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Sample records for adaptive training control

  1. Designing Training for Temporal and Adaptive Transfer: A Comparative Evaluation of Three Training Methods for Process Control Tasks

    Kluge, Annette; Sauer, Juergen; Burkolter, Dina; Ritzmann, Sandrina

    2010-01-01

    Training in process control environments requires operators to be prepared for temporal and adaptive transfer of skill. Three training methods were compared with regard to their effectiveness in supporting transfer: Drill & Practice (D&P), Error Training (ET), and procedure-based and error heuristics training (PHT). Communication electronics…

  2. Personalised adaptive task selection in air traffic control: Effects on training efficiency and transfer.

    Salden, Ron; Paas, Fred; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2008-01-01

    Salden, R.J.C.M., Paas, F., & Van Merriënboer, J.J.G. (2006). Personalised adaptive task selection in air traffic control: Effects on training efficiency and transfer. Learning and Instruction, 16, 350-362

  3. Performance adaptive training control strategy for recovering wrist movements in stroke patients: a preliminary, feasibility study

    Sandini Giulio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last two decades robot training in neuromotor rehabilitation was mainly focused on shoulder-elbow movements. Few devices were designed and clinically tested for training coordinated movements of the wrist, which are crucial for achieving even the basic level of motor competence that is necessary for carrying out ADLs (activities of daily life. Moreover, most systems of robot therapy use point-to-point reaching movements which tend to emphasize the pathological tendency of stroke patients to break down goal-directed movements into a number of jerky sub-movements. For this reason we designed a wrist robot with a range of motion comparable to that of normal subjects and implemented a self-adapting training protocol for tracking smoothly moving targets in order to facilitate the emergence of smoothness in the motor control patterns and maximize the recovery of the normal RoM (range of motion of the different DoFs (degrees of Freedom. Methods The IIT-wrist robot is a 3 DoFs light exoskeleton device, with direct-drive of each DoF and a human-like range of motion for Flexion/Extension (FE, Abduction/Adduction (AA and Pronation/Supination (PS. Subjects were asked to track a variable-frequency oscillating target using only one wrist DoF at time, in such a way to carry out a progressive splinting therapy. The RoM of each DoF was angularly scanned in a staircase-like fashion, from the "easier" to the "more difficult" angular position. An Adaptive Controller evaluated online performance parameters and modulated both the assistance and the difficulty of the task in order to facilitate smoother and more precise motor command patterns. Results Three stroke subjects volunteered to participate in a preliminary test session aimed at verify the acceptability of the device and the feasibility of the designed protocol. All of them were able to perform the required task. The wrist active RoM of motion was evaluated for each patient at the

  4. Training induced adaptation in horse skeletal muscle

    van Dam, K.G.

    2006-01-01

    It appears that the physiological and biochemical adaptation of skeletal muscle to training in equine species shows a lot of similarities with human and rodent physiological adaptation. On the other hand it is becoming increasingly clear that intra-cellular mechanisms of adaptation (substrate transport, enzyme activity, etc) differ considerably between species. The major drawbacks in equine training physiological research are the lack of an appropriate training model and the lack of control o...

  5. Adaptive Hierarchical Control for the Muscle Strength Training of Stroke Survivors in Robot-aided Upper-limb Rehabilitation

    Guozheng Xu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strength training for stroke patients is of vital importance for helping survivors to progressively restore muscle strength and improve the performance of their activities in daily living (ADL. An adaptive hierarchical therapy control framework which integrates the patient’s real biomechanical state estimation with task‐performance quantitative evaluation is proposed. Firstly, a high‐level progressive resistive supervisory controller is designed to determine the resistive force base for each training session based on the patient’s online task‐performance evaluation. Then, a low‐level adaptive resistive force triggered controller is presented to further regulate the interactive resistive force corresponding to the patient’s real‐time biomechanical state ‐ characterized by the patient’s bio‐damping and bio‐stiffness in the course of one training session, so that the patient is challenged in a moderate but engaging and motivating way. Finally, a therapeutic robot system using a Barrett WAMTM compliant manipulator is set up. We recruited eighteen inpatient and outpatient stroke participants who were randomly allocated in experimental (robot‐aided and control (conventional physical therapy groups and enrolled for sixteen weeks of progressive resistance training. The preliminary results show that the proposed therapy control strategies can enhance the recovery of strength and motor control ability.

  6. Training Modalities to Increase Sensorimotor Adaptability

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Brady, R.; Audas, C.; Cohen, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the acute phase of adaptation to novel gravitational environments, sensorimotor disturbances have the potential to disrupt the ability of astronauts to perform required mission tasks. The goal of our current series of studies is develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The project has conducted a series of studies investigating the efficacy of treadmill training combined with a variety of sensory challenges (incongruent visual input, support surface instability) designed to increase adaptability. SA training using a treadmill combined with exposure to altered visual input was effective in producing increased adaptability in a more complex over-ground ambulatory task on an obstacle course. This confirms that for a complex task like walking, treadmill training contains enough of the critical features of overground walking to be an effective training modality. SA training can be optimized by using a periodized training schedule. Test sessions that each contain short-duration exposures to multiple perturbation stimuli allows subjects to acquire a greater ability to rapidly reorganize appropriate response strategies when encountering a novel sensory environment. Using a treadmill mounted on top of a six degree-of-freedom motion base platform we investigated locomotor training responses produced by subjects introduced to a dynamic walking surface combined with alterations in visual flow. Subjects who received this training had improved locomotor performance and faster reaction times when exposed to the novel sensory stimuli compared to control subjects. Results also demonstrate that individual sensory biases (i.e. increased visual dependency) can predict adaptive responses to novel sensory environments suggesting that individual training prescription can be developed to enhance adaptability. These data indicate that SA

  7. Feedback in Videogame-Based Adaptive Training

    Rivera, Iris Daliz

    2010-01-01

    The field of training has been changing rapidly due to advances in technology such as videogame-based adaptive training. Videogame-based adaptive training has provided flexibility and adaptability for training in cost-effective ways. Although this method of training may have many benefits for the trainee, current research has not kept up to pace…

  8. Cardiovascular adaptations to exercise training

    Hellsten, Ylva; Nyberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise training leads to cardiovascular changes that markedly increase aerobic power and lead to improved endurance performance. The functionally most important adaptation is the improvement in maximal cardiac output which is the result of an enlargement in cardiac dimension, improved...... arteries is reduced, a factor contributing to increased arterial compliance. Endurance training may also induce alterations in the vasodilator capacity, although such adaptations are more pronounced in individuals with reduced vascular function. The microvascular net increases in size within the muscle...... allowing for an improved capacity for oxygen extraction by the muscle through a greater area for diffusion, a shorter diffusion distance, and a longer mean transit time for the erythrocyte to pass through the smallest blood vessels. The present article addresses the effect of endurance training on systemic...

  9. User adaptation in long-term, open-loop myoelectric training: implications for EMG pattern recognition in prosthesis control

    He, Jiayuan; Zhang, Dingguo; Jiang, Ning; Sheng, Xinjun; Farina, Dario; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Recent studies have reported that the classification performance of electromyographic (EMG) signals degrades over time without proper classification retraining. This problem is relevant for the applications of EMG pattern recognition in the control of active prostheses. Approach. In this study we investigated the changes in EMG classification performance over 11 consecutive days in eight able-bodied subjects and two amputees. Main results. It was observed that, when the classifier was trained on data from one day and tested on data from the following day, the classification error decreased exponentially but plateaued after four days for able-bodied subjects and six to nine days for amputees. The between-day performance became gradually closer to the corresponding within-day performance. Significance. These results indicate that the relative changes in EMG signal features over time become progressively smaller when the number of days during which the subjects perform the pre-defined motions are increased. The performance of the motor tasks is thus more consistent over time, resulting in more repeatable EMG patterns, even if the subjects do not have any external feedback on their performance. The learning curves for both able-bodied subjects and subjects with limb deficiencies could be modeled as an exponential function. These results provide important insights into the user adaptation characteristics during practical long-term myoelectric control applications, with implications for the design of an adaptive pattern recognition system.

  10. Trained eyes: experience promotes adaptive gaze control in dynamic and uncertain visual environments.

    Shuichiro Taya

    Full Text Available Current eye-tracking research suggests that our eyes make anticipatory movements to a location that is relevant for a forthcoming task. Moreover, there is evidence to suggest that with more practice anticipatory gaze control can improve. However, these findings are largely limited to situations where participants are actively engaged in a task. We ask: does experience modulate anticipative gaze control while passively observing a visual scene? To tackle this we tested people with varying degrees of experience of tennis, in order to uncover potential associations between experience and eye movement behaviour while they watched tennis videos. The number, size, and accuracy of saccades (rapid eye-movements made around 'events,' which is critical for the scene context (i.e. hit and bounce were analysed. Overall, we found that experience improved anticipatory eye-movements while watching tennis clips. In general, those with extensive experience showed greater accuracy of saccades to upcoming event locations; this was particularly prevalent for events in the scene that carried high uncertainty (i.e. ball bounces. The results indicate that, even when passively observing, our gaze control system utilizes prior relevant knowledge in order to anticipate upcoming uncertain event locations.

  11. Central nervous system adaptation to exercise training

    Kaminski, Lois Anne

    Exercise training causes physiological changes in skeletal muscle that results in enhanced performance in humans and animals. Despite numerous studies on exercise effects on skeletal muscle, relatively little is known about adaptive changes in the central nervous system. This study investigated whether spinal pathways that mediate locomotor activity undergo functional adaptation after 28 days of exercise training. Ventral horn spinal cord expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a trophic factor at the neuromuscular junction, choline acetyltransferase (Chat), the synthetic enzyme for acetylcholine, vesicular acetylcholine transporter (Vacht), a transporter of ACh into synaptic vesicles and calcineurin (CaN), a protein phosphatase that phosphorylates ion channels and exocytosis machinery were measured to determine if changes in expression occurred in response to physical activity. Expression of these proteins was determined by western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Comparisons between sedentary controls and animals that underwent either endurance training or resistance training were made. Control rats received no exercise other than normal cage activity. Endurance-trained rats were exercised 6 days/wk at 31m/min on a treadmill (8% incline) for 100 minutes. Resistance-trained rats supported their weight plus an additional load (70--80% body weight) on a 60° incline (3 x 3 min, 5 days/wk). CGRP expression was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). CGRP expression in the spinal dorsal and ventral horn of exercise-trained animals was not significantly different than controls. Chat expression measured by Western blot and IHC was not significantly different between runners and controls but expression in resistance-trained animals assayed by IHC was significantly less than controls and runners. Vacht and CaN immunoreactivity in motor neurons of endurance-trained rats was significantly elevated relative to control and resistance-trained animals. Ventral

  12. Decentralized adaptive control

    Oh, B. J.; Jamshidi, M.; Seraji, H.

    1988-01-01

    A decentralized adaptive control is proposed to stabilize and track the nonlinear, interconnected subsystems with unknown parameters. The adaptation of the controller gain is derived by using model reference adaptive control theory based on Lyapunov's direct method. The adaptive gains consist of sigma, proportional, and integral combination of the measured and reference values of the corresponding subsystem. The proposed control is applied to the joint control of a two-link robot manipulator, and the performance in computer simulation corresponds with what is expected in theoretical development.

  13. Adaptive shared control system

    Sanders, David

    2009-01-01

    A control system to aid mobility is presented that is intended to assist living independently and that provides physical guidance. The system has two levels: a human machine interface and an adaptive shared controller.

  14. Long-Term Adaptations to Unexpected Surface Perturbations: Postural Control During Stance and Gait in Train Conductors.

    Baumgart, Christian; Hoppe, Matthias Wilhelm; Freiwald, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The authors aimed to evaluate the differences in postural control during stance and gait between train conductors and controls. Twenty-one train conductors and 21 office workers performed 6 unilateral and bilateral balance tests on stable and unstable surfaces as well as a gait analysis. In the balance tests, the mean velocity of the center of pressure and unstable surface was measured. In the bilateral balance tests the selected stance width was measured. During gait the length, width, frequency, and velocity of the steps were calculated from the ground reaction forces. Train conductors showed a significantly greater step width during gait (15.4 ± 4.7 vs. 13.0 ± 3.4 cm; p = .035) and stance width during the bilateral stance on the unstable surface (21.0 ± 5.1 vs. 17.8 ± 3.7 cm; p = .026) than the office workers, while no differences were revealed in balance variables. The revealed differences between train conductors and office workers may represent task-specific feedforward control strategies, which increase the base of support and may be helpful to resist unexpected perturbations in trains. PMID:26730891

  15. Building muscle : a translation of training adaptation

    Boman, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Training is preparation for what is expected to come through utilization of the plastic and resistive features of nature, known as adaptation. As such, training in humans may have a number of desired goals. These are typically related to sports performance or education. Whatever the goal, a plan needs to be made for reaching it. One needs to identify or select which activities and environments constitute the event or events to which adaptation is sought. Adaptations occurs by imposing somethi...

  16. Robust Adaptive Control

    Narendra, K. S.; Annaswamy, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    Several concepts and results in robust adaptive control are are discussed and is organized in three parts. The first part surveys existing algorithms. Different formulations of the problem and theoretical solutions that have been suggested are reviewed here. The second part contains new results related to the role of persistent excitation in robust adaptive systems and the use of hybrid control to improve robustness. In the third part promising new areas for future research are suggested which combine different approaches currently known.

  17. Robust Adaptive Structural Control

    Yang, Chi-Ming; Beck, James L.

    1995-01-01

    A new robust adaptive structural control design methodology is developed and presented which treats modeling uncertainties and limitations of control devices. Furthermore, no restriction is imposed on the structural models and the nature of the control devices so that the proposed method is very general. A simple linear single degree-of-freedom numerical example is presented to illustrate this approach.

  18. Control of training instrument

    This report describes the annual results on control of training instrument. The scope and contents are the following: 1. Control of Compact Nuclear Simulator 2. Control of Radiation/Radioactivity Measurement 3. Control of Non-Destructive Testing Equipment 4. Control of Chemical Equipment 5. Control of Personal Computer 6. Other related Lecture Aid Equipment. Efforts were employed to upgrade the training environment through retrofitting experimental facilities, compiling teaching materials and reforcing audio-visual aids. The Nuclear Training Center executed the open-door training courses for 2,496 engineers/scientists from the nuclear regulatory, nuclear industries, research institutes and other related organizations by means of offering 45 training courses during the fiscal year 1995. (author). 15 tabs., 7 figs., 13 refs

  19. Neural adaptations to electrical stimulation strength training

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Maffiuletti, Nicola A.

    2011-01-01

    This review provides evidence for the hypothesis that electrostimulation strength training (EST) increases the force of a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) through neural adaptations in healthy skeletal muscle. Although electrical stimulation and voluntary effort activate muscle differently, there

  20. Training to Facilitate Adaptation to Novel Sensory Environments

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R. A.; Batson, C. D.; Ploutz-Snyder, R. J.; Cohen, H. S.

    2010-01-01

    After spaceflight, the process of readapting to Earth s gravity causes locomotor dysfunction. We are developing a gait training countermeasure to facilitate adaptive responses in locomotor function. Our training system is comprised of a treadmill placed on a motion-base facing a virtual visual scene that provides an unstable walking surface combined with incongruent visual flow designed to train subjects to rapidly adapt their gait patterns to changes in the sensory environment. The goal of our present study was to determine if training improved both the locomotor and dual-tasking ability responses to a novel sensory environment and to quantify the retention of training. Subjects completed three, 30-minute training sessions during which they walked on the treadmill while receiving discordant support surface and visual input. Control subjects walked on the treadmill without any support surface or visual alterations. To determine the efficacy of training, all subjects were then tested using a novel visual flow and support surface movement not previously experienced during training. This test was performed 20 minutes, 1 week, and 1, 3, and 6 months after the final training session. Stride frequency and auditory reaction time were collected as measures of postural stability and cognitive effort, respectively. Subjects who received training showed less alteration in stride frequency and auditory reaction time compared to controls. Trained subjects maintained their level of performance over 6 months. We conclude that, with training, individuals became more proficient at walking in novel discordant sensorimotor conditions and were able to devote more attention to competing tasks.

