal......–268%) compared to mixing ventilation alone if energy-saving strategies are not applied. The results show that the best supply air temperature control strategy is to provide air constantly at 20 °C. The most effective way of saving energy with personalized ventilation is to extend the upper room operative...... temperature limit (saving up to 60% compared to the reference case). However, this energy-saving strategy can be recommended only in a working environment where the occupants spend most of their time at their workstation. Reducing the airflow rate does not always imply a reduction of energy consumption...

  18. Energy-saving Lighting Technology of Petrochemical Enterprises

    Baohu Gu

    2015-01-01

    The shortage of energy resources is a serious problem our country is facing the world today, petrochemical enterprises are the main pillar of our economy, in our country, because petrochemical companies accounted for about 30.2% of the total energy consumption of energy. This paper focuses on the traditional energy-saving lighting methods proposed intelligent energy-saving system based on a fuzzy control. The purpose is to make the electrical equipment to fully meet, under the premise of impr...

  19. Energy savings certificates 2011-2013 - Companies. Knowledge for action

    As fossil energy resources are depleted and the environmental impacts of their use are increasingly addressed, energy costs will continue to rise. In this context it is vital for businesses - in the service sector, industry or agriculture - to take steps now to start managing their energy consumption. A number of tools and mechanisms are currently being implemented to help companies in this process, at the national and European levels. Among these, Energy Savings Certificates (ESCs) were introduced in France by the Energy Policy Law of 13 July 2005, with the aim of achieving energy savings in sectors of dispersed activity, mainly buildings, but also light industry, agriculture and transport. For businesses this mechanism is an additional financial leverage tool that can be used to support their energy management projects. Under this scheme energy suppliers must promote energy-efficient investments, and thus are potential sources of financing for project owners. The Grenelle environmental conference forcefully reiterated the need to take action, in particular to renovate existing building stock. In order to achieve the ambitious goals that have been set, the financial mechanisms put into place, including the ESC scheme, must be amplified. Following the first conclusive test period (2006-2009), the ESC scheme is being ramped up during a second and more ambitious three-year period that began on 1 January 2011. The present document is intended to inform companies of changes in the ESC scheme to be implemented for the second period covering 2011-2013. This guidance is divided into two parts: the first section describes the principles of the ESC scheme, and the second offers advice to companies that want to use this scheme for an energy management project. You will also find a practical information sheet listing all the steps to be taken to submit an ESC claim

  20. Energy savings in the Danish building stock until 2050

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    A study has been conducted analysing the energy savings for space heating and domestic hot water in the Danish building stock due to renovation of building components at the end of their service life. The purpose of the study was to estimate the energy savings until 2050 as building components are...... Building Regulations. Compliance with the requirements in the Danish Building Regulations will potentially result in energy savings for space heating and domestic hot water around 30 % until 2050. Further tightening of the component insulation level requirements will only result in marginally higher...... savings, due to the level of the current requirements. Higher energy savings can, though, be achieved e.g. by setting requirements for balanced mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and use of solar heating for domestic hot water....

  1. Tradable certificates for renewable electricity and energy savings

    Tradable green certificates (TGCs) schemes have been developed and tested in several European countries to foster market-driven penetration of renewables. These certificates guarantee that a specific volume of electricity is generated from renewable-energy source (RES). More recently certificates (tradable white certificates (TWCs)) for the electricity saved by demand-side energy-efficiency measures (EEMs) have been introduced in some European countries. Recent advances in information and communication technology have opened up new possibilities for improving energy efficiency and increasing utilization of RESs. Use of technological resources such as the Internet and smart metering can permit real-time issuing and trading of TGCs. These technologies could also permit issuing of TWC. This paper reviews current renewable TGC and TWCs schemes in Europe and describes the possibilities for combining them in an Internet-based system. In the proposed combined tradable certificate scheme, both RESs and demand-side EEMs could bid in real time through the Internet to meet a specific obligation. The energy savings from the demand-side measures would be equivalent to the same amount of green electricity production. The paper describes the needed common targets and obligations, the certificate trading rules and the possible monitoring protocol. In particular, the paper focuses on the TWCs verification issues, including the assessment of the baseline, as these poses additional problems for TWCs compared to TGCs

  2. An Energy Saving System for a Beam Pumping Unit

    Lv, Hongqiang; Liu, Jun; Han, Jiuqiang; Jiang, An

    2016-01-01

    Beam pumping units are widely used in the oil production industry, but the energy efficiency of this artificial lift machinery is generally low, especially for the low-production well and high-production well in the later stage. There are a number of ways for energy savings in pumping units, with the periodic adjustment of stroke speed and rectification of balance deviation being two important methods. In the paper, an energy saving system for a beam pumping unit (ESS-BPU) based on the Internet of Things (IoT) was proposed. A total of four types of sensors, including load sensor, angle sensor, voltage sensor, and current sensor, were used to detect the operating conditions of the pumping unit. Data from these sensors was fed into a controller installed in an oilfield to adjust the stroke speed automatically and estimate the degree of balance in real-time. Additionally, remote supervision could be fulfilled using a browser on a computer or smartphone. Furthermore, the data from a practical application was recorded and analyzed, and it can be seen that ESS-BPU is helpful in reducing energy loss caused by unnecessarily high stroke speed and a poor degree of balance. PMID:27187402

  3. An Energy Saving System for a Beam Pumping Unit.

    Lv, Hongqiang; Liu, Jun; Han, Jiuqiang; Jiang, An

    2016-01-01

    Beam pumping units are widely used in the oil production industry, but the energy efficiency of this artificial lift machinery is generally low, especially for the low-production well and high-production well in the later stage. There are a number of ways for energy savings in pumping units, with the periodic adjustment of stroke speed and rectification of balance deviation being two important methods. In the paper, an energy saving system for a beam pumping unit (ESS-BPU) based on the Internet of Things (IoT) was proposed. A total of four types of sensors, including load sensor, angle sensor, voltage sensor, and current sensor, were used to detect the operating conditions of the pumping unit. Data from these sensors was fed into a controller installed in an oilfield to adjust the stroke speed automatically and estimate the degree of balance in real-time. Additionally, remote supervision could be fulfilled using a browser on a computer or smartphone. Furthermore, the data from a practical application was recorded and analyzed, and it can be seen that ESS-BPU is helpful in reducing energy loss caused by unnecessarily high stroke speed and a poor degree of balance. PMID:27187402

  4. Energy saving in a deep well pump with splitter blade

    Goelcue, Mustafa [Department of Mechanical Education, Pamukkale University, 20017 Kinikli, Denizli (Turkey)]. E-mail: mgolcu@pamukkale.edu.tr; Pancar, Yasar [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osman Gazi University, 26480 Eskisehir (Turkey); Sekmen, Yakup [Karabuk Vocational Collage, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, 78100 Karabuk (Turkey)

    2006-03-15

    Design parameters, like blade number, blade outlet angle and impeller outlet diameter, affect pump performance and energy consumption. Deep well pumps with splitter blades (DWPwsb) are manufactured to achieve energy saving and improve efficiency. Splitter blades are generally located at the centerline of the main blades. Blade number and blade discharge angle should be conveniently determined when splitter blades are used on the impellers. In this study, impellers having different numbers of blades (z = 5, 6, 7) with and without splitter blades (35%, 60% and 80% of the main blade length) were tested in a deep well pump. Tests have been conducted on a total of 12 impellers, and the characteristics of deep well pumps without splitter blade (DWPwosb) and DWPwsb were obtained experimentally. These results show that splitter blades cause negative effects on pump performance in impellers with blade numbers of 6 and 7. When the splitter blade is added to the impeller with the blade number of 5, the efficiency increases with flow up to 10 l/s flow rate, after which it decreases as the splitter blade length increases. The highest efficiency and the lowest energy consumption were obtained in DWPwsb with 80% of the main blade length. At the best efficiency point (b.e.p), an energy saving of 6.6% and an improvement of 1.14% in efficiency were achieved. An analysis of the additional cost of the splitter blade and the application in an agricultural area were performed.

  5. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Savings Opportunities in U.S. Petroleum Refining

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in nine individual process areas, representing 68% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  6. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Chemical Manufacturing

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. chemical manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in the production of 74 individual chemicals, representing 57% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual chemicals and for 15 subsectors of chemicals manufacturing are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  7. Energy efficiency and energy saving in heat supply systems

    Anastasiia Dmitrievna Avsiukevich

    2013-01-01

    The issue of necessity of clear reasoning behind the indicators of efficiency operation of heat supply systems is discussed in the research. The issue of finding out the main methods of improvement of efficiency operation of heat supply systems was also discussed in the work. The analysis of definition of theory of efficiency was carried out. The main indicators of energy saving are introduced. The methods of improvement of efficiency operation of heat supply systems are discussed...

  8. Trigeneration primary energy saving evaluation for energy planning and policy development

    Trigeneration or combined heat, cooling and power (CHCP) is becoming an increasingly important energy option, particularly on a small-scale basis (below 1 MWe), with several alternatives nowadays available for the cooling power production and the coupling to cogeneration systems. This paper deals with the introduction of a suitable framework for assessing the energy saving performance of trigeneration alternatives, orientated towards energy planning studies and the development of regulatory policies. In particular, a new generalized performance indicator-the trigeneration primary energy saving (TPES)-is introduced and discussed, with the aim of effectively evaluating the primary energy savings from different CHCP alternatives. The potential of the TPES indicator is illustrated through specific analyses run over different combinations of trigeneration equipment, providing numerical examples based on time-domain simulations to illustrate the dependence of the energy saving characteristics on the CHCP system configurations and equipment, as well as on the loading levels. In addition, the key aspect of adequately establishing the reference efficiencies for the conventional separate production of electrical, thermal and cooling power is addressed in detail. This aspect affects both equipment selection and potential profitability of the considered solutions under the outlook of receiving financial incentives

  9. Energy Savers--Tips on Saving Energy and Money at Home (Fifth Printing)

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances

  10. Large Hospital 50% Energy Savings: Technical Support Document

    Bonnema, E.; Studer, D.; Parker, A.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2010-09-01

    This Technical Support Document documents the technical analysis and design guidance for large hospitals to achieve whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 and represents a step toward determining how to provide design guidance for aggressive energy savings targets. This report documents the modeling methods used to demonstrate that the design recommendations meet or exceed the 50% goal. EnergyPlus was used to model the predicted energy performance of the baseline and low-energy buildings to verify that 50% energy savings are achievable. Percent energy savings are based on a nominal minimally code-compliant building and whole-building, net site energy use intensity. The report defines architectural-program characteristics for typical large hospitals, thereby defining a prototype model; creates baseline energy models for each climate zone that are elaborations of the prototype models and are minimally compliant with Standard 90.1-2004; creates a list of energy design measures that can be applied to the prototype model to create low-energy models; uses industry feedback to strengthen inputs for baseline energy models and energy design measures; and simulates low-energy models for each climate zone to show that when the energy design measures are applied to the prototype model, 50% energy savings (or more) are achieved.

  11. Quantification of energy savings from Ireland's Home Energy Saving scheme. An ex post billing analysis

    Scheer, J.; Clancy, M.; Ni Hogain, S. [Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland, Wilton Park House, Wilton Terrace, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2013-02-15

    This paper quantifies the energy savings realised by a sample of participants in the Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland's Home Energy Saving (HES) residential retrofit scheme (currently branded as the Better Energy Homes scheme), through an ex post billing analysis. The billing data are used to evaluate: (1) the reduction in gas consumption of the sample between pre- (2008) and post- (2010) scheme participation when compared to the gas consumption of a control group, (2) an estimate of the shortfall when this result is compared to engineering-type ex ante savings estimates and (3) the degree to which these results may apply to the wider population. All dwellings in the study underwent energy efficiency improvements, including insulation upgrades (wall and/or roof), installation of high-efficiency boilers and/or improved heating controls, as part of the HES scheme. Metered gas use data for the 210 households were obtained from meter operators for a number of years preceding dwelling upgrades and for a post-intervention period of 1 year. Dwelling characteristics and some household behavioural data were obtained through a survey of the sample. The gas network operator provided anonymised data on gas usage for 640,000 customers collected over the same period as the HES sample. Dwelling type data provided with the population dataset enabled matching with the HES sample to increase the internal validity of the comparison between the control (matched population data) and the treatment (HES sample). Using a difference-in-difference methodology, the change in demand of the sample was compared with that of the matched population subset of gas-using customers in Ireland over the same time period. The mean reduction in gas demand as a result of energy efficiency upgrades for the HES sample is estimated as 21 % or 3,664{+-}603 kWh between 2008 and 2010. An ex ante estimate of average energy savings, based on engineering calculations (u value reductions and improved boiler

  12. Technical energy savings versus changes in human behaviour

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    the way into human satisfaction via energy services. Results of various analyses and field experiments show saving potentials for electricity of 50 - 80 per cents. Barriers for implementing these technical saving options are discussed. Also the necessity and potentials for changing behavioural or life...

