WorldWideScience

Sample records for additional energy savings

  1. Saving Energy

    2006-01-01

    More and more Chinese consumers are beginning to think about their energy-saving needs when buying apartments. The energy-saving estate market is huge, which provides great opportunities for companies in the business, especially foreign investors. But just how big is this market and how is it developing? Which fields in this industry are suitable for foreign businesses? With these questions in mind, Beijing Review spoke with Li Shuren, Vice Secretary General of the China Real Estate and Housing Research ...

  2. Saving Water Saves Energy

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as well as for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energy consumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigating landscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport and treat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19 percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32 percent of natural gas consumption is related to water. There is a critical interdependence ...

  3. Measuring industrial energy savings

    Accurate measurement of energy savings from industrial energy efficiency projects can reduce uncertainty about the efficacy of the projects, guide the selection of future projects, improve future estimates of expected savings, promote financing of energy efficiency projects through shared-savings agreements, and improve utilization of capital resources. Many efforts to measure industrial energy savings, or simply track progress toward efficiency goals, have had difficulty incorporating changing weather and production, which are frequently major drivers of plant energy use. This paper presents a general method for measuring plant-wide industrial energy savings that takes into account changing weather and production between the pre and post-retrofit periods. In addition, the method can disaggregate savings into components, which provides additional resolution for understanding the effectiveness of individual projects when several projects are implemented together. The method uses multivariable piece-wise regression models to characterize baseline energy use, and disaggregates savings by taking the total derivative of the energy use equation. Although the method incorporates search techniques, multi-variable least-squares regression and calculus, it is easily implemented using data analysis software, and can use readily available temperature, production and utility billing data. This is important, since more complicated methods may be too complex for widespread use. The method is demonstrated using case studies of actual energy assessments. The case studies demonstrate the importance of adjusting for weather and production between the pre- and post-retrofit periods, how plant-wide savings can be disaggregated to evaluate the effectiveness of individual retrofits, how the method can identify the time-dependence of savings, and limitations of engineering models when used to estimate future savings

  4. Yield Improvement and Energy Savings Uing Phosphonates as Additives in Kraft pulping

    Ulrike W. Tschirner; Timothy Smith

    2007-03-31

    Project Objective: Develop a commercially viable modification to the Kraft process resulting in energy savings, increased yield and improved bleachability. Evaluate the feasibility of this technology across a spectrum of wood species used in North America. Develop detailed fundamental understanding of the mechanism by which phosphonates improve KAPPA number and yield. Evaluate the North American market potential for the use of phosphonates in the Kraft pulping process. Examine determinants of customer perceived value and explore organizational and operational factors influencing attitudes and behaviors. Provide an economic feasibility assessment for the supply chain, both suppliers (chemical supply companies) and buyers (Kraft mills). Provide background to most effectively transfer this new technology to commercial mills.

  5. Saving energy and reducing pollution by use of emulsified palm-biodiesel blends with bio-solution additive

    Chen, Kang-Shin; Lin, Yuan-Chung [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804 (China); Hsieh, Lien-Te [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology. Pingtung 912 (China); Lin, Long-Full [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kun Shan University, Tainan County 710 (China); Wu, Chia-Chieh [Postgraduate Programs in Management, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung County 840 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Advances in biodiesel, emulsified diesel and artificial chemical additives are driven by consumer demand to save energy and reduce emissions from diesel engines. However, the effect of emulsified bio-solution/palm-biodiesel/diesel blends in diesel engines has not been assessed. Experimental results in this work demonstrate that the emulsified bio-solution/palm-biodiesel/diesel blends have the advantage in saving energy and reducing emissions of both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particulate matter (PM) from diesel engines. When comparing with P0 (premium diesel fuel as base fuel), E16P20 fuel (16 vol% bio-solution + 20 vol% palm-biodiesel + 64 vol% P0, an additional 1 vol% surfactant) saved 12.4% fuel consumption and reduced emissions of PM by 90.1%, total PAHs by 69.3%, and total BaP{sub eq} (benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration) by 69.6%. Emulsified palm-biodiesel with bio-solution can be considered as a clean and alternative fuel. (author)

  6. Energy saving certificates

    The French ministry of economy, finances and industry and the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) have organized on November 8, 2005, a colloquium for the presentation of the energy saving certificates, a new tool to oblige the energy suppliers to encourage their clients to make energy savings. This document gathers the transparencies presented at this colloquium about the following topics: state-of-the-art and presentation of the energy saving certificates system: presentation of the EEC system, presentation of the EEC standard operations; the energy saving certificates in Europe today: energy efficiency commitment in UK, Italian white certificate scheme, perspectives of the different European systems. (J.S.)

  7. Potential energy savings

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    This chapter describes the chosen methods for estimating the potential energy savings if ordinary window glazing is exchanged with aerogel glazing as well as commercial low-energy glazings.......This chapter describes the chosen methods for estimating the potential energy savings if ordinary window glazing is exchanged with aerogel glazing as well as commercial low-energy glazings....

  8. Energy Savings Lifetimes and Persistence

    Hoffman, Ian M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Billingsley, Megan A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This technical brief explains the concepts of energy savings lifetimes and savings persistence and discusses how program administrators use these factors to calculate savings for efficiency measures, programs and portfolios. Savings lifetime is the length of time that one or more energy efficiency measures or activities save energy, and savings persistence is the change in savings throughout the functional life of a given efficiency measure or activity. Savings lifetimes are essential for assessing the lifecycle benefits and cost effectiveness of efficiency activities and for forecasting loads in resource planning. The brief also provides estimates of savings lifetimes derived from a national collection of costs and savings for electric efficiency programs and portfolios.

  9. Teaching children to save energy

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Energy-saving programmes are increasingly targeted at children to encourage household energy conservation. A study involving the assignment of energy-saving interventions to Girl Scouts shows that a child-focused intervention can improve energy-saving behaviours among children and their parents....

  10. Energy savings in Polish buildings

    Markel, L.C.; Gula, A.; Reeves, G.

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration of low-cost insulation and weatherization techniques was a part of phase 1 of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficient Project. The objectives were to identify a cost-effective set of measures to reduce energy used for space heating, determine how much energy could be saved, and foster widespread implementation of those measures. The demonstration project focused on 4 11-story buildings in a Krakow housing cooperative. Energy savings of over 20% were obtained. Most important, the procedures and materials implemented in the demonstration project have been adapted to Polish conditions and applied to other housing cooperatives, schools, and hospitals. Additional projects are being planned, in Krakow and other cities, under the direction of FEWE-Krakow, the Polish Energie Cities Network, and Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa.

  11. Locomotive energy savings possibilities

    Leonas Povilas LINGAITIS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic indicators of electrodynamic braking have not been properly estimated. Vehicles with alternative power trains are transitional stage between development of pollution- free vehicles. According to these aspects the investigation on conventional hybrids drives and their control system is carried out in the article. The equation that allows evaluating effectiveness of regenerative braking for different variants of hybrid drive are given. Presenting different types of locomotive energy savings power systems, which are using regenerative braking energy any form of hybrid traction vehicles systems, circuit diagrams, electrical parameters curves.

  12. Energy saving synergies in national energy systems

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In the transition towards a 100% renewable energy system, energy savings are essential. The possibility of energy savings through conservation or efficiency increases can be identified in, for instance, the heating and electricity sectors, in industry, and in transport. Several studies point...... to various optimal levels of savings in the different sectors of the energy system. However, these studies do not investigate the idea of energy savings being system dependent. This paper argues that such system dependency is critical to understand, as it does not make sense to analyse an energy saving...... without taking into account the actual benefit of the saving in relation to the energy system. The study therefore identifies a need to understand how saving methods may interact with each other and the system in which they are conducted. By using energy system analysis to do hourly simulation...

  13. Energy conservation. Federal shared energy savings contracting

    A number of impediments have discouraged federal agencies from using shared energy savings contracts. As of November 30, 1988, only two federal agencies - the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) and the Department of the Army -had awarded such contracts even though they can yield significant energy and cost savings. The three major impediments we identified were uncertainty about the applicability of a particular procurement policy and practice, lack of management incentives, and difficulty in measuring energy and cost savings. To address the first impediment, the Department of Energy (DOE) developed a manual on shared energy savings contracting. The second impediment was addressed when the 100th Congress authorized incentives for federal agencies to enter into shared savings contracts. DOE addressed the third impediment by developing a methodology for calculating energy consumption and cost savings. However, because of differing methodological preferences, this issue will need to be addressed on a contract-by-contract basis. Some state governments and private sector firms are using performance contracts to reduce energy costs in their buildings and facilities. We were able to identify six states that were using performance contracts. Five have established programs, and all six states have projects under contract. The seven energy service companies we contacted indicated interest in federal shared energy savings contracting

  14. Energy Savings from Industrial Water Reductions

    Rao, Prakash; McKane, Aimee; de Fontaine, Andre

    2015-08-03

    Although it is widely recognized that reducing freshwater consumption is of critical importance, generating interest in industrial water reduction programs can be hindered for a variety of reasons. These include the low cost of water, greater focus on water use in other sectors such as the agriculture and residential sectors, high levels of unbilled and/or unregulated self-supplied water use in industry, and lack of water metering and tracking capabilities at industrial facilities. However, there are many additional components to the resource savings associated with reducing site water use beyond the water savings alone, such as reductions in energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, treatment chemicals, and impact on the local watershed. Understanding and quantifying these additional resource savings can expand the community of businesses, NGOs, government agencies, and researchers with a vested interest in water reduction. This paper will develop a methodology for evaluating the embedded energy consumption associated with water use at an industrial facility. The methodology developed will use available data and references to evaluate the energy consumption associated with water supply and wastewater treatment outside of a facility’s fence line for various water sources. It will also include a framework for evaluating the energy consumption associated with water use within a facility’s fence line. The methodology will develop a more complete picture of the total resource savings associated with water reduction efforts and allow industrial water reduction programs to assess the energy and CO2 savings associated with their efforts.

  15. Energy. Saving 'Private' Areva

    While Areva keeps on loosing money (billions of euros for 2014), the saving of this company is at stake. Staff is already planned to be reduced in La Hague, and other staff reductions might occur after the failure of a previous strategic plan. Various activities could be sold (dismantling, mining). The article outlines the difficult relationships between Areva and EDF and the problems also faced by EDF. Some actors think that Areva should remain independent from EDF in order to be free to compete on international bidding. The rapprochement between these two companies is said to be necessary for the Ministry but seems very difficult to achieve

  16. Adopting Energy Saving Technology: Inertia or Incentives?

    Peter A. Groothuis; Tanga McDaniel Mohr

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to improve efficiency of electrical markets the U.S. government hopes to encourage changing household use patterns, such as dishwasher and clothes dryer use, to off-peak times. One strategy has been to subsidize the installation of smart meters. In addition the government has encouraged electrical energy conservation by providing incentives for energy saving technologies such as the purchase of energy star appliances or increased insulation in the home. Households have sometimes ...

  17. Potential energy savings

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The background for the simulations of annual energy consumption and indoor temperature level is described.......The background for the simulations of annual energy consumption and indoor temperature level is described....

  18. Saving Energy Now Compulsory

    2006-01-01

    The buck stops with local governments when it comes to energy consumption Local governments have been told they must take responsibility for cutting energy consumption, after figures for the first half of this year show the country's energy needs are continuing to rise.

  19. Geothermal heating saves energy

    The article reviews briefly a pioneer project for a construction area of 200000 m''2 with residences, business complexes, a hotel and conference centre and a commercial college in Oslo. The energy conservation potential is estimated to be about 60-70 % compared to direct heating with oil, gas or electricity as sources. There will also be substantial reduction in environmentally damaging emissions. The proposed energy central combines geothermal energy sources with heat pump technology, utilises water as energy carrier and uses terrestrial wells for energy storage. A cost approximation is presented

  20. Saving Green on Energy Costs

    Tacke, Diane L.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, colleges and universities have begun efforts to reduce their energy costs, an initiative that can not only save an institution money, but also strengthen relationships across campus. Board leadership has been central to this endeavor in setting goals, prioritizing projects, and financing those projects. Using her experiences with…

  1. Consumer behaviours: Teaching children to save energy

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-08-01

    Energy-saving programmes are increasingly targeted at children to encourage household energy conservation. A study involving the assignment of energy-saving interventions to Girl Scouts shows that a child-focused intervention can improve energy-saving behaviours among children and their parents.

  2. Energy savings predictions from building equipment retrofits

    Yalcintas, M. [Amel Technologies Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This study evaluated the tools currently available for predicting energy savings from retrofit projects. In particular, it addressed the challenges in determining the energy savings associated with equipment retrofits. The main challenges lie in identifying the data after a building's equipment has been replaced. The energy consumption of equipment is sensitive to variations in weather, internal building load such as occupancy, lighting loads, and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment operation schedules. This study focused on energy model development based on the artificial neural networks (ANN) method. The simplicity and nonlinear modeling capabilities of ANN method render it more popular than the multi-linear regression method. The ANN model developed in this study was based on Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm. The retrofit project involved the installation of an energy management systems in the guest rooms of a hotel in Honolulu, Hawaii. The installation of a variable frequency drive (VFD) on the air handling units was also considered. The pre-retrofit and post-retrofit energy measurements were recorded from the chiller plant for a 3 week period. Each measurement included hourly electricity demand recordings. In addition to the chiller plant, the building would save energy from the air handling unit operations with new VFDs. Only the energy savings from the chiller plant were included in this analysis because electricity measurements from the air handling units were not available. The purpose in developing the ANN model for the pre-retrofit period was to estimate the pre-retrofit equipment energy consumption rate for the post-retrofit period. Another aspect of this study was a sensitivity analysis of the weather variables on the ANN model prediction. The expected energy savings in the post-retrofit period were estimated by using the statistical average of the weather data for a particular location. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  3. Saving and gaining energy

    In this interview with Dirk U. Hindrichs from the Schueco International KG company, differences between ecological and economical points of view in general are discussed, as is the world's energy consumption and the visions held by the Schueco company in this respect. The importance of building facades, windows and photovoltaics for his business is discussed, as are solar thermal systems for the production of heat and cold. Further, energy-efficiency and examples of buildings realised internationally are discussed and co-operation with important players in the climate protection area is noted. Hindrichs' opinion, that pro-active actions must be taken by entrepreneurs, is noted.

  4. Models of Energy Saving Systems

    Nørgård, Jørgen Stig

    1999-01-01

    The paper first describes the concepts and methods around energy saving, such as energy chain, energy services, end-use technologies, secondary energy, etc. Next are discussed the problems of defining and adding energy services and hence end-use energy efficiency or intensity. A section is devoted...... to what is termed lifestyle efficiency, including the cultural values and the ability of the economy to provide the services wanted. As explained, integrated resource planning with its optimizing the whole energy chain cannot be combined with sub-optimizing part of it, for instance the supply...... technology only. The need for including also the economic policy in the energy planning is illustrated with what is termed the efficiency pittfall. This points towards difficulties in imaging an integrated resource planning combined with a liberalized market. The three variable parameters, population, energy...

  5. Energy Savings Measure Packages: Existing Homes

    Casey, S.; Booten, C.

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the US. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for given source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home. The dollar value of the maximum annual savings varies significantly by location but typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  6. Energy saving in milk processing

    M. Janzekovic

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to present the justification of replacement of the obsolete system for milk pasteurization and washing of the production line by the newer CIP system (cleaning in place in the dairy. The latter ensures reliable washing and sterilization of lines and machines, which is one of the principal prerequisites for the product quality.Design/methodology/approach: The measurements were performed with the installed equipment CIP Module 5111 - 5116. The cleaning equipment is an 8 line satellite system. The SPS control and the visualization take place through the RAS (Remote - Access network. The visualization data are archived and the visualization is connected to the PC network. The worn Alfa Laval pasteur has been replaced by the new Fischer equipment.Findings: The new CIP system assured 43% water saving, if compared with the old equipment. Saving of washing agents (caustic solution, acid amounted to 11.5%. Due to smaller need for energy (gas, electricity the energy costs were reduced by 19%.Research limitations/implications: The modern system for pasteurization and washing is closely connected with energy saving measures. It allows the production of safe milk products in accordance with HACCP (hazard analyses of critical control points and reduces the hazard of injuries with chemicals.Practical implications: For any company the investments are a decisive factor for its growth and development. Modernization of systems for washing of production lines in dairies assures the cost reduction at all levels and the milk processing into high-quality milk products.Originality/value: The new CIP energy saving system has an influence on the costs of the dairy business activities and the reduction of environment burdening. Owing to the use of new equipment allowing 20 second maintaining time of pasteurization the pasteurization temperature has been reduced from 78°C to 76°C and, thus, the profitability of the pasteurization process has

  7. Risk transfer via energy-savings insurance

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and potential disputes over stipulated savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building diagnostics and commissioning), financial methods are less developed in the energy management arena than in other segments of the economy. Energy-savings insurance (ESI) - formal insurance of predicted energy savings - transfers and spreads both types of risk over a larger pool of energy efficiency projects and reduces barriers to market entry of smaller energy service firms who lack sufficiently strong balance sheets to self-insure the savings. ESI encourages those implementing energy-saving projects to go beyond standard measures and thereby achieve more significant levels of energy savings. Insurance providers are proponents of improved savings measurement and verification techniques, as well as maintenance, thereby contributing to national energy-saving objectives. If properly applied, ESI can potentially reduce the net cost of energy-saving projects by reducing the interest rates charged by lenders, and by increasing the level of savings through quality control. Governmental agencies have been pioneers in the use of ESI and could continue to play a role

  8. Potential Water and Energy Savings from Showerheads

    Biermayer, Peter J.

    2005-09-28

    This paper estimates the benefits and costs of six water reduction scenarios. Benefits and costs of showerhead scenarios are ranked in this paper by an estimated water reduction percentage. To prioritize potential water and energy saving scenarios regarding showerheads, six scenarios were analyzed for their potential water and energy savings and the associated dollar savings to the consumer.

  9. Potential Water and Energy Savings from Showerheads

    Biermayer, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper estimates the benefits and costs of six water reduction scenarios. Benefits and costs of showerhead scenarios are ranked in this paper by an estimated water reduction percentage. To prioritize potential water and energy saving scenarios regarding showerheads, six scenarios were analyzed for their potential water and energy savings and the associated dollar savings to the consumer.

  10. Energy Savings in a Market Economy

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The paper outlines the concept of energy savings as opposed to energy efficency. Afterwards are described briefly the up and down role of energy savings in recent Danish energy policy. It discusses the failure of leaving electricity savings and Integrated Resource Planning to the electricity...... suppliers. The recently debated case of building a new combined heat and powerplants because of the need for the "waste" heat is discussed on the background of a couple of decades of ignoring heat savings. The open and more hidden conflict between a quest for economic growth and energy savings are described...... and discussed. This finally leads to the difficulties in combining a more free market for energy in EU with a strong efforts to save energy. Ideas for electricity and heat saving policies are suggested....

  11. Nano RE Energy-saving Lamp To Be Launched

    2005-01-01

    Revealed from Science Technology Bureau of Ha ErbinDongli District, nano RE energy-saving lamp, which belongs toNational "863 Plan" projects, will be launched to the marketat the beginning of next year. Rare earths are raw materialsfor nano energy-saving lamp. When they are roasted intonano powder, with some additives such as magnesium,powder for lamp will be produced. Compared with presentenergy-saving lamp, nano lamp will save energy by 30%, withservice life of 30,000 - 50,000 hours. Luminosity of the new...

  12. Energy Savings Measure Packages. Existing Homes

    Casey, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  13. Energy saving certificates: instructions for use

    The French decree about energy saving obligations was introduced on May 23, 2006 and defines an energy saving goal of 54 billions of kWh from July 1, 2006 to June 30, 2009. This short article recalls up the mechanism of obligations and energy saving certificates which will be implemented to lower down the energy intensity of France by 2% per year from now to 2015. (J.S.)

  14. Energy supply and energy saving in Ukraine

    V.M. Ilchenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main problems and solutions of energy saving and energy supply in Ukraine. Low energy efficiency has become one of the main factors of the crisis in the Ukrainian economy. The most relevant scientific and methodical approaches to assessment of the level of energy consumption and saving are indicated. The comparative analysis of annual energy use has been made. A potential to solve energy supply problems is strongly correlated with the ability to ensure the innovative development of economy for efficient and economical use of existing and imported energy resources. The ways for reducing of energy resource consumption have been suggested. Creation of technological conditions for the use of alternative energy sources is considered to be rational also. The development of renewable sources of energy (alternative and renewable energy sources will provide a significant effect in reducing the use of traditional energy sources, harmful emissions and greenhouse gas. Under these conditions, increasing of energy efficiency of economy and its competitiveness can be real. Improvement of environmental and social conditions of citizens of the country will mark a positive step towards the EU, and also will cancel some problems of the future generation.

  15. 78 FR 20097 - Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    2013-04-03

    ... ESPCs at 10 CFR part 436, Subpart B. (See, 60 FR 18334.) To facilitate and accelerate the use of ESPCs... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Savings Performance Contracts AGENCY: Office of... improvements to Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPCs). ESPCs allow Federal agencies to implement...

  16. Values and Technologies in Energy Savings

    Nørgård, Jørgen Stig

    2000-01-01

    ´s behavioural pattern and lifestyles. Deliberate changes in social values are illustrated by a historical example. From the side of technology the basic principles in the economy of energy savings are briefly described. The marginally profitable energy savings provides an economic saving. The application of...... this saving can cause what is called the rebound effect, which reduces the savings obtained from the technology. Ways to avoid this effect are suggested, and they require value changes, primarly around frugality, consumption, and hard-working. There are indications that some of the necessary changes...

  17. Light Pipe Energy Savings Calculator

    Owens, Erin; Behringer, Ernest R.

    2009-04-01

    Dependence on fossil fuels is unsustainable and therefore a shift to renewable energy sources such as sunlight is required. Light pipes provide a way to utilize sunlight for interior lighting, and can reduce the need for fossil fuel-generated electrical energy. Because consumers considering light pipe installation may be more strongly motivated by cost considerations than by sustainability arguments, an easy means to examine the corresponding costs and benefits is needed to facilitate informed decision-making. The purpose of this American Physical Society Physics and Society Fellowship project is to create a Web-based calculator to allow users to quantify the possible cost savings for their specific light pipe application. Initial calculations show that the illumination provided by light pipes can replace electric light use during the day, and in many cases can supply greater illumination levels than those typically given by electric lighting. While the installation cost of a light pipe is significantly greater than the avoided cost of electricity over the lifetime of the light pipe at current prices, savings may be realized if electricity prices increase.

  18. Advertising energy saving programs: The potential environmental cost of emphasizing monetary savings.

    Schwartz, Daniel; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Lave, Lester

    2015-06-01

    Many consumers have monetary or environmental motivations for saving energy. Indeed, saving energy produces both monetary benefits, by reducing energy bills, and environmental benefits, by reducing carbon footprints. We examined how consumers' willingness and reasons to enroll in energy-savings programs are affected by whether advertisements emphasize monetary benefits, environmental benefits, or both. From a normative perspective, having 2 noteworthy kinds of benefit should not decrease a program's attractiveness. In contrast, psychological research suggests that adding external incentives to an intrinsically motivating task may backfire. To date, however, it remains unclear whether this is the case when both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations are inherent to the task, as with energy savings, and whether removing explicit mention of extrinsic motivation will reduce its importance. We found that emphasizing a program's monetary benefits reduced participants' willingness to enroll. In addition, participants' explanations about enrollment revealed less attention to environmental concerns when programs emphasized monetary savings, even when environmental savings were also emphasized. We found equal attention to monetary motivations in all conditions, revealing an asymmetric attention to monetary and environmental motives. These results also provide practical guidance regarding the positioning of energy-saving programs: emphasize intrinsic benefits; the extrinsic ones may speak for themselves. PMID:25581089

  19. User behaviour impact on energy savings potential

    Rose, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    When buildings are to undergo energy upgrading in Denmark, the national compliance checker, Be10, is often used to calculate expected energy savings for different energy-saving measures. The Be10 calculation is, however, very dependent on a variety of standard assumptions concerning the building...... and the residents' behaviour and if these defaults do not reflect actual circumstances, it can result in non-realisation of expected energy savings. Furthermore, a risk also exists that residents' behaviour change after the energy upgrading, e.g. to obtain improved comfort than what was possible...... before the upgrading and this could lead to further discrepancies between the calculated and the actual energy savings. This paper presents an analysis on how residents’ behaviour and the use of standard assumptions may influence expected energy savings. The analysis is performed on two typical single...

  20. Implementation of Energy Saving Controller for Electromagnetic Ballast Fluorescent Lamps

    Xiong, Zhi; Barsoum, Cheong; Barsoum, N. N.

    2010-06-01

    Fluorescent lamps have proven to be the most efficient lighting device. However, energy losses have been found in electromagnetic ballast due to high harmonic distortion and low power factor so energy is consumed unnecessarily. In today's energy demanding environment, energy efficiency of fluorescent lamps can be improved by introducing an energy saving controller in the electromagnetic ballast. The energy saving controller limits the supply voltage to an optimum level which tends to reduce the power losses in electromagnetic ballasts and fluorescent lamps. It is also anticipated that the energy saving controller has desirable characteristics of high power factor with dimmable illuminance level control. In comparison to electronic dimmable ballast, integration an energy saving controller with electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps results in less power consumption, dimmable illuminance control and longer life span at a much lower installation cost. Furthermore, there is no replacement cost for integrating the energy saving controller with existing electromagnetic fluorescent lamps system. In this paper, experimental works have been performed to investigate hardware implementation of the system which further supported by simulation on MATLAB Simulink. Experimental results based on the proposed energy saving controller showed that electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps can be dimmed without any problems down to 50% illuminance level output. In addition, experimental results show that 37.5% power consumption can be saved by reducing 15% of the supply voltage.

  1. Energy Savers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home

    None

    2014-05-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances.

  2. Energy Savers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home

    None

    2011-12-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances.

  3. Energy savings in Danish residential building stock

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    A large potential for energy savings exists in the Danish residential building stock due to the fact that 75% of the buildings were constructed before 1979 when the first important demands for energy performance of building were introduced. It is also a fact that many buildings in Denmark face...... comprehensive renovations in the coming years and in connection with this renovation process energy saving measures can be implemented relatively inexpensive and cost effective. This opportunity should be used to insure the buildings in the future as far as energy consumption is concerned. This paper gives a...... short account of the technical energy-saving possibilities that are present in existing dwellings and presents a financial methodology used for assessing energy-saving measures. In order to estimate the total savings potential detailed calculations have been performed in a case with two typical...

  4. Risk transfer via energy savings insurance; TOPICAL

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency improvements are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and apprehension about potential disputes over these savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building commissioning), financial risk transfer techniques are less developed in the energy management arena than in other more mature segments of the economy. Energy Savings Insurance (ESI) - formal insurance of predicted energy savings - is one method of transferring financial risks away from the facility owner or energy services contractor. ESI offers a number of significant advantages over other forms of financial risk transfer, e.g. savings guarantees or performance bonds. ESI providers manage risk via pre-construction design review as well as post-construction commissioning and measurement and verification of savings. We found that the two mos t common criticisms of ESI - excessive pricing and onerous exclusions - are not born out in practice. In fact, if properly applied, ESI can potentially reduce the net cost of energy savings projects by reducing the interest rates charged by lenders, and by increasing the level of savings through quality control. Debt service can also be ensured by matching loan payments to projected energy savings while designing the insurance mechanism so that payments are made by the insurer in the event of a savings shortfall. We estimate the U.S. ESI market potential of$875 million/year in premium income. From an energy-policy perspective, ESI offers a number of potential benefits: ESI transfers performance risk from the balance sheet of the entity implementing the energy savings project, thereby freeing up capital otherwise needed to ''self-insure'' the savings. ESI reduces barriers to market entry of smaller energy services firms who do not have sufficiently strong balance sheets to self

  5. Risk transfer via energy savings insurance

    Mills, Evan

    2001-10-01

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency improvements are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and apprehension about potential disputes over these savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building commissioning), financial risk transfer techniques are less developed in the energy management arena than in other more mature segments of the economy. Energy Savings Insurance (ESI) - formal insurance of predicted energy savings - is one method of transferring financial risks away from the facility owner or energy services contractor. ESI offers a number of significant advantages over other forms of financial risk transfer, e.g. savings guarantees or performance bonds. ESI providers manage risk via pre-construction design review as well as post-construction commissioning and measurement and verification of savings. We found that the two mos t common criticisms of ESI - excessive pricing and onerous exclusions - are not born out in practice. In fact, if properly applied, ESI can potentially reduce the net cost of energy savings projects by reducing the interest rates charged by lenders, and by increasing the level of savings through quality control. Debt service can also be ensured by matching loan payments to projected energy savings while designing the insurance mechanism so that payments are made by the insurer in the event of a savings shortfall. We estimate the U.S. ESI market potential of $875 million/year in premium income. From an energy-policy perspective, ESI offers a number of potential benefits: ESI transfers performance risk from the balance sheet of the entity implementing the energy savings project, thereby freeing up capital otherwise needed to ''self-insure'' the savings. ESI reduces barriers to market entry of smaller energy services firms who do not have sufficiently strong balance

  6. Potential energy savings and thermal comfort

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed.......The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed....

  7. Research on ZWR Concrete Energy Saving Synergist

    Hu Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    ZWR concrete energy saving synergist used in commodity concrete, were carried out experimental research and engineering application. The results show that the energy-boosters, in ensuring the overall performance of the concrete situation, as its content is 0.6% to 1% in cementitious material can reduce the amount of cement by 10% to 15%, significantly reduces production costs. Without changing the working properties and structural performance of the concrete, this energy saving synergist can ...

  8. Maximizing Residential Energy Savings: Net Zero Energy House (ZEH) Technology Pathways

    Anderson, R.; Roberts, D.

    2008-11-01

    To meet current U.S. Department of Energy zero-energy home performance goals, new technologies and solutions must increase whole-house efficiency savings by an additional 40% relative to those provided by best available components and systems.

  9. Energy saving opportunities in Jordanian pharmaceutical industries

    Areen Al-Ali

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of energy consumption saving opportunities in Jordanian pharmaceutical industry has been carried out in this paper, current status of energy consumption, possible saving techniques, and recommendations that could be implemented successfully through Energy Saving Program (ESP is explored. All variables that influence energy consumption are considered accordingly using a suitable methodology. This methodology integrates a simulation programs into the analysis process; thereafter an accurate analysis and a reliable assessment for energy consumption is provided. HAP 4.41software has been used to simulate and to calculate energy consumption and costs. One biggest Jordanian pharmaceutical facility that produces Penicillin and Cephalosporin products is considered as an illustrative example, the facility consists of four main energy consumption centers and includes consuming systems namely; HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning system, lighting, compressed air, steam boilers, and miscellaneous equipments like computers, refrigerators, fume hoods, etc. Historical energy consumption quantities are estimated, details of energy data are tabulated accordingly input data files for the computer simulation method using HAP 4.41 are created. Energy saving recommendations has been decided and incorporated into the ESP system. The paper concluded with a good quality room of energy saving opportunities that mirrored positively on the national energy bill with a reduction of 13% of the total annual energy consumption.

  10. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings for Small Office Buildings

    Thornton, Brian A.; Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Lane, Michael D.; Liu, Bing

    2010-04-30

    The Technical Support Document (TSD) for 50% energy savings in small office buildings documents the analysis and results for a recommended package of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) referred to as the advanced EEMs. These are changes to a building design that will reduce energy usage. The package of advanced EEMs achieves a minimum of 50% energy savings and a construction area weighted average energy savings of 56.6% over the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 for 16 cities which represent the full range of climate zones in the United States. The 50% goal is for site energy usage reduction. The weighted average is based on data on the building area of construction in the various climate locations. Cost-effectiveness of the EEMs is determined showing an average simple payback of 6.7 years for all 16 climate locations. An alternative set of results is provided which includes a variable air volume HVAC system that achieves at least 50% energy savings in 7 of the 16 climate zones with a construction area weighted average savings of 48.5%. Other packages of EEMs may also achieve 50% energy savings; this report does not consider all alternatives but rather presents at least one way to reach the goal. Design teams using this TSD should follow an integrated design approach and utilize additional analysis to evaluate the specific conditions of a project.

  11. BGP Ltd Adopts Energy-saving Technology

    2003-01-01

    @@ An exploration subsidiary of China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), the country's largest oil company, has agreed to use energy-saving technology developed by a Beijing firm in an attempt to slash costs.

  12. Energy Savings Thanks to French Textile Machinery

    2010-01-01

    The French Textile Machinery Manufacturers’ Association (UCMTF) has presented,during a seminar it organized for textile professionals and students,the spectacular energy savings achieved thanks to state of the art

  13. Public-opinion poll on energy saving

    A public-opinion poll was carried out on energy saving from November 26 to December 2, 1981, across the country. The number of persons participated in the survey was 5,000, whose age was 20 and above. The recovery ratio was 4,007 persons (80.1 %). The results of the survey and also the question-answer form are given with respective percentages. The questions were in the following three categories: (1) cognizance of energy saving - space-heating temperature, energy saving conscience use of private cars, purchase of highenergy consumption appliances; (2) energy for future - energy consumption, energy consumption trend, new types of energy, main sources of power generation, nuclear power in the overall electric power, apprehension toward nuclear power plants, safety measures in nuclear power plants; (3) governmental energy policy measures. (J.P.N.)

  14. Savings impact of a corporate energy manager

    This paper discusses the cost savings impact of employing an energy manager with a 16,000-employee corporation. The corporation, Canada's second largest airline, is currently operating nearly 3,000,000 ft2 of mixed-use facilities spread across the country, with an annual energy budget for ground facilities of over Cdn $4,000,000. This paper outlines the methodology used by the energy manager to deploy an energy management program over a two-year period between April 1995 and May 1997. The paper examines the successes and the lessons learned during the period and summarizes the costs and benefits of the program. The energy manager position was responsible for developing an energy history database with more than 100 active accounts and for monitoring and verifying energy savings. The energy manager implemented many relatively low-cost energy conservation measures, as well as some capital projects, during the first two years of the program. In total, these measures provided energy cost savings of $210,000 per year, or 5% of the total budget. In each case, technologies installed as part of the energy retrofit projects provided not only cost savings but also better control, reduced maintenance, and improved working conditions for employees

  15. Negotiated agreements - blueprint for energy saving

    A 5-step model for achieving energy saving targets which are set out in Climate Change Levy (CCL) Negotiated Agreements is presented. The model for energy management and conservation entails the development of an energy policy, planning and organising involving formalised responsibilities for achieving the objectives of the energy policy, monitoring and control of plans, management reports on energy use, and regular reviews. Web addresses for CCL documents and information are provided

  16. Dual-Cell HSDPA for Network Energy Saving

    Micallef, Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    consumption. This paper proposes an energy saving feature that exploits variations in network traffic. Based on the individual load of each sector, the feature determines if the secondary carrier is detrimental for reaching some pre-set minimum requirements. Each sector is allowed to switch off one of their...... two carriers, during periods of low network traffic. It is concluded that an energy saving ranging between 14% and 36% is possible. This saving comes without degradation of network performance.......-Cell HSDPA (or Dual-Carrier HSDPA). This feature allows for a single user to be simultaneously scheduled over two carriers, effectively doubling its achievable data rate. The addition of a secondary carrier will require additional radio equipment at the base station site, increasing the overall energy...

  17. Electric energy savings from new technologies

    Moe, R.J.; Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for ten technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all ten technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Thus, the savings projected here represent between 4% and 14% of total consumption projected for 2000. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference forecast, reducing projected electricity consumption from what it otherwise would have been, the savings estimated here should not be directly subtracted from the reference forecast.

  18. Saving Building Energy through Advanced Control Strategies

    Stephen Treado

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of the relationship between building energy usage and building control system operation and performance. A method is presented for estimating the energy saving potential of improvements in building and control system operation, including the relative impact of recommssioning and hardware and software upgrades, based on a subjective assessment of the level of energy efficient design and the energy usage of the building relative to similar buildings as indicated by the Energy Utilization Index for the building. The method introduces a Building Design Index and a Building Operating Index to evaluate building energy performance versus similar buildings, and uses these indices to estimate potential savings and effectiveness of control system improvements.

  19. When financiers are concerned with energy saving

    Innovative financial systems allow to finance investments for the energy efficiency improvement of public or residential buildings. Such solutions are implemented in Belgium and Germany. They are based on the association between a financial company, an energy supplier who makes an energy audit and the building owner who refunds the investments with the saving made on the space heating and power consumption of the building. Short paper. (J.S.)

  20. Acquiring energy savings in manufactured housing

    In 1991, the Northwest utilities faced a complex situation. They needed new sources of electrical power to avoid future deficits. A significant block of energy savings was available in the manufactured housing sector in the form of energy savings from increased insulation to new manufactured homes. The manufacturers were interested in saving the electricity in the homes, but would only deal with the utility sector as a whole. Half of the homes targeted were sited in investor-owned utility (IOU) service territories, and half in the public sector made up of utilities that purchased some or all of their electricity from the Bonneville Power Administration. Utilities agreed to acquire energy from manufacturers In the form of thermal efficiency measures specified by the Bonneville Power Administration. The program that resulted from over one year of negotiations was called the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program, or MAP. Manufacturers, the utilities, State Energy Offices, the Northwest Power Planning Council and Bonneville all worked closely and with tenacity to build the program that went into effect on April 1, 1992, and should save the region between 7 and 9 megawatts, enough energy to supply 11,000 homes in the Northwest

  1. Saving energy: what matters now

    Burberry, Peter (Manchester Univ. (UK). Inst. of Science and Technology)

    1991-02-13

    The oil crisis of the '70s led towards energy efficiency, using energy more cost effectively. Now the agenda is different. With coming climate change and increasing pollution we must each use less energy, and this changes our design priorities. (author).

  2. Behaviour: Seeing heat saves energy

    Steg, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Household energy conservation can help to significantly lower energy consumption. Visual cues provided by thermal imaging of heat loss in buildings are now shown to increase energy conserving behaviours and implementations among homeowners more effectively than just performing carbon footprint audits.

  3. Energy saving concepts relating to induction generators

    Nola, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Energy saving concepts relating to induction generators are presented. The first describes a regenerative scheme using an induction generator as a variable load for prime movers under test is described. A method for reducing losses in induction machines used specifically as wind driven generators is also described.

  4. Reactors Save Energy, Costs for Hydrogen Production

    2014-01-01

    While examining fuel-reforming technology for fuel cells onboard aircraft, Glenn Research Center partnered with Garrettsville, Ohio-based Catacel Corporation through the Glenn Alliance Technology Exchange program and a Space Act Agreement. Catacel developed a stackable structural reactor that is now employed for commercial hydrogen production and results in energy savings of about 20 percent.

  5. To build an energy-saving society

    2005-01-01

    @@ To speed up the development of cycling economy and build an energy-saving society is the key point of work in the coming years for the General Administration of Qualitv Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People's Republic of China(AQSIQ).

  6. Energy Savings From System Efficiency Improvements in Iowa's HVAC SAVE Program

    Yee, S. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Baker, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Wells, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this project is to explore the energy savings potential of maximizing furnace and distribution system performance by adjusting operating, installation, and distribution conditions. The goal of the Iowa HVAC System Adjusted and Verified Efficiency (SAVE) program is to train contractors to measure installed system efficiency as a diagnostic tool to ensure that the homeowner achieves the energy reduction target for the home rather than simply performing a tune-up on the furnace or having a replacement furnace added to a leaky system. The PARR research team first examined baseline energy usage from a sample of 48 existing homes, before any repairs or adjustments were made, to calculate an average energy savings potential and to determine which system deficiencies were prevalent. The results of the baseline study of these homes found that, on average, about 10% of the space heating energy available from the furnace was not reaching the conditioned space. In the second part of the project, the team examined a sample of 10 homes that had completed the initial evaluation for more in-depth study. For these homes, the diagnostic data shows that it is possible to deliver up to 23% more energy from the furnace to the conditioned space by doing system tune ups with or without upgrading the furnace. Replacing the furnace provides additional energy reduction. The results support the author's belief that residential heating and cooling equipment should be tested and improved as a system rather than a collection of individual components.

  7. Save Energy Now Assessments Results 2008 Detailed Report

    Wright, Anthony L [ORNL; Martin, Michaela A [ORNL; Nimbalkar, Sachin U [ORNL; Quinn, James [U.S. Department of Energy; Glatt, Ms. Sandy [DOE Industrial Technologies Program; Orthwein, Mr. Bill [U.S. Department of Energy

    2010-09-01

    In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of the largest U.S. manufacturing plants. DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) responded to the Secretary's campaign with its Save Energy Now initiative, featuring a new and highly cost-effective form of energy savings assessment. The approach for these assessments drew heavily on the existing resources of ITP's technology delivery component. Over the years, ITP Technology Delivery has worked with industry partners to assemble a suite of respected software tools, proven assessment protocols, training curricula, certified energy experts, and strong partnerships for deployment. The Save Energy Now assessments conducted in calendar year 2006 focused on natural gas savings and targeted many of the nation's largest manufacturing plants - those that consume at least 1 TBtu of energy annually. The 2006 Save Energy Now assessments focused primarily on assessments of steam and process heating systems, which account for an estimated 74% of all natural gas use by U.S. manufacturing plants. Because of the success of the Save Energy Now assessments conducted in 2006 and 2007, the program was expanded and enhanced in two major ways in 2008: (1) a new goal was set to perform at least 260 assessments; and (2) the assessment focus was expanded to include pumping, compressed air, and fan systems in addition to steam and process heating. DOE ITP also has developed software tools to assess energy efficiency improvement opportunities in pumping, compressed air, and fan systems. The Save Energy Now assessments integrate a strong training component designed to teach industrial plant personnel how to use DOE's opportunity assessment software tools. This approach has the advantages of promoting strong buy-in of plant personnel for the assessment and its outcomes and preparing them better to

  8. How to estimate realistic energy savings in Energy Performance Certificates

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Altmann, Nagmeh; Berecová, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Given the fact that most MS use fixed or other kinds of default values as boundary condition input for energy performance calculations, it is not surprising that the calculated energy performance differs from the measured energy consumption. As a consequence, the calculated energy savings due to...... suggested building energy upgrading in the EPC will also deviate from the actual achieved energy savings. Adjusting input boundary condition to the actual values, will often result in realistic (comparable with measured energy consumption) calculated energy demands. This even happens in simple, quasi...... stationary calculation tools using monthly average values. The optimum solution for energy performance certificates and calculating realistic energy savings is to have two calculations. One calculation, using default values to calculate the label itself, and one with actual input parameters for calculating...

  9. ENERGY SAVING MODES DEFINITION OF TRAINS HANDLING

    D. M. Kyslyi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Traction calculations with the definition of energy-efficient trajectories provide search for rational energy consumption depending on the time course of the train. When selecting energy-efficient trajectory of the train and the development of regime charts conducting trains must take into account variables such as: the profile of the site, weight train, locomotive series, etc. When increasing the speed of the growth it occurs the resistance movement, which is proportional to the square of the speed, which leads to higher costs of fuel and energy resources. In contrast, the reduction of costs due to the decrease in speed leads to an increase in travel time of the train, which should be consistent with the timetable and other technical and economic parameters, depending on the speed. The article describes one way to reduce the cost of energy for traction. The aim of the article is to reduce energy consumption by identifying energy-saving control modes. It occurs with the locomotive optimization function of control actions on the running time of the train and the flow of energy in the management of the train from the end of the acceleration to go to the coasts. Methodology. The technique of choice of energy saving path of the train and power control and electric locomotives with electric transmission provides the calculation of multiple paths with variable input data and parameters of the composition of the train situation. The methodology takes into account the uniform mathematical methods of search and parametric optimization. For uniformity of motion needed to slow down the accelerating forces are balanced. Findings. On the basis of calculations of multiple advanced algorithms determine the trajectories of energy-saving trains, built multiparametric locomotive power control function, which can reduce energy consumption by 11 to 13% depending on the weight of the train and the train situation. Originality. The author obtained the energy-saving

  10. Structured packing: an opportunity for energy savings

    This work emphasizes the advantages about the use of structured packing. This type of packings allows by its geometry to reduce the processing time giving energy savings and throw down the production costs in several industries such as heavy water production plants, petrochemical industry and all industries involved with separation processes. There is a comparative results of energy consumption utilizing the structured vs. Raschig packings. (Author)

  11. Measuring the Energy Savings from Tree Shade

    Maher, Joe

    2013-01-01

    The energy savings from tree shade coincide with peak electricity demand during summer months, creating an opportunity for utilities to use tree protection policies as demand side management tools. We apply a quasi-experimental research design to identify the change in residential energy caused by tree removals using three unique micro-level datasets from Gainesville, Florida. These datasets include (i) a twelve year panel of monthly household electricity billing data for 30,000 homes service...

  12. Energy Saving Potential in Existing Compressors

    Cipollone, Roberto; Vittorini, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The Compressed Air Sector (CAS) is responsible for a relevant part of energy consumption, accounting for a mean 10% of the world-wide electricity needs. This ensures about the importance of the CAS issue when sustainability, in terms of energy saving and CO2 emissions reduction, is in question. Since the compressors alone account for a mean 15% of the industry overall electricity consumption, it appears vital to pay attention towards machine performances. The paper deals with compressor techn...

  13. Decentralized energy-saving hydraulic concepts for mobile working machines

    Lodewyks, Johann; Zurbrügg, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The high price of batteries in working machines with electric drives offer a potential for investment in energy-saving hydraulic systems. The decentralized power network opens up new approaches for hydraulic- and hybrid circuits. In addition, the regeneration of energy can be used at any point of the machine. For the example of an excavator arm drive with a double cylinder two compact hydraulic circuits are presented, which relieve a central hydraulic system.

  14. Comparison of Software Models for Energy Savings from Cool Roofs

    New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL; Huang, Yu (Joe) [White Box Technologies; Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2014-01-01

    A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the United States Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs modern web technologies, usability design, and national average defaults as an interface to annual simulations of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim in order to provide estimated annual energy and cost savings. In addition to cool reflective roofs, RSC simulates multiple roof and attic configurations including different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance roof surfaces, duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple substrate types, and insulation levels. A base case and energy-efficient alternative can be compared side-by-side to estimate monthly energy. RSC was benchmarked against field data from demonstration homes in Ft. Irwin, California; while cooling savings were similar, heating penalty varied significantly across different simulation engines. RSC results reduce cool roofing cost-effectiveness thus mitigating expected economic incentives for this countermeasure to the urban heat island effect. This paper consolidates comparison of RSC s projected energy savings to other simulation engines including DOE-2.1E, AtticSim, Micropas, and EnergyPlus, and presents preliminary analyses. RSC s algorithms for capturing radiant heat transfer and duct interaction in the attic assembly are considered major contributing factors to increased cooling savings and heating penalties. Comparison to previous simulation-based studies, analysis on the force multiplier of RSC cooling savings and heating penalties, the role of radiative heat exchange in an attic assembly, and changes made for increased accuracy of the duct model are included.

  15. Investigation of Energy Saving Possibilities in Buildings

    Edita Milutienė

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Buildings sector is the largest single energy end-user in the EU. There are numerous possibilities to save energy in buildings. This research deals with the analysis of the possibilities to save energy in buildings of northern latitudes by applying a passive solar energy technique. The article presents results of solar radiation monitoring in Vilnius for a 12 years period and assessment of the possibilities to save heat energy. Data could be used in designing solar houses, calculating passive solar energy gains and evaluating CO2 emissions reduction.

  16. Daylight metrics and energy savings

    Mardaljevic, John; Heschong, Lisa; Lee, Eleanor

    2009-12-31

    The drive towards sustainable, low-energy buildings has increased the need for simple, yet accurate methods to evaluate whether a daylit building meets minimum standards for energy and human comfort performance. Current metrics do not account for the temporal and spatial aspects of daylight, nor of occupants comfort or interventions. This paper reviews the historical basis of current compliance methods for achieving daylit buildings, proposes a technical basis for development of better metrics, and provides two case study examples to stimulate dialogue on how metrics can be applied in a practical, real-world context.

  17. Energy savings brought to bear.

    2009-01-01

    Health Estate Journal reports on wide-ranging and successful work undertaken by the Medway Maritime Hospital's estates team to cut energy consumption at, and reduce the carbon footprint of, the Kent hospital since the Medway NHS Foundation Trust signed up, last August, to the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers' (CIBSE) 2008 "100 Hours of Carbon Clean Up" campaign. PMID:19192595

  18. Energy saving certificates: an improved instrument

    This report first presents Energy Saving Certificates as one of among other instruments aimed at reducing energy consumption, and indicates how the French consumer is concerned. The benefits of this instrument are outlined: low cost, autonomy, awareness-raising, quantitative assessment of achieved energy savings. Its objectives and results since its creation in 2006 are commented, and the report outlines that this type of instrument is spreading over Europe. The authors show that its efficiency has been improved along the years due to a periodic review of standardised operation sheets, a simplification of the declaration, and an optimization of related programmes. Besides, targets have been better identified. The report outlines that assessment and controls must however be strengthened in order to reduce financial risks and potential drifts. Answers to this report by the concerned minister and ADEME are provided

  19. Energy savings at the refinery of Tirlemont

    Braeckman, M.

    1985-03-01

    The paper describes energy savings achieved at the Tirlemont sugar refinery during the past ten years, and the old flow-sheet used at Tirlemont is explained. Using this scheme, the different actions we have performed to economize energy are described. In a following chapter, it is talked about the local energy saving investments realized in the seventies, and finally, a more detailed information follows, concerning the complete reneal of the cristallization in the Tirlemont plant. The new adopted scheme is compared with the former, and the paper concludes with a graph showing that fuel consumption per 100 kg of white sugar produced has been reduced from ca. 37 to 14 kg within five years.