  1. Adaptive processing with signal contaminated training samples

    Besson, Olivier; Bidon, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    We consider the adaptive beamforming or adaptive detection problem in the case of signal contaminated training samples, i.e., when the latter may contain a signal-like component. Since this results in a significant degradation of the signal to interference and noise ratio at the output of the adaptive filter, we investigate a scheme to jointly detect the contaminated samples and subsequently take this information into account for estimation of the disturbance covariance matrix. Towards this e...

  2. Adaptive, predictive controller for optimal process control

    Brown, S.K.; Baum, C.C.; Bowling, P.S.; Buescher, K.L.; Hanagandi, V.M.; Hinde, R.F. Jr.; Jones, R.D.; Parkinson, W.J.

    1995-12-01

    One can derive a model for use in a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) from first principles or from experimental data. Until recently, both methods failed for all but the simplest processes. First principles are almost always incomplete and fitting to experimental data fails for dimensions greater than one as well as for non-linear cases. Several authors have suggested the use of a neural network to fit the experimental data to a multi-dimensional and/or non-linear model. Most networks, however, use simple sigmoid functions and backpropagation for fitting. Training of these networks generally requires large amounts of data and, consequently, very long training times. In 1993 we reported on the tuning and optimization of a negative ion source using a special neural network[2]. One of the properties of this network (CNLSnet), a modified radial basis function network, is that it is able to fit data with few basis functions. Another is that its training is linear resulting in guaranteed convergence and rapid training. We found the training to be rapid enough to support real-time control. This work has been extended to incorporate this network into an MPC using the model built by the network for predictive control. This controller has shown some remarkable capabilities in such non-linear applications as continuous stirred exothermic tank reactors and high-purity fractional distillation columns[3]. The controller is able not only to build an appropriate model from operating data but also to thin the network continuously so that the model adapts to changing plant conditions. The controller is discussed as well as its possible use in various of the difficult control problems that face this community.

  3. Adaptive Inflow Control System

    Volkov, Vasily Y; Zhuravlev, Oleg N; Nukhaev, Marat T; Shchelushkin, Roman V

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the idea and realization for the unique Adaptive Inflow Control System being a part of well completion, able to adjust to the changing in time production conditions. This system allows to limit the flow rate from each interval at a certain level, which solves the problem of water and gas breakthroughs. We present the results of laboratory tests and numerical calculations obtaining the characteristics of the experimental setup with dual-in-position valves as parts of adaptive inflow control system, depending on the operating conditions. The flow distribution in the system was also studied with the help of three-dimensional computer model. The control ranges dependences are determined, an influence of the individual elements on the entire system is revealed.

  4. Training Adaptive Decision-Making.

    Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James C.

    2014-10-01

    Adaptive Thinking has been defined here as the capacity to recognize when a course of action that may have previously been effective is no longer effective and there is need to adjust strategy. Research was undertaken with human test subjects to identify the factors that contribute to adaptive thinking. It was discovered that those most effective in settings that call for adaptive thinking tend to possess a superior capacity to quickly and effectively generate possible courses of action, as measured using the Category Generation test. Software developed for this research has been applied to develop capabilities enabling analysts to identify crucial factors that are predictive of outcomes in fore-on-force simulation exercises.

  5. Adaptive Structural Mode Control Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — M4 Engineering proposes the development of an adaptive structural mode control system. The adaptive control system will begin from a "baseline" dynamic model of the...

  6. Automatically controlled training systems

    This paper reports that the computer system for NPP personnel training was developed for training centers in the Soviet Union. The system should be considered as the first step in training, taking into account that further steps are to be devoted to part-task and full scope simulator training. The training room consists of 8-12 IBM PC/AT personal computers combined into a network. A trainee accesses the system in a dialor manner. Software enables the instructor to determine the trainee's progress in different subjects of the program. The quality of any trainee preparedness may be evaluated by Knowledge Control operation. Simplified dynamic models are adopted for separate areas of the program. For example, the system of neutron flux monitoring has a dedicated model. Currently, training, requalification and support of professional qualifications of nuclear power plant operators is being emphasized. A significant number of emergency situations during work are occurring due to operator errors. Based on data from September-October 1989, more than half of all unplanned drops in power and stoppages of power plants were due to operator error. As a comparison, problems due to equipment malfunction accounted for no more than a third of the total. The role of personnel, especially of the operators, is significant during normal operations, since energy production costs as well as losses are influenced by the capability of the staff. These facts all point to the importance of quality training of personnel

  7. Adaptive skin detection based on online training

    Zhang, Ming; Tang, Liang; Zhou, Jie; Rong, Gang

    2007-11-01

    Skin is a widely used cue for porn image classification. Most conventional methods are off-line training schemes. They usually use a fixed boundary to segment skin regions in the images and are effective only in restricted conditions: e.g. good lightness and unique human race. This paper presents an adaptive online training scheme for skin detection which can handle these tough cases. In our approach, skin detection is considered as a classification problem on Gaussian mixture model. For each image, human face is detected and the face color is used to establish a primary estimation of skin color distribution. Then an adaptive online training algorithm is used to find the real boundary between skin color and background color in current image. Experimental results on 450 images showed that the proposed method is more robust in general situations than the conventional ones.

  8. Stored waveform adaptive motor control

    Beall, Jeffery C.

    1986-01-01

    This study investigates an adaptive control scheme designed to maintain accurate motor speed control in spite of high-frequency periodic variations in load torque, load inertia, and motor parameters. The controller adapts, stores and replays a schedule of torques to be delivered at discrete points throughout the periodic load cycle. The controller also adapts to non-periodic changes in load conditions which occur over several load cycles and contains inherent integrator control action to ...

  9. Muscle, functional and cognitive adaptations after flywheel resistance training in stroke patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Sol; Turon, Marc; Prieto, Cristina; Tesch, Per A; García-Carreira, Maria del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Background Resistance exercise (RE) improves neuromuscular function and physical performance after stroke. Yet, the effects of RE emphasizing eccentric (ECC; lengthening) actions on muscle hypertrophy and cognitive function in stroke patients are currently unknown. Thus, this study explored the effects of ECC-overload RE training on skeletal muscle size and function, and cognitive performance in individuals with stroke. Methods Thirty-two individuals with chronic stroke (≥6 months post-stroke...

  10. Adaptive filtering prediction and control

    Goodwin, Graham C

    2009-01-01

    Preface1. Introduction to Adaptive TechniquesPart 1. Deterministic Systems2. Models for Deterministic Dynamical Systems3. Parameter Estimation for Deterministic Systems4. Deterministic Adaptive Prediction5. Control of Linear Deterministic Systems6. Adaptive Control of Linear Deterministic SystemsPart 2. Stochastic Systems7. Optimal Filtering and Prediction8. Parameter Estimation for Stochastic Dynamic Systems9. Adaptive Filtering and Prediction10. Control of Stochastic Systems11. Adaptive Control of Stochastic SystemsAppendicesA. A Brief Review of Some Results from Systems TheoryB. A Summary o

  11. Adaptations to training at the individual anaerobic threshold.

    Keith, S P; Jacobs, I; McLellan, T M

    1992-01-01

    The individual anaerobic threshold (Th(an)) is the highest metabolic rate at which blood lactate concentrations can be maintained at a steady-state during prolonged exercise. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that training at the Th(an) would cause a greater change in indicators of training adaptation than would training "around" the Th(an). Three groups of subjects were evaluated before, and again after 4 and 8 weeks of training: a control group, a group which trained continuously for 30 min at the Th(an) intensity (SS), and a group (NSS) which divided the 30 min of training into 7.5-min blocks at intensities which alternated between being below the Th(an) [Th(an) -30% of the difference between Th(an) and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max)] and above the Th(an) (Th(an) +30% of the difference between Th(an) and VO2max). The VO2max increased significantly from 4.06 to 4.27 l.min-1 in SS and from 3.89 to 4.06 l.min-1 in NSS. The power output (W) at Th(an) increased from 70.5 to 79.8% VO2max in SS and from 71.1 to 80.7% VO2max in NSS. The magnitude of change in VO2max, W at Th(an), % VO2max at Th(an) and in exercise time to exhaustion at the pretraining Th(an) was similar in both trained groups. Vastus lateralis citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase activities increased to the same extent in both trained groups. While all of these training-induced adaptations were statistically significant (P < 0.05), there were no significant changes in any of these variables for the control subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1425631

  12. Enhancing astronaut performance using sensorimotor adaptability training.

    Bloomberg, Jacob J; Peters, Brian T; Cohen, Helen S; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts experience disturbances in balance and gait function when they return to Earth. The highly plastic human brain enables individuals to modify their behavior to match the prevailing environment. Subjects participating in specially designed variable sensory challenge training programs can enhance their ability to rapidly adapt to novel sensory situations. This is useful in our application because we aim to train astronauts to rapidly formulate effective strategies to cope with the balance and locomotor challenges associated with new gravitational environments-enhancing their ability to "learn to learn." We do this by coupling various combinations of sensorimotor challenges with treadmill walking. A unique training system has been developed that is comprised of a treadmill mounted on a motion base to produce movement of the support surface during walking. This system provides challenges to gait stability. Additional sensory variation and challenge are imposed with a virtual visual scene that presents subjects with various combinations of discordant visual information during treadmill walking. This experience allows them to practice resolving challenging and conflicting novel sensory information to improve their ability to adapt rapidly. Information obtained from this work will inform the design of the next generation of sensorimotor countermeasures for astronauts. PMID:26441561

  13. Enhancing Astronaut Performance using Sensorimotor Adaptability Training

    Jacob J Bloomberg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Astronauts experience disturbances in balance and gait function when they return to Earth. The highly plastic human brain enables individuals to modify their behavior to match the prevailing environment. Subjects participating in specially designed variable sensory challenge training programs can enhance their ability to rapidly adapt to novel sensory situations. This is useful in our application because we aim to train astronauts to rapidly formulate effective strategies to cope with the balance and locomotor challenges associated with new gravitational environments - enhancing their ability to learn to learn. We do this by coupling various combinations of sensorimotor challenges with treadmill walking. A unique training system has been developed that is comprised of a treadmill mounted on a motion base to produce movement of the support surface during walking. This system provides challenges to gait stability. Additional sensory variation and challenge are imposed with a virtual visual scene that presents subjects with various combinations of discordant visual information during treadmill walking. This experience allows them to practice resolving challenging and conflicting novel sensory information to improve their ability to adapt rapidly. Information obtained from this work will inform the design of the next generation of sensorimotor countermeasures for astronauts.

  14. Adaptive model training system and method

    Bickford, Randall L; Palnitkar, Rahul M; Lee, Vo

    2014-04-15

    An adaptive model training system and method for filtering asset operating data values acquired from a monitored asset for selectively choosing asset operating data values that meet at least one predefined criterion of good data quality while rejecting asset operating data values that fail to meet at least the one predefined criterion of good data quality; and recalibrating a previously trained or calibrated model having a learned scope of normal operation of the asset by utilizing the asset operating data values that meet at least the one predefined criterion of good data quality for adjusting the learned scope of normal operation of the asset for defining a recalibrated model having the adjusted learned scope of normal operation of the asset.

  15. Adaptive model training system and method

    Bickford, Randall L; Palnitkar, Rahul M

    2014-11-18

    An adaptive model training system and method for filtering asset operating data values acquired from a monitored asset for selectively choosing asset operating data values that meet at least one predefined criterion of good data quality while rejecting asset operating data values that fail to meet at least the one predefined criterion of good data quality; and recalibrating a previously trained or calibrated model having a learned scope of normal operation of the asset by utilizing the asset operating data values that meet at least the one predefined criterion of good data quality for adjusting the learned scope of normal operation of the asset for defining a recalibrated model having the adjusted learned scope of normal operation of the asset.

  16. Adaptive training of feedforward neural networks by Kalman filtering

    Adaptive training of feedforward neural networks by Kalman filtering is described. Adaptive training is particularly important in estimation by neural network in real-time environmental where the trained network is used for system estimation while the network is further trained by means of the information provided by the experienced/exercised ongoing operation. As result of this, neural network adapts itself to a changing environment to perform its mission without recourse to re-training. The performance of the training method is demonstrated by means of actual process signals from a nuclear power plant. (orig.)

  17. Maritime adaptive optics beam control

    Corley, Melissa S.

    2010-01-01

    The Navy is interested in developing systems for horizontal, near ocean surface, high-energy laser propagation through the atmosphere. Laser propagation in the maritime environment requires adaptive optics control of aberrations caused by atmospheric distortion. In this research, a multichannel transverse adaptive filter is formulated in Matlab's Simulink environment and compared to a complex lattice filter that has previously been implemented in large system simulations. The adaptive fil...

  18. The combined effects of action observation and passive proprioceptive training on adaptive motor learning.

    Lei, Yuming; Bao, Shancheng; Wang, Jinsung

    2016-09-01

    Sensorimotor adaptation can be induced by action observation, and also by passive training. Here, we investigated the effect of a protocol that combined action observation and passive training on visuomotor adaptation, by comparing it with the effect of action observation or passive training alone. Subjects were divided into five conditions during the training session: (1) action observation, in which the subjects watched a video of a model who adapted to a novel visuomotor rotation; (2) proprioceptive training, in which the subject's arm was moved passively to target locations that were associated with desired trajectories; (3) combined training, in which the subjects watched the video of a model during a half of the session and experienced passive movements during the other half; (4) active training, in which the subjects adapted actively to the rotation; and (5) a control condition, in which the subjects did not perform any task. Following that session, all subjects adapted to the same visuomotor rotation. Results showed that the subjects in the combined training condition adapted to the rotation significantly better than those in the observation or proprioceptive training condition, although their performance was not as good as that of those who adapted actively. These findings suggest that although a protocol that combines action observation and passive training consists of all the processes involved in active training (error detection and correction, effector-specific and proprioceptively based reaching movements), these processes in that protocol may work differently as compared to a protocol in which the same processes are engaged actively. PMID:27298007

  19. Resistance Training: Physiological Responses and Adaptations (Part 3 of 4).

    Fleck, Steven J.; Kraemer, William J.

    1988-01-01

    The physiological responses and adaptations which occur as a result of resistance training, such as cardiovascular responses, serum lipid count, body composition, and neural adaptations are discussed. Changes in the endocrine system are also described. (JL)

  20. Antioxidant supplementation does not alter endurance training adaptation

    Yfanti, Christina; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Nielsen, Søren;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a considerable commercial market, especially within the sports community, claiming the need for antioxidant supplementation. One argument for antioxidant supplementation in sports is that physical exercise is associated with increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS......) production, which may cause cell damage. However, RONS production may also activate redox sensitive signaling pathways and transcription factors, which subsequently may promote training adaptation. PURPOSE: Our aim was to investigate the effects of combined vitamin C and E supplementation to healthy...... individuals on different measures of exercise performance after endurance training. METHODS:: Using a double-blinded placebo-controlled design, moderately trained young men received either oral supplementation with vitamins C and E (n=11) or placebo (n=10) before and during 12 weeks of supervised, strenuous...

  1. INDIRECT ACCELERATED ADAPTIVE FUZZY CONTROLLER

    ZHU Liye; FANG Yuan; ZHANG Weidong

    2008-01-01

    According to a type of normal nonlinear system, an indirect adaptive fuzzy (IAF) controller has been applied to those systems where no accurate mathematical models of the systems under control are available. To satisfy with system performance, an indirect accelerated adaptive fuzzy (IAAF) controller is proposed, and its general form is presented. The general form IAAF controller ensures necessary control criteria and system's global stability using Lyapunov Theorem. It has been proved that the close-loop system error converges to a small neighborhood of equilibrium point. The optimal IAAF controller is derived to guarantee the process's shortest settling time. Simulation results indicate the IAAF controller make the system more stable, accurate, and fast.

  2. Fast Linear Adaptive Skipping Training Algorithm for Training Artificial Neural Network

    Manjula Devi, R.; R. C. Suganthe; S. KUPPUSWAMI

    2013-01-01

    Artificial neural network has been extensively consumed training model for solving pattern recognition tasks. However, training a very huge training data set using complex neural network necessitates excessively high training time. In this correspondence, a new fast Linear Adaptive Skipping Training (LAST) algorithm for training artificial neural network (ANN) is instituted. The core essence of this paper is to ameliorate the training speed of ANN by exhibiting only the input samples that do ...

  3. Communication for adaptive control

    Malik, Abdul Mubeen

    2010-01-01

    Ericsson developed the signal processing methods to be used in the digital power to increase the performance and the functionality of the converter. In the continuation of that the method of identifying the load of the DC/DC converter was developed in this project. The aim was to develop the algorithm that controls and communicate with the DC/DC converter “BMR450”. A current sensing circuit was been made for the voltage measurement in the DC/DC converter across the “inductor” in one part of t...