  13. Energy-saving behavior and marginal abatement cost for household CO2 emissions

    This paper attempts to measure consumers' perceived net benefits (or net costs) of energy-saving measures in using energy-consuming durable goods. Using the estimated net costs and the volume of CO2 reduced by the measures, a marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for the average household's CO2 emissions is produced. An analysis using the curve suggests that in order to provide households with an incentive to take actions that can lead to CO2 emission reductions in using energy-consuming durables, a high level of carbon price is needed. In addition, a regression analysis reveals that the net benefits of the measures are larger for households that put a higher priority on energy saving, for those living in detached houses, for those with a smaller number of persons living together, and for those with less income. The result of the analysis using the MAC curve may suggest that promoting energy-saving behavior will require not only a policy to provide economic incentives but also interventions to influence psychological factors of household behavior. - Highlights: • Consumers' perceived net costs of energy-saving measures in using energy-consuming durables are measured. • Using the estimated net costs, a marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for the average household's CO2 emissions is produced. • A high carbon price is needed in order to provide households with an incentive to take actions for energy-savings. • Households' attributes affecting their energy-saving behavior are revealed by a regression analysis

  14. VO2 thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation

    Jiadong Zhou; Yanfeng Gao; Zongtao Zhang; Hongjie Luo; Chuanxiang Cao; Zhang Chen; Lei Dai; Xinling Liu

    2013-01-01

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first...

  15. Ore concentrate line efficient operation: some energy saving implications

    Ihle, Christian F. [BRASS Engineering Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-07-01

    Among the outstanding attributes slurry pipelines must have is the need to optimize production efficiency and, in particular, minimize energy consumption. In the present paper, the energy saving implications of three different factors, namely process variable uncertainties, transport control variables and pipeline availability are referred to and exemplified using an idealized Bingham-type slurry pipeline. Present examples suggest that important energy savings can be achieved with proper designs, equipment and operations scheduling. (author)

  16. Biopulping: A new energy-saving technology for papermaking

    Biopulping is defined as the treatment of wood chips with lignin-degrading fungi prior to pulping. Fungal pretreatment prior to mechanical pulping reduces electrical energy requirements during refining or increases mill throughput, improves paper strength, reduces the pitch content, reduces cooking time for sulfite pulping, and reduces the environmental impact of pulping. The recent work involved scaling up the biopulping process towards the industrial level, investigating both the engineering and economic feasibility of the technology. The authors envision the process to be done in either a chip-pile or silo-based system for which several factors need to be considered. These factors include the degree of decontamination, a hospitable environment for the fungus, and the overall process economics. Currently, treatment of the chips with low pressure steam is sufficient for decontamination. Furthermore, a simple, forced ventilation system can be used to maintain the proper temperature, humidity, and moisture content throughout the chip bed, thus promoting uniform growth of the fungus. The pilot-scale trial resulted in the successful treatment of 4 tons, of wood chips (dry weight basis) with results comparable to those on a laboratory scale. For mechanical pulping, a 2-week treatment results in approximately 30% energy savings that, considering the additional equipment and operating costs, results in an overall savings of $9 to $20/ton of pulp in a chip-pile system. The other benefits that biopulping confers improve the economics considerably A larger, 40-ton trial was also successful, with energy savings and paper properties comparable with the laboratory scale

  17. Energy savings in mobile broadband network based on load predictions

    Samulevicius, Saulius; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard;

    2012-01-01

    wireless networks. To save energy in MBNs, one of the options is to turn off parts of the network equipment in areas where traffic falls below a specific predefined threshold. This paper looks at a methodology for identifying periods of the day when cells or sites carrying low traffic are candidates for...... being totally or partly switched off, given that the decrease in service quality can be controlled gracefully when the sites are switched off. Based on traffic data from an operational network, potential average energy savings of approximately 30% with some few low traffic cells/sites reaching up to 99......% energy savings can be identified....

  18. Demonstration of energy savings of cool roofs

    Konopacki, S.; Gartland, L.; Akbari, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.; Rainer, L. [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Dark roofs raise the summertime air-conditioning demand of buildings. For highly-absorptive roofs, the difference between the surface and ambient air temperatures can be as high as 90 F, while for highly-reflective roofs with similar insulative properties, the difference is only about 20 F. For this reason, cool roofs are effective in reducing cooling energy use. Several experiments on individual residential buildings in California and Florida show that coating roofs white reduces summertime average daily air-conditioning electricity use from 2--63%. This demonstration project was carried out to address some of the practical issues regarding the implementation of reflective roofs in a few commercial buildings. The authors monitored air-conditioning electricity use, roof surface temperature, plenum, indoor, and outdoor air temperatures, and other environmental variables in three buildings in California: two medical office buildings in Gilroy and Davis and a retail store in San Jose. Coating the roofs of these buildings with a reflective coating increased the roof albedo from an average of 0.20--0.60. The roof surface temperature on hot sunny summer afternoons fell from 175 F--120 F after the coating was applied. Summertime average daily air-conditioning electricity use was reduced by 18% (6.3 kWh/1000ft{sup 2}) in the Davis building, 13% (3.6 kWh/1000ft{sup 2}) in the Gilroy building, and 2% (0.4 kWh/1000ft{sup 2}) in the San Jose store. In each building, a kiosk was installed to display information from the project in order to educate and inform the general public about the environmental and energy-saving benefits of cool roofs. They were designed to explain cool-roof coating theory and to display real-time measurements of weather conditions, roof surface temperature, and air-conditioning electricity use. 55 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Advanced Energy Saving and its Applications in Industry

    Matsuda, Kazuo; Fushimi, Chihiro; Tsutsumi, Atsushi; Kishimoto, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The conventional approach for energy saving in a process system is to maximize heat recovery without changing any process conditions by using pinch technology. “Self-heat recuperation technology” was developed to achieve further energy saving in the process system by eliminating the necessity for any external heat input, such as firing or imported steam. Advanced Energy Saving and its Applications in Industry introduces the concept of self-heat recuperation and the application of such technology to a wide range of processes from heavy chemical complexes to other processes such as drying and gas separation processes, which require heating and cooling during operation.   Conventional energy saving items in a utility system are applied and implemented based on a single site approach, however, when looking at heavy chemical complexes, it was apparent that the low-grade heat discharged as waste from a refinery could also be used in an adjacent petrochemical plant. There could therefore be a large energy savin...

  20. Energy-saving Lighting Technology of Petrochemical Enterprises

    Baohu Gu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The shortage of energy resources is a serious problem our country is facing the world today, petrochemical enterprises are the main pillar of our economy, in our country, because petrochemical companies accounted for about 30.2% of the total energy consumption of energy. This paper focuses on the traditional energy-saving lighting methods proposed intelligent energy-saving system based on a fuzzy control. The purpose is to make the electrical equipment to fully meet, under the premise of improving its functional requirements, as far as possible to reduce energy consumption and improve energy efficiency.

  1. Potential for the Use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Provide Energy and Cost Savings in Non-Building Applications

    Williams, Charles; Green, Andrew S.; Dahle, Douglas; Barnett, John; Butler, Pat; Kerner, David

    2013-08-01

    The findings of this study indicate that potential exists in non-building applications to save energy and costs. This potential could save billions of federal dollars, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, increase energy independence and security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Federal Government has nearly twenty years of experience with achieving similar energy cost reductions, and letting the energy costs savings pay for themselves, by applying energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) inits buildings. Currently, the application of ESPCs is limited by statute to federal buildings. This study indicates that ESPCs can be a compatible and effective contracting tool for achieving savings in non-building applications.

  2. Implementation of energy-saving policies in China: How local governments assisted industrial enterprises in achieving energy-saving targets

    Local governments have replaced the national ministries that are in charge of various industries to become the primary implementer of energy-saving policies in China since 2000. This paper employs a case study-based approach to demonstrate the significance of local governments’ policy measures in assisting industrial enterprises with energy-saving activities in China. Based on the longitudinal case of the Jasmine Thermal Electric Power Company, this paper hypothesizes that sub-national governments have played a major role in implementing energy-saving policies in China since the 11th Five-year-plan period. A wide range of provincial and municipal agencies collaborated in implementing five types of policy measures – informational policy, skill building, improved enforcement of central directives, price adjustment, and funding – that reduced barriers to energy saving and motivated active pursuit of energy-saving activities at industrial enterprises. The case study demonstrates how an enterprise and local governments work together to achieve the enterprise's energy-saving target. The authors will investigate the hypothesis of this paper in the context of multiple case studies that they plan to undertake in the future. - Highlights: • We employ a case study-based approach to study policy implementation in China. • Local governments have played a major role in implementing energy-saving policies. • Local public agencies collaborated in implementing five types of policy measures. • Local policy measures reduced barriers to energy saving at industrial enterprises. • Enterprises and local governments work together to achieve energy-saving targets

  3. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Large Hospitals - 50% Energy Savings

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.

    2013-06-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Large Hospitals: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-LH) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-LH is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in large hospitals over levels achieved by following Standard 90.1-2004. The AEDG-LH was created for a 'standard' mid- to large-size hospital, typically at least 100,000 ft2, but the strategies apply to all sizes and classifications of new construction hospital buildings. Its primary focus is new construction, but recommendations may be applicable to facilities undergoing total renovation, and in part to many other hospital renovation, addition, remodeling, and modernization projects (including changes to one or more systems in existing buildings).

  4. General Merchandise 50% Energy Savings Technical Support Document

    Hale, E.; Leach, M.; Hirsch, A.; Torcellini, P.

    2009-09-01

    This report documents technical analysis for medium-box general merchandise stores aimed at providing design guidance that achieves whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004.

  5. The savings of energy saving: quantifying interactions between energy supply and demand side policies for Portugal

    Simoes, Sofia; Seixas, Julia; Cleto, Joao; Fortes, Patricia (DCEA, New Univ. of Lisbon, GASA DCEA, FCT/UNL (Portugal))

    2009-07-01

    Defendants of energy efficiency have argued that policy-makers focus excessively on the 'trendier' energy supply and not enough on end-use energy efficiency. Focusing on supply side energy policies, as is the case of supporting large renewable electricity generation plants, without looking at the same time for the opportunities in the demand-side, may generate avoidable costs. This paper addresses the interactions between energy supply and demand side policies, by estimating the gains of end-use energy-efficiency and renewable applications in terms of (i) avoided electricity generation installed capacity, (ii) final energy consumption, (iii) share of renewables in final energy, as defined in the EU 'Climate action and renewable energy package', and also, (iv) reductions of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. The Portuguese energy system is used as a case-study, and the linear optimization technology TIMES{sub PT} model is used to generate four scenarios up to 2020 corresponding to different levels of penetration of efficient equipment, particularly in the commercial and residential sectors. In the two business-as-usual scenarios, the replacement of equipments from 2005 to 2020 follows the 2000-2005 trends and the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan targets. In the efficient scenarios all equipments can be replaced with more efficient ones. Results show that aggressive industry, residential and commercial demand-side measures can make unnecessary to increase the renewable electricity installed capacity in approximately 4.7GW as currently discussed by policy-makers, in order to meet the 31% target of share of renewables. These measures lead to a reduction of only 0-2% of total final energy, but this represents reduction of 11-14% in the commercial sector, and 1-4% in industry, with savings in total energy system costs of approximately 3000 M Euro - roughly the equivalent to 2% of the 2005 GDP.

  6. Energy-saving Technology and Market Value (Japanese)

    EDAMURA Kazuma; Okada, Yosuke

    2013-01-01

    Based upon the standard model of Grilliches (1981), this paper examines the relationship between the intangible asset of energy-saving technologies and stock market value. We furthermore construct the spillover variable of energy-saving technologies for each firm using the definition of technological proximity by Jaffe (1986), and consider their distinctive impact on stock market value. Non-linear estimation using firm-level data of listed Japanese manufacturing firms reveals that intangible ...

  7. Addressing and overcoming barriers for energy savings in business

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Kasper

    Energy savings are generally viewed as an effective way to cut GHG emissions, as there are huge potentials for improvements because of several barriers and constraining factors for implementing otherwise profitable solutions. Several different polity tools have been applied to overcome these...... authorities (and other intermediates in the energy saving area) for how they can interact with companies to assist them overcome different barriers and constrains taking a role and approach as a “reflective dialogue partner”....

  8. Energy Savings Potential for Pumping Water in District Heating Stations

    Ioan Sarbu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In district heating stations, the heat carrier is circulated between the energy source and consumers by a pumping system. Fluid handling systems, such as pumping systems, are responsible for a significant portion of the total electrical energy use. Significant opportunities exist to reduce pumping energy through smart design, retrofitting, and operating practices. Most existing systems requiring flow control make use of bypass lines, throttling valves or pump speed adjustments. The most efficient of these options is pump speed control. One of the issues in using variable-speed pumping systems, however, is the total efficiency of the electric motor/pump arrangement under a given operating condition. This paper provides a comprehensive discussion about pump control in heating stations and analyzes the energy efficiency of flow control methods. Specific attention is also given to the selection of motor types, sizing and pump duty cycle. A comparative energy analysis is performed on the hot water discharge adjustment using throttling control valves and variable-speed drives in a district heating station constructed in Romania. To correlate the pumped flow rate with the heat demand and to ensure the necessary pressure using minimum energy, an automatic system has been designed. The performances of these control methods are evaluated in two practical applications. The results show that approximately 20%–50% of total pumping energy could be saved by using the optimal control method with variable-speed pumps. Additionally, some modernization solutions to reduce the environmental impact of heating stations are described.