  20. Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems

    Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

  1. The possibility to save energy with an energy price increase

    Gas price increase results in the saving of energy. However, the use of another tariff structure can also be applied to save energy. Six tariff structures are compared for their energy conservation stimulating effects. The tariff structures are the present structure, a fixed structure, a limited degressive structure, a variable structure, a progressive structure, and a degressive structure. The variable and the progressive tariff structure result in a larger financial incentive to save energy than the present structure for equal costs for households and equal income for the energy utilities. The effect of the progressive tariff structure can be compared with a 50% energy tax. The alternative tariff structures are commented on request by a policy employee of EnergieNed, the Association of Energy Distribution Companies in the Netherlands. 2 figs

  2. The EU must triple its energy saving policy effect

    Wesselink, B.; Eichhammer, W.; Harmsen, R.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of EU energy savings policy must triple to achieve the bloc’s 2020 energy savings goal. But such efforts could get a much better foundation if European leaders set a binding energy consumption target, rather than the current indicative savings target. The evidence for such conclusion is p

  3. Energy saving lamps in the discussion; Energiesparlampen in der Diskussion

    NONE

    2010-12-01

    In the contribution under consideration the following questions according to energy saving lamp are discussed: (a) Mercury from broken energy saving lamp - a health problem?; (b) Why did the Federal Environmental Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) measure the mercury emissions from energy saving lamps?; (c) Which consequences does the Federal Environmental Agency draw from the investigations?.

  4. China energy-water nexus: Assessing the water-saving synergy effects of energy-saving policies during the eleventh Five-year Plan

    Highlights: • Energy and water limit China’s sustainable development. • Current energy policies fail to address water saving issues. • The energy-water coefficient is estimated for both direct use and indirect use. • Water saving effects associated with energy-saving policies is calculated. • Water-energy nexus should be enhanced in key industrial sectors. - Abstract: Energy and water have become major factors limiting sustainable development in China. Energy efficiency and optimization of water management are critical for the healthy growth of the Chinese economy. Current national energy policies fail to adequately address water use issues. Similarly, current water policies do not consider the impact of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently, few studies have investigated the relationship between energy consumption and water use. The present study analyzes the energy-water nexus in Chinese industries using input–output tables. Coefficients that characterize the relationship between energy consumption and water are used to describe the supply-consumption relationship between the water supply and primary energy sectors. Next, we calculate the water-saving effects associated with the enforcement of energy-saving policies in selected industrial sectors during the eleventh Five-year Plan, from 2005 to 2010. These calculations address the ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, petrochemical engineering, building materials, and electricity industries as well as key light industries. Our findings indicate that energy-saving efforts in these industries will result in savings in water consumption. This study suggests that a cooperative relationship between water and energy conservation efforts should be an important factor in creating policies that encourage simultaneous savings of both resources. Additionally, the study indicates that government should promote water- and energy-saving techniques in key industrial sectors to encourage

  5. Will Renewable Energy Save Our Planet?

    Bojić, Milorad

    2010-06-01

    This paper discusses some important fundamental issues behind application of renewable energy (RE) to evaluate its impact as a climate change mitigation technology. The discussed issues are the following: definition of renewable energy, concentration of RE by weight and volume, generation of electrical energy and its power at unit area, electrical energy demand per unit area, life time approach vs. layman approach, energy return time, energy return ratio, CO2 return time, energy mix for RES production and use, geographical distribution of RES use, huge scale of energy shift from RES to non-RES, increase in energy consumption, Thermodynamic equilibrium of earth, and probable solutions for energy future of our energy and environmental crisis of today. The future solution (that would enable to human civilization further welfare, and good living, but with lower release of CO2 in atmosphere) may not be only RES. This will rather be an energy mix that may contain nuclear energy, non-nuclear renewable energy, or fossil energy with CO2 sequestration, efficient energy technologies, energy saving, and energy consumption decrease.

  6. Energy Savings Potential of Radiative Cooling Technologies

    Fernandez, Nicholas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Alvine, Kyle J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP), conducted a study to estimate, through simulation, the potential cooling energy savings that could be achieved through novel approaches to capturing free radiative cooling in buildings, particularly photonic ‘selective emittance’ materials. This report documents the results of that study.

  7. Investing EU ETS auction revenues into energy savings

    Sijm, J.P.M.; Boonekamp, P.G.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Summerton, P.; Pollitt, H.; Billington, S. [Cambridge Econometrics CE, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    The overall objective of this study is to analyse the effects of using EU ETS auction revenues to stimulate investments in energy savings in three key target sectors, i.e. Households, Tertiary and Industry (including both ETS and non-ETS industrial installations). The scenarios used refer basically to the situation before the recent agreement on the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) and include (a mixture of) different policy options to enhance energy savings in the target sectors, in particular (1) reducing the ETS cap, (2) introducing an Energy Efficiency Obligation (EEO) for energy suppliers or distributors, and/or (3) using ETS auction revenues to support additional (private) investments in raising energy efficiency. In order to meet this objective a variety of different policy scenarios have been defined and analysed by means of the 'Energy-Environment-Economy Model for Europe (E3ME)'. The study presents and discusses a large variety of scenario modelling results by the year 2020 at the EU27 level. These results refer to, among others, energy savings, GHG emissions, the ETS carbon price, household electricity bills and to changes in some macro- or socio-economic outcomes such as GDP, inflation, employment or international trade. Finally, the study discusses some policy findings and implications, including options to enhance the effectiveness of some EE policies, in particular those having a potential adverse effect on the ETS carbon price.

  8. Barriers to investments in energy saving technologies. Case study for the industry

    Masselink, Dirk Jan

    2007-01-01

    To realise future energy saving targets, the government needs to increase energy reduction rates. One option to increase energy savings is found in removing barriers to investments in cost-effective energy saving technologies. Many technologies save energ

  9. Estimating the energy saving potential of telecom operators in China

    A set of models are employed to estimate the potential of total energy saved of productions and segmented energy saving for telecom operators in China. During the estimation, the total energy saving is divided into that by technology and management, which are derived from technical reform and progress, and management control measures and even marketing respectively, and the estimating methodologies for energy saving potential of each segment are elaborated. Empirical results from China Mobile indicate that, first, the technical advance in communications technology accounts for the largest proportion (70%–80%) of the total energy saved of productions in telecom sector of China. Second, technical reform brings about 20%–30% of the total energy saving. Third, the proportions of energy saving brought by marketing and control measures appear relatively smaller, just less than 3%. Therefore, China's telecom operators should seize the opportunity of the revolution of communications network techniques in recent years to create an advanced network with lower energy consumption

  10. Incorporating Non-energy Benefits into Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    Larsen, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Gilligan, Donald; Singer, Terry

    2012-06-01

    This paper evaluates the issue of non-energy benefits within the context of the U.S. energy services company (ESCO) industry?a growing industry comprised of companies that provide energy savings and other benefits to customers through the use of performance-based contracting. Recent analysis has found that ESCO projects in the public/institutional sector, especially at K-12 schools, are using performance-based contracting, at the behest of the customers, to partially -- but not fully -- offset substantial accumulated deferred maintenance needs (e.g., asbestos removal, wiring) and measures that have very long paybacks (roof replacement). This trend is affecting the traditional economic measures policymakers use to evaluate success on a benefit to cost basis. Moreover, the value of non-energy benefits which can offset some or all of the cost of the non-energy measures -- including operations and maintenance (O&M) savings, avoided capital costs, and tradable pollution emissions allowances-- are not always incorporated into a formal cost-effectiveness analysis of ESCO projects. Nonenergy benefits are clearly important to customers, but state and federal laws that govern the acceptance of these types of benefits for ESCO projects vary widely (i.e., 0-100percent of allowable savings can come from one or more non-energy categories). Clear and consistent guidance on what types of savings are recognized in Energy Savings agreements under performance contracts is necessary, particularly where customers are searching for deep energy efficiency gains in the building sector.

  11. About energy saving and increase of energy efficiency in buildings

    L.L. Goshka

    2010-01-01

    In the article the analysis of National law №261 "Energy saving and increase of energy efficiency..." from the point of view of building systems is given. The recommendations for modernization of heat, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems taking into account energy efficiency requirements are given.

  12. Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making

    Oikonomou, V.; Becchis, F.; Steg, L.; Russolillo, D.

    2009-01-01

    Departing from the concept of rational use of energy, the paper outlines the microeconomics of end-use energy saving as a result of frugality or efficiency measures. Frugality refers to the behaviour that is aimed at energy conservation, and with efficiency we refer to the technical ratio between en

  13. Energy saving dc-dc converter circuit

    An energy saving dc-dc converter circuit is disclosed having two energy efficient means which operate in tandem, an energy conserving means and a voltage doubling means. These energy efficient means are applied in combination with elements commonly found in dc-dc converter circuits, namely an ac voltage generator, a transformer for stepping up the generated ac voltage, and means for storing the converted dc voltage. The energy conserving means is connected to the dc voltage storage means. It comprises a resettable inhibit circuit which cuts off the provision of dc voltage for conversion for a predetermined interval when the output of the converter exceeds a predetermined level. The voltage doubling means is reponsive to outputs of the inhibit circuit of the energy conserving means and the ac voltage generator. It provides a phase inverted waveform of the generated ac voltage on one of two leads to the ac voltage step-up transformer

  14. SAVE ENERGY FOR BETTER FUTURE%SAVE ENERGY FOR BETTER FUTURE

    2011-01-01

    Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao called for intensified efforts to save energy and reduce emissions over the next five years to ease climate change and promote sustainable development. The country fulfilled most of its binding energy-saving and emission reduction goals set out in the nation's l lth Five-Year Plan period (2006-2010). China's energy consumption grew at an annual rate of 6.6 percent over the last five years, much slower than the 11.2-percent increase in the country's economic growth.

  15. Chinese hotel general managers' perspectives on energy-saving practices

    Zhu, Yidan

    As hotels' concern about sustainability and budget-control is growing steadily, energy-saving issues have become one of the important management concerns hospitality industry face. By executing proper energy-saving practices, previous scholars believed that hotel operation costs can decrease dramatically. Moreover, they believed that conducting energy-saving practices may eventually help the hotel to gain other benefits such as an improved reputation and stronger competitive advantage. The energy-saving issue also has become a critical management problem for the hotel industry in China. Previous research has not investigated energy-saving in China's hotel segment. To achieve a better understanding of the importance of energy-saving, this document attempts to present some insights into China's energy-saving practices in the tourist accommodations sector. Results of the study show the Chinese general managers' attitudes toward energy-saving issues and the differences among the diverse hotel managers who responded to the study. Study results indicate that in China, most of the hotels' energy bills decrease due to the implementation of energy-saving equipments. General managers of hotels in operation for a shorter period of time are typically responsible for making decisions about energy-saving issues; older hotels are used to choosing corporate level concerning to this issue. Larger Chinese hotels generally have official energy-saving usage training sessions for employees, but smaller Chinese hotels sometimes overlook the importance of employee training. The study also found that for the Chinese hospitality industry, energy-saving practices related to electricity are the most efficient and common way to save energy, but older hotels also should pay attention to other ways of saving energy such as water conservation or heating/cooling system.

  16. Energy saving screw compressor technology; Energiebesparende schroefcompressortechnologie

    Moeller, A. [RefComp, Lonigo (Italy); Neus, M. [Delta Technics Engineering, Breda (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    Smart solutions to reduce the energy consumption are continuously part of investigation in the refrigeration technology. This article subscribed the technology on which way energy can be saved at the operation of screw compressors which are used in air conditioners and refrigerating machinery. The combination of frequency control and Vi-control (intrinsic volumetric ratio) such as researched in the laboratory of RefComp is for the user attractive because the energy efficiency during part load operation is much better. Smart uses of thermodynamics, electric technology and electronic control are the basics of these applications. According to the manufacturer's information it is possible with these new generation screw compressors to save approx. 26% energy in comparison with the standard screw compressor. [Dutch] In dit artikel wordt de technologie omschreven waarmee veel energie bespaard kan worden bij schroefcompressoren die worden gebruikt in airconditioningsystemen en koel- en vriesinstallaties. De combinatie van frequentieregeling en Vi- regeling (Vi is de intrinsieke volumetrische verhouding) zoals onderzocht in het laboratorium van RefComp biedt de gebruiker veel voordelen doordat de energie-efficintie van de compressor tijdens deellast enorm wordt verbeterd. Slim gebruik van thermodynamika, elektrotechniek en elektronica vormen de basis van deze toepassing. Volgens de fabrikant kan met deze nieuwe generatie schroefcompressoren circa 26 procent op het energiegebruik tijdens deellast worden bespaard in vergelijking met de standaard serie schroefcompressoren.

  17. Good practice in saving energy at school

    Veronesi, Paola; Bonazzi, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    We teach students between 14 and 18 years old at a high school in Italy. In the first class, one of the topics we treat is related to the atmosphere. The students learn the composition of air, the importance of the natural greenhouse effect in keeping the average temperature of the planet and how human activity is increasing the level of greenhouse gases, enhancing greenhouse effect and causing global warming. It is possible to reach this knowledge using different materials and methods such as schoolbooks, articles, websites or films, individual or group work, but as students gradually become aware of the problem of climate change due to global warming, it is necessary to propose a solution that can be experienced and measured by students. This is the aim of the project "Switch off the light, to switch on the future". The project doesn't need special materials to be carried out but all the people in the community who work and "live" at school should participate in it. The project deals directly with saving electric energy, by changing the habits of the use of electricity. Saving electric energy means saving CO2 emitted to atmosphere, and consequently contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gases emission. Normally, lights in the school are switched on in the early morning and switched off at the end of lessons. Nobody is responsible to turn out the lights in classes, so students choose one or two "Light guardians" who are responsible for the light management. Simple rules for light management are written and distributed in the classes so that the action of saving energy is spread all over the school. One class participates in the daily data collection from the electricity meter, before and after the beginning of the action. At the end of the year the data are treated and presented to the community, verifying if the electric consumption has been cut down or not. This presentation is public, with students who directly introduce collected data, results and

  18. Natural gas decompression energy recovery: Energy savings potential in Italy

    This paper surveyed the natural gas distribution systems employed in the Italian civil, industrial and thermoelectric sectors to identify those installations which can make use of gas decompression energy recovery systems (consisting of turbo-expanders or alternative expanders) to economically generate electric power. Estimates were then made of the total amount of potential energy savings. The study considered as eligible for energy savings interventions only those plants with a greater than 5,000 standard cubic meter per hour plant capacity. It was evaluated that, with suitable decompression equipment installed at 50 key installations (33 civil, 15 industrial), about 200 GWh of power could be produced annually, representing potential savings of about 22,000 petroleum equivalent tonnes of energy. A comparative analysis was done on three investment alternatives involving inputs of varying amounts of Government financial assistance

  19. Qualitative assessment of the CEE arrangement - Second period 2011-2013. The Certificates of Energy Savings: an arrangement which catalyses decision by households for energy saving works. Synthesis

    After previous assessments on energy savings, costs, and potentials, this publication reports a qualitative assessment of the CEE arrangement (certificate of energy savings). The objective is to get a better insight into decision making by the final consumer. After a brief presentation of the survey methodology, the report describes the CEEs as a catalyst for higher performance works. The survey highlighted the incentive effect of the CEE premium, and the lever effect of advice and information. The report also outlines that the CEE is an additional tool to other public aids. It indicates that works are highly motivated by a search for energy savings, and are actually efficient to meet this objective

  20. Contemporary energy storage sources. Energy saving

    The development of renewable energy system for electricity production is impede because of needs to be stabilized with nearly equivalent installed power of energy storage devices. The development of more electrical energy storage facilities will be extremely important for electricity generation in the future. Using hydro pumping, combined with a long life and fast charge/discharge rate, highly efficient contemporary power energy storage as Altairnano lithium ion battery, currently is seems to be the best solution for fast penetration rate of wind and solar energy systems

  1. Energy saving opportunities of energy efficient air nozzles

    Slootmaekers, Tim; Slaets, Peter; Bartsoen, Tom; Malfait, Lieven; Vanierschot, Maarten

    2015-12-01

    Compressed air is a common energy medium. The production of compressed air itself is not a very efficient process. Avoiding any unnecessary losses of air can lead to large reductions in electricity consumption. Since blowing applications are one of the main domains were compressed-air is used, any reduction in the mass flow needed for operation can lead to significant energy savings. In this paper the normal volumetric flow rate and generated impact force are compared between a stepped nozzle and a so called energy saving nozzle which allows extra air from the surroundings to be entrained. These two different nozzle geometries are used in industrial blowing applications. Until now there was no study available which compares the impact forces and volumetric flow rates for these types of nozzles. The flow field of the two nozzles was calculated by CFD simulations. The impact forces and volumetric flow rates are calculated out of this flow field. Each nozzle was simulated with three different input pressures. The nozzles were simulated with an input pressure of 3, 4 and 5 barg. The energy saving nozzle consumes only 1 % less volumetric flow rate then the stepped nozzle at the same inlet pressure. The replacement of a stepped nozzle with an energy saving nozzle will not immediately result in a decrease in input volumetric flow rate. The pressure at the inlet of the energy saving nozzle has to be reduced as well. After reducing the input pressure the energy saving nozzle generates the same impact force than the stepped nozzle. Hereby a decrease of 4.5 % in input volumetric flow rate was possible. The energy cost will decrease with 4.5 % as well because the normal volumetric flow rate is directly proportional to the energy cost. The replacement of a stepped nozzle with an energy saving nozzle while maintaining the same inlet pressure is only useful when the impact force from the stepped nozzle is not sufficient. The energy saving nozzle can generate 5.6 % more impact

  2. Energy Savings Potential and Research & Development Opportunities for Commercial Refrigeration

    none,

    2009-09-01

    This study documents the energy consumption of commercial refrigeration equipment (CRE) in the U.S. and evaluated the energy savings potential of various technologies and energy efficiency measures that could be applied to such equipment. The study provided an overview of CRE applications, assessed the energy-savings potential of CRE in the U.S., outline key barriers to adoption of energy-savings technologies, and recommended opportunities for advanced energy saving technology research. The study was modeled after an earlier 1996 report by Arthur D. Little, Inc., and updated key information, examined more equipment types, and outlined long-term research and development opportunities.

  3. Energy conservation, energy efficiency and energy savings regulatory hypotheses - taxation, subsidies and underlying economics

    Trumpy, T. [International Legal Counsel, Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-01

    More efficient use of energy resources can be promoted by various regulatory means, i.e., taxation, subsidies, and pricing. Various incentives can be provided by income and revenue tax breaks-deductible energy audit fees, energy saving investment credits, breaks for energy saving entrepreneurs, and energy savings accounts run through utility accounts. Value added and excise taxes can also be adjusted to reward energy saving investments and energy saving entrepreneurial activity. Incentives can be provided in the form of cash refunds, including trade-in-and-scrap programs and reimbursements or subsidies on audit costs and liability insurance. Pricing incentives include lower rates for less energy use, prepayment of deposit related to peak load use, electronically dispatched multiple tariffs, savings credits based on prior peak use, and subsidized {open_quotes}leasing{close_quotes} of more efficient appliances and lights. Credits, with an emphasis on pooling small loans, and 5-year energy savings contracts are also discussed.

  4. Saving Energy Through Advanced Power Strips (Poster)

    Christensen, D.

    2013-10-01

    Advanced Power Strips (APS) look just like ordinary power strips, except that they have built-in features that are designed to reduce the amount of energy used by many consumer electronics. There are several different types of APSs on the market, but they all operate on the same basic principle of shutting off the supply power to devices that are not in use. By replacing your standard power strip with an APS, you can signifcantly cut the amount of electricity used by your home office and entertainment center devices, and save money on your electric bill. This illustration summarizes the different options.

  5. Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making

    Oikonomou, V. [SOM, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Becchis, F. [POLIS Department, University of East Piedmont, via Duomo, 6-13100 Vercelli (Italy); Steg, L. [Faculty of Behavioural and Social Sciences, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 72 9700 AB (Netherlands); Russolillo, D. [Fondazione per l' Ambiente ' T. Fenoglio' , Via Gaudenzio Ferrari 1, I-10124 Torino (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    Departing from the concept of rational use of energy, the paper outlines the microeconomics of end-use energy saving as a result of frugality or efficiency measures. Frugality refers to the behaviour that is aimed at energy conservation, and with efficiency we refer to the technical ratio between energy input and output services that can be modified with technical improvements (e.g. technology substitution). Changing behaviour from one side and technology from the other are key issues for public energy policy. In this paper, we attempt to identify the effects of parameters that determine energy saving behaviour with the use of the microeconomic theory. The role of these parameters is crucial and can determine the outcome of energy efficiency policies; therefore policymakers should properly address them when designing policies. (author)

  6. Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making

    Departing from the concept of rational use of energy, the paper outlines the microeconomics of end-use energy saving as a result of frugality or efficiency measures. Frugality refers to the behaviour that is aimed at energy conservation, and with efficiency we refer to the technical ratio between energy input and output services that can be modified with technical improvements (e.g. technology substitution). Changing behaviour from one side and technology from the other are key issues for public energy policy. In this paper, we attempt to identify the effects of parameters that determine energy saving behaviour with the use of the microeconomic theory. The role of these parameters is crucial and can determine the outcome of energy efficiency policies; therefore policymakers should properly address them when designing policies.

  7. SWEEP - Save Water & Energy Education Program

    Sullivan, Gregory P.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Hillman, Tim C.; Hadley, Adam; Ledbetter, Marc R.; Payson, David R.

    2001-05-03

    The objective of this study was to develop, monitor, analyze, and report on an integrated resource-conservation program highlighting efficient residential appliances and fixtures. The sites of study were 50 homes in two water-constrained communities located in Oregon. The program was designed to maximize water savings to these communities and to serve as a model for other communities seeking an integrated approach to energy and water resource efficiency. The program included the installation and in-place evaluation of energy- and water-efficient devices including the following: horizontal axis clothes washers (and the matching clothes dryers), resource-efficient dishwashers, an innovative dual flush low-flow toilet, low-flow showerheads, and faucet aerators. The significance of this activity lies in its integrated approach and unique metering evaluation of individual end-use, aggregated residential total use, and system-wide energy and water benefits.

  8. Potential cost savings from investments in energy-conserving irrigation systems

    Patton, W.P.; Wilfert, G.L.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.; Sherman, K.L.

    1982-10-01

    A comparative analysis is presented of the levelized costs of selected irrigation systems, with an emphasis on the costs and benefits of energy savings. The net economic benefits are evaluated, measured as energy cost savings minus additional capital and operating costs, of some energy-conserving systems. Energy use in irrigation and descriptions of both the conventional and the energy-saving technologies involved in the analysis are discussed. The approach used in the analysis is outlined, and comparative analysis results are discussed. Detailed cost information is presented by state. (LEW)

  9. Teelt en energie 2SaveEnergy kas

    Kempkes, F.L.K.; Janse, J.

    2016-01-01

    Energy savings through a greenhouse cover of insulation glass requires a large investment. In the search for a cheaper alternative by a consortium of companies consisting of VDH Plastic Greenhouses, Van der Valk Horti Systems, AGC Chemicals Europe en Boal Systems a Glass-Film-greenhouse cover, better known as the 2SaveEnergy greenhouse concept was realized in summer 2014. The combination of clear glass with a diffuse ETFE film and a double screen mounted at a distance of only a few centimetre...

  10. Factors influencing energy-saving behavior of urban households in Jiangsu Province

    In this research, the willingness of households to adopt different energy-saving behavior has been analyzed, and factors influencing energy-saving behavior in Jiangsu Province, China, have been examined. The study builds on a broad and practical conceptual framework that embraces three types of energy-saving behavior and four dimensions of influencing factors, including socio-demographics, energy-saving awareness, behavioral ability, and situational factors. The empirical results are based on an Internet survey that was sent out to 638 households. The results indicate that socio-demographic characteristics, including age, gender, income level, household structure, and educational background, are all important factors influencing energy-saving behavior. At present, respondents adopt the usage-reduction type of behavior more often than the other two types, which require a greater capacity to pay for energy-efficient products and a higher level of energy-saving awareness. Situational factors have significant positive moderating effects when the variables of behavioral ability and energy-saving awareness act on energy-saving behavior. In addition, the results also show that spatial differences exist among the three regions of Jiangsu Province. Finally, some implications of these results for the design of future incentive policies and measures to encourage energy-saving behavior are presented. -- Highlights: •A broad and practical conceptual framework of energy-saving behaviors is built. •Socio-demographic characteristics are determinants of energy-saving behavior. •Respondents adopt the usage-reduction type more often than the other two types. •Situational factors have positive moderating effects on the other two variables. •Spatial differences exist among the three regions of Jiangsu Province

  11. Defining The Energy Saving Potential of Architectural Design

    Naboni, Emanuele; Malcangi, Antonio; Zhang, Yi;

    2015-01-01

    Designers, in response to codes or voluntary " green building " programs, are increasingly concerned with building energy demand reduction, but they are not fully aware of the energy saving potential of architectural design. According to literature, building form, construction and material choices...... different occupant behaviour. The research shows the best solution for each of the climates and compares them with Olgyay´s findings. Finally, for each climate the energy saving potential is defined and then compared to Lechner's conclusions. Defining The Energy Saving Potential of Architectural Design (PDF...... Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279885641_Defining_The_Energy_Saving_Potential_of_Architectural_Design [accessed Jan 21, 2016]....

  12. Breakthrough Energy Savings with Waterjet Technology

    Lee W. Saperstein; R. Larry Grayson; David A. Summers; Jorge Garcia-Joo; Greg Sutton; Mike Woodward; T.P. McNulty

    2007-05-15

    Experiments performed at the University of Missouri-Rolla's Waterjet Laboratory have demonstrated clearly the ability of waterjets to disaggregate, in a single step, four different mineral ores, including ores containing iron, lead and copper products. The study focused mainly on galena-bearing dolomite, a lead ore, and compared the new technology with that of traditional mining and milling to liberate the valuable constituent for the more voluminous host rock. The technical term for the disintegration of the ore to achieve this liberation is comminution. The potential for energy savings if this process can be improved, is immense. Further, if this separation can be made at the mining face, then the potential energy savings include avoidance of transportation (haulage and hoisting) costs to move, process and store this waste at the surface. The waste can, instead, be disposed into the available cavities within the mine. The savings also include the elimination of the comminution, crushing and grinding, stages in the processing plant. Future prototype developments are intended to determine if high-pressure waterjet mining and processing can be optimized to become cheaper than traditional fragmentation by drilling and blasting and to optimize the separation process. The basic new mining process was illustrated in tests on two local rock types, a low-strength sandstone with hematite inclusions, and a medium to high-strength dolomite commonly used for construction materials. Illustrative testing of liberation of minerals, utilized a lead-bearing dolomite, and included a parametric study of the optimal conditions needed to create a size distribution considered best for separation. The target goal was to have 50 percent of the mined material finer than 100 mesh (149 microns). Of the 21 tests that were run, five clearly achieved the target. The samples were obtained as run-of-mine lumps of ore, which exhibited a great deal of heterogeneity within the samples. This

  13. Economic evaluation of energy saving measures in a common type of Greek building

    This paper deals with the economic analysis and evaluation of various energy saving measures in the building sector, focusing on a domestic detached house in Greece, i.e. in a typical Mediterranean climate. In order to detect the energy saving measures that, in addition to energy benefits, can also provide economic profits, the study examines the following measures: all kinds of insulation; upgrading of the heating system; use of thermal solar systems; upgrading of lighting; upgrading of electric appliances; upgrading of the cooling system. The economic evaluation methods used for ranking the energy saving measures are the Net Present Value, the Internal Rate of Return, the Savings to Investment Ratio and the Depreciated Payback Period. It has been found that amongst the most effective energy saving methods are the upgrading of lighting, the insulation of the roof of the building and the installation of an automatic temperature control system.

  14. Household preferences for energy-saving measures : A conjoint analysis

    Poortinga, Wouter; Steg, Linda; Vlek, Charles; Wiersma, Gerwin

    2003-01-01

    Studies on household energy use generally focus on social and psychological factors influencing the acceptability of energy-saving measures. However, the influence of physical characteristics of energy-saving measures on their acceptability is largely ignored. In this study, preferences for differen

  15. Group Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit for 30% Energy Savings: Washington, D.C. (Fact Sheet)

    2013-11-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes - such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost-effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study's results will be used to identify cost effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

  16. Community based social marketing for implementation of energy saving targets at local level

    Dalia Streimikiene

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction policies at local level need to be investigated and new tools for climate change mitigation are necessary seeking to achieve GHG emission targets in Lithuania. Most Lithuanian municipalities have signed Covenant of Mayors and have prepared local energy action plans. However, all these plans include just energy saving measures on supply side and renovation of buildings. Nevertheless, the significant energy savings and GHG emission reductions can be achieved through behavioural changes. The aim of the paper is to apply community based social marketing approach in assessment of achievable energy saving and GHG emission reduction targets set by local energy action plans. The paper presents the results of case study implemented in Kaunas region municipality. The case study was conducted by creating focus groups and applying two scenarios: baseline or doing nothing and climate change mitigation scenario including intervention measures. The results of case study revealed that the total energy consumption reduction target set in Sustainable energy development strategy of Kaunas region county - 11% - can be achieved by combining results of energy consumption reduction in both focus groups. The survey conducted after study finalization revealed that respondents were provided with a lot of additional knowledge during the study and achieved real money savings. The major barriers of energy savings in households are related with the lack of information on energy savings and GHG emission reduction.

  17. Energy-saving strategies with personalized ventilation in cold climates

    Shiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2009-01-01

    In this study the influence of the personalized supply air temperature control strategy on energy consumption and the energy-saving potentials of a personalized ventilation system have been investigated by means of simulations with IDA-ICE software. GenOpt software was used to determine the optimal......–268%) compared to mixing ventilation alone if energy-saving strategies are not applied. The results show that the best supply air temperature control strategy is to provide air constantly at 20 °C. The most effective way of saving energy with personalized ventilation is to extend the upper room operative...... temperature limit (saving up to 60% compared to the reference case). However, this energy-saving strategy can be recommended only in a working environment where the occupants spend most of their time at their workstation. Reducing the airflow rate does not always imply a reduction of energy consumption...

  18. Energy-saving Lighting Technology of Petrochemical Enterprises

    Baohu Gu

    2015-01-01

    The shortage of energy resources is a serious problem our country is facing the world today, petrochemical enterprises are the main pillar of our economy, in our country, because petrochemical companies accounted for about 30.2% of the total energy consumption of energy. This paper focuses on the traditional energy-saving lighting methods proposed intelligent energy-saving system based on a fuzzy control. The purpose is to make the electrical equipment to fully meet, under the premise of impr...

  19. Energy savings certificates 2011-2013 - Companies. Knowledge for action

    As fossil energy resources are depleted and the environmental impacts of their use are increasingly addressed, energy costs will continue to rise. In this context it is vital for businesses - in the service sector, industry or agriculture - to take steps now to start managing their energy consumption. A number of tools and mechanisms are currently being implemented to help companies in this process, at the national and European levels. Among these, Energy Savings Certificates (ESCs) were introduced in France by the Energy Policy Law of 13 July 2005, with the aim of achieving energy savings in sectors of dispersed activity, mainly buildings, but also light industry, agriculture and transport. For businesses this mechanism is an additional financial leverage tool that can be used to support their energy management projects. Under this scheme energy suppliers must promote energy-efficient investments, and thus are potential sources of financing for project owners. The Grenelle environmental conference forcefully reiterated the need to take action, in particular to renovate existing building stock. In order to achieve the ambitious goals that have been set, the financial mechanisms put into place, including the ESC scheme, must be amplified. Following the first conclusive test period (2006-2009), the ESC scheme is being ramped up during a second and more ambitious three-year period that began on 1 January 2011. The present document is intended to inform companies of changes in the ESC scheme to be implemented for the second period covering 2011-2013. This guidance is divided into two parts: the first section describes the principles of the ESC scheme, and the second offers advice to companies that want to use this scheme for an energy management project. You will also find a practical information sheet listing all the steps to be taken to submit an ESC claim

  20. Energy savings in the Danish building stock until 2050

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    A study has been conducted analysing the energy savings for space heating and domestic hot water in the Danish building stock due to renovation of building components at the end of their service life. The purpose of the study was to estimate the energy savings until 2050 as building components are...... Building Regulations. Compliance with the requirements in the Danish Building Regulations will potentially result in energy savings for space heating and domestic hot water around 30 % until 2050. Further tightening of the component insulation level requirements will only result in marginally higher...... savings, due to the level of the current requirements. Higher energy savings can, though, be achieved e.g. by setting requirements for balanced mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and use of solar heating for domestic hot water....

  1. Energy efficiency and energy saving in heat supply systems

    Anastasiia Dmitrievna Avsiukevich

    2013-01-01

    The issue of necessity of clear reasoning behind the indicators of efficiency operation of heat supply systems is discussed in the research. The issue of finding out the main methods of improvement of efficiency operation of heat supply systems was also discussed in the work. The analysis of definition of theory of efficiency was carried out. The main indicators of energy saving are introduced. The methods of improvement of efficiency operation of heat supply systems are discussed...

  2. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Savings Opportunities in U.S. Petroleum Refining

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in nine individual process areas, representing 68% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  3. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Chemical Manufacturing

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. chemical manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in the production of 74 individual chemicals, representing 57% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual chemicals and for 15 subsectors of chemicals manufacturing are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  4. Tradable certificates for renewable electricity and energy savings

    Tradable green certificates (TGCs) schemes have been developed and tested in several European countries to foster market-driven penetration of renewables. These certificates guarantee that a specific volume of electricity is generated from renewable-energy source (RES). More recently certificates (tradable white certificates (TWCs)) for the electricity saved by demand-side energy-efficiency measures (EEMs) have been introduced in some European countries. Recent advances in information and communication technology have opened up new possibilities for improving energy efficiency and increasing utilization of RESs. Use of technological resources such as the Internet and smart metering can permit real-time issuing and trading of TGCs. These technologies could also permit issuing of TWC. This paper reviews current renewable TGC and TWCs schemes in Europe and describes the possibilities for combining them in an Internet-based system. In the proposed combined tradable certificate scheme, both RESs and demand-side EEMs could bid in real time through the Internet to meet a specific obligation. The energy savings from the demand-side measures would be equivalent to the same amount of green electricity production. The paper describes the needed common targets and obligations, the certificate trading rules and the possible monitoring protocol. In particular, the paper focuses on the TWCs verification issues, including the assessment of the baseline, as these poses additional problems for TWCs compared to TGCs

  5. An Energy Saving System for a Beam Pumping Unit.

    Lv, Hongqiang; Liu, Jun; Han, Jiuqiang; Jiang, An

    2016-01-01

    Beam pumping units are widely used in the oil production industry, but the energy efficiency of this artificial lift machinery is generally low, especially for the low-production well and high-production well in the later stage. There are a number of ways for energy savings in pumping units, with the periodic adjustment of stroke speed and rectification of balance deviation being two important methods. In the paper, an energy saving system for a beam pumping unit (ESS-BPU) based on the Internet of Things (IoT) was proposed. A total of four types of sensors, including load sensor, angle sensor, voltage sensor, and current sensor, were used to detect the operating conditions of the pumping unit. Data from these sensors was fed into a controller installed in an oilfield to adjust the stroke speed automatically and estimate the degree of balance in real-time. Additionally, remote supervision could be fulfilled using a browser on a computer or smartphone. Furthermore, the data from a practical application was recorded and analyzed, and it can be seen that ESS-BPU is helpful in reducing energy loss caused by unnecessarily high stroke speed and a poor degree of balance. PMID:27187402

  6. Energy saving in a deep well pump with splitter blade

    Goelcue, Mustafa [Department of Mechanical Education, Pamukkale University, 20017 Kinikli, Denizli (Turkey)]. E-mail: mgolcu@pamukkale.edu.tr; Pancar, Yasar [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osman Gazi University, 26480 Eskisehir (Turkey); Sekmen, Yakup [Karabuk Vocational Collage, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, 78100 Karabuk (Turkey)

    2006-03-15

    Design parameters, like blade number, blade outlet angle and impeller outlet diameter, affect pump performance and energy consumption. Deep well pumps with splitter blades (DWPwsb) are manufactured to achieve energy saving and improve efficiency. Splitter blades are generally located at the centerline of the main blades. Blade number and blade discharge angle should be conveniently determined when splitter blades are used on the impellers. In this study, impellers having different numbers of blades (z = 5, 6, 7) with and without splitter blades (35%, 60% and 80% of the main blade length) were tested in a deep well pump. Tests have been conducted on a total of 12 impellers, and the characteristics of deep well pumps without splitter blade (DWPwosb) and DWPwsb were obtained experimentally. These results show that splitter blades cause negative effects on pump performance in impellers with blade numbers of 6 and 7. When the splitter blade is added to the impeller with the blade number of 5, the efficiency increases with flow up to 10 l/s flow rate, after which it decreases as the splitter blade length increases. The highest efficiency and the lowest energy consumption were obtained in DWPwsb with 80% of the main blade length. At the best efficiency point (b.e.p), an energy saving of 6.6% and an improvement of 1.14% in efficiency were achieved. An analysis of the additional cost of the splitter blade and the application in an agricultural area were performed.

  7. An Energy Saving System for a Beam Pumping Unit

    Lv, Hongqiang; Liu, Jun; Han, Jiuqiang; Jiang, An

    2016-01-01

    Beam pumping units are widely used in the oil production industry, but the energy efficiency of this artificial lift machinery is generally low, especially for the low-production well and high-production well in the later stage. There are a number of ways for energy savings in pumping units, with the periodic adjustment of stroke speed and rectification of balance deviation being two important methods. In the paper, an energy saving system for a beam pumping unit (ESS-BPU) based on the Internet of Things (IoT) was proposed. A total of four types of sensors, including load sensor, angle sensor, voltage sensor, and current sensor, were used to detect the operating conditions of the pumping unit. Data from these sensors was fed into a controller installed in an oilfield to adjust the stroke speed automatically and estimate the degree of balance in real-time. Additionally, remote supervision could be fulfilled using a browser on a computer or smartphone. Furthermore, the data from a practical application was recorded and analyzed, and it can be seen that ESS-BPU is helpful in reducing energy loss caused by unnecessarily high stroke speed and a poor degree of balance. PMID:27187402

  8. Trigeneration primary energy saving evaluation for energy planning and policy development

    Trigeneration or combined heat, cooling and power (CHCP) is becoming an increasingly important energy option, particularly on a small-scale basis (below 1 MWe), with several alternatives nowadays available for the cooling power production and the coupling to cogeneration systems. This paper deals with the introduction of a suitable framework for assessing the energy saving performance of trigeneration alternatives, orientated towards energy planning studies and the development of regulatory policies. In particular, a new generalized performance indicator-the trigeneration primary energy saving (TPES)-is introduced and discussed, with the aim of effectively evaluating the primary energy savings from different CHCP alternatives. The potential of the TPES indicator is illustrated through specific analyses run over different combinations of trigeneration equipment, providing numerical examples based on time-domain simulations to illustrate the dependence of the energy saving characteristics on the CHCP system configurations and equipment, as well as on the loading levels. In addition, the key aspect of adequately establishing the reference efficiencies for the conventional separate production of electrical, thermal and cooling power is addressed in detail. This aspect affects both equipment selection and potential profitability of the considered solutions under the outlook of receiving financial incentives

  9. Energy Savers--Tips on Saving Energy and Money at Home (Fifth Printing)

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances

  10. Large Hospital 50% Energy Savings: Technical Support Document

    Bonnema, E.; Studer, D.; Parker, A.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2010-09-01

    This Technical Support Document documents the technical analysis and design guidance for large hospitals to achieve whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 and represents a step toward determining how to provide design guidance for aggressive energy savings targets. This report documents the modeling methods used to demonstrate that the design recommendations meet or exceed the 50% goal. EnergyPlus was used to model the predicted energy performance of the baseline and low-energy buildings to verify that 50% energy savings are achievable. Percent energy savings are based on a nominal minimally code-compliant building and whole-building, net site energy use intensity. The report defines architectural-program characteristics for typical large hospitals, thereby defining a prototype model; creates baseline energy models for each climate zone that are elaborations of the prototype models and are minimally compliant with Standard 90.1-2004; creates a list of energy design measures that can be applied to the prototype model to create low-energy models; uses industry feedback to strengthen inputs for baseline energy models and energy design measures; and simulates low-energy models for each climate zone to show that when the energy design measures are applied to the prototype model, 50% energy savings (or more) are achieved.

  11. Quantification of energy savings from Ireland's Home Energy Saving scheme. An ex post billing analysis

    Scheer, J.; Clancy, M.; Ni Hogain, S. [Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland, Wilton Park House, Wilton Terrace, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2013-02-15

    This paper quantifies the energy savings realised by a sample of participants in the Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland's Home Energy Saving (HES) residential retrofit scheme (currently branded as the Better Energy Homes scheme), through an ex post billing analysis. The billing data are used to evaluate: (1) the reduction in gas consumption of the sample between pre- (2008) and post- (2010) scheme participation when compared to the gas consumption of a control group, (2) an estimate of the shortfall when this result is compared to engineering-type ex ante savings estimates and (3) the degree to which these results may apply to the wider population. All dwellings in the study underwent energy efficiency improvements, including insulation upgrades (wall and/or roof), installation of high-efficiency boilers and/or improved heating controls, as part of the HES scheme. Metered gas use data for the 210 households were obtained from meter operators for a number of years preceding dwelling upgrades and for a post-intervention period of 1 year. Dwelling characteristics and some household behavioural data were obtained through a survey of the sample. The gas network operator provided anonymised data on gas usage for 640,000 customers collected over the same period as the HES sample. Dwelling type data provided with the population dataset enabled matching with the HES sample to increase the internal validity of the comparison between the control (matched population data) and the treatment (HES sample). Using a difference-in-difference methodology, the change in demand of the sample was compared with that of the matched population subset of gas-using customers in Ireland over the same time period. The mean reduction in gas demand as a result of energy efficiency upgrades for the HES sample is estimated as 21 % or 3,664{+-}603 kWh between 2008 and 2010. An ex ante estimate of average energy savings, based on engineering calculations (u value reductions and improved boiler

  12. Technical energy savings versus changes in human behaviour

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    the way into human satisfaction via energy services. Results of various analyses and field experiments show saving potentials for electricity of 50 - 80 per cents. Barriers for implementing these technical saving options are discussed. Also the necessity and potentials for changing behavioural or life...

  13. Energy-saving behavior and marginal abatement cost for household CO2 emissions

    This paper attempts to measure consumers' perceived net benefits (or net costs) of energy-saving measures in using energy-consuming durable goods. Using the estimated net costs and the volume of CO2 reduced by the measures, a marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for the average household's CO2 emissions is produced. An analysis using the curve suggests that in order to provide households with an incentive to take actions that can lead to CO2 emission reductions in using energy-consuming durables, a high level of carbon price is needed. In addition, a regression analysis reveals that the net benefits of the measures are larger for households that put a higher priority on energy saving, for those living in detached houses, for those with a smaller number of persons living together, and for those with less income. The result of the analysis using the MAC curve may suggest that promoting energy-saving behavior will require not only a policy to provide economic incentives but also interventions to influence psychological factors of household behavior. - Highlights: • Consumers' perceived net costs of energy-saving measures in using energy-consuming durables are measured. • Using the estimated net costs, a marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for the average household's CO2 emissions is produced. • A high carbon price is needed in order to provide households with an incentive to take actions for energy-savings. • Households' attributes affecting their energy-saving behavior are revealed by a regression analysis

  14. Ore concentrate line efficient operation: some energy saving implications

    Ihle, Christian F. [BRASS Engineering Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-07-01

    Among the outstanding attributes slurry pipelines must have is the need to optimize production efficiency and, in particular, minimize energy consumption. In the present paper, the energy saving implications of three different factors, namely process variable uncertainties, transport control variables and pipeline availability are referred to and exemplified using an idealized Bingham-type slurry pipeline. Present examples suggest that important energy savings can be achieved with proper designs, equipment and operations scheduling. (author)

  15. VO2 thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation

    Jiadong Zhou; Yanfeng Gao; Zongtao Zhang; Hongjie Luo; Chuanxiang Cao; Zhang Chen; Lei Dai; Xinling Liu

    2013-01-01

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first...

  16. Biopulping: A new energy-saving technology for papermaking

    Biopulping is defined as the treatment of wood chips with lignin-degrading fungi prior to pulping. Fungal pretreatment prior to mechanical pulping reduces electrical energy requirements during refining or increases mill throughput, improves paper strength, reduces the pitch content, reduces cooking time for sulfite pulping, and reduces the environmental impact of pulping. The recent work involved scaling up the biopulping process towards the industrial level, investigating both the engineering and economic feasibility of the technology. The authors envision the process to be done in either a chip-pile or silo-based system for which several factors need to be considered. These factors include the degree of decontamination, a hospitable environment for the fungus, and the overall process economics. Currently, treatment of the chips with low pressure steam is sufficient for decontamination. Furthermore, a simple, forced ventilation system can be used to maintain the proper temperature, humidity, and moisture content throughout the chip bed, thus promoting uniform growth of the fungus. The pilot-scale trial resulted in the successful treatment of 4 tons, of wood chips (dry weight basis) with results comparable to those on a laboratory scale. For mechanical pulping, a 2-week treatment results in approximately 30% energy savings that, considering the additional equipment and operating costs, results in an overall savings of $9 to $20/ton of pulp in a chip-pile system. The other benefits that biopulping confers improve the economics considerably A larger, 40-ton trial was also successful, with energy savings and paper properties comparable with the laboratory scale

  17. Energy savings in mobile broadband network based on load predictions

    Samulevicius, Saulius; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard;

    2012-01-01

    wireless networks. To save energy in MBNs, one of the options is to turn off parts of the network equipment in areas where traffic falls below a specific predefined threshold. This paper looks at a methodology for identifying periods of the day when cells or sites carrying low traffic are candidates for...... being totally or partly switched off, given that the decrease in service quality can be controlled gracefully when the sites are switched off. Based on traffic data from an operational network, potential average energy savings of approximately 30% with some few low traffic cells/sites reaching up to 99......% energy savings can be identified....

  18. Demonstration of energy savings of cool roofs

    Konopacki, S.; Gartland, L.; Akbari, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.; Rainer, L. [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Dark roofs raise the summertime air-conditioning demand of buildings. For highly-absorptive roofs, the difference between the surface and ambient air temperatures can be as high as 90 F, while for highly-reflective roofs with similar insulative properties, the difference is only about 20 F. For this reason, cool roofs are effective in reducing cooling energy use. Several experiments on individual residential buildings in California and Florida show that coating roofs white reduces summertime average daily air-conditioning electricity use from 2--63%. This demonstration project was carried out to address some of the practical issues regarding the implementation of reflective roofs in a few commercial buildings. The authors monitored air-conditioning electricity use, roof surface temperature, plenum, indoor, and outdoor air temperatures, and other environmental variables in three buildings in California: two medical office buildings in Gilroy and Davis and a retail store in San Jose. Coating the roofs of these buildings with a reflective coating increased the roof albedo from an average of 0.20--0.60. The roof surface temperature on hot sunny summer afternoons fell from 175 F--120 F after the coating was applied. Summertime average daily air-conditioning electricity use was reduced by 18% (6.3 kWh/1000ft{sup 2}) in the Davis building, 13% (3.6 kWh/1000ft{sup 2}) in the Gilroy building, and 2% (0.4 kWh/1000ft{sup 2}) in the San Jose store. In each building, a kiosk was installed to display information from the project in order to educate and inform the general public about the environmental and energy-saving benefits of cool roofs. They were designed to explain cool-roof coating theory and to display real-time measurements of weather conditions, roof surface temperature, and air-conditioning electricity use. 55 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Energy-saving Lighting Technology of Petrochemical Enterprises

    Baohu Gu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The shortage of energy resources is a serious problem our country is facing the world today, petrochemical enterprises are the main pillar of our economy, in our country, because petrochemical companies accounted for about 30.2% of the total energy consumption of energy. This paper focuses on the traditional energy-saving lighting methods proposed intelligent energy-saving system based on a fuzzy control. The purpose is to make the electrical equipment to fully meet, under the premise of improving its functional requirements, as far as possible to reduce energy consumption and improve energy efficiency.

  20. Advanced Energy Saving and its Applications in Industry

    Matsuda, Kazuo; Fushimi, Chihiro; Tsutsumi, Atsushi; Kishimoto, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The conventional approach for energy saving in a process system is to maximize heat recovery without changing any process conditions by using pinch technology. “Self-heat recuperation technology” was developed to achieve further energy saving in the process system by eliminating the necessity for any external heat input, such as firing or imported steam. Advanced Energy Saving and its Applications in Industry introduces the concept of self-heat recuperation and the application of such technology to a wide range of processes from heavy chemical complexes to other processes such as drying and gas separation processes, which require heating and cooling during operation.   Conventional energy saving items in a utility system are applied and implemented based on a single site approach, however, when looking at heavy chemical complexes, it was apparent that the low-grade heat discharged as waste from a refinery could also be used in an adjacent petrochemical plant. There could therefore be a large energy savin...

  1. Potential for the Use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Provide Energy and Cost Savings in Non-Building Applications

    Williams, Charles; Green, Andrew S.; Dahle, Douglas; Barnett, John; Butler, Pat; Kerner, David

    2013-08-01

    The findings of this study indicate that potential exists in non-building applications to save energy and costs. This potential could save billions of federal dollars, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, increase energy independence and security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Federal Government has nearly twenty years of experience with achieving similar energy cost reductions, and letting the energy costs savings pay for themselves, by applying energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) inits buildings. Currently, the application of ESPCs is limited by statute to federal buildings. This study indicates that ESPCs can be a compatible and effective contracting tool for achieving savings in non-building applications.