  4. Robust Optimal Adaptive Control Method with Large Adaptive Gain

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2009-01-01

    In the presence of large uncertainties, a control system needs to be able to adapt rapidly to regain performance. Fast adaptation is referred to the implementation of adaptive control with a large adaptive gain to reduce the tracking error rapidly. However, a large adaptive gain can lead to high-frequency oscillations which can adversely affect robustness of an adaptive control law. A new adaptive control modification is presented that can achieve robust adaptation with a large adaptive gain without incurring high-frequency oscillations as with the standard model-reference adaptive control. The modification is based on the minimization of the Y2 norm of the tracking error, which is formulated as an optimal control problem. The optimality condition is used to derive the modification using the gradient method. The optimal control modification results in a stable adaptation and allows a large adaptive gain to be used for better tracking while providing sufficient stability robustness. Simulations were conducted for a damaged generic transport aircraft with both standard adaptive control and the adaptive optimal control modification technique. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed modification in tracking a reference model while maintaining a sufficient time delay margin.

  5. Adaptive controlling of power boiler

    Wojcik, W.; Kalita, M; Smolarz, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents research on adaptive control (AC) of combastion process in in¬dustry. Results were obtained from research conducted in laboratory combustion chamber with usage of Fiber Optical Measurement System (FOMS) with electronic block. Simulation proved that implementing AC and FOMS to burning process improves flue gasses parameters -direct measure of power boiler ecologic and economical quality of work.

  6. Adaptive Control of Parabolic PDEs

    Smyshlyaev, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    This book introduces a comprehensive methodology for adaptive control design of parabolic partial differential equations with unknown functional parameters, including reaction-convection-diffusion systems ubiquitous in chemical, thermal, biomedical, aerospace, and energy systems. Andrey Smyshlyaev and Miroslav Krstic develop explicit feedback laws that do not require real-time solution of Riccati or other algebraic operator-valued equations. The book emphasizes stabilization by boundary control and using boundary sensing for unstable PDE systems with an infinite relative degree. The book also

  7. Multiple Regressive Model Adaptive Control

    Garipov, Emil; Stoilkov, Teodor; Kalaykov, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    The essence of the ideas applied to this text consists in the development of the strategy for control of the arbitrary in complexity continuous plant by means of a set of discrete timeinvariant linear controllers. Their number and tuned parameters correspond to the number and parameters of the linear time-invariant regressive models in the model bank, which approximate the complex plant dynamics in different operating points. Described strategy is known as Multiple Regressive Model Adaptive C...

  8. Book Review: Training the Party: Party Adaptation and Elite Training in Reform-era China

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Training the Party: Party Adaptation and Elite Training in Reform-era China. Charlotte P. Lee . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. xii + 251 pp. $99.99. ISBN 978-1-107-09063-7......Review of: Training the Party: Party Adaptation and Elite Training in Reform-era China. Charlotte P. Lee . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. xii + 251 pp. $99.99. ISBN 978-1-107-09063-7...

  9. Training Enhances Both Locomotor and Cognitive Adaptability to a Novel Sensory Environment

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R. A.; Batson, C. D.; Ploutz-Snyder, R. J.; Cohen, H. S.

    2010-01-01

    During adaptation to novel gravitational environments, sensorimotor disturbances have the potential to disrupt the ability of astronauts to perform required mission tasks. The goal of this project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program to facilitate rapid adaptation. We have developed a unique training system comprised of a treadmill placed on a motion-base facing a virtual visual scene that provides an unstable walking surface combined with incongruent visual flow designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. The goal of our present study was to determine if SA training improved both the locomotor and cognitive responses to a novel sensory environment and to quantify the extent to which training would be retained. Methods: Twenty subjects (10 training, 10 control) completed three, 30-minute training sessions during which they walked on the treadmill while receiving discordant support surface and visual input. Control subjects walked on the treadmill but did not receive any support surface or visual alterations. To determine the efficacy of training all subjects performed the Transfer Test upon completion of training. For this test, subjects were exposed to novel visual flow and support surface movement, not previously experienced during training. The Transfer Test was performed 20 minutes, 1 week, 1, 3 and 6 months after the final training session. Stride frequency, auditory reaction time, and heart rate data were collected as measures of postural stability, cognitive effort and anxiety, respectively. Results: Using mixed effects regression methods we determined that subjects who received SA training showed less alterations in stride frequency, auditory reaction time and heart rate compared to controls. Conclusion: Subjects who received SA training improved performance across a number of modalities including enhanced locomotor function, increased multi-tasking capability and reduced anxiety during adaptation to novel discordant sensory

  10. Adaptations to speed endurance training in highly trained soccer players

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Fiorenza, Matteo; Lund, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study examined whether a period of additional speed endurance training would improve intense intermittent exercise performance in highly trained soccer players during the season and whether the training changed aerobic metabolism and the level of oxidative enzymes in type I...... and II muscle fibers. METHODS: During the last nine weeks of the season, thirteen semi-professional soccer players performed additional speed endurance training sessions consisting of 2-3 sets of 8 - 10 repetitions of 30 m sprints with 10 s of passive recovery (SET). Before and after SET, subjects...... in type I and II fibers did not change. CONCLUSION: In highly trained soccer players, additional speed endurance training is associated with an improved ability to perform repeated high-intensity work. To what extent the training-induced changes in V˙O2 kinetics and mechanical efficiency in type I fibers...

  11. Adaptive neuron-to-EMG decoder training for FES neuroprostheses

    Ethier, Christian; Acuna, Daniel; Solla, Sara A.; Miller, Lee E.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. We have previously demonstrated a brain-machine interface neuroprosthetic system that provided continuous control of functional electrical stimulation (FES) and restoration of grasp in a primate model of spinal cord injury (SCI). Predicting intended EMG directly from cortical recordings provides a flexible high-dimensional control signal for FES. However, no peripheral signal such as force or EMG is available for training EMG decoders in paralyzed individuals. Approach. Here we present a method for training an EMG decoder in the absence of muscle activity recordings; the decoder relies on mapping behaviorally relevant cortical activity to the inferred EMG activity underlying an intended action. Monkeys were trained at a 2D isometric wrist force task to control a computer cursor by applying force in the flexion, extension, ulnar, and radial directions and execute a center-out task. We used a generic muscle force-to-endpoint force model based on muscle pulling directions to relate each target force to an optimal EMG pattern that attained the target force while minimizing overall muscle activity. We trained EMG decoders during the target hold periods using a gradient descent algorithm that compared EMG predictions to optimal EMG patterns. Main results. We tested this method both offline and online. We quantified both the accuracy of offline force predictions and the ability of a monkey to use these real-time force predictions for closed-loop cursor control. We compared both offline and online results to those obtained with several other direct force decoders, including an optimal decoder computed from concurrently measured neural and force signals. Significance. This novel approach to training an adaptive EMG decoder could make a brain-control FES neuroprosthesis an effective tool to restore the hand function of paralyzed individuals. Clinical implementation would make use of individualized EMG-to-force models. Broad generalization could be achieved by

  12. Contrast Adaptation Decreases Complexity in Retinal Ganglion Cell Spike Train

    WANG Guang-Li; HUANG Shi-Yong; ZHANG Ying-Ying; LIANG Pei-Ji

    2007-01-01

    @@ The difference in temporal structures of retinal ganglion cell spike trains between spontaneous activity and firing activity after contrast adaptation is investigated. The Lempel-Ziv complexity analysis reveals that the complexity of the neural spike train decreases after contrast adaptation. This implies that the behaviour of the neuron becomes ordered, which may carry relevant information about the external stimulus. Thus, during the neuron activity after contrast adaptation, external information could be encoded in forms of some certain patterns in the temporal structure of spike train that is significantly different, compared to that of the spike train during spontaneous activity, although the firing rates in spontaneous activity and firing activity after contrast adaptation are sometime similar.

  13. Strength and power training: physiological mechanisms of adaptation.

    Kraemer, W J; Fleck, S J; Evans, W J

    1996-01-01

    Adaptations in resistance training are focused on the development and maintenance of the neuromuscular unit needed for force production [97, 136]. The effects of training, when using this system, affect many other physiological systems of the body (e.g., the connective tissue, cardiovascular, and endocrine systems) [16, 18, 37, 77, 83]. Training programs are highly specific to the types of adaptation that occur. Activation of specific patterns of motor units in training dictate what tissue and how other physiological systems will be affected by the exercise training. The time course of the development of the neuromuscular system appears to be dominated in the early phase by neural factors with associated changes in the types of contractile proteins. In the later adaptation phase, muscle protein increases, and the contractile unit begins to contribute the most to the changes in performance capabilities. A host of other factors can affect the adaptations, such as functional capabilities of the individual, age, nutritional status, and behavioral factors (e.g., sleep and health habits). Optimal adaptation appears to be related to the use of specific resistance training programs to meet individual training objectives. PMID:8744256

  14. Adaptive collaborative control of highly redundant robots

    Handelman, David A.

    2008-04-01

    The agility and adaptability of biological systems are worthwhile goals for next-generation unmanned ground vehicles. Management of the requisite number of degrees of freedom, however, remains a challenge, as does the ability of an operator to transfer behavioral intent from human to robot. This paper reviews American Android research funded by NASA, DARPA, and the U.S. Army that attempts to address these issues. Limb coordination technology, an iterative form of inverse kinematics, provides a fundamental ability to control balance and posture independently in highly redundant systems. Goal positions and orientations of distal points of the robot skeleton, such as the hands and feet of a humanoid robot, become variable constraints, as does center-of-gravity position. Behaviors utilize these goals to synthesize full-body motion. Biped walking, crawling and grasping are illustrated, and behavior parameterization, layering and portability are discussed. Robotic skill acquisition enables a show-and-tell approach to behavior modification. Declarative rules built verbally by an operator in the field define nominal task plans, and neural networks trained with verbal, manual and visual signals provide additional behavior shaping. Anticipated benefits of the resultant adaptive collaborative controller for unmanned ground vehicles include increased robot autonomy, reduced operator workload and reduced operator training and skill requirements.

  15. Radiological control technician: Training program management manual

    This manual defines and describes the DOE Radiological Control Technician Core Training Program qualification and training process, material development requirements, standards and policies, and administration. The manual applies to Radiological Control Technician Training Programs at all DOE contractor sites

  16. Adaptive Controller Effects on Pilot Behavior

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.; Hempley, Lucas E.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive control provides robustness and resilience for highly uncertain, and potentially unpredictable, flight dynamics characteristic. Some of the recent flight experiences of pilot-in-the-loop with an adaptive controller have exhibited unpredicted interactions. In retrospect, this is not surprising once it is realized that there are now two adaptive controllers interacting, the software adaptive control system and the pilot. An experiment was conducted to categorize these interactions on the pilot with an adaptive controller during control surface failures. One of the objectives of this experiment was to determine how the adaptation time of the controller affects pilots. The pitch and roll errors, and stick input increased for increasing adaptation time and during the segment when the adaptive controller was adapting. Not surprisingly, altitude, cross track and angle deviations, and vertical velocity also increase during the failure and then slowly return to pre-failure levels. Subjects may change their behavior even as an adaptive controller is adapting with additional stick inputs. Therefore, the adaptive controller should adapt as fast as possible to minimize flight track errors. This will minimize undesirable interactions between the pilot and the adaptive controller and maintain maneuvering precision.

  17. Sensorimotor Adaptability Training Improves Motor and Dual-Task Performance

    Bloomberg, J.J.; Peters, B.T.; Mulavara, A.P.; Brady, R.; Batson, C.; Cohen, H.S.

    2009-01-01

    The overall objective of our project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The goal of our current study was to determine if SA training using variation in visual flow and support surface motion produces improved performance in a novel sensory environment and demonstrate the retention characteristics of SA training.

  18. Adaptive feedback active noise control

    Kuo, Sen M.; Vijayan, Dipa

    Feedforward active noise control (ANC) systems use a reference sensor that senses a reference input to the controller. This signal is assumed to be unaffected by the secondary source and is a good measure of the undesired noise to be cancelled by the system. The reference sensor may be acoustic (e.g., microphone) or non-acoustic (e.g., tachometer, optical transducer). An obvious problem when using acoustic sensors is that the reference signal may be corrupted by the canceling signal generated by the secondary source. This problem is known as acoustic feedback. One way of avoiding this is by using a feedback active noise control (FANC) system which dispenses with the reference sensor. The FANC technique originally proposed by Olson and May employs a high gain negative feedback amplifier. This system suffered from the drawback that the error microphone had to be placed very close to the loudspeaker. The operation of the system was restricted to low frequency range and suffered from instability due to the possibility of positive feedback. Feedback systems employing adaptive filtering techniques for active noise control were developed. This paper presents the FANC system modeled as an adaptive prediction scheme.

  19. Adaptive Distributed Environment for Procedure Training Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ADEPT project aims to improve the state-of-the-art with respect to capabilities and costs of scenario-based training in support of future space exploration...

  20. Enhancing Functional Performance using Sensorimotor Adaptability Training Programs

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Brady, R.; Audas, C.; Ruttley, T. M.; Cohen, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the acute phase of adaptation to novel gravitational environments, sensorimotor disturbances have the potential to disrupt the ability of astronauts to perform functional tasks. The goal of this project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The project conducted a series of studies that investigated the efficacy of treadmill training combined with a variety of sensory challenges designed to increase adaptability including alterations in visual flow, body loading, and support surface stability.

  1. Adaptive Extremum Control and Wind Turbine Control

    Ma, Xin

    1997-01-01

    . Firstly, it is assumed that the nonlinear processes can be divided into a dynamic linear part and static nonlinear part. Consequently the processes with input nonlinearity and output nonlinearity are treated separately. With the nonlinearity at the input it is easy to set up a model which is linear in...... parameters, and thus directly lends itself to parameter estimation and adaptive control. The extremum control law is derived based on static optimization of a performance function. For a process with nonlinearity at output the intermediate signal between the linear part and nonlinear part plays an important...... measuring device. The investigation of control design is divided into below rated operation and above rated operation. Below ratedpower, the aim of control is to extract maximumenergy from the wind. The pitch angle of the rotor blades is xed at its optimal value and turbine speed is adjusted to follow...

  2. Reading Materials Adaption for English Language Training

    2012-01-01

    According to the observance of ELT (English Language Training)classes in China, the selection of reading materials becomes a big problem. Most teachers there are in a traditional way of following the textbooks, and regard texts given in those books as the sole resource of teaching materials. However, those texts are not ideal for all situations, and when there are problems, we need to make improvements instead of sticking to the authority of textbooks. In this paper the author will illustrate the necessity of adapting reading textbooks mainly in a Chinese ELT context and set forth some corresponding suggestions about adaption in differ- ent cases.

  3. Adaptive model predictive process control using neural networks

    Buescher, Kevin L.; Baum, Christopher C.; Jones, Roger D.

    1997-01-01

    A control system for controlling the output of at least one plant process output parameter is implemented by adaptive model predictive control using a neural network. An improved method and apparatus provides for sampling plant output and control input at a first sampling rate to provide control inputs at the fast rate. The MPC system is, however, provided with a network state vector that is constructed at a second, slower rate so that the input control values used by the MPC system are averaged over a gapped time period. Another improvement is a provision for on-line training that may include difference training, curvature training, and basis center adjustment to maintain the weights and basis centers of the neural in an updated state that can follow changes in the plant operation apart from initial off-line training data.

  4. Adaptive Fuzzy Control for CVT Vehicle

    2005-01-01

    On the simple continuously variable transmission (CVT) driveline model, the design of adaptive fuzzy control system for CVT vehicle is presented. The adaptive fuzzy control system consists of a scaling factor self-tuning fuzzy-PI throttle controller, and a hybrid fuzzy-PID CVT ratio and brake controller. The presented adaptive fuzzy control strategy is vehicle model independent, which depends only on the instantaneous vehicle states, but does not depend on vehicle parameters. So it has good robustness against uncertain vehicle parameters and exogenous load disturbance. Simulation results show that the proposed adaptive fuzzy strategy has good adaptability and practicality value.