  9. Potential energy savings from cool roofs in Spain and Andalusia

    Cool roofs are an inexpensive method to save energy and to improve the comfort level in buildings in mild and hot climates. A high scale implementation of cool roofs in Andalusia, in the south of Spain, could potentially save 295,000 kWh per year, considering only residential buildings with flat roofs using electrical heating. At the current energy prices, consumers can save 59 million euros annually in electricity costs and the emission of 136,000 metric tons of CO2 can be directly avoided every year from the production of that electricity. If radiative forcings are considered, Andalucía can potentially offset between 9.44 and 12 Mt of CO2. All the provinces in the rest of Spain are also studied in this paper. The biggest savings are achieved in Gran Canaria (48%), Tenerife (48%), Cádiz (36%), Murcia (33%), Huelva (30%), Málaga (29%), Almería (29%) and Sevilla (28%), where savings are greater than 2 euros per square meter of flat roof for old buildings with dark roofs. For the biggest cities the range of savings obtained are: between 7.4% and 11% in Madrid, between 12% and 18% in Barcelona and between 14% and 20% in Valencia. -- Highlights: ► We estimate potential savings in energy, CO2, and money for cool roofs in Spain (residential sector with flat roofs). ► Average savings are of around one euro per square meter in the biggest cities. ► Potential savings are of more than 2 €/m2 in the hottest cities. ► In Andalusia the potential savings are 300 MWh, 60 millions euro and 136,000 tons of CO2 per year. ► With forcings, the CO2 equivalence of cool roofs in Andalusia is between 9 and 12 Mt.

  10. Savings potential of ENERGY STAR (registered trademark) voluntary labeling programs

    In 1993 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduced ENERGY STAR (registered trademark), a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products. Since then EPA, now in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has introduced programs for more than twenty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating and cooling equipment, new homes, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. We present potential energy, dollar and carbon savings forecasts for these programs for the period 1998 to 2010. Our target market penetration case represents our best estimate of future ENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goals for each of the products. We also provide results under the assumption of 100% market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasers buy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products throughout the analysis period. Finally, we assess the sensitivity of our target penetration case forecasts to greater or lesser marketing success by EPA and DOE, lower-than-expected future energy prices, and higher or lower rates of carbon emission by electricity generators. The potential savings of ENERGY STAR are substantial. If all purchasers chose Energy Star-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products over the next 15 years, they would save more than$100 billion on their energy bills during those 15 years. (Bill savings are in 1995 dollars, discounted at a 4% real discount rate.)

  11. How will energy use develop and what are the prospects of energy saving measures?

    Boonekamp, P. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    Since the second oil crisis (1980) energy savings have contributed worldwide to limiting the pressure on fossil fuel resources, mitigating environmental effects such as greenhouse gases and easing the burden of high energy prices. However, in recent years the rate of savings has decreased, despite ample opportunities to improve energy efficiency. Probable causes are the lower energy prices (except in 2008) and a lack of effective government policies to stimulate savings. Another cause could be the invisibility of savings, which actually constitute 'energy carriers that have not been used'. Therefore, it is important to have methods that can prove realised energy savings. Considerable effort, also by the European Union (EU) and the International Energy Agency (IEA), is put into the monitoring of energy savings and the evaluation of policies on savings. With these methods past and future savings have been calculated. The effect of renewed efforts to raise the savings rate, both in the Netherlands (program 'Clean and Efficient') and the EU, is shown. Also the effect of savings, together with economic growth and structural changes, on future energy demand will be shown. The results indicate that up to 2020 savings can be more important than the increased use of renewable energy sources or switches between primary energy sources.

  12. Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO)

    McIntosh, Jane [MDA; Schumacher, Leon [University of Missouri

    2014-10-23

    buildings, and the homes on these farms. The expected measurable outcomes of the project were to improve the environment and stimulate the economy by: • Reducing annual fossil fuel emissions by 1,942 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent, reducing the total annual energy use on at least 323 small animal farms and 100 farm homes by at least 8,000 kWh and 2,343 therms per farm. • Stimulating the economy by creating or retaining at least 69 jobs, and saving small animal farmers an average of $2,071 per farm in annual energy expenditures. B. Project Scope The MAESTRO team chose the target population of small farms because while all agriculture is traditionally underserved in energy efficiency programs, small farms were particularly underserved because they lack the financial resources and access to energy efficiency technologies that larger farms deploy. The MAESTRO team reasoned that energy conservation, financial and educational programs developed while serving the agricultural community could serve as a national model for other states and their agricultural sectors. The target population was approximately 2,365 small animal farm operations in Missouri, specifically those farms that were not by definition a confined animal feeding operation (CAFO). The program was designed to create jobs by training Missouri contractors and Missouri University Extension staff how to conduct farm audits. The local economy would be stimulated by an increase in construction activity and an increasing demand for energy efficient farm equipment. Additionally, the energy savings were deemed critical in keeping Missouri farms in business. This project leveraged funds using a combination of funds from the Missouri Department of Natural Resources’ Missouri Energy Center and its Soil and Water Conservation Program, from the state's Linked Deposits, MASBDA's agricultural loan guarantee programs, and through the in-kind contribution of faculty and staff time to the project from these

  13. Energy saving behaviours: Development of a practice-based model

    Financial pressure and concern for the environment has meant many consumers are aware of the need to reduce their consumption of many resources, including energy, which is the focus of the present study. While potential energy use deterrents in the form of access constraints and price increases are forms of extrinsic control, it is not clear how effective these are at reducing consumption and, indeed, it is not clear if such measures are consistent with people's underlying energy saving motivations. Beyond behavioural motivations, people's desires to reduce energy can be thwarted (barriers) and/or supported by a variety of factors, some within their control, while others are perhaps less so. Using a practice-based framework and a qualitative focus group approach, this study presents an exploratory study of these issues. Policy suggestions for overcoming barriers, as well suggestions as to how energy saving behaviours can be supported are offered. - Highlights: • We obtained consumers views about energy saving motivations, barriers and support. • Attitudes towards energy saving are not sufficient to change behaviours. • A practice-based approach to understanding energy saving behaviours is applied. • A practice-based energy-cultures framework (PBECF) is developed. • Barriers and support factors are identified that can be conceptualised within a PBECF

  14. Performing impact evaluations in industrial retrofit: The Energy Savings Plan Program

    Riewer, S. [USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States); Spanner, G.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-08-01

    The Energy Savings Plan (ESP) is Bonneville Power Administration`s retrofit program for the industrial sector. The program pays incentives for energy conservation measures involving electrical energy efficiency improvements in manufacturing, processing, and refining industries. This paper will describe the ESP program, recount the techniques selected to evaluate the retrofits, and report the findings from five ESP project impact evaluations completed to date. The impact evaluations provide a framework for assessing the energy saving achieved by the provides implemented under the ESP. In addition to energy savings, the evaluations assess process changes, net utility impacts, levelized costs, and ``free ridership.`` The five ESP projects evaluated include: a waste heat recovery system for a food processing blancher, an energy management control system used to upgrade refrigeration, a variable speed drive for a fan motor in a lumber mill, a sludge screw press for waste water treatment, and replacement of rod anodes with blades anodes in mercury cells in an electrochemical plant.

  15. Incentives for Energy Saving and Renewable Energy in the Netherlands

    Energy saving and renewable energy are again on the Dutch political agenda. Based on the governmental energy report, market parties have developed the action plan for the realisation of national renewable energy targets. The evaluation of recently closed subsidy programmes and development of new incentives take place in close cooperation among governmental organisations and market parties. For the financing of the action plan the government has reserved the budget up to 2011. The government believes that the implementation of energy efficiency and renewable energy will strengthen the national economy and that the benefits of these measures will exceed the costs. The main obstacles related to the implementation of a large scale wind power generation are: spatial integration, permits and connection to the grid. Also, the large scale biomass plants meet problems because of the lack of clear environmental and sustainability criteria. The Dutch targets for 2020 are: increasing of energy efficiency with 20%, 20% renewable energy and decreasing of CO2-emissions with 30%.(author)

  16. The impact on energy consumption of daylight saving clock changes

    The focus of this work is an investigation of the effect of prevailing time regime on energy consumption. In particular we perform analysis demonstrating potential energy savings which could be obtained were Great Britain to maintain daylight savings time (DST) over winter, instead of reverting to Greenwich mean time (GMT). We review the literature on the effect of DST on energy consumption and show that this indicates a justification for considering the issue. Our headline result is in agreement with many related studies in that advancing the clock by an hour in winter would lead to energy savings of at least 0.3% of daily demand in Great Britain. In deriving this result we have adopted methodologies currently used in load prediction, in particular Support Vector Regression, to estimate energy demand on a half-hourly basis. Corresponding cost savings are found to be higher (due to the nonlinear increase of costs) and we find them to be on the order of 0.6% over the months considered. In terms of environmental impact we find the saving to be approximately equivalent to 450,000 ton of CO2. In deriving these results we adopt a conservative approach such that we consider them lower bounds on any true savings.

  17. Energy savings in the Danish building stock until 2050

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    A study has been conducted analysing the energy savings for space heating and domestic hot water in the Danish building stock due to renovation of building components at the end of their service life. The purpose of the study was to estimate the energy savings until 2050 as building components are...... energy upgraded according to the requirements stipulated in the Danish Building Regulations 2010. Furthermore, scenario analyses was made for the potential impact on the energy consumption of introducing different levels of tightening of the energy requirements for existing buildings in the Danish...... Building Regulations. Compliance with the requirements in the Danish Building Regulations will potentially result in energy savings for space heating and domestic hot water around 30 % until 2050. Further tightening of the component insulation level requirements will only result in marginally higher...

  18. Computational Support for the Selection of Energy Saving Building Components

    De Wilde, P.J.C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Buildings use energy for heating, cooling and lighting, contributing to the problems of exhaustion of fossil fuel supplies and environmental pollution. In order to make buildings more energy-efficient an extensive set of âenergy saving building componentsâ has been developed that contributes to minimizing the energy need of buildings, that helps buildings to access renewable energy sources, and that helps buildings to utilize fossil fuels as efficiently as possible. Examples of such energy sa...

  19. Energy Costs of Energy Savings in Buildings: A Review

    Daniel Rousse

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is often claimed that the cheapest energy is the one you do not need to produce. Nevertheless, this claim could somehow be unsubstantiated. In this article, the authors try to shed some light on this issue by using the concept of energy return on investment (EROI as a yardstick. This choice brings semantic issues because in this paper the EROI is used in a different context than that of energy production. Indeed, while watts and negawatts share the same physical unit, they are not the same object, which brings some ambiguities in the interpretation of EROI. These are cleared by a refined definition of EROI and an adapted nomenclature. This review studies the research in the energy efficiency of building operation, which is one of the most investigated topics in energy efficiency. This study focuses on the impact of insulation and high efficiency windows as means to exemplify the concepts that are introduced. These results were normalized for climate, life time of the building, and construction material. In many cases, energy efficiency measures imply a very high EROI. Nevertheless, in some circumstances, this is not the case and it might be more profitable to produce the required energy than to try to save it.

  20. Evaluation of methods used to determine realized energy savings

    Most methods to determine realized total energy savings at national or sectoral level make choices, or neglect problems, which hamper the calculation of sound and useful energy-saving figures. Issues are the choice of the right aggregation level, the appropriate variables to construct a reference energy consumption trend, the energy quantities to be applied and interaction between various effects. Uncertainty margins for results lack in most presentations as well. This paper presents six methods, illustrates the adverse effects of certain choices and problems, and investigates how these methods deal with them. The methods are scored with respect to the issues mentioned above. Finally, a number of improvements are suggested, among which the use of final energy demand expressed in primary energy units, and bottom-up analyses at the level of real saving options. The last option is the more important, as it could provide top-down evaluation results (total savings from decomposition) as well as bottom-up policy monitoring results, both being crucial to new European energy-saving policy

  1. Predictive Maintenance (PdM) Centralization for Significant Energy Savings

    Smith, Dale

    2010-09-15

    Cost effective predictive maintenance (PdM) technologies and basic energy calculations can mine energy savings form processes or maintenance activities. Centralizing and packaging this information correctly empowers facility maintenance and reliability professionals to build financial justification and support for strategies and personnel to weather global economic downturns and competition. Attendees will learn how to: Systematically build a 'pilot project' for applying PdM and tracking systems; Break down a typical electrical bill to calculate energy savings; Use return on investment (ROI) calculations to identify the best and highest value options, strategies and tips for substantiating your energy reduction maintenance strategies.

  2. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    Lund, Henrik; Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Aggerholm, Søren;

    One of the important issues related to the implementation of future sustainable smart energy systems based on renewable energy sources is the heating of buildings. Especially, when it comes to long‐term investment in savings and heating infrastructures it is essential to identify long‐term least...... a least‐cost strategy will be to provide approximately 2/3 of the heat demand from district heating and the rest from individual heat pumps. Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Renewable energy, Heating strategy, Heat savings, District heating, Smart energy......‐cost strategies. With Denmark as a case, this paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish governmental long...