  2. Implementation of energy-saving policies in China: How local governments assisted industrial enterprises in achieving energy-saving targets

    Local governments have replaced the national ministries that are in charge of various industries to become the primary implementer of energy-saving policies in China since 2000. This paper employs a case study-based approach to demonstrate the significance of local governments’ policy measures in assisting industrial enterprises with energy-saving activities in China. Based on the longitudinal case of the Jasmine Thermal Electric Power Company, this paper hypothesizes that sub-national governments have played a major role in implementing energy-saving policies in China since the 11th Five-year-plan period. A wide range of provincial and municipal agencies collaborated in implementing five types of policy measures – informational policy, skill building, improved enforcement of central directives, price adjustment, and funding – that reduced barriers to energy saving and motivated active pursuit of energy-saving activities at industrial enterprises. The case study demonstrates how an enterprise and local governments work together to achieve the enterprise's energy-saving target. The authors will investigate the hypothesis of this paper in the context of multiple case studies that they plan to undertake in the future. - Highlights: • We employ a case study-based approach to study policy implementation in China. • Local governments have played a major role in implementing energy-saving policies. • Local public agencies collaborated in implementing five types of policy measures. • Local policy measures reduced barriers to energy saving at industrial enterprises. • Enterprises and local governments work together to achieve energy-saving targets

  3. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Large Hospitals - 50% Energy Savings

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.

    2013-06-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Large Hospitals: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-LH) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-LH is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in large hospitals over levels achieved by following Standard 90.1-2004. The AEDG-LH was created for a 'standard' mid- to large-size hospital, typically at least 100,000 ft2, but the strategies apply to all sizes and classifications of new construction hospital buildings. Its primary focus is new construction, but recommendations may be applicable to facilities undergoing total renovation, and in part to many other hospital renovation, addition, remodeling, and modernization projects (including changes to one or more systems in existing buildings).

  4. The savings of energy saving: quantifying interactions between energy supply and demand side policies for Portugal

    Simoes, Sofia; Seixas, Julia; Cleto, Joao; Fortes, Patricia (DCEA, New Univ. of Lisbon, GASA DCEA, FCT/UNL (Portugal))

    2009-07-01

    Defendants of energy efficiency have argued that policy-makers focus excessively on the 'trendier' energy supply and not enough on end-use energy efficiency. Focusing on supply side energy policies, as is the case of supporting large renewable electricity generation plants, without looking at the same time for the opportunities in the demand-side, may generate avoidable costs. This paper addresses the interactions between energy supply and demand side policies, by estimating the gains of end-use energy-efficiency and renewable applications in terms of (i) avoided electricity generation installed capacity, (ii) final energy consumption, (iii) share of renewables in final energy, as defined in the EU 'Climate action and renewable energy package', and also, (iv) reductions of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. The Portuguese energy system is used as a case-study, and the linear optimization technology TIMES{sub PT} model is used to generate four scenarios up to 2020 corresponding to different levels of penetration of efficient equipment, particularly in the commercial and residential sectors. In the two business-as-usual scenarios, the replacement of equipments from 2005 to 2020 follows the 2000-2005 trends and the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan targets. In the efficient scenarios all equipments can be replaced with more efficient ones. Results show that aggressive industry, residential and commercial demand-side measures can make unnecessary to increase the renewable electricity installed capacity in approximately 4.7GW as currently discussed by policy-makers, in order to meet the 31% target of share of renewables. These measures lead to a reduction of only 0-2% of total final energy, but this represents reduction of 11-14% in the commercial sector, and 1-4% in industry, with savings in total energy system costs of approximately 3000 M Euro - roughly the equivalent to 2% of the 2005 GDP.

  5. General Merchandise 50% Energy Savings Technical Support Document

    Hale, E.; Leach, M.; Hirsch, A.; Torcellini, P.

    2009-09-01

    This report documents technical analysis for medium-box general merchandise stores aimed at providing design guidance that achieves whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004.

  6. Energy-saving Technology and Market Value (Japanese)

    EDAMURA Kazuma; Okada, Yosuke

    2013-01-01

    Based upon the standard model of Grilliches (1981), this paper examines the relationship between the intangible asset of energy-saving technologies and stock market value. We furthermore construct the spillover variable of energy-saving technologies for each firm using the definition of technological proximity by Jaffe (1986), and consider their distinctive impact on stock market value. Non-linear estimation using firm-level data of listed Japanese manufacturing firms reveals that intangible ...

  7. Addressing and overcoming barriers for energy savings in business

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Kasper

    Energy savings are generally viewed as an effective way to cut GHG emissions, as there are huge potentials for improvements because of several barriers and constraining factors for implementing otherwise profitable solutions. Several different polity tools have been applied to overcome these...... authorities (and other intermediates in the energy saving area) for how they can interact with companies to assist them overcome different barriers and constrains taking a role and approach as a “reflective dialogue partner”....

  8. Energy Savings Potential for Pumping Water in District Heating Stations

    Ioan Sarbu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In district heating stations, the heat carrier is circulated between the energy source and consumers by a pumping system. Fluid handling systems, such as pumping systems, are responsible for a significant portion of the total electrical energy use. Significant opportunities exist to reduce pumping energy through smart design, retrofitting, and operating practices. Most existing systems requiring flow control make use of bypass lines, throttling valves or pump speed adjustments. The most efficient of these options is pump speed control. One of the issues in using variable-speed pumping systems, however, is the total efficiency of the electric motor/pump arrangement under a given operating condition. This paper provides a comprehensive discussion about pump control in heating stations and analyzes the energy efficiency of flow control methods. Specific attention is also given to the selection of motor types, sizing and pump duty cycle. A comparative energy analysis is performed on the hot water discharge adjustment using throttling control valves and variable-speed drives in a district heating station constructed in Romania. To correlate the pumped flow rate with the heat demand and to ensure the necessary pressure using minimum energy, an automatic system has been designed. The performances of these control methods are evaluated in two practical applications. The results show that approximately 20%–50% of total pumping energy could be saved by using the optimal control method with variable-speed pumps. Additionally, some modernization solutions to reduce the environmental impact of heating stations are described.

  9. Savings potential of ENERGY STAR (registered trademark) voluntary labeling programs

    In 1993 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduced ENERGY STAR (registered trademark), a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products. Since then EPA, now in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has introduced programs for more than twenty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating and cooling equipment, new homes, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. We present potential energy, dollar and carbon savings forecasts for these programs for the period 1998 to 2010. Our target market penetration case represents our best estimate of future ENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goals for each of the products. We also provide results under the assumption of 100% market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasers buy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products throughout the analysis period. Finally, we assess the sensitivity of our target penetration case forecasts to greater or lesser marketing success by EPA and DOE, lower-than-expected future energy prices, and higher or lower rates of carbon emission by electricity generators. The potential savings of ENERGY STAR are substantial. If all purchasers chose Energy Star-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products over the next 15 years, they would save more than$100 billion on their energy bills during those 15 years. (Bill savings are in 1995 dollars, discounted at a 4% real discount rate.)

  10. How will energy use develop and what are the prospects of energy saving measures?

    Boonekamp, P. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    Since the second oil crisis (1980) energy savings have contributed worldwide to limiting the pressure on fossil fuel resources, mitigating environmental effects such as greenhouse gases and easing the burden of high energy prices. However, in recent years the rate of savings has decreased, despite ample opportunities to improve energy efficiency. Probable causes are the lower energy prices (except in 2008) and a lack of effective government policies to stimulate savings. Another cause could be the invisibility of savings, which actually constitute 'energy carriers that have not been used'. Therefore, it is important to have methods that can prove realised energy savings. Considerable effort, also by the European Union (EU) and the International Energy Agency (IEA), is put into the monitoring of energy savings and the evaluation of policies on savings. With these methods past and future savings have been calculated. The effect of renewed efforts to raise the savings rate, both in the Netherlands (program 'Clean and Efficient') and the EU, is shown. Also the effect of savings, together with economic growth and structural changes, on future energy demand will be shown. The results indicate that up to 2020 savings can be more important than the increased use of renewable energy sources or switches between primary energy sources.

  11. Potential energy savings from cool roofs in Spain and Andalusia

    Cool roofs are an inexpensive method to save energy and to improve the comfort level in buildings in mild and hot climates. A high scale implementation of cool roofs in Andalusia, in the south of Spain, could potentially save 295,000 kWh per year, considering only residential buildings with flat roofs using electrical heating. At the current energy prices, consumers can save 59 million euros annually in electricity costs and the emission of 136,000 metric tons of CO2 can be directly avoided every year from the production of that electricity. If radiative forcings are considered, Andalucía can potentially offset between 9.44 and 12 Mt of CO2. All the provinces in the rest of Spain are also studied in this paper. The biggest savings are achieved in Gran Canaria (48%), Tenerife (48%), Cádiz (36%), Murcia (33%), Huelva (30%), Málaga (29%), Almería (29%) and Sevilla (28%), where savings are greater than 2 euros per square meter of flat roof for old buildings with dark roofs. For the biggest cities the range of savings obtained are: between 7.4% and 11% in Madrid, between 12% and 18% in Barcelona and between 14% and 20% in Valencia. -- Highlights: ► We estimate potential savings in energy, CO2, and money for cool roofs in Spain (residential sector with flat roofs). ► Average savings are of around one euro per square meter in the biggest cities. ► Potential savings are of more than 2 €/m2 in the hottest cities. ► In Andalusia the potential savings are 300 MWh, 60 millions euro and 136,000 tons of CO2 per year. ► With forcings, the CO2 equivalence of cool roofs in Andalusia is between 9 and 12 Mt.

  12. Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO)

    McIntosh, Jane [MDA; Schumacher, Leon [University of Missouri

    2014-10-23

    buildings, and the homes on these farms. The expected measurable outcomes of the project were to improve the environment and stimulate the economy by: • Reducing annual fossil fuel emissions by 1,942 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent, reducing the total annual energy use on at least 323 small animal farms and 100 farm homes by at least 8,000 kWh and 2,343 therms per farm. • Stimulating the economy by creating or retaining at least 69 jobs, and saving small animal farmers an average of $2,071 per farm in annual energy expenditures. B. Project Scope The MAESTRO team chose the target population of small farms because while all agriculture is traditionally underserved in energy efficiency programs, small farms were particularly underserved because they lack the financial resources and access to energy efficiency technologies that larger farms deploy. The MAESTRO team reasoned that energy conservation, financial and educational programs developed while serving the agricultural community could serve as a national model for other states and their agricultural sectors. The target population was approximately 2,365 small animal farm operations in Missouri, specifically those farms that were not by definition a confined animal feeding operation (CAFO). The program was designed to create jobs by training Missouri contractors and Missouri University Extension staff how to conduct farm audits. The local economy would be stimulated by an increase in construction activity and an increasing demand for energy efficient farm equipment. Additionally, the energy savings were deemed critical in keeping Missouri farms in business. This project leveraged funds using a combination of funds from the Missouri Department of Natural Resources’ Missouri Energy Center and its Soil and Water Conservation Program, from the state's Linked Deposits, MASBDA's agricultural loan guarantee programs, and through the in-kind contribution of faculty and staff time to the project from these

  13. Energy saving behaviours: Development of a practice-based model

    Financial pressure and concern for the environment has meant many consumers are aware of the need to reduce their consumption of many resources, including energy, which is the focus of the present study. While potential energy use deterrents in the form of access constraints and price increases are forms of extrinsic control, it is not clear how effective these are at reducing consumption and, indeed, it is not clear if such measures are consistent with people's underlying energy saving motivations. Beyond behavioural motivations, people's desires to reduce energy can be thwarted (barriers) and/or supported by a variety of factors, some within their control, while others are perhaps less so. Using a practice-based framework and a qualitative focus group approach, this study presents an exploratory study of these issues. Policy suggestions for overcoming barriers, as well suggestions as to how energy saving behaviours can be supported are offered. - Highlights: • We obtained consumers views about energy saving motivations, barriers and support. • Attitudes towards energy saving are not sufficient to change behaviours. • A practice-based approach to understanding energy saving behaviours is applied. • A practice-based energy-cultures framework (PBECF) is developed. • Barriers and support factors are identified that can be conceptualised within a PBECF

  14. Incentives for Energy Saving and Renewable Energy in the Netherlands

    Energy saving and renewable energy are again on the Dutch political agenda. Based on the governmental energy report, market parties have developed the action plan for the realisation of national renewable energy targets. The evaluation of recently closed subsidy programmes and development of new incentives take place in close cooperation among governmental organisations and market parties. For the financing of the action plan the government has reserved the budget up to 2011. The government believes that the implementation of energy efficiency and renewable energy will strengthen the national economy and that the benefits of these measures will exceed the costs. The main obstacles related to the implementation of a large scale wind power generation are: spatial integration, permits and connection to the grid. Also, the large scale biomass plants meet problems because of the lack of clear environmental and sustainability criteria. The Dutch targets for 2020 are: increasing of energy efficiency with 20%, 20% renewable energy and decreasing of CO2-emissions with 30%.(author)

  15. Performing impact evaluations in industrial retrofit: The Energy Savings Plan Program

    Riewer, S. [USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States); Spanner, G.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-08-01

    The Energy Savings Plan (ESP) is Bonneville Power Administration`s retrofit program for the industrial sector. The program pays incentives for energy conservation measures involving electrical energy efficiency improvements in manufacturing, processing, and refining industries. This paper will describe the ESP program, recount the techniques selected to evaluate the retrofits, and report the findings from five ESP project impact evaluations completed to date. The impact evaluations provide a framework for assessing the energy saving achieved by the provides implemented under the ESP. In addition to energy savings, the evaluations assess process changes, net utility impacts, levelized costs, and ``free ridership.`` The five ESP projects evaluated include: a waste heat recovery system for a food processing blancher, an energy management control system used to upgrade refrigeration, a variable speed drive for a fan motor in a lumber mill, a sludge screw press for waste water treatment, and replacement of rod anodes with blades anodes in mercury cells in an electrochemical plant.

  16. The impact on energy consumption of daylight saving clock changes

    The focus of this work is an investigation of the effect of prevailing time regime on energy consumption. In particular we perform analysis demonstrating potential energy savings which could be obtained were Great Britain to maintain daylight savings time (DST) over winter, instead of reverting to Greenwich mean time (GMT). We review the literature on the effect of DST on energy consumption and show that this indicates a justification for considering the issue. Our headline result is in agreement with many related studies in that advancing the clock by an hour in winter would lead to energy savings of at least 0.3% of daily demand in Great Britain. In deriving this result we have adopted methodologies currently used in load prediction, in particular Support Vector Regression, to estimate energy demand on a half-hourly basis. Corresponding cost savings are found to be higher (due to the nonlinear increase of costs) and we find them to be on the order of 0.6% over the months considered. In terms of environmental impact we find the saving to be approximately equivalent to 450,000 ton of CO2. In deriving these results we adopt a conservative approach such that we consider them lower bounds on any true savings.

  17. Energy savings in the Danish building stock until 2050

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    A study has been conducted analysing the energy savings for space heating and domestic hot water in the Danish building stock due to renovation of building components at the end of their service life. The purpose of the study was to estimate the energy savings until 2050 as building components are...... energy upgraded according to the requirements stipulated in the Danish Building Regulations 2010. Furthermore, scenario analyses was made for the potential impact on the energy consumption of introducing different levels of tightening of the energy requirements for existing buildings in the Danish...... Building Regulations. Compliance with the requirements in the Danish Building Regulations will potentially result in energy savings for space heating and domestic hot water around 30 % until 2050. Further tightening of the component insulation level requirements will only result in marginally higher...

  18. Energy Costs of Energy Savings in Buildings: A Review

    Daniel Rousse

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is often claimed that the cheapest energy is the one you do not need to produce. Nevertheless, this claim could somehow be unsubstantiated. In this article, the authors try to shed some light on this issue by using the concept of energy return on investment (EROI as a yardstick. This choice brings semantic issues because in this paper the EROI is used in a different context than that of energy production. Indeed, while watts and negawatts share the same physical unit, they are not the same object, which brings some ambiguities in the interpretation of EROI. These are cleared by a refined definition of EROI and an adapted nomenclature. This review studies the research in the energy efficiency of building operation, which is one of the most investigated topics in energy efficiency. This study focuses on the impact of insulation and high efficiency windows as means to exemplify the concepts that are introduced. These results were normalized for climate, life time of the building, and construction material. In many cases, energy efficiency measures imply a very high EROI. Nevertheless, in some circumstances, this is not the case and it might be more profitable to produce the required energy than to try to save it.

  19. Computational Support for the Selection of Energy Saving Building Components

    De Wilde, P.J.C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Buildings use energy for heating, cooling and lighting, contributing to the problems of exhaustion of fossil fuel supplies and environmental pollution. In order to make buildings more energy-efficient an extensive set of âenergy saving building componentsâ has been developed that contributes to minimizing the energy need of buildings, that helps buildings to access renewable energy sources, and that helps buildings to utilize fossil fuels as efficiently as possible. Examples of such energy sa...

  20. Evaluation of methods used to determine realized energy savings

    Most methods to determine realized total energy savings at national or sectoral level make choices, or neglect problems, which hamper the calculation of sound and useful energy-saving figures. Issues are the choice of the right aggregation level, the appropriate variables to construct a reference energy consumption trend, the energy quantities to be applied and interaction between various effects. Uncertainty margins for results lack in most presentations as well. This paper presents six methods, illustrates the adverse effects of certain choices and problems, and investigates how these methods deal with them. The methods are scored with respect to the issues mentioned above. Finally, a number of improvements are suggested, among which the use of final energy demand expressed in primary energy units, and bottom-up analyses at the level of real saving options. The last option is the more important, as it could provide top-down evaluation results (total savings from decomposition) as well as bottom-up policy monitoring results, both being crucial to new European energy-saving policy

  1. Predictive Maintenance (PdM) Centralization for Significant Energy Savings

    Smith, Dale

    2010-09-15

    Cost effective predictive maintenance (PdM) technologies and basic energy calculations can mine energy savings form processes or maintenance activities. Centralizing and packaging this information correctly empowers facility maintenance and reliability professionals to build financial justification and support for strategies and personnel to weather global economic downturns and competition. Attendees will learn how to: Systematically build a 'pilot project' for applying PdM and tracking systems; Break down a typical electrical bill to calculate energy savings; Use return on investment (ROI) calculations to identify the best and highest value options, strategies and tips for substantiating your energy reduction maintenance strategies.

  2. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    Lund, Henrik; Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Aggerholm, Søren;

    One of the important issues related to the implementation of future sustainable smart energy systems based on renewable energy sources is the heating of buildings. Especially, when it comes to long‐term investment in savings and heating infrastructures it is essential to identify long‐term least...... a least‐cost strategy will be to provide approximately 2/3 of the heat demand from district heating and the rest from individual heat pumps. Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Renewable energy, Heating strategy, Heat savings, District heating, Smart energy......‐cost strategies. With Denmark as a case, this paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish governmental long...

  3. Potential of energy savings in the hotel sector in Jordan

    Ali, Yahya [Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mustafa, Mairna [Department of Sustainable Tourism, Queen Rania' s Institute of Tourism and Heritage, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Al-Mashaqbah, Shireen [International Office, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mashal, Kholoud [Department of Land Management and Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mohsen, Mousa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan)

    2008-11-15

    This paper presents some insights into Jordan's energy consumption in the tourist accommodation sector. The results of a recent survey on environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan were used to evaluate energy conservation in hotels. A survey was designed and distributed to hotels' managers and departments' supervisors in order to understand the environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan during the period 10-17 August 2006. Also some field visits were conducted to fully understand hotels interaction regarding the environment, in addition to help interpreting the results of the survey. The study is limited to all classified hotels in Jordan. It was found that lighting hotels' main building and outside areas, and air conditioning consume more electricity compared to other departments. The results show that few classified hotels already installed energy saving equipments, though, it was noticed that managers of one star hotels were not really willing to make such changes in their hotels, on the other hand, other classified hotels (2-5 star hotels) have shown a high willingness to make changes in their hotels to reduce the consumption of different types of energy. Hotel's classification played a significant role in explaining variations in most of the results, particularly when it comes to long-term investments to reduce energy consumption by using energy efficient appliances. Five and four star hotels were the most hotels willing to use energy efficient appliances to reduce energy consumption. The study suggested some strategies to help reduce the negative impacts of high energy consumption in hotels. These strategies include better insulation, and enhanced insulation for the hot water reticulation system. Moreover, enhancing and increasing the level of awareness among all hoteliers through a directed and well-designed campaign. Also offer interest free loans; and activate precise

  4. Potential of energy savings in the hotel sector in Jordan

    This paper presents some insights into Jordan's energy consumption in the tourist accommodation sector. The results of a recent survey on environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan were used to evaluate energy conservation in hotels. A survey was designed and distributed to hotels' managers and departments' supervisors in order to understand the environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan during the period 10-17 August 2006. Also some field visits were conducted to fully understand hotels interaction regarding the environment, in addition to help interpreting the results of the survey. The study is limited to all classified hotels in Jordan. It was found that lighting hotels' main building and outside areas, and air conditioning consume more electricity compared to other departments. The results show that few classified hotels already installed energy saving equipments, though, it was noticed that managers of one star hotels were not really willing to make such changes in their hotels, on the other hand, other classified hotels (2-5 star hotels) have shown a high willingness to make changes in their hotels to reduce the consumption of different types of energy. Hotel's classification played a significant role in explaining variations in most of the results, particularly when it comes to long-term investments to reduce energy consumption by using energy efficient appliances. Five and four star hotels were the most hotels willing to use energy efficient appliances to reduce energy consumption. The study suggested some strategies to help reduce the negative impacts of high energy consumption in hotels. These strategies include better insulation, and enhanced insulation for the hot water reticulation system. Moreover, enhancing and increasing the level of awareness among all hoteliers through a directed and well-designed campaign. Also offer interest free loans; and activate precise standards and specifications

  5. The solar greenhouse: a survey of energy saving methods

    Saye, A.; Loon, van, E.E.; Bot, G.P.A.; Zwart, de, F.

    2000-01-01

    The solar greenhouse project is aimed at the development of a greenhouse concept for the Netherlands with zero-fossil energy consumption. The solar greenhouse is formulated as a combination of a low energy demand greenhouse, an energy recovery installation and an energy storage facility. In this paper, energy saving options such as new building materials, a dehumidifier, a heat pump and long term storage are studied. A simplified model is being developed in MATLAB to describe the total system...

  6. VO2 thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-01-01

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner. PMID:24157625

  7. Traffic-aware Elastic Optical Networks to leverage Energy Savings

    Turus, Ioan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Dittmann, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    . Optical network reconfigurations are performed by GMPLS node controllers according to monitored traffic information. The investigated energy reduction strategies are simulated on two large scale transport networks (DT17 and COST37). The results show that the energy savings obtained by these strategies......Because of the static nature of the deployed optical networks, large energy wastage is experienced today in production networks such as Telecom networks . With power-adaptive optical interfaces and suitable grooming procedures, we propose the design of more energy efficient transport networks...... depend on the variability of the carried traffic and the characteristics of the network topology . For medium size DT17 network significant (more than 3 7 %) power savings are achieved only with symbol-rate adaptation while less savings are achieved for modulation format adaptation. In case of pan...

  8. Performance analysis of TCP traffic and its influence on ONU's energy saving in energy efficient TDM-PON

    Alaelddin, Fuad Yousif Mohammed; Newaz, S. H. Shah; Lee, Joohyung; Uddin, Mohammad Rakib; Lee, Gyu Myoung; Choi, Jun Kyun

    2015-12-01

    The majority of the traffic over the Internet is TCP based, which is very sensitive to packet loss and delay. Existing research efforts in TDM-Passive Optical Networks (TDM-PONs) mostly evaluate energy saving and traffic delay performances under different energy saving solutions. However, to the best of our knowledge, how energy saving mechanisms could affect TCP traffic performance in TDM-PONs has hardly been studied. In this paper, by means of our state-of-art OPNET Modular based TDM-PON simulator, we evaluate TCP traffic delay, throughput, and Optical Network Unit (ONU) energy consumption performances in a TDM-PON where energy saving mechanisms are employed in ONUs. Here, we study the performances under commonly used energy saving mechanisms defined in standards for TDM-PONs: cyclic sleep and doze mode. In cyclic sleep mode, we evaluate the performances under two well-known sleep interval length deciding algorithms (i.e. fixed sleep interval (FSI) and exponential sleep interval deciding (ESID)) that an OLT uses to decide sleep interval lengths for an ONU. Findings in this paper put forward the strong relationship among TCP traffic delay, throughput and ONU energy consumption under different sleep interval lengths. Moreover, we reveal that under high TCP traffic, both FSI and ESID will end up showing similar delay, energy and throughput performance. Our findings also show that doze mode can offer better TCP throughput and delay performance at the price of consuming more energy than cyclic sleep mode. In addition, our results provide a glimpse on understanding at what point doze mode becomes futile in improving energy saving of an ONU under TCP traffic. Furthermore, in this paper, we highlight important research issues that should be studied in future research to maximize energy saving in TDM-PONs while meeting traffic Quality of Service requirements.

  9. A review of different strategies for HVAC energy saving

    Highlights: • Various strategies for HVAC energy saving are described and reviewed. • The influence of each strategy on the HVAC energy saving is investigated. • Combination of existing air conditioning technologies appears to be effective for the energy conservation and comfort. • A comparison study between these approaches is carried out. • Changing the HVAC configuration has the potential to increase or reduce energy savings, depending on several factors. - Abstract: Decreasing the energy consumption of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems is becoming increasingly important due to rising cost of fossil fuels and environmental concerns. Therefore, finding novel ways to reduce energy consumption in buildings without compromising comfort and indoor air quality is an ongoing research challenge. One proven way of achieving energy efficiency in HVAC systems is to design systems that use novel configurations of existing system components. Each HVAC discipline has specific design requirements and each presents opportunities for energy savings. Energy efficient HVAC systems can be created by re-configuring traditional systems to make more strategic use of existing system parts. Recent research has demonstrated that a combination of existing air conditioning technologies can offer effective solutions for energy conservation and thermal comfort. This paper investigates and reviews the different technologies and approaches, and demonstrates their ability to improve the performance of HVAC systems in order to reduce energy consumption. For each strategy, a brief description is first presented and then by reviewing the previous studies, the influence of that method on the HVAC energy saving is investigated. Finally, a comparison study between these approaches is carried out

  10. Does energy labelling on residential housing cause energy savings? Working paper

    Kjaerbye, V.H.

    2008-12-15

    More than 80% of energy used in households is dedicated to space heating. Large potential energy savings have been identified in the existing housing stock. Energy labelling of single-family houses is seen as an important instrument to provide new house owners with information on efficient energy saving investments that can be made on the house. This paper evaluates the effects of the Danish Energy Labelling Scheme on energy consumption in existing single-family houses with propensity score matching using actual consumption of energy and register data describing the houses and households. We do not find significant energy savings due to the Danish Energy Labelling Scheme. (Author)

  11. Vacuum Pump System Optimization Saves Energy at a Dairy Farm

    None

    2001-08-01

    In 1998, S&S Dairy optimized the vacuum pumping system at their dairy farm in Modesto, California. In an effort to reduce energy costs, S&S Dairy evaluated their vacuum pumping system to determine if efficiency gains and energy savings were possible.

  12. Energy Savings for Solar Heating Systems

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2006-01-01

    showed a good degree of similarity. With the boiler model, various simulations of solar domestic hot water heating systems were done for different hot water demands and collector sizes. The result shows that the potential of fuel reduction can be much higher than the solar gain of the solar thermal...... system. For some conditions the fuel reduction can be up to the double of the solar gain due to a strong increase of the system efficiency. As the monitored boilers were not older than 3 years, it can be assumed that the saving potential with older boilers could be even higher than calculated in this...

  13. Business Model for Femtocells: Franchising for Energy Saving

    Jonathan Rodriguez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—The purpose of the paper is to analyze how business models are employed in mobile communications, in order to tune them to the Femtocell domain, in addition to studying other goals that can be achieved by looking at the business models in an alternative way.Design/methodology/approach—By analyzing the technologies directly linked to a business model, it would be possible to produce a taxonomy of their usage. An analysis of the value chain is used to understand how to enhance current approaches to achieve new goals.Findings—The article covers the perspective that mobile networks evolution and femtocell implementation in the mobile market can bring innovative services to the final user, by leveraging on alternative usage of business models.Research limitations/implications—The acceptance of the usage of particular business models by mobile operators can bring benefits to the final users in the form of innovative services. An example of these services is the implementation of techniques to save energy on the terminal side.Practical implications—As soon as the targeted technologies become mature, it will be possible to provide novel services to the final user, while increasing the operational and business benefits of the mobile operators.Originality/Value—A novel view on the current application of the business model is developed, and new innovative goals are shown to be achievable by novel approaches, or by traditional approaches applied in an innovative way. In particular, we show a case study where a novel service called C2POWER applies franchising (re-selling of services of broadband access, to save energy on the mobile terminal side.

  14. Compact and energy saving magnet technology for particle accelerators

    Despite the fact that funding agencies and industrial users of particle accelerators get more and more alerted about costs of civil engineering, installation and operation, only little effort has been put into development of sustainable, energy and cost saving accelerator technology. In order to reduce the total-cost-of ownership of accelerator magnets, operating at high electrical power for twenty years or more, permanent magnet based Green Magnet technology has been developed at a consortium around Danfysik's R and D team. Together with our partners from ISA, Aarhus University, the Aarhus School of Engineering, the company Sintex and Aalborg University all obstacles in applying permanent magnet technology as e.g. thermal drift and inhomogeneities of magnetic fields have been overcome. The first Green Magnet has now been operated for more than half a year in an Accelerator Mass Spectrometry facility at the ETH in Zurich. The performance of this B=0.43T 90 deg. H-type bending magnet and the most recently builtB=1T, 30 deg. C-type Green Magnet for the synchrotron light source ASTRID2 at ISA in Aarhus will be presented. Danfysik also is designing, manufacturing and testing 60 compact magnet systems, developed at MAX-Lab for the new MAXIV 3.0 GeV synchrotron light source. In addition, 12 for the 1.5 GeV light source and another 12 for the new SOLARIS light source in Krakow, Poland are buying built. Up to a dozen or more magnet functions have been integrated into one yoke of these compact magnet systems, which makes the new MAXIV light sources compact, energy saving and at the same time very bright. Test results and design concepts of the new MAXIV and SOLARIS magnets will be presented. (author)

  15. Making the results of bottom-up energy savings comparable

    Moser Simon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Service Directive (ESD has pushed forward the issue of energy savings calculations without clarifying the methodological basis. Savings achieved in the Member States are calculated with rather non-transparent and hardly comparable Bottom-up (BU methods. This paper develops the idea of parallel evaluation tracks separating the Member States’ issue of ESD verification and comparable savings calculations. Comparability is ensured by developing a standardised BU calculation kernel for different energy efficiency improvement (EEI actions which simultaneously depicts the different calculation options in a structured way (e.g. baseline definition, system boundaries, double counting. Due to the heterogeneity of BU calculations the approach requires a central database where Member States feed in input data on BU actions according to a predefined structure. The paper demonstrates the proposed approach including a concrete example of application.

  16. Energy Efficiency & Scientific Development——2007 Beijing Energy-saving & Environmental Protection Exhibition

    2007-01-01

    @@ The whole world has been attaching great importance to energy saving and environmental protection. China is also at the risk of energy shortage with the rapid economic growth.Therefore, it has become increasingly important how to save energy and protect the environment.

  17. DETERMINING ENERGY SAVINGS IN BUILDINGS USING THE REDUCING COSTS METHOD

    STAN IVAN F.E.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is structured in four parts. The first part presents the importance of thermal insulation for buildings energy economy and some insulation properties. In the second part of the paper it is described the reducing cost method to determine the energy savings. The third part of the paper includes an analysis and a comparison for an exterior wall provided with different thicknesses of insulation layer in order to determine the average savings cost. The last part presents conclusions and discussion.

  18. 2SaveEnergy-Gewächshaus- Produktion und Energieverbrauch

    Kempkes, F.L.K.; Janse, J.

    2016-01-01

    Energy savings through a greenhouse cover of insulation glass requires a large investment. In the search for a cheaper alternative by a consortium of companies consisting of VDH Plastic Greenhouses, Van der Valk Horti Systems, AGC Chemicals Europe en Boal Systems a Glass-Film-greenhouse cover, better known as the 2SaveEnergy greenhouse concept was realized in summer 2014. The combination of clear glass with a diffuse ETFE film and a double screen mounted at a distance of only a few centimetre...

  19. Developing renewable energies for economic savings

    The 2014 edition of the 'Energy Technology Perspectives' published by the International Energy Agency (IEA) takes stock of the question of the future of the energy sector by 2050. The statement is clear: to keep the worldwide ambient temperature increase below 2 deg. C in 2050, massive investments in renewable energies will be necessary

  20. An Investigation on the Energy Saving Potential of Electromagnetic Ballast Fluorescent Lamps

    Cheong, Z. X.; Barsoum, N. N.

    2009-08-01

    Energy saving issue is a matter of great concern for industry and electrical utilities. Energy saving from fluorescent lamp system can be achieved by means of optimizing lighting level, reducing power consumption and improving the efficiency of fluorescent lamps. This paper presents an alternative energy saving control method for electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps. Non-linearity characteristics of fluorescent lamps and the effect of energy saving controller are taken into account in the proposed energy saving controller. The proposed energy saving controller provides energy saving feature and dimmable illuminance level control for electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps. In comparison to electronic ballast, integration of an energy saving controller with electromagnetic ballast results in less power consumption, less green house gas emission and longer lifespan at a much lower installation cost. Experiment results based on the proposed controller showed that 37.5% energy can be saved by reducing 15% of the AC line voltage.

  1. Energy-Saving in Brew-Rectification

    N. I. Ulyanau

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates dynamics of rectification process on one plate of a column. The basic channels controlling brew-rectification process are described in the paper.The paper also considers problems pertaining to synthesis of an adaptive system that controls non-stationary objects with delay. Synthesis of adaptive systems that automatically control product quality and saving on power resources and productivity with the help of the second method of Lyapunov has been carried out in the paper.Industrial introduction of the given automatic control system of technological process shall permit to increase productivity of a rectification (10–15 %, to decrease specific power consumption by (5–10 % while preserving the specified quality of rectified ethyl alcohol and decrease alcohol losses with luting water and malt-residue.

  2. Evaluation of energy saving tasks performed by the energy transmission and distribution companies; Denmark; Evaluering af energiselskabernes energibespareaktiviteter

    Togeby, M. (Ea Energianalyse A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2012-05-15

    The evaluation is described in the Agreement of 20 November 2009 between the Danish Climate and Energy Minister and the distribution companies for electricity, natural gas, district heating and oil about the companies' future energy conservation efforts. The evaluation was conducted to provide recommendations for adjusting the system. The results of the evaluation show that energy companies and utilities meet the overall savings obligation. In 2011, 2,098 GWh savings are recorded, which is more than the obligation. The evaluation shows that the net effect is about 760 GWh (36%). When looking at types of energy companies, then the oil companies' activities generally have a low net effect and additionally is assessed to be low in relation to the district heating companies' renovation of the district heating network. The greatest additionally exists among large savings in the industry. The means that energy companies use to achieve savings obligations are significantly different today than a few years ago. Today there are grants for more than 85% of registered savings. Before 2006 primarily information and advice was used. Thus an estimated 400 million DKK annually is used for grants. Socio-economics is positive for the part of the effort that is aimed at businesses. The socio-economic value of the savings is calculated to be twice as large as the total cost when you only look at the industry. The system can thus be readily seen as a useful instrument to promote energy conservation in industry. For households, it is estimated that the net effect is 20% of the reported savings, while for industry the net effect is estimated to be 45%. Also, for renovations of the heat distribution networks the net effect is estimated to be low. (LN)

  3. 清净助燃剂对汽油机的节能与抗磨损研究%Study on energy-saving and anti-abrasion of gasoline engine using clean combustion-improving additive

    明彩兵; 拜玉贤

    2011-01-01

    A bench experiment was carried out, matching two gasoline engines with the same model number and performance index, respectively fueled with or without clean combustion-improving additive. The effects of the clean combustion-improving additive on power and emission of engines were investigated. The results showed that the power, economy and emission of the engine fueled with the additive all had obvious improvement in comparison with that of the engine without adding the additive: the power increasing 16. 43%, specific fuel consumption (SFC) decreasing 5.39%, and the emission of CO, HC and NOx falling 28.61%, 54. 38% and 10. 1%, respectively. Wear and tear of the engine cylinder was weakened, and sediment of combustion chamber inner side was reduced. In addition, no negative effect on the catalysis device appeared.%采用两台型号与性能指标相同的汽油机,通过台架试验研究了含有清净助燃剂的汽油对发动机动力性和排放的影响.结果表明,燃用含有该种汽油添加剂的汽油机,其功率增加了16.43%,油耗率(Specificfuelcon.sumption,SFC)降低了5.39%,CO、HC和NOx的排放分别降低了28.61%、54.38%和10.1%.此外,添加剂对发动机缸筒的磨损和燃烧室壁面沉积物也有一定的改善作用,而且对催化净化装置没有负面影响.

  4. Electric energy savings from new technologies. Revision 1

    Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-09-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for 10 technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all 10 technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference projection, only 25% of the savings estimated here should be subtracted from the reference projection for analysis purposes.

  5. The unrecognized contribution of renewable energy to Europe's energy savings target

    We show that renewable energy contributes to Europe's 2020 primary energy savings target. This contribution, which is to a large extent still unknown and not recognized by policy makers, results from the way renewable energy is dealt with in Europe's energy statistics. We discuss the policy consequences and argue that the 'energy savings' occurring from the accounting of renewable energy should not distract attention from demand-side energy savings in sectors such as transport, industry and the built environment. The consequence of such a distraction could be that many of the benefits from demand-side energy savings, for example lower energy bills, increase of the renewable energy share in energy consumption without investing in new renewable capacity, and long-term climate targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by more than 80%, will be missed. Such distraction is not hypothetical since Europe's 2020 renewable energy target is binding whereas the 2020 primary energy savings target is only indicative. - Highlights: → We show that renewable energy contributes to Europe's 2020 primary energy savings target. → This is due to the 100% conversion efficiency for e.g. wind power used in Eurostat statistics. → This policy interaction is not (yet) recognized by European policy makers. → It may result in reduced incentives for realizing demand-side savings and related benefits.

  6. Energy Saving Potential by Utilizing Natural Ventilation under Warm Conditions

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2014-01-01

    –airflow simulations of 27 common cases of dwellings (considered as one thermal zone) based on the combination of specific features of the building design, occupancy and climate conditions. The energy saving potential is assessed then by the use of a new assessment method suitable for large-scale scenarios using the...... actual number of air-conditioned dwellings distributed among the 27 cases. Thereby, the energy saving is presented as the difference in the cooling demand of the dwelling during one year without and with natural ventilation, respectively. Results indicate that for hot-dry conditions, buildings with high...... heat capacity combined with natural ventilation achieve the lowest indoor temperature, whereas under hot-humid conditions, night ventilation combined with low heat capacity buildings present the best results. Thereafter, an average aggregated saving potential of 4.2 TW h for 2008 is estimated...

  7. I-SAVE: AN INTERACTIVE REAL-TIME MONITOR AND CONTROLLER TO INFLUENCE ENERGY CONSERVATION BEHAVIOR BY IMPULSE SAVING

    Simulation-based model to explore the benefits of monitoring and control to energy saving opportunities in residential homes; an adaptive algorithm to predict the type of electrical loads; a prototype user friendly interface monitoring and control device to save energy; a p...

  8. Potential energy savings and thermal comfort

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    Results of simulations carried out on four different buildings with common windows, commercial low-energy windows and xerogel windows are presented. The results are the annual energy consumption for space heating and the indoor air temperature level....

  9. Intelligent control of energy-saving power generation system

    Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Guoqing; Guo, Zhizhong [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Highway power generation system which is environmentally friendly and sustainable provides an innovative method of energy conversion. It is also as a kind of city science and technology innovation, which has the characteristics of environmental protection and sustainable utilization. Making full use of vehicle impact speed control humps, we design a new kind of highway speed control humps combined with solar electric generation system integration. Developing green energy, energy saving and environment protection can be achieved.

  10. Energy cost saving strategies in distributed power networks

    Tcheukam Alain; Tembine Hamidou

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study energy cost saving strategies in power networks in presence of prosumers. Three tips are considered: (i) distributed power network architecture, (ii) peak energy shaving with the integration of prosumers’ contribution, (iii) Electric vehicles self-charging by means of prosumers’ production. The proposed distributed power network architecture reduces significantly the transmission costs and can reduce significantly the global energy cost up to 42 percent. Different types...

  11. Energy Efficiency and Energy Saving Potential in China: A Directional Meta-Frontier DEA Approach

    Qunwei Wang; Peng Zhou; Zengyao Zhao; Neng Shen

    2014-01-01

    Increasing energy efficiency and exploiting energy saving potential are two important practices that can help to ensure future energy security in China. This paper proposes a new total factor energy efficiency indicator, based on the directional meta-frontier data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach, to account for the heterogeneity of production technology among provinces in China. This indicator considers both energy savings and economic development, and can also decompose the energy savin...

  12. Occupant-in-Place Energy Efficiency Retrofit in a Group Home for 30% Energy Savings in Climate Zone 4

    Moore, Mike [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes – such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study’s results will be used to identify cost-effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

  13. Occupant-in-Place Energy Efficiency Retrofit in a Group Home for 30% Energy Savings in Climate Zone 4

    Moore, M.

    2013-08-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes - such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost-effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study's results will be used to identify cost effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

  14. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Group Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit for 30% Energy Savings, Washington, D.C.

    None

    2013-11-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes – such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost-effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study’s results will be used to identify cost effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

  15. Energy Savings Performance Contract Case Studies.

    Lefevre, Jessica S.

    Building owners and managers can use performance-contracting Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) to partially or fully fund building renovations that include energy efficiency upgrades. This report provides building owners and managers with an introduction to the energy efficiency and building upgrade services provided by ESCOs. It uses 20 case…

  16. Potential opportunities for energy savings in a Jordanian poultry company

    Rising concern about energy resource availability and energy prices in Jordan, cost of energy has become an issue that cannot be ignored in Jordan's industrial sector. In this study, energy auditing in a meat production factory related to poultry company was carried out. Based on the collected data and the conservation laws of energy, the performance of steam boilers, domestic hot water boilers, compressors, refrigeration systems, chillers, pumps, daily consumption of diesel and water were reviewed. The percentage of energy consumed by the refrigeration units, with respect to the total energy consumed, has been estimated. The results demonstrated a normal operation with thermal efficiency of 80.66% for the steam boiler, ability to save 18818.99 JD by installing economizer with payback period of 0.637 year and a 12.3% reduction of the energy cost achieved by reducing the blow down rate. The rate of diesel consumption was reduced by 12.87% over the last period of the study as a result of the recommendations that have been submitted to the technicians and professionals. The sum of 22223.77 JD can be saved by using heavy fuel oil instead of diesel oil. Moreover, this study demonstrated that energy saving can be considered as an ideal choice to increase profit and promote competition within the poultry industry if the company adopts all the proposals and recommendations that have been offered by this study.

  17. Energy Savings Assessment for Digital-to-Analog Converter Boxes

    Cheung, Hoi Ying Iris; Meier, Alan; Brown, Richard

    2011-01-18

    The Digital Television (DTV) Converter Box Coupon Program was administered by the U.S. government to subsidize purchases of digital-to-analog converter boxes, with up to two $40 coupons for each eligible household. In order to qualify as Coupon Eligible Converter Boxes (CECBs), these devices had to meet a number of minimum performance specifications, including energy efficiency standards. The Energy Star Program also established voluntary energy efficiency specifications that are more stringent than the CECB requirements. In this study, we measured the power and energy consumptions for a sample of 12 CECBs (including 6 Energy Star labeled models) in-use in homes and estimated aggregate energy savings produced by the energy efficiency policies. Based on the 35 million coupons redeemed through the end of the program, our analysis indicates that between 2500 and 3700 GWh per year are saved as a result of the energy efficiency policies implemented on digital-to-analog converter boxes. The energy savings generated are equivalent to the annual electricity use of 280,000 average US homes.

  18. EnergySavers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home (Brochure)

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's consumer guide to saving money and energy at home and on the road. It consists of the following articles: (1) Save Money and Energy Today - Get started with things you can do now, and use the whole-house approach to ensure that your investments are wisely made to save you money and energy; (2) Your Home's Energy Use - Find out how your home uses energy, and where it's losing the most energy so you can develop a plan to save in the short and long term; (3) Air Leaks and Insulation - Seal air leaks and insulate your home properly so your energy dollars don't seep through the cracks; (4) Heating and Cooling - Use efficient systems to heat and cool your home, and save money and increase comfort by properly maintaining and upgrading equipment; (5) Water Heating - Use the right water heater for your home, insulate it and lower its temperature, and use less water to avoid paying too much; (6) Windows - Enjoy light and views while saving money by installing energy-efficient windows, and use strategies to keep your current windows from losing energy; (7) Lighting - Choose today's energy-efficient lighting for some of the easiest and cheapest ways to reduce your electric bill; (8) Appliances - Use efficient appliances through-out your home, and get greater performance with lower energy bills; (9) Home Office and Electronics - Find out how much energy your electronics use, reduce their out-put when you're not using them, and choose efficient electronics to save money; (10) Renewable Energy - Use renewable energy at home such as solar and wind to save energy dollars while reducing environmental impact; (11) Transportation - Choose efficient transportation options and drive more efficiently to save at the gas pump; and (12) References - Use our reference list to learn more about energy efficiency and renewable energy.

  19. Future of energy savings policy in Denmark (in Japanese)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    After a brief description of Denmark, its energy development and CO2 emission is outlined, especially in the years after 1973. Energy consumption within the country has remained almost constant, but including the country's large merchant fleet, energy consumption has grown by more than 50% to now...... 260 GJ annually per person. Danish energy saving policies with energy taxes, etc. are described. One important measure has been the use of heat from combined heat and power plants to heat buildings, which used to account for 40% of all energy consumption....

  20. Energy saving effects of wireless sensor networks: a case study of convenience stores in Taiwan.

    Chen, Chih-Sheng; Lee, Da-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) technology has been successfully applied to energy saving applications in many places, and plays a significant role in achieving power conservation. However, previous studies do not discuss WSN costs and cost-recovery. The application of WSNs is currently limited to research and laboratory experiments, and not mass industrial production, largely because business owners are unfamiliar with the possible favorable return and cost-recovery on WSN investments. Therefore, this paper focuses on the cost-recovery of WSNs and how to reduce air conditioning energy consumption in convenience stores. The WSN used in this study provides feedback to the gateway and adopts the predicted mean vote (PMV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to allow customers to shop in a comfortable yet energy-saving environment. Four convenience stores in Taipei have used the proposed WSN since 2008. In 2008, the experiment was initially designed to optimize air-conditioning for energy saving, but additions to the set-up continued beyond 2008, adding the thermal comfort and crowds peak, off-peak features in 2009 to achieve human-friendly energy savings. Comparison with 2007 data, under the same comfort conditions, shows that the power savings increased by 40% (2008) and 53% (2009), respectively. The cost of the WSN equipment was 500 US dollars. Experimental results, including three years of analysis and calculations, show that the marginal energy conservation benefit of the four convenience stores achieved energy savings of up to 53%, recovering all costs in approximately 5 months. The convenience store group participating in this study was satisfied with the efficiency of energy conservation because of the short cost-recovery period. PMID:22319396

  1. Proceedings of VI International Conference for Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education (CIER 2009)

    In this work scientists, engineers, manufactures, investors, policy makers, energy users and other specialists present their professional experiences and commercial samples with view to reach common objectives in a climate of friendship and solidarity. Within the conference's framework there will be multiple workshops in Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education and related fields. CIER provides an excellent platform to share experiences and promote synergies towards the challenge of achieving a sustainable energy culture

  2. Proceedings of VII International Conference for Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education (CIER 2011)

    In this work scientists, engineers, manufactures, investors, policy makers, energy users, businessmen and other specialists present their professional experiences and commercial samples with view to reach common objectives in a climate of friendship and solidarity. Within the conference's framework there will be multiple workshops in Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education and related fields. CIER provides an excellent platform to share experiences and promote synergies towards the challenge of achieving a sustainable energy culture

  3. Energy use and savings potential for laboratory fume hoods

    Fume hoods--small but essential safety devices used in laboratory environments--are highly energy-intensive, each one consuming more energy than three homes in an average U.S. climate. Increasing airflow rates in an effort to enhance safety not only elevates energy use but can in fact compromise safety by causing dangerous turbulence that can foil containment. New design strategies have been demonstrated to reduce energy use by 75%, while maintaining or enhancing safety. The energy savings potential for these hoods across the United States is $1.5 billion annually. If incorporated in new laboratory construction, high-performance fume hoods can also yield substantial first-cost savings by allowing downsizing of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning infrastructure. However, there are material hurdles to widespread adoption of new fume hood technologies. The problems reside in regulations and standards that stipulate absolute airflow rates, rather than direct metrics of containment and safety

  4. Energy saving work of frequency controlled induction cage machine

    Energy saving work, understood as lowering the supply voltage when load torque is much less than rated, is one way of reducing power losses in an induction cage machine working with a variable load. Reduction in power losses also affects the thermal properties of an induction machine because the energy saving work allows the temperature rise of the windings to decrease. Thanks to a lower temperature of the windings, the same load torque can be carried by a machine of less rated power. The ability of energy saving work to reduce the temperature of windings depends on the thermal properties of an induction machine, which are different in the case of a machine with foreign ventilation and its own ventilation. This paper deals with the thermal effect of energy saving work on a frequency controlled induction cage machine. A comparison of the properties of a machine with its own and outside ventilation is presented. The results of the investigations are shown for a 3 kW induction cage machine with the two previously mentioned ways of ventilation: one provided with a fan placed on a shaft and the other provided with a fan driven by an auxiliary motor

  5. Intrinsic Changes: Energy Saving Behaviour among Resident University Students

    Black, Rosemary; Davidson, Penny; Retra, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that explored the effectiveness of three intervention strategies in facilitating energy saving behaviour among resident undergraduate university students. In contrast to a dominant practice of motivating with rewards or competition this study sought to appeal to students' intrinsic motivations. An…

  6. Evaluation of energy and cost savings in mobile Cloud RAN

    Checko, Aleksandra; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2013-01-01

    , is sub optimal, comparing to a novel, cloud based architecture called Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN). In C-RAN a group of cells shares processing resources, and hence benefit from statistical multiplexing gain is expected. In this paper, the energy and cost savings in C-RAN are evaluated...