  5. BACKPROPAGATION TRAINING ALGORITHM WITH ADAPTIVE PARAMETERS TO SOLVE DIGITAL PROBLEMS

    R. Saraswathi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient technique namely Backpropagation training with adaptive parameters using Lyapunov Stability Theory for training single hidden layer feed forward network is proposed. A three-layered Feedforward neural network architecture is used to solve the selected problems. Sequential Training Mode is used to train the network. Lyapunov stability theory is employed to ensure the faster and steady state error convergence and to construct and energy surface with a single global minimum point through the adaptive adjustment of the weights and the adaptive parameter ß. To avoid local minima entrapment, an adaptive backpropagation algorithm based on Lyapunov stability theory is used. Lyapunov stability theory gives the algorithm, the efficiency of attaining a single global minimum point. The learning parameters used in this algorithm is responsible for the faster error convergence. The adaptive learning parameter used in this algorithm is chosen properly for faster error convergence. The error obtained has been asymptotically converged to zero according to Lyapunov Stability theory. The performance of the adaptive Backpropagation algorithm is measured by solving parity problem, half adder and full adder problems.

  6. Neuromuscular adaptations to 4 weeks of intensive drop jump training in well-trained athletes

    Alkjær, Tine; Meyland, Jacob; Raffalt, Peter C;

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 4 weeks of intensive drop jump training in well-trained athletes on jumping performance and underlying changes in biomechanics and neuromuscular adaptations. Nine well-trained athletes at high national competition level within sprinting and jumping disciplines...... participated in the study. The training was supervised and augmented feedback on performance was used to ensure maximal training intensity. The drop jumps were performed with minimal contact time and maximal jumping height. Assessment of performance during training showed effects of motor learning. Before and...... soleus V-wave increased significantly at 45 msec after touchdown. This may indicate an increased drive to the α-motor neuron pool following training. Muscle strength parameters were unaffected by the training. The results demonstrate that 4 weeks of intensive drop jump training can improve jumping...

  7. Adaptive fuzzy controllers based on variable universe

    李洪兴

    1999-01-01

    Adaptive fuzzy controllers by means of variable universe are proposed based on interpolation forms of fuzzy control. First, monotonicity of control rules is defined, and it is proved that the monotonicity of interpolation functions of fuzzy control is equivalent to the monotonicity of control rules. This means that there is not any contradiction among the control rules under the condition for the control rules being monotonic. Then structure of the contraction-expansion factor is discussed. At last, three models of adaptive fuzzy control based on variable universe are given which are adaptive fuzzy control model with potential heredity, adaptive fuzzy control model with obvious heredity and adaptive fuzzy control model with successively obvious heredity.

  8. Adaptive thinking & leadership simulation game training for special forces officers.

    Raybourn, Elaine Marie; Mendini, Kip (USA JFKSWCS DOTD, Ft. Bragg, NC); Heneghan, Jerry; Deagle, Edwin (USA JFKSWCS DOTD, Ft. Bragg, NC)

    2005-07-01

    Complex problem solving approaches and novel strategies employed by the military at the squad, team, and commander level are often best learned experimentally. Since live action exercises can be costly, advances in simulation game training technology offer exciting ways to enhance current training. Computer games provide an environment for active, critical learning. Games open up possibilities for simultaneous learning on multiple levels; players may learn from contextual information embedded in the dynamics of the game, the organic process generated by the game, and through the risks, benefits, costs, outcomes, and rewards of alternative strategies that result from decision making. In the present paper we discuss a multiplayer computer game simulation created for the Adaptive Thinking & Leadership (ATL) Program to train Special Forces Team Leaders. The ATL training simulation consists of a scripted single-player and an immersive multiplayer environment for classroom use which leverages immersive computer game technology. We define adaptive thinking as consisting of competencies such as negotiation and consensus building skills, the ability to communicate effectively, analyze ambiguous situations, be self-aware, think innovatively, and critically use effective problem solving skills. Each of these competencies is an essential element of leader development training for the U.S. Army Special Forces. The ATL simulation is used to augment experiential learning in the curriculum for the U.S. Army JFK Special Warfare Center & School (SWCS) course in Adaptive Thinking & Leadership. The school is incorporating the ATL simulation game into two additional training pipelines (PSYOPS and Civil Affairs Qualification Courses) that are also concerned with developing cultural awareness, interpersonal communication adaptability, and rapport-building skills. In the present paper, we discuss the design, development, and deployment of the training simulation, and emphasize how the

  9. Flight Test Approach to Adaptive Control Research

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The validation of adaptive controls has the potential to enhance safety in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

  10. Cognitive adaptation training combined with assertive community treatment

    Hansen, Jens Peter; Ostergaard, Birte; Nordentoft, Merete;

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive adaptation training (CAT) targets the adaptive behaviour of patients with schizophrenia and has shown promising results regarding the social aspects of psychosocial treatment. As yet, no reports have appeared on the use of CAT in combination with assertive community treatment (ACT). Our...... purpose was to evaluate the effect of CAT in comparison with ACT, focusing on social functions (primary outcome), symptoms, relapse, re-hospitalisation, and quality of life of outpatients with schizophrenia....

  11. Quiz commercial game adaptation to help in the radioprotection training

    An employee will be qualified to operate a gamma irradiation facility at EMBRARAD after doing a radiation protection training of at least 18 months. After that, the main radiation protection subjects are revised every six months. In that half-yearly training the operators become teachers and so they explain the radiation protection subjects, under the supervision of an instructor. After some years attending the same training, operators do not have motivation to participate in this kind of periodic event due to the same issues covered. Therefore something should be made to revival their interest and motivation to take part in this periodic training. The way chose was adapted a quiz commercial game to revised radiation protection subjects and included it in the periodic training. The game was well accepted by the operators, it caused a competition among them because everybody wanted to win the game and consequently stimulated them to study. (author)

  12. Robust adaptive control design for generator excitation

    Ni, Y.; Lan, Z.; Gan, D

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a new nonlinear robust adaptive excitation control strategy for multi-machine power systems is presented. The designed controller is adaptive to unknown generator parameters, and robust to model errors or disturbances. It is locally implemented and independent of network topology or load conditions. In the paper the power system model is presented and the control law and adaptive law are derived. The close-loop system stability is proven. Computer test results show clearly that ...

  13. Adaptive Vector Control of Induction Motor

    O. F. Opeiko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of adaptive PID controller has been executed for flux linkage and speed channels of a vector control system for an induction short-circuited motor. While using an imitation simulation method results of a synthesized system analysis show that the adaptive PID controller has some advantages under conditions of parametric disturbances affecting the object.

  14. On Adaptation of Loss Functions in Decentralized Adaptive Control

    Šmídl, Václav

    Villeneuve d'Ascq: IFAC, 2010, s. 1-6. [12th LSS symposium, Large Scale Systems: Theory and Applications. Villeneuve d'Ascq (FR), 12.07.2010-14.07.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GP102/08/P250 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : decentralized control * LQG control * fully probabilistic design Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/AS/smidl-on adaptation of loss functions in decentralized adaptive control .pdf

  15. 75 FR 59108 - Positive Train Control Systems

    2010-09-27

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 236 RIN 2130-AC03 Positive Train Control Systems AGENCY..., and use of Positive Train Control (PTC) systems for railroads as mandated by the Rail Safety... Safety Assurance and Compliance, Staff Director, Signal & Train Control Division, Federal...

  16. 76 FR 63899 - Positive Train Control Systems

    2011-10-14

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 236 RIN 2130-AC27 Positive Train Control Systems AGENCY... meet certain risk-based criteria in order to avoid positive train control (PTC) system implementation... Safety Assurance and Compliance, Staff Director, Signal & Train Control Division, Federal...

  17. Operational reliability assessment of adaptive control strategies

    Adaptive control strategies carry a promise for on-line design of control actions in automation of nuclear power plants and components. Operational reliability analysis of a typical adaptive control algorithm is performed using failure modes and effects analysis. The adaptive controller is susceptible to failure characteristic of the process of model identification involved in the on-line design of the control. Means of failure detection and enhancement of the controller fault tolerance are sought as well as means of placing the controlled process and the plant into a safe state, or termination of the process in case of encountering control failure. Those means are incorporated in a supervisory system to monitor the control system performance, mitigate some of the failure consequences and alert the operator of the state of the plant. Recommendations are given of design improvement to upgrade the adaptive control system performance in nuclear environments. (author)

  18. Adaptive gain control during human perceptual choice

    Cheadle, Samuel; WYART, Valentin; Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Myers, Nicholas; de Gardelle, Vincent; Herce Castañón, Santiago; Summerfield, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Neural systems adapt to background levels of stimulation. Adaptive gain control has been extensively studied in sensory systems, but overlooked in decision-theoretic models. Here, we describe evidence for adaptive gain control during the serial integration of decision-relevant information. Human observers judged the average information provided by a rapid stream of visual events (samples). The impact that each sample wielded over choices depended on its consistency with the previous sample, w...

  19. Mechanisms of motor adaptation in reactive balance control.

    Torrence D J Welch

    Full Text Available Balance control must be rapidly modified to provide stability in the face of environmental challenges. Although changes in reactive balance over repeated perturbations have been observed previously, only anticipatory postural adjustments preceding voluntary movements have been studied in the framework of motor adaptation and learning theory. Here, we hypothesized that adaptation occurs in task-level balance control during responses to perturbations due to central changes in the control of both anticipatory and reactive components of balance. Our adaptation paradigm consisted of a Training set of forward support-surface perturbations, a Reversal set of novel countermanding perturbations that reversed direction, and a Washout set identical to the Training set. Adaptation was characterized by a change in a motor variable from the beginning to the end of each set, the presence of aftereffects at the beginning of the Washout set when the novel perturbations were removed, and a return of the variable at the end of the Washout to a level comparable to the end of the Training set. Task-level balance performance was characterized by peak center of mass (CoM excursion and velocity, which showed adaptive changes with repetitive trials. Only small changes in anticipatory postural control, characterized by body lean and background muscle activity were observed. Adaptation was found in the evoked long-latency muscular response, and also in the sensorimotor transformation mediating that response. Finally, in each set, temporal patterns of muscle activity converged towards an optimum predicted by a trade-off between maximizing motor performance and minimizing muscle activity. Our results suggest that adaptation in balance, as well as other motor tasks, is mediated by altering central sensitivity to perturbations and may be driven by energetic considerations.

  20. An adaptive model-free fuzzy controller

    In this paper, we present an adaptive, stable fuzzy controller whose parameters are optimized via a genetic algorithm. The controller model is capable of building itself on the basis of measured plant data and then of adapting to new dynamics. The stability of the overall system, made up of the plant and the controller, is guaranteed by Lyapunov's theory. As a case study, the stable adaptive fuzzy controller is employed to drive the narrow water level of a simulated Steam Generator (SG) to a desired reference trajectory. The numerical results confirm that the controller bears good performances in terms of small oscillations and fast settling time even in presence of external disturbances. (authors)

  1. Adaptive Method Using Controlled Grid Deformation

    Florin FRUNZULICA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an adaptive method using the controlled grid deformation over an elastic, isotropic and continuous domain. The adaptive process is controlled with the principal strains and principal strain directions and uses the finite elements method. Numerical results are presented for several test cases.

  2. Adaptive Control Based On Neural Network

    Wei, Sun; Lujin, Zhang; Jinhai, Zou; Siyi, Miao

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the adaptive control based on neural network is studied. Firstly, a neural network based adaptive robust tracking control design is proposed for robotic systems under the existence of uncertainties. In this proposed control strategy, the NN is used to identify the modeling uncertainties, and then the disadvantageous effects caused by neural network approximating error and external disturbances in robotic system are counteracted by robust controller. Especially the proposed cont...

  3. Adaptive muffler based on controlled flow valves.

    Šteblaj, Peter; Čudina, Mirko; Lipar, Primož; Prezelj, Jurij

    2015-06-01

    An adaptive muffler with a flexible internal structure is considered. Flexibility is achieved using controlled flow valves. The proposed adaptive muffler is able to adapt to changes in engine operating conditions. It consists of a Helmholtz resonator, expansion chamber, and quarter wavelength resonator. Different combinations of the control valves' states at different operating conditions define the main working principle. To control the valve's position, an active noise control approach was used. With the proposed muffler, the transmission loss can be increased by more than 10 dB in the selected frequency range. PMID:26093462

  4. Flight Approach to Adaptive Control Research

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The testbed served as a full-scale vehicle to test and validate adaptive flight control research addressing technical challenges involved with reducing risk to enable safe flight in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

  5. DOE Radiological Control Manual Core Training Program

    Over the past year, the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health (EH-40) has taken a leading role in the development of new standardized radiological control training programs for use throughout the DOE complex. The Department promulgated its Radiological Control (RadCon) Manual in June 1992. To ensure consistent application of the criteria presented in the RadCon Manual, standardized radiological control core training courses and training materials have been developed for implementation at all DOE facilities. In producing local training programs, standardized core courses are to be supplemented with site-specific lesson plans, viewgraphs, student handbooks, qualification standards, question banks, and wallet-sized training certificates. Training programs for General Employee Radiological Training, Radiological Worker I and II Training, and Radiological Control Technician Training have been disseminated. Also, training committees under the direction of the Office of Health (EH-40) have been established for the development of additional core training courses, development of examination banks, and the update of the existing core training courses. This paper discusses the current activities and future direction of the DOE radiological control core training program

  6. Adaptive control of sulphur recovery units

    Efficient removal of sulfur is important in the operation of a gas processing plant. Control of the sulfur recovery unit (SRU) is difficult using conventional controllers due to variations in gas composition and time delays within the recovery process itself. Adaptive controllers are well-suited to the problem of handling lengthy and varying process time delays. Adaptive controllers use a mathematical model of the process, including time delay, to forecast a process response. A new approach to adaptive control is presented which uses orthogonal functions to model the process. The transfer function required for implementing the controller can then be identified using a minimum of historical process information. The controller can do this while it controls the process, automatically adapting to changes in gain, time constants, or time delay in order to maintain optimal control. The sulfur recovery process is explained and test results are presented showing the performance of the new adaptive controller compared to the performance of a conventional controller in recovering sulfur and reducing SO2 emissions. The adaptive controller had a 38% lower standard deviation and the improved tail gas ratio control alone is estimated to have resulted in a 0.4% increase in sulfur recovery efficiency. Using the adaptive controller on other stages of the plant could raise the total improvement to 0.6-0.7%. Additional benefits of using the new controller include increased production, avoidance of major capital and operating expense to achieve increases in recovery efficiency, avoidance of penalties for exceeding sulfur emission limits, and extension of catalyst bed life. 3 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  7. ADAPTIVE GENERALIZED PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF SWITCHED SYSTEMS

    WANG Yi-jing; WANG Long

    2005-01-01

    The problem of adaptive generalized predictive control which consists of output prediction errors for a class of switched systems is studied. The switching law is determined by the output predictive errors of a finite number of subsystems. For the single subsystem and multiple subsystems cases, it is proved that the given direct algorithm of generalized predictive control guarantees the global convergence of the system. This algorithm overcomes the inherent drawbacks of the slow convergence and large transient errors for the conventional adaptive control.

  8. Decentralized Adaptive Control For Robots

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1989-01-01

    Precise knowledge of dynamics not required. Proposed scheme for control of multijointed robotic manipulator calls for independent control subsystem for each joint, consisting of proportional/integral/derivative feedback controller and position/velocity/acceleration feedforward controller, both with adjustable gains. Independent joint controller compensates for unpredictable effects, gravitation, and dynamic coupling between motions of joints, while forcing joints to track reference trajectories. Scheme amenable to parallel processing in distributed computing system wherein each joint controlled by relatively simple algorithm on dedicated microprocessor.

  9. Digital adaptive control laws for VTOL aircraft

    Hartmann, G. L.; Stein, G.

    1979-01-01

    Honeywell has designed a digital self-adaptive flight control system for flight test in the VALT Research Aircraft (a modified CH-47). The final design resulted from a comparison of two different adaptive concepts: one based on explicit parameter estimates from a real-time maximum likelihood estimation algorithm and the other based on an implicit model reference adaptive system. The two designs are compared on the basis of performance and complexity.