  3. Potential of energy savings in the hotel sector in Jordan

    This paper presents some insights into Jordan's energy consumption in the tourist accommodation sector. The results of a recent survey on environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan were used to evaluate energy conservation in hotels. A survey was designed and distributed to hotels' managers and departments' supervisors in order to understand the environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan during the period 10-17 August 2006. Also some field visits were conducted to fully understand hotels interaction regarding the environment, in addition to help interpreting the results of the survey. The study is limited to all classified hotels in Jordan. It was found that lighting hotels' main building and outside areas, and air conditioning consume more electricity compared to other departments. The results show that few classified hotels already installed energy saving equipments, though, it was noticed that managers of one star hotels were not really willing to make such changes in their hotels, on the other hand, other classified hotels (2-5 star hotels) have shown a high willingness to make changes in their hotels to reduce the consumption of different types of energy. Hotel's classification played a significant role in explaining variations in most of the results, particularly when it comes to long-term investments to reduce energy consumption by using energy efficient appliances. Five and four star hotels were the most hotels willing to use energy efficient appliances to reduce energy consumption. The study suggested some strategies to help reduce the negative impacts of high energy consumption in hotels. These strategies include better insulation, and enhanced insulation for the hot water reticulation system. Moreover, enhancing and increasing the level of awareness among all hoteliers through a directed and well-designed campaign. Also offer interest free loans; and activate precise standards and specifications

  4. Potential of energy savings in the hotel sector in Jordan

    Ali, Yahya [Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mustafa, Mairna [Department of Sustainable Tourism, Queen Rania' s Institute of Tourism and Heritage, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Al-Mashaqbah, Shireen [International Office, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mashal, Kholoud [Department of Land Management and Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mohsen, Mousa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan)

    2008-11-15

    This paper presents some insights into Jordan's energy consumption in the tourist accommodation sector. The results of a recent survey on environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan were used to evaluate energy conservation in hotels. A survey was designed and distributed to hotels' managers and departments' supervisors in order to understand the environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan during the period 10-17 August 2006. Also some field visits were conducted to fully understand hotels interaction regarding the environment, in addition to help interpreting the results of the survey. The study is limited to all classified hotels in Jordan. It was found that lighting hotels' main building and outside areas, and air conditioning consume more electricity compared to other departments. The results show that few classified hotels already installed energy saving equipments, though, it was noticed that managers of one star hotels were not really willing to make such changes in their hotels, on the other hand, other classified hotels (2-5 star hotels) have shown a high willingness to make changes in their hotels to reduce the consumption of different types of energy. Hotel's classification played a significant role in explaining variations in most of the results, particularly when it comes to long-term investments to reduce energy consumption by using energy efficient appliances. Five and four star hotels were the most hotels willing to use energy efficient appliances to reduce energy consumption. The study suggested some strategies to help reduce the negative impacts of high energy consumption in hotels. These strategies include better insulation, and enhanced insulation for the hot water reticulation system. Moreover, enhancing and increasing the level of awareness among all hoteliers through a directed and well-designed campaign. Also offer interest free loans; and activate precise

  5. The solar greenhouse: a survey of energy saving methods

    Saye, A.; Loon, van, E.E.; Bot, G.P.A.; Zwart, de, F.

    2000-01-01

    The solar greenhouse project is aimed at the development of a greenhouse concept for the Netherlands with zero-fossil energy consumption. The solar greenhouse is formulated as a combination of a low energy demand greenhouse, an energy recovery installation and an energy storage facility. In this paper, energy saving options such as new building materials, a dehumidifier, a heat pump and long term storage are studied. A simplified model is being developed in MATLAB to describe the total system...

  6. VO2 thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-01-01

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner. PMID:24157625

  7. Traffic-aware Elastic Optical Networks to leverage Energy Savings

    Turus, Ioan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Dittmann, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    . Optical network reconfigurations are performed by GMPLS node controllers according to monitored traffic information. The investigated energy reduction strategies are simulated on two large scale transport networks (DT17 and COST37). The results show that the energy savings obtained by these strategies......Because of the static nature of the deployed optical networks, large energy wastage is experienced today in production networks such as Telecom networks . With power-adaptive optical interfaces and suitable grooming procedures, we propose the design of more energy efficient transport networks...... depend on the variability of the carried traffic and the characteristics of the network topology . For medium size DT17 network significant (more than 3 7 %) power savings are achieved only with symbol-rate adaptation while less savings are achieved for modulation format adaptation. In case of pan...

  8. Performance analysis of TCP traffic and its influence on ONU's energy saving in energy efficient TDM-PON

    Alaelddin, Fuad Yousif Mohammed; Newaz, S. H. Shah; Lee, Joohyung; Uddin, Mohammad Rakib; Lee, Gyu Myoung; Choi, Jun Kyun

    2015-12-01

    The majority of the traffic over the Internet is TCP based, which is very sensitive to packet loss and delay. Existing research efforts in TDM-Passive Optical Networks (TDM-PONs) mostly evaluate energy saving and traffic delay performances under different energy saving solutions. However, to the best of our knowledge, how energy saving mechanisms could affect TCP traffic performance in TDM-PONs has hardly been studied. In this paper, by means of our state-of-art OPNET Modular based TDM-PON simulator, we evaluate TCP traffic delay, throughput, and Optical Network Unit (ONU) energy consumption performances in a TDM-PON where energy saving mechanisms are employed in ONUs. Here, we study the performances under commonly used energy saving mechanisms defined in standards for TDM-PONs: cyclic sleep and doze mode. In cyclic sleep mode, we evaluate the performances under two well-known sleep interval length deciding algorithms (i.e. fixed sleep interval (FSI) and exponential sleep interval deciding (ESID)) that an OLT uses to decide sleep interval lengths for an ONU. Findings in this paper put forward the strong relationship among TCP traffic delay, throughput and ONU energy consumption under different sleep interval lengths. Moreover, we reveal that under high TCP traffic, both FSI and ESID will end up showing similar delay, energy and throughput performance. Our findings also show that doze mode can offer better TCP throughput and delay performance at the price of consuming more energy than cyclic sleep mode. In addition, our results provide a glimpse on understanding at what point doze mode becomes futile in improving energy saving of an ONU under TCP traffic. Furthermore, in this paper, we highlight important research issues that should be studied in future research to maximize energy saving in TDM-PONs while meeting traffic Quality of Service requirements.

  9. A review of different strategies for HVAC energy saving

    Highlights: • Various strategies for HVAC energy saving are described and reviewed. • The influence of each strategy on the HVAC energy saving is investigated. • Combination of existing air conditioning technologies appears to be effective for the energy conservation and comfort. • A comparison study between these approaches is carried out. • Changing the HVAC configuration has the potential to increase or reduce energy savings, depending on several factors. - Abstract: Decreasing the energy consumption of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems is becoming increasingly important due to rising cost of fossil fuels and environmental concerns. Therefore, finding novel ways to reduce energy consumption in buildings without compromising comfort and indoor air quality is an ongoing research challenge. One proven way of achieving energy efficiency in HVAC systems is to design systems that use novel configurations of existing system components. Each HVAC discipline has specific design requirements and each presents opportunities for energy savings. Energy efficient HVAC systems can be created by re-configuring traditional systems to make more strategic use of existing system parts. Recent research has demonstrated that a combination of existing air conditioning technologies can offer effective solutions for energy conservation and thermal comfort. This paper investigates and reviews the different technologies and approaches, and demonstrates their ability to improve the performance of HVAC systems in order to reduce energy consumption. For each strategy, a brief description is first presented and then by reviewing the previous studies, the influence of that method on the HVAC energy saving is investigated. Finally, a comparison study between these approaches is carried out

  10. Vacuum Pump System Optimization Saves Energy at a Dairy Farm

    None

    2001-08-01

    In 1998, S&S Dairy optimized the vacuum pumping system at their dairy farm in Modesto, California. In an effort to reduce energy costs, S&S Dairy evaluated their vacuum pumping system to determine if efficiency gains and energy savings were possible.

  11. Does energy labelling on residential housing cause energy savings? Working paper

    Kjaerbye, V.H.

    2008-12-15

    More than 80% of energy used in households is dedicated to space heating. Large potential energy savings have been identified in the existing housing stock. Energy labelling of single-family houses is seen as an important instrument to provide new house owners with information on efficient energy saving investments that can be made on the house. This paper evaluates the effects of the Danish Energy Labelling Scheme on energy consumption in existing single-family houses with propensity score matching using actual consumption of energy and register data describing the houses and households. We do not find significant energy savings due to the Danish Energy Labelling Scheme. (Author)

  12. Energy Savings for Solar Heating Systems

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2006-01-01

    showed a good degree of similarity. With the boiler model, various simulations of solar domestic hot water heating systems were done for different hot water demands and collector sizes. The result shows that the potential of fuel reduction can be much higher than the solar gain of the solar thermal...... system. For some conditions the fuel reduction can be up to the double of the solar gain due to a strong increase of the system efficiency. As the monitored boilers were not older than 3 years, it can be assumed that the saving potential with older boilers could be even higher than calculated in this...

  13. Business Model for Femtocells: Franchising for Energy Saving

    Jonathan Rodriguez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—The purpose of the paper is to analyze how business models are employed in mobile communications, in order to tune them to the Femtocell domain, in addition to studying other goals that can be achieved by looking at the business models in an alternative way.Design/methodology/approach—By analyzing the technologies directly linked to a business model, it would be possible to produce a taxonomy of their usage. An analysis of the value chain is used to understand how to enhance current approaches to achieve new goals.Findings—The article covers the perspective that mobile networks evolution and femtocell implementation in the mobile market can bring innovative services to the final user, by leveraging on alternative usage of business models.Research limitations/implications—The acceptance of the usage of particular business models by mobile operators can bring benefits to the final users in the form of innovative services. An example of these services is the implementation of techniques to save energy on the terminal side.Practical implications—As soon as the targeted technologies become mature, it will be possible to provide novel services to the final user, while increasing the operational and business benefits of the mobile operators.Originality/Value—A novel view on the current application of the business model is developed, and new innovative goals are shown to be achievable by novel approaches, or by traditional approaches applied in an innovative way. In particular, we show a case study where a novel service called C2POWER applies franchising (re-selling of services of broadband access, to save energy on the mobile terminal side.

  14. Compact and energy saving magnet technology for particle accelerators

    Despite the fact that funding agencies and industrial users of particle accelerators get more and more alerted about costs of civil engineering, installation and operation, only little effort has been put into development of sustainable, energy and cost saving accelerator technology. In order to reduce the total-cost-of ownership of accelerator magnets, operating at high electrical power for twenty years or more, permanent magnet based Green Magnet technology has been developed at a consortium around Danfysik's R and D team. Together with our partners from ISA, Aarhus University, the Aarhus School of Engineering, the company Sintex and Aalborg University all obstacles in applying permanent magnet technology as e.g. thermal drift and inhomogeneities of magnetic fields have been overcome. The first Green Magnet has now been operated for more than half a year in an Accelerator Mass Spectrometry facility at the ETH in Zurich. The performance of this B=0.43T 90 deg. H-type bending magnet and the most recently builtB=1T, 30 deg. C-type Green Magnet for the synchrotron light source ASTRID2 at ISA in Aarhus will be presented. Danfysik also is designing, manufacturing and testing 60 compact magnet systems, developed at MAX-Lab for the new MAXIV 3.0 GeV synchrotron light source. In addition, 12 for the 1.5 GeV light source and another 12 for the new SOLARIS light source in Krakow, Poland are buying built. Up to a dozen or more magnet functions have been integrated into one yoke of these compact magnet systems, which makes the new MAXIV light sources compact, energy saving and at the same time very bright. Test results and design concepts of the new MAXIV and SOLARIS magnets will be presented. (author)

  15. Making the results of bottom-up energy savings comparable

    Moser Simon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Service Directive (ESD has pushed forward the issue of energy savings calculations without clarifying the methodological basis. Savings achieved in the Member States are calculated with rather non-transparent and hardly comparable Bottom-up (BU methods. This paper develops the idea of parallel evaluation tracks separating the Member States’ issue of ESD verification and comparable savings calculations. Comparability is ensured by developing a standardised BU calculation kernel for different energy efficiency improvement (EEI actions which simultaneously depicts the different calculation options in a structured way (e.g. baseline definition, system boundaries, double counting. Due to the heterogeneity of BU calculations the approach requires a central database where Member States feed in input data on BU actions according to a predefined structure. The paper demonstrates the proposed approach including a concrete example of application.

  16. 清净助燃剂对汽油机的节能与抗磨损研究%Study on energy-saving and anti-abrasion of gasoline engine using clean combustion-improving additive

    明彩兵; 拜玉贤

    2011-01-01

    A bench experiment was carried out, matching two gasoline engines with the same model number and performance index, respectively fueled with or without clean combustion-improving additive. The effects of the clean combustion-improving additive on power and emission of engines were investigated. The results showed that the power, economy and emission of the engine fueled with the additive all had obvious improvement in comparison with that of the engine without adding the additive: the power increasing 16. 43%, specific fuel consumption (SFC) decreasing 5.39%, and the emission of CO, HC and NOx falling 28.61%, 54. 38% and 10. 1%, respectively. Wear and tear of the engine cylinder was weakened, and sediment of combustion chamber inner side was reduced. In addition, no negative effect on the catalysis device appeared.%采用两台型号与性能指标相同的汽油机,通过台架试验研究了含有清净助燃剂的汽油对发动机动力性和排放的影响.结果表明,燃用含有该种汽油添加剂的汽油机,其功率增加了16.43%,油耗率(Specificfuelcon.sumption,SFC)降低了5.39%,CO、HC和NOx的排放分别降低了28.61%、54.38%和10.1%.此外,添加剂对发动机缸筒的磨损和燃烧室壁面沉积物也有一定的改善作用,而且对催化净化装置没有负面影响.

  17. An Investigation on the Energy Saving Potential of Electromagnetic Ballast Fluorescent Lamps

    Cheong, Z. X.; Barsoum, N. N.