  7. Leveraging Lighting for Energy Savings: GSA Northwest/Artic Region

    None

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes how the Northwest/Arctic Region branch of the General Services Administration (GSA) improved safety and energy efficiency in its Fairbanks Federal Building parking garage used by federal employees, U.S. Marshals, and the District Court. A 74% savings was realized by replacing 220 high-pressure sodium fixtures with 220 light-emitting diode fixtures.

  8. Energy saving in ceramic tile kilns: Cooling gas heat recovery

    A great quantity of thermal energy is consumed in ceramic tile manufacture, mainly in the firing stage. The most widely used facilities are roller kilns, fuelled by natural gas, in which more than 50% of the energy input is lost through the flue gas and cooling gas exhaust stacks. This paper presents a calculation methodology, based on certain kiln operating parameters, for quantifying the energy saving obtained in the kiln when part of the cooling gases are recovered in the firing chamber and are not exhausted into the atmosphere. Energy savings up to 17% have been estimated in the studied case. Comparison of the theoretical results with the experimental data confirmed the validity of the proposed methodology. The study also evidenced the need to improve combustion process control, owing to the importance of the combustion process in kiln safety and energy efficiency. - Highlights: •Some energy input (30–35%) in ceramic roller kilns is lost through the cooling gas stack. •Cooling air is directly recovered in the combustion chamber, providing oxygen. •This energy recovery from the cooling gas stack has been quantified. •It has been proven that the proposed methodology to estimate energy savings is valid

  9. Energy saving in housing in Syria; Energieeinsparung im Wohnungsbau in Syrien

    Hantouch, Yaser

    2009-06-03

    The demand for energy is increasing in Syria annually by 10-11% and the population increases annually 2.54% This growth leads also to increase in the housing,that it is energy-unconscious and consumes many energy. This large increase in energy consumption is an important problem in the housing in Syria, particularly with the lack of observance of various climatic factors,this leads to install the heating or cooling system in all housing in order to improve thermal comfort. The aim of this work is to provide insights into residential buildings with very high energy efficiency. The starting point is the experience from other countries (such as Germany), which have extensive policies, experience and rules for energy-saving buildings. The aim of this work is to provide insights into residential buildings with very high energy efficiency to win. The starting point is the experience from other countries such as Germany, which has extensive policies and rules for energy-saving buildings have. These are transferred with appropriate additions to residential buildings in Syria, and they are specified for special conditions, as well as the economic, social, climatic and regulatory requirements in Syria. There is a new architectural concepts in the design of residential buildings in Syria on their energy issues to research.it was discussed the links between architecture, energy and ecology, concepts of energy-saving building and influencing factors in energy consumption in buildings analyzed and influence of these factors on building and energy in the study area (Syria). This work includes the calculations of energy-efficient building (temperature and energy consumption) for different variants with different simulation programs, and these are assessed socially and economically through interviews, surveys and calculations of Energy Price and the Cost of Buildings. It turns out that there are many opportunities for energy saving in housing in Syria by architectural, design

  10. Potential energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction of China's cement industry

    This study analyzes current energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission trends in China's cement industry as the basis for modeling different levels of cement production and rates of efficiency improvement and carbon reduction in 2011–2030. Three cement output projections are developed based on analyses of historical production and physical and macroeconomic drivers. For each of these three production projections, energy savings and CO2 emission reduction potentials are estimated in a best practice scenario and two continuous improvement scenarios relative to a frozen scenario. The results reveal the potential for cumulative final energy savings of 27.1 to 37.5 exajoules and energy-related direct emission reductions of 3.2 to 4.4 gigatonnes in 2011–2030 under the best practice scenarios. The continuous improvement scenarios produce cumulative final energy savings of 6.0 to 18.9 exajoules and reduce CO2 emissions by 1.0 to 2.4 gigatonnes. This analysis highlights that increasing energy efficiency is the most important policy measure for reducing the cement industry's energy and emissions intensity, given the current state of the industry and the unlikelihood of significant carbon capture and storage before 2030. In addition, policies to reduce total cement production offer the most direct way of reducing total energy consumption and CO2 emissions. - Highlights: ► This study models output and efficiency improvements in Chinese cement industry from 2011–2030. ► Energy savings and CO2 emission reductions estimated for 3 scenarios relative to frozen scenario. ► Results reveal cumulative final energy savings potential of 27.1–37.5 EJ and 3.2–4.4 Gt CO2 reductions. ► Increasing efficiency is the most important policy for reducing cement energy and emissions intensity.

  11. Energy saving techniques applied over a nation-wide mobile network

    Perez, Eva; Frank, Philipp; Micallef, Gilbert;

    2014-01-01

    networks. Although base station equipment is improving its energy efficiency by means of new power amplifiers and increased processing power, additional techniques are required to further reduce the energy consumption. In this paper, we evaluate different energy saving techniques and study their impact on...... the energy consumption based on a nation-wide network of a leading European operator. By means of an extensive analysis, we show that with the proposed techniques significant energy savings can be realized.......Traffic carried over wireless networks has grown significantly in recent years and actual forecasts show that this trend is expected to continue. However, the rapid mobile data explosion and the need for higher data rates comes at a cost of increased complexity and energy consumption of the mobile...

  12. Obtaining additional energy savings from the Filumex project by means of the reactive power compensation; Obtencion de ahorros adicionales del proyecto Filumex mediante la compensacion de la potencia reactiva

    Cervantes Jaramillo, Enrique L.; Loredo Gutierrez, Miguel Angel; Hernandez Hernandez, Eduardo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the proposal for establishing in a parallel way to Flamex project, the compensation in the intermediate tension network for the increment in reactive power supplied to the domestic user. This is due to the following three phenomena that occur in replacing incandescent light bulbs with fluorescent lamps: a) A fluorescent lamp has a power factor of 0.9; consequently it requires the supply of a reactive power of about 50% of its capacity. b) In replacing an incandescent light bulb for a fluorescent lamp, approximately 80% of its capacity is not supplied, this leads to the disappearance of a good deal of the user`s purely resistive load, that will cause that its natural power factor is decreased from 0.91 to 0.86 lagging. c) In decreasing the annual maximum demand in the distribution circuit in a greater proportion than the decrease of the annual consumption, their load factors and the annual losses will be increased and therefore the share of its annual energy losses will be increased in about 18.9%. The above, gives rise to the fact that the compensation of reactive power by means of the installation of capacitor banks in the main leads of the distribution circuit, turns out to be a highly appealing technical-economical solution, with a Benefit/Cost rate of 4, a return time of the investment of 2 years and a net benefit of $4.78/user (Pesos). [Espanol] Se presenta la propuesta para establecer en una forma paralela al proyecto FILUMEX, la compensacion en la red de media tension del incremento de la potencia reactiva suministrada al usuario domestico. Este es debido a los siguientes tres fenomenos que ocurren al sustituir los focos incandescentes por lamparas fluorescentes: a) Una lampara fluorescente tiene un factor de potencia de 0.9, por lo que requiere el suministro de una potencia reactiva de aproximadamente el 50% de su capacidad. b) Al sustituirse un foco incandescente por una lampara fluorescente, se deja de suministrar aproximadamente el 80

  13. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    Henrik Lund

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used in future sustainable smart energy systems. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish governmental 2050 fossil-free vision, this paper identifies marginal heat production costs and compares these to marginal heat savings costs for two different levels of district heating. A suitable least-cost heating strategy seems to be to invest in an approximately 50% decrease in net heat demands in new buildings and buildings that are being renovated anyway, while the implementation of heat savings in buildings that are not being renovated hardly pays. Moreover, the analysis points in the direction that a least-cost strategy will be to provide approximately 2/3 of the heat demand from district heating and the rest from individual heat pumps.

  14. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    Lund, Henrik; Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Aggerholm, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used in future sustainable smart energy systems. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish...... governmental 2050 fossil-free vision, this paper identifies marginal heat production costs and compares these to marginal heat savings costs for two different levels of district heating. A suitable least-cost heating strategy seems to be to invest in an approximately 50% decrease in net heat demands in new...... buildings and buildings that are being renovated anyway, while the implementation of heat savings in buildings that are not being renovated hardly pays. Moreover, the analysis points in the direction that a least-cost strategy will be to provide approximately 2/3 of the heat demand from district heating and...

  15. Biotechnological processes for water and energy saving

    Alves, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic-based (waste)water treatment facilities producing biogas, possess multifunctional characteristics: besides nutrients and raw materials like sulphur, energy and water are recycled. Therefore, biogas either for power production or vehicle transport is one of the clearest examples of synergy between water and energy sectors. From the beginning of the eighties, high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment technology (HR-AnWT) has become a standard for a certain range of biode...

  16. Energy Saving by Firms: Decision-Making, Barriers and Policies

    Henri L.F.M. de Groot; Erik T. Verhoef; Nijkamp, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Promoting investments in energy saving technologies is an important means forachieving environmental goals. Unfortunately, the empirical evidence on successconditions of policies isscarce. Based on a survey among Dutch firms, this paper sets out to identify thefactors that determine the investment behaviour of firms, their attitude towardsvarious types of energy policy,and their responsiveness to changes in environmental policy in the Netherlands.On the basis of discrete choice models, this p...

  17. Energy saving and improved comfort by increased air movement

    Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the potential saving of cooling energy by elevated air speed which can offset the impact of increased room air temperature on occupants’ comfort, as recommended in the present standards (ASHRAE 55 2004, ISO 7730 2005 and EN 15251 2007), was quantified by means of simulations with EnergyPlus software. Fifty-four cases covering six cities (Helsinki, Berlin, Bordeaux, Rome, Jerusalem, Athens), three indoor environment categories - I, II and III (according to standard EN 15251 2007...

  18. ESPC Overview. Cash Flows, Scenarios, and Associated Diagrams for Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    Tetreault, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Regenthal, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This document is meant to inform state and local decision makers about the process of energy savings performance contracts, and how projected savings and allocated energy-related budgets can be impacted by changes in utility prices.

  19. ESPC Overview: Cash Flows, Scenarios, and Associated Diagrams for Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    Tetreault, T.; Regenthal, S.

    2011-05-01

    This document is meant to inform state and local decision makers about the process of energy savings performance contracts, and how projected savings and allocated energy-related budgets can be impacted by changes in utility prices.

  20. Economic efficiency of energy saving solutions (rus

    Averyanova O.V.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the priorities in the development of Russian Federation is the policy of reducing energy consumption and implementation of energy efficient technologies. The article shows the example of the solution aimed at increasing the energy efficiency of systems which maintain optimal microclimate parameters in the office buildings. The solution is based on usage of WLHPS (Water Loop Heat Pump System. Consolidation into a united system makes it possible to utilize heat of the exhaust air heat and of other low-grade heat sources. The article shows the method of estimation the economic efficiency of these systems. The method is demonstrated on the example of office building. Comparison of various investment projects and selection the best solution was made by using economic indicators such as net present value (NPV or the integrated effect and profitability index.

  1. Novel energy saving technologies evaluation tool

    Klemeš, J.; Bulatov, I.; Koppejan, J.

    2009-01-01

    The lead-time for the development of a new energy technology, from the initial idea to the commercial application, can take many years. The reduction of this time has been the main objective of the EC DGTREN, who have funded two related recent projects, EMINENT and EMINENT2 (Early Market Introductio

  2. Energy saving systems in hot humid climates

    Hadjilambi, A.; D'Aquilo, A.; Rodenberg, O.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0533 Innovation & Sustainability. The aim of this manual is the description and comparison of several systems and strategies for cooling buildings in hot humid climates. To cool down a building you need to move the energy from a space or fro

  3. Saving energy in the baking industry. Energiesparen in der Baeckerei

    1992-04-01

    Measures for energy conservation and rational energy use have been given priority in almost all sectors of our economy. Between July and December 1991, 40 bakeries were studied for their energy consumptions in a study commissioned by BEWAG/EBAG in Berlin. Most bakeries will have to reckon with annual turnovers which will not rise as they used to. This brochure explains those measures which are best suited to use electric power in the business effectively to save energy, to lower costs and to reduce pollution. (orig./UA)

  4. Green Energy in New Construction: Maximize Energy Savings and Minimize Cost

    Ventresca, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    People often use the term "green energy" to refer to alternative energy technologies. But green energy doesn't guarantee maximum energy savings at a minimum cost--a common misconception. For school business officials, green energy means getting the lowest energy bills for the lowest construction cost, which translates into maximizing green energy…

  5. Reported Energy and Cost Savings from the DOE ESPC Program: FY 2014

    Slattery, Bob S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the realization rate of energy and cost savings from the Department of Energy’s Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) program based on information reported by the energy services companies (ESCOs) that are carrying out ESPC projects at federal sites. Information was extracted from 156 Measurement and Verification (M&V) reports to determine reported, estimated, and guaranteed cost savings and reported and estimated energy savings for the previous contract year. Because the quality of the reports varied, it was not possible to determine all of these parameters for each project. For all 156 projects, there was sufficient information to compare estimated, reported, and guaranteed cost savings. For this group, the total estimated cost savings for the reporting periods addressed were $210.6 million, total reported cost savings were $215.1 million, and total guaranteed cost savings were $204.5 million. This means that on average: ESPC contractors guaranteed 97% of the estimated cost savings; projects reported achieving 102% of the estimated cost savings; and projects reported achieving 105% of the guaranteed cost savings. For 155 of the projects examined, there was sufficient information to compare estimated and reported energy savings. On the basis of site energy, estimated savings for those projects for the previous year totaled 11.938 million MMBtu, and reported savings were 12.138 million MMBtu, 101.7% of the estimated energy savings. On the basis of source energy, total estimated energy savings for the 155 projects were 19.052 million MMBtu, and reported saving were 19.516 million MMBtu, 102.4% of the estimated energy savings.

  6. DEFINITION OF ENERGY SAVING ACCELERATION MODES OF TRAINS

    B. Ye. Bodnar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In modern conditions of rolling stock operation, the actual vital task is the increasing the efficiency of its use by reducing the cost of energy, including for the traction. It can be achieved by the way of locomotives power control systems creating, in particular the use of operating cards and on-board software and hardware. Methodo-logy. The article discusses ways of starting and acceleration of the train. Traction calculations with the definition of energy-efficient trajectories provide the search of a rational consumption of energy with time of running trains. When selecting energy saving train trajectories and the development of operating trains of reference cards, it is necessary to consider the variables such as: the profile area, weight of the stock, series of the locomotive and others. When the transmission power from the primary power equipment to the driving wheel pairs the inevitable losses that are described by the efficiency factor occur. For the most part of the locomotive elements the dependences of the efficiency factor are described by the nonlinear equations. Getting the energy-saving function of traction control at starting and acceleration to reduce the specific consumption of energy by improving the algorithm for calculating the trajectories of multiple trains was considered. The method of selection of energy-efficient trajectories at dispersal trains and power control electric and diesel locomotives with electric transmission which bases on the mathematical methods for evenly search and parametric optimization was offered. Findings. For the variables of the train situation and rolling stock was built two-parameter functional dependence of the power control locomotive and analytically determined the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Originality. In the work result the authors received the power saving function of traction control, which depends on the mass of the rolling stock and slant. In contrast to

  7. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Sagisaka, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts......One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and...... gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while...

  8. Prototype energy-saving motor; Prototyp Energiesparmotor

    Weingartner, J. [Baechli AG, Kriens-Obernau (Switzerland); Lindegger, M. [Circle Motor AG, Guemligen (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of investigations made on the development of an energy-efficient electric motor. The aim of the prototype 'Eco-Motor' project was the development of a winding technique and the optimisation of the design of the stator. Various winding techniques (toroid winding, core winding, coil winding) were examined and used in the realisation of prototype 'Eco-Motors' for a nominal voltage of 230 V a.c. The designs were evaluated in both a simulation (FEMM) and as well as in the test facilities at the College of Engineering and Architecture in Lucerne, Switzerland. The measured data of the 'Eco-Motor' were then compared with a standard asynchronous motor. The 'Eco-Motor' with a toroid winding had the best efficiency. At low loads, all 'Eco-Motor' prototypes have a higher efficiency than asynchronous motors. On the other hand, none of the 'Eco-Motors' have yet reached the nominal power of 250 W. The developers state, however, that with a few adjustments this should pose no problems.

  9. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Iron and Steel Manufacturing

    Keith Jamison, Caroline Kramer, Sabine Brueske, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. iron and steel manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual process areas and select subareas, representing 82% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes and subareas are based on technologies currently in use or under development; the potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  10. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Pulp and Paper Manufacturing

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. pulp and paper manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual process areas, representing 52% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; the potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity

  11. A new heating system based on coupled air source absorption heat pump for cold regions: Energy saving analysis

    Highlights: • A double-stage coupled air source absorption heat pump (ASAHP) is proposed. • The coupled ASAHP exhibits stable and high performance in very cold regions. • Energy-saving rate of the coupled ASAHP in all the typical cities is above 20%. - Abstract: Energy consumption for heating and domestic hot water is very high. The heating system based on an air source absorption heat pump (ASAHP) had been assessed to have great energy saving potential. However, the single-stage ASAHP exhibits poor performance when the outdoor air temperature is very low. A double-stage coupled ASAHP is proposed to improve the energy-saving potential of single-stage ASAHP in cold regions. The heating capacity and primary energy efficiency (PEE) of the proposed system operated in both coupled mode and single-stage mode are simulated under various working conditions. The building load and primary energy consumption of different heating systems applied in cold regions are analyzed comparatively to investigate the energy-saving potential of the coupled ASAHP. Results show that the coupled ASAHP exhibits stable PEE and provides high heating capacity in very cold conditions. The energy-saving rate of the coupled ASAHP in all the typical cities is above 20%. In addition, the energy-saving potential of the single-stage ASAHP in severely cold areas can be improved obviously by coupled ASAHP, with an improvement of 7.73% in Harbin

  12. To understand the new world of energy - Energy saving and energy efficiency: the world of energy 2.0

    This bibliographical note contains the table of contents and a brief presentation of a book which proposes a general overview of the world of modern energy, focuses on the main associated political and climatic stakes and challenges. It also addresses the crucial issue of energy efficiency and energy savings which are the pillars of the current energy transition. The chapters address the world energy stakes and challenges, the emergence of a new energetic paradigm, the issues of energy efficiency and energy savings, the main sources of energy savings to be exploited and valorised, the situation in Europe and in the World regarding energy efficiency, the relationship between energy transition and local territories, the necessary continuous innovation

  13. Energy-saving drying and its application

    Kovbasyuk, V. I.

    2015-09-01

    Superheated steam is efficiently applied as a coolant for the intensification of drying, which is an important component of many up-to-date technologies. However, traditional drying is extremely energy consuming, and many drying apparatus are environmentally unfriendly. Thus, it is important to implement the proposed drying technique using superheated steam under pressure significantly higher than the atmospheric one with subsequent steam transfer for use in a turbine for electric power generation as a compensation of energy costs for drying. This paper includes a brief thermodynamic analysis of such a technique, its environmental advantages, and possible benefits of the use of wet wastes and obtaining high-quality fuels from wet raw materials. A scheme is developed for the turbine protection from impurities that can occur in the steam at drying. Potential advantage of the technique are also the absence of heating surfaces that are in contact with wet media, the absence of the emissions to the atmosphere, and the use of low potential heat for desalination and the purification of water. The new drying technique can play an extremely important part in the implementation in the field of thermal destruction of anthropogenic wastes. In spite of the promotion of waste sorting to obtain valuable secondary raw materials, the main problem of big cities is nonutilizable waste, which makes not less than 85% of the starting quantity of waste. This can only be totally solved by combustion, which even more relates to the sewage sludge utilization. The wastes can be safely and efficiently combusted only provided that they are free of moisture. Combustion temperature optimization makes possible full destruction of dioxins and their toxic analogues.

  14. An adjusted energy-saving quantity calculation method for building energy-efficient retrofit

    王清勤; 孟冲

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at a comprehensive assessment of energy-saving retrofitting effect on existing buildings,a calculation method is developed to adjust energy-saving quantity in standard condition for comparison under the same conditions. A mathematical model,method theory and calculation steps are given. Error analysis results show that this method can be applied accurately to practical engineering projects. In a case study of energy-saving quantity assessment before and after retrofitting on a certain hospital in Shanghai,with energy simulation software TRNSYS,detailed application of this method is introduced and analyzed. The method is applied to the case of energy-saving quantity assessment to a hospital in Shanghai before and after retrofitting with the energy simulation software TRNSYS.

  15. How to prevent greenhouse gas emissions in electrical installations: lighting energy savings and solar energy approaches

    Day by day greenhouse gas emissions increase dramatically. A passive adaptive method of lighting energy savings, daylight responsive systems are considered one of the best solutions for energy efficiency, saving and prevent CO2 emissions. Results of an annual experiment which was held in Sakarya University proves the necessity of daylight responsive systems with a 41% energy saving and 942.5 kg of prevented CO2 emissions Thinking this prevention is realized just only in a 36 m2 room with the use of 8 luminaries spreading such systems to nationwide, a major amount of greenhouse gas emissions would be prohibited. On the other hand energy saving is not the only way to reduce CO2 emissions. Again in Sakarya University a project has started to investigate the possibility of illumination of a complete building by using solar energy. This paper evaluates these mentioned systems both in energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions prevention and economic point of views. (author)

  16. Energy additivity in branched and cyclic hydrocarbons

    Gao, H.; Bader, R.F.W. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Cortes-Guzman, F. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, (Mexico). Dept. de Fisicoquimica

    2009-11-15

    This paper reported on a study of the energetic relationships between hydrocarbon molecules and the heats of formation. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) was used to investigate the degree to which branched hydrocarbons obey a group additivity scheme for energy and populations. The QTAIM defined the properties of the chemical groups. The experimental and theoretical transferability of the methyl and methylene groups of the linear hydrocarbons was also explored. The calculations were performed using a large basis set at the restricted Hartree-Fock and MP2(full) levels of theory. The study also investigated the deviations from additivity, noted for small ring hydrocarbons leading to the definition of strain energy. The QTAIM energies recovered the experimental values. The paper included details regarding the delocalization of the electron density over the surface of the cyclopropane ring, responsible for its homoaromatic properties. The calculations presented in this study satisfied the virial theorem for the atomic definition of energy. The paper discussed the problems associated with the use of the density functional theory (DFT) resulting from its failure to satisfy the virial theorem. 44 refs., 9 tabs., 2 figs.

  17. Prices make energy savings more then a slogan

    Energy has become a commodity with economic price in Slovakia. For years the energy price has not fulfilled the basic economic criteria - covering of production costs. It was used as one of the instruments of Governments social policy. But the situation is changing. Another phase of bringing the prices to a realistic level brought along a price increase by tens of percents. As the energy prices are increasing and there is a perspective that they will grow further all possible reserves and cheaper energy sources have to be identified. A simplified energetic model of Slovak economy identifies three basic energy-consumer kinds - industry, buildings and transport. Industry uses about one half of the Slovakia's yearly energy-consume. Aim private companies to survive in a competitive environment guarantees of a rational approach towards energy consume. The fact that even in companies that use high volumes of primary raw material the energy consume is the highest cost item (many times higher then the labour costs) is the main incentive for looking for saving possibilities in this area. A decrease of the industries' share in energy consume may indicate some positive trends. The energy consume in industries has dropped by ten percent within ten years and its share on the overall consume is approaching the 45-percent level. This was partially caused by decreasing production volumes or closing down of production in several companies. Energy consume of buildings represents about 35 - 40 percent of the national consume i.e. is on a level similar to other European countries. This is a sector is the most important. It is its structure that is important. Currently there are 1,8 million flat units in Slovakia. Family houses represent 48 percent and the remaining 52 percent go to flats. In close to 800-thousand family houses owned by the people living in them nobody has to stress the importance of energy savings. The user knows exactly how much energy has been used. The ownership is

  18. Concept for Specific Lines of Business, Energy Saving Tourism

    In the spirit of the objectives of the Energy Plan 1995 in order to make more efficient use of energy and thus to reduce energy requirements, to promote the use of renewable energies, and to attach maximum importance to the ecological compatibility of the energy systems, among other project the provincial government of Styria is pursuing the option of consulting small and medium-sized enterprises in a target manner. Three years after being launched, this Ecological Company Consulting scheme for various lines of business is now producing successful results, demonstrating that energy saving, business profit and ecology can go hand in hand by example of numerous pilot projects. Trade-specific concepts have been elaborated for foodstuffs, carpenters and car repair and sales firms, bakeries and hairdressers and, most recently, for tourist industry business /hotels, bars, restaurants, etc.). The province of Styria, represented by the Energy Commissioner and the department of waste management, is co-operating closely in the Ecological Company Consulting scheme with the Styrian Chamber of Commerce and the Economy Promotion Institute (Wirtschaftsfoerderungsinstitut). In several cases, other provinces, the Federal Ministry of Environmental, Youth and Family Affairs, and the Federal Chamber of Commerce have adopted the results of this co-operation, while in some cases subsidy schemes are linked to these trade-specific concepts. In the course of the scheme, the aim is to investigate energy requirements, saving potentials and questions of waste management. (author)

  19. Sustainable roofs with real energy savings

    Christian, J.E.; Petrie, T.W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper addresses the general concept of sustainability and relates it to the building owner`s selection of a low-slope roof. It offers a list of performance features of sustainable roofs. Experiences and data relevant to these features for four unique roofs are then presented which include: self-drying systems, low total equivalent warming foam insulation, roof coatings and green roofs. The paper concludes with a list of sustainable roofing features worth considering for a low-slope roof investment. Building owners and community developers are showing more interest in investing in sustainability. The potential exists to design, construct, and maintain roofs that last twice as long and reduce the building space heating and cooling energy loads resulting from the roof by 50% (based on the current predominant design of a 10-year life and a single layer of 1 to 2 in. (2.5 to 5.1 cm) of insulation). The opportunity to provide better low-slope roofs and sell more roof maintenance service is escalating. The general trend of outsourcing services could lead to roofing companies` owning the roofs they install while the traditional building owner owns the rest of the building. Such a situation would have a very desirable potential to internalize the costs of poor roof maintenance practices and high roof waste disposal costs, and to offer a profit for installing roofs that are more sustainable. 14 refs., 12 figs.

  20. Improving Energy Saving Techniques by Ambient Intelligence Scheduling

    Cristani, Matteo; Karafili, Erisa; Tomazzoli, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Energy saving is one of the most challenging aspects of modern ambient intelligence technologies, for both domestic and business usages. In this paper we show how to combine Ambient Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence techniques to solve the problem of scheduling a set of devices under a given...... for Ambient Intelligence to a specific framework and exhibit a sample usage for a real life system, Elettra, that is in use in an industrial context....

  1. Fuzzy logic control for energy saving in autonomous electric vehicles

    Al-Jazaeri, Ahmed O.; Samaranayake, Lilantha; Longo, Stefano; Auger, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Limited battery capacity and excessive battery dimensions have been two major limiting factors in the rapid advancement of electric vehicles. An alternative to increasing battery capacities is to use better: intelligent control techniques which save energy on-board while preserving the performance that will extend the range with the same or even smaller battery capacity and dimensions. In this paper, we present a Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controller (Type-2 FLC) as the speed controller, acting as th...

  2. Simple method for estimating energy saving in buildings

    Cuvillier, E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper introduces a method of selecting the most energy-saving heating system without resorting to analysis requiring large computers. The method described uses an imaginary year of 52 days picked at random, to enable designers to calculate diary heating needs in the various cases to be considered. In the paper the method is applied to a swimming pool for which several heating and management systems liable to be used are studied and compared. 6 refs.

  3. Energy saving in the process of gas pipeline overhaul

    Mitrokhin, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    The problem of energy saving during overhaul of a linear part of gas trunkline is regarded in this paper. This issue has been analyzed from different perspectives. Thermodynamic analysis of gas evacuation from a string that is off operation for the overhaul to a parallel or adjacent string with the use of mobile compressor systems was made. Economical attractiveness of mobile compressor systems applications was proved. Various methods of gas trunklines linear parts overhaul have been consider...

  4. High-Temperature Coatings Offer Energy Savings

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. X-Plane Program included the first-of-its-kind research in aerodynamics and astronautics with experimental vehicles, including the first aircraft to break the sound barrier; the first aircraft to fly in excess of 100,000, then 200,000, and then 300,000 feet; and the first aircraft to fly at three, four, five, and then six times the speed of sound. During the 1990s, NASA started developing a new thermal protection material to test on the X-33 and X-34 supersonic aircraft. The X-33 was intended to demonstrate the technologies needed for a new reusable launch vehicle and was projected to reach an altitude of approximately 50 miles and speeds of more than Mach 11. The X-34, a small, reusable technology demonstrator for a launch vehicle, was intended to reach an altitude of 250,000 feet and fly at speeds of Mach 8. As a result of its research and development efforts, NASA s Ames Research Center invented the Protective Ceramic Coating Material (PCCM). Applied to a surface, the thin, lightweight coating could protect the material underneath from extreme temperatures. The capability of the technology came from its emissivity, which radiated heat away from the surface it covered, thereby decreasing the amount of heat transferred to the underlying material. PCCM not only increased the capability of materials to withstand higher temperatures, it also exhibited impressive thermal shock, vibration, and acoustic performance. In addition, it proved to be resistant to abrasion and mechanical damage and was also environmentally safe, due to it being water-based and containing no solvents. Even though funding for the X-33 and X-34 ended in 2001, PCCM continued on a path of innovation.

  5. Subjective discount rates in the general population and their predictive power for energy saving behavior

    Why do people sometimes refrain from saving energy even if it would pay off in monetary terms? Subjective discount rates present one possible explanation for this lack of foresight, but little is known about their level and reliability in the general population. With regard to behavior, persons with lower discount rates are expected to accept additional costs upfront more readily than those with higher discount rates. Based on a representative nation-wide study, the Swiss Environmental Survey 2007, and a follow-up survey, our analyses reveal that on average subjective discount rates are well above market interest rates and moderately stable over a time interval of four years. Income and education are negatively correlated with discount rates. Contrary to expectations, we did not find convincing support for an impact of discount rates on energy saving behavior. - Highlights: • Results of a large panel study in Switzerland. • Mean subjective discount rates in population are well above market interest rates. • Subjective discount rates are moderately stable over four years. • Theory suggests impact of subjective discount rates on energy saving behavior. • However, subjective discount rates do not contribute to explanation of energy saving behavior

  6. Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control

    Blasing, T J [ORNL; Schroeder, Dana [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2013-08-01

    Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY SAVING IN WASTE RECYCLING USING SYSTEM DYNAMICS

    Eugênio de Oliveira Simonetto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recycling is a topic of great importance in integrated waste management, evidence of this is verified in the National Policy of Solid Waste, decreed in 2010, where it is considered one of the priorities. In this article is presented a computer simulation model, since their development until its validation, which aims to support environmental managers in their decisions regarding the definition and / or maintenance of solid waste policies recycling, as well as evaluating the benefits of process in the environment (in this article we evaluated the energy savings. For the model development was considered: the rate of natural population growth (births and deaths, percentage of solid waste recycled (for each type of material, gravimetric composition of the material in the total waste generated, the amount of waste generated per inhabitant and energy savings caused by each distinct type of material. Through the model results generated, end users (environmental managers thereof may, for example, set incentives to reduce the total generation of solid waste, produce campaigns enhancing reuse and recycling and to assess the relative benefits of energy savings caused by recycling. Model validation was through analysis of future scenarios for a given municipality in southern Brazil. For modeling and system validation was used Vensim from Ventana Systems.

  8. Impact of energy saving policies in the internal energy demand and energy supply prospects from Mexico

    In this paper we present the recent advances on the projections of the internal energy demand of Mexico and its prospects as a supplier of crude oil and oil products in the international market. Such prospects are discussed in terms of an energy demand model whose short and medium range projections take into account the detailed behaviour of the principal economic and energy consuming sectors and sub sectors and their diversification possibilities. On the basis of these projections we analyze the impact of energy saving policies on the internal energy demand and export possibilities from Mexico for the next 10 to 15 years. (author)

  9. Report on energy saving vision in Santo-cho region; Santocho chiiki sho energy vision hokokusho

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    An energy-saving vision was decided on in Santo-cho region in Hyogo Prefecture, with its outline reported. This town is such that about 80% of the region is mountains, forests and wilderness and that aging is advancing at the rate above that of Hyogo Prefecture or the national average. Nearly entire energy of the town is dependent on the supply from outside. The energy consumption is somewhat increasing as a whole, with that of the people's livelihood/domestic sector and of transportation sector are rising. In the classification of fuels, electricity is growing in consumption. As an energy-saving vision, it aimed principally at personal surroundings in which every one got into the habit of saving energy continuously without being forced. The basic plan for the energy conservation drive consisted of inducement to an energy-saving life style, energy conservation to be spread by the next generation children, continuation of energy saving activity rooted in the region, and promotion of energy conservation as a basis for introducing new energy. The diffusion and enlightenment for children destined to lead the next generation were defined as a particularly important assignment, as was the promotion of energy conservation and environmental education. (NEDO)

  10. Data Network Equipment Energy Use and Savings Potential in Buildings

    Lanzisera, Steven; Nordman, Bruce; Brown, Richard E.

    2010-06-09

    Network connectivity has become nearly ubiquitous, and the energy use of the equipment required for this connectivity is growing. Network equipment consists of devices that primarily switch and route Internet Protocol (IP) packets from a source to a destination, and this category specifically excludes edge devices like PCs, servers and other sources and sinks of IP traffic. This paper presents the results of a study of network equipment energy use and includes case studies of networks in a campus, a medium commercial building, and a typical home. The total energy use of network equipment is the product of the stock of equipment in use, the power of each device, and their usage patterns. This information was gathered from market research reports, broadband market penetration studies, field metering, and interviews with network administrators and service providers. We estimate that network equipment in the USA used 18 TWh, or about 1percent of building electricity, in 2008 and that consumption is expected to grow at roughly 6percent per year to 23 TWh in 2012; world usage in 2008 was 51 TWh. This study shows that office building network switches and residential equipment are the two largest categories of energy use consuming 40percent and 30percent of the total respectively. We estimate potential energy savings for different scenarios using forecasts of equipment stock and energy use, and savings estimates range from 20percent to 50percent based on full market penetration of efficient technologies.

  11. Efficient energy-saving targets for APEC economies

    Energy-saving target ratios (ESTR) for 17 APEC economies during 1991-2000 are computed in a total-factor framework. All nominal variables are transformed into real variables by the purchasing power parity (PPP) at the 1995 price level. The data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach is used to find the energy-saving target (EST) for APEC economies without reducing their maximum potential gross domestic productions (GDPs) in each year. Energy, labor, and capital are the three inputs, while GDP is the single output. Our major findings are as follows: (1) China has the largest EST up to almost half of its current usage. (2) Hong Kong, the Philippines, and the United States have the highest energy efficiency. (3) The energy efficiency generally increases for APEC economies except for Canada and New Zealand. (4) Chile, Mexico, and Taiwan have significantly improved their energy efficiency in the last 5 years. (5) An inverted U-shape relation exists between per capita EST and per capita GDP. (6) ESTR has a positive relation with the value-added percentage of GDP of the industry sector and a negative relation with that of the service sector

  12. Energy use, energy savings and emission analysis in the Malaysian rubber producing industries

    Saidur, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mekhilef, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-08-15

    In this paper an analysis of energy use and energy conservation in the Malaysian rubber producing industries is presented. It has been found that rubber industries consume a substantial amount of energy. Excessive use of energy is usually associated with many industrial plants worldwide, and rubber plants are no exception. This study is based on the realization that enormous potential exists for cost-effective improvements in the existing energy-using equipment. Through the method of a walkthrough energy audit, power rating, operation time of energy-consuming equipment/machineries and power factor were collected. The data were then analyzed to investigate the breakdown of end-use equipment/machineries energy use. The results of the energy audit in the Malaysian rubber and rubber producing industries showed that the electric motor accounts for a major fraction of total energy consumption followed by pumps, heaters, cooling systems and lighting. Since the electric motor takes up a substantial amount of the total energy used in rubber industries, energy-savings strategies such as the use of high efficient motors, and variable speed drive (VSD) have been used to reduce energy consumption of motors used in rubber industries. Energy-savings strategies for compressed-air systems, boilers, and chillers have also been applied to estimate energy and cost savings. It has been found that significant amount of energy and; utility bills can be saved along with the reduction of emission by applying the foretold strategies for energy using machineries in the rubber industries. (author)

  13. Actual and Estimated Energy Savings Comparison for Deep Energy Retrofits in the Pacific Northwest

    Blanchard, Jeremy; Widder, Sarah H.; Giever, Elisabeth L.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-10-01

    Seven homes from the Pacific Northwest were selected to evaluate the differences between estimated and actual energy savings achieved from deep energy retrofits. The energy savings resulting from these retrofits were estimated, using energy modeling software, to save at least 30% on a whole-house basis. The modeled pre-retrofit energy use was trued against monthly utility bills. After the retrofits were completed, each of the homes was extensively monitored, with the exception of one home which was monitored pre-retrofit. This work is being conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program as part of the Building America Program. This work found many discrepancies between actual and estimated energy savings and identified the potential causes for the discrepancies. The differences between actual energy use and modeled energy use also suggest improvements to improve model accuracy. The difference between monthly whole-house actual and estimated energy savings ranged from 75% more energy saved than predicted by the model to 16% less energy saved for all the monitored homes. Similarly, the annual energy savings difference was between 36% and -14%, which was estimated based on existing monitored savings because an entire year of data is not available. Thus, on average, for all six monitored homes the actual energy use is consistently less than estimates, indicating home owners are saving more energy than estimated. The average estimated savings for the eight month monitoring period is 43%, compared to an estimated savings average of 31%. Though this average difference is only 12%, the range of inaccuracies found for specific end-uses is far greater and are the values used to directly estimate energy savings from specific retrofits. Specifically, the monthly post-retrofit energy use differences for specific end-uses (i.e., heating, cooling, hot water, appliances, etc.) ranged from 131% under

  14. Energy saving by firms. Decision-making, barriers and policies

    Promoting investments in energy-saving technologies is an important means for achieving environmental goals. Empirical evidence on success conditions of associated policies, however, is scarce. Based on a survey among Dutch firms, this paper sets out to identify the factors that determine the investment behaviour of firms, their attitude towards various types of energy policy, and their responsiveness to changes in environmental policy in the Netherlands. On the basis of discrete choice models, this paper aims to investigate empirically, whether (and how) these strategic features vary over firm characteristics and over sectors

  15. Energy saving by firms. Decision-making, barriers and policies

    De Groot, H.L.F.; Verhoef, E.T.; Nijkamp, P. [Department of Spatial Economics and Tinbergen Institute, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1105, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2001-11-01

    Promoting investments in energy-saving technologies is an important means for achieving environmental goals. Empirical evidence on success conditions of associated policies, however, is scarce. Based on a survey among Dutch firms, this paper sets out to identify the factors that determine the investment behaviour of firms, their attitude towards various types of energy policy, and their responsiveness to changes in environmental policy in the Netherlands. On the basis of discrete choice models, this paper aims to investigate empirically, whether (and how) these strategic features vary over firm characteristics and over sectors.

  16. Energy Saving by Firms. Decision-Making, Barriers and Policies

    De Groot, H.L.F.; Verhoef, E.T.; Nijkamp, P. [Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-04-01

    Promoting investments in energy saving technologies is an important means for achieving environmental goals. Unfortunately, the empirical evidence on success conditions of policies is scarce. Based on a survey among Dutch firms, this paper sets out to identify the factors that determine the investment behaviour of firms, their attitude towards various types of energy policy, and their responsiveness to changes in environmental policy in the Netherlands. On the basis of discrete choice models, this paper aims to investigate empirically whether (and how) these strategic features vary over firm characteristics and over sectors. 15 refs.

  17. Economic aspects of energy saving in greenhouses: physical considerations

    Danloy, L; Gay, J B; Mercier, J A; Reist, A

    1989-01-01

    An important result of experiments carried out over the past six years in a trial greenhouse at CERN (The European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva, Switzerland) was the development of a simple and precise method for calculating the energy requirements of a glasshouse; this is valid for any type of greenhouse and climate. An economic study is made using the above method for evaluating the financial effectiveness of various energy-saving methods: double glazing of the side walls, low emissivity glass 'Hortiplus' roofing, soil level heating and a thermal screen.

  18. A NOVEL OPTIMIZED ENERGY-SAVING EXTRACTION PROCESS ON COFFEE

    Cheng-Chi Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Taguchi method is applied to optimize ultrasound thermal process for extracting caffeine and flavor from coffee. The use of ultrasound can abridge experiments in cost, energy loss and time; the different operating conditions for extraction experiments are executed and the results are also compared. The results show that the best design factors for caffeine are 95℃ of extraction temperature, 28 kHz of operating frequency and 30 s of extraction time. The proposed optimized extraction method is efficient and energy-saving compared with the general process for making coffee.

  19. Energy saving and improved comfort by increasing air movement

    Schiavon, S.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the potential saving of cooling energy by elevated air speed which can offset the impact of increased room air temperature on occupants' comfort, as recommended in the present standards (ASHRAE 55 2004, ISO 7730 2005 and EN 15251 2007), was quantified by means of simulations with...... EnergyPlus software. Fifty-four cases covering six cities (Helsinki, Berlin, Bordeaux, Rome, Jerusalem and Athens), three indoor environment categories I, II and III (according to standard EN 152512007) and three air velocities (...

  20. New Energy-Saving Technologies Use Induction Generators

    Nola, F.

    1982-01-01

    Two energy-saving technologies tested recently at Marshall Space Flight Center use an induction motor operated in reverse (as an induction generator). In the first, energy ordinarily dissipated during load testing of machinery is recovered and returned to powerline. In the second, efficiency of wind-driven induction generator is improved, and useful range of windspeed is broadened. Both technologies take advantage of ac voltage developed across terminals of an induction motor when rotated at higher than-synchronous speed in the direction it normally turns when power is appled.

  1. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Grocery Stores--50% Energy Savings

    Hale, E. T.; Macumber, D. L.; Long, N. L.; Griffith, B. T.; Benne, K. S.; Pless, S. D.; Torcellini, P. A.

    2008-09-01

    This report provides recommendations that architects, designers, contractors, developers, owners, and lessees of grocery store buildings can use to achieve whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004.

  2. Super Energy Savings Performance Contracts: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Program Overview (revision)

    This four-page publication describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) streamlined energy savings performance contracting, or ''Super ESPC,'' process, which is managed by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). Under a Super ESPC, a qualifying energy service company (ESCO) from the private sector pays for energy efficiency improvements or advanced renewable energy technologies (e.g., photovoltaic systems, wind turbines, or geothermal heat pumps, among others) for a facility of a government agency. The ESCO is then repaid over time from the agency's resulting energy cost savings. Delivery orders under these contracts specify the level of performance (energy savings) and the repayment schedule; the contract term can be up to 25 years, although many Super ESPCs are for about 10 years or less

  3. Crop based climate regimes for energy saving in greenhouse cultivation

    Koerner, O.

    2003-06-16

    Sustainability is one of the major aims in greenhouse horticulture. According to agreements between the Dutch grower association and the government, energy consumption and the use of chemical biocides have to be reduced. More advanced greenhouse technique is being developed to reach the target to decrease the energy efficiency-index by 65% between 1980 and 2010. However, this could also be achieved with existing technology by using more advanced climate regimes. The present thesis aimed at that, through designing and analysing climate regimes while employing existing climate control possibilities. Theoretical temperature and humidity regimes were designed to decrease energy consumption and a photosynthesis maximisation procedure was implemented to maximise growth. The basis for a crop gross photosynthesis model for control purposes was created. Crop photosynthesis models were evaluated at conditions expected to occur with more sustainable climate regimes. It was shown with experimental evidence that theoretical assumptions on the temperature - CO2 effects in a crop that are based on theoretically models scaling up leaf photosynthesis to the crop level are valid and that simplified existing models could be applied up to 28C. With higher temperatures new designs are needed and this can probably be achieved with an improved stomata-resistance model. The well known temperature integration principle was modified with two nested time-frames (24-hour and six days) and a temperature dose-response function. In a year round tomato cultivation, energy consumption was predicted to decrease with up to 9 % compared to regular temperature integration. The potential for energy saving with temperature integration is limited by humidity control when as usual fixed set points are maintained, because it counteracts temperature integration. Vents open at lower temperatures and heating is switched on at higher temperatures than required for optimal effects of temperature integration. A

  4. Can Additional Homeopathic Treatment Save Costs? A Retrospective Cost-Analysis Based on 44500 Insured Persons.

    Julia K Ostermann

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the health care costs for patients using additional homeopathic treatment (homeopathy group with the costs for those receiving usual care (control group.Cost data provided by a large German statutory health insurance company were retrospectively analysed from the societal perspective (primary outcome and from the statutory health insurance perspective. Patients in both groups were matched using a propensity score matching procedure based on socio-demographic variables as well as costs, number of hospital stays and sick leave days in the previous 12 months. Total cumulative costs over 18 months were compared between the groups with an analysis of covariance (adjusted for baseline costs across diagnoses and for six specific diagnoses (depression, migraine, allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and headache.Data from 44,550 patients (67.3% females were available for analysis. From the societal perspective, total costs after 18 months were higher in the homeopathy group (adj. mean: EUR 7,207.72 [95% CI 7,001.14-7,414.29] than in the control group (EUR 5,857.56 [5,650.98-6,064.13]; p<0.0001 with the largest differences between groups for productivity loss (homeopathy EUR 3,698.00 [3,586.48-3,809.53] vs. control EUR 3,092.84 [2,981.31-3,204.37] and outpatient care costs (homeopathy EUR 1,088.25 [1,073.90-1,102.59] vs. control EUR 867.87 [853.52-882.21]. Group differences decreased over time. For all diagnoses, costs were higher in the homeopathy group than in the control group, although this difference was not always statistically significant.Compared with usual care, additional homeopathic treatment was associated with significantly higher costs. These analyses did not confirm previously observed cost savings resulting from the use of homeopathy in the health care system.

  5. The unrecognized contribution of renewable energy to Europe's energy savings target

    Harmsen, R.; Wesselink, B.; Eichhammer, W.; Worrell, E.

    2011-01-01

    We show that renewable energy contributes to Europe's 2020 primary energy savings target. This contribution, which is to a large extent still unknown and not recognized by policy makers, results from the way renewable energy is dealt with in Europe's energy statistics. We discuss the policy conseque

  6. Potential Energy Savings in Refrigeration Systems Using Optimal Setpoints

    Larsen, Lars Finn Slot; Thybo, Claus

    2004-01-01

    Energy efficiency of refrigeration systems has gradually been improved with help of control schemes utilizing the more flexible components. This paper proposes an approach in line with this trend, where a suboptimal condenser pressure is found in order to minimize the energy consumption. The obje...... objective is to give an idea of how this optimization scheme works as well as to show what amount of energy it is possible to save. A steady state model of a simple refrigeration system will be used as a basis for the optimization.......Energy efficiency of refrigeration systems has gradually been improved with help of control schemes utilizing the more flexible components. This paper proposes an approach in line with this trend, where a suboptimal condenser pressure is found in order to minimize the energy consumption. The...

  7. A New Hybrid Bathroom System Based on Energy Saving Concept

    Cui Bo-wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of hot water supply in bathroom, this article proposes a new hybrid energy hot water supply system. The programmable logic controller(PLC as the master controller was adopted in this system, which could automatically detect and storage main thermal physical of the system, such as temperature, water level, solar radiation intensity, power consumption and so on. The active thermal utilization technology of solar energy, air-source heat pump technology, solar energy intensive natural ventilation technology and low temperature hot water floor radiant heating technology were organically integrated in this system, which has the advantages of energy conservation and environment protection, high automation, safe and reliable operation, etc. At the same time, it can make good use of electric power cost between on-peak and off-peak, and promote the optimal allocation of power resources and reduce the cost, which can achieve the goal of intelligent control and energy saving.

  8. Energy efficiency in intensive livestock Estonia. Energy-saving measures on poultry farms

    Annuk, A.; Nurste, H.; Damskier, S.S.

    2004-07-01

    The overall purpose of this report on energy-saving measures is to provide the Estonian Ministry of Economics and Communication with an overview of the energy consumption on poultry farms at a national level. This report compromises detailed information on energy consumption per ton of broiler meat, egg and young laying hen produced in Estonia and Denmark, respectively, based on field investigations and Danish statistics. To collect information on electricity consumption within Estonian poultry farming on a national level, three pilot farms were analysed with regard to the use of energy consumption on each farm. Results from the three farms are presented in Appendix 1. In addition, a calculation of national energy consumption within chicken meet production, egg production and breeding of young laying hens is presented in this report. The calculation shows the difference between the Danish and Estonian energy consumption on poultry farms. This report presents a proposal for a ten-year development plan for the reduction of the energy consumption on Estonian poultry farms. (au)

  9. Performing impact evaluations in industrial retrofit: The Energy Savings Plan Program

    Riewer, S. (USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)); Spanner, G.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The Energy Savings Plan (ESP) is Bonneville Power Administration's retrofit program for the industrial sector. The program pays incentives for energy conservation measures involving electrical energy efficiency improvements in manufacturing, processing, and refining industries. This paper will describe the ESP program, recount the techniques selected to evaluate the retrofits, and report the findings from five ESP project impact evaluations completed to date. The impact evaluations provide a framework for assessing the energy saving achieved by the provides implemented under the ESP. In addition to energy savings, the evaluations assess process changes, net utility impacts, levelized costs, and free ridership.'' The five ESP projects evaluated include: a waste heat recovery system for a food processing blancher, an energy management control system used to upgrade refrigeration, a variable speed drive for a fan motor in a lumber mill, a sludge screw press for waste water treatment, and replacement of rod anodes with blades anodes in mercury cells in an electrochemical plant.