  10. Autonomic adaptation after traditional and reverse swimming training periodizations.

    Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier; Fernandes, R J; Arroyo-Toledo, J J; Figueiredo, P; González-Ravé, J M; Vilas-Boas, J P

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the autonomic response of trained swimmers to traditional and reverse training periodization models. Seventeen swimmers were divided in two groups, performing a traditional periodization (TPG) or a reverse periodization (RPG) during a period of 10 weeks. Heart rate variability and 50 m swimming performance were analyzed before and after the training programs. After training, the TPG decreased the values of the high frequency band (HF), the number of differences between adjacent normal R-R intervals longer than 50 ms (NN50) and the percentage of differences between adjacent normal R-R intervals more than 50 ms (pNN50), and the RPG increased the values of HF and square root of the mean of the sum of the squared differences between adjacent normal R-R intervals (RMSSD). None of the groups improved significantly their performance in the 50-m test. The autonomic response of swimmers was different depending on the periodization performed, with the reverse periodization model leading to higher autonomic adaption. Complementary, the data suggests that autonomic adaptations were not critical for the 50-m swimming performance. PMID:25804392

  11. Executive control training from middle childhood to adolescence.

    Karbach, Julia; Unger, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) include a number of higher-level cognitive control abilities, such as cognitive flexibility, inhibition, and working memory, which are instrumental in supporting action control and the flexible adaptation changing environments. These control functions are supported by the prefrontal cortex and therefore develop rapidly across childhood and mature well into late adolescence. Given that executive control is a strong predictor for various life outcomes, such as academic achievement, socioeconomic status, and physical health, numerous training interventions have been designed to improve executive functioning across the lifespan, many of them targeting children and adolescents. Despite the increasing popularity of these trainings, their results are neither robust nor consistent, and the transferability of training-induced performance improvements to untrained tasks seems to be limited. In this review, we provide a selective overview of the developmental literature on process-based cognitive interventions by discussing (1) the concept and the development of EFs and their neural underpinnings, (2) the effects of different types of executive control training in normally developing children and adolescents, (3) individual differences in training-related performance gains as well as (4) the potential of cognitive training interventions for the application in clinical and educational contexts. Based on recent findings, we consider how transfer of process-based executive control trainings may be supported and how interventions may be tailored to the needs of specific age groups or populations. PMID:24847294

  12. Executive control training from middle childhood to adolescence

    JuliaKarbach

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions include a number of higher-level cognitive control abilities, such as cognitive flexibility, inhibition, and working memory serving action control and the flexible adaptation to changes in the environment. These control functions are supported by the prefrontal cortex and therefore develop rapidly across childhood and mature well into late adolescence. Given that executive control is a strong predictor for various life outcomes, such as academic attainment, socioeconomic status, and physical health, numerous training interventions have been designed to improve executive functioning across the lifespan, many of them targeting children and adolescents. Despite the increasing popularity of these trainings, their results are neither robust nor consistent, and the transferability of training-induced performance improvements to untrained tasks seems to be limited. In this review, we provide a selective overview of the developmental literature on process-based cognitive interventions by discussing (1 the concept and the development of executive functions and their neural underpinnings, (2 the effects of different types of executive control training in normally developing children and adolescents, (3 individual differences in training-related performance gains as well as (4 the potential of cognitive training interventions for the application in clinical and educational contexts. Based on recent findings, we consider how transfer of process-based executive control trainings may be supported and how interventions may be tailored to the needs of specific age groups or populations.

  13. Adaptive LQ control: Conflict between identification and control

    Polderman, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    We consider one of the fundamental limitations of indirect adaptive control based on the minimization of a quadratic cost criterion and the certainty equivalence principle. We show that the interaction between (closed-loop) identification and optimal control is conflictive in the sense that almost all possible limits of the sequence of parameter estimates induce suboptimal behavior of the adaptively controlled system.

  14. Decentralized digital adaptive control of robot motion

    Tarokh, M.

    1990-01-01

    A decentralized model reference adaptive scheme is developed for digital control of robot manipulators. The adaptation laws are derived using hyperstability theory, which guarantees asymptotic trajectory tracking despite gross robot parameter variations. The control scheme has a decentralized structure in the sense that each local controller receives only its joint angle measurement to produce its joint torque. The independent joint controllers have simple structures and can be programmed using a very simple and computationally fast algorithm. As a result, the scheme is suitable for real-time motion control.

  15. Adaptive Feedfoward Feedback Control Framework Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An Adaptive Feedforward and Feedback Control (AFFC) Framework is proposed to suppress the aircraft's structural vibrations and to increase the resilience of the...

  16. Adaptive Control Applied to Financial Market Data

    Šindelář, Jan; Kárný, Miroslav

    Strasbourg cedex: European Science Foundation, 2007, s. 1-6. [Advanced Mathematical Methods for Finance. Vídeň (AT), 17.09.2007-22.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : bayesian statistics * portfolio optimization * finance * adaptive control Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2007/si/sindelar-adaptive control applied to financial market data.pdf

  17. Adaptive Control Algorithms, Analysis and Applications

    Landau, Ioan; Lozano, Rogelio; M'Saad, Mohammed; Karimi, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive Control (second edition) shows how a desired level of system performance can be maintained automatically and in real time, even when process or disturbance parameters are unknown and variable. It is a coherent exposition of the many aspects of this field, setting out the problems to be addressed and moving on to solutions, their practical significance and their application. Discrete-time aspects of adaptive control are emphasized to reflect the importance of digital computers in the ...

  18. Simple adaptive tracking control for mobile robots

    Bobtsov, Alexey; Faronov, Maxim; Kolyubin, Sergey; Pyrkin, Anton

    2014-12-01

    The problem of simple adaptive and robust control is studied for the case of parametric and dynamic dimension uncertainties: only the maximum possible relative degree of the plant model is known. The control approach "consecutive compensator" is investigated. To illustrate the efficiency of proposed approach an example with the mobile robot motion control using computer vision system is considered.

  19. Switching Control for Adaptive Disturbance Attenuation

    Battistelli, Giorgio; Mari, Daniele; Selvi, Daniela; Tesi, Alberto; Tesi, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    The problem of adaptive disturbance attenuation is addressed in this paper using a switching control approach. A finite family of stabilizing controllers is pre-designed, with the assumption that, for any possible operating condition, at least one controller is able to achieve a prescribed level of

  20. Adaptive Sliding Mode Control for Hydraulic Drives

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new adaptive sliding mode controller generally applicable for position tracking control of electro-hydraulic valve-cylinder drives (VCD’s). The proposed control scheme requires limited knowledge on system parameters, and employs only piston- and valve spool position feedback...

  1. Multiple models adaptive feedforward decoupling controller

    Wang Xin; Li Shaoyuan; Wang Zhongjie

    2005-01-01

    When the parameters of the system change abruptly, a new multivariable adaptive feedforward decoupling controller using multiple models is presented to improve the transient response. The system models are composed of multiple fixed models, one free-running adaptive model and one re-initialized adaptive model. The fixed models are used to provide initial control to the process. The re-initialized adaptive model can be reinitialized as the selected model to improve the adaptation speed. The free-running adaptive controller is added to guarantee the overall system stability. At each instant, the best system model is selected according to the switching index and the corresponding controller is designed. During the controller design, the interaction is viewed as the measurable disturbance and eliminated by the choice of the weighting polynomial matrix. It not only eliminates the steady-state error but also decouples the system dynamically. The global convergence is obtained and several simulation examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  2. Genetic algorithms in adaptive fuzzy control

    Karr, C. Lucas; Harper, Tony R.

    1992-01-01

    Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GA's) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's). GA's are search algorithms that rapidly locate near-optimum solutions to a wide spectrum of problems by modeling the search procedures of natural genetics. FLC's are rule based systems that efficiently manipulate a problem environment by modeling the 'rule-of-thumb' strategy used in human decision making. Together, GA's and FLC's possess the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a control element to manipulate the problem environment, an analysis element to recognize changes in the problem environment, and a learning element to adjust fuzzy membership functions in response to the changes in the problem environment. Details of an overall adaptive control system are discussed. A specific computer-simulated chemical system is used to demonstrate the ideas presented.

  3. An Optimal Control Modification to Model-Reference Adaptive Control for Fast Adaptation

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Boskovic, Jovan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a method that can achieve fast adaptation for a class of model-reference adaptive control. It is well-known that standard model-reference adaptive control exhibits high-gain control behaviors when a large adaptive gain is used to achieve fast adaptation in order to reduce tracking error rapidly. High gain control creates high-frequency oscillations that can excite unmodeled dynamics and can lead to instability. The fast adaptation approach is based on the minimization of the squares of the tracking error, which is formulated as an optimal control problem. The necessary condition of optimality is used to derive an adaptive law using the gradient method. This adaptive law is shown to result in uniform boundedness of the tracking error by means of the Lyapunov s direct method. Furthermore, this adaptive law allows a large adaptive gain to be used without causing undesired high-gain control effects. The method is shown to be more robust than standard model-reference adaptive control. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Training Adaptation in Well-Trained Soccer Players.

    Jastrzębska, Maria; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Jastrzębski, Zbigniew

    2016-09-01

    Jastrzębska, M, Kaczmarczyk, M, and Jastrzębski, Z. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on training adaptation in well-trained soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2648-2655, 2016-There is growing body of evidence implying that vitamin D may be associated with athletic performance, however, studies examining the effects of vitamin D on athletic performance are inconsistent. Moreover, very little literature exists about the vitamin D and training efficiency or adaptation, especially in high-level, well-trained athletes. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on training adaptation in well-trained football players. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: the placebo group (PG) and the experimental group (SG, supplemented with vitamin D, 5,000 IU per day). Both groups were subjected to High Intensity Interval Training Program. The selection to the groups was based on peak power results attained before the experiment and position on the field. Blood samples for vitamin D level were taken from the players. In addition, total work, 5, 10, 20, and 30 m running speed, squat jump, and countermovement jump height were determined. There were no significant differences between SG and PG groups for any power-related characteristics at baseline. All power-related variables, except the 30 m sprint running time, improved significantly in response to interval training. However, the mean change scores (the differences between posttraining and pretraining values) did not differ significantly between SG and PG groups. In conclusion, an 8-week vitamin D supplementation in highly trained football players was not beneficial in terms of response to High Intensity Interval Training. Given the current level of evidence, the recommendation to use vitamin D supplements in all athletes to improve performance or training gains would be premature. To avoid a seasonal decrease in 25(OH)D level or to obtain optimal vitamin D levels, the

  5. Adaptive myoelectric pattern recognition toward improved multifunctional prosthesis control.

    Liu, Jie

    2015-04-01

    The non-stationary property of electromyography (EMG) signals in real life settings usually hinders the clinical application of the myoelectric pattern recognition for prosthesis control. The classical EMG pattern recognition approach consists of two separate steps: training and testing, without considering the changes between training and testing data induced by electrode shift, fatigue, impedance changes and psychological factors, and often results in performance degradation. The aim of this study was to develop an adaptive myoelectric pattern recognition system, aiming to retrain the classifier online with the testing data without supervision, providing a self-correction mechanism for suppressing misclassifications. This paper presents an adaptive unsupervised classifier based on support vector machine (SVM) to improve the classification performance. Experimental data from 15 healthy subjects were used to evaluate performance. Preliminary study on intra-session and inter-session EMG data was conducted to verify the performance of the unsupervised adaptive SVM classifier. The unsupervised adaptive SVM classifier outperformed the conventional SVM by 3.3% and 8.0% for the combination of time-domain and autoregressive features in the intra-session and inter-session tests, respectively. The proposed approach is capable of incorporating the useful information in testing data to the classification model by taking into account the overtime changes in the testing data with respect to the training data to retrain the original classifier, therefore providing a self-correction mechanism for suppressing misclassifications. PMID:25749182

  6. The effects of short-lasting anti-saccade training in homonymous hemianopia with and without saccadic adaptation

    Delphine Lévy-Bencheton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Homonymous Visual Field Defects (HVFD are common following stroke and can be highly debilitating for visual perception and higher level cognitive functions such as exploring visual scene or reading a text. Rehabilitation using oculomotor compensatory methods with automatic training over a short duration (~15 days have been shown as efficient as longer voluntary training methods (>1 month. Here, we propose to evaluate and compare the effect of an original HVFD rehabilitation method based on a single 15 min voluntary anti-saccades task (AS toward the blind hemifield, with automatic sensorimotor adaptation to increase AS amplitude. In order to distinguish between adaptation and training effect, fourteen left- or right-HVFD patients were exposed, one month apart, to three training, two isolated AS task (Delayed-shift & No-shift paradigm and one combined with AS adaptation (Adaptation paradigm. A quality of life questionnaire (NEI-VFQ 25 and functional measurements (reading speed, visual exploration time in pop-out and serial tasks as well as oculomotor measurements were assessed before and after each training. We could not demonstrate significant adaptation at the group level, but we identified a group of 9 adapted patients. While AS training itself proved to demonstrate significant functional improvements in the overall patient group , we could also demonstrate in the sub-group of adapted patients and specifically following the adaptation training, an increase of saccade amplitude during the reading task (left-HVFD patients and the Serial exploration task, and improvement of the visual quality of life. We conclude that short-lasting AS training combined with adaptation could be implemented in rehabilitation methods of cognitive dysfunctions following HVFD. Indeed, both voluntary and automatic processes have shown interesting effects on the control of visually guided saccades in different cognitive tasks.

  7. Domain Adaptation for Opinion Classification: A Self-Training Approach

    Yu, Ning

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Domain transfer is a widely recognized problem for machine learning algorithms because models built upon one data domain generally do not perform well in another data domain. This is especially a challenge for tasks such as opinion classification, which often has to deal with insufficient quantities of labeled data. This study investigates the feasibility of self-training in dealing with the domain transfer problem in opinion classification via leveraging labeled data in non-target data domain(s and unlabeled data in the target-domain. Specifically, self-training is evaluated for effectiveness in sparse data situations and feasibility for domain adaptation in opinion classification. Three types of Web content are tested: edited news articles, semi-structured movie reviews, and the informal and unstructured content of the blogosphere. Findings of this study suggest that, when there are limited labeled data, self-training is a promising approach for opinion classification, although the contributions vary across data domains. Significant improvement was demonstrated for the most challenging data domain-the blogosphere-when a domain transfer-based self-training strategy was implemented.

  8. Adaptive Control Strategies for Flexible Robotic Arm

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1996-01-01

    The control problem of a flexible robotic arm has been investigated. The control strategies that have been developed have a wide application in approaching the general control problem of flexible space structures. The following control strategies have been developed and evaluated: neural self-tuning control algorithm, neural-network-based fuzzy logic control algorithm, and adaptive pole assignment algorithm. All of the above algorithms have been tested through computer simulation. In addition, the hardware implementation of a computer control system that controls the tip position of a flexible arm clamped on a rigid hub mounted directly on the vertical shaft of a dc motor, has been developed. An adaptive pole assignment algorithm has been applied to suppress vibrations of the described physical model of flexible robotic arm and has been successfully tested using this testbed.

  9. Adaptive Cruise Control and Driver Modeling

    Bengtsson, Johan

    2001-01-01

    Many vehicle manufacturers have lately introduced advance driver support in some of their automobiles. One of those new features is Adaptive Cruise Control DACCE, which extends the conventional cruise control system to control of relative speed and distance to other vehicles. In order to design an ACC controller it is suitable to have a model of driver behavior. The approach in the thesis is to use system identification methodology to obtain dynamic models of driver behavior useful for ACC ap...

  10. Reference model decomposition in direct adaptive control

    Butler, H.; Honderd, G.; Amerongen, van, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper introduces the method of reference model decomposition as a way to improve the robustness of model reference adaptive control systems (MRACs) with respect to unmodelled dynamics with a known structure. Such unmodelled dynamics occur when some of the nominal plant dynamics are purposely neglected in the controller design with the aim of keeping the controller order low. One of the effects of such undermodelling of the controller is a violation of the perfect model-matching condition...