    2009-08-01

    Energy saving issue is a matter of great concern for industry and electrical utilities. Energy saving from fluorescent lamp system can be achieved by means of optimizing lighting level, reducing power consumption and improving the efficiency of fluorescent lamps. This paper presents an alternative energy saving control method for electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps. Non-linearity characteristics of fluorescent lamps and the effect of energy saving controller are taken into account in the proposed energy saving controller. The proposed energy saving controller provides energy saving feature and dimmable illuminance level control for electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps. In comparison to electronic ballast, integration of an energy saving controller with electromagnetic ballast results in less power consumption, less green house gas emission and longer lifespan at a much lower installation cost. Experiment results based on the proposed controller showed that 37.5% energy can be saved by reducing 15% of the AC line voltage.

  18. Energy Efficiency & Scientific Development——2007 Beijing Energy-saving & Environmental Protection Exhibition

    2007-01-01

    @@ The whole world has been attaching great importance to energy saving and environmental protection. China is also at the risk of energy shortage with the rapid economic growth.Therefore, it has become increasingly important how to save energy and protect the environment.

  19. DETERMINING ENERGY SAVINGS IN BUILDINGS USING THE REDUCING COSTS METHOD

    STAN IVAN F.E.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is structured in four parts. The first part presents the importance of thermal insulation for buildings energy economy and some insulation properties. In the second part of the paper it is described the reducing cost method to determine the energy savings. The third part of the paper includes an analysis and a comparison for an exterior wall provided with different thicknesses of insulation layer in order to determine the average savings cost. The last part presents conclusions and discussion.

  20. 2SaveEnergy-Gewächshaus- Produktion und Energieverbrauch

    Kempkes, F.L.K.; Janse, J.

    2016-01-01

    Energy savings through a greenhouse cover of insulation glass requires a large investment. In the search for a cheaper alternative by a consortium of companies consisting of VDH Plastic Greenhouses, Van der Valk Horti Systems, AGC Chemicals Europe en Boal Systems a Glass-Film-greenhouse cover, better known as the 2SaveEnergy greenhouse concept was realized in summer 2014. The combination of clear glass with a diffuse ETFE film and a double screen mounted at a distance of only a few centimetre...

  1. Developing renewable energies for economic savings

    The 2014 edition of the 'Energy Technology Perspectives' published by the International Energy Agency (IEA) takes stock of the question of the future of the energy sector by 2050. The statement is clear: to keep the worldwide ambient temperature increase below 2 deg. C in 2050, massive investments in renewable energies will be necessary

  2. Evaluation of energy saving tasks performed by the energy transmission and distribution companies; Denmark; Evaluering af energiselskabernes energibespareaktiviteter

    Togeby, M. (Ea Energianalyse A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2012-05-15

    The evaluation is described in the Agreement of 20 November 2009 between the Danish Climate and Energy Minister and the distribution companies for electricity, natural gas, district heating and oil about the companies' future energy conservation efforts. The evaluation was conducted to provide recommendations for adjusting the system. The results of the evaluation show that energy companies and utilities meet the overall savings obligation. In 2011, 2,098 GWh savings are recorded, which is more than the obligation. The evaluation shows that the net effect is about 760 GWh (36%). When looking at types of energy companies, then the oil companies' activities generally have a low net effect and additionally is assessed to be low in relation to the district heating companies' renovation of the district heating network. The greatest additionally exists among large savings in the industry. The means that energy companies use to achieve savings obligations are significantly different today than a few years ago. Today there are grants for more than 85% of registered savings. Before 2006 primarily information and advice was used. Thus an estimated 400 million DKK annually is used for grants. Socio-economics is positive for the part of the effort that is aimed at businesses. The socio-economic value of the savings is calculated to be twice as large as the total cost when you only look at the industry. The system can thus be readily seen as a useful instrument to promote energy conservation in industry. For households, it is estimated that the net effect is 20% of the reported savings, while for industry the net effect is estimated to be 45%. Also, for renovations of the heat distribution networks the net effect is estimated to be low. (LN)

  3. Energy-Saving in Brew-Rectification

    N. I. Ulyanau

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates dynamics of rectification process on one plate of a column. The basic channels controlling brew-rectification process are described in the paper.The paper also considers problems pertaining to synthesis of an adaptive system that controls non-stationary objects with delay. Synthesis of adaptive systems that automatically control product quality and saving on power resources and productivity with the help of the second method of Lyapunov has been carried out in the paper.Industrial introduction of the given automatic control system of technological process shall permit to increase productivity of a rectification (10–15 %, to decrease specific power consumption by (5–10 % while preserving the specified quality of rectified ethyl alcohol and decrease alcohol losses with luting water and malt-residue.

  4. Electric energy savings from new technologies. Revision 1

    Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-09-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for 10 technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all 10 technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference projection, only 25% of the savings estimated here should be subtracted from the reference projection for analysis purposes.

  5. The unrecognized contribution of renewable energy to Europe's energy savings target

    We show that renewable energy contributes to Europe's 2020 primary energy savings target. This contribution, which is to a large extent still unknown and not recognized by policy makers, results from the way renewable energy is dealt with in Europe's energy statistics. We discuss the policy consequences and argue that the 'energy savings' occurring from the accounting of renewable energy should not distract attention from demand-side energy savings in sectors such as transport, industry and the built environment. The consequence of such a distraction could be that many of the benefits from demand-side energy savings, for example lower energy bills, increase of the renewable energy share in energy consumption without investing in new renewable capacity, and long-term climate targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by more than 80%, will be missed. Such distraction is not hypothetical since Europe's 2020 renewable energy target is binding whereas the 2020 primary energy savings target is only indicative. - Highlights: → We show that renewable energy contributes to Europe's 2020 primary energy savings target. → This is due to the 100% conversion efficiency for e.g. wind power used in Eurostat statistics. → This policy interaction is not (yet) recognized by European policy makers. → It may result in reduced incentives for realizing demand-side savings and related benefits.

  6. I-SAVE: AN INTERACTIVE REAL-TIME MONITOR AND CONTROLLER TO INFLUENCE ENERGY CONSERVATION BEHAVIOR BY IMPULSE SAVING

    Simulation-based model to explore the benefits of monitoring and control to energy saving opportunities in residential homes; an adaptive algorithm to predict the type of electrical loads; a prototype user friendly interface monitoring and control device to save energy; a p...

  7. Energy Saving Potential by Utilizing Natural Ventilation under Warm Conditions

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2014-01-01

    –airflow simulations of 27 common cases of dwellings (considered as one thermal zone) based on the combination of specific features of the building design, occupancy and climate conditions. The energy saving potential is assessed then by the use of a new assessment method suitable for large-scale scenarios using the...... actual number of air-conditioned dwellings distributed among the 27 cases. Thereby, the energy saving is presented as the difference in the cooling demand of the dwelling during one year without and with natural ventilation, respectively. Results indicate that for hot-dry conditions, buildings with high...... heat capacity combined with natural ventilation achieve the lowest indoor temperature, whereas under hot-humid conditions, night ventilation combined with low heat capacity buildings present the best results. Thereafter, an average aggregated saving potential of 4.2 TW h for 2008 is estimated...

  8. Occupant-in-Place Energy Efficiency Retrofit in a Group Home for 30% Energy Savings in Climate Zone 4

    Moore, Mike [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes – such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study’s results will be used to identify cost-effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

  9. Occupant-in-Place Energy Efficiency Retrofit in a Group Home for 30% Energy Savings in Climate Zone 4

    Moore, M.

    2013-08-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes - such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost-effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study's results will be used to identify cost effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

  10. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Group Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit for 30% Energy Savings, Washington, D.C.

    None

    2013-11-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes – such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost-effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study’s results will be used to identify cost effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

  11. Intelligent control of energy-saving power generation system

    Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Guoqing; Guo, Zhizhong [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Highway power generation system which is environmentally friendly and sustainable provides an innovative method of energy conversion. It is also as a kind of city science and technology innovation, which has the characteristics of environmental protection and sustainable utilization. Making full use of vehicle impact speed control humps, we design a new kind of highway speed control humps combined with solar electric generation system integration. Developing green energy, energy saving and environment protection can be achieved.

  12. Energy cost saving strategies in distributed power networks

    Tcheukam Alain; Tembine Hamidou

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study energy cost saving strategies in power networks in presence of prosumers. Three tips are considered: (i) distributed power network architecture, (ii) peak energy shaving with the integration of prosumers’ contribution, (iii) Electric vehicles self-charging by means of prosumers’ production. The proposed distributed power network architecture reduces significantly the transmission costs and can reduce significantly the global energy cost up to 42 percent. Different types...

  13. Potential energy savings and thermal comfort

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    Results of simulations carried out on four different buildings with common windows, commercial low-energy windows and xerogel windows are presented. The results are the annual energy consumption for space heating and the indoor air temperature level....

  14. Energy Efficiency and Energy Saving Potential in China: A Directional Meta-Frontier DEA Approach

    Qunwei Wang; Peng Zhou; Zengyao Zhao; Neng Shen

    2014-01-01

    Increasing energy efficiency and exploiting energy saving potential are two important practices that can help to ensure future energy security in China. This paper proposes a new total factor energy efficiency indicator, based on the directional meta-frontier data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach, to account for the heterogeneity of production technology among provinces in China. This indicator considers both energy savings and economic development, and can also decompose the energy savin...

  15. Energy Savings Performance Contract Case Studies.

    Lefevre, Jessica S.

    Building owners and managers can use performance-contracting Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) to partially or fully fund building renovations that include energy efficiency upgrades. This report provides building owners and managers with an introduction to the energy efficiency and building upgrade services provided by ESCOs. It uses 20 case…

  16. Energy Savings Assessment for Digital-to-Analog Converter Boxes

    Cheung, Hoi Ying Iris; Meier, Alan; Brown, Richard

    2011-01-18

    The Digital Television (DTV) Converter Box Coupon Program was administered by the U.S. government to subsidize purchases of digital-to-analog converter boxes, with up to two $40 coupons for each eligible household. In order to qualify as Coupon Eligible Converter Boxes (CECBs), these devices had to meet a number of minimum performance specifications, including energy efficiency standards. The Energy Star Program also established voluntary energy efficiency specifications that are more stringent than the CECB requirements. In this study, we measured the power and energy consumptions for a sample of 12 CECBs (including 6 Energy Star labeled models) in-use in homes and estimated aggregate energy savings produced by the energy efficiency policies. Based on the 35 million coupons redeemed through the end of the program, our analysis indicates that between 2500 and 3700 GWh per year are saved as a result of the energy efficiency policies implemented on digital-to-analog converter boxes. The energy savings generated are equivalent to the annual electricity use of 280,000 average US homes.

  17. Potential opportunities for energy savings in a Jordanian poultry company

    Rising concern about energy resource availability and energy prices in Jordan, cost of energy has become an issue that cannot be ignored in Jordan's industrial sector. In this study, energy auditing in a meat production factory related to poultry company was carried out. Based on the collected data and the conservation laws of energy, the performance of steam boilers, domestic hot water boilers, compressors, refrigeration systems, chillers, pumps, daily consumption of diesel and water were reviewed. The percentage of energy consumed by the refrigeration units, with respect to the total energy consumed, has been estimated. The results demonstrated a normal operation with thermal efficiency of 80.66% for the steam boiler, ability to save 18818.99 JD by installing economizer with payback period of 0.637 year and a 12.3% reduction of the energy cost achieved by reducing the blow down rate. The rate of diesel consumption was reduced by 12.87% over the last period of the study as a result of the recommendations that have been submitted to the technicians and professionals. The sum of 22223.77 JD can be saved by using heavy fuel oil instead of diesel oil. Moreover, this study demonstrated that energy saving can be considered as an ideal choice to increase profit and promote competition within the poultry industry if the company adopts all the proposals and recommendations that have been offered by this study.

  18. Energy saving effects of wireless sensor networks: a case study of convenience stores in Taiwan.

    Chen, Chih-Sheng; Lee, Da-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) technology has been successfully applied to energy saving applications in many places, and plays a significant role in achieving power conservation. However, previous studies do not discuss WSN costs and cost-recovery. The application of WSNs is currently limited to research and laboratory experiments, and not mass industrial production, largely because business owners are unfamiliar with the possible favorable return and cost-recovery on WSN investments. Therefore, this paper focuses on the cost-recovery of WSNs and how to reduce air conditioning energy consumption in convenience stores. The WSN used in this study provides feedback to the gateway and adopts the predicted mean vote (PMV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to allow customers to shop in a comfortable yet energy-saving environment. Four convenience stores in Taipei have used the proposed WSN since 2008. In 2008, the experiment was initially designed to optimize air-conditioning for energy saving, but additions to the set-up continued beyond 2008, adding the thermal comfort and crowds peak, off-peak features in 2009 to achieve human-friendly energy savings. Comparison with 2007 data, under the same comfort conditions, shows that the power savings increased by 40% (2008) and 53% (2009), respectively. The cost of the WSN equipment was 500 US dollars. Experimental results, including three years of analysis and calculations, show that the marginal energy conservation benefit of the four convenience stores achieved energy savings of up to 53%, recovering all costs in approximately 5 months. The convenience store group participating in this study was satisfied with the efficiency of energy conservation because of the short cost-recovery period. PMID:22319396

  19. EnergySavers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home (Brochure)

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's consumer guide to saving money and energy at home and on the road. It consists of the following articles: (1) Save Money and Energy Today - Get started with things you can do now, and use the whole-house approach to ensure that your investments are wisely made to save you money and energy; (2) Your Home's Energy Use - Find out how your home uses energy, and where it's losing the most energy so you can develop a plan to save in the short and long term; (3) Air Leaks and Insulation - Seal air leaks and insulate your home properly so your energy dollars don't seep through the cracks; (4) Heating and Cooling - Use efficient systems to heat and cool your home, and save money and increase comfort by properly maintaining and upgrading equipment; (5) Water Heating - Use the right water heater for your home, insulate it and lower its temperature, and use less water to avoid paying too much; (6) Windows - Enjoy light and views while saving money by installing energy-efficient windows, and use strategies to keep your current windows from losing energy; (7) Lighting - Choose today's energy-efficient lighting for some of the easiest and cheapest ways to reduce your electric bill; (8) Appliances - Use efficient appliances through-out your home, and get greater performance with lower energy bills; (9) Home Office and Electronics - Find out how much energy your electronics use, reduce their out-put when you're not using them, and choose efficient electronics to save money; (10) Renewable Energy - Use renewable energy at home such as solar and wind to save energy dollars while reducing environmental impact; (11) Transportation - Choose efficient transportation options and drive more efficiently to save at the gas pump; and (12) References - Use our reference list to learn more about energy efficiency and renewable energy.