  10. Situations and Countermeasures of CNPC Energy Saving and Consumption Reduction%Situations and Countermeasures of CNPC Energy Saving and Consumption Reduction

    Chen Youwang; Liu Bo; Yu Jiqing

    2011-01-01

    Situations and challenges China's energy-saving policies In the "Outline of the llth Five-Year Plan for National Economic & Social Development of the People's Republic of China", China made energy saving one of its basic national policies and aimed to

  11. The PO production chain and possibilities for energy saving. Public summary

    Donszelmann, E.; De Buck, A.; Croezen, H.; Wielders, L.

    2012-01-15

    The Dutch Industry and the Dutch government have made long term agreements on energy efficiency (LEE) for companies that are under the European Trading Scheme (ETS). These companies have to report frequently on their possibilities and achievements in energy efficiency. These reports describe the current state of energy use, the possible measures that can be taken and the measures already taken and their results. LyondellBasell is one of the companies that take part in LEE. Based on the agreements of LEE linked to ETS, companies make an effort to realise a significant energy saving within their business community, and the government supports them by means of process coordination and financing additional studies. Agentschap NL coordinates the governmental support. LyondellBasell asked Agentschap NL for support in assessing their energy efficiency on site and through the chain of its products. CE Delft has been commissioned by Agentschap NL and LyondellBasell to determine the carbon footprint and cumulative energy demand of the two production sites of LyondellBasell in the Rotterdam area. Purpose of the project is to identify energy saving potential within the PO (propylene oxide), Styrene and tert-butyl alcohol production chains. This study also focuses on those options that require cooperation with other companies or yield savings for more than one company within the PO production chains. The project consisted of two pathways. The first assessed the possibilities of energy saving in the supply chain. Both the Maasvlakte and the Botlek site of LyondellBasell were addressed. The second pathway focused on three product chains: Styrene, Polyols and ETBE/MTBE. This report presents the results of the projects second pathway: the product chains.

  12. Energy saving of side-column DWCs for quaternary separation

    Side-column DWCs (divided wall columns) are proposed for the energy saving from the conventional three-column distillation system. The proposed columns are energy-efficient and compact to be installed in small construction space. The energy requirement, economics and thermodynamic efficiency of the side-column DWCs are evaluated and compared with the conventional system. Two example processes, the BTX and aliphatic compound mixture processes, are utilized for the evaluation. The heating and cooling duties of the side-rectifier DWC for the BTX process are 8.5% and 9.1% less than the conventional system, respectively. Those of the side-stripper DWC for the aliphatic compound mixture process are 10.2% and 10.8% less, respectively. The economic evaluation indicates that both side-column DWCs require slightly more investment cost than the conventional system, but their utility costs are 6% and 12.9% less than the conventional system for the BTX and aliphatic compound mixture processes, respectively. While the thermodynamic efficiency of the BTX process is 0.4% point higher than the conventional system, the efficiency of the aliphatic compound mixture process is 0.3% point lower. The characteristic of the side-column DWCs is explained to improve the column design, and the operational difficulty is examined to indicate the improvement from the existing DWC. - Highlights: • Side-column DWC processes quaternary mixture. • Single column construction is available. • Energy savings between 8.5% and 10.8% are yielded. • Utility cost savings are 6% and 12.9%. • Commercially proven DWC is utilized

  13. Annual Energy Usage Reduction and Cost Savings of a School: End-Use Energy Analysis

    Aiman Roslizar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are among the largest consumers of energy. Part of the energy is wasted due to the habits of users and equipment conditions. A solution to this problem is efficient energy usage. To this end, an energy audit can be conducted to assess the energy efficiency. This study aims to analyze the energy usage of a primary school and identify the potential energy reductions and cost savings. A preliminary audit was conducted, and several energy conservation measures were proposed. The energy conservation measures, with reference to the MS1525:2007 standard, were modelled to identify the potential energy reduction and cost savings. It was found that the school’s usage of electricity exceeded its need, incurring an excess expenditure of RM 2947.42. From the lighting system alone, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction of 5489.06 kWh, which gives a cost saving of RM 2282.52 via the improvement of lighting system design and its operating hours. Overall, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction and cost saving of 20.7% when the energy conservation measures are earnestly implemented. The previous energy intensity of the school was found to be 50.6 kWh/m2/year, but can theoretically be reduced to 40.19 kWh/mm2/year.

  14. Energy saving concepts for existing blocks of flats. Kerrostalojen energiakorjauskonseptit; Loppuraportti

    Erkioe, E.; Raiko, E.; Suomi, U. (Rakennus-Ekono Oy, Espoo (Finland))

    1993-01-01

    The project studied the measures and their combinations with which consumption levels of 75% and 50% compared with the present level are achieved, that is, whether it is possible and what means are used to save up 25% and 50%. The study put emphasis on a target of 50%. Energy saving alternative refurbishing programmes, were drawn out for example blocks of flats built in the 1950's and 1960's. The report introduces summary of energy saving concepts, conclusions, recommendations and needs to develop products. The other report of project introduces particularly both individual energy saving methods and refurbishing concepts The main result of the study is that when refurbishing existing blocks of flats it is possible to reduce their energy consumption by as much as 30 - 50% with energy saving measures available. Significant savings can be achieved only if refurbishing measures are sufficiently extensive and energy efficient. Refurbishing of the building envelope should include at least retrofitting of all windows, doors and external walls using energy efficient solutions. Improvements in HVAC systems should include, for example, heat recovery of exhaust air. Modification of heat control to correspond to lower consumption levels must be carried out along with all energy saving measures. Possibilities to carry out energy savings can be improved by developing energy saving solutions. Especially must be developed window solutions, heat recovery of exhaust air and financing of energy savings

  15. Energy efficiency: a source of savings; a priority objective

    Energy efficiency is defined as consumption of less energy whilst delivering the same service. Significant progress has been made through the impact of technology, price increases and awareness of waste. Too often viewed as a constraint, energy efficiency nonetheless constitutes the leading potential source of domestic energy for the 2020 goal. Energy efficiency is or will be (depending on the will of the stakeholders, public authorities and society as a whole) a key market for the future and a pathway to creative innovation. Everything is pointing in that direction: the obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions fourfold, the new European Directive on Energy Efficiency to be incorporated, the expected increase in energy prices, the presence in France of industry leaders and of a small-scale but important industry in this sector. The goals in energy efficiency entail: - at Community level, that the objective of 20% energy savings for the 2020 goal becomes binding; - at national level, that public policies for energy efficiency are part of a long-term vision, based on the achievements of the Grenelle Environment Forum and avoid sending out any wrong signals which might adversely affect progress. The ESEC proposals are built around the following four themes: - (residential and service sector) buildings: Make energy efficiency into a real sector and a new opportunity 'work together', Optimise tools and regulations, Be innovative in terms of financial support; - fuel poverty; - industry and agriculture; - the particular situation of the overseas departments

  16. Energy saving potential of energy services - experimentation on the life cycle of energy conversion equipment

    Energy efficiency services are growing in Europe but their role is still limited. In order to evaluate the potential, we focused first of all on policy, economical and environmental mechanisms that support their development. European natural gas and electricity markets, that are now almost wholly de-regulated, are analysed and compared to their historical structure. By introducing uncertainty on energy prices, this new deal translates better the real energy costs. Energy performance contracts (EPC) limit the impact of these uncertainties on the customer energy bills by guaranteeing a financial result. As a result of the modelling of these contracts, namely operation and maintenance ones, we prove that they transfer technical and financial risks from building owners to energy service companies (ESCO) making energy saving measures easier and less expensive at the same time. These contracts are relatively widespread for heating or compressed-air processes but remain marginal for air-conditioning systems. So new methods were needed to guarantee on the long terms the efficiency of air-conditioning systems demand (1) to master the process and its performances and (2) to be able to determine precisely the energy saving potential and its realisation costs. A detailed energy audit is thus necessary for which we propose a guidance. Conclusions of audits carried out prove that energy saving potential is mainly located in equipment management and control. These optimizations are not always carried out because of a lack of contractual incentive and due to the weaknesses of audit methods. Through the involvement of an independent expert, the mandatory and regular inspection of air-conditioning systems may allow to verify and guide such practices. A three-step analysis procedure has been developed in order to maximize the inspection potential and to get higher benefits from service contracts. (author)

  17. Energy saving certificates. Gear up for three years... and more

    As the third period of Energy Saving Certificates (EEC) enter their third period, a first article comments the evolutions of the principles and modalities of this arrangement under the influence of the directive on energy efficiency, and how the involved actors cope with these evolutions. The main differences with the previous period are presented. They concern energy providers and eligible bodies, the level of 'cumac' KWh (cumac stands for cumulated and actualised), controls and sanctions, eligible operations, and modalities. A second article describes how the arrangement has been simplified by means of a declarative system, and outlines that the control has been strengthened and may lead to heavy sanctions. The next articles comment the consequences for the building sector, notably for thermal insulation, the implications for communities (notably for the development of the use of LEDs for public lighting and for heat networks), for the transport sector (fuel dealers, good transport optimisation programs, fossil energy saving in logistic and mobility programs), and for the agriculture sector. Some key figures related to the second period (January 2011 - December 2014) are given: number of supplied cumac KWh, distribution of EECs among sectors, evolution of the weighted monthly average price of EECs

  18. Primary energy savings using heat storage for biomass heating systems

    Mitrović Dejan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available District heating is an efficient way to provide heat to residential, tertiary and industrial users. The heat storage unit is an insulated water tank that absorbs surplus heat from the boiler. The stored heat in the heat storage unit makes it possible to heat even when the boiler is not working, thus increasing the heating efficiency. In order to save primary energy (fuel, the boiler operates on nominal load every time it is in operation (for the purpose of this research. The aim of this paper is to analyze the water temperature variation in the heat storage, depending on the heat load and the heat storage volume. Heat load is calculated for three reference days, with average daily temperatures from -5 to 5°C. The primary energy savings are also calculated for those days in the case of using heat storage in district heating.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33051: The concept of sustainable energy supply of settlements with energy efficient buildings

  19. Individual energy savings for individual flats in blocks of flats

    Nielsen, Anker; Rose, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    is distributed on the individual flats. Today, most blocks of flats have individual heat meters to save energy and to ensure a fair distribution of the cost. If all flats have the same indoor temperature, the distribution is correct. In practice, the inhabitants of the different flats maintain......It is well known that similar flats in a block do not have the same energy demand. Part of the explanation for this is the location of the flat in the building, e.g. on the top floor, at the house end or in the middle of the building. It is possible to take this into account when the heating bill...... different indoor temperatures. The result is that heat flows between individual flats. This decreases the energy consumption in the flat where the owner maintains a lower temperature. The neighbouring flats will have higher energy consumption. Calculations were performed for Danish blocks of flats from 1920...

  20. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Hermansen, John E. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); Sagisaka, Masayuki [Institute of Science for Safety and Sustainability, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts to 15 million barrels of oil a year. Whether the saving benefits could be fully realized, however, depends on how well the potential land use change resulting from an expansion of ethanol production is managed. The results presented serve as a useful guidance to formulate strategies that enable optimum utilization of biomass as an energy source. (author)

  1. Measured energy savings from the application of reflective roofsin 2 small non-residential buildings

    Akbari, Hashem

    2003-01-14

    Energy use and environmental parameters were monitored in two small (14.9 m{sup 2}) non-residential buildings during the summer of 2000. The buildings were initially monitored for about 1 1/2 months to establish a base condition. The roofs of the buildings were then painted with a white coating and the monitoring was continued. The original solar reflectivities of the roofs were about 26%; after the application of roof coatings the reflectivities increased to about 72%. The monitored electricity savings were about 0.5kWh per day (33 Wh/m2 per day). The estimated annual savings are about 125kWh per year (8.4 kWh/m2); at a cost of $0.1/kWh, savings are about $0.86/m2 per year. Obviously, it costs significantly more than this amount to coat the roofs with reflective coating, particularly because of the remote locations of these buildings. However, since the prefabricated roofs are already painted green at the factory, painting them a white (reflective) color would bring no additional cost. Hence, a reflective roof saves energy at no incremental cost.

  2. Primary energy savings using heat storage for biomass heating systems

    Mitrović Dejan M.; Janevski Jelena N.; Laković Mirjana S.

    2012-01-01

    District heating is an efficient way to provide heat to residential, tertiary and industrial users. The heat storage unit is an insulated water tank that absorbs surplus heat from the boiler. The stored heat in the heat storage unit makes it possible to heat even when the boiler is not working, thus increasing the heating efficiency. In order to save primary energy (fuel), the boiler operates on nominal load every time it is in operation (for the purpose of this research). The aim of th...

  3. French people, energy transition, and energy savings. IFOP for Energie Perspective

    After a presentation of the adopted methodology, this report presents under the form of tables, and comments the results of a survey performed on the perception and relationship French people have on and with energy transition and energy savings. Different aspects have been addressed and assessed by this survey: confidence in local authorities, recognition of energy transition, sensitivity of the issue of energy transition, an example of a local authority communication about energy issues, notoriety of subsidies and primes awarded by the local authority for energy-related works, assessment of well-being in housing, housing occupation status, intention to perform energy-related renovation works in the housing, choice between a large national group or a local company to perform these works

  4. Energy Saving Multipath Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Yash Arora

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Wireless sensor networks have many characteristics such as limited energy resources, low bandwidth and unreliable links. Due to these characteristics there are many challenges in the design of sensor networks. Routing in WSN is very challenging task. Multipath establishes several path for data transmission rather than single path. Due to this data delivery is high. In this paper, we propose energy saving multipath routing protocol (ESMRP. ESMRP make use of load balancing algorithm to transfer the data. ESMRP calculates node strength to discover its next best hop. Our protocol uses two versions, in the first version, data is transmitted through single path, if some path failure occurs or discovered path node strength goes below 15% of alternative path node strength then it will switch to next alternative path. In the second version of ESMRP, message is split into various segments and some correction codes are added to these segments. After that these segments are transmitted across multiple paths. Simulation results shows that the proposed protocol is more energy saving than previous protocol in providing efficient resource utilization.

  5. SWEEP - Save Water and Energy Education Program; FINAL

    The objective of this study was to develop, monitor, analyze, and report on an integrated resource-conservation program highlighting efficient residential appliances and fixtures. The sites of study were 50 homes in two water-constrained communities located in Oregon. The program was designed to maximize water savings to these communities and to serve as a model for other communities seeking an integrated approach to energy and water resource efficiency. The program included the installation and in-place evaluation of energy- and water-efficient devices including the following: horizontal axis clothes washers (and the matching clothes dryers), resource-efficient dishwashers, an innovative dual flush low-flow toilet, low-flow showerheads, and faucet aerators. The significance of this activity lies in its integrated approach and unique metering evaluation of individual end-use, aggregated residential total use, and system-wide energy and water benefits

  6. Strategies for Power/Energy Saving in Distribution Networks

    GRIGORAS, G.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The power/energy losses reduction in distribution systems is an important issue during planning and operation, with important technical and economical implications. Thus, the energy losses minimization implies not only the technical improvement of the network, through its renewal with the introduction of the technological innovations in the equipment and circuit components as well as the optimal planning of the design and development of the network, but also requires the use of the methods and software tools to facilitate the operation process. The paper presents a strategy for power/energy saving which replacement of the 6 kV voltage level with 20 kV voltage level in correlation with the extent of using efficient transformers. In this line, different urban distribution networks were analyzed using fuzzy techniques.

  7. Energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial equipment: Additional opportunities

    Rosenquist, Greg; McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, Jim

    2004-08-02

    Energy efficiency standards set minimum levels of energy efficiency that must be met by new products. Depending on the dynamics of the market and the level of the standard, the effect on the market for a given product may be small, moderate, or large. Energy efficiency standards address a number of market failures that exist in the buildings sector. Decisions about efficiency levels often are made by people who will not be responsible for the energy bill, such as landlords or developers of commercial buildings. Many buildings are occupied for their entire lives by very temporary owners or renters, each unwilling to make long-term investments that would mostly reward subsequent users. And sometimes what looks like apathy about efficiency merely reflects inadequate information or time invested to evaluate it. In addition to these sector-specific market failures, energy efficiency standards address the endemic failure of energy prices to incorporate externalities. In the U.S., energy efficiency standards for consumer products were first implemented in California in 1977. National standards became effective starting in 1988. By the end of 2001, national standards were in effect for over a dozen residential appliances, as well as for a number of commercial sector products. Updated standards will take effect in the next few years for several products. Outside the U.S., over 30 countries have adopted minimum energy performance standards. Technologies and markets are dynamic, and additional opportunities to improve energy efficiency exist. There are two main avenues for extending energy efficiency standards. One is upgrading standards that already exist for specific products. The other is adopting standards for products that are not covered by existing standards. In the absence of new and upgraded energy efficiency standards, it is likely that many new products will enter the stock with lower levels of energy efficiency than would otherwise be the case. Once in the stock

  8. Proceedings of V International Conference of Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education. CIER 2007. International Workshop of Eolic Energy

    The CD-ROM presents papers submitted to the International Conference of Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education. CIER 2007, held in Havana, Cuba, on May 22-25, 2007. The purpose of the CIER 2007 are to offer an opportunity to engineers, investigators, academic, makers and specialists in the energy topic from all over the world to exchange experiences, to share their successes and to discuss their focuses to future in the topic of the energy renewable, the energy saving, the energy efficiency and the energy education. The objective of the International Workshop of Eolic Energy is in advancing in the dialogue international on the systems in question and their applications around the world, you they analyzed the perspectives of possible programs of cooperation in this field and their use in Cuba

  9. Energy savings in drastic climate change policy scenarios

    This paper reports a climate change policy scenario compatible with long-term sustainable objectives set at EU level (6th Environment Action Plan). By setting ambitious targets for GHG emissions reduction by 2030, this normative scenario relies on market-based instruments and flexible mechanisms. The integrated policy that is simulated (i.e. addressing energy, transport, agriculture and environmental impacts) constitutes a key outlook for the next 5-year report of the European Environment Agency (EEA). This scenario highlights what it would take to drastically curb EU GHG emissions and how much it might cost. The findings show that such a 'deep reduction' climate policy could work as a powerful catalyst for (1) substantial energy savings, and (2) promoting sustainable energy systems in the long term. The implications of this policy lever on the energy system are many-fold indeed, e.g. a substantial limitation of total energy demand or significant shifts towards energy and environment-friendly technologies on the supply side. Clear and transparent price signals, which are associated with market-based instruments, appear to be a key factor ensuring sufficient visibility for capital investment in energy efficient and environment-friendly options. Finally it is suggested that market-based policy options, which are prone to lead to win-win situations and are of particular interest from an integrated policy-making perspective, would also significantly benefit from an enhanced energy policy framework

  10. Energy saving and emission reduction of China's urban district heating

    China's carbon dioxide (CO2) emission ranks highest in the world. China is committed to reduce its CO2 emission by 40% to 45% from the 2005 levels by 2020. To fulfill the target, China's CO2 emission reduction must exceed 6995 million tons. Energy consumption and CO2 emission of China's urban district heating (UDH) are increasing. The current policy implemented to improve UDH focuses on replacing coal with natural gas to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emission to some extent. This paper proposes that heat pump heating (HPH) could serve as a replacement for UDH to help realize energy-saving and emission-reduction goals to a greater extent. The paper also analyzes the impact of this replacement on the heating and power generation sectors. The results show that replacing coal-based UDH with HPH decreases energy consumption and CO2 emission by 43% in the heating sector. In the power generation sector, the efficiency of power generation at the valley electricity time increases by 0.512%, and the ratio of peak–valley difference decreases by 16.5%. The decreases in CO2 emission from the heating and power generation sectors cumulatively account for 5.55% of China's total CO2 emission reduction target in 2020. - Highlights: ► Replacing urban district heating with heat pump heating. ► Impact of heat pump heating on heating and power generation sectors. ► Potential of energy saving and emission reduction for heat pump heating. ► China should adjust current urban heating strategy

  11. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities forpetroleum refineries

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-02-15

    The petroleum refining industry in the United States is the largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually any economic sector,including the transport sector and the chemical industry. The industry operates 146 refineries (as of January 2004) around the country,employing over 65,000 employees. The refining industry produces a mix of products with a total value exceeding $151 billion. Refineries spend typically 50 percent of cash operating costs (i.e., excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy a major cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction. Energy use is also a major source of emissions in the refinery industry making energy efficiency improvement an attractive opportunity to reduce emissions and operating costs. Voluntary government programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. ENERGY STAR (R), a voluntary program managed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, stresses the need for strong and strategic corporate energy management programs. ENERGY STAR provides energy management tools and strategies for successful corporate energy management programs. This Energy Guide describes research conducted to support ENERGY STAR and its work with the petroleum refining industry.This research provides information on potential energy efficiency opportunities for petroleum refineries. This Energy Guide introduces energy efficiency opportunities available for petroleum refineries. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure, and production of the refining industry and the energy used in the refining and conversion processes. Specific energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The Energy Guide draws upon the experiences with energy efficiency measures of petroleum refineries worldwide

  12. Combining Activity Recognition and AI Planning for Energy-Saving Offices

    Georgievski, Ilche; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Aiello, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Energy-saving offices require autonomous and optimised control of integrated devices and appliances with the objective of saving energy while the occupant comfort and productivity are preserved. We propose an approach that analyses and controls an office space and accounts for the objectives of energy-saving offices. The approach considers ontology-based occupant activity recognition using simple sensors to process the context information, and employs Artificial Intelligence planning to contr...

  13. Estimating the cost savings and avoided CO2 emissions in Brazil by implementing energy efficient policies

    Investing more in renewable energy sources and using this in a rational and efficient way is vital for the sustainable growth of world. Energy efficiency (EE) will play an increasingly important role in future generations. The aim of this work is to estimate how much the PNEf (National Plan for Energy Efficiency) launched by the Brazilian government in 2011 will save over the next 5 years by avoiding the construction of additional power plants, as well as the amount of the CO2 emission. The marginal operating cost is computed for medium term planning of the dispatching of power plants in the hydro-thermal system using Stochastic Dynamic Dual Programming, after incorporating stochastic energy efficiencies into the demand for electricity. We demonstrate that even for a modest improvement in energy efficiency (<1% per year), the savings over the next 5 years range from R$ 237 million in the conservative scenario to R$ 268 million in the optimistic scenario. By comparison the new Belo Monte hydro-electric plant will cost R$ 26 billion to be repaid over a 30 year period (i.e. R$ 867 million in 5 years). So in Brazil EE policies are preferable to building a new power plant. - Highlights: • It is preferable to invest in energy efficiency than to construct a big power plant. • An increase of energy efficiency policies would reduce the operating cost in Brazil. • We have a great reduction of CO2eq emissions by means of energy efficiency policies

  14. Program of energy saving measures at NIKHEF-MEA

    In this report a package of energy-saving measures for NIKHEF-MEA are presented. The proposed measures have reference to the raising, in relatively short time, of the modulation frequency to the desired value when, in behalf of maintenance or tuning the repetition frequency is set low. A second group of measures consists in the limitation of the energy consumption of the cooling systems at MEA and AFBU. At MEA important economizations can be achieved by the limitation of the heat-leaching to outside when the accelerator is out of operation while at AFBU the tuning of the r.p.m. of the circulation pumps in the cooling systems seems to be attractive. As least measure of the package the power control of NIKHEF is incorporated. This should allow for exploiting the available power as economical as possible and for keeping the costs for electricity supply as low as possible. 4 tabs

  15. Potential for energy savings in old and new auto engines

    Reitz, John R.

    1985-11-01

    This paper disucsses the potential for energy savings in the transportation sector through the use of both improved and entirely new automotive engines. Although spark-ignition and diesel internal combustion engines will remain the dominant choices for passenger-car use throughout the rest of this century, improved versions of these engines (lean-burn, low-friction spark-ignition and adiabatic, low-friction diesel engines) could, in the long term, provide a 20-30 percent improvement in fuel economy over what is currently available. The use of new materials, and modifications to both vehicle structure and vehicle transmissions may yield further improvements. Over a longer time frame, the introduction of the high-temperature gas-turbine engine and the use of new synfuels may provide further opportunities for energy conservation.

  16. Energy Savings of Vending Machine; Jido hanbaiki no sho enerugi

    Kimura, Yukio. [FUJI Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-05-28

    By the end of 1997, the number of cending machines used in Japan reached about 5.5 million units. Vending machines areindispensable, playing an important role in our daily lives. Various environmental problems have made the world pay more attention to the vending machine industry. We, the industry, therefore have been struggling with these problems from many angles. For the saving energy project, we have focused on insulation and air-tightness improvement, fan motor control, fluorescent light inverter control and so forth. The goal set by Japan Vending Machine Manufacturers Association is, by 2001, to cut the level of electric power consumption from 1996 by 15%. This report focuses on the diffused units of vending machines in Japan, and concrete measures which we, Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., have taken, and will be taking, for the reduction of energy consumption. (author)

  17. Considerations for Emerging Markets for Energy Savings Certificates

    Friedman, Barry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barbose, Galen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Early experiences with energy savings certificates (ESCs) have revealed both their merit and the challenges associated with them. In the United States, there has been little activity to date, so any lessons must be drawn from experiences in Italy, the United Kingdom (UK), France, and elsewhere. The staying power of European examples, particularly in Italy, demonstrates that ESCs can help initiate more efficiency projects. Although a robust market for renewable energy certificates (RECs) has emerged in both the voluntary and policy compliance contexts in the United States, ESCs have yet to gain significant traction. This report looks at the opportunity presented by ESCs, the unique challenges they bring, a comparison with RECs that can inform expectations about ESC market development, and the solutions and best practices early ESC market experience have demonstrated. It also examines whether there are real market barriers that have kept ESCs from being adopted and what structural features are necessary to develop effective trading programs.

  18. The role of CSR in promoting companies’ energy-saving actions in two Asian cities

    In Asian developing countries, energy saving has become a crucial issue in sustainable development. However, in countries that possess weak government regulations and market mechanisms, industries are expected to save energy voluntarily. Therefore, corporate social responsibility (CSR) can serve as an important incentive to encourage companies to take voluntary actions. In this paper, we analyze CSR recognition and energy-saving actions taken by companies located in two Asian cities. The results of a questionnaire survey revealed that a positive relation exists between CSR recognition and energy saving. In developing countries, CSR develops based on concerns expressed by local cultures and communities. This indicates that the positive relationships that exist between CSR and energy-saving actions reflect the social norms of these communities. The results suggest that policies that encourage companies to enhance their CSR activities in society can serve as effective incentives to encourage energy-saving actions. - Highlights: • In Asian cities, energy saving has become a crucial issue in sustainable development. • CSR can serve as an important incentive to take voluntary energy saving actions. • The survey revealed a positive relation between CSR and energy saving. • The policies enhancing their CSR activities in society can serve as effective incentives

  19. Measured Energy Savings from the Application of Reflective Roofs in 3 AT and T Regeneration Buildings

    Akbari, Hashen; Rainer, Leo

    2000-11-01

    Energy use and environmental parameters were monitored in three AT and T regeneration buildings during the summer of 2000. These buildings are constructed with concrete and are about 14.9 m2 (160 f2; 10x16 ft)in size. The buildings were initially monitored for about 1 1/2 months to establish a base condition. Then, the roofs of the buildings were painted with a white coating and the monitoring was continued. The original roof reflectances were about 26 percent; after the application of roof coatings the reflectivities increased to about 72 percent. In two of these buildings, we monitored savings of about 0.5kWh per day (8.6 kWh/m2 [0.8 kWh/ft2]). The third building showed a reduction in air-conditioning energy use of about 13kWh per day. These savings probably resulted from the differences in the performance (EER) of the two dissimilar AC units in this building. The estimated annual savings for two of the buildings are about 125kWh per year; at a cost of dollar 0.1/kWh, savings are about dollar 12.5 per year. Obviously, it costs significantly more than this amount to coat the roofs with reflective coating, particularly because of the remote location of the buildings. However, since the prefabricated roofs are already painted green at the factory, painting them with white (reflective) color would bring no additional cost. Hence the payback time for having reflective roofs is nil, and the reflective roofs save an accumulated 370kWh over 30 years of the life of the roof.

  20. Classroom HVAC: Improving ventilation and saving energy -- field study plan

    Apte, Michael G.; Faulkner, David; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2004-10-14

    The primary goals of this research effort are to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate a very practical HVAC system for classrooms that consistently provides classrooms (CRs) with the quantity of ventilation in current minimum standards, while saving energy, and reducing HVAC-related noise levels. This research is motivated by the public benefits of energy efficiency, evidence that many CRs are under-ventilated, and public concerns about indoor environmental quality in CRs. This document provides a summary of the detailed plans developed for the field study that will take place in 2005 to evaluate the energy and IAQ performance of a new classroom HVAC technology. The field study will include measurements of HVAC energy use, ventilation rates, and IEQ conditions in 10 classrooms with the new HVAC technology and in six control classrooms with a standard HVAC system. Energy use and many IEQ parameters will be monitored continuously, while other IEQ measurements will be will be performed seasonally. Continuously monitored data will be remotely accessed via a LonWorks network. Instrument calibration plans that vary with the type of instrumentation used are established. Statistical tests will be employed to compare energy use and IEQ conditions with the new and standard HVAC systems. Strengths of this study plan include the collection of real time data for a full school year, the use of high quality instrumentation, the incorporation of many quality control measures, and the extensive collaborations with industry that limit costs to the sponsors.

  1. Regional Super ESPC Saves Energy and Dollars at NASA's Johnson Space Center

    This case study about energy saving performance contacts (ESPCs) presents an overview of how the NASA's Johnson Space Flight Center established an ESPC contract and the benefits derived from it. The Federal Energy Management Program instituted these special contracts to help federal agencies finance energy-saving projects at their facilities

  2. Energy Savings Calculation Methods under Article 7 of the Energy Efficiency Directive

    LABANCA NICOLA; BERTOLDI PAOLO

    2015-01-01

    The present report aims to provide an overview of the main issues at stake with the calculation methods for energy savings generated by measures implemented by EU Member States under Article 7 of the Directive 2012/27/EU on Energy Efficiency (EED).

  3. Determining Energy Saving Behavior and Energy Awareness of Secondary School Students According to Socio-Demographic Characteristics

    Aktamis, Hilal

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine energy saving behavior and energy awareness of secondary school students and the effects of socio-demographic characteristics (gender, residential area and grade level) on energy saving and energy awareness. The research is a survey model with an approach that aims to describe the current status. A total of…

  4. Spending to save

    Larsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    the energy distribution companies meet their overall saving obligation, the net savings impact are about a third of the savings reported by the obligated parties. Further it was found that while energy savings in the public and business sector have a high net impact, some subsidies given under the EEO......In 2012 Ea Energy Analyses, NIRAS, and Viegand & Maagøe, conducted the second evaluation of the Danish Energy Efficiency Obligation (EEO). The overall purpose of the evaluation was to assess the effectiveness of the EEO framework and, if relevant, provide recommendations for adjustments of the EEO...... framework and guidelines for the following EEO period, i.e. 2013-2020. This paper focuses on the net savings impact and describes the evaluation method used to determine this. Three complementary analyses are described: 1) An analysis of the additionality of the reported saving, 2) an analysis of the...

  5. Energy saving concepts for existing blocks of flats. Asuinkerrostalojen energiakorjaukset; Mahdollisuudet ja vaihtoehdot

    Erkioe, E.; Raiko, E.; Suomi, U. (Rakennus-Ekono Oy, Espoo (Finland))

    1993-01-01

    The project studied the measures and their combinations with which consumption levels of 75 % and 50 % compared with the present level are achieved, that is, whether it is possible and what means are used to save up 25 % and 50 %. The study put emphasis on a target of 50 % Energy saving alternative refurbishing programmes, were drawn out for example blocks of flats built in the 1950's and 1960's. The report introduces both individual energy saving methods and refurbishing concepts has based on them with conclusions and recommendation. The main result of the study is that when refurbishing existing blocks of flats it is possible to reduce their energy consumption by as much as 30 - 50 % with energy saving measures available. However, actual energy saving at the present energy prices is not adequate to cover all costs caused by energy saving measures taken during refurbishings. On the other hand, expanding retrofitting operations give a good opportunity to improve the energy economy of blocks of flats and to achieve even marked energy saving. About 25 % is possible to save with efficient energy saving measures when refurbishing building envelopes or HVAC systems. Significant savings can be achieved only if refurbishing measures are sufficiently extensive and energy efficient. Refurbishing of the building envelope should include at least retrofitting of all windows, doors and external walls using energy efficient solutions. Improvements in HVAC systems should include, for example, heat recovery of exhaust air. Modification of heat control to correspond to lower consumption levels must be carried out along with all energy saving measures

  6. Energy Consumption and Analysis on Energy Saving Measures at SINOPEC's Large Refineries

    Zhuang Jian; Hou Kaifeng; Yan Chun; Li Zhiqiang

    2007-01-01

    This article sums up the energy consumption of process units and the overall energy consumption of 10 Mt/a class refineries constructed or revamped in recent years.The energy saving measures adopted in design of these refineries are analyzed and discussed.Finally,this article also makes comments and puts forward recommendations on the objectives for energy conservation at refineries jn the future.

  7. Energy Saving: Scaling Network Energy Efficiency Faster than Traffic Growth

    Chen, Y.; Blume, O.; Gati, A.; Capone, A.; Wu, C.-E.; Barth, U.; Marzetta, T.; Zhang, H.; Xu, S.

    2013-01-01

    As the mobile traffic is expected to continue its exponential growth in the near future, energy efficiency has gradually become a must criterion for wireless network design. Three fundamental questions need to be answered before the detailed design could be carried out, namely what energy efficiency

  8. Carbon and energy saving markets in compressed air

    Cipollone, R.

    2015-08-01

    CO2 reduction and fossil fuel saving represent two of the cornerstones of the environmental commitments of all the countries of the world. The first engagement is of a medium to long term type, and unequivocally calls for a new energetic era. The second delays in time the fossil fuel technologies to favour an energetic transition. In order to sustain the two efforts, new immaterial markets have been established in almost all the countries of the world, whose exchanges (purchases and sales) concern CO2 emissions and equivalent fossil fuels that have not been emitted or burned. This paper goes deep inside two aspects not yet exploited: specific CO2 emissions and equivalent fossil fuel burned, as a function of compressed air produced. Reference is made to the current compressor technology, carefully analysing CAGI's (Compressed Air Gas Institute) data and integrating it with the PNUEROP (European Association of manufacturers of compressors, vacuum pumps, pneumatic tools and allied equipment) contribution on the compressor European market. On the base of energy saving estimates that could be put in place, this article also estimates the financial value of the CO2 emissions and fossil fuels avoided.

  9. Blue Line Innovations brochure : Think green, act smart, save energy

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Blue Line Innovations Inc. is working with leading electric utilities and regulatory agencies to provide smart-home technologies to consumers for demand-side management. Their latest product is the PowerCost Monitor, a real-time feedback product that help households understand and reduce the amount of electricity they use. The monitor, which reveals electricity use in real-time by both total and current cost and kilowatt hour, uses wireless encrypted technology to send usage information from an outside meter to an in-home display. The small detector/transmitter can be easily installed to an existing household electro-mechanical utility meter by the homeowner without an electrician or service disruption. Studies have shown that when domestic users are provided with real-time feedback on electricity usage, they can reduce their energy bills by as much as 20 per cent. This in-home measuring and reporting unit helps customers make decisions about changing their usage habits, purchasing electricity-saving light and appliances and conserving energy. In a demonstration project, Hydro-One installed PowerCost Monitors in the homes of Hydro One customers in Ontario in July 2004. The objective was to determine the extent of changes in customer behaviour and reductions in electricity consumption resulting from direct real-time feedback information on electricity consumption. Other demonstration projects have been launched in conjunction with CEA Technologies Inc., Natural Resources Canada, Newfoundland Power and BC hydro to install the monitors in homes on both coasts of Canada. Governments, utilities, communities and individuals are recognizing that saving energy is a critical factor to sustainable development by conserving natural resources and reducing pollution. A list of suggestions for reducing electricity use in lighting, kitchens, laundry and heating and cooling were also presented. 1 fig.

  10. Energy cost saving strategies in distributed power networks

    Tcheukam Alain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study energy cost saving strategies in power networks in presence of prosumers. Three tips are considered: (i distributed power network architecture, (ii peak energy shaving with the integration of prosumers’ contribution, (iii Electric vehicles self-charging by means of prosumers’ production. The proposed distributed power network architecture reduces significantly the transmission costs and can reduce significantly the global energy cost up to 42 percent. Different types of prosumer who use self-charging photovoltaic systems, are able to intelligently buy energy from, or sell it, to the power grid. Therein, prosumers interact in a distributed environment during the purchase or sale of electric power using a double auction with negotiation mechanism. Using a two-step combined learning and optimization scheme, each prosumer can learn its optimal bidding strategy and forecast its energy production, consumption and storage. Our simulation results, conducted for the region of Sicily in Italy, show that the integration of prosumers can reduce peak hour costs up to 19 percent and 6 percent for eligible prosumers with electric vehicles.

  11. Economic benefits of an economizer system: Energy savings and reduced sick leave

    Fisk, William J.; Seppanen, Olli; Faulkner, David; Huang, Joe

    2004-02-01

    This study estimated the health, energy, and economic benefits of an economizer ventilation control system that increases outside air supply during mild weather to save energy. A model of the influence of ventilation rate on airborne transmission of respiratory illnesses was used to extend the limited data relating ventilation rate with illness and sick leave. An energy simulation model calculated ventilation rates and energy use versus time for an office building in Washington, D.C. with fixed minimum outdoor air supply rates, with and without an economizer. Sick leave rates were estimated with the disease transmission model. In the modeled 72-person office building, our analyses indicate that the economizer reduces energy costs by approximately $2000 and, in addition, reduces sick leave. The annual financial benefit of the decrease in sick leave is estimated to be between $6,000 and $16,000. This modeling suggests that economizers are much more cost effective than currently recognized.

  12. Managing Your Energy: An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Identifying Energy Savings in Manufacturing Plants

    Worrell, Ernst; Angelini, Tana; Masanet, Eric

    2010-07-27

    In the United States, industry spends over $100 billion annually to power its manufacturing plants. Companies also spend on maintenance, capital outlay, and energy services. Improving energy efficiency is vital to reduce these costs and increase earnings. Many cost-effective opportunities to reduce energy consumption are available, and this Energy Guide discusses energy-efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be applied over a broad spectrum of companies. Strategies in the guide address hot water and steam, compressed air, pumps, motors, fans, lighting, refrigeration, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. This guide includes descriptions of expected energy and cost savings, based on real-world applications, typical payback periods, and references to more detailed information. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers achieve cost-effective energy reductions while maintaining product quality. Further research on the economics of all measures--as well as on their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  13. The strategy of construction equipment energy-saving control

    Rui QU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To improve building energy-saving equipment control gets more and more attention. In order to make the room have a good comfort level, this paper designed a system to control temperature and humidity of variable air volume air conditioning, by a new control method of VAV air conditioning self-adaption decoupling to decouple temperature and humidity, combining the fuzzy PID control and the RBF neural network decoupling control method, improved the control effect that inhibit the coupling of temperature and humidity. Simulation results show that: the neural network decoupling control method has a strong decoupling control capability for the strong coupling lead to control issues like accuracy is not high and the control performance is not good in the multi-variable control system, stable state and dynamic performance have been improved and the control effect of the air-conditioning systems and indoor air quality have improved.

  14. Design of White LED Energy-saving Street Lamp

    CHEN Huan-jie; FENG Jin-yuan

    2008-01-01

    An energy-saving light-emitting-diode(LED) street lamp was conducted. Based on the simulation by optical software TracePro, a physical street lamp system including 600 white LEDs was achieved. This system was operated under a constant current of 20mA for each unit, and the electric power consumption of the whole lamp was only 42W. Experimental results demonstrated that the total average illuminance reached 8.8lx and the overall uniformity was 0.370 for a 30-m-long and 10-m-wide test area at a height of 8m, which is fully acceptable for the current standard for sub-main road.

  15. Strategic design of cost savings guarantee in energy performance contracting under uncertainty

    Highlights: • A methodology is proposed to assist Energy Service Companies to maintain competitiveness in winning bids. • Uncertainties within the energy cost savings are modeled stochastically using the Monte-Carlo simulation. • A strategic energy savings guarantee design curve is derived, where all points return as appropriate guarantees. • A campus case is presented to demonstrate the applicability for finding appropriate guaranteed savings value. - Abstract: Among the key barriers to profit in Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) are uncertainties about attaining the realized energy cost savings and potential disputes over the guaranteed cost savings. In this paper, a methodology has been proposed to assist the Energy Service Company (ESCO): (1) to evaluate the risk threshold if the guarantee has already been made, and (2) to determine the guarantee design, if the guarantee has not been made yet, that not only promises the ESCO’s profitability from EPC but also maintains its competitiveness to win the bid. Uncertainties within the energy cost savings are modeled stochastically using Monte-Carlo simulation, taking both the energy price fluctuation and the facility performance variability into account. Based on that, a strategic energy savings guarantee design curve is derived, that all the points on it would return as appropriate guarantees. Finally, a campus case is presented to demonstrate the applicability for finding the appropriate guaranteed savings value. This method is also worth popularizing in similar performance-based projects

  16. Energy Savers: Tips for Saving Energy and Money at Home

    The Department of Energy of the United States of America works to guarantee provisions of safe energy, reliable and economically accessible to support to one developing economy and to protect the atmosphere. These suggestions and ideas to increase the energy efficiency in their house represent simple ways in which our citizens can contribute to preserve the atmosphere at world-wide level, to reduce the level of contamination of the air and to reserve our natural resources for future generations.[Spanish] El Departamento de Energa de los Estados Unidos de America trabaja para garantizar suministros de energa seguros, confiables y econmicamente accesibles para apoyar a una economa en desarrollo y proteger el medio ambiente. Estas sugerencias e ideas para aumentar la eficiencia energetica en su casa representan maneras sencillas en que nuestros ciudadanos pueden contribuir a preservar el medio ambiente a nivel mundial, a reducir el nivel de contaminacin del aire y a reservar nuestros recursos naturales para las generaciones futuras

  17. Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 Schools -- 50% Energy Savings

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2013-02-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-K12) (ASHRAE et al. 2011a). The AEDG-K12 provides recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in K-12 schools over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-K12 was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  18. Thermodynamic Analysis, Simulation and Optimization on Energy Savings of Ideal Internal Thermally Coupled Distillation Columns

    刘兴高; 马龙华; 钱积新

    2000-01-01

    Internal thermally coupled distillation columns (ITCDIC) are the frontier of distillation energy saving research. In this paper, a novel energy saving model of ideal ITCDIC and a simulation algorithm are presented,upon which a series of comparative studies on energy savings with conventional distillation columns are carried out. Furthermore, we present an optimization model of ideal ITCDIC, which can be used to achieve the maximum energy saving and find the optimal design parameters directly. The binary system of benzene-toluene is adopted for the illustrative example of simulation and optimization. The results show that the maximum energy saving of ITCDIC is 52.25% (compared with energy consumption of conventional distillation under the minimum reflux ratio operation); the optimal design parameters are obtained, where the rectifying section pressure and the feed thermal condition are Pr=0.3006 MPa and q=0.5107 respectively.

  19. Energy consumption, energy savings, and emission analysis in Malaysian office buildings

    This paper is concerned with the estimation of energy use in office buildings in Malaysia and with the energy use of major equipment. Energy intensity (EI) - a measure of a building's energy performance - is estimated for Malaysia and compared with a number of selected countries. Air conditioners are shown to be the major energy users (57%) in office buildings, followed by lighting (19%), lifts and pumps (18%) and other equipment (6%). It is estimated that 77,569 MWh of energy can be saved and a huge reduction of emissions achieved through the application of advance glazing, compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), insulation, housekeeping, and by raising thermostat set point temperature of air conditioners, and reducing EI. It is also estimated that a very substantial amount of energy can be saved by making use of energy-efficient motors in building systems with different motor loading percentages. Finally, it can be shown that the use of variable speed drives (VSDs) and energy-efficient motors leads to substantial energy savings and an enormous reduction in emissions.

  20. Energy Savings Calculations for Heat Island Reduction Strategies in Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2000-03-01

    rate-payers from the combined direct and indirect effects of HIR strategies. Additionally, peak power avoidance is estimated at 133 MW and the reduction in annual carbon emissions at 41 kt. In Sacramento, the potential annual energy savings is estimated at $26M, with an avoidance of 486 MW in peak power and a reduction in annual carbon of 92 kt. In Salt Lake City, the potential annual energy savings is estimated at $4M, with an avoidance of 85 MW in peak power and a reduction in annual carbon of 20 kt.

  1. Where to place the saving obligation: Energy end-users or suppliers?

    Obligations to save energy differentiate, among other features, by obliged parties. These are obligations on energy suppliers and energy end-users. Supplier obligations have been introduced in North America, Europe and Australia. Under supplier obligations energy suppliers have to comply with mandatory energy saving targets and thus they implement (directly or via third parties) energy efficiency projects on their clients’ premises, or they decide to trade certified project savings if this option is envisaged by their obligation scheme. In several emerging schemes such as the UK Carbon Reduction Commitment (CRC) Energy Efficiency Scheme, the Tokyo Emission Trading Scheme or the Perform Achieve and Trade (PAT) Scheme in India, the obligation to reduce energy consumption is placed on large end-users directly and end-users are allowed to trade emissions allowances or energy saving certificates. The paper starts with presenting these two conceptually different ways for introducing energy saving obligations. Then it analyses advantages and disadvantages of end-users obligations compared to suppliers obligations. The preliminary conclusion of the paper is that supplier obligations seem to be well-suited for the residential sector, but end-user saving obligations may offer advantages when it comes to the industrial and commercial sectors. - Highlights: • We present different ways for introducing energy saving obligations. • We analyse energy end-users obligations vs. supplier obligations. • Supplier obligations seem to be well-suited for the residential sector. • End-user obligations offer advantages in the industrial and commercial sectors

  2. The tax credit in favor of the renewable energies and the energy savings bear fruits

    This document presents in the first part the positive economical results obtained by the implementing in January 2005, of a tax credit majored of 40% in favor of equipments using a renewable energy source. The second part is devoted to other financial incentives in the domain of energy saving and renewable energies uses. Specifications concerning the equipments and legal aspects are presented. (A.L.B.)

  3. Developing Information on Energy Savings and Associated Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficient Emerging Technologies Applicable in California

    Xu, Tengfang; Slaa, Jan Willem; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-12-15

    California Energy Commission (CEC) and managed by California Institute for Energy and Environment (CIEE). The project purpose is to characterize energy savings, technology costs, market potential, and economic viability of newly selected technologies applicable to California. In this report, LBNL first performed technology reviews to identify new or under-utilized technologies that could offer potential in improving energy efficiency and additional benefits to California industries as well as in the U.S. industries, followed by detailed technology assessment on each targeted technology, with a focus on California applications. A total of eleven emerging or underutilized technologies applicable to California were selected and characterized with detailed information in this report. The outcomes essentially include a multi-page summary profile for each of the 11 emerging or underutilized technologies applicable to California industries, based on the formats used in the technology characterization reports (Xu et al. 2010; Martin et al. 2000).

  4. Walmart - Saving Energy, Saving Money Through Comprehensive Retrofits, Commercial Building Energy Efficiency (Fact Sheet); Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    None

    2015-03-01

    Walmart partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2009 to develop and demonstrate energy retrofits for existing buildings. The goal was to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% versus ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007, as part of DOE's Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program. The project presented here, the retrofit of a 213,000 square foot store in Centennial, Colorado, withefficiency measures across multiple building systems, is part of Walmart's ongoing environmental sustainability program, which originated in 2005.

  5. Energy-saving generation dispatch toward a sustainable electric power industry in China

    Energy shortages, climate change and environmental pollution are critical issues that the entire world is faced with currently. To tackle the challenge and realize sustainable development, the Chinese government launched the Energy-Saving Generation Dispatch (ESGD) in 2007. In the ESGD scheme, generating units are dispatched based on fuel consumption rates and pollutant emission intensities from low to high. However, annual generation quotas still widely exist. With the mandatory shutdown of small-capacity and low-efficiency thermal generating units in 2006–2010, most of the currently running thermal generating units are large-capacity and highly efficient units. The additional improvement of the overall energy efficiency under this situation is a key problem for the Chinese electric power industry. To this end, a new type of ESGD framework is designed in this paper. Sequential coordination among yearly, monthly, day-ahead and real-time generation schedules is proposed. Based on the framework, the corresponding models are formulated. Empirical analysis is conducted using the realistic data obtained from the Guangdong Power Grid Corporation. Four generation dispatch modes are compared. The results indicate that the proposed ESGD mode can further reduce energy consumption and pollutant emissions. Hopefully, this paper can provide a valuable reference for policy making in the Chinese power sector. -- Highlights: •We propose a new type of Energy-Saving Generation Dispatch (ESGD) framework. •Sequential coordination among different time-scale generation schedules. •We propose SCUC and SCED models for the ESGD framework. •Empirical analysis is conducted using the realistic data obtained from the Guangdong Power Grid. •The existing financial interest distribution is maintained while energy savings are achieved

  6. Options for Water, Energy and Chemical Savings for Finitex, Cape Town

    Schneider, Zsig; Wenzel, Henrik

    An analysis of the options identified for saving of water, energy and chemicals was conducted at Finitex, Cape Town on the 18th October 2002. Cost savings were calculated from an estimation of the reduction in cost of water, energy and chemical usage associated with various interventions. Capital...

  7. Crystal growth technology CGT for energy: saving energy and renewable energy

    Scheel, Hans J.

    2005-02-01

    The fast-growing worldwide demand for energy, due to population growth and increasing standard of living, is in contrast with the limited fossil energy resources, with the political problems of nuclear fission energy, with the demand to reduce CO 2 production for climate control (Kyoto protocol), and with the slow advances of renewable energy sources. It will be shown how crystal growth technology (including epitaxy technology) can contribute to reduce the energy problem. CGT is the rate-determining factor for progress in energy-saving electrical technologies with high-temperature/high-power electrical technology and illumination from GaN-based devices as examples. Progress in CGT is also essential for the development of renewable energy sources like economic high-efficiency solar cells and in future laser-fusion energy where large laser and nonlinear-optic crystals of high radiation hardness are required. Education of CGT engineers and scientific development of CGT, using normally one optimum technology for industrial fabrication of specific crystals and one technology for specific epitaxial layers "epilayers", are needed.