  11. Adaptive gain control during human perceptual choice

    Cheadle, Samuel; Wyart, Valentin; Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Myers, Nicholas; de Gardelle, Vincent; Castañón, Santiago Herce; Summerfield, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Neural systems adapt to background levels of stimulation. Adaptive gain control has been extensively studied in sensory systems, but overlooked in decision-theoretic models. Here, we describe evidence for adaptive gain control during the serial integration of decision-relevant information. Human observers judged the average information provided by a rapid stream of visual events (samples). The impact that each sample wielded over choices depended on its consistency with the previous sample, with more consistent or expected samples wielding the greatest influence over choice. This bias was also visible in the encoding of decision information in pupillometric signals, and in cortical responses measured with functional neuroimaging. These data can be accounted for with a new serial sampling model in which the gain of information processing adapts rapidly to reflect the average of the available evidence. PMID:24656259

  12. Modelling and (adaptive) control of greenhouse climates

    Udink ten Cate, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The material presented in this thesis can be grouped around four themes, system concepts, modeling, control and adaptive control. In this summary these themes will be treated separately.System conceptsIn Chapters 1 and 2 an overview of the problem formulation is presented. It is suggested that there

  13. Training change control process at Cernavoda NPP

    Full text: The paper presents the process of 'Training Change Control' at Cernavoda NPP. This process is a systematic approach that allows determination of the most effective training and/or non-training solutions for challenges that may influence the content and conditions for a training program or course. Changes may be the result of: - response to station systems or equipment modifications; - new or revised procedures; - regulatory requirements; - external organizations requirements; - internal evaluations meaning feedback from trainees, trainers, management or post-training evaluations; - self-assessments; - station condition reports; - operating experience (OPEX); - modifications of job scope; - management input. The Training Change Control Process at Cernavoda NPP includes the following aspects. The first step is the identification of all the initiating factors for a potential training change. Then, retain only those, which could have an impact on training and classify them in two categories: as deficiencies or as enhancement suggestions. The process is different for the two categories. The deficiency category supposes the application of the Training Needs Analysis (TNA) process. This is a performance-oriented process, resulting in more competent employees, solving existing and potential performance problems. By using needs analysis to systematically determine what people or courses and programs are expected to do and gathering data to reveal what they are really doing, we can receive a clear picture of the problem and then we can establish corrective action plans to fix it. The process is supported by plant subjects matter and by training specialists. On the other hand, enhancements suggestions are assessed by designated experienced persons and then are implemented in the training process. Regarding these two types of initiating factors for the training change control process, the final result consists of a training improvement, raising the effectiveness

  14. Cost effective material control and accountability training

    DOE Order 5630.15, ''Safeguards and Security Training Program'' is being implemented at the Savannah River Site within the Westinghouse Savannah River Company's material control and accountability program. This paper reviews the development of a material control and accountability task analysis, the development of specific material control and accountability courses, and the cost effective and innovative strategies employed to implement the training program. The paper also discusses how the site material control and accountability policies and procedures are incorporated into the Westinghouse Savannah River Company training program to ensure that personnel receive the most current information

  15. Swimming training induces liver mitochondrial adaptations to oxidative stress in rats submitted to repeated exhaustive swimming bouts.

    Frederico D Lima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although acute exhaustive exercise is known to increase liver reactive oxygen species (ROS production and aerobic training has shown to improve the antioxidant status in the liver, little is known about mitochondria adaptations to aerobic training. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the aerobic training on oxidative stress markers and antioxidant defense in liver mitochondria both after training and in response to three repeated exhaustive swimming bouts. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into training (n = 14 and control (n = 14 groups. Training group performed a 6-week swimming training protocol. Subsets of training (n = 7 and control (n = 7 rats performed 3 repeated exhaustive swimming bouts with 72 h rest in between. Oxidative stress biomarkers, antioxidant activity, and mitochondria functionality were assessed. RESULTS: Trained group showed increased reduced glutathione (GSH content and reduced/oxidized (GSH/GSSG ratio, higher superoxide dismutase (MnSOD activity, and decreased lipid peroxidation in liver mitochondria. Aerobic training protected against exhaustive swimming ROS production herein characterized by decreased oxidative stress markers, higher antioxidant defenses, and increases in methyl-tetrazolium reduction and membrane potential. Trained group also presented higher time to exhaustion compared to control group. CONCLUSIONS: Swimming training induced positive adaptations in liver mitochondria of rats. Increased antioxidant defense after training coped well with exercise-produced ROS and liver mitochondria were less affected by exhaustive exercise. Therefore, liver mitochondria also adapt to exercise-induced ROS and may play an important role in exercise performance.

  16. Robust adaptive neural network control with supervisory controller

    张天平; 梅建东

    2004-01-01

    The problem of direct adaptive neural network control for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems with unknown constant control gain is studied in this paper. Based on the supervisory control strategy and the approximation capability of multilayer neural networks (MNNs), a novel design scheme of direct adaptive neural network controller is proposed.The adaptive law of the adjustable parameter vector and the matrix of weights in the neural networks and the gain of sliding mode control term to adaptively compensate for the residual and the approximation error of MNNs is determined by using a Lyapunov method. The approach does not require the optimal approximation error to be square-integrable or the supremum of the optimal approximation error to be known. By theoretical analysis, the closed-loop control system is proven to be globally stable in the sense that all signals involved are bounded, with tracking error converging to zero.Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  17. Dynamics and Control of Adaptive Shells with Curvature Transformations

    Tzou, H.S.; Bao, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Adaptive structures with controllable geometries and shapes are rather useful in many engineering applications, such as adaptive wings, variable focus mirrors, adaptive machines, micro-electromechanical systems, etc. Dynamics and feedback control effectiveness of adaptive shells whose curvatures are actively controlled and continuously changed are evaluated. An adaptive piezoelectric laminated cylindrical shell composite with continuous curvature changes is studied, and its natural frequencie...

  18. Radiological contamination control training for laboratory research

    This program management guide describes the proper implementation standard for core training as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control (RadCon) Manual. The guide is to assist those individuals, both within the Department of Energy (DOE) and Managing and Operating (M and O) contractors, identified as having responsibility for implementing the core training recommended by the RadCon Manual. The management guide is divided into the following sections: introduction; instructional materials development; training program standards and policies; and course-specific information. The goal of the core training program is to provide a standardized, baseline knowledge for those individuals completing the core training. Standardization of the knowledge provides personnel with the information necessary to perform their assigned duties at a predetermined level of expertise. Implementing a core training program ensures consistent and appropriate training of personnel

  19. Adaptive position controller for double armature brushless dc linear motor

    Demirci, R. [Abant Izzet Baysal Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Electrical Dept., Dunez (Turkey); Dursun, M. [Gazi University, Technical Education Faculty, Electrical Dept., Ankara (Turkey)

    2000-08-01

    An adaptive position controller has been proposed for double armature brushless DC linear motor. The proposed position control system comprises an inner model reference adaptive velocity control loop and an outer position control loop. The parameters of the adaptive controller have been adjusted by using modified gradient type parameter adaptation algorithm. (orig.)

  20. Logic reliability analysis of adaptive control strategies

    An approach is developed for the evaluation of the reliability of logic of adaptive control strategies, taking into account logic structural complexity and potential failure of programming modules. Flaws in the control system algorithm may not be discovered during debugging or initial testing and may only affect the performance under abnormal situations although the system may appear reliable in normal operations. Considering an adaptive control system designed for use in control of equipment employed in nuclear power stations, logic reliability evaluation is demonstrated. The approach given is applicable to any other designs and may be used to compare different control system logic structures from the reliability viewpoint. Evaluation of the reliability of control systems is essential to automated operation of equipment used in nuclear power plants. (author)

  1. Hybrid adaptive control of a dragonfly model

    Couceiro, Micael S.; Ferreira, Nuno M. F.; Machado, J. A. Tenreiro

    2012-02-01

    Dragonflies show unique and superior flight performances than most of other insect species and birds. They are equipped with two pairs of independently controlled wings granting an unmatchable flying performance and robustness. In this paper, it is presented an adaptive scheme controlling a nonlinear model inspired in a dragonfly-like robot. It is proposed a hybrid adaptive ( HA) law for adjusting the parameters analyzing the tracking error. At the current stage of the project it is considered essential the development of computational simulation models based in the dynamics to test whether strategies or algorithms of control, parts of the system (such as different wing configurations, tail) as well as the complete system. The performance analysis proves the superiority of the HA law over the direct adaptive ( DA) method in terms of faster and improved tracking and parameter convergence.

  2. Adaptive Piezoelectric Absorber for Active Vibration Control

    Sven Herold

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Passive vibration control solutions are often limited to working reliably at one design point. Especially applied to lightweight structures, which tend to have unwanted vibration, active vibration control approaches can outperform passive solutions. To generate dynamic forces in a narrow frequency band, passive single-degree-of-freedom oscillators are frequently used as vibration absorbers and neutralizers. In order to respond to changes in system properties and/or the frequency of excitation forces, in this work, adaptive vibration compensation by a tunable piezoelectric vibration absorber is investigated. A special design containing piezoelectric stack actuators is used to cover a large tuning range for the natural frequency of the adaptive vibration absorber, while also the utilization as an active dynamic inertial mass actuator for active control concepts is possible, which can help to implement a broadband vibration control system. An analytical model is set up to derive general design rules for the system. An absorber prototype is set up and validated experimentally for both use cases of an adaptive vibration absorber and inertial mass actuator. Finally, the adaptive vibration control system is installed and tested with a basic truss structure in the laboratory, using both the possibility to adjust the properties of the absorber and active control.

  3. Framework of Combined Adaptive and Non-adaptive Attitude Control System for a Helicopter Experimental System

    Akira Inoue; Ming-Cong Deng

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a framework of a combined adaptive and non-adaptive attitude control system for a helicopter experimental system. The design method is based on a combination of adaptive nonlinear control and non-adaptive nonlinear control. With regard to detailed attitude control system design, two schemes are shown for different application cases.

  4. Adaptive control of solar energy collector systems

    Lemos, João M; Igreja, José M

    2014-01-01

    This book describes methods for adaptive control of distributed-collector solar fields: plants that collect solar energy and deliver it in thermal form. Controller design methods are presented that can overcome difficulties found in these type of plants:they are distributed-parameter systems, i.e., systems with dynamics that depend on space as well as time;their dynamics is nonlinear, with a bilinear structure;there is a significant level of uncertainty in plant knowledge.Adaptive methods form the focus of the text because of the degree of uncertainty in the knowledge of plant dynamics. Parts

  5. Self-control training leads to enhanced cardiovascular exercise performance.

    Bray, Steven R; Graham, Jeffrey D; Saville, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of two weeks of self-control strength training on maximum cardiovascular exercise performance. Forty-one participants completed a cognitive self-control depletion task (Stroop task) followed by a maximal graded cycling test and were randomized to training (maximal endurance contractions of spring handgrip trainers, twice daily) or no-treatment control groups. At follow-up (2 weeks), half of each group completed either a time-matched or trial-matched Stroop task followed by another maximal graded cycling test. Results showed a significant 2-way (training X time) interaction (P cognitive task) interaction (P = 0.07). Decomposition of the interactions revealed that across sessions cycling performance increased in both training groups, did not change in the trial-matched cognitive task control group, and declined in the time-matched control group. We conclude that isometric handgrip training leads to self-control strength adaptations that enhance maximal cardiovascular exercise performance or tolerance of exercise at maximal levels of effort. PMID:25278342

  6. Training for Certification: Aquatic Pest Control.

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial applicators. Weed control, vertebrate pest control, and environmental considerations and restrictions are the three major parts of the document. The weed control section discusses non-pesticide, mechanical, and biological control as…

  7. Inspiratory muscle training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: structural adaptation and physiologic outcomes.

    Ramirez-Sarmiento, Alba; Orozco-Levi, Mauricio; Guell, Rosa; Barreiro, Esther; Hernandez, Nuria; Mota, Susana; Sangenis, Merce; Broquetas, Joan M; Casan, Pere; Gea, Joaquim

    2002-12-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of a specific inspiratory muscle training protocol on the structure of inspiratory muscles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Fourteen patients (males, FEV1, 24 +/- 7% predicted) were randomized to either inspiratory muscle or sham training groups. Supervised breathing using a threshold inspiratory device was performed 30 minutes per day, five times a week, for 5 consecutive weeks. The inspiratory training group was subjected to inspiratory loading equivalent to 40 to 50% of their maximal inspiratory pressure. Biopsies from external intercostal muscles and vastus lateralis (control muscle) were taken before and after the training period. Muscle samples were processed for morphometric analyses using monoclonal antibodies against myosin heavy chain isoforms I and II. Increases in both the strength and endurance of the inspiratory muscles were observed in the inspiratory training group. This improvement was associated with increases in the proportion of type I fibers (by approximately 38%, p < 0.05) and in the size of type II fibers (by approximately 21%, p < 0.05) in the external intercostal muscles. No changes were observed in the control muscle. The study demonstrates that inspiratory training induces a specific functional improvement of the inspiratory muscles and adaptive changes in the structure of external intercostal muscles. PMID:12406842

  8. Adaptive Control with Approximated Policy Search Approach

    Agus Naba

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of existing adaptive control schemes are designed to minimize error between plant state and goal state despite the fact that executing actions that are predicted to result in smaller errors only can mislead to non-goal states. We develop an adaptive control scheme that involves manipulating a controller of a general type to improve its performance as measured by an evaluation function. The developed method is closely related to a theory of Reinforcement Learning (RL but imposes a practical assumption made for faster learning. We assume that a value function of RL can be approximated by a function of Euclidean distance from a goal state and an action executed at the state. And, we propose to use it for the gradient search as an evaluation function. Simulation results provided through application of the proposed scheme to a pole-balancing problem using a linear state feedback controller and fuzzy controller verify the scheme’s efficacy.

  9. Adaptive control of nonlinear underwater robotic systems

    Thor I. Fossen

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of controlling underwater mobile robots in 6 degrees of freedom (DOF is addressed. Uncertainties in the input matrix due to partly known nonlinear thruster characteristics are modeled as multiplicative input uncertainty. This paper proposes two methods to compensate for the model uncertainties: (1 an adaptive passivity-based control scheme and (2 deriving a hybrid (adaptive and sliding controller. The hybrid controller consists of a switching term which compensates for uncertainties in the input matrix and an on-line parameter estimation algorithm. Global stability is ensured by applying Barbalat's Lyapunovlike lemma. The hybrid controller is simulated for the horizontal motion of the Norwegian Experimental Remotely Operated Vehicle (NEROV.

  10. Training Visual Control in Wheelchair Basketball Shooting

    Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-Rene J. A. C.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible.…

  11. Evolving Systems and Adaptive Key Component Control

    Frost, Susan A.; Balas, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new framework called Evolving Systems to describe the self-assembly, or autonomous assembly, of actively controlled dynamical subsystems into an Evolved System with a higher purpose. An introduction to Evolving Systems and exploration of the essential topics of the control and stability properties of Evolving Systems is provided. This chapter defines a framework for Evolving Systems, develops theory and control solutions for fundamental characteristics of Evolving Systems, and provides illustrative examples of Evolving Systems and their control with adaptive key component controllers.

  12. Efficacy of Adaptive Biofeedback Training in Treating Constipation-Related Symptoms

    Jing Tang; Zhihui Huang; Yan Tan; Nina Zhang; Anping Tan; Jun Chen; Jianfeng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Biofeedback therapy is a well-known and effective therapeutic treatment for constipation. A previous study suggested that adaptive biofeedback (ABF) training was more effective than traditional (fixed training parameters) biofeedback training. The aim of this study was to verify the effectiveness of ABF in relieving constipation-related symptoms. We noticed that in traditional biofeedback training, a patient usually receives the training twice per week. The long training sessions usually led ...