  20. Future of energy savings policy in Denmark (in Japanese)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    After a brief description of Denmark, its energy development and CO2 emission is outlined, especially in the years after 1973. Energy consumption within the country has remained almost constant, but including the country's large merchant fleet, energy consumption has grown by more than 50% to now...... 260 GJ annually per person. Danish energy saving policies with energy taxes, etc. are described. One important measure has been the use of heat from combined heat and power plants to heat buildings, which used to account for 40% of all energy consumption....

  1. Energy use and savings potential for laboratory fume hoods

    Fume hoods--small but essential safety devices used in laboratory environments--are highly energy-intensive, each one consuming more energy than three homes in an average U.S. climate. Increasing airflow rates in an effort to enhance safety not only elevates energy use but can in fact compromise safety by causing dangerous turbulence that can foil containment. New design strategies have been demonstrated to reduce energy use by 75%, while maintaining or enhancing safety. The energy savings potential for these hoods across the United States is $1.5 billion annually. If incorporated in new laboratory construction, high-performance fume hoods can also yield substantial first-cost savings by allowing downsizing of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning infrastructure. However, there are material hurdles to widespread adoption of new fume hood technologies. The problems reside in regulations and standards that stipulate absolute airflow rates, rather than direct metrics of containment and safety

  2. Energy saving in housing in Syria; Energieeinsparung im Wohnungsbau in Syrien

    Hantouch, Yaser

    2009-06-03

    The demand for energy is increasing in Syria annually by 10-11% and the population increases annually 2.54% This growth leads also to increase in the housing,that it is energy-unconscious and consumes many energy. This large increase in energy consumption is an important problem in the housing in Syria, particularly with the lack of observance of various climatic factors,this leads to install the heating or cooling system in all housing in order to improve thermal comfort. The aim of this work is to provide insights into residential buildings with very high energy efficiency. The starting point is the experience from other countries (such as Germany), which have extensive policies, experience and rules for energy-saving buildings. The aim of this work is to provide insights into residential buildings with very high energy efficiency to win. The starting point is the experience from other countries such as Germany, which has extensive policies and rules for energy-saving buildings have. These are transferred with appropriate additions to residential buildings in Syria, and they are specified for special conditions, as well as the economic, social, climatic and regulatory requirements in Syria. There is a new architectural concepts in the design of residential buildings in Syria on their energy issues to research.it was discussed the links between architecture, energy and ecology, concepts of energy-saving building and influencing factors in energy consumption in buildings analyzed and influence of these factors on building and energy in the study area (Syria). This work includes the calculations of energy-efficient building (temperature and energy consumption) for different variants with different simulation programs, and these are assessed socially and economically through interviews, surveys and calculations of Energy Price and the Cost of Buildings. It turns out that there are many opportunities for energy saving in housing in Syria by architectural, design

  3. Leveraging Lighting for Energy Savings: GSA Northwest/Artic Region

    None

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes how the Northwest/Arctic Region branch of the General Services Administration (GSA) improved safety and energy efficiency in its Fairbanks Federal Building parking garage used by federal employees, U.S. Marshals, and the District Court. A 74% savings was realized by replacing 220 high-pressure sodium fixtures with 220 light-emitting diode fixtures.

  4. Energy saving work of frequency controlled induction cage machine

    Energy saving work, understood as lowering the supply voltage when load torque is much less than rated, is one way of reducing power losses in an induction cage machine working with a variable load. Reduction in power losses also affects the thermal properties of an induction machine because the energy saving work allows the temperature rise of the windings to decrease. Thanks to a lower temperature of the windings, the same load torque can be carried by a machine of less rated power. The ability of energy saving work to reduce the temperature of windings depends on the thermal properties of an induction machine, which are different in the case of a machine with foreign ventilation and its own ventilation. This paper deals with the thermal effect of energy saving work on a frequency controlled induction cage machine. A comparison of the properties of a machine with its own and outside ventilation is presented. The results of the investigations are shown for a 3 kW induction cage machine with the two previously mentioned ways of ventilation: one provided with a fan placed on a shaft and the other provided with a fan driven by an auxiliary motor

  5. Intrinsic Changes: Energy Saving Behaviour among Resident University Students

    Black, Rosemary; Davidson, Penny; Retra, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that explored the effectiveness of three intervention strategies in facilitating energy saving behaviour among resident undergraduate university students. In contrast to a dominant practice of motivating with rewards or competition this study sought to appeal to students' intrinsic motivations. An…

  6. Evaluation of energy and cost savings in mobile Cloud RAN

    Checko, Aleksandra; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2013-01-01

    , is sub optimal, comparing to a novel, cloud based architecture called Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN). In C-RAN a group of cells shares processing resources, and hence benefit from statistical multiplexing gain is expected. In this paper, the energy and cost savings in C-RAN are evaluated...

  7. Proceedings of VI International Conference for Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education (CIER 2009)

    In this work scientists, engineers, manufactures, investors, policy makers, energy users and other specialists present their professional experiences and commercial samples with view to reach common objectives in a climate of friendship and solidarity. Within the conference's framework there will be multiple workshops in Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education and related fields. CIER provides an excellent platform to share experiences and promote synergies towards the challenge of achieving a sustainable energy culture

  8. Proceedings of VII International Conference for Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education (CIER 2011)

    In this work scientists, engineers, manufactures, investors, policy makers, energy users, businessmen and other specialists present their professional experiences and commercial samples with view to reach common objectives in a climate of friendship and solidarity. Within the conference's framework there will be multiple workshops in Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education and related fields. CIER provides an excellent platform to share experiences and promote synergies towards the challenge of achieving a sustainable energy culture

  9. Energy saving in ceramic tile kilns: Cooling gas heat recovery

    A great quantity of thermal energy is consumed in ceramic tile manufacture, mainly in the firing stage. The most widely used facilities are roller kilns, fuelled by natural gas, in which more than 50% of the energy input is lost through the flue gas and cooling gas exhaust stacks. This paper presents a calculation methodology, based on certain kiln operating parameters, for quantifying the energy saving obtained in the kiln when part of the cooling gases are recovered in the firing chamber and are not exhausted into the atmosphere. Energy savings up to 17% have been estimated in the studied case. Comparison of the theoretical results with the experimental data confirmed the validity of the proposed methodology. The study also evidenced the need to improve combustion process control, owing to the importance of the combustion process in kiln safety and energy efficiency. - Highlights: •Some energy input (30–35%) in ceramic roller kilns is lost through the cooling gas stack. •Cooling air is directly recovered in the combustion chamber, providing oxygen. •This energy recovery from the cooling gas stack has been quantified. •It has been proven that the proposed methodology to estimate energy savings is valid

  10. Obtaining additional energy savings from the Filumex project by means of the reactive power compensation; Obtencion de ahorros adicionales del proyecto Filumex mediante la compensacion de la potencia reactiva

    Cervantes Jaramillo, Enrique L.; Loredo Gutierrez, Miguel Angel; Hernandez Hernandez, Eduardo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the proposal for establishing in a parallel way to Flamex project, the compensation in the intermediate tension network for the increment in reactive power supplied to the domestic user. This is due to the following three phenomena that occur in replacing incandescent light bulbs with fluorescent lamps: a) A fluorescent lamp has a power factor of 0.9; consequently it requires the supply of a reactive power of about 50% of its capacity. b) In replacing an incandescent light bulb for a fluorescent lamp, approximately 80% of its capacity is not supplied, this leads to the disappearance of a good deal of the user`s purely resistive load, that will cause that its natural power factor is decreased from 0.91 to 0.86 lagging. c) In decreasing the annual maximum demand in the distribution circuit in a greater proportion than the decrease of the annual consumption, their load factors and the annual losses will be increased and therefore the share of its annual energy losses will be increased in about 18.9%. The above, gives rise to the fact that the compensation of reactive power by means of the installation of capacitor banks in the main leads of the distribution circuit, turns out to be a highly appealing technical-economical solution, with a Benefit/Cost rate of 4, a return time of the investment of 2 years and a net benefit of $4.78/user (Pesos). [Espanol] Se presenta la propuesta para establecer en una forma paralela al proyecto FILUMEX, la compensacion en la red de media tension del incremento de la potencia reactiva suministrada al usuario domestico. Este es debido a los siguientes tres fenomenos que ocurren al sustituir los focos incandescentes por lamparas fluorescentes: a) Una lampara fluorescente tiene un factor de potencia de 0.9, por lo que requiere el suministro de una potencia reactiva de aproximadamente el 50% de su capacidad. b) Al sustituirse un foco incandescente por una lampara fluorescente, se deja de suministrar aproximadamente el 80

  11. Potential energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction of China's cement industry

    This study analyzes current energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission trends in China's cement industry as the basis for modeling different levels of cement production and rates of efficiency improvement and carbon reduction in 2011–2030. Three cement output projections are developed based on analyses of historical production and physical and macroeconomic drivers. For each of these three production projections, energy savings and CO2 emission reduction potentials are estimated in a best practice scenario and two continuous improvement scenarios relative to a frozen scenario. The results reveal the potential for cumulative final energy savings of 27.1 to 37.5 exajoules and energy-related direct emission reductions of 3.2 to 4.4 gigatonnes in 2011–2030 under the best practice scenarios. The continuous improvement scenarios produce cumulative final energy savings of 6.0 to 18.9 exajoules and reduce CO2 emissions by 1.0 to 2.4 gigatonnes. This analysis highlights that increasing energy efficiency is the most important policy measure for reducing the cement industry's energy and emissions intensity, given the current state of the industry and the unlikelihood of significant carbon capture and storage before 2030. In addition, policies to reduce total cement production offer the most direct way of reducing total energy consumption and CO2 emissions. - Highlights: ► This study models output and efficiency improvements in Chinese cement industry from 2011–2030. ► Energy savings and CO2 emission reductions estimated for 3 scenarios relative to frozen scenario. ► Results reveal cumulative final energy savings potential of 27.1–37.5 EJ and 3.2–4.4 Gt CO2 reductions. ► Increasing efficiency is the most important policy for reducing cement energy and emissions intensity.

  12. Energy saving techniques applied over a nation-wide mobile network

    Perez, Eva; Frank, Philipp; Micallef, Gilbert;

    2014-01-01

    networks. Although base station equipment is improving its energy efficiency by means of new power amplifiers and increased processing power, additional techniques are required to further reduce the energy consumption. In this paper, we evaluate different energy saving techniques and study their impact on...... the energy consumption based on a nation-wide network of a leading European operator. By means of an extensive analysis, we show that with the proposed techniques significant energy savings can be realized.......Traffic carried over wireless networks has grown significantly in recent years and actual forecasts show that this trend is expected to continue. However, the rapid mobile data explosion and the need for higher data rates comes at a cost of increased complexity and energy consumption of the mobile...

  13. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    Henrik Lund

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used in future sustainable smart energy systems. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish governmental 2050 fossil-free vision, this paper identifies marginal heat production costs and compares these to marginal heat savings costs for two different levels of district heating. A suitable least-cost heating strategy seems to be to invest in an approximately 50% decrease in net heat demands in new buildings and buildings that are being renovated anyway, while the implementation of heat savings in buildings that are not being renovated hardly pays. Moreover, the analysis points in the direction that a least-cost strategy will be to provide approximately 2/3 of the heat demand from district heating and the rest from individual heat pumps.

  14. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    Lund, Henrik; Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Aggerholm, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used in future sustainable smart energy systems. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish...... governmental 2050 fossil-free vision, this paper identifies marginal heat production costs and compares these to marginal heat savings costs for two different levels of district heating. A suitable least-cost heating strategy seems to be to invest in an approximately 50% decrease in net heat demands in new...... buildings and buildings that are being renovated anyway, while the implementation of heat savings in buildings that are not being renovated hardly pays. Moreover, the analysis points in the direction that a least-cost strategy will be to provide approximately 2/3 of the heat demand from district heating and...