  8. Some Environmental and Economic Aspects of Energy Saving Measures in Houses. An estimation model for total energy consumption and emissions to air from the Norwegian dwelling stock, and a life cycle assessment method for energy saving measures in houses

    Myhre, L.

    1995-12-01

    Motivated by the need to reduce the total energy consumption and the environmental load from society, this doctoral thesis discusses energy conservation measures on existing houses. Alternative additional thermal insulation measures are assessed using an interdisciplinary life cycle approach. The first task is to develop an interdisciplinary assessment method for building improvement measures, taking account of energy consumption, resource consumption, emissions to air of environmentally harmful gases, and economic costs during the entire life cycle of the building. The second task is to develop an estimation model for the total energy consumption and emissions to air of environmentally harmful gases from the dwelling stock of Norway. Finally, the third task is to assess the total energy saving potential and the total environmental benefits of energy saving measures in houses on a national level, including only life cycle analyses of additional thermal insulation measures on single houses. Chap 2 describes the dwelling stock in Norway. Chaps 3 and 4 present an estimation model for total energy consumption and emissions to air from the dwelling stock, and calculations using the model. Chaps 5 and 6 propose and use a calculation method for the assessment of additional thermal insulation measures, using a ``cradle-to-grave`` approach. Since hydroelectric power is the main energy source in this sector in Norway, estimated payback periods for emissions to air are long. But hydroelectric power saved in this sector may be used to obtain reduction in fossil fuel use in other sectors as discussed in Chap 7. Some of the topics discussed are further elaborated on in appendices. 107 refs., 39 figs, 88 tabs.

  9. Potential energy savings and environmental impact by implementing energy efficiency standard for household refrigerators in China

    With the rapid economic growth and improvement in standard of living, Chinese people are employing more and more household appliances to make their living convenient and comfortable, of which refrigerators are indispensable. Because refrigerators operate continuously irrespective of seasons and regions, the total electricity consumption of refrigerators is huge and consequently causes severe energy-related environmental issues. China has been paying more and more attention to this and issued a national energy efficiency standard, GB12021.2-2003, for refrigerators. This paper first describes the standard briefly. Then it develops a mathematic model to evaluate the potential energy savings and environmental impacts of the standard. The estimated results indicate implementing the standard will save large energy, as well as benefit greatly to environment. Thus, it is very necessary to implement energy efficiency standard for refrigerators in China

  10. Auditing the European room air-conditioning systems and potential energy savings

    Bory, Daniela; Adnot, Jerome; Greco, Carmelo; Marchio, Dominique [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Center for Energy and Processes (France)

    2007-07-01

    Nowadays, the European Community promotes the energy improvement of the air-conditioning (AC) systems through the compulsory inspection of these facilities in the frame of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive [EPBD, 2002]. Inspection itself is just a motivating mean for the AC actors to improve the energy efficiency of the systems and reduce energy. Therefore, the aim of the inspection is to follow periodically the correct management of the facility through a quick visit of the plant and a study of the available documentation while the aim of the audit is the research of best efficiency improvements which requires further investigations to evaluate and quantify the savings. Audit differs from the common maintenance activities of the facilities, the aim of which is limited to guarantee the basic operation of the plant. There is an overall lack of methodologies specific for air-conditioning and the improvements proposed are seldom proven with scientific rigour. For room air conditioning systems, the impacts of defect during operation due to ageing and neglected maintenance are considered: fouled condenser, charge leaks, compressor performances reduced, fans degradation, filter fouling and additional pressure drop in liquid line are explored. The over consumption due to these defects is evaluated for different building types and French climates. The results allow to define simple methods that can be used by the auditors to estimate the energy savings due to the correction of the defects.

  11. Energy usage and technical potential for energy saving measures in the Swedish residential building stock

    This paper provides an analysis of the current energy usage (net energy and final energy by fuels) and associated carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of the Swedish residential building stock, which includes single-family dwellings and multi-family dwellings. Twelve energy saving measures (ESMs) are assessed using a bottom–up modeling methodology, in which the Swedish residential stock is represented by a sample of 1400 buildings (based on data from the year 2005). Application of the ESMs studied gives a maximum technical reduction potential in energy demand of 53%, corresponding to a 63% reduction in CO2 emissions. Although application of the investigated ESMs would reduce CO2 emissions, the measures that reduce electricity consumption for lighting and appliances (LA) will increase CO2 emissions, since the saved electricity production is less CO2-intensive than the fuel mix used for the increased space heating required to make up for the loss in indirect heating obtained from LA. - Highlights: ► Analysis of year 2005energy use and CO2 emissions of Swedish residential buildings. ► Includes all single-family dwellings and multi-family dwellings. ► Bottom–up modeling of building stock represented by 1400 buildings. ► Technical effects of 12 energy saving measures are assessed. ► Energy demand can be reduced by53% and associated CO2 emissions by 63%

  12. Analysis of interactions among the barriers to energy saving in China

    Since China became the second largest energy consumer and carbon dioxide emitter, the problem of energy consumption and environmental pollution has drawn the world's attention. Meanwhile, Chinese government has put high emphasis on the problem. One project of energy saving initiated by Chinese government has been put into practice. However, many difficulties need to be dealt with to meet the expected aim of social development. The objective of this article is to investigate the interactions among the major barriers which prevent the practice of energy saving in China. Obviously, a clear definition of relationships among the barriers to energy saving helps top leaders make relevant decisions to solve the problem of economic sustainability, energy security and environment pollution in the future. To date, studies specifying energy-saving barriers have often focused on analyzing these barriers separately. As a result, a holistic view in understanding the barriers to energy-saving project is lacking. Interpretive structural modeling (ISM) is utilized to summarize the critical barriers hindering the project of energy saving in China and to explain the interrelationships among them. Suggestions for energy-saving practice and future research are provided. (author)

  13. ENERGY SAVING AT OPERATION OF OUTDOOR SWIMMING POOLS

    V. F. Ivin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Energy saving is a major problem in modern power engineering and various energy-consuming devices. They include outdoor swimming pools. In order to maintain them in working condition, especially in winter period, it takes significant amount of thermal energy. Task of heat loss substantial decrease in open swimming pools is considered in the article (on DNURT example. Methodology. The method of determining the mass and heat loss on the basis of criteria equations of heat and mass transfer theory is used. Findings. Calculations of the actual DNURT pool heat loss for different seasons, as for natural convection both for air forced motion above the free water surface are performed. It is shown that for the adiabatic evaporation conditions of water from the pool in winter during blow-off with wind the heat loss can be up to 2 kW/m2 on surface. To reduce these losses it is offered to cover water surface in a pool with a special material with low thermal conductivity on the basis of porous polyethylene during the time when the pool is not used for other purposes. It is shown that the implementation of these standards will reduce the actual heat loss, at least 5-6 times. Originality. The solution of important environmental and energy problem thanks to reducing heat losses by the pool in different times of a year and correspondingly lower emissions of power generating enterprises. Practical value. It is shown that the coating surface of the pool with poorly heat-conducting and easy to install coating will let, at a minimum, to reduce the actual heat loss on 5-6 times and reduce the emissions of power plants generating energy for pool heating.

  14. Energy-Saving Opportunities for Manufacturing Companies, International Fact Sheet (Spanish)

    2010-08-01

    This English/Spanish fact sheet describes the Industrial Technologies Program Save Energy Now model and provides information on tools and resources to help manufacturing facilities reduce industrial energy intensity.

  15. Energy-Saving Opportunities for Manufacturing Companies (English/Portuguese Brochure)

    2011-07-01

    This English/Portuguese brochure describes the Industrial Technologies Program Save Energy Now model and provides information on tools and resources to help manufacturing facilities reduce industrial energy intensity.

  16. Prospects for energy saving in the Italian iron and steel industry using electric furnaces

    Scotti, G. (Italimpianti S.p.A., Genoa (IT))

    1990-01-01

    The energy consumption of the Italian iron and steel industry is examined with particular attention to the electricity used. Topics covered include scrap melting in electric furnaces, reheating furnaces and new productive methods. Opportunities for energy savings are highlighted. (UK).

  17. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings for Quick-Service Restaurants

    Zhang, Jian; Schrock, D. W.; Fisher, D. R.; Livchak, A.; Zabrowski, D. A.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Liu, Bing

    2010-09-30

    Document describing PNNL's project to develop a package of energy efficiency measures that demonstrate the feasibility of achieving a 50% energy savings for quick-service restaurants with a simple payback of 5 years or less.

  18. K2 Urbancorp, LLC.: Hot, Humid Climate Region 40+% Energy Savings

    None

    2009-08-13

    This case study describes a community of historically inspired energy efficient homes that met the 40% whole-house source energy savings by focusing primarily on tightening the building envelope and sealing ductwork.

  19. Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption Report to Congress

    Belzer, D. B.; Hadley, S. W.; Chin, S-M.

    2008-10-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Pub. L. No. 109-58; EPAct 2005) amended the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (Pub. L. No. 89-387) to increase the portion of the year that is subject to Daylight Saving Time. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 extended the duration of Daylight Saving Time in the spring by changing its start date from the first Sunday in April to the second Sunday in March, and in the fall by changing its end date from the last Sunday in October to the first Sunday in November. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 also called for the Department of Energy to evaluate the impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy consumption in the United States and to submit a report to Congress. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) This report presents the results of impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on the national energy consumption in the United States. The key findings are: (1) The total electricity savings of Extended Daylight Saving Time were about 1.3 Tera Watt-hour (TWh). This corresponds to 0.5 percent per each day of Extended Daylight Saving Time, or 0.03 percent of electricity consumption over the year. In reference, the total 2007 electricity consumption in the United States was 3,900 TWh. (2) In terms of national primary energy consumption, the electricity savings translate to a reduction of 17 Trillion Btu (TBtu) over the spring and fall Extended Daylight Saving Time periods, or roughly 0.02 percent of total U.S. energy consumption during 2007 of 101,000 TBtu. (3) During Extended Daylight Saving Time, electricity savings generally occurred over a three- to five-hour period in the evening with small increases in usage during the early-morning hours. On a daily percentage basis, electricity savings were slightly greater during the March (spring) extension of Extended Daylight Saving Time than the November (fall) extension. On a regional basis, some southern portions of the United States exhibited slightly smaller impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy savings

  20. Thin, Light, Flexible Heaters Save Time and Energy

    2007-01-01

    The Icing Branch at NASA's Glenn Research Center uses the Center's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) and Icing Research Aircraft to research methods for evaluating and simulating the growth of ice on aircraft, the effects that ice may have on aircraft in flight, and the development and effectiveness of various ice protection and detection systems. EGC Enterprises Inc. (EGC), of Chardon, Ohio, used the IRT to develop thermoelectric thin-film heater technology to address in-flight icing on aircraft wings. Working with researchers at Glenn and the original equipment manufacturers of aircraft parts, the company tested various thin, flexible, durable, lightweight, and efficient heaters. Development yielded a thin-film heater technology that can be used in many applications in addition to being an effective deicer for aircraft. This new thermoelectric heater was dubbed the QoFoil Rapid Response Thin-Film Heater, or QoFoil, for short. The product meets all criteria for in-flight use and promises great advances in thin-film, rapid response heater technology for a broad range of industrial applications. Primary advantages include time savings, increased efficiency, and improved temperature uniformity. In addition to wing deicing, EGC has begun looking at the material's usefulness for applications including cooking griddles, small cabinet heaters, and several laboratory uses.

  1. Facilitating Energy Savings through Enhanced Usability of Thermostats

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2011-05-23

    Residential thermostats play a key role in controlling heating and cooling systems. Occupants often find the controls of programmable thermostats confusing, sometimes leading to higher heating consumption than when the buildings are controlled manually. A high degree of usability is vital to a programmable thermostat's effectiveness because, unlike a more efficient heating system, occupants must engage in specific actions after installation to obtain energy savings. We developed a procedure for measuring the usability of thermostats and tested this methodology with 31 subjects on five thermostats. The procedure requires first identifying representative tasks associated with the device and then testing the subjects ability to accomplish those tasks. The procedure was able to demonstrate the subjects wide ability to accomplish tasks and the influence of a device's usability on success rates. A metric based on the time to accomplish the tasks and the fraction of subjects actually completing the tasks captured the key aspects of each thermostat's usability. The procedure was recently adopted by the Energy Star Program for its thermostat specification. The approach appears suitable for quantifying usability of controls in other products, such as heat pump water heaters and commercial lighting.

  2. Assessment of practices and technologies of energy saving and renewable energy sources in hotels in Crete

    Zografakis, Nikolaos [Regional Energy Agency of Crete, Region of Crete, 71202 Heraklion (Greece); Gillas, Konstantinos; Pollaki, Antrianna; Profylienou, Maroulitsa; Bounialetou, Fanouria [Department of Economics, University of Crete, University Campus, 74100 Rethymno (Greece); Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2011-05-15

    This study aims to assess the state of the art of practices and technologies of energy saving and renewable energy sources in hotels. This will contribute to determining the potential of efficient and sustainable energy technologies integration. Hotel managers were interviewed face to face and information sessions were provided. Special energy and environmental awareness campaigns, sectoral tourism programs for climate change mitigation and adaptation, supportive policies and hotel energy investments and renovation programs are some recommendations elicited from the results of this study. (author)

  3. The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    Billingsley, Megan A.; Hoffman, Ian M.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; LaCommare, Kristina

    2014-03-19

    End-use energy efficiency is increasingly being relied upon as a resource for meeting electricity and natural gas utility system needs within the United States. There is a direct connection between the maturation of energy efficiency as a resource and the need for consistent, high-quality data and reporting of efficiency program costs and impacts. To support this effort, LBNL initiated the Cost of Saved Energy Project (CSE Project) and created a Demand-Side Management (DSM) Program Impacts Database to provide a resource for policy makers, regulators, and the efficiency industry as a whole. This study is the first technical report of the LBNL CSE Project and provides an overview of the project scope, approach, and initial findings, including: • Providing a proof of concept that the program-level cost and savings data can be collected, organized, and analyzed in a systematic fashion; • Presenting initial program, sector, and portfolio level results for the program administrator CSE for a recent time period (2009-2011); and • Encouraging state and regional entities to establish common reporting definitions and formats that would make the collection and comparison of CSE data more reliable. The LBNL DSM Program Impacts Database includes the program results reported to state regulators by more than 100 program administrators in 31 states, primarily for the years 2009–2011. In total, we have compiled cost and energy savings data on more than 1,700 programs over one or more program-years for a total of more than 4,000 program-years’ worth of data, providing a rich dataset for analyses. We use the information to report costs-per-unit of electricity and natural gas savings for utility customer-funded, end-use energy efficiency programs. The program administrator CSE values are presented at national, state, and regional levels by market sector (e.g., commercial, industrial, residential) and by program type (e.g., residential whole home programs, commercial new

  4. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings

    Jiang, Wei; Gowri, Krishnan; Lane, Michael D.; Thornton, Brian A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-28

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process, methodology and assumptions for development of the 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings, a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in highway lodging properties over the energy-efficiency levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  5. Assessing Potential Energy Cost Savings from Increased Energy Code Compliance in Commercial Buildings

    Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The US Department of Energy’s most recent commercial energy code compliance evaluation efforts focused on determining a percent compliance rating for states to help them meet requirements under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. That approach included a checklist of code requirements, each of which was graded pass or fail. Percent compliance for any given building was simply the percent of individual requirements that passed. With its binary approach to compliance determination, the previous methodology failed to answer some important questions. In particular, how much energy cost could be saved by better compliance with the commercial energy code and what are the relative priorities of code requirements from an energy cost savings perspective? This paper explores an analytical approach and pilot study using a single building type and climate zone to answer those questions.

  6. The carbon buster's home energy handbook : slowing climate change and saving money

    This book presented solutions for reducing household energy use and environmental impacts. It is intended for those who are concerned about global warming, rising fuel costs and environmental stewardship. It included practical suggestions and clearly explained measures that can help an individual reduce their greenhouse gas emissions and save money on energy bills. It listed best choices that individuals can make to contribute to a more sustainable world by reducing their carbon footprint. In addition to providing tips for saving energy and money, the book provided tools to weigh various energy efficiency options. It focused on products and technologies that can solve the problem of household contributions to the greenhouse gas problem by making good buying choices. It was shown that the intelligent use of appropriate technology can help avoid environmental problems. A detailed carbon accounting for a typical North American family's carbon emissions was presented along with strategies to reduce emissions by up to 73 per cent. The measures that yield the highest return for the environment and the wallet were evaluated. For example, the effectiveness of solar panels versus buying a hybrid car was measured, along with the cost in buying a $500 fridge that uses 800 kWh of power per year. The Carbon Buster strategies described in this book have an average annual return of 32 per cent. refs., tabs., figs

  7. Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort

    Software, Anyhere; Fernandes, Luis; Lee, Eleanor; Ward, Greg

    2013-03-15

    A simulation study was conducted to evaluate lighting energy savings of split-pane electrochromic (EC) windows controlled to satisfy key visual comfort parameters. Using the Radiance lighting simulation software, interior illuminance and luminance levels were computed for a south-facing private office illuminated by a window split into two independently-controlled EC panes. The transmittance of these was optimized hourly for a workplane illuminance target while meeting visual comfort constraints, using a least-squares algorithm with linear inequality constraints. Blinds were successively deployed until visual comfort criteria were satisfied. The energy performance of electrochromics proved to be highly dependent on how blinds were controlled. With hourly blind position adjustments, electrochromics showed significantly higher (62percent and 53percent, respectively without and with overhang) lighting energy consumption than clear glass. With a control algorithm designed to better approximate realistic manual control by an occupant, electrochromics achieved significant savings (48percent and 37percent, respectively without and with overhang). In all cases, energy consumption decreased when the workplace illuminance target was increased. In addition, the fraction of time during which the occupant had an unobstructed view of the outside was significantly greater with electrochromics: 10 months out of the year versus a handful of days for the reference case.

  8. Cool Colored Roofs to Save Energy and Improve Air Quality

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Miller, William; Berdahl, Paul

    2005-08-23

    Urban areas tend to have higher air temperatures than their rural surroundings as a result of gradual surface modifications that include replacing the natural vegetation with buildings and roads. The term ''Urban Heat Island'' describes this phenomenon. The surfaces of buildings and pavements absorb solar radiation and become extremely hot, which in turn warm the surrounding air. Cities that have been ''paved over'' do not receive the benefit of the natural cooling effect of vegetation. As the air temperature rises, so does the demand for air-conditioning (a/c). This leads to higher emissions from power plants, as well as increased smog formation as a result of warmer temperatures. In the United States, we have found that this increase in air temperature is responsible for 5-10% of urban peak electric demand for a/c use, and as much as 20% of population-weighted smog concentrations in urban areas. Simple ways to cool the cities are the use of reflective surfaces (rooftops and pavements) and planting of urban vegetation. On a large scale, the evapotranspiration from vegetation and increased reflection of incoming solar radiation by reflective surfaces will cool a community a few degrees in the summer. As an example, computer simulations for Los Angeles, CA show that resurfacing about two-third of the pavements and rooftops with reflective surfaces and planting three trees per house can cool down LA by an average of 2-3K. This reduction in air temperature will reduce urban smog exposure in the LA basin by roughly the same amount as removing the basin entire onroad vehicle exhaust. Heat island mitigation is an effective air pollution control strategy, more than paying for itself in cooling energy cost savings. We estimate that the cooling energy savings in U.S. from cool surfaces and shade trees, when fully implemented, is about $5 billion per year (about $100 per air-conditioned house).

  9. Energy saving in energy market reform—The feed-in tariffs option

    The use of feed-in tariffs (FITs) is now widespread for renewable energy and under discussion for other low carbon electricity generation, but not for energy efficiency. There is a small literature on FITs for electricity demand reduction, but not energy efficiency more generally. This paper considers the general application of FITs on the demand side and sets out the economic arguments in the context of changing energy markets. It then discusses the implications of some practical issues, including the definitional problems arising from the difference between energy efficiency and demand reduction. Using experience from historical energy efficiency programmes, it considers the public benefits, payment methods and policy scope that need to be considered and how these might affect policy design. It makes some provisional estimates of economically justified payments in the context of the proposed UK energy market reform. It concludes that FITs for energy saving might be a powerful tool for incentivising energy efficiency. - Highlights: ► The concept of an energy saving feed-in tariff (ESFIT) is introduced and analysed. ► ESFITs are potentially an alternative to supplier energy efficiency obligations. ► To maximise effectiveness, ESFITs should be paid as capital grants. ► ESFITs are justifiable if there are premium prices for low carbon generation. ► Higher rates of ESFIT may be justified to overcome barriers to energy efficiency.

  10. A Novel Sensor Platform Matching the Improved Version of IPMVP Option C for Measuring Energy Savings

    Ching-Yuan Chang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It is easy to measure energy consumption with a power meter. However, energy savings cannot be directly computed by the powers measured using existing power meter technologies, since the power consumption only reflects parts of the real energy flows. The International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP was proposed by the Efficiency Valuation Organization (EVO to quantify energy savings using four different methodologies of A, B, C and D. Although energy savings can be estimated following the IPMVP, there are limitations on its practical implementation. Moreover, the data processing methods of the four IPMVP alternatives use multiple sensors (thermometer, hygrometer, Occupant information and power meter readings to simulate all facilities, in order to determine an energy usage benchmark and the energy savings. This study proposes a simple sensor platform to measure energy savings. Using usually the Electronic Product Code (EPC global standard, an architecture framework for an information system is constructed that integrates sensors data, power meter readings and occupancy conditions. The proposed sensor platform is used to monitor a building with a newly built vertical garden system (VGS. A VGS shields solar radiation and saves on energy that would be expended on air-conditioning. With this platform, the amount of energy saved in the whole facility is measured and reported in real-time. The data are compared with those obtained from detailed measurement and verification (M&V processes. The discrepancy is less than 1.565%. Using measurements from the proposed sensor platform, the energy savings for the entire facility are quantified, with a resolution of ±1.2%. The VGS gives an 8.483% daily electricity saving for the building. Thus, the results show that the simple sensor platform proposed by this study is more widely applicable than the four complicated IPMVP alternatives and the VGS is an effective tool in reducing the

  11. Communication Support Technology Research and Network Design of Mobile Energy Efficiency Test and Energy-saving Assessment System

    Zhong Ming; Du Chongyang; Chen Songsong; Yang Baoqu; Xie Qiang

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the communication problems when the mobile energy efficiency and energy-saving assessment system is applied to energy monitoring, the authors introduced two schemes about building wireless network which is introduced based on the demand of the mobile energy efficiency test and energy-saving assessment system. These two schemes are based on WDS (Wireless Distribution System), WSN (Wireless Sensor Network), they effectively solved the problem that signals could not be transmit...

  12. A case analysis of energy savings performance contract projects and photovoltaic energy at Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas

    Barich, William J.; Dessing, Brent L.; Harley, Antonio B.

    2006-01-01

    MBA Professional Report The purpose of this MBA Project is to review existing policy of the Federal Energy Management Program under the purview of National Renewal Energy Laboratory (NREL) for Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPCs). This project will assess the ability for the Department of Defense to incorporate emerging technologies in alternative energy to supplement or replace existing power sources for DoD installations within the current Energy Savings Performance C...

  13. The determinants of household energy-saving behavior: Survey and comparison in five major Asian cities

    It is difficult to control household energy consumption through regulation. From a policy standpoint, it is particularly challenging to identify the factors that influence people’s actions. Moreover, whatever these factors are, they are unlikely to uniformly span multiple cities in the Asian region. In this paper, we conduct a survey of energy-saving behavior to clarify the differences among such factors across five major Asian cities. The results from these surveys in Dalian, Chongqing, Fukuoka, Bangkok, and Ho Chi Minh indicate that global warming consciousness, environmental behavior, and social interaction significantly affect energy-saving behavior. Income and age also had weak positive effects on energy-saving behaviors. Social interaction was strongly linked to energy-saving behaviors, particularly in the rural areas of Dalian and Chongqing. This result indicates that community-based activities impact energy-saving behaviors. - Highlights: ► We conduct a survey of energy saving behavior in household in major Asian cities. ► We identify the factors that influence people's actions. ► Global warming consciousness and social interaction affect people behavior. ► This indicates community-based activities impact energy-saving behaviors in Asia.

  14. Climate protection with rapid payback. Energy and CO2 savings potential of industrial insulation in EU27

    Neelis, M.; Blinde, P.; Overgaag, M.; Deng, Y. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    This study aims to answer the following four questions: (1) What is the energy savings and CO2 emissions mitigation potential resulting from insulating currently uninsulated parts and from better maintenance of insulation systems?; (2) What are the energy savings and CO2 mitigation potential from improving current insulation to cost-effective levels? Cost-effective insulation in this study is defined as the insulation that minimises the sum of the costs of heat loss and the costs of insulation; (3) What is the energy savings and CO2 mitigation potential from improving current insulation beyond cost-effective levels to even more energy-efficient levels? Energy-efficient insulation in this study is defined as the insulation at which the sum of the costs of heat loss and the annualised insulation investments are equal to the costs of typical current insulation while offering an additional energy savings and CO2 mitigation potential; and (4) How can these potentials best be realised? This study investigates savings potentials from improved insulation in EU industry and the power sector under realistic market conditions. Nuclear power plants and power production by renewable sources were left outside the scope of this study as well as insulations of cold applications. Case studies of insulation projects have been used to compare energy loss and investments related to different levels of insulation. The analysis was performed for three temperature levels: <100C; 100-300C and >300C. Results at the level of the case studies were extrapolated to European level using data on current energy use. Other assumptions have been made where needed on the basis of literature and expert input. All potentials are based on a 9% discount rate, an average insulation lifetime of 15 years and a 2-3% per year increase of the price of energy net of inflation.

  15. Energy saving processes in huddling emperor penguins: from experiments to theory.

    Gilbert, Caroline; Blanc, Stéphane; Le Maho, Yvon; Ancel, André

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the energy savings of male emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri linked to their huddling behaviour, the key factor that allows them to assume their incubating task while undergoing a long fast. Drawing on new studies by our team, this review examines the energetic benefits accrued from huddling and estimates the respective contributions of wind protection, exposure to mild ambient temperatures, reduction in cold-exposed body surfaces and body temperature adjustments in these energy savings. The metabolic rate of 'loosely grouped' birds (restrained in small groups of 5-10 individuals, which are unable to huddle effectively) is reduced by 39% compared to metabolic rate of 'isolated' birds, with 32% of these energetic benefits due to wind protection. In addition, metabolic rate of 'free-ranging' emperors, i.e. able to move freely and to huddle, is on average 21% lower than that of 'loosely grouped' birds. Exposure to mild ambient temperatures within the groups and reduction in cold-exposed body surfaces while huddling, though overestimated, would represent a 38% metabolic reduction. About two thirds of metabolic lowering is attributable to the reduction in cold-exposed body surfaces and one third to the mild microclimate created within the groups. Moreover, body temperature adjustments contribute to these energetic benefits: maintaining body temperatures 1 degrees C lower would represent a 7-17% reduction in energy expenditure. These processes, linked together, explain how huddling emperors save energy and maintain a constant body temperature, which ensures a successful incubation in the midst of the austral winter. PMID:18083725

  16. Harnessing Potential Evaporation as a Renewable Energy Resource With Water-Saving Benefits

    Cavusoglu, A. H.; Chen, X.; Gentine, P.; Sahin, O.

    2015-12-01

    Water's large latent heat of vaporization makes evaporation a critical component of the energy balance at the Earth's surface. An immense amount of energy drives the hydrological cycle and is an important component of various weather and climate patterns. However, the potential of harnessing evaporation has received little attention as a renewable energy resource compared to wind and solar energy. Here, we investigate the potential of harvesting energy from naturally evaporating water. Using weather data across the contiguous United States and a modified model of potential evaporation, we estimate the power availability, intermittency, and the changes in evaporation rates imposed by energy conversion. Our results indicate that natural evaporation can deliver power densities similar to existing renewable energy platforms and require little to no energy storage to match the varying power demands of urban areas. This model also predicts additional, and substantial, water savings by reducing evaporative losses. These findings suggest that evaporative energy harvesting can address significant challenges with water/energy interactions that could be of interest to the hydrology community.

  17. Management of Financing the Energy Saving in Terms of Construction Enterprises: International Experience

    Klimchuk Marina N.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the experience of financing the energy saving projects by leading countries of the world from the perspective of adapting the contemporary management-regulatory conditions of technology in terms of enterprises of the construction complex of Ukraine. On the basis of a content analysis of the existing practices of implementation of energy saving and enhancing energy efficiency, the following classification has been suggested: depending on the institutional socio-economic and environmental development, in accordance with the course of sustainable development, depending on the structure of economic system, depending on both time interval and subsectoral characteristic. Based on a scientific approach to the five levels in the structure of economic systems, barriers and recommendations for their prevention in the management of energy saving in construction at each of these levels have been identified. The article proposes strategic priorities of the State policy of energy saving in the construction industry, in particular holding of energy audits and energy performance certification of buildings, increasing the share of renewable energy sources in the energy balance of country; implementation of contemporary concepts of energy saving ("Green Lease", "Passive House", "Triple Zero"; establishing consulting-information centers for promoting energy saving measures.

  18. Stakeholders’ influence on the adoption of energy-saving technologies in Italian homes

    The instability and fragmentation of the temporary aggregations of many stakeholders in construction processes are barriers to adopting new technologies. This paper investigates the influence of different stakeholders on the adoption of mature energy-saving technologies in new residential buildings. Recent literature about the influence of different stakeholders on construction processes is reviewed focusing in their interest for energy saving technologies. To gain an insight into the specific roles played by stakeholders (general contractors, construction firms, architects, users and public governments) in different projects, a case study methodology was used. The influence on the adoption of energy-saving technologies of stakeholders was assessed through semi-structured interviews. These interviews focused on the interest and power for the adoption of several energy-saving technologies. Having recognized that the interest in adoption is often expressed late in the construction processes, the time of introduction of this interest was assessed. This paper provides an empirical insight into significant barriers for the adoption of energy saving technologies which are the low influence of highly motivated stakeholders on the decision of adoption, and the delay at which the interest in energy-saving technologies emerges. Finally, policies to overcome these barriers are suggested. - Highlights: • Why energy saving technologies are rarely adopted in buildings? • Diffusion is slowed by the late participation of stakeholders with great interest for energy technologies. • The influence of construction stakeholders for the adoption of energy saving technologies is measured in Italian case studies. • More integrated relationships among stakeholders are required to help the adoption of energy saving technologies. • Process re-organizations and policies which increase final users’ power are needed

  19. Long term energy demand projection and potential for energy savings of Croatian tourism–catering trade sector

    Today, tourism represents one of the backbones of Croatian economy and one of the main factors of its growth. Combined with catering trade sector, tourism represents a significant energy consumer that has the tendencies of future growth. Since services sector, which tourism–catering trade sector is a part of, is not yet well described regarding future energy balances it would be very interesting to see how could possible future growth in tourism influence energy consumption of the services sector in Croatia. Through this paper long term energy demand projections of tourism–catering trade sector were studied with special emphasis on future growth of tourism in Croatia as well as different mechanisms that might lead to certain energy savings. Bottom-up approach was chosen as the most suitable one since it allows better quantification of different measures, technological or legal, that would influence future energy demand. Downside of this approach is extensive input data that is required to analyse and model future energy demand which is roughly divided into heating/cooling section and all other consumption. Results show that additional energy savings in the tourism–catering trade sector are possible if careful and rational demand side planning is in place. -- Highlights: ► Future energy demand of Croatian touristm–catering trade sector has been modelled. ► Model is roughly divided into two basic modes (heating/cooling and all other consumption). ► Different factors influencing future energy demand were implemented into the model. ► Possibilities for energy efficiency improvements have been presented.

  20. Energy and water saving measures at the Arloev sugar mill. Final report; Energi- och vattenbesparande aatgaerder vid Arloevs Sockerbruk. Slutrapport

    Wamsler, M. [AAF-Processdesign AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2001-10-01

    The project comprised several, mutually dependent, sub-projects; mapping, investigation of ways to reduce water consumption, membrane tests aiming to find ways to recover sugar, and pinch analysis to evaluate the possibilities for improved process integration. This final report deals with the overall project results. Identified savings opportunities and savings potentials are presented. The presented measures represent an overall optimisation based on the results of all the project parts. Already during the project, measures have been implemented that are calculated to save 65 000 m{sup 3} water annually, corresponding to 10 % of the total water consumption. This saving is in level with the goals for the project. In the table below, these and additional measures are presented with a total savings potential at approximately 200 000 m{sup 3} /year water. The project will then achieve a saving of just below 35 % of present water consumption. Also in the membrane study the results surpassed the expectations. It was found that with nano filtering a sugar concentration of more than 10 %(W) could be reached in the retentate at a flux 50al/m{sup 2}h. The total sugar losses were less than 5 %, i.e. 95 % should be possible to recover. In total, a savings potential of more than 300 tonnes sugar per year is indicated. The Energy savings in the project are calculated to 7,4 GWh/year, of which 0,2 GWh/year by reduced water consumption, 0,6 GWh/year by water recovery, 1,4 GWh/year by membrane technology and 5,2aGWh/year as a result of process integration. This should be compared to the target 2,5 GWh/year. Hence, the results are almost three times the expected. The savings in monetary terms are estimated at just under SEK 5 million per year. The investment is roughly estimated at between SEK 5 and 6 million, of which SEK 4 million for the membrane equipment and SEK 0,5 million for a process water buffer tank. The remaining investment costs cover heat exchangers, control equipment

  1. TASK 2.5.4 DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENERGY SAVINGS CALCULATOR

    Miller, William A [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL; Huang, Joe [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Erdem, Ender [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Ronnen, Levinson [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2010-03-01

    California s major energy utilities and the California Energy Commission (CEC) are seeking to allocate capital that yields the greatest return on investment for energy infrastructure that meets any part of the need for reliable supplies of energy. The utilities are keenly interested in knowing the amount of electrical energy savings that would occur if cool roof color materials are adopted in the building market. To meet this need the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have been collaborating on a Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) project to develop an industry-consensus energy-savings calculator. The task was coordinated with an ongoing effort supported by the DOE to develop one calculator to achieve both the DOE and the EPA objectives for deployment of cool roof products. Recent emphasis on domestic building energy use has made the work a top priority by the Department of Energy s (DOE) Building Technologies Program. The Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) tool is designed to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and practitioners easily run complex simulations. The latest web technologies and usability design were employed to provide an easy input interface to an annual simulation of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim. Building defaults were assigned based on the best available statistical evidence and can provide energy and cost savings after the user selects nothing more than the building location. A key goal for the tool is to promote the energy benefits of cool color tile, metal and asphalt shingle roof products and other energy saving systems. The RSC tool focuses on applications for the roof and attic; however, the code conducts a whole building simulation that puts the energy and heat flows of the roof and attic into the perspective of the whole house. An annual simulation runs in about 30 sec. In addition to cool

  2. Voltage Controller Saves Energy, Prolongs Life of Motors

    2007-01-01

    In 1985, Power Efficiency Corporation of Las Vegas licensed NASA voltage controller technology from Marshall Space Flight Center. In the following years, Power Efficiency made patented improvements to the technology and marketed the resulting products throughout the world as the Performance Controller and the Power Efficiency energy-saving soft start. Soft start gradually introduces power to an electric motor, thus eliminating the harsh, violent mechanical stresses of having the device go from a dormant state to one of full activity; prevents it from running too hot; and increases the motor's lifetime. The product can pay for itself through the reduction in electricity consumed (according to Power Efficiency, within 3 years), depending on the duty cycle of the motor and the prevailing power rates. In many instances, the purchaser is eligible for special utility rebates for the environmental protection it provides. Common applications of Power Efficiency's soft start include mixers, grinders, granulators, conveyors, crushers, stamping presses, injection molders, elevators with MG sets, and escalators. The device has been retrofitted onto equipment at major department store chains, hotels, airports, universities, and for various manufacturers

  3. Up Close and Personal: The Value of Feedback in Implementing an Individual Energy-Saving Adaptation

    Pollard, Carol Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore the drivers of computer-related sustainability behavior at a medium-sized US university and the extent to which an inexpensive energy-saving device installed on 146 administrator, faculty and general staff workstations achieved significant savings in kWh, CO[subscript 2] kg and dollars.…

  4. Evaluation of realised energy savings with simulation models. A new policy tool for the Netherlands

    Boonekamp, P.G.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    This report describes a new analysis tool for the evaluation of realised energy savings, and effects of savings policy, in the Netherlands. It aims to meet the information needs of policymakers, both at national and EU level, using the monitoring results of the NL Agency. The system builds on the Protocol Monitoring Energy Savings to calculate realised savings. The innovation consists of the option to adjust energy models per sector, as already used for scenario analysis, to simulate past developments. The simulations can estimate total savings and assess the contribution of policy measures. The detailed simulation approach also enables the decomposition of energy trends into volume-effects due to growth, structural effects such as fuel substitution and import/exports, and various saving effects. As the modeling system is already used for the analysis of future trends, it enables a good comparison between ex-ante (expected) savings and ex-post (realised) savings. Finally, the system enables a faster delivery of calculation results than presently is the case.

  5. Energy Saving in Optical Operator Networks: the Challenges, the TREND Vision, and Some Results

    Chiaraviglio, Luca; Idzikowski, Filip; Duque, Raul; Jimenez, Felipe; Le Rouzic, Esther; Ajmone Marsan, Marco

    2012-01-01

    We discuss how to save energy in IP-over-WDM networks, presenting the vision of TREND, the FP7 NoE, and the saving that can be obtained with an adaptive routing solution that puts network interfaces of various granularities to sleep in periods of low traffic. Results refer to two operator networks, considering power and traffic forecasts for 2020.

  6. Energy savings in dynamic and resilient optical networks based on traffic-aware strategies

    Turus, Ioan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Dittmann, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    andconnections. Results show that symbol-rateadaptation provides high savings for unprotected scenarios (37% energy savings w.r.t. unprotected Baseline), while for theprotected scenarios better results are obtained for modulationformat adaptation which includes sleep-mode (57.1% energysavings w.r.t. protected...

  7. Energy-saving decomposition and power consumption forecast: The case of Liaoning province in China

    To achieve sustainable development of the society, the People's Republic of China (PRC) proposed in its 11th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development Program a shift in energy-saving target of decreasing energy intensity by 20% in 2010 compared with that of 2005. Liaoning province is one of the oldest industrial bases in China. Policymakers are often confronted with problems relating to adjustment in the development pattern as a means to secure steady economic growth. The power industry is a fundamental energy industry; it plays an important role in realizing of energy-saving targets. Based on the input-output model, this paper sets extensive, planning and 20% energy-saving scenarios in order to analyze energy-saving and power consumption situations for Liaoning by 2010. Through extensive simulations, the levels of energy-saving and power demand under different scenarios are obtained. Results from the analysis show that under the premises of adjusting the ratio of investment and consumption, optimizing products structure, and improving energy use efficiency, it is possible to achieve the proposed energy-saving target. Liaoning's power consumption can maintain a stable growth trend in the future. The percentage of electricity to the total energy use can also increase to 16% in 2010.

  8. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy SMARRT): Development of CCT Diagrams

    Chumbley, L Scott

    2011-08-20

    One of the most energy intensive industries in the U.S. today is in the melting and casting of steel alloys for use in our advanced technological society. While the majority of steel castings involve low or mild carbon steel for common construction materials, highly-alloyed steels constitute a critical component of many industries due to their excellent properties. However, as the amount of alloying additions increases, the problems associated with casting these materials also increases, resulting in a large waste of energy due to inefficiency and a lack of basic information concerning these often complicated alloy systems. Superaustenitic stainless steels constitute a group of Fe-based alloys that are compositionally balanced to have a purely austenitic matrix and exhibit favorable pitting and crevice corrosion resistant properties and mechanical strength. However, intermetallic precipitates such as sigma (³) and Laves can form during casting or exposure to high-temperature processing, which degrade the corrosion and mechanical properties of the material. Knowledge of the times and temperatures at which these detrimental phases form is imperative if a company is to efficiently produce castings of high quality in the minimum amount of time, using the lowest amount of energy possible, while producing the least amount of material waste. Anecdotal evidence from company representatives revealed that large castings frequently had to be scrapped due to either lower than expected corrosion resistance or extremely low fracture toughness. It was suspected that these poor corrosion and / or mechanical properties were directly related to the type, amount, and location of various intermetallic phases that formed during either the cooling cycle of the castings or subsequent heat treatments. However, no reliable data existed concerning either the time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams or the continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams of the super-austenitics. The

  9. Heat savings in energy systems with substantial distributed generation

    Østergaard, PA

    2003-01-01

    . A lowered district heating demand and thereby lowered CHP-bound electricity generation would appear to increase the possibility of integration wind power but due to the ancillary services supplied by CHP plants, the situation is in fact the opposite. Heat savings may not be technically feasible, if...... a certain production is required regardless of whether over-all electricity generation is sufficient. This article analyses this and although heat savings do have a negative impact on the amount of wind power the system may integrate a given moment in certain cases, associated fuel savings are...

  10. Perceptions and behaviour towards climate change and energy savings: the role of social media

    Piccolo, Lara S. G.; Alani, Harith

    2015-01-01

    Success in promoting changes in behaviour is often dependent on the choice of interventions. This research investigates the use of social technology features as interventions to raise energy awareness and to promote a collective behaviour change towards saving energy. Aiming at understanding this scenario, an online survey was conducted to extract from Internet users their current position towards climate change, energy savings, and social media usage. Main results are reported in this paper ...

  11. Barriers for realisation of energy savings in buildings; Barrierer for realisering af energibesparelser i bygninger

    Jensen, O.M.

    2004-07-01

    Many years' efforts within the energy labelling area have shown large saving potentials in heating and use of electricity in buildings. At the same time it has been proved that these saving potentials, even when economically advantageous, only are cashed to a limited extent. The reason to this is ascribed to barriers that meet the individual building owner who wants to start saving energy. Most barriers are known and a lot of these have been sought overcome for some time. The questions are how many barriers still exist, have new barriers arisen and the character of these barriers. On this background the objective of this survey has been to concretize and study the barriers, which are blocking reasonable energy savings. Focus has especially been on barriers for realisation of heating savings, but through a general evaluation of energy savings of barriers other forms of energy saving methods have been taken into consideration. Special interest has been directed towards houses, typically one family houses, which are affected by the Energy Labelling Scheme. The concept barriers include all kinds of barriers, also barriers that not are acknowledged as barriers by the individual house owner, or that on closer inspection turn out to be something else than actual barriers. This note suggests an alternative inertia model, in order to create an idea of the inertness characteristic of the many house owners who understand the message but fail to act on it. (BA)

  12. 18th national meeting for energy saving promotion (prize winning case awarded by Minstry of International Trade and Industry). ; Optimization of additive carrying argon gas in continuous casting. Dai 18 kai sho energy suishin zenkoku taikai (tsusho sangyo daijinsho jusho jirei). ; Renzoku chuzo ni okeru tenkazai hansoyo argon gas no saitekika

    1993-01-30

    An optimal amount of argon gas carrying CaSi additive particles was discovered in a continuous casting process and a stable operation method was established to conserve energy and cost. CaSi particles are added into molten steel to prevent steel materials from cracking, and argon gas is used in carrying the CaSi particles to prevent oxygen and nitrogen from mixing into the molten steel. The proposed modification plan intends to use the existing facilities up to the seal rotary machine, and to reduce the size and length of the carrying pipes thereafter, the length of the flexible tubes, and the size of the booster. A verification test was carried out. As a result of measuring the CaSi particle scattering distribution, it was found that an in-pipe flow velocity of 25 m/s produces a narrow scattering distribution and has the particles impinge on the molten steel dropping position concentratedly. It was also learned that the in-pipe flow velocity of 25 m/s can increase the solid-air ratio to 0.81 to 1.21. Operations of the modified machine reduced the argon gas amount by 5.2 m[sup 3]N/min (reduction rate of 61%) and realized stabler CaSi particle injection which improved the Ca yield by 9.4%. 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Targeting utility customers to improve energy savings from conservation and efficiency programs

    Highlights: • Improving DSM program impacts by targeting high energy users. • DSM energy savings potential hinges on pre-participation performance. • Targeting can benefit different utilities and energy efficiency programs. • Overall performance can be improved by up to 250% via targeting strategies. - Abstract: Electric utilities, government agencies, and private interests in the US have committed and continue to invest substantial resources – including billions of dollars of financial capital – in the pursuit of energy efficiency and conservation through demand-side management (DSM) programs. While most of these programs are deemed to be cost effective, and therefore in the public interest, opportunities exist to improve cost effectiveness by targeting programs to those customers with the greatest potential for energy savings. This article details an analysis of three DSM programs offered by three Florida municipal electric utilities to explore such opportunities. First, we estimate programs’ energy savings impacts; second, we measure and compare energy savings across subgroups of program participants as determined by their pre-intervention energy performance, and third, we explore potential changes in program impacts that might be realized by targeting specific customers for participation in the DSM programs. All three programs resulted in statistically significant average (per-participant) energy savings, yet average savings varied widely, with the customers who performed best (i.e., most efficient) before the intervention saving the least energy and those who performed worst (i.e., least efficient) before the intervention saving the most. Assessment of alternative program participation scenarios with varying levels of customer targeting suggests that program impacts could be increased by as much as 80% for a professional energy audit program, just over 100% for a high-efficiency heat pump upgrade program, and nearly 250% for an attic insulation

  14. Thermal analysis of a hybrid solar energy saving system inside a greenhouse

    Highlights: • A hybrid solar system consisted of water filled polyethylene sleeves was examined. • The thermal behaviour of the system was studied based on the sleeves energy balance. • Water temperature and heat exchanges of the sleeves were dynamically estimated. • Experimental data used to validate the predictions of the mathematical model. • The use of the system led to an energy saving of 23% inside a heated greenhouse. - Abstract: The intensive greenhouse energy requirements are a major operational and economical problem for producers around the world. Energy conservation techniques and innovative applications of solar energy for heating are being employed in greenhouse operation to reduce heating costs during cold periods. The present study investigated the development of a mathematical model to predict the thermal efficiency of a novel hybrid solar energy saving system inside a heated greenhouse. The solar system consisted of a transparent water-filled polyethylene sleeve and two perforated air-filled polyethylene tubes on the top peripheral sides of it. Above the sleeve and between the two tubes, rockwool substrates were placed for hydroponic cultivation of tomato crop. In order to validate this model, experiments were carried out in two identical parts of a polyethylene arched-type greenhouse to obtain data during winter. By comparing the measured and the predicted values, a correlation of 95% was found, indicating that the model can simulate the water temperature inside the hybrid solar sleeves. Moreover, the additional energy provided by the hybrid solar system reached approximately 23% during the examined period, depending on solar radiation levels

  15. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu

    2012-10-15

    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building

  16. ORC waste heat recovery in European energy intensive industries: Energy and GHG savings

    Highlights: • A methodology to estimate ORC industrial heat recovery potential is defined. • Heat recovery applications for different industrial processes are shown. • Cement, steel, glass and oil and gas applications are considered in EU27. • Savings in electricity costs and greenhouse gases are quantified. - Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a technology with important opportunities in heat recovery from energy intensive industrial processes. This paper represents the first comprehensive estimate of ORC units that can be installed in cement, steel, glass and oil and gas industries in the 27 countries of the European Union based on an accurate methodology related to real plants in operation or under construction. An evaluation of energy savings, depending on the number of operating hours per year and of the consequent decrease in CO2 emission and electricity expenditure, is also provided. The study, carried out in the framework of an European research project on heat recovery in energy intensive industries, found that, in the most convenient considered scenario, up to about 20,000 GW h of thermal energy per year can be recovered and 7.6 M ton of CO2 can be saved by the application of ORC technology to the investigated and most promising industrial sectors

  17. Evaluation of Savings in Energy-Efficient Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    Gordon, A. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States); Lubliner, M. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States); Howard, L. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States); Kunkle, R. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of an energy performance and cost-effectiveness analysis. The Salishan phase 7 and demonstration homes were compared to Salishan phase 6 homes built to 2006 Washington State Energy Code specifications 2. Predicted annual energy savings (over Salishan phase 6) was 19% for Salishan phase 7, and between 19-24% for the demonstration homes (depending on ventilationstrategy). Approximately two-thirds of the savings are attributable to the DHP. Working with the electric utility provider, Tacoma Public Utilities, researchers conducted a billing analysis for Salishan phase 7. Median energy use for the development is 11,000 kWh; annual energy costs are $780, with a fair amount of variation dependent on size of home. Preliminary analysis of savings betweenSalishan 7 and previous phases (4 through 6) suggest savings of between 20 and 30 percent. A more comprehensive comparison between Salishan 7 and previous phases will take place in year two of this project.

  18. Evaluation of Savings in Energy-Efficient Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    None

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of an energy performance and cost-effectiveness analysis. The Salishan phase 7 and demonstration homes were compared to Salishan phase 6 homes built to 2006 Washington State Energy Code specifications 2. Predicted annual energy savings (over Salishan phase 6) was 19% for Salishan phase 7, and between 19-24% for the demonstration homes (depending on ventilation strategy). Approximately two-thirds of the savings are attributable to the DHP. Working with the electric utility provider, Tacoma Public Utilities, researchers conducted a billing analysis for Salishan phase 7. Median energy use for the development is 11,000 kWh; annual energy costs are $780, with a fair amount of variation dependent on size of home. Preliminary analysis of savings between Salishan 7 and previous phases (4 through 6) suggest savings of between 20 and 30 percent. A more comprehensive comparison between Salishan 7 and previous phases will take place in year two of this project.