  13. TRAINING SYSTEM OF FUTURE SPECIALISTS: QUALITY CONTROL

    Vladimir A. Romanov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is development of innovative strategy of quality control training of engineers and skilled workers (hereinafter – future specialists in educational professional organizations on the principles of social partnership.Methods. Theoretic: theoretic and methodological analysis, polytheoretic synthesis, modeling. Empirical: research and generalization of the system, process and competence – based approaches experience, experiment, observation, surveys, expert evaluation, SWOT-analysis as a method of strategic planning which is to identify the internal and external factors (socio-cultural of the organization surrounding.Results. The strategy of the development of the process of quality control training in educational professional organizations and a predictive model of the system of quality control training for future engineers and workers have been created on the analysis and synthesis of a quantitative specification of the quality, the obtained experience and success in control training of future specialists in educational professional organizations in recent economic and educational conditions.Scientific novelty. There has been built a predicative model of quality control training of future specialists to meet modern standards and the principles of social partnership; the control algorithm of the learning process, developed in accordance with the standards (international of quality ISO in the implementation of the quality control systems of the process approach (matrix-based responsibility, competence and remit of those responsible for the education process in the educational organization, the «problem» terms and diagnostic tools for assessing the quality of professional training of future specialists. The perspective directions of innovation in the control of the quality of future professionals training have been determined; the parameters of a comprehensive analysis of the state of the system to ensure the

  14. Adaptive, Nonlinear Model Predictive Control for Accelerator Feedback Control Systems

    Variations in systems dynamics and modeling uncertainty(due to unmodeled systems behavior and/or presence of disturbances),have posed significant challenges to the effective luminosity and orbit control in accelerators.Problems of similar nature occur in a wide variety of other applications from chemical processes to power plants to financial systems.Adaptive control has long been pursued as a possible solution,but difficulties with online model identification and robust implementation of the adaptive control algorithms has prevented their widespread application.In general developing and maintaining appropriate models is the key to the success of any deployed control solution.Meanwhile the performance of the control system is contingent on the responsiveness of the control algorithm to the inevitable deviations of the model from the actual system.This project uses neural networks to detect significant changes in system behavior,and develops an optimal model-predictive-based adaptive control algorithm that enables the robust implementation of an effective control strategy that is applicable in a wide range of applications.Simulation studies were conducted to clearly demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of implementing model predictive control technology in accelerator control problems.The requirements for an effective commercial product that can meet the challenge of optimal model-predictive-based adaptive control technology were developed.A prototype for the optimal model-predictive-based adaptive control algorithm was developed for a well-known nonlinear temperature control problem for gas-phase reactors that proved the feasibility of the proposed approach.This research enables a commercial party to leverage the knowledge gained through collaboration with a national laboratory to develop new system identification and optimal model-predictive-based adaptive control software to address current and future challenges in process industries,power systems

  15. Virtual Training of Compressor Control Room Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MYMIC will analyze, design, develop and evaluate the Virtual Control Room – Compressor Station (VCoR-CS) training system. VCoR-CS will provide procedural...

  16. An asymptotically optimal nonparametric adaptive controller

    郭雷; 谢亮亮

    2000-01-01

    For discrete-time nonlinear stochastic systems with unknown nonparametric structure, a kernel estimation-based nonparametric adaptive controller is constructed based on truncated certainty equivalence principle. Global stability and asymptotic optimality of the closed-loop systems are established without resorting to any external excitations.

  17. Adaptive control system for gas producing wells

    Optimal adaptive automatic control system for gas producing wells cluster is proposed intended for solving the problem of stabilization of the output gas pressure in the cluster at conditions of changing gas flow rate and changing parameters of the wells themselves, providing the maximum high resource of hardware elements of automation

  18. Effects of arachidonic acid supplementation on training adaptations in resistance-trained males

    Greenwood Mike

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the impact of AA supplementation during resistance training on body composition, training adaptations, and markers of muscle hypertrophy in resistance-trained males. Methods In a randomized and double blind manner, 31 resistance-trained male subjects (22.1 ± 5.0 years, 180 ± 0.1 cm, 86.1 ± 13.0 kg, 18.1 ± 6.4% body fat ingested either a placebo (PLA: 1 g·day-1 corn oil, n = 16 or AA (AA: 1 g·day-1 AA, n = 15 while participating in a standardized 4 day·week-1 resistance training regimen. Fasting blood samples, body composition, bench press one-repetition maximum (1RM, leg press 1RM and Wingate anaerobic capacity sprint tests were completed after 0, 25, and 50 days of supplementation. Percutaneous muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis on days 0 and 50. Results Wingate relative peak power was significantly greater after 50 days of supplementation while the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 was significantly lower after 25 days of supplementation in the AA group. PGE2 levels tended to be greater in the AA group. However, no statistically significant differences were observed between groups in body composition, strength, anabolic and catabolic hormones, or markers of muscle hypertrophy (i.e. total protein content or MHC type I, IIa, and IIx protein content and other intramuscular markers (i.e. FP and EP3 receptor density or MHC type I, IIa, and IIx mRNA expression. Conclusion AA supplementation during resistance-training may enhance anaerobic capacity and lessen the inflammatory response to training. However, AA supplementation did not promote statistically greater gains in strength, muscle mass, or influence markers of muscle hypertrophy.

  19. Early and late rate of force development: differential adaptive responses to resistance training?

    Andersen, L L; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Zebis, M K;

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potentially opposing influence of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations in response to high-intensity resistance training on contractile rate of force development (RFD) in the early (200 ms) of rising muscle force. Fifteen healthy young...... males participated in a 14-week resistance training intervention for the lower body and 10 matched subjects participated as controls. Maximal muscle strength (MVC) and RFD were measured during maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Muscle biopsies were obtained from...... the vastus lateralis. The main findings were that RFD in the late phase of rising muscle force increased in response to resistance training whereas early RFD remained unchanged and early relative RFD (i.e., RFD/MVC) decreased. Quantitatively, muscle fiber cross-sectional area and MVC increased whereas...

  20. Nonlinear and Adaptive Dynamic Control Allocation

    Tjønnås, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    This work addresses the control allocation problem for a nonlinear over-actuated time-varying system where parameters a¢ ne in the actuator dynamics and actuator force model may be assumed unknown. Instead of optimizing the control allocation at each time instant, a dynamic approach is considered by constructing update-laws that represent asymptotically optimal allocation search and adaptation. A previous result on uniform global asymptotic stability (UGAS) of the equilibrium of cascaded time...

  1. Adaptive neural network error control for generalized perturbation theory

    This paper addresses the issue of adaptive error control within generalized perturbation theory (GPT). The strategy herein assessed considers an artificial neural network (ANN) error estimator. The underlying tool facilitating this research is the FORMOSA-P code, a pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear fuel management optimization package, which combines simulated annealing and nodal GPT. A number of applications exist where traditional GPT may be limited by the magnitude of perturbations, which it can accurately handle. In fact, other alternative such as supervariational techniques (i.e., n'th-order GPT) and/or multireference strategies (i.e., rodded adjoints) are being sought for boiling water reactor and rodded applications. A perhaps not-so-obvious alternative could be to employ a neural network for adaptive error control within GPT. This study presents the results of two ANN models. The first model constitutes an intensively well-trained ANN used to contrast its global core parameter (i.e., keff) prediction capability versus that of a GPT model. The second model is a similar ANN intended for adaptive GPT error correction. In other words, the latter ANN is trained on-the-fly within the scope of a standard FORMOSA-P calculation

  2. Robust and Adaptive Control With Aerospace Applications

    Lavretsky, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Robust and Adaptive Control shows the reader how to produce consistent and accurate controllers that operate in the presence of uncertainties and unforeseen events. Driven by aerospace applications the focus of the book is primarily on continuous-dynamical systems.  The text is a three-part treatment, beginning with robust and optimal linear control methods and moving on to a self-contained presentation of the design and analysis of model reference adaptive control (MRAC) for nonlinear uncertain dynamical systems. Recent extensions and modifications to MRAC design are included, as are guidelines for combining robust optimal and MRAC controllers. Features of the text include: ·         case studies that demonstrate the benefits of robust and adaptive control for piloted, autonomous and experimental aerial platforms; ·         detailed background material for each chapter to motivate theoretical developments; ·         realistic examples and simulation data illustrating key features ...

  3. Training for Certification: Ornamental & Turf Pest Control.

    Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on ornamental and turf plant pest control, this publication examines the control of plant diseases, insects, and weeds. The contents are divided into a section on ornamental pest control and one on…

  4. Learning to control actions: transfer effects following a procedural cognitive control computerized training.

    Nitzan Shahar

    Full Text Available Few studies have addressed action control training. In the current study, participants were trained over 19 days in an adaptive training task that demanded constant switching, maintenance and updating of novel action rules. Participants completed an executive functions battery before and after training that estimated processing speed, working memory updating, set-shifting, response inhibition and fluid intelligence. Participants in the training group showed greater improvement than a no-contact control group in processing speed, indicated by reduced reaction times in speeded classification tasks. No other systematic group differences were found across the different pre-post measurements. Ex-Gaussian fitting of the reaction-time distribution revealed that the reaction time reduction observed among trained participants was restricted to the right tail of the distribution, previously shown to be related to working memory. Furthermore, training effects were only found in classification tasks that required participants to maintain novel stimulus-response rules in mind, supporting the notion that the training improved working memory abilities. Training benefits were maintained in a 10-month follow-up, indicating relatively long-lasting effects. The authors conclude that training improved action-related working memory abilities.

  5. Humanoid Robot Arm Adaptive Control: Experimental Implementation

    Said G. Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a partially model based adaptive control of humanoid robot arm is presented. The aim of the adaptive control scheme is to deal with the uncertain parameters in its own dynamic model such as link masses or actuators inertias as well as to cope with changing dynamics in the tasks like passing objects between a human and a robot. The main idea here is to derive a dynamic model of the robot’s arm via a software package and parameterized it. Then, employ the adaptive control scheme to identify uncertain parameters such as link masses and actuator inertias online. This scheme will also be suitable for the tasks where robot is lifting weight and or passing an object to a human or vice versa (which is the ultimate goal of this work. The adaptive scheme is simulated and experimentally tested on the Bristol Robotics Laboratory humanoid Bristol- Elumotion-Robot-Torso (BERT Arm. Humanoid BERT robot is developed as a collaboration between Bristol Robotics Laboratory and Elumotion (a Bristol based robotic company.

  6. On adaptive control of mobile slotted aloha networks

    Lim J.-T.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive control scheme for mobile slotted ALOHA is presented and the effect of capture on the adaptive control scheme is investigated. It is shown that with the proper choice of adaptation parameters the adaptive control scheme can be made independent of the effect of capture.

  7. Training of personnel involved in regulatory control

    Food irradiation can offer its full potential benefit only if irradiation facilities and processes are subject to strict control measures. The training of personnel involved in the process and inspection or control of the process and facilities must form an integral part of all food irradiation control procedures. Thus, training courses for irradiator operators, plant managers and supervisors that address proper processing with emphasis on good manufacturing practices (GMPs), dosimetry, record keeping and lot identification should be organized. For food control officials, training in the appropriate inspection procedures required for food irradiation facilities and processes is essential. Last but not least, voluntary compliance is deemed as an ideal but conceivable strategy to sustain and acceptable degree of quality assurance and facilitate effective control and hence should be promoted. (author). 13 refs

  8. Improvement of Adaptive Cruise Control Performance

    Nakagami Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Adaptive Cruise Control system (ACC, a system which reduces the driving burden on the driver. The ACC system primarily supports four driving modes on the road and controls the acceleration and deceleration of the vehicle in order to maintain a set speed or to avoid a crash. This paper proposes more accurate methods of detecting the preceding vehicle by radar while cornering, with consideration for the vehicle sideslip angle, and also of controlling the distance between vehicles. By making full use of the proposed identification logic for preceding vehicles and path estimation logic, an improvement in driving stability was achieved.

  9. Safe and Optimal Adaptive Cruise Control

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mikučionis, Marius; Taankvist, Jakob Haahr

    2015-01-01

    In a series of contributions Olderog et al. have formulated and verified safety controllers for a number of lane-maneuvers on multilane roads. Their work is characterized by great clarity and elegance partly due to the introduction of a special-purpose Multi-Lane Spatial Logic. In this paper, we...... want to illustrate the potential of current modelchecking technology for automatic synthesis of optimal yet safe (collision-free) controllers. We demonstrate this potential on an Adaptive Cruise Control problem, being a small part of the overall safety problem considered by Olderog....

  10. Parallel computations and control of adaptive structures

    Park, K. C.; Alvin, Kenneth F.; Belvin, W. Keith; Chong, K. P. (Editor); Liu, S. C. (Editor); Li, J. C. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The equations of motion for structures with adaptive elements for vibration control are presented for parallel computations to be used as a software package for real-time control of flexible space structures. A brief introduction of the state-of-the-art parallel computational capability is also presented. Time marching strategies are developed for an effective use of massive parallel mapping, partitioning, and the necessary arithmetic operations. An example is offered for the simulation of control-structure interaction on a parallel computer and the impact of the approach presented for applications in other disciplines than aerospace industry is assessed.

  11. Glucose ingestion during endurance training does not alter adaptation

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Fischer, Christian P; Plomgaard, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    extensor training. They trained one leg while ingesting a 6% glucose solution (Glc) and ingested a sweetened placebo while training the other leg (Plc). The subjects trained their respective legs 2 h at a time on alternate days 5 days a week. Endurance training increased peak power (P(max)) and time to...

  12. L1 adaptive control with sliding-mode based adaptive law

    Jie LUO; Chengyu CAO

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive control scheme with an integration of sliding mode control into the L1 adaptive control architecture, which provides good tracking performance as well as robustness against matched uncertainties. Sliding mode control is used as an adaptive law in the L1 adaptive control architecture, which is considered as a virtual control of error dynamics between estimated states and real states. Low-pass filtering mechanism in the control law design prevents a discontinuous signal in the adaptive law from appearing in actual control signal while maintaining control accuracy. By using sliding mode control as a virtual control of error dynamics and introducing the low-pass filtered control signal, the chattering effect is eliminated. The performance bounds between the close-loop adaptive system and the closed-loop reference system are characterized in this paper. Numerical simulation is provided to demonstrate the performance of the presented adaptive control scheme.

  13. HALF OF THRESHOLD ALGORITHM: AN ENHANCED LINEAR ADAPTIVE SKIPPING TRAINING ALGORITHM OR MULTILAYER FEEDFORWARD NEURAL NETWORKS

    Manjula Devi Ramasamy; Kuppuswami Subbaraya Gounder

    2014-01-01

    Multilayer Feed Forward Neural Network (MFNN) has been successfully administered architectures for solving a wide range of supervised pattern recognition tasks. The most problematic task of MFNN is training phase which consumes very long training time on very huge training datasets. An enhanced linear adaptive skipping training algorithm for MFNN called Half of Threshold (HOT) is proposed in this research paper. The core idea of this study is to reduce the training time through random present...

  14. Materials control and accountability auditor training

    As the Department of Energy (DOE) works to standardize the training for individuals performing materials control and accountability (MC and A) functions, the need for a definition of the appropriate training for MC and A auditors has become apparent. In order to meet the DOE requirement for individual training plans for all staff performing MC and A functions, the following set of guidelines was developed for consideration as applicable to MC and A auditors. The application of these guidelines to specific operating environments at individual DOE sites may require modification to some of the tables. The paper presents one method of developing individual training programs for an MC and A auditor or for an MC and A audit group based on the requirements for internal audits and assessments included in DOE Order 5633.3, Control and Accountability for Nuclear Materials

  15. Adaptive control based on retrospective cost optimization

    Santillo, Mario A. (Inventor); Bernstein, Dennis S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A discrete-time adaptive control law for stabilization, command following, and disturbance rejection that is effective for systems that are unstable, MIMO, and/or nonminimum phase. The adaptive control algorithm includes guidelines concerning the modeling information needed for implementation. This information includes the relative degree, the first nonzero Markov parameter, and the nonminimum-phase zeros. Except when the plant has nonminimum-phase zeros whose absolute value is less than the plant's spectral radius, the required zero information can be approximated by a sufficient number of Markov parameters. No additional information about the poles or zeros need be known. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the algorithm's effectiveness in handling systems with errors in the required modeling data, unknown latency, sensor noise, and saturation.

  16. A new adaptive videogame for training attention and executive functions: Design principles and initial validation

    Veronica eMontani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that action videogames could enhance a variety of cognitive skills and more specifically attention skills. The aim of this study was to develop a novel adaptive videogame to support the rehabilitation of the most common consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI, that is the impairment of attention and executive functions. TBI patients can be affected by psychomotor slowness and by difficulties in dealing with distraction, maintain a cognitive set for a long time, processing different simultaneously presented stimuli, and planning purposeful behaviour. Accordingly, we designed a videogame that was specifically conceived to activate those functions. Playing involves visuospatial planning and selective attention, active maintenance of the cognitive set representing the goal, and error monitoring. Moreover, different game trials require to alternate between two tasks (i.e., task switching or to perform the two tasks simultaneously (i.e., divided attention / dual-tasking. The videogame is controlled by a multidimensional adaptive algorithm that calibrates task difficulty on-line based on a model of user performance that is updated on a trial-by-trial basis. We report simulations of user performance designed to test the adaptive game as well as a validation study with healthy participants engaged in a training protocol. The results confirmed the involvement of the cognitive abilities that the game is supposed to enhance and suggested that training improved attentional control during play.