  15. Energy Saving by Firms: Decision-Making, Barriers and Policies

    Henri L.F.M. de Groot; Erik T. Verhoef; Nijkamp, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Promoting investments in energy saving technologies is an important means forachieving environmental goals. Unfortunately, the empirical evidence on successconditions of policies isscarce. Based on a survey among Dutch firms, this paper sets out to identify thefactors that determine the investment behaviour of firms, their attitude towardsvarious types of energy policy,and their responsiveness to changes in environmental policy in the Netherlands.On the basis of discrete choice models, this p...

  16. Energy saving and improved comfort by increased air movement

    Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the potential saving of cooling energy by elevated air speed which can offset the impact of increased room air temperature on occupants’ comfort, as recommended in the present standards (ASHRAE 55 2004, ISO 7730 2005 and EN 15251 2007), was quantified by means of simulations with EnergyPlus software. Fifty-four cases covering six cities (Helsinki, Berlin, Bordeaux, Rome, Jerusalem, Athens), three indoor environment categories - I, II and III (according to standard EN 15251 2007...

  17. Biotechnological processes for water and energy saving

    Alves, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic-based (waste)water treatment facilities producing biogas, possess multifunctional characteristics: besides nutrients and raw materials like sulphur, energy and water are recycled. Therefore, biogas either for power production or vehicle transport is one of the clearest examples of synergy between water and energy sectors. From the beginning of the eighties, high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment technology (HR-AnWT) has become a standard for a certain range of biode...

  18. ESPC Overview. Cash Flows, Scenarios, and Associated Diagrams for Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    Tetreault, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Regenthal, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This document is meant to inform state and local decision makers about the process of energy savings performance contracts, and how projected savings and allocated energy-related budgets can be impacted by changes in utility prices.

  19. ESPC Overview: Cash Flows, Scenarios, and Associated Diagrams for Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    Tetreault, T.; Regenthal, S.

    2011-05-01

    This document is meant to inform state and local decision makers about the process of energy savings performance contracts, and how projected savings and allocated energy-related budgets can be impacted by changes in utility prices.

  20. Economic efficiency of energy saving solutions (rus

    Averyanova O.V.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the priorities in the development of Russian Federation is the policy of reducing energy consumption and implementation of energy efficient technologies. The article shows the example of the solution aimed at increasing the energy efficiency of systems which maintain optimal microclimate parameters in the office buildings. The solution is based on usage of WLHPS (Water Loop Heat Pump System. Consolidation into a united system makes it possible to utilize heat of the exhaust air heat and of other low-grade heat sources. The article shows the method of estimation the economic efficiency of these systems. The method is demonstrated on the example of office building. Comparison of various investment projects and selection the best solution was made by using economic indicators such as net present value (NPV or the integrated effect and profitability index.

  1. Novel energy saving technologies evaluation tool

    Klemeš, J.; Bulatov, I.; Koppejan, J.

    2009-01-01

    The lead-time for the development of a new energy technology, from the initial idea to the commercial application, can take many years. The reduction of this time has been the main objective of the EC DGTREN, who have funded two related recent projects, EMINENT and EMINENT2 (Early Market Introductio

  2. Energy saving systems in hot humid climates

    Hadjilambi, A.; D'Aquilo, A.; Rodenberg, O.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0533 Innovation & Sustainability. The aim of this manual is the description and comparison of several systems and strategies for cooling buildings in hot humid climates. To cool down a building you need to move the energy from a space or fro

  3. Saving energy in the baking industry. Energiesparen in der Baeckerei

    1992-04-01

    Measures for energy conservation and rational energy use have been given priority in almost all sectors of our economy. Between July and December 1991, 40 bakeries were studied for their energy consumptions in a study commissioned by BEWAG/EBAG in Berlin. Most bakeries will have to reckon with annual turnovers which will not rise as they used to. This brochure explains those measures which are best suited to use electric power in the business effectively to save energy, to lower costs and to reduce pollution. (orig./UA)

  4. Reported Energy and Cost Savings from the DOE ESPC Program: FY 2014

    Slattery, Bob S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the realization rate of energy and cost savings from the Department of Energy’s Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) program based on information reported by the energy services companies (ESCOs) that are carrying out ESPC projects at federal sites. Information was extracted from 156 Measurement and Verification (M&V) reports to determine reported, estimated, and guaranteed cost savings and reported and estimated energy savings for the previous contract year. Because the quality of the reports varied, it was not possible to determine all of these parameters for each project. For all 156 projects, there was sufficient information to compare estimated, reported, and guaranteed cost savings. For this group, the total estimated cost savings for the reporting periods addressed were $210.6 million, total reported cost savings were $215.1 million, and total guaranteed cost savings were $204.5 million. This means that on average: ESPC contractors guaranteed 97% of the estimated cost savings; projects reported achieving 102% of the estimated cost savings; and projects reported achieving 105% of the guaranteed cost savings. For 155 of the projects examined, there was sufficient information to compare estimated and reported energy savings. On the basis of site energy, estimated savings for those projects for the previous year totaled 11.938 million MMBtu, and reported savings were 12.138 million MMBtu, 101.7% of the estimated energy savings. On the basis of source energy, total estimated energy savings for the 155 projects were 19.052 million MMBtu, and reported saving were 19.516 million MMBtu, 102.4% of the estimated energy savings.

  5. DEFINITION OF ENERGY SAVING ACCELERATION MODES OF TRAINS

    B. Ye. Bodnar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In modern conditions of rolling stock operation, the actual vital task is the increasing the efficiency of its use by reducing the cost of energy, including for the traction. It can be achieved by the way of locomotives power control systems creating, in particular the use of operating cards and on-board software and hardware. Methodo-logy. The article discusses ways of starting and acceleration of the train. Traction calculations with the definition of energy-efficient trajectories provide the search of a rational consumption of energy with time of running trains. When selecting energy saving train trajectories and the development of operating trains of reference cards, it is necessary to consider the variables such as: the profile area, weight of the stock, series of the locomotive and others. When the transmission power from the primary power equipment to the driving wheel pairs the inevitable losses that are described by the efficiency factor occur. For the most part of the locomotive elements the dependences of the efficiency factor are described by the nonlinear equations. Getting the energy-saving function of traction control at starting and acceleration to reduce the specific consumption of energy by improving the algorithm for calculating the trajectories of multiple trains was considered. The method of selection of energy-efficient trajectories at dispersal trains and power control electric and diesel locomotives with electric transmission which bases on the mathematical methods for evenly search and parametric optimization was offered. Findings. For the variables of the train situation and rolling stock was built two-parameter functional dependence of the power control locomotive and analytically determined the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Originality. In the work result the authors received the power saving function of traction control, which depends on the mass of the rolling stock and slant. In contrast to

  6. Green Energy in New Construction: Maximize Energy Savings and Minimize Cost

    Ventresca, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    People often use the term "green energy" to refer to alternative energy technologies. But green energy doesn't guarantee maximum energy savings at a minimum cost--a common misconception. For school business officials, green energy means getting the lowest energy bills for the lowest construction cost, which translates into maximizing green energy…

  7. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Sagisaka, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts......One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and...... gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while...

  8. A new heating system based on coupled air source absorption heat pump for cold regions: Energy saving analysis

    Highlights: • A double-stage coupled air source absorption heat pump (ASAHP) is proposed. • The coupled ASAHP exhibits stable and high performance in very cold regions. • Energy-saving rate of the coupled ASAHP in all the typical cities is above 20%. - Abstract: Energy consumption for heating and domestic hot water is very high. The heating system based on an air source absorption heat pump (ASAHP) had been assessed to have great energy saving potential. However, the single-stage ASAHP exhibits poor performance when the outdoor air temperature is very low. A double-stage coupled ASAHP is proposed to improve the energy-saving potential of single-stage ASAHP in cold regions. The heating capacity and primary energy efficiency (PEE) of the proposed system operated in both coupled mode and single-stage mode are simulated under various working conditions. The building load and primary energy consumption of different heating systems applied in cold regions are analyzed comparatively to investigate the energy-saving potential of the coupled ASAHP. Results show that the coupled ASAHP exhibits stable PEE and provides high heating capacity in very cold conditions. The energy-saving rate of the coupled ASAHP in all the typical cities is above 20%. In addition, the energy-saving potential of the single-stage ASAHP in severely cold areas can be improved obviously by coupled ASAHP, with an improvement of 7.73% in Harbin

  9. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Iron and Steel Manufacturing

    Keith Jamison, Caroline Kramer, Sabine Brueske, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. iron and steel manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual process areas and select subareas, representing 82% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes and subareas are based on technologies currently in use or under development; the potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  10. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Pulp and Paper Manufacturing

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. pulp and paper manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual process areas, representing 52% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; the potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity

  11. Prototype energy-saving motor; Prototyp Energiesparmotor

    Weingartner, J. [Baechli AG, Kriens-Obernau (Switzerland); Lindegger, M. [Circle Motor AG, Guemligen (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of investigations made on the development of an energy-efficient electric motor. The aim of the prototype 'Eco-Motor' project was the development of a winding technique and the optimisation of the design of the stator. Various winding techniques (toroid winding, core winding, coil winding) were examined and used in the realisation of prototype 'Eco-Motors' for a nominal voltage of 230 V a.c. The designs were evaluated in both a simulation (FEMM) and as well as in the test facilities at the College of Engineering and Architecture in Lucerne, Switzerland. The measured data of the 'Eco-Motor' were then compared with a standard asynchronous motor. The 'Eco-Motor' with a toroid winding had the best efficiency. At low loads, all 'Eco-Motor' prototypes have a higher efficiency than asynchronous motors. On the other hand, none of the 'Eco-Motors' have yet reached the nominal power of 250 W. The developers state, however, that with a few adjustments this should pose no problems.

  12. Energy additivity in branched and cyclic hydrocarbons

    Gao, H.; Bader, R.F.W. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Cortes-Guzman, F. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, (Mexico). Dept. de Fisicoquimica

    2009-11-15

    This paper reported on a study of the energetic relationships between hydrocarbon molecules and the heats of formation. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) was used to investigate the degree to which branched hydrocarbons obey a group additivity scheme for energy and populations. The QTAIM defined the properties of the chemical groups. The experimental and theoretical transferability of the methyl and methylene groups of the linear hydrocarbons was also explored. The calculations were performed using a large basis set at the restricted Hartree-Fock and MP2(full) levels of theory. The study also investigated the deviations from additivity, noted for small ring hydrocarbons leading to the definition of strain energy. The QTAIM energies recovered the experimental values. The paper included details regarding the delocalization of the electron density over the surface of the cyclopropane ring, responsible for its homoaromatic properties. The calculations presented in this study satisfied the virial theorem for the atomic definition of energy. The paper discussed the problems associated with the use of the density functional theory (DFT) resulting from its failure to satisfy the virial theorem. 44 refs., 9 tabs., 2 figs.

  13. How to prevent greenhouse gas emissions in electrical installations: lighting energy savings and solar energy approaches

    Day by day greenhouse gas emissions increase dramatically. A passive adaptive method of lighting energy savings, daylight responsive systems are considered one of the best solutions for energy efficiency, saving and prevent CO2 emissions. Results of an annual experiment which was held in Sakarya University proves the necessity of daylight responsive systems with a 41% energy saving and 942.5 kg of prevented CO2 emissions Thinking this prevention is realized just only in a 36 m2 room with the use of 8 luminaries spreading such systems to nationwide, a major amount of greenhouse gas emissions would be prohibited. On the other hand energy saving is not the only way to reduce CO2 emissions. Again in Sakarya University a project has started to investigate the possibility of illumination of a complete building by using solar energy. This paper evaluates these mentioned systems both in energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions prevention and economic point of views. (author)

  14. An adjusted energy-saving quantity calculation method for building energy-efficient retrofit

    王清勤; 孟冲

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at a comprehensive assessment of energy-saving retrofitting effect on existing buildings,a calculation method is developed to adjust energy-saving quantity in standard condition for comparison under the same conditions. A mathematical model,method theory and calculation steps are given. Error analysis results show that this method can be applied accurately to practical engineering projects. In a case study of energy-saving quantity assessment before and after retrofitting on a certain hospital in Shanghai,with energy simulation software TRNSYS,detailed application of this method is introduced and analyzed. The method is applied to the case of energy-saving quantity assessment to a hospital in Shanghai before and after retrofitting with the energy simulation software TRNSYS.

  15. Energy-saving drying and its application

    Kovbasyuk, V. I.

    2015-09-01

    Superheated steam is efficiently applied as a coolant for the intensification of drying, which is an important component of many up-to-date technologies. However, traditional drying is extremely energy consuming, and many drying apparatus are environmentally unfriendly. Thus, it is important to implement the proposed drying technique using superheated steam under pressure significantly higher than the atmospheric one with subsequent steam transfer for use in a turbine for electric power generation as a compensation of energy costs for drying. This paper includes a brief thermodynamic analysis of such a technique, its environmental advantages, and possible benefits of the use of wet wastes and obtaining high-quality fuels from wet raw materials. A scheme is developed for the turbine protection from impurities that can occur in the steam at drying. Potential advantage of the technique are also the absence of heating surfaces that are in contact with wet media, the absence of the emissions to the atmosphere, and the use of low potential heat for desalination and the purification of water. The new drying technique can play an extremely important part in the implementation in the field of thermal destruction of anthropogenic wastes. In spite of the promotion of waste sorting to obtain valuable secondary raw materials, the main problem of big cities is nonutilizable waste, which makes not less than 85% of the starting quantity of waste. This can only be totally solved by combustion, which even more relates to the sewage sludge utilization. The wastes can be safely and efficiently combusted only provided that they are free of moisture. Combustion temperature optimization makes possible full destruction of dioxins and their toxic analogues.