  19. Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures; January 2012 - March 2013

    Jayaweera, T.; Haeri, H.

    2013-04-01

    Under the Uniform Methods Project, DOE is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining the energy savings from specific energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols provide a straightforward method for evaluating gross energy savings for common residential and commercial measures offered in ratepayer-funded initiatives in the United States. They represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. This document deals with savings from the following measures: commercial and industrial lighting, commercial and industrial lighting controls, small commercial and residential unitary and split system HVAC cooling equipment, residential furnaces and boilers, residential lighting, refrigerator recycling, whole-building retrofit using billing analysis, metering, peak demand and time-differentiated energy savings, sample design, survey design and implementation, and assessing persistence and other evaluation issues.

  20. Energy Saving Drives New Approaches to Telecommunications Power System

    Miftakhutdinov, Rais

    2010-01-01

    General market trends and new regulations to the telecommunication power system are discussed. It was shown, that to meet the new efficiency and power saving requirements, all system and design levels must be considered. Therefore, the focus was on review and comparison of the efficient, power saving solutions from the facility-level power system, to the cabinet level, followed by discussion of the specific requirements and solutions for the key functional blocks. At the facility level, the n...

  1. The influence of an estimated energy saving due to natural ventilation on the Mexican energy system

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2014-01-01

    This article shows the impacts of the extensive use of NV (natural ventilation) in the Mexican residential sector on the Mexican energy system. By integrating a thermal-airflow simulation programme with an energy systems analysis model, the impact on the Mexican energy system of replacing air...... conditioning, in particular, with natural ventilation to cool residential buildings is determined. It is shown that when, as in Mexico, there is a relatively simple connection between supply and electricity demand, NV creates savings which could be used to reduce either the fossil-fuel-based generation and...

  2. Estimating Energy and Cost Savings and Emissions Reductions for the State Energy Program Based on Enumeration Indicators Data

    Schweitzer, M.

    2003-02-06

    As part of an effort to produce metrics for quantifying the effects of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) State Energy Program (SEP), staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a classification scheme for describing the various state activities supported by SEP funds. This involved identifying a number of distinct program areas into which all of the various state SEP activities could be placed. Then, a set of ''enumeration indicators'' was developed to describe key activities within each of those areas. Although originally developed to count program activities, the enumeration indicators are used here as a basis for estimating the savings and emissions reductions achieved by the SEP. While there are additional benefits associated with the SEP, such as increased energy security and economic well-being, they are not addressed in this study.

  3. Energy and Energy Cost Savings Analysis of the 2015 IECC for Commercial Buildings

    Zhang, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    As required by statute (42 USC 6833), DOE recently issued a determination that ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would achieve greater energy efficiency in buildings subject to the code compared to the 2010 edition of the standard. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an energy savings analysis for Standard 90.1-2013 in support of its determination . While Standard 90.1 is the model energy standard for commercial and multi-family residential buildings over three floors (42 USC 6833), many states have historically adopted the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) for both residential and commercial buildings. This report provides an assessment as to whether buildings constructed to the commercial energy efficiency provisions of the 2015 IECC would save energy and energy costs as compared to the 2012 IECC. PNNL also compared the energy performance of the 2015 IECC with the corresponding Standard 90.1-2013. The goal of this analysis is to help states and local jurisdictions make informed decisions regarding model code adoption.

  4. Energy and Energy Cost Savings Analysis of the 2015 IECC for Commercial Buildings

    Zhang, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    As required by statute (42 USC 6833), DOE recently issued a determination that ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would achieve greater energy efficiency in buildings subject to the code compared to the 2010 edition of the standard. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an energy savings analysis for Standard 90.1-2013 in support of its determination . While Standard 90.1 is the model energy standard for commercial and multi-family residential buildings over three floors (42 USC 6833), many states have historically adopted the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) for both residential and commercial buildings. This report provides an assessment as to whether buildings constructed to the commercial energy efficiency provisions of the 2015 IECC would save energy and energy costs as compared to the 2012 IECC. PNNL also compared the energy performance of the 2015 IECC with the corresponding Standard 90.1-2013. The goal of this analysis is to help states and local jurisdictions make informed decisions regarding model code adoption.

  5. Energy efficiency monitoring and economic analysis for energy saving potential in UNITEN

    This paper discusses on energy efficiency survey for typical buildings in Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN). Undeniably, wastage of energy will cause the increase of operation cost and depletion of fossil fuel resources which contributes to the climate change issue in the world. UNITEN was commenced in the late 1990s and most of the buildings in this university are not equipped with energy management system. Such system is the solution to reduce energy use while maximizing the comfort levels of the occupants. Disregard to the energy management system, the implementation of other energy saving measures is the main objective of this paper. By taking the right measures, the energy wastage in the buildings of this university can be reduced.

  6. Energy-saving options for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from the Mongolian energy sector

    Dorjpurev, J.; Purevjal, O.; Erdenechimeg, Ch. [and others

    1996-12-31

    The Energy sector is the largest contributor to GHG emission in Mongolia. The Energy sector emits 54 percent of CO2 and 4 percent of methane. All emissions of other greenhouse gases are accounted from energy related activities. The activities in this sector include coal production, fuel combustion, and biomass combustion at the thermal power stations and in private houses (stoves) for heating purposes. This paper presents some important Demand-side options considered for mitigation of CO2 emissions from energy sector such as Energy Conservation in Industrial Sector and in Buildings. Changes in energy policies and programmes in the Mongolian situation that promote more efficient and sustainable practices are presented in the paper. These energy saving measures will not only help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but will also promote economic development and alleviate other environmental problems.

  7. The Global Trend of Energy Saving and Carbon Reducing in Post-Kyoto Protocol Era

    Chih-Lun Chen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with increased focus on extreme global climates, the drastic population growth, and the exhaustion of resources, humanity has a greater need for and reliance on intelligent, technology-enhanced living, as well as more effective means of production. Being sustainable, green, and environmentally friendly is becoming more and more a global priority. Energy saving and carbon reduction are the keys to achieving intelligent living, clean production, and environmental responsibility. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED convened in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. One hundred and fifty five countries jointly signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC. This treaty and the Conference of the Parties are the origins of the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol became effective in February, 2005, and required 38 industrially developed countries in the European Union and the United States to reduce emissions of six kinds of greenhouse gases, including CO2, from their 1990 levels by a further 5.2%, which equates to about 12.86 billion tons between 2008 and 2012. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC stated in the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4 [1], issued in 2007, that global warming resulted from anthropogenic global warming (AGW. In addition, AGW further caused extreme climates, melting icecaps, and rising sea levels. Although the causes and effects have been debated among nations, it is undeniable that global warming resulted in the wheat-producing areas of the world moving north, as well as the clear opening of the Northwest Passage, which has facilitated the exploitation of the resources in the polar region. Russia, the United States, Canada, Denmark, and Norway have all longed to benefit from the resources in the polar region. Sustainability and development are now not only environmental issues, but also political and economic battlefields for nations.In 2012, with

  8. Measured energy savings and cost-effectiveness of conservation retrofits in commercial buildings

    In this study, the authors examine the measured savings and cost-effectiveness of 447 commercial retrofit projects in the US, Canada, and Europe, representing over 1,700 buildings. For these projects, they examine savings and cost-effectiveness by building type and retrofit strategy, savings from individual measures, peak electric demand savings, comparisons of measured vs. predicted savings, and the persistence of savings in the years following a retrofit. Median annual site energy savings amounted to 20 kBtu/ft2, or 18% of whole-building usage; median retrofit cost was $0.56/ft2 (1988 $), the median payback time was 3.1 years, and the median cost of conserved energy was $3.10/site MBtu. When examined by retrofit strategy, they found that projects with only HVAC and/or lighting retrofits had median payback times of one to three years, while those affecting the building shell, either alone or in combination with other types of measures, had payback times of five or more years. Projects in which only maintenance practices were changed typically saved 12% of their pre-retrofit consumption, often using in-house labor. Their research suggests that, despite significant savings and short payback times for the majority of projects, optimum savings are often not being achieved, due to limited owner willingness to invest in all cost-effective measures, as well as to improper retrofit installation and/or maintenance. A comprehensive understanding of energy management as a process is needed, including both inspection and commissioning of installed retrofits and ongoing tracking of energy consumption as an indicator of operating problems

  9. Oil Crisis, Energy-Saving Technological Change and the Stock Market Crash of 1973-74

    Alpanda, Sami; Peralta-Alva, Adrian

    2004-01-01

    The market value of U.S. corporations was nearly halved following the Oil Crisis of October 1973. Real energy prices more than doubled by the end of the decade, increasing energy costs and spurring innovation in energy-saving technologies by corporations. This paper uses a neo- classical growth model to quantify the impact of the increase in energy prices on the market value of U.S. corporations. In the model, corporations adopt energy-saving technologies as a response to the energy price sho...

  10. A research of green taxation policy for promoting energy saving and emission reduction

    Zhang Wen

    2009-01-01

    relevant to green taxation in the current taxation system, such as resource tax, consumer tax, and so on; collecting new environmental tax; perfecting the preferential taxation policies for the energy saving and environmental protection industries.

  11. DYNAMIC ENERGY SAVING IN BUILDINGS WITH UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM – EXPERIMENTAL AND SIMULATION STUDIES

    The present study is aimed at seeking a better understanding of the thermodynamics involved with the air distribution strategies associated with UFAD systems and its impact on the energy saving dynamics. Thus objectives are: Experiment...

  12. Energy saving mechanisms, collective behavior and the variation range hypothesis in biological systems: A review

    Trenchard, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    Energy saving mechanisms are ubiquitous in nature. Aerodynamic and hydrodynamic drafting, vortice uplift, Bernoulli suction, thermoregulatory coupling, path following, physical hooks, synchronization, and cooperation are only some of the better-known examples. While drafting mechanisms also appear in non-biological systems such as sedimentation and particle vortices, the broad spectrum of these mechanisms appears more diversely in biological systems including bacteria, spermatozoa, various aquatic species, birds, land animals, semi-fluid dwellers like turtle hatchlings, as well as human systems. We present the thermodynamic framework for energy saving mechanisms, and we review evidence in favor of the variation range hypothesis. This hypothesis posits that, as an evolutionary process, the variation range between strongest and weakest group members converges on the equivalent energy saving quantity that is generated by the energy saving mechanism. We also review self-organized structures that emerge due to ene...

  13. FMC Chemicals: Burner Management System Upgrade Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Chemical Plant

    None

    2004-07-01

    FMC Chemicals Corporation increased the efficiency of two large coal-fired boilers at its soda ash mine in Green River, Wyoming, by upgrading the burner management system. The project yields annual energy savings of 250,000 MMBtu.

  14. Application of genetic algorithm to the design optimization of complex energy saving glass coating structure

    Attenuation of GSM, GPS and personal communication signal leads to poor communication inside the building using regular shapes of energy saving glass coating. Thus, the transmission is very low. A brand new type of band pass frequency selective surface (FSS) for energy saving glass application is presented in this paper for one unit cell. Numerical Periodic Method of Moment approach according to a previous study has been applied to determine the new optimum design of one unit cell energy saving glass coating structure. Optimization technique based on the Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to obtain an improved in return loss and transmission signal. The unit cell of FSS is designed and simulated using the CST Microwave Studio software at based on industrial, scientific and medical bands (ISM). A unique and irregular shape of an energy saving glass coating structure is obtained with lower return loss and improved transmission coefficient.

  15. Developments in indoor sustainable plant production with emphasis on energy saving

    Bot, G.P.A.

    2001-01-01

    In conventional greenhouse crop production the high level of energy input conflicts with international agreements on reduction of CO2 emission. To reduce absolute energy consumption, energy friendly greenhouse systems have to be designed. If today's available technology is applied energy saving will

  16. Energy saving in greenhouses can be obtained by energy balance-controlled screens

    Andersson, N. E. (Univ. of Aarhus, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Horticulture, Aarslev (Denmark)), e-mail: niels.andersson@agrsci.dk

    2011-03-15

    The energy screens in two greenhouses, one clad with double acrylic and one with single glass, were controlled by an energy balance model. The parameters in the model were heat transmission coefficients, air temperature in the greenhouse and outdoors, irradiance and a single constant for the solar energy efficiency. The energy consumption, screen movements and daily light integral were compared with a glass greenhouse in which the energy screens were controlled by irradiance. In the greenhouse with light-controlled screens the set point for opening and closing of the screens was 5 Wm-2. The energy-saving screens controlled by the energy balance model opened later and closed earlier than in the greenhouse with light-controlled screens. When using the energy balance model the energy saving was 14% for the glass greenhouse and 41% for the double acrylic greenhouse compared with the glass greenhouse with light-controlled screens. The air temperature was on average similar in the three greenhouses, but when the screens were controlled by energy balance the daily light integral was approximately 10% lower and the number of hours the screens were closed was prolonged with 35% for the glass-covered greenhouse and 25% for the double acrylic-covered greenhouse compared with the greenhouse with light-controlled screens. Energy peaks in connection with operation of the screens were not reduced. During the experiment Begonia elatior, Dendranthema grandiflora (Chrysanthemum), Hedera helix, Helianthus annuus, Gerbera jamesonii and Kalanchoe blossfeldiana were grown in the greenhouses. There was a trend in prolongation of the production time when the plants were grown in the glass greenhouse with energy balance control of the screens. A lower number of flowers or inflorescences were observed for some of the plant species produced in the greenhouses with energy balance-controlled screens

  17. Data on energy saving measures on the basis of real consumption data

    On assignment of NLAgency, RIGO and ECN have established the indicative savings of energy saving measures in existing dwellings based on actual (measured) energy use data. This is done with statistical analysis on a database with energy uses and data on energy saving measures in dwellings. This database is made by combination of data on dwellings from the energy label database of NLAgency and registrations of actual electricity and gas use from the customer files of Statistics Netherlands. The energy label database contains the data used for the label calculation of the dwellings that have received a label. The information consists of the heating system, the type of boiler, insulation, the type of glass, the type of ventilation system, but also the type of dwelling, the size of the dwelling and the year of construction. Linkage of these databases by Statistics Netherlands leads to a file containing data on over 600.000 dwellings. The relations between energy saving measures and energy cannot simply be calculated by comparing average uses of dwellings with a high-efficiency boiler and dwellings with an improved-efficiency boiler. After all, these dwellings will most likely have more differences with regard to other features (for example the extent to which double glazing has been installed). Comparison of these averages would lead to an overestimation of the effect of implementing a high-efficiency boiler. The energy use in dwellings that have a high-efficiency boiler is expected to be lower because of a combination of (other) measures. To arrive at useful statements about savings and effects, certain features of the dwellings and other measures were verified in the analyses. A statistical check of variables examines whether the variable has any influence on a (possible) relation, and if this is true, the influence is subsequently 'corrected' mathematically. The statistical analysis has not only been conducted for the actual energy use data from the customer files

  18. Design of Energy Saving Windows with High Transmission at 900 MHz and 1800 MHz

    Widenberg, Björn; Rodriguez, José Victor

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on the radio wave propagation through energy saving windows. These panes have a metallic shielding that keeps the heat inside the building during winter and outside during summer. Unfortunately, this covering also has an opaque behaviour at microwave frequencies. A design of energy saving window panes with high transmission at 900MHz and 1800MHz is presented. The high transmission is obtained by perforating the metallic shielding with narrow slits so that ...

  19. Analysis of Installed Measures and Energy Savings for Single-Family Residential Better Buildings Projects

    Heaney, M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Polly, B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-30

    This report presents an analysis of data for residential single-family projects reported by 37 organizations that were awarded federal financial assistance (cooperative agreements or grants) by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Neighborhood Program.1 The report characterizes the energy-efficiency measures installed for single-family residential projects and analyzes energy savings and savings prediction accuracy for measures installed in a subset of those projects.

  20. Energy-saving operation of a converter-fed synchronous machine

    Schmidt, I.; Veszpremi, K. [Technical University of Budapest, Department of Electrical Machines and Drives, Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-12-31

    In the Converter-Fed Synchronous Machine (CFSM) there is no need for forced commutation the CL and CF converters operate with line commutation, the CM is commutated by the machine voltages. This drive is applied mainly for large power and high speed controlled drives. Considering the large power, the investigation of energy-saving operation is important. As in the DC and the induction motor drives the energy-saving operation is implemented by flux control. (orig.) 6 refs.

  1. A research on an energy-saving software for pumping units based on FNN intelligent control

    丁宝; 齐维贵; 王凤平

    2004-01-01

    An energy-saving scheme for pumping units via intermission start-stop performance is proposed. Because of the complexity of the oil extraction process, Fuzzy Neural Network (FNN) intelligent control is adopted. The structure of the Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy neural network model is introduced and modified. FNNs are trained with sample information from oil fields and expert knowledge. Finally, pumping unit energy-saving FNN software, which cuts down power costs substantially, is presented.

  2. An approach for holistic energy retrofitting based on assessment of economic viability and durability of energy saving measures

    Morelli, Martin

    saving measures and forget to consider, whether it is more prudent to demolished the building and erect a new building. An evaluation approach is presented to assess whether to retrofit an existing building or to demolish and replace it. The primary concept of the method is to develop a retrofitting...... proposal with a profitably combination of energy saving measures. The cost of the combination of energy saving measures is evaluated against the cost of demolishing the existing building and erecting a new building including consideration of maintenance costs and operational costs. The energy price is used...

  3. Model projections and policy reviews for energy saving in China's service sector

    Energy efficiency of buildings in the service sector is becoming increasingly important in China due to the structural shift of the economy from industry to services. This paper employs a bottom-up cohort model to simulate current energy saving policies and to make projections for future energy use and CO2 emissions for the period 2000–2030 in the Chinese service sector. The analysis shows that energy demand in the service sector will approximately triple in 2030, far beyond the target of quadrupling GDP while only doubling energy use. However, it is feasible to achieve the target of emission reduction by 40% in 2020 even under the poor state of compliance rate of building standard. This paper also highlights four crucial aspects of designing optimal energy saving policies for China's service sector based on the model results. - Highlights: • Government energy saving target cannot realize with current policies in services. • Energy savings policies for new buildings are crucial than building retrofitting. • Cooling energy use increases significantly to reach equal weight as heating. • CO2 tax can contribute to change in fuel mix, and thus emission reductions. • Low compliance rate limits further energy saving, hence green fund is required

  4. Energy Savings Modelling of Re-tuning Energy Conservation Measures in Large Office Buildings

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Liu, Guopeng

    2014-10-20

    Today, many large commercial buildings use sophisticated building automation systems (BASs) to manage a wide range of building equipment. While the capabilities of BASs have increased over time, many buildings still do not fully use the BAS’s capabilities and are not properly commissioned, operated or maintained, which leads to inefficient operation, increased energy use, and reduced lifetimes of the equipment. This paper investigates the energy savings potential of several common HVAC system re-tuning measures on a typical large office building, using the Department of Energy’s building energy modeling software, EnergyPlus. The baseline prototype model uses roughly as much energy as an average large office building in existing building stock, but does not utilize any re-tuning measures. Individual re-tuning measures simulated against this baseline include automatic schedule adjustments, damper minimum flow adjustments, thermostat adjustments, as well as dynamic resets (set points that change continuously with building and/or outdoor conditions) to static pressure, supply-air temperature, condenser water temperature, chilled and hot water temperature, and chilled and hot water differential pressure set points. Six combinations of these individual measures have been formulated – each designed to conform to limitations to implementation of certain individual measures that might exist in typical buildings. All the individual measures and combinations were simulated in 16 climate locations representative of specific U.S. climate zones. The modeling results suggest that the most effective energy savings measures are those that affect the demand-side of the building (air-systems and schedules). Many of the demand-side individual measures were capable of reducing annual total HVAC system energy consumption by over 20% in most cities that were modeled. Supply side measures affecting HVAC plant conditions were only modestly successful (less than 5% annual HVAC energy

  5. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 Schools--30% Energy Savings

    Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.; Long, N.

    2007-09-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings (K-12 AEDG), a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 30% energy savings in K-12 Schools over levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. The 30% energy savings target is the first step toward achieving net-zero energy schools; schools that, on an annual basis, draw from outside sources less or equal energy than they generate on site from renewable energy sources.

  6. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Appliances

    Zogg, Robert [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Ahlfeldt, Christopher [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Hiraiwa, Hirokazu [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sathe, Amul [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This study characterizes and assesses the appliances used in commercial buildings. The primary objectives of this study were to document the energy consumed by commercial appliances and identify research, development and demonstration (RD&D) opportunities for efficiency improvements, excluding product categories such as HVAC, building lighting, refrigeration equipment, and distributed generation systems. The study included equipment descriptions, characteristics of the equipment’s market, national energy consumption, estimates of technical potential for energy-saving technologies, and recommendations for U.S. Department of Energy programs that can promote energy savings in commercial appliances.

  7. Measures and potentials of energy-saving in a Chinese fine chemical industrial park

    This study aims to fill the gap in the literature on energy efficiency and economic analysis of energy-saving measures at the industrial park level by conducting a case study of a typical fine chemical industrial park in China. Based on a five-year intensive data collection, the authors quantitatively examined the energy consumption and energy efficiency of the industrial park in question and evaluated the energy-saving potentials and cost-effectiveness of ten types of energy-saving measures by means of a bottom-up method and scenario analysis. It was found that the energy efficiencies of its two combined heat and power plants in 2007 were 81.5% and 56% respectively. Energy efficiency of the fine chemical industrial park was around 4625.7 GJ per million USD of gross industrial output value, which was only between 20% and 25% of that of the sector of manufacturing raw chemical materials and chemical products in China. The energy-saving potentials of the ten measures amount to about 11% of energy consumption of the industrial park in 2007. A total capital investment of approximately 35 million USD would be needed to realise the potentials. The technical measures explored in the study are generally replicable in other Chinese fine chemical industrial parks. -- Highlights: ► We studied energy-saving potentials and cost on a fine chemical industrial park scale. ► Energy efficiency is 4625.7 GJ/million USD and 97 GJ per tonne-total-organic-carbon-output. ► Bottom-up method and scenario analysis are used to value ten measures' cost-effect. ► Ten measures have 11% energy-saving potential based on energy consumption in 2007. ► Total invest about 35 million USD is needed to realize the potential.

  8. Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades Versus Cost-Optimized Solutions

    Yee, S.; Milby, M.; Baker, J.

    2014-06-01

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR(R) (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for fifteen Chicagoland single family housing archetypes, called housing groups. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these fifteen housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations. Additionally, a measure-level sensitivity analysis conducted for one housing group reveals which measures may be contributing the most to gas and electric savings. Overall, the study finds not only that for some housing groups, the average IHP retrofit results in more energy savings than would result from cost-optimal, BEopt recommended measure packages, but also that linking home categorization to standardized retrofit measure packages provides an opportunity to streamline the process for single family home energy retrofits and maximize both energy savings and cost-effectiveness.

  9. Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades vs. Cost-Optimized Solutions; Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    2014-07-01

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for fifteen Chicagoland single family housing archetypes, called housing groups. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these fifteen housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations. Additionally, a measure-level sensitivity analysis conducted for one housing group reveals which measures may be contributing the most to gas and electric savings. Overall, the study finds not only that for some housing groups, the average IHP retrofit results in more energy savings than would result from cost-optimal, BEopt-recommended measure packages, but also that linking home categorization to standardized retrofit measure packages provides an opportunity to streamline the process for single family home energy retrofits and maximize both energy savings and cost-effectiveness.

  10. Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades Versus Cost-Optimized Solutions

    Yee, S. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Milby, M. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Baker, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for 15 Chicagoland single family housing archetypes. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these 15 housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations. Additionally, a measure-level sensitivity analysis conducted for one housing group reveals which measures may be contributing the most to gas and electric savings. Overall, the study finds not only that for some housing groups, the average IHP retrofit results in more energy savings than would result from cost-optimal, BEopt recommended measure packages, but also that linking home categorization to standardized retrofit measure packages provides an opportunity to streamline the process for single family home energy retrofits and maximize both energy savings and cost effectiveness.

  11. Wooden facade decor in the aspect of energy saving

    Samol'kina Elena Grigor'evna

    2014-09-01

    most common facing materials of natural origin include wooden facades. Demand for such kind of structures in contemporary architecture is explained by wide possibilities of architectural and artistic facades. Facade decor made of wood is various, it tends to be unusual, with exclusive forms, eliminating unnecessary luxury. Valuable wood panels, board with logs imitation, block house, facade boards (planken, the wood tile (shingle, etc. can be used in decoration. A large number of wooden facing materials allow to create wooden facades of different styles, and the texture and wood shades form a harmonious environment. Among the various methods of using wooden decor the most common technique is outplaying of wood texture. Wood is treated with special impregnation to give effect of the natural aging, wood is also tinted, creating a color contrast of house planes, and then is coloured, imitating the texture of precious wood. Wooden facade decor fully solves not only the problem of architectural expressiveness of structures, but also the problem of energy saving, which is especially important in the context of the global crisis. The unique capabilities of the tree, its ability to be in harmony with other materials form a comfortable environment, providing a favorable psychological impact.

  12. Selected bibliography: cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy technologies

    None

    1980-05-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of reports on the cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy applications throughout the United States. It is part of an overall effort to inform utilities of technological developments in conservation and renewable energy technologies and so aid utilities in their planning process to determine the most effective and economic combination of capital investments to meet customer needs. Department of Energy assessments of the applications, current costs and cost goals for the various technologies included in this bibliography are presented. These assessments are based on analyses performed by or for the respective DOE Program Offices. The results are sensitive to a number of variables and assumptions; however, the estimates presented are considered representative. These assessments are presented, followed by some conclusions regarding the potential role of the conservation and renewable energy alternative. The approach used to classify the bibliographic citations and abstracts is outlined.

  13. Effect of the catalyzing combustion of coke breeze on the energy saving in sinter process

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of additive ZC-1 for catalyzing combustion of coke breeze in sintering of iron one fines was studied by using X-ray Diffraction, TGA and GC (Gas Chromatographer), by which energy saving was achieved on sinter pot test. The results show that the distance between cleavage planes is enlarged and the π-electrons are re-distibuted because of the insertion of cations/molecules of ZC-1 into the cleavage planes of carbon , resulting in the weakening of C-C bond, improving the adsorption of oxygen and lowering the activation energy of gasification of carbon from 25.8 kJ/mol to 18.9 kJ/mol , and the burning rate being increased and combustion residual reduced, all of which can lead to lower solid fuel consumption . Compared with the sintering test without addition of additives , the solid fuel consumption is reduced by 16.0%, meanwhile, the rate of finished sinter, the output of finished sinter and the tumbling index are increased by 2.03%, 7.0% and 3.71%, respectively, with incorporating 0.2% of additive ZC-1 in the sintering mixture, which is in agreement with the catalyzing mechanism of ZC-1.

  14. The influences of financial and non-financial factors on energy-saving behaviour: A field experiment in Japan

    This study examines the influences of financial and non-financial factors on electricity-conservation behaviour. A random sample of 236 Japanese households participated in the field experiment and the participants were offered two interventions, such as monetary rewards, depending on their reduction in electricity consumption and comparative feedback. The average saving rates of the (i) reward-intervention group (5.9%) and the (ii) reward with comparative feedback group (8.2%) are statistically larger than those of the (iii) control group (1.7%). Our study demonstrates the following. First, our econometric analysis confirmed a significant response by households to financial incentives but a more inconclusive response to the treatment that provided non-financial, additional information. Second, we found a positive influence of treatment externalities across time and households on energy saving. Third, there is a heterogeneous treatment effect in the reward-intervention group, with the households having a high New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) score being more likely to respond to the reward programme and save electricity than those that do not. Finally, and most interestingly, differences in responses to the questionnaire before and after the experiment suggest that the participants had underestimated the marginal costs of saving electricity before they actually started to do so. - highlights: • We studied the effects of (non-)financial factors on household electricity use. • Financial factors had a significant effect; non-financial ones were inconclusive. • Externalities had a positive effect across time and households on saving energy. • There is a heterogeneous treatment effect in financial-reward intervention. • Before the experiment, participants underestimated the marginal costs of saving electricity

  15. A comprehensive framework to quantify energy savings potential from improved operations of commercial building stocks

    While studies highlight the significant impact of actions performed by occupants and facility managers on building energy performance, current policies ignore the importance of human actions and the potential energy savings from a more efficient operation of building systems. This is mainly attributed to the lack of methods that evaluate non-technological drivers of energy use for large stocks of commercial buildings to support policy making efforts. Therefore, this study proposes a scientific approach to quantifying the energy savings potential due to improved operations of any stock of commercial buildings. The proposed framework combines energy modeling techniques, studies on human actions in buildings, and surveying and sampling methods. The contributions of this study to energy policy are significant as they reinforce the role of human actions in energy conservation, and support efforts to integrate operation-focused solutions in energy conservation policy frameworks. The framework's capabilities are illustrated in a case study performed on the stock of office buildings in the United States (US). Results indicate a potential 21 percent reduction in the current energy use levels of these buildings through realistic changes in current building operation patterns. - Highlights: • Human actions highly influence energy performance of commercial building stocks. • It is challenging to quantify operation-related energy savings potential. • The proposed framework quantifies potential energy savings from improved operations. • The framework can be applied on any stock of commercial buildings. • Applications include support for operation-focused solutions in energy policies

  16. Technical Support Document: Strategies for 50% Energy Savings in Large Office Buildings

    Leach, M.; Lobato, C.; Hirsch, A.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2010-09-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) documents technical analysis that informs design guidance for designing and constructing large office buildings that achieve 50% net site energy savings over baseline buildings defined by minimal compliance with respect to ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004. This report also represents a step toward developing a methodology for using energy modeling in the design process to achieve aggressive energy savings targets. This report documents the modeling and analysis methods used to identify design recommendations for six climate zones that capture the range of U.S. climate variability; demonstrates how energy savings change between ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 and Standard 90.1-2004 to determine baseline energy use; uses a four-story 'low-rise' prototype to analyze the effect of building aspect ratio on energy use intensity; explores comparisons between baseline and low-energy building energy use for alternate energy metrics (net source energy, energy emissions, and energy cost); and examines the extent to which glass curtain construction limits achieve energy savings by using a 12-story 'high-rise' prototype.

  17. Saving Energy and Money: A Lesson in Computer Power Management

    Lazaros, Edward J.; Hua, David

    2012-01-01

    In this activity, students will develop an understanding of the economic impact of technology by estimating the cost savings of power management strategies in the classroom. Students will learn how to adjust computer display settings to influence the impact that the computer has on the financial burden to the school. They will use mathematics to…

  18. Auditing for energy savings: Do we really need Star Wars technology and the third decimal place?

    Mull, T.D.

    1997-11-01

    Over the past twenty years the author has had the opportunity to review a number of commercial and industrial audits. Many seem to fall into one of two categories; sufficiently vague or too detailed. In dealing directly with customers he has found that most simply want accurate reproducible results. For a report to be meaningful to a customer and stand any chance of having its recommendations implemented, it must: (1) Reflect results based on the customer`s goals and objectives. If a customer`s reason for having the audit is to minimize energy expenditures, the report must focus on rate-released options, as well as energy improvements. For example, certain load factor or demand based rates with low charges may actually provide a disincentive to saving. Customers have purposely used additional energy or increased their peak demand in order to qualify for a lower rate. While this is not sound energy or environmental reasoning, it does meet the customer`s goal and should be addressed. (2) Reflect results based on the customer`s economic criteria. If a customer has a specific firm payback or ROI limitation, it is fruitless to include high-tech strategies or recommendations that do not conform. However, it is always best to test the firmness of their criteria. Do they really mean two years, or will they consider a three year payback? (3) Provide sufficiently accurate information (but not too detailed) for the customer to make an informed decision and assure them that the projected savings will result. Customers with a sound technical understanding of their facility, or even those with a limited technical background, are often skeptical of reports that predict results too precisely. While this may appear to be a reasonably straightforward simple task, for many it is not. The paper takes a brief look at the two types of reports (the vague and the detailed) and sees how they stack up in overall effectiveness.

  19. Study and Development of near-Infrared Reflective and Absorptive Materials for Energy Saving Application

    Cui, Yu Xing

    Near-Infrared (NIR) materials find applications in the field of energy saving. Both NIR reflective and absorptive materials can be used as energy saving materials with different working principles. The reflective materials can reflect the NIR light preventing it from being transmitted. Silver thin films are the best option as reflective films based on its reflectivity and cost. On the other hand, NIR absorptive materials can effectively convert the absorbed NIR light from sunlight to heat or electric energy. The first part of this research explored methods of preparing silver thin films that could be processed at low cost. The second part involved the design, synthesis and characterization of nickel coordination polymers as NIR absorptive materials. In part 1, different solution based methods of preparing silver thin films were studied. A silver nanoparticles solution was used to make thin film by a spray-pyrolysis process. Another method involved the surface activation with a fluoro-compound or silver nanoparticles followed by electroless silver plating on different substrates. Both methods could be processed at low cost. The obtained silver films showed NIR reflection of 50˜90% with transmission of 15-28% in the visible region. In part 2, two Nickel coordination polymers were explored. Tetraamino compounds were used as bridging ligands to increase the scope of electronic delocalization and metal-ligand orbital overlap which would reduce the energy gap to the NIR region. As a result, both polymers showed broad NIR absorption with maximum of 835 and 880 nm, respectively. In addition, the polymer showed NIR halochromism. This ground study pointed out both Ni coordination polymers as NIR absorptive materials with NIR halochromism.

  20. Analysis of Energy Saving and Efficiency Action Plan 2008-2012 in Spain for the

    Fernández, Yolanda; A. J. Gutiérrez; Paredes, J.P. (José); Xiberta, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency is considered one of the most cost effective ways to enhance security of energy supply and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. According to Europe’s Energy Efficiency Plan, the biggest energy saving potential in the EU lies in the built environment. Spanish authorities, aiming to guarantee the energy supply and also to abide with the environmental restrictions, have established the National Energy Efficiency Action Plans (NEEAP), the 2008-2012 Plan is the first one and the 2011...

  1. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction (E-SMARRT): Precision Casting of Steel

    Dr. Von L. Richards

    2011-09-30

    the end of the casting opposite the gate. (3) It is recommended that lost foam castings in steel be gated for a quiescent fill in an empty cavity mold to prevent foam occlusion defects from the collapse mode. The energy benefit is primarily in yield savings and lower casting weight per function due to elimination of draft and parting lines for the larger lost foam castings. For the smaller investment casting, scrap losses due to shell cracking will be reduced. Both of these effects will reduce the metal melted per good ton of castings. There will also be less machine stock required per casting which is a yield savings and a small additional energy savings in machining. Downstream savings will come from heavy truck and railroad applications. Application of these processes to heavy truck castings will lighten the heavy truck fleet by about ten pounds per truck. Using ten years to achieve full penetration of the truck fleet at linear rate this will result in a fuel savings of 131 trillion BTU over ten years.

  2. Uncertainty in Odyssee indicators and energy savings. Development of a methodology and first results

    Boonekamp, P.G.M.; Gerdes, J. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Faberi, S. [Institute of Studies for the Integration of Systems ISIS, Rome (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    The ODYSSEE database on energy efficiency indicators (www.odyssee-indicators.org) has been set up to enable the monitoring and evaluation of realised energy efficiency improvements and related energy savings. The database covers the 27 EU countries as well as Norway and Croatia. Energy indicators that relate energy consumption to a physical output (ton of steel), a performance (person-km driven per car) or the number of energy using devices (refrigerators) can show the increase in energy efficiency realised, and the amount of energy saved. By aggregating indicators, Odyssee calculates energy efficiency indices by sector and for the whole economy (so-called ODEX), in order to evaluate overall energy efficiency progress. This work contributes to the growing need for quantitative monitoring and evaluation of the impacts of energy policies and measures, both at the EU and national level, e.g. due to the Energy Service Directive. Because of the central role of Odyssee indicators in policy evaluations it becomes more important to know how reliable the Odyssee figures are, or in other words, what is the uncertainty margin for the indicator values and the related savings. This report presents a first analysis of uncertainty margins in the indicators and savings figures. The work builds on earlier work in the preceding Odyssee project with regard to the quality of input data used in Odyssee.

  3. A study on energy saving rate for variable speed condition of multistage centrifugal pump

    Suh, Sang-Ho; Rakibuzzaman; Kim, Kyung-Wuk; Kim, Hyoung-Ho; Yoon, In Sik; Cho, Min-Tae

    2015-11-01

    Centrifugal pumps are being widely used in many industrial and commercial applications. Many of these pumps are being operated at constant speed but could provide energy savings through adjustable speed operations. The purpose of this study was to get the energy saving rates of the multistage centrifugal pump with variable speed conditions. For this investigation an experimental set up of variable flow and pressure system was made to get energy saving rates and numerical analyses are applied to validate the pump performance. The energy saving and therefore the cost saving depends on the specific duty cycle of which the machine operates. Duty cycle is the proportion of time during which a component, device and system is operated. The duty cycle segmented into different flow rates and weighting the average value for each segment by the interval time. The system was operated at 50% or less of the pump capacity. The input power of the system was carried out by pump characteristics curve of each operating point. The energy consumption was done by the product of specific duty cycle and the input power of the system for constant speed and variable speed drive operation. The total energy consumed for constant speed drive pump was 75,770 kW.hr and for variable speed drive pump was 31,700 kW.hr. The total energy saving of the system was 44,070 kW.hr or 58.16% annually. So, this paper suggests a method of implementing an energy saving on variable-flow and pressure system of the multistage centrifugal pump.

  4. Analysis of potential energy saving and CO2 emission reduction of home appliances and commercial equipments in China

    China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for over 30 appliances, voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products, and a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This paper uses modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO2 emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, under development or those proposed for development in 2010 under three scenarios that differ in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. In addition to a baseline 'frozen efficiency' scenario at 2009 MEPS level, the 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best-practice efficiency in broad commercial use today in 2014. This paper concludes that under 'CIS', cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO2 emissions of energy used for all 37 products would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO2 emissions reduction of energy used for 11 appliances would be 35% lower. - Highlights: → Strengthened efficiency standards decelerate electricity demand growth but total demand rises through 2030. → Continuous improvement of current standards can achieve cumulative reduction of 9503 TWh by 2030. → International best-practice efficiency for selected products reduces 5450 TWh cumulatively by 2030. → Regularly updated standards can achieve most of energy savings as best practice by 2014.

  5. Public participation in energy saving retrofitting of residential buildings in China

    Highlights: • We compare public participation in three early cases of residential retrofitting in Beijing. • Residents’ involvement in pre-retrofit activities as well as in the choice and use of technologies varied. • More involvement of residents during retrofitting improves energy saving performance. • Taking into account motives and energy use practices of residents improves energy saving through retrofitting. - Abstract: Retrofitting existing residential buildings has been claimed as one crucial way to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions within the Chinese residential sector. In China’s government-dominated retrofitting projects, the participation of residents is often neglected. The objective of this paper is to assess the influence level of public participation (before, during and after retrofit) on energy saving by comparing three Beijing neighborhoods with different retrofitting models: a central government-led model, a local government-led model, and an old neighborhood retrofit model. In the three cases data were collected through interviews with neighborhood workers and residents. The results show that residents’ involvement in pre-retrofit activities, in technology selection and in the use of technology differs greatly among the three cases. This study concludes that in order to improve the effectiveness of energy saving interventions, the motives, intentions and living habits of residents need to be given more consideration when designing and implementing retrofitting. By highlighting the importance of public participation this paper contributes to energy saving policy development in China

  6. Energy Savings from GSA's National Deep Retrofit Program

    Shonder, John A [ORNL

    2014-09-01

    Under its National Deep Energy Retrofit (NDER) program, the U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) awarded 10 ESPC projects with the objectives of using innovative technologies and renewable energy technologies, and moving buildings toward net zero energy consumption. This report analyzes data on energy savings from the 10 NDER projects, and compares them with the savings of a sample of other recently awarded Federal ESPC projects. It is shown that by emphasizing the need for deeper energy savings, and by the establishment of a central Project Management Office (PMO) to provide authoritative contracting, technical and pricing assistance, the NDER projects achieved an average level of savings more than twice that of the other Federal ESPC projects. The level of savings achieved in each project seems to be dependent more on the availability of ECMs at the site than on energy price, energy cost per square foot, pre-retrofit EUI or the length of the contract term. This suggests that GSA can achieve similar results in a wide variety of building

  7. The level of consumer knowledge and consumer`s needs regarding energy saving. The questionnaire distributed at Pietarsaari housing fair; Tutkimus energiansaeaestoetiedon tasosta ja tarpeista. Pietarsaaren asuntomessuilla toteutettu kysely

    Muurinen, I.; Hopearuoho, H. [Viestintaetoimisto Infoplan, Helsinki (Finland)

    1994-12-31

    The objective of the communications study was to discover the level of consumer knowledge and consumers` needs regarding energy saving and to formulate effective means to put the message over. In addition, it was wanted to discover whether housing fairs were suitable and effective way of disseminating information about energy saving. The research is divided into qualitative and quantitative sections. The qualitative research was carried out by holding group discussions among consumers. The material for the communications research proper is based on a questionnaire distributed at the housing fair. This questionnaire was answered by 667 people. Cross-tabulation was used in analysing the research. The most important distributor of energy-saving information for the consumer is the electricity or energy company. The most typical means by which energy-saving information has been distributed is an electricity/energy company magazine or an information leaflet that comes with the electricity bill. Almost as important is the information acquired at fairs or exhibitions and from trade magazines. Nearly 30 % of respondents have begun to think about energy saving, started to look for ways to save energy, or to reduce consumption. The youngest age groups are most likely to have initiated discussion of energy saving within their families. It is believed that energy saving will have positive effects: prices of energy-saving machines and equipment will fall, an energy tax will be avoided, investments in energy-saving solutions will pay off. Nearly a fifth of respondents suspect that the price of electricity will rise in spite of any savings made

  8. A simple tool for estimating city-wide annual electrical energy savings from cooler surfaces

    Pomerantz, Melvin; Rosado, Pablo J.; Levinson, Ronnen M.

    2015-06-27

    We present a simple method to estimate the maximum possible electrical energy saving that might be achieved by increasing the albedo of surfaces in a large city. We restrict this to the “indirect effect”, the cooling of outside air that lessens the demand for air conditioning (AC). Given the power demand of the electric utilities and data about the city, we can use a single linear equation to estimate the maximum savings. For example, the result for an albedo change of 0.2 of pavements in a typical warm city in California, such as Sacramento, is that the saving is less than about 2 kWh per m2 per year. This may help decision makers choose which heat island mitigation techniques are economical from an energy-saving perspective.

  9. Assessment of energy saving technologies with potential for applications in US industries

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess and evaluate information on energy technologies displayed at international trade shows was assessed and evaluated. Technologies that had potential for saving energy in applications in US industries were identified. These technologies are identified and concise summaries on potential energy savings, economics, basic operational considerations, and potential applications are prepared. An objective of this study was to determine whether international trade shows can provide a convenient and useful forum for the identification of energy saving technologies which could have wider applications in US industry. Forty-four technologies were chosen for inclusion which are grouped into the following categories: heat recovery devices, heat exchangers, heat pumps, and various other technologies. Some of the technologies include: a low energy drying system, solid waste in cement manufacturing, boiler fuel optimization system, multifuel boiler plant and coal combustion efficiency improvements.

  10. Will ESD reporting using bottom-up energy savings calculations be a nightmare or the next step in a better understanding of national energy savings?

    Vreuls, Harry; Both, Dick (SenterNovem, The Hague (Netherlands)); Thomas, Stefan (Wuppertal Institute for Climate Environment Energy, Wuppertal (Germany)); Broc, Jean-Sebastien (Ecole des Mines de Nantes (France))

    2009-07-01

    The ESD (Energy Services Directive) requires that EU Member States increase their use of bottom-up energy savings calculations to report on the results of their energy efficiency policies. To make the results more comparable over the Member States harmonised methods should be developed and improved. The first experiences with this harmonisation process from the EMEEES project are presented in this paper. It starts with the introduction of the areas that could be dealt with in the harmonisation: the policies and measures, the individual appliances and installations and the aggregation level of a building, a company or an organisation. Each of them has its own characteristics and complexity to handle with. Some case applications (Voluntary Agreements, Energy Audits, Boilers and Building envelope of existing buildings) for bottom up energy savings calculations are presented to illustrate this. But if harmonisation should be realised for all these levels and economic sectors (industry, agriculture, transport, commercial and non-commercial services and households) it would results in thousands of pages with instructions. This would be a nightmare, but is there another way to reach improved harmonisation? The paper argues on what key elements the harmonisation should concentrate: a general structure for documentation of bottom-up energy savings, the selection of baseline and baseline parameters, and a dynamic approach to ensure improvement over time.

  11. Macro-economic effects of additional energy conservation in the European Community

    The aim of the title study is to evaluate the environmental and economic consequences of additional energy conservation in five Western European countries: the Netherlands, the Federal Republic of Germany, the United Kingdom, France and Italy. In the first part of the study the economic effects of a policy, in which additional energy conservation is realized only for the Netherlands, is calculated. In this report the results are presented. The calculated results of the economic effects of a coordinated energy conservation policy in the abovementioned countries will be published in a separate report. The effects of three policy variants will be evaluated: the non-financial policy variant, the shift of the financial burden variant, and the variant in which the levies are not compensated.The starting point for the first variant is an autonomous realization of the energy conservation. The basis of the second variant is that an equal amount of energy can be saved by means of a substantial energy levy. The profits of this levy can be used to reduce the financial burden of labour. For the economic calculations use has been made of the HERMES-model. Every member of the European Community has developed such a macro-economic model. In chapter two the different starting points for the calculations are outlined, with special attention to descriptions of the policy variants, the model-input and the basic projection. In chapter three the economic effects of the policy variants are presented and discussed. In chapter four the energy conservation and the environmental effects of the variants are dealt with. The most important conclusion of this study is that a considerable amount of energy can be saved, which will have positive effects on the economy and the environment. 8 figs., 20 tabs., 6 apps., 32 refs

  12. Intervention strategy to stimulate energy-saving behavior of local residents

    This study investigates intervention strategy in stimulating energy-saving behavior to achieve energy neutral urban development. A tree structure overview of potential interventions classified into three categories is revealed. An integrated behaviour model is developed reflecting the relations between behaviour and influence factors. A latent class model is used to identify segments of local residents who differ regarding their preferences for interventions. Data are collected from a sample of residents in the Eindhoven region of the Netherlands in 2010. The results indicate that social-demographic characteristics, knowledge, motivation and context factors play important roles in energy-saving behaviour. Specifically, four segments of residents in the study area were identified that clearly differed in their preferences of interventions: cost driven residents, conscious residents, ease driven residents and environment minded residents. These findings emphasize that the intervention strategy should be focused on specific target groups to have the right mixture of interventions to achieve effective results on stimulating them to save energy. - Highlights: ► A latent class model to identify segments with preferred energy-saving interventions. ► An integrated energy-saving behavior model of casual relations. ► A tree structure overview of potential interventions

  13. Risk control in energy saving projects; Control de riesgo en los proyectos de ahorro de energia

    Mills, Evan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    2005-10-15

    Since one of the restrictive problems when investing in energy saving is the uncertainty of obtaining the planed savings, a technique in the risk handling for energy efficiency projects, called Insurance for the Energy Saving (IES) is presented. IES economically stimulates those who implement projects for energy saving so they go beyond the normal measures and really obtain significant saving levels, thus contributing to the fulfillment of national objectives in energy saving. In order to reduce the risk of low performance in energy caused by saving projects there exist the international performance measurement and the protocol of investment (IMPVP) as well as diagnoses and starting processes, whereas in order to transfer the financial risk that a saving project represents, mechanisms such as FDIC insurance, conversion of the debt in values, Saving's Guarantees, Performance Bonuses or Guarantee Bonuses and Insurances for Energy Saving can be of great help. This article deals on the IES insurance policies, their loss control management, successful cases, benefits, particular advantages, place in the market and refers argued insurance exceptions and perception surveys. [Spanish] Dado que uno de los problemas restrictivos a la hora de invertir en el ahorro de energia es la incertidumbre de obtener los ahorros proyectados, se presenta una tecnica en el manejo del riesgo para proyectos de eficiencia energetica llamada Seguro para el Ahorro de Energia (SAE). SAE estimula financieramente a quienes implementan proyectos para el ahorro de energia con el fin de que vayan mas alla de las medidas normales y consigan niveles significativos de ahorro, contribuyendo asi al cumplimiento de objetivos nacionales de ahorro energetico. Para reducir el riesgo de bajo desempeno de energia provocados por proyectos de ahorro existe la medicion del desempeno internacional y el protocolo de inversion (IMPVP) asi como diagnosticos y procesos de arranque, mientras que para transferir el

  14. Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards

    Garbesi, Karina; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Bolduc, Christopher; Burch, Gabriel; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Saltiel, Seth

    2011-05-06

    This study surveyed the technical potential for efficiency improvements in 150 categories of appliances and equipment representing 33 quads of primary energy use across the US economy in 2010 and (1) documented efficient product designs, (2) identified the most promising cross-cutting strategies, and (3) ranked national energy savings potential by end use. Savings were estimated using a method modeled after US Department of Energy priority-setting reports - simplified versions of the full technical and economic analyses performed for rulemakings. This study demonstrates that large savings are possible by replacing products at the end-of-life with ultra-efficient models that use existing technology. Replacing the 50 top energy-saving end-uses (constituting 30 quads of primary energy consumption in 2010) with today's best-on-market equivalents would save {approx}200 quads of US primary energy over 30 years (25% of consumption anticipated there from). For the 29 products for maximum feasible savings potential could be estimated, the savings were twice as high. These results demonstrate that pushing ultra-efficient products to market could significantly escalate carbon emission reductions and is a viable strategy for sustaining large emissions reductions through standards. The results of this analysis were used by DOE for new coverage prioritization, to identify key opportunities for product prototyping and market development, and will leverage future standards rulemakings by identifying the full scope of maximum feasible technology options. High leverage products include advances lighting systems, HVAC, and televisions. High leverage technologies include electronic lighting, heat pumps, variable speed motors, and a host of controls-related technologies.

  15. Poor energy poor: Energy saving obligations, distributional effects, and the malfunction of the priority group

    The European Union’s Energy Efficiency Directive forces the Member States to install energy efficiency obligation schemes. In a first step, this paper identifies the distributional effects caused by this policy instrument which occur when energy efficiency measures are implemented (phase of delivery) and when its costs are passed on to the society (phase of financing). In the phase of delivery, suppliers prefer to implement measures at the property of those customers which enable them to minimise their costs, i.e. enterprises with large energy savings potentials and high-income households who can contribute a greater share of the costs. In the phase of financing, distributional effects occur when the costs of the scheme are passed on from the obliged suppliers to their customers, primarily affecting less competitive customers, i.e. households and small enterprises. In the British scheme, the so-called priority group was installed in order to decrease distributional effects and to support energy poor households. In a second step, this paper evaluates approaches to reduce energy poverty and indicates ineffectiveness, high transaction costs and incoherency with the aims of the obligation scheme. Alternative approaches to tackle energy poverty are briefly described. - Highlights: • The paper discusses distributional effects of energy efficiency obligations. • Significant distributional effects occur when measures are implemented. • Significant distributional effects occur when costs are passed on to the customers. • Suppliers face problems to identify energy poor households. • The priority group contradicts the scheme’s intention of cost minimisation

  16. Energy savings certificates 2011-2013 - Local Authorities. Knowledge for action

    Combating climate change and preserving our natural resources calls for a broad mobilization. Regional and local authorities and their public bodies are particularly concerned, as their own buildings and properties consume energy. These authorities are also essential drivers of local policies that can mobilize citizens and consumers within their territory. A number of tools and mechanisms are currently being implemented to meet these challenges, at the national and European levels. Among these, Energy Savings Certificates (ESCs) were introduced in France by the Energy Policy Law of 13 July 2005, with the aim of achieving energy savings in sectors of dispersed activity, mainly buildings, but also light industry, agriculture and transport. For local authorities this mechanism is an additional financial leverage tool that can be used to support their energy management projects. Under this scheme energy suppliers must promote energy-efficient investments, and thus are potential sources of financing for project owners. The Grenelle environmental conference forcefully reiterated the need to take action to renovate existing building stock. In order to achieve the ambitious goals that have been set, the financial mechanisms put into place, including the ESC scheme, must be amplified. Following the first conclusive test period (2006-2009), the ESC scheme is being ramped up during a second more ambitious three-year period that began on 1 January 2011. The present document is intended to inform local authorities of changes in the ESC scheme to be implemented for the second period covering 2011-2013. This guidance is divided into two parts: the first section describes the principles of the ESC scheme, and the second offers advice to local authorities that want to use this scheme for an energy management project. You will also find a practical information sheet listing all the steps to be taken to submit an ESC claim. In this document, for reasons of simplicity, the generic

  17. Achieving 50% Energy Savings in Office Buildings, Advanced Energy Design Guides: Office Buildings (Brochure)

    2014-09-01

    This fact sheet summarizes recommendations for designing new office buildings that result in 50% less energy use than conventional designs meeting minimum code requirements. The recommendations are drawn from the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small to Medium Office Buildings, an ASHRAE publication that provides comprehensive recommendations for designing low-energy-use office buildings with gross floor areas up to 100,000 ft2 (see sidebar). Designed as a stand-alone document, this fact sheet provides key principles and a set of prescriptive design recommendations appropriate for smaller office buildings with insufficient budgets to fully implement best practices for integrated design and optimized performance. The recommendations have undergone a thorough analysis and review process through ASHRAE, and have been deemed the best combination of measures to achieve 50% savings in the greatest number of office buildings.

  18. Tourists' attitudes for selecting accommodation with investments in renewable energy and energy saving systems

    This paper aims at providing useful insights into tourists' preferences for choosing to stay in hotels equipped with Energy Saving Installations (ESI) and Renewable Energy Sources (RES). Factors related to these decisions were studied through 2308 face to face interviews taken at the departure terminals of the two international airports of Crete, Greece. Results show that 86% of the respondents would prefer to stay in hotels equipped with ESI, and 87% in hotels with RES, rather than staying in hotels of identical quality which do not have either ESI or RES. Furthermore, the percentages of respondents who would be willing to pay fee surcharges for a hotel equipped with ESI or RES are 75 and 77%, respectively, as compared to hotels of identical quality which do not have either ESI or RES. Tourists from countries with high energy awareness, prove to be more willing to choose to stay at and pay for hotels with ESI and RES. (author)

  19. Achieving 50% Energy Savings in New Schools, Advanced Energy Design Guides: K-12 Schools (Brochure)

    2014-09-01

    This fact sheet summarizes recommendations for designing elementary, middle, and high school buildings that will result in 50% less energy use than conventional new schools built to minimum code requirements. The recommendations are drawn from the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings, an ASHRAE publication that provides comprehensive recommendations for designing low-energy-use school buildings (see sidebar). Designed as a stand-alone document, this fact sheet provides key principles and a set of prescriptive design recommendations appropriate for smaller schools with insufficient budgets to fully implement best practices for integrated design and optimized performance. The recommendations have undergone a thorough analysis and review process through ASHRAE, and have been deemed the best combination of measures to achieve 50% savings in the greatest number of schools.

  20. Tourists' attitudes for selecting accommodation with investments in renewable energy and energy saving systems

    Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Bounialetou, Fanouria; Gillas, Konstantinos; Profylienou, Maroulitsa; Pollaki, Antrianna [Department of Economics, University of Crete, University Campus, 74100 Rethymno (Greece); Zografakis, Nikolaos [Regional Energy Agency of Crete, Region of Crete, 71202 Heraklion (Greece)

    2011-02-15

    This paper aims at providing useful insights into tourists' preferences for choosing to stay in hotels equipped with Energy Saving Installations (ESI) and Renewable Energy Sources (RES). Factors related to these decisions were studied through 2308 face to face interviews taken at the departure terminals of the two international airports of Crete, Greece. Results show that 86% of the respondents would prefer to stay in hotels equipped with ESI, and 87% in hotels with RES, rather than staying in hotels of identical quality which do not have either ESI or RES. Furthermore, the percentages of respondents who would be willing to pay fee surcharges for a hotel equipped with ESI or RES are 75 and 77%, respectively, as compared to hotels of identical quality which do not have either ESI or RES. Tourists from countries with high energy awareness, prove to be more willing to choose to stay at and pay for hotels with ESI and RES. (author)

  1. Analyzing the Life Cycle Energy Savings of DOE Supported Buildings Technologies

    Cort, Katherine A.; Hostick, Donna J.; Dirks, James A.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2009-08-31

    This report examines the factors that would potentially help determine an appropriate analytical timeframe for measuring the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technology (BT) benefits and presents a summary-level analysis of the life cycle savings for BT’s Commercial Buildings Integration (CBI) R&D program. The energy savings for three hypothetical building designs are projected over a 100-year period using Building Energy Analysis and Modeling System (BEAMS) to illustrate the resulting energy and carbon savings associated with the hypothetical aging buildings. The report identifies the tasks required to develop a long-term analytical and modeling framework, and discusses the potential analytical gains and losses by extending an analysis into the “long-term.”

  2. Health and Environmental Benefits from the Implementation of an Energy Saving Program in Hungary

    Aunan, Kristin; Patzay, Gyoergy

    1997-12-31

    This report studies the cost and benefit of implementing a specific energy conservation programme in Hungary. It considers the possible reduction in damage to public health, materials and crops that may be obtained by reducing the emission of important air pollutants and examines how the programme contributes to reduced emission of greenhouse gases. The measures are described in the National Energy Efficiency Improvement and Energy Conservation Programmes (NEEIECP), a programme elaborated by the Hungarian Ministry of Industry and Trade and accepted by the Government in 1994. The energy saving expected from the programme is about 64 PJ/year. Possible benefits were estimated by the use of monitoring data and population and recipient data from urban and rural areas in Hungary together with dose response functions and valuation estimates mainly from western studies. The main benefits of reducing the concentration of pollutants are found in the health sector, the most pronounced effect being less chronic respiratory deceases. Reduced premature mortality is also important. It is calculated that the annual benefit on public health alone probably exceeds the implementation costs of the programme. In addition, the maintenance and replacement costs for building materials have decreased. The damage to crops due to ozone is large, but a significant improvement in Hungary depends upon concerted action in several countries. 68 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs.

  3. Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications

    none,

    2014-08-29

    With declining production costs and increasing technical capabilities, LED adoption has recently gained momentum in general illumination applications. This is a positive development for our energy infrastructure, as LEDs use significantly less electricity per lumen produced than many traditional lighting technologies. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications examines the expected market penetration and resulting energy savings of light-emitting diode, or LED, lamps and luminaires from today through 2030.

  4. Evaluation of Savings in Energy-Efficient Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    Gordon, A. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Lubliner, M. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Howard, L. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Kunkle, R. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of an energy performance and cost-effectiveness analysis. The Salishan phase 7 and demonstration homes were compared to Salishan phase 6 homes built to 2006 Washington State Energy Code specifications 2. Predicted annual energy savings (over Salishan phase 6) was 19% for Salishan phase 7, and between 19-24% for the demonstration homes (depending on ventilation strategy). Approximately two-thirds of the savings are attributable to the DHP. Working with the electric utility provider, Tacoma Public Utilities, researchers conducted a billing analysis for Salishan phase 7.

  5. Protocol for maximizing energy savings and indoor environmental quality improvements when retrofitting apartments

    Noris, Federico [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Delp, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vermeer, Kimberly [Urban Habitat Initiatives Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Adamkiewicz, Gary [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The current focus on building energy retrofit provides an opportunity to simultaneously improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Toward this end, we developed a protocol for selecting packages of retrofits that both save energy and improve IEQ in apartments. The protocol specifies the methodology for selecting retrofits from a candidate list while addressing expected energy savings, IEQ impacts, and costs in an integrated manner. Interviews, inspections and measurements are specified to collect the needed input information. The protocol was applied to 17 apartments in three buildings in two different climates within California. Diagnostic measurements and surveys conducted before and after retrofit implementation indicate enhanced apartment performance.

  6. Protocol for Maximizing Energy Savings and Indoor Environmental Quality Improvements when Retrofiting Apartments

    Noris, Federico [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Delp, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vermeer, Kimberly [Urban Habitat Initiatives Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Adamkiewicz, Gary [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-18

    The current focus on building energy retrofit provides an opportunity to simultaneously improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Toward this end, we developed a protocol for selecting packages of retrofits that both save energy and improve IEQ in apartments. The protocol specifies the methodology for selecting retrofits from a candidate list while addressing expected energy savings, IEQ impacts, and costs in an integrated manner. Interviews, inspections and measurements are specified to collect the needed input information. The protocol was applied to 17 apartments in three buildings in two different climates within California. Diagnostic measurements and surveys conducted before and after retrofit implementation indicate enhanced apartment performance.

  7. Potential energy savings with personalized ventilation coupled with passive chilled beams

    Lyubenova, Velina S.; Holsøe, Jan W.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2011-01-01

    distribution used today. The potential of PV for energy saving has been studied little. In this study, the energy saving potential of desk mounted PV in conjunction with either mixing ventilation or a passive chilled beam system is compared to mixing ventilation alone by means of computer simulations. An open...... 20% (and up to 40% when extending the temperature in the room by 2 °C above the upper limit recommended in the standards) compared to mixing ventilation only. When PV was combined with passive chilled beams, the reduction of the supplied air was up to 80%. This ventiltion strategy may lead to energy...

  8. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  9. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  10. Energy saving mechanisms, collective behavior and the variation range hypothesis in biological systems: A review.

    Trenchard, Hugh; Perc, Matjaž

    2016-09-01

    Energy saving mechanisms are ubiquitous in nature. Aerodynamic and hydrodynamic drafting, vortice uplift, Bernoulli suction, thermoregulatory coupling, path following, physical hooks, synchronization, and cooperation are only some of the better-known examples. While drafting mechanisms also appear in non-biological systems such as sedimentation and particle vortices, the broad spectrum of these mechanisms appears more diversely in biological systems that include bacteria, spermatozoa, various aquatic species, birds, land animals, semi-fluid dwellers like turtle hatchlings, as well as human systems. We present the thermodynamic framework for energy saving mechanisms, and we review evidence in favor of the variation range hypothesis. This hypothesis posits that, as an evolutionary process, the variation range between strongest and weakest group members converges on the equivalent energy saving quantity that is generated by the energy saving mechanism. We also review self-organized structures that emerge due to energy saving mechanisms, including convective processes that can be observed in many systems over both short and long time scales, as well as high collective output processes in which a form of collective position locking occurs. PMID:27288936

  11. Energy Efficiency and Shadow Costs of Energy Saving in Conventional Agricultural Production: The Case of Czech Wheat Production

    Curtiss, Jarmila; Jelinek, Ladislav

    2011-01-01

    Increasing worldwide energy demand and diminishing supplies of fossil fuels have necessitated the development and increasing use of new sustainable energy sources, as well as more parsimonious energy use. In the context of agriculture, research has focused predominantly on the production of bio-energy, while only a limited number of studies have investigated the energy use and possible energy saving in conventional agricultural production. In response to this lack in empirical research this s...

  12. Development of energy-saving devices for a full slow-speed ship through improving propulsion performance

    Kim Jung-Hun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy-saving devices for 317K VLCC have been developed from a propulsion standpoint. Two ESD candidates were designed via computational tools. The first device WAFon composes of flow-control fins adapted for the ship wake to reduce the loss of rotational energy. The other is WAFon-D, which is a WAFon with a duct to obtain additional thrust and to distribute the inflow velocity on the propeller plane uniform. After selecting the candidates from the computed results, the speed performances were validated with model-tests. The hydrodynamic characteristics of the ESDs may be found in improved hull and propulsive efficiencies through increased wake fraction.

  13. Undeformed (additive) energy conservation law in Doubly Special Relativity

    Mandanici, Gianluca

    2007-01-01

    All the Doubly Special Relativity (DSR) models studied in literature so far involve a deformation of the energy conservation rule that forces us to release the hypothesis of the additivity of the energy for composite systems. In view of the importance of the issue for a consistent formulation of a DSR statistical mechanics and a DSR thermodynamics, we show that DSR models preserving the usual (i.e. additive) energy conservation rule can be found. These models allow the construction of a DSR-c...

  14. 2006 Status Report Savings Estimates for the ENERGY STAR(R)Voluntary Labeling Program

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; Sanchez, Marla; Homan,Gregory K.

    2006-03-07

    ENERGY STAR(R) is a voluntary labeling program designed toidentify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices.Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and theU.S. Department of Energy (DOE), ENERGY STAR labels exist for more thanthirty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating andcooling equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics,and major appliances. This report presents savings estimates for a subsetof ENERGY STAR labeled products. We present estimates of the energy,dollar and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2005, whatwe expect in 2006, and provide savings forecasts for two marketpenetration scenarios for the periods 2006 to 2015 and 2006 to 2025. Thetarget market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of futureENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goalsfor each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumptionof 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasersbuy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiencyproducts throughout the analysis period.

  15. 2007 Status Report: Savings Estimates for the ENERGY STAR(R)VoluntaryLabeling Program

    Sanchez, Marla; Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; Homan,Gregory K.

    2007-03-23

    ENERGY STAR(R) is a voluntary labeling program designed toidentify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices.Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and theU.S. Department of Energy (DOE), ENERGY STAR labels exist for more thanthirty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating andcooling equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics,and major appliances. This report presents savings estimates for a subsetof ENERGY STAR labeled products. We present estimates of the energy,dollar and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2006, whatwe expect in 2007, and provide savings forecasts for two marketpenetration scenarios for the periods 2007 to 2015 and 2007 to 2025. Thetarget market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of futureENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goalsfor each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumptionof 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasersbuy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiencyproducts throughout the analysis period.

  16. 2003 status report savings estimates for the energy star(R)voluntary labeling program

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; McWhinney, Marla

    2004-11-09

    ENERGY STAR(R) is a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices. Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), ENERGY STAR labels exist for more than thirty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating and cooling equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. This report presents savings estimates for a subset of ENERGY STAR program activities, focused primarily on labeled products. We present estimates of the energy, dollar and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2002, what we expect in 2003, and provide savings forecasts for two market penetration scenarios for the period 2003 to 2020. The target market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of future ENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goals for each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumption of 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasers buy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products throughout the analysis period.

  17. 2004 status report: Savings estimates for the Energy Star(R)voluntarylabeling program

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; McWhinney, Marla

    2004-03-09

    ENERGY STAR(R) is a voluntary labeling program designed toidentify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices.Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and theU.S. Department of Energy (DOE), ENERGY STAR labels exist for more thanthirty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating andcooling equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics,and major appliances. This report presents savings estimates for a subsetof ENERGY STAR labeled products. We present estimates of the energy,dollar and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2003, whatwe expect in 2004, and provide savings forecasts for two marketpenetration scenarios for the periods 2004 to 2010 and 2004 to 2020. Thetarget market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of futureENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goalsfor each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumptionof 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasersbuy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiencyproducts throughout the analysis period.

  18. 2002 status report: Savings estimates for the ENERGY STAR(R) voluntary labeling program

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; McWhinney, Marla; Koomey, Jonathan

    2003-03-03

    ENERGY STAR [registered trademark] is a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices. Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), ENERGY STAR labels exist for more than thirty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating and cooling equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. This report presents savings estimates for a subset of ENERGY STAR program activities, focused primarily on labeled products. We present estimates of the energy, dollar and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2001, what we expect in 2002, and provide savings forecasts for two market penetration scenarios for the period 2002 to 2020. The target market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of future ENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goals for each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumption of 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasers buy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products throughout the analysis period.

  19. Savings estimates for the ENERGY STAR (registered trademark) voluntary labeling program: 2001 status report

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; Mahajan, Akshay; Koomey, Jonathan G.

    2002-02-15

    ENERGY STAR(Registered Trademark) is a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices. Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), ENERGY STAR labels exist for more than thirty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating and cooling equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. This report presents savings estimates for a subset of ENERGY STAR program activities, focused primarily on labeled products. We present estimates of the energy, dollar and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2000, what we expect in 2001, and provide savings forecasts for two market penetration scenarios for the period 2001 to 2020. The target market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of future ENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goals for each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumption of 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasers buy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products throughout the analysis period.

  20. 2005 Status Report Savings Estimates for the ENERGY STAR(R)Voluntary Labeling Program

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; Sanchez, Marla

    2006-03-07

    ENERGY STAR(R) is a voluntary labeling program designed toidentify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices.Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and theU.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Star labels exist for more thanforty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating andcooling equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics,and major appliances. This report presents savings estimates for a subsetof ENERGY STAR labeled products. We present estimates of the energy,dollar and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2004, whatwe expect in 2005, and provide savings forecasts for two marketpenetration scenarios for the periods 2005 to 2010 and 2005 to 2020. Thetarget market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of futureENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goalsfor each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumptionof 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasersbuy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiencyproducts throughout the analysis period.

  1. THE CONCEPT AND SOURCES OF CIVIL LAW REGULATION OF ENERGY SAVING

    Kamyshanskiy V. P.; Didenko A. A.; Marchenko K. S.

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the concept of energy efficiency as an object of civil rights. It examines the characteristic features of the object of civil legal relations. On the basis of the current sources of the civil law we have analyzed the sources of civil law regulation of energy saving

  2. Energy saving certificates in support of rail-road combined transport

    The first 'type-action' for a tradable energy saving certificate in the fret transport industry is ready. This action, sustained by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) concerns the rail-road combined transport and will be financially inciting. Short paper. (J.S.)

  3. Savings estimates for the ENERGY STAR (registered trademark) voluntary labeling program: 2001 status report; TOPICAL

    ENERGY STAR(Registered Trademark) is a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices. Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), ENERGY STAR labels exist for more than thirty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating and cooling equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. This report presents savings estimates for a subset of ENERGY STAR program activities, focused primarily on labeled products. We present estimates of the energy, dollar and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2000, what we expect in 2001, and provide savings forecasts for two market penetration scenarios for the period 2001 to 2020. The target market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of future ENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goals for each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumption of 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasers buy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products throughout the analysis period

  4. Calibrated energy simulations of potential energy savings in actual retail buildings

    Alhafi, Zuhaira

    Retail stores are commercial buildings with high energy consumption due to their typically large volumes and long hours of operation. This dissertation assesses heating, ventilating and air conditioning saving strategies based on energy simulations with input parameters from actual retail buildings. The dissertation hypothesis is that "Retail store buildings will save a significant amount of energy by (1) modifying ventilation rates, and/or (2) resetting set point temperatures. These strategies have shown to be beneficial in previous studies. As presented in the literature review, potential energy savings ranged from 0.5% to 30% without compromising indoor thermal comfort and indoor air quality. The retail store buildings can be ventilated at rates significantly lower than rates called for in the ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010 while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. Therefore, two dissertation objectives are addressed: (1) Investigate opportunities to reduce ventilation rates that do not compromise indoor air quality in retail stores located in Central Pennsylvania, (2) Investigate opportunities to increase (in summer) and decrease (in winter) set point temperatures that do not compromise thermal comfort. This study conducted experimental measurements of ventilation rates required to maintain acceptable air quality and indoor environmental conditions requirements for two retail stores using ASHRAE Standard 62.1_2012. More specifically, among other parameters, occupancy density, indoor and outdoor pollutant concentrations, and indoor temperatures were measured continuously for one week interval. One of these retail stores were tested four times for a yearlong time period. Pollutants monitored were formaldehyde, carbon dioxide, particle size distributions and concentrations, as well as total volatile organic compounds. As a part of the base protocol, the number of occupants in each store was hourly counted during the test, and the results reveal that the occupant

  5. Trend analysis report on energy consumptions and savings in France in 2012 and 2013: final report

    This report presents and comments a large set of data regarding CO2 and energy savings recorded in France since 1990 with a focus on the 2008-2012 period which has been marked by a financial and economic crisis which had a strong impact on energy demand. In its first part, the report presents the French economic and energetic context since 1990 with a focus on years between 2008 and 2013. It is based on the last available energy assessments published by the French Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy and addresses the following issues: a fragile economic context, relatively high energy prices, a decrease of final energy consumption since 2010, and a reduction of industry energy intensity. The second part addresses CO2 and energy savings generated by France between 1990 and 2012, with a focus on recent years: overview of the evolutions in the industrial sector, in the transport sector, and in the building sector (existing buildings)

  6. Wind turbines application for energy savings in Gas transportation system

    Mingaleeva, Renata

    2014-01-01

    The Thesis shows the perspectives of involving renewable energy resources into the energy balance of Russia, namely the use of wind energy for the purpose of energy supply for the objects of the Russian Gas transportation system. The methodology of the wind energy technical potential calculation is designed and the wind energy technical potential assessment for onshore and offshore zones of Russia is presented. The analysis of Russian Gas transportation system in terms of energy consumption i...

  7. Quadrupedal locomotor performance in two species of arboreal squirrels: predicting energy savings of gliding.

    Flaherty, Elizabeth A; Ben-David, Merav; Smith, Winston P

    2010-10-01

    Gliding allows mammals to exploit canopy habitats of old-growth forests possibly as a means to save energy. To assess costs of quadrupedal locomotion for a gliding arboreal mammal, we used open-flow respirometry and a variable-speed treadmill to measure oxygen consumption and to calculate cost of transport, excess exercise oxygen consumption, and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption for nine northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) and four fox squirrels (Sciurus niger). Our results indicate that oxygen consumption during exercise by flying squirrels was 1.26-1.65 times higher than predicted based on body mass, and exponentially increased with velocity (from 0.84 ± 0.03 ml O(2) kg(-1) s(-1) at 0.40 m s(-1) to 1.55 ± 0.03 ml O(2) kg(-1) s(-1) at 0.67 m s(-1)). Also, cost of transport in flying squirrels increased with velocity, although excess exercise oxygen consumption and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption did not. In contrast, oxygen consumption during exercise for fox squirrels was similar to predicted, varying from 0.51 (±0.02) ml O(2) kg(-1) s(-1) at 0.63 m s(-1) to 0.54 (±0.03) ml O(2) kg(-1) s(-1) at 1.25 m s(-1). In addition, the cost of transport for fox squirrels decreased with velocity, while excess exercise oxygen consumption and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption did not. Collectively, these observations suggest that unlike fox squirrels, flying squirrels are poorly adapted to prolonged bouts of quadrupedal locomotion. The evolution of skeletal adaptations to climbing, leaping, and landing and the development of a gliding membrane likely has increased the cost of quadrupedal locomotion by >50% while resulting in energy savings during gliding and reduction in travel time between foraging patches. PMID:20361193

  8. Measured Energy Savings from the Application of Reflective Roofs in 3 AT and T Regeneration Buildings; FINAL

    Energy use and environmental parameters were monitored in three AT and T regeneration buildings during the summer of 2000. These buildings are constructed with concrete and are about 14.9 m2 (160 f2; 10x16 ft)in size. The buildings were initially monitored for about 1 1/2 months to establish a base condition. Then, the roofs of the buildings were painted with a white coating and the monitoring was continued. The original roof reflectances were about 26 percent; after the application of roof coatings the reflectivities increased to about 72 percent. In two of these buildings, we monitored savings of about 0.5kWh per day (8.6 kWh/m2[0.8 kWh/ft2]). The third building showed a reduction in air-conditioning energy use of about 13kWh per day. These savings probably resulted from the differences in the performance (EER) of the two dissimilar AC units in this building. The estimated annual savings for two of the buildings are about 125kWh per year; at a cost of dollar 0.1/kWh, savings are about dollar 12.5 per year. Obviously, it costs significantly more than this amount to coat the roofs with reflective coating, particularly because of the remote location of the buildings. However, since the prefabricated roofs are already painted green at the factory, painting them with white (reflective) color would bring no additional cost. Hence the payback time for having reflective roofs is nil, and the reflective roofs save an accumulated 370kWh over 30 years of the life of the roof

  9. Analysis of Energy Saving Impacts of ASHRAE 90.1-2004 for New York

    Gowri, Krishnan; Halverson, Mark A.; Richman, Eric E.

    2007-08-03

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and New York State Department of State (DOS) requested the help of DOE’s Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) in estimating the annual building energy savings and cost impacts of adopting ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 (ASHRAE 2004) requirements. This report summarizes the analysis methodology and results of energy simulation in response to that request.

  10. Assessing the economic effect from introduction of energy-saving technologies in the field of heat supply

    Malakhov, V. A.

    2012-03-01

    An aggregative analysis of the economic effect from the main measures for making heat supply a less energy consuming process is presented. The economic indicators of a heat supply company obtained after putting in use energy-saving technologies are analyzed. The sensitivity of these indicators to measures stimulating the use of energy-saving technologies is investigated.

  11. Energy Saving in Data Processing and Communication Systems

    Giuseppe Iazeolla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The power management of ICT systems, that is, data processing (Dp and telecommunication (Tlc systems, is becoming a relevant problem in economical terms. Dp systems totalize millions of servers and associated subsystems (processors, monitors, storage devices, etc. all over the world that need to be electrically powered. Dp systems are also used in the government of Tlc systems, which, besides requiring Dp electrical power, also require Tlc-specific power, both for mobile networks (with their cell-phone towers and associated subsystems: base stations, subscriber stations, switching nodes, etc. and for wired networks (with their routers, gateways, switches, etc.. ICT research is thus expected to investigate into methods to reduce Dp- and Tlc-specific power consumption. However, saving power may turn into waste of performance, in other words, into waste of ICT quality of service (QoS. This paper investigates the Dp and Tlc power management policies that look at compromises between power saving and QoS.

  12. Trend of Energy Saving in Electronic Devices for Research and Development

    Rahmayanti R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In electronic industry, energy saving is one of the performance indicators of competitiveness beside price, speed, bandwidth and reliability. This affects research and development (R&D activity in mechatronic systems which uses electronic components and electronic systems. A review of trend of electronic devices technology development has been conducted with focus on energy saving. This review includes electronic devices, semiconductor, and nanotechnology. It can be concluded that the trend in electronic devices is mainly dictated by semiconductor technology development. The trend can be concluded as smaller size, lower voltage leading to energy saving, less heat, higher speed, more reliable, and cheaper. In accordance to such technology development, R&D activities in mechatronics especially in Indonesia is being pushed to make proper alignment.Some of such alignment actions are surface mount technology (SMT for installing surface mount devices components (SMD, design layout and SMD troubleshooting tools as well as human resources training and development.

  13. Willingness to pay for energy-saving measures in residential buildings

    Banfi, Silvia; Farsi, Mehdi; Jakob, Martin [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, Department of Management Technology and Economics, ETH Zurich, Zuerichbergstr. 18, CH-8032 Zuerich (Switzerland); Filippini, Massimo [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, Department of Management Technology and Economics, ETH Zurich, Zuerichbergstr. 18, CH-8032 Zuerich (Switzerland); Department of Economics, University of Lugano, Lugano (Switzerland)

    2008-03-15

    This paper uses a choice experiment to evaluate the consumers' willingness to pay for energy-saving measures in Switzerland's residential buildings. These measures include air renewal (ventilation) systems and insulation of windows and facades. Two groups of respondents consisting respectively of 163 apartment tenants and 142 house owners were asked to choose between their housing status quo and each one of the several hypothetical situations with different attributes and prices. The estimation method is based on a fixed-effects logit model. The results suggest that the benefits of the energy-saving attributes are significantly valued by the consumers. These benefits include both individual energy savings and environmental benefits as well as comfort benefits namely, thermal comfort, air quality and noise protection. (author)

  14. Willingness to pay for energy-saving measures in residential buildings

    This paper uses a choice experiment to evaluate the consumers' willingness to pay for energy-saving measures in Switzerland's residential buildings. These measures include air renewal (ventilation) systems and insulation of windows and facades. Two groups of respondents consisting respectively of 163 apartment tenants and 142 house owners were asked to choose between their housing status quo and each one of the several hypothetical situations with different attributes and prices. The estimation method is based on a fixed-effects logit model. The results suggest that the benefits of the energy-saving attributes are significantly valued by the consumers. These benefits include both individual energy savings and environmental benefits as well as comfort benefits namely, thermal comfort, air quality and noise protection. (author)

  15. Daqing Petrochemical Adopted Technology of Agglomeration New Energy Saving Production%Daqing Petrochemical Adopted Technology of Agglomeration New Energy Saving Production

    2011-01-01

    To reduce energy consumption of equipment and exhaust emission to the uttermost, Daqing Petrochemical Company has developed pre-agglomeration production flow successfully and confirmed an optimized energy-saving method of differential pressure agglomeration. For a long time, BR equipment of 80,000 tons per year in Daqing Petrochemical Company have been adopting general isobaric technology and elutriation method to separate polymer and solvent, which caused over 10 tons of steam per ton of rubber and restricted the energy conservation and emission reduction of the enterprise.

  16. The energy savings potential of using dynamic external louvers in an office building

    Hammad, Fawwaz [W.S. Atkins, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Abu-Hijleh, Bassam [Atkins Chair, Faculty of Engineering, The British University in Dubai, PO Box 345015, Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

    2010-10-15

    This research is aimed at exploring the influence of external dynamic louvers on the energy consumption of an office building located in Abu Dhabi-UAE. The IES-VR software was used to predict the energy consumption of a representative office module in order to evaluate the overall energy performance of employing external louvers on the south, east and west oriented facades. The use of dynamic facades was compared to another simpler method of using light-sensor controlled light dimmers. The results show that the potential energy savings using light dimming strategy only was 24.4%, 24.45% and 25.19% for the south, east and west oriented facades, respectively. The proposed dynamic louvers system with light dimming strategy achieved energy savings of 34.02%, 28.57% and 30.31% for the south, east and west orientations, respectively. Detailed analysis of the results showed that the facade's optimal static angle was -20 for the south oriented facade and 20 for the east and west oriented facades. Using these fixed optimal angles resulted in slightly lower energy savings than that of the dynamic facades. This would seem to be a good tradeoff between savings in energy running cost and the investment required to install, operate and maintain a dynamic facades system. (author)

  17. Influence of constructional energy-saving measures on the radon-concentration in the air in dwellings

    Due to energy-saving measures the air exchange in residential houses may be reduced. In order to determine time-dependent courses the indoor radon-concentrations were measured both, before and after renovation for several weeks. In addition, the most relevant climatic conditions or indoor climate factors, as e.g. the CO2-concentration, were measured. Verifying the renovation success, Blower-Door registered -Tests were performed, both as well before and after the renovation. Simultaneously the radon-concentration was measured. The results before and after renovation were compared with respect to seasonal parameters and the inhabitant's behavior. By investigation of the correlation coefficient the influencing parameters and the impact of the energy saving measures were analyzed. Based on the findings a model was developed to characterize the time-dependent course based on the influence quantities. The energy-saving measures at the building considerably influence the radon dynamics. Due to the denser building envelope, fresh air flows in case of underinflation caused by stack effect not only from the outside but even through the basement from the soil. Thus, by this path the radon-containing air can be transported into the dwelling's rooms as well. The influences of the users outweigh the influence of weather parameters, thus, the radonemission- rate was used for user-independent determination of the radon situation.

  18. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy SMARRT): Manufacturing Advanced Engineered Components Using Lost Foam Casting Technology

    Littleton, Harry; Griffin, John

    2011-07-31

    This project was a subtask of Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy SMARRT) Program. Through this project, technologies, such as computer modeling, pattern quality control, casting quality control and marketing tools, were developed to advance the Lost Foam Casting process application and provide greater energy savings. These technologies have improved (1) production efficiency, (2) mechanical properties, and (3) marketability of lost foam castings. All three reduce energy consumption in the metals casting industry. This report summarizes the work done on all tasks in the period of January 1, 2004 through June 30, 2011. Current (2011) annual energy saving estimates based on commercial introduction in 2011 and a market penetration of 97% by 2020 is 5.02 trillion BTU's/year and 6.46 trillion BTU's/year with 100% market penetration by 2023. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.03 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  19. Study on key technologies of energy-saving and environment-protective pumps

    Zhang Qi-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet energy-saving and environment-protective purpose, a series of plastic pumps are developed by composite molding. There are four key techniques involved, firstly, plastic hydraulic components with light-weight; secondly, steel barrel as a pump casing and a connection component as well; thirdly, floating impeller strategy where impeller is drifting freely along shaft; and lastly, a self balancing impeller technique which can totally keep axial force balancing. The manufacturing process is energy-saving, and the components can be recycled, which have great potentials for conservation of environment.

  20. Challenges and Opportunities To Achieve 50% Energy Savings in Homes. National Laboratory White Papers

    Bianchi, Marcus V.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This report summarizes the key opportunities, gaps, and barriers identified by researchers from four national laboratories (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) that must be addressed to achieve the longer term 50% saving goal for Building America to ensure coordination with the Building America industry teams who are focusing their research on systems to achieve the near-term 30% savings goal. Although new construction was included, the focus of the effort was on deep energy retrofits of existing homes.

  1. Optimizing Energy Savings from Direct-DC in U.S. Residential Buildings

    Garbesi, Karina; Vossos, Vagelis; Sanstad, Alan; Burch, Gabriel

    2011-10-13

    An increasing number of energy efficient appliances operate on direct current (DC) internally, offering the potential to use DC from renewable energy systems directly and avoiding the losses inherent in converting power to alternating current (AC) and back. This paper investigates that potential for net-metered residences with on-site photovoltaics (PV) by modeling the net power draw of the ‘direct-DC house’ with respect to today’s typical configuration, assuming identical DC-internal loads. Power draws were modeled for houses in 14 U.S. cities, using hourly, simulated PV-system output and residential loads. The latter were adjusted to reflect a 33% load reduction, representative of the most efficient DC-internal technology, based on an analysis of 32 electricity end-uses. The model tested the effect of climate, electric vehicle (EV) loads, electricity storage, and load shifting on electricity savings; a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine how future changes in the efficiencies of power system components might affect savings potential. Based on this work, we estimate that net-metered PV residences could save 5% of their total electricity load for houses without storage and 14% for houses with storage. Based on residential PV penetration projections for year 2035 obtained from the National Energy Modeling System (2.7% for the reference case and 11.2% for the extended policy case), direct-DC could save the nation 10 trillion Btu (without storage) or 40 trillion Btu (with storage). Shifting the cooling load by two hours earlier in the day (pre-cooling) has negligible benefits for energy savings. Direct-DC provides no energy savings benefits for EV charging, to the extent that charging occurs at night. However, if charging occurred during the day, for example with employees charging while at work, the benefits would be large. Direct-DC energy savings are sensitive to power system and appliance conversion efficiencies but are not significantly

  2. Energy and resource saving method of convective dehydration for production of stockfish

    Ershov M.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy and resource saving method of convective dehydration for the production of stockfish has been proposed. According to this method the dehydration process consists of a continuous initial phase and some further combined periods. These combined periods of dehydration consist of phases of drying and relaxation of moisture in fish. The technical result of this method includes effective fish dehydration, reduced wastes of electrical energy, rational usage of the heat carrier, resources saving work of the drying equipment, and improving quality of production

  3. Research on scheme of pumping energy-saving based on computer control technology

    Chuan-Lin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy conservation of pump station has attracted more and more attention. The scheme of pumping energy-saving based on computer control technology was explored in this study by taking the example of Da Zhang Zhuang pump station in Tianjin. The results showed that when efficient was improved by 1%, the 170,000 kWh power would be saved annually. This method was applicable for the other pump stations with same style. What’s more, for the pump stations which have already been controlled by computer program, it would be much more convenience that might be easy conducted in the near future.

  4. Research on scheme of pumping energy-saving based on computer control technology

    Chuan-Lin Li; Shi-lei Ma; Hua Liu; Hai-yun Wu; Ping Gao; Fan Yang

    2016-01-01

    Energy conservation of pump station has attracted more and more attention. The scheme of pumping energy-saving based on computer control technology was explored in this study by taking the example of Da Zhang Zhuang pump station in Tianjin. The results showed that when efficient was improved by 1%, the 170,000 kWh power would be saved annually. This method was applicable for the other pump stations with same style. What’s more, for the pump stations which have already been controlled by compu...

  5. Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential and Commercial Equipment

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Reis, Callie [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2013-12-04

    This report describes the current state of motor technology and estimates opportunities for energy savings through application of more advanced technologies in a variety of residential and commercial end uses. The objectives of this report were to characterize the state and type of motor technologies used in residential and commercial appliances and equipment and to identify opportunities to reduce the energy consumption of electric motor-driven systems in the residential and commercial sectors through the use of advanced motor technologies. After analyzing the technical savings potential offered by motor upgrades and variable speed technologies, recommended actions are presented.

  6. Go Green, Save Green with ENERGY STAR[R

    Hatcher, Caterina

    2010-01-01

    Did you know that the nation's 17,450 K-12 school districts spend more on energy than on computers and textbooks combined? Energy costs represent a typical school district's second largest operating expense after salaries. Schools that have earned the ENERGY STAR--EPA's mark of superior energy performance--cost 40 cents per square foot less to…

  7. Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency's ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program's inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy-efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2006, US EPA'S ENERGY STAR labeled products saved 4.8 EJ of primary energy and avoided 82 Tg C equivalent. We project that US EPA'S ENERGY STAR labeled products will save 12.8 EJ and avoid 203 Tg C equivalent over the period 2007-2015. A sensitivity analysis examining two key inputs (carbon factor and ENERGY STAR unit sales) bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 54 and 107 Tg C (1993-2006) and between 132 and 278 Tg C (2007-2015)

  8. Energy-saving pathway exploration of CCS integrated with solar energy: Literature research and comparative analysis

    Highlights: • Integration options of solar energy are reviewed for carbon capture system. • A theoretical analysis is presented for a performance comparison of typical systems. • Performance of four cases is evaluated in terms of carbon emission intensity. • Economic evaluation is conducted in terms of LCOE and COA. - Abstract: One of main technical barriers to a large-scale application of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology is a significant amount of required energy, e.g., regeneration heat of solvent in the chemical absorption system. Thus, energy consumption and corresponding high operation cost become two primary challenges for the promotion of CCS technology. Meanwhile, energy from the solar source in various forms has already been successfully used as an effective alternative supply in the industrial section for drying, heating and even cooling. Thus, integrating solar energy utilization into the CCS process could be a reasonable option for a sustainable development. A comparative analysis of CCS integrated with solar energy was presented in this paper based on the existing researches. The current status on typical configuration structure, feature and energy-efficiency performance of integrating options is reviewed for post-combustion, pre-combustion and oxygen-combustion systems. Based on these typical CO2 capture systems, a theoretical analysis is conducted for an energy-efficient comparison. Then four typical structures of the post-combustion system, which are highlighted in the review, are chosen as comparative objects for energy-saving and techno-economic evaluation. The results show that systems with a solar-assisted thermal energy and power generation have comparative advantages in term of carbon emission intensity, but the economic cost is increased under the current conditions of the equipment price. Compared to that of baseline case, carbon emission intensity of the case integrated with solar Organic Rankine Cycle can be reduced with

  9. Validating Savings Claims of Cold Climate Zero Energy Ready Homes

    Williamson, J. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-06-05

    This study was intended to validate actual performance of three ZERHs in the Northeast to energy models created in REM/Rate v14.5 (one of the certified software programs used to generate a HERS Index) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s Building Energy Optimization (BEopt™) v2.3 E+ (a more sophisticated hourly energy simulation software). This report details the validation methods used to analyze energy consumption at each home.

  10. Development of an Energy-Savings Calculation Methodology for Residential Miscellaneous Electric Loads: Preprint

    Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.

    2006-08-01

    In order to meet whole-house energy savings targets beyond 50% in residential buildings, it will be essential that new technologies and systems approaches be developed to address miscellaneous electric loads (MELs). These MELs are comprised of the small and diverse collection of energy-consuming devices found in homes, including what are commonly known as plug loads (televisions, stereos, microwaves), along with all hard-wired loads that do not fit into other major end-use categories (doorbells, security systems, garage door openers). MELs present special challenges because their purchase and operation are largely under the control of the occupants. If no steps are taken to address MELs, they can constitute 40-50% of the remaining source energy use in homes that achieve 60-70% whole-house energy savings, and this percentage is likely to increase in the future as home electronics become even more sophisticated and their use becomes more widespread. Building America (BA), a U.S. Department of Energy research program that targets 50% energy savings by 2015 and 90% savings by 2025, has begun to identify and develop advanced solutions that can reduce MELs.

  11. The energy saving problem in cold regions. The case of Quebec

    Many recommendations concerning the environment have been put forward over the past few years; but when it comes to saving energy, there seems to be a certain amount of confusion as to what to do. This article compares measures related to three uses of energy in the home (lighting, refrigeration, water heating) in Quebec and in an area without heating. For each of these uses the authors analyze the existing equipment and possible alternatives, from a technical viewpoint. They then estimate the energy consumed per unit and make a cost analysis. Finally, they evaluate the energy saved. One conclusion is that any energy savings program should consider behavior patterns just as much as technical and economic parameters. Others are that the incentives are paltry, as the gains that can be expected are minimal; and that the special problem situation of Quebec should be underscored, as it is quite different from regions at lower latitudes. That is, one effective program in Quebec that produces savings during the cold months concentrates on how energy is used, rather than how it is produced. And as far as concerns the development of large power facilities, it seems that the debate should first center on evolving trends in the demand for electricity. 12 refs; 4 tabs

  12. Permanent magnets in accelerators can save energy, space and cost

    Bødker, F.; Baandrup, L.O.; Hauge, N.;

    2013-01-01

    Green Magnet® technology with close to zero electrical power consumption without the need for cooling water saves costs, space and natural resources. A compact dipole based on permanent magnets has been developed at Danfysik in collaboration with Sintex and Aarhus University. Our first Green Magnet...... coils permit fine tuning of the magnetic field. Magnetic field measurements and thermal stability tests show that the Green Magnet fully meets the magnetic requirements of the previously used electromagnet. A permanent 30° bending dipole is currently being development to demonstrate the use of Green...... has been delivered to ETH Zurich for testing in a compact accelerator mass spectrometer facility. Permanent NdFeB magnets generate a fixed magnetic field without using electrical power in the 90° bending magnet. Thermal drift of the permanent magnets is passively compensated. Small air cooled trim...

  13. Household energy assessment: integration of approaches and additional factors

    Parikh, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    An appropriate household energy assessment for developing countries which use substantial biomass, requires a coordinated effort between surveyors, experimentalists and analysts. This paper describes the role of each and also the additional factors which need to be considered, recorded, measured and analyzed to account for variations in energy consumption across countries, income classes, etc. These range from seasonal and regional differences, fuel scarcities and coping strategies, dietary and cooking practices, food and fuel processing, to the role of women.

  14. The conservation nexus: valuing interdependent water and energy savings in Arizona.

    Bartos, Matthew D; Chester, Mikhail V

    2014-02-18

    Water and energy resources are intrinsically linked, yet they are managed separately--even in the water-scarce American southwest. This study develops a spatially explicit model of water-energy interdependencies in Arizona and assesses the potential for cobeneficial conservation programs. The interdependent benefits of investments in eight conservation strategies are assessed within the context of legislated renewable energy portfolio and energy efficiency standards. The cobenefits of conservation are found to be significant. Water conservation policies have the potential to reduce statewide electricity demand by 0.82-3.1%, satisfying 4.1-16% of the state's mandated energy-efficiency standard. Adoption of energy-efficiency measures and renewable generation portfolios can reduce nonagricultural water demand by 1.9-15%. These conservation cobenefits are typically not included in conservation plans or benefit-cost analyses. Many cobenefits offer negative costs of saved water and energy, indicating that these measures provide water and energy savings at no net cost. Because ranges of costs and savings for water-energy conservation measures are somewhat uncertain, future studies should investigate the cobenefits of individual conservation strategies in detail. Although this study focuses on Arizona, the analysis can be extended elsewhere as renewable portfolio and energy efficiency standards become more common nationally and internationally. PMID:24460528

  15. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Oportunities for the Concrete Industry

    Kermeli, Katerina; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. concrete industry is the main consumer of U.S.-produced cement. The manufacturing of ready mixed concrete accounts for more than 75% of the U.S. concrete production following the manufacturing of precast concrete and masonry units. The most significant expenditure is the cost of materials accounting for more than 50% of total concrete production costs - cement only accounts for nearly 24%. In 2009, energy costs of the U.S. concrete industry were over $610 million. Hence, energy efficiency improvements along with efficient use of materials without negatively affecting product quality and yield, especially in times of increased fuel and material costs, can significantly reduce production costs and increase competitiveness. The Energy Guide starts with an overview of the U.S. concrete industry’s structure and energy use, a description of the various manufacturing processes, and identification of the major energy consuming areas in the different industry segments. This is followed by a description of general and process related energy- and cost-efficiency measures applicable to the concrete industry. Specific energy and cost savings and a typical payback period are included based on literature and case studies, when available. The Energy Guide intends to provide information on cost reduction opportunities to energy and plant managers in the U.S. concrete industry. Every cost saving opportunity should be assessed carefully prior to implementation in individual plants, as the economics and the potential energy and material savings may differ.

  16. Stationary super-capacitor energy storage system to save regenerative braking energy in a metro line

    Highlights: ► Super-capacitors are used to store regenerative braking energy in a metro network. ► A novel approach is proposed to model easily and accurately the metro network. ► An efficient approach is proposed to calculate the required super-capacitors. ► Maximum energy saving is around 44% at off-peak period and 42% at peak period. ► Benefit/cost analyses are performed for the suggested ESS. - Abstract: In this paper, the stationary super-capacitors are used to store a metro network regenerative braking energy. In order to estimate the required energy storage systems (ESSs), line 3 of Tehran metro network is modeled through a novel approach, in peak and off-peak conditions based on the real data obtained from Tehran metro office. A useful method is proposed to predict the maximum instantaneous regenerative energy which is delivered to each station before applying ESS and based on that the ESS configuration for each station is determined. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed ESS is confirmed by economic evaluations and benefit/cost analyses on line 3 of Tehran metro network.

  17. Energy saving and energy conservation policy of housing associations in the Netherlands; Energiebesparing en energiebesparingsbeleid bij woningcorporaties

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    Based on the results of interviews with experts in the field an overview is given of the bottlenecks, experienced by housing corporations in the Netherlands, in the implementation and execution of energy saving measures and with regard to their energy conservation policies. 3 appendices

  18. Potential energy savings and environmental impacts of energy efficiency standards for vapor compression central air conditioning units in China

    Lu Wei [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: tjluwei@163.com

    2007-03-15

    Owing to the rapid development of economy and the stable improvement of people's living standard, central air conditioning units are broadly used in China. This not only consumes large energy, but also results in adverse energy-related environmental issues. Energy efficiency standards are accepted effective policy tools to reduce energy consumption and pollutant emissions. Recently, China issued two national energy efficiency standards, GB19577-2004 and GB19576-2004, for vapor compression central air conditioning units for the first time. This paper first reviews the two standards, and then establishes a mathematic model to evaluate the potential energy savings and environmental impacts of the standards. The estimated results indicate implementing these standards will save massive energy, as well as benefit greatly to the environment. Obviously, it is significant to implement energy efficiency standards for central air conditioning units in China.

  19. The effect of pulse current on energy saving during Electrochemical Chloride Extraction (ECE) in concrete

    Sun, Tian R.; Geiker, Mette R.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    Energy consumption is a factor influencing the cost of Electrochemical Chloride Extraction (ECE) in concrete. The aims of this work were to investigate the possibility for energy saving when using a pulsed electric field during ECE and the effect of the pulsed current on removal of chloride. Four......+ ions from the anodic reaction entering the concrete, and the pulse current also demonstrated a positive effect on the energy consumption across the membrane by diminishing the concentration polarization....

  20. 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    Baechler, Michael C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gilbride, T. L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hefty, M. G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cole, P. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Adams, K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Butner, R. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ortiz, S. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Love, Pat M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct highly energy-efficient homes, while addressing building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the mixed-humid climate can build homes that achieve whole house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark (the 1993 Model Energy Code) with no added overall costs for consumers.