  16. To understand the new world of energy - Energy saving and energy efficiency: the world of energy 2.0

    This bibliographical note contains the table of contents and a brief presentation of a book which proposes a general overview of the world of modern energy, focuses on the main associated political and climatic stakes and challenges. It also addresses the crucial issue of energy efficiency and energy savings which are the pillars of the current energy transition. The chapters address the world energy stakes and challenges, the emergence of a new energetic paradigm, the issues of energy efficiency and energy savings, the main sources of energy savings to be exploited and valorised, the situation in Europe and in the World regarding energy efficiency, the relationship between energy transition and local territories, the necessary continuous innovation

  17. Prices make energy savings more then a slogan

    Energy has become a commodity with economic price in Slovakia. For years the energy price has not fulfilled the basic economic criteria - covering of production costs. It was used as one of the instruments of Governments social policy. But the situation is changing. Another phase of bringing the prices to a realistic level brought along a price increase by tens of percents. As the energy prices are increasing and there is a perspective that they will grow further all possible reserves and cheaper energy sources have to be identified. A simplified energetic model of Slovak economy identifies three basic energy-consumer kinds - industry, buildings and transport. Industry uses about one half of the Slovakia's yearly energy-consume. Aim private companies to survive in a competitive environment guarantees of a rational approach towards energy consume. The fact that even in companies that use high volumes of primary raw material the energy consume is the highest cost item (many times higher then the labour costs) is the main incentive for looking for saving possibilities in this area. A decrease of the industries' share in energy consume may indicate some positive trends. The energy consume in industries has dropped by ten percent within ten years and its share on the overall consume is approaching the 45-percent level. This was partially caused by decreasing production volumes or closing down of production in several companies. Energy consume of buildings represents about 35 - 40 percent of the national consume i.e. is on a level similar to other European countries. This is a sector is the most important. It is its structure that is important. Currently there are 1,8 million flat units in Slovakia. Family houses represent 48 percent and the remaining 52 percent go to flats. In close to 800-thousand family houses owned by the people living in them nobody has to stress the importance of energy savings. The user knows exactly how much energy has been used. The ownership is

  18. Concept for Specific Lines of Business, Energy Saving Tourism

    In the spirit of the objectives of the Energy Plan 1995 in order to make more efficient use of energy and thus to reduce energy requirements, to promote the use of renewable energies, and to attach maximum importance to the ecological compatibility of the energy systems, among other project the provincial government of Styria is pursuing the option of consulting small and medium-sized enterprises in a target manner. Three years after being launched, this Ecological Company Consulting scheme for various lines of business is now producing successful results, demonstrating that energy saving, business profit and ecology can go hand in hand by example of numerous pilot projects. Trade-specific concepts have been elaborated for foodstuffs, carpenters and car repair and sales firms, bakeries and hairdressers and, most recently, for tourist industry business /hotels, bars, restaurants, etc.). The province of Styria, represented by the Energy Commissioner and the department of waste management, is co-operating closely in the Ecological Company Consulting scheme with the Styrian Chamber of Commerce and the Economy Promotion Institute (Wirtschaftsfoerderungsinstitut). In several cases, other provinces, the Federal Ministry of Environmental, Youth and Family Affairs, and the Federal Chamber of Commerce have adopted the results of this co-operation, while in some cases subsidy schemes are linked to these trade-specific concepts. In the course of the scheme, the aim is to investigate energy requirements, saving potentials and questions of waste management. (author)

  19. Subjective discount rates in the general population and their predictive power for energy saving behavior

    Why do people sometimes refrain from saving energy even if it would pay off in monetary terms? Subjective discount rates present one possible explanation for this lack of foresight, but little is known about their level and reliability in the general population. With regard to behavior, persons with lower discount rates are expected to accept additional costs upfront more readily than those with higher discount rates. Based on a representative nation-wide study, the Swiss Environmental Survey 2007, and a follow-up survey, our analyses reveal that on average subjective discount rates are well above market interest rates and moderately stable over a time interval of four years. Income and education are negatively correlated with discount rates. Contrary to expectations, we did not find convincing support for an impact of discount rates on energy saving behavior. - Highlights: • Results of a large panel study in Switzerland. • Mean subjective discount rates in population are well above market interest rates. • Subjective discount rates are moderately stable over four years. • Theory suggests impact of subjective discount rates on energy saving behavior. • However, subjective discount rates do not contribute to explanation of energy saving behavior

  20. Improving Energy Saving Techniques by Ambient Intelligence Scheduling

    Cristani, Matteo; Karafili, Erisa; Tomazzoli, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Energy saving is one of the most challenging aspects of modern ambient intelligence technologies, for both domestic and business usages. In this paper we show how to combine Ambient Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence techniques to solve the problem of scheduling a set of devices under a given...... for Ambient Intelligence to a specific framework and exhibit a sample usage for a real life system, Elettra, that is in use in an industrial context....

  1. Fuzzy logic control for energy saving in autonomous electric vehicles

    Al-Jazaeri, Ahmed O.; Samaranayake, Lilantha; Longo, Stefano; Auger, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Limited battery capacity and excessive battery dimensions have been two major limiting factors in the rapid advancement of electric vehicles. An alternative to increasing battery capacities is to use better: intelligent control techniques which save energy on-board while preserving the performance that will extend the range with the same or even smaller battery capacity and dimensions. In this paper, we present a Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controller (Type-2 FLC) as the speed controller, acting as th...

  2. Simple method for estimating energy saving in buildings

    Cuvillier, E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper introduces a method of selecting the most energy-saving heating system without resorting to analysis requiring large computers. The method described uses an imaginary year of 52 days picked at random, to enable designers to calculate diary heating needs in the various cases to be considered. In the paper the method is applied to a swimming pool for which several heating and management systems liable to be used are studied and compared. 6 refs.

  3. Energy saving in the process of gas pipeline overhaul

    Mitrokhin, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    The problem of energy saving during overhaul of a linear part of gas trunkline is regarded in this paper. This issue has been analyzed from different perspectives. Thermodynamic analysis of gas evacuation from a string that is off operation for the overhaul to a parallel or adjacent string with the use of mobile compressor systems was made. Economical attractiveness of mobile compressor systems applications was proved. Various methods of gas trunklines linear parts overhaul have been consider...

  4. Sustainable roofs with real energy savings

    Christian, J.E.; Petrie, T.W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper addresses the general concept of sustainability and relates it to the building owner`s selection of a low-slope roof. It offers a list of performance features of sustainable roofs. Experiences and data relevant to these features for four unique roofs are then presented which include: self-drying systems, low total equivalent warming foam insulation, roof coatings and green roofs. The paper concludes with a list of sustainable roofing features worth considering for a low-slope roof investment. Building owners and community developers are showing more interest in investing in sustainability. The potential exists to design, construct, and maintain roofs that last twice as long and reduce the building space heating and cooling energy loads resulting from the roof by 50% (based on the current predominant design of a 10-year life and a single layer of 1 to 2 in. (2.5 to 5.1 cm) of insulation). The opportunity to provide better low-slope roofs and sell more roof maintenance service is escalating. The general trend of outsourcing services could lead to roofing companies` owning the roofs they install while the traditional building owner owns the rest of the building. Such a situation would have a very desirable potential to internalize the costs of poor roof maintenance practices and high roof waste disposal costs, and to offer a profit for installing roofs that are more sustainable. 14 refs., 12 figs.

  5. High-Temperature Coatings Offer Energy Savings

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. X-Plane Program included the first-of-its-kind research in aerodynamics and astronautics with experimental vehicles, including the first aircraft to break the sound barrier; the first aircraft to fly in excess of 100,000, then 200,000, and then 300,000 feet; and the first aircraft to fly at three, four, five, and then six times the speed of sound. During the 1990s, NASA started developing a new thermal protection material to test on the X-33 and X-34 supersonic aircraft. The X-33 was intended to demonstrate the technologies needed for a new reusable launch vehicle and was projected to reach an altitude of approximately 50 miles and speeds of more than Mach 11. The X-34, a small, reusable technology demonstrator for a launch vehicle, was intended to reach an altitude of 250,000 feet and fly at speeds of Mach 8. As a result of its research and development efforts, NASA s Ames Research Center invented the Protective Ceramic Coating Material (PCCM). Applied to a surface, the thin, lightweight coating could protect the material underneath from extreme temperatures. The capability of the technology came from its emissivity, which radiated heat away from the surface it covered, thereby decreasing the amount of heat transferred to the underlying material. PCCM not only increased the capability of materials to withstand higher temperatures, it also exhibited impressive thermal shock, vibration, and acoustic performance. In addition, it proved to be resistant to abrasion and mechanical damage and was also environmentally safe, due to it being water-based and containing no solvents. Even though funding for the X-33 and X-34 ended in 2001, PCCM continued on a path of innovation.

  6. Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control

    Blasing, T J [ORNL; Schroeder, Dana [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2013-08-01

    Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY SAVING IN WASTE RECYCLING USING SYSTEM DYNAMICS

    Eugênio de Oliveira Simonetto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recycling is a topic of great importance in integrated waste management, evidence of this is verified in the National Policy of Solid Waste, decreed in 2010, where it is considered one of the priorities. In this article is presented a computer simulation model, since their development until its validation, which aims to support environmental managers in their decisions regarding the definition and / or maintenance of solid waste policies recycling, as well as evaluating the benefits of process in the environment (in this article we evaluated the energy savings. For the model development was considered: the rate of natural population growth (births and deaths, percentage of solid waste recycled (for each type of material, gravimetric composition of the material in the total waste generated, the amount of waste generated per inhabitant and energy savings caused by each distinct type of material. Through the model results generated, end users (environmental managers thereof may, for example, set incentives to reduce the total generation of solid waste, produce campaigns enhancing reuse and recycling and to assess the relative benefits of energy savings caused by recycling. Model validation was through analysis of future scenarios for a given municipality in southern Brazil. For modeling and system validation was used Vensim from Ventana Systems.

  8. Can Additional Homeopathic Treatment Save Costs? A Retrospective Cost-Analysis Based on 44500 Insured Persons.

    Julia K Ostermann

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the health care costs for patients using additional homeopathic treatment (homeopathy group with the costs for those receiving usual care (control group.Cost data provided by a large German statutory health insurance company were retrospectively analysed from the societal perspective (primary outcome and from the statutory health insurance perspective. Patients in both groups were matched using a propensity score matching procedure based on socio-demographic variables as well as costs, number of hospital stays and sick leave days in the previous 12 months. Total cumulative costs over 18 months were compared between the groups with an analysis of covariance (adjusted for baseline costs across diagnoses and for six specific diagnoses (depression, migraine, allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and headache.Data from 44,550 patients (67.3% females were available for analysis. From the societal perspective, total costs after 18 months were higher in the homeopathy group (adj. mean: EUR 7,207.72 [95% CI 7,001.14-7,414.29] than in the control group (EUR 5,857.56 [5,650.98-6,064.13]; p<0.0001 with the largest differences between groups for productivity loss (homeopathy EUR 3,698.00 [3,586.48-3,809.53] vs. control EUR 3,092.84 [2,981.31-3,204.37] and outpatient care costs (homeopathy EUR 1,088.25 [1,073.90-1,102.59] vs. control EUR 867.87 [853.52-882.21]. Group differences decreased over time. For all diagnoses, costs were higher in the homeopathy group than in the control group, although this difference was not always statistically significant.Compared with usual care, additional homeopathic treatment was associated with significantly higher costs. These analyses did not confirm previously observed cost savings resulting from the use of homeopathy in the health care system.

  9. Impact of energy saving policies in the internal energy demand and energy supply prospects from Mexico

    In this paper we present the recent advances on the projections of the internal energy demand of Mexico and its prospects as a supplier of crude oil and oil products in the international market. Such prospects are discussed in terms of an energy demand model whose short and medium range projections take into account the detailed behaviour of the principal economic and energy consuming sectors and sub sectors and their diversification possibilities. On the basis of these projections we analyze the impact of energy saving policies on the internal energy demand and export possibilities from Mexico for the next 10 to 15 years. (author)

  10. Report on energy saving vision in Santo-cho region; Santocho chiiki sho energy vision hokokusho

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    An energy-saving vision was decided on in Santo-cho region in Hyogo Prefecture, with its outline reported. This town is such that about 80% of the region is mountains, forests and wilderness and that aging is advancing at the rate above that of Hyogo Prefecture or the national average. Nearly entire energy of the town is dependent on the supply from outside. The energy consumption is somewhat increasing as a whole, with that of the people's livelihood/domestic sector and of transportation sector are rising. In the classification of fuels, electricity is growing in consumption. As an energy-saving vision, it aimed principally at personal surroundings in which every one got into the habit of saving energy continuously without being forced. The basic plan for the energy conservation drive consisted of inducement to an energy-saving life style, energy conservation to be spread by the next generation children, continuation of energy saving activity rooted in the region, and promotion of energy conservation as a basis for introducing new energy. The diffusion and enlightenment for children destined to lead the next generation were defined as a particularly important assignment, as was the promotion of energy conservation and environmental education. (NEDO)