  17. Training for Certification: Forest Pest Control.

    Parker, Robert C., Comp.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on forest pest control, this publication examines plant and animal pest control practices for southern tree species. Contents include: (1) identification of insects, diseases, and weed tree species;…

  18. Training for Certification: Demonstration & Research Pest Control.

    Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on agricultural pest control, this publication includes a full range of topics from uses of pesticides for agricultural animal pest control to the toxicity of common pesticides to fish and bees.…

  19. Adaptive control of active filter using DSP

    In order to reduce output-voltage ripple of power supply, an active filter is necessary. In this paper, the active filter with DSP is proposed. The waveform from active filter can be flexibly improved by DSP programming. The output-voltage ripple can be enough reduced by mixing frequency components of the input-voltage ripple. The result of adaptive control using LMS algorism is presented. The improvement by using filtered-X method is discussed. (author)

  20. Adaptive Fuzzy Backstepping Control against Actuator Faults

    Fujiang Jin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the problem of Fault-Tolerant Control (FTC for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems is studied. A novel FTC scheme is proposed to deal with both lock-in-place and loss of effectiveness faults of actuators. By employing fuzzy approximation and on-line adaptive updating, the proposed control scheme can tolerate the faults without detection and diagnosis mechanism. It is proved in theory that the FTC scheme can guarantee the closed-loop stability and desired output tracking performance in spite of all kinds of the faults and external disturbances. A simulation example is also included to show the effectiveness of the scheme.

  1. ADAPTIVE SUBOPTIMAL CONTROL OF INPUT CONSTRAINED PLANTS

    Valerii Azarskov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper deals with adaptive regulation of a discrete-time linear time-invariant plant witharbitrary bounded disturbances whose control input is constrained to lie within certain limits. The adaptivecontrol algorithm exploits the one-step-ahead control strategy and the gradient projection type estimationprocedure using the modified dead zone. The convergence property of the estimation algorithm is shown tobe ensured. The sufficient conditions guaranteeing the global asymptotical stability and simultaneously thesuboptimality of the closed-loop systems are derived. Numerical examples and simulations are presented tosupport the theoretical results.

  2. Adaptive Control Applied to Financial Market Data

    Šindelář, Jan; Kárný, Miroslav

    Vol. I. Praha : Matfyz press, 2007, s. 1-6. ISBN 978-80-7378-023-4. [Week of Doctoral Students 2007. Praha (CZ), 05.06.2007-08.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : baysian statistics * finance * financial engineering * stochastic control Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2007/si/sindelar-adaptive control applied to financial market data.pdf

  3. Adaptive Fuzzy Knowledge Based Controller for Autonomous Robot Motion Control

    Mbaitiga Zacharie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Research into robot motion control offers research opportunities that will change scientists and engineers for year to come. Autonomous robots are increasingly evident in many aspects of industry and everyday life and a robust robot motion control can be used for homeland security and many consumer applications. This study discussed the adaptive fuzzy knowledge based controller for robot motion control in indoor and outdoor environment. Approach: The proposed method consisted of two components: the process monitor that detects changes in the process characteristics and the adaptation mechanism that used information passed to it by the process monitor to update the controller parameters. Results: Experimental evaluation had been done in both indoor and outdoor environment where the robot communicates with the base station through its Wireless fidelity antenna and the performance monitor used a set of five performance criteria to access the fuzzy knowledge based controller. Conclusion: The proposed method had been found to be robust.

  4. Neurofeedback Training for BCI Control

    Neuper, Christa; Pfurtscheller, Gert

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems detect changes in brain signals that reflect human intention, then translate these signals to control monitors or external devices (for a comprehensive review, see [1]). BCIs typically measure electrical signals resulting from neural firing (i.e. neuronal action potentials, Electroencephalogram (ECoG), or Electroencephalogram (EEG)). Sophisticated pattern recognition and classification algorithms convert neural activity into the required control signals. BCI research has focused heavily on developing powerful signal processing and machine learning techniques to accurately classify neural activity [2-4].

  5. Executive control and felt concentrative engagement following intensive meditation training

    Anthony Paul Zanesco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of mental training have been shown to improve performance on cognitively demanding tasks. Individuals trained in meditative practices, for example, show generalized improvements on a variety of tasks assessing attentional performance. A central claim of this training, derived from contemplative traditions, posits that improved attentional performance is accompanied by subjective increases in the stability and clarity of concentrative engagement with one’s object of focus, as well as reductions in felt cognitive effort as expertise develops. However, despite frequent claims of mental stability following training, the phenomenological correlates of meditation-related attentional improvements have yet to be characterized. In a longitudinal study, we assessed changes in executive control (performance on a 32-minute response inhibition task and retrospective reports of task engagement (concentration, motivation, and effort following one month of intensive, daily Vipassana meditation training. Compared to matched controls, training participants exhibited improvements in response inhibition accuracy and reductions in reaction time variability. The training group also reported increases in concentration, but not effort or motivation, during task performance. Critically, increases in concentration predicted improvements in reaction time variability, suggesting a link between the experience of concentrative engagement and ongoing fluctuations in attentional stability. By incorporating experiential measures of task performance, the present study corroborates phenomenological accounts of stable, clear attentional engagement with the object of meditative focus following extensive training. These results provide initial evidence that meditation-related changes in felt experience accompany improvements in adaptive, goal-directed behavior, and that such shifts may reflect accurate awareness of measurable changes in performance.

  6. Time course and dimensions of postural control changes following neuromuscular training in youth field hockey athletes

    Zech, Astrid; Klahn, Philipp; Hoeft, Jon; Eulenburg, Christine Zu; Steib, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Injury prevention effects of neuromuscular training have been partly attributed to postural control adaptations. Uncertainty exists regarding the magnitude of these adaptations and on how they can be adequately monitored. The objective was to determine the time course of neuromuscular traini

  7. Heat acclimation and physical training adaptations of young women using different contraceptive hormones.

    Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M; Keith, Nicole R; Elliott, Tabatha A; Vanheest, Jaci L; Scheett, Timothy P; Stoppani, James; Judelson, Daniel A; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2005-05-01

    Although endogenous and exogenous steroid hormones affect numerous physiological processes, the interactions of reproductive hormones, chronic exercise training, and heat acclimation are unknown. This investigation evaluated the responses and adaptations of 36 inactive females [age 21 +/- 3 (SD) yr] as they undertook a 7- to 8-wk program [heat acclimation and physical training (HAPT)] of indoor heat acclimation (90 min/day, 3 days/wk) and outdoor physical training (3 days/wk) while using either an oral estradiol-progestin contraceptive (ORAL, n = 15), a contraceptive injection of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DEPO, n = 7), or no contraceptive (EU-OV, n = 14; control). Standardized physical fitness and exercise-heat tolerance tests (36.5 degrees C, 37% relative humidity), administered before and after HAPT, demonstrated that the three subject groups successfully (P heat (i.e., rectal temperature, heart rate) and improved muscular endurance (i.e., sit-ups, push-ups, 4.6-km run time) and body composition characteristics. The stress of HAPT did not disrupt the menstrual cycle length/phase characteristics, ovulation, or plasma hormone concentrations of EU-OV. No between-group differences (P > 0.05) existed for rectal and skin temperatures or metabolic, cardiorespiratory, muscular endurance, or body composition variables. A significant difference post-HAPT in the onset temperature of local sweating, ORAL (37.2 +/- 0.4 degrees C) vs. DEPO (37.7 +/- 0.2 degrees C), suggested that steroid hormones influenced this adaptation. In summary, virtually all adaptations of ORAL and DEPO were similar to EU-OV, suggesting that exogenous reproductive hormones neither enhanced nor impaired the ability of women to complete 7-8 wk of strenuous physical training and heat acclimation. PMID:15598669

  8. Direct adaptive control for nonlinear uncertain dynamical systems

    Hayakawa, Tomohisa

    In light of the complex and highly uncertain nature of dynamical systems requiring controls, it is not surprising that reliable system models for many high performance engineering and life science applications are unavailable. In the face of such high levels of system uncertainty, robust controllers may unnecessarily sacrifice system performance whereas adaptive controllers are clearly appropriate since they can tolerate far greater system uncertainty levels to improve system performance. In this dissertation, we develop a Lyapunov-based direct adaptive and neural adaptive control framework that addresses parametric uncertainty, unstructured uncertainty, disturbance rejection, amplitude and rate saturation constraints, and digital implementation issues. Specifically, we consider the following research topics; direct adaptive control for nonlinear uncertain systems with exogenous disturbances; robust adaptive control for nonlinear uncertain systems; adaptive control for nonlinear uncertain systems with actuator amplitude and rate saturation constraints; adaptive reduced-order dynamic compensation for nonlinear uncertain systems; direct adaptive control for nonlinear matrix second-order dynamical systems with state-dependent uncertainty; adaptive control for nonnegative and compartmental dynamical systems with applications to general anesthesia; direct adaptive control of nonnegative and compartmental dynamical systems with time delay; adaptive control for nonlinear nonnegative and compartmental dynamical systems with applications to clinical pharmacology; neural network adaptive control for nonlinear nonnegative dynamical systems; passivity-based neural network adaptive output feedback control for nonlinear nonnegative dynamical systems; neural network adaptive dynamic output feedback control for nonlinear nonnegative systems using tapped delay memory units; Lyapunov-based adaptive control framework for discrete-time nonlinear systems with exogenous disturbances

  9. Cardiac adaptation to endurance training in young adult

    Sandip Meghnad Hulke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Regular physical exercise is known to cause improvement of the cardiovascular function. This adaptation is studied here with the help of non-invasive methods. Aims: To evaluate morphological changes in heart by echocardiography, to see the effect of exercise on autonomic function, on aerobic power and to assess the sequence of changes. Settings and Design: Study comprises of 12-week duration and was done on the students of physical education. Materials and Methods: This study was a longitudinal study in which 100 subjects (51 male, 20.18 yrs±1.147, 49 female, 19.91 yrs±1.89 were assessed using electrocardiography, echocardiography and Queen′s College Step test (for VO 2max within 7 days of admission to their college and re-examined after 12 weeks. Statistical Analysis: Paired t-test using Graph pad prism5 software. Results: Electrocardiographic evaluation was suggestive of significant decrease in heart rate, significant increase in RR interval and t-wave amplitude in cardiac leads in males and similar but not significant result in females. No significant change was found in left ventricular morphology and ejection fraction after exercise program. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the exercise training over a period of 3 months does not influence cardiovascular morphology, but causes changes in parasympathetic and sympathetic tone and improves aerobic power.

  10. Radiation control through licensing and intensive training

    Various types of intensive training courses to suit radiation workers in different fields were sponsored by both the Atomic Energy Council of Executive Yuan and the National Health Administration of Executive Yuan, Republic of China during the past seven years. During the years 1974-79, the number of radiation workers attending each training course, their age, sex and educational background are presented in detail. The typical course contents for both medical and non-medical radiation workers are given. A summary of the percentage of passes and failures of the final examination given at the end of each training course is also given. The present status of licensing for radiation facilities and workers is described, and its results are indicated. The successful control of ionizing radiation through this kind of intensive training and licensing is evidenced in the film badge records given by a centralized service laboratory located at the National Tsing Hua University. (author)

  11. Comments on 'Hamiltonian adaptive control of spacecraft'

    Fossen, Thor I.

    1993-04-01

    In the adaptive scheme presented by Slotine and Benedetto (1990) for attitude tracking control of rigid spacecraft, the spacecraft is parameterized in terms of the inertial frame. This note shows how a parameterization in body coordinates considerably simplifies the representation of the adaptation scheme. The new symbolic expression for the regressor matrix is easy to find even for 6-degrees of freedom (DOF) Hamiltonian systems with a large number of unknown parameters. If the symbolic expression for the regressor matrix is known in advance, the computational complexity is approximately equal for both representations. In the scheme presented by Slotine and Benedetto this is not trivial because the transformation matrix between the inertial frame and the body coordinates is included in the expression for the regressor matrix. Hence, implementation for higher DOF systems is strongly complicated. An example illustrates the advantage of the new representation when modeling a simple three-DOF model of the lateral motion of a space shuttle.

  12. Robust adaptive control for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Kahveci, Nazli E.

    The objective of meeting higher endurance requirements remains a challenging task for any type and size of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). According to recent research studies significant energy savings can be realized through utilization of thermal currents. The navigation strategies followed across thermal regions, however, are based on rather intuitive assessments of remote pilots and lack any systematic path planning approaches. Various methods to enhance the autonomy of UAVs in soaring applications are investigated while seeking guarantees for flight performance improvements. The dynamics of the aircraft, small UAVs in particular, are affected by the environmental conditions, whereas unmodeled dynamics possibly become significant during aggressive flight maneuvers. Besides, the demanded control inputs might have a magnitude range beyond the limits dictated by the control surface actuators. The consequences of ignoring these issues can be catastrophic. Supporting this claim NASA Dryden Flight Research Center reports considerable performance degradation and even loss of stability in autonomous soaring flight tests with the subsequent risk of an aircraft crash. The existing control schemes are concluded to suffer from limited performance. Considering the aircraft dynamics and the thermal characteristics we define a vehicle-specific trajectory optimization problem to achieve increased cross-country speed and extended range of flight. In an environment with geographically dispersed set of thermals of possibly limited lifespan, we identify the similarities to the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) and provide both exact and approximate guidance algorithms for the navigation of automated UAVs. An additional stochastic approach is used to quantify the performance losses due to incorrect thermal data while dealing with random gust disturbances and onboard sensor measurement inaccuracies. One of the main contributions of this research is a novel adaptive control design with

  13. The Effects of Interset Rest on Adaptation to 7 Weeks of Explosive Training in Young Soccer Players

    Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Andrade, David C.; Álvarez, Cristian; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Martínez, Cristian; Báez-SanMartín, Eduardo; Silva-Urra, Juan; Burgos, Carlos; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of plyometric training using 30, 60, or 120 s of rest between sets on explosive adaptations in young soccer players. Four groups of athletes (age 10.4 ± 2.3 y; soccer experience 3.3 ± 1.5 y) were randomly formed: control (CG; n = 15), plyometric training with 30 s (G30; n = 13), 60 s (G60; n = 14), and 120 s (G120; n = 12) of rest between training sets. Before and after intervention players were measured in jump ability, 20-m sprint time, change...

  14. Blowdown wind tunnel control using an adaptive fuzzy PI controller

    Corneliu Andrei NAE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an approach towards the control of a supersonic blowdown wind tunnel plant (as evidenced by experimental data collected from “INCAS Supersonic Blowdown Wind Tunnel” using a PI type controller. The key to maintain the imposed experimental conditions is the control of the air flow using the control valve of the plant. A proposed mathematical model based on the control valve will be analyzed using the PI controller. This control scheme will be validated using experimental data collected from real test cases. In order to improve the control performances an adaptive fuzzy PI controller will be implemented in SIMULINK in the present paper. The major objective is to reduce the transient regimes and the global reduction of the start-up loads on the models during this phase.

  15. Control adaptable utilizando Redes Neuronales Artificiales Polinomiales

    Gómez, E.; A. S. Poznyak; Lozano, R, R.

    2000-01-01

    Existen en la literatura de Control Adaptable, diferentes procedimientos en los que es posible identificar un sistema lineal. El problema fundamental es que una cantidad importante de fenómenos de la vida real son de tipo no lineal y no es tan sencillo el modelar este tipo de dinámicas. En este trabajo se presenta una forma de identificar sistemas no lineales utilizando las propiedades de las Redes Neuronales Artificiales y las técnicas de Algoritmo Genético en la optimización de ...

  16. Adaptive Control Using Residual Mode Filters Applied to Wind Turbines

    Frost, Susan A.; Balas, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    Many dynamic systems containing a large number of modes can benefit from adaptive control techniques, which are well suited to applications that have unknown parameters and poorly known operating conditions. In this paper, we focus on a model reference direct adaptive control approach that has been extended to handle adaptive rejection of persistent disturbances. We extend this adaptive control theory to accommodate problematic modal subsystems of a plant that inhibit the adaptive controller by causing the open-loop plant to be non-minimum phase. We will augment the adaptive controller using a Residual Mode Filter (RMF) to compensate for problematic modal subsystems, thereby allowing the system to satisfy the requirements for the adaptive controller to have guaranteed convergence and bounded gains. We apply these theoretical results to design an adaptive collective pitch controller for a high-fidelity simulation of a utility-scale, variable-speed wind turbine that has minimum phase zeros.

  17. Video game training enhances cognitive control in older adults.

    Anguera, J A; Boccanfuso, J; Rintoul, J L; Al-Hashimi, O; Faraji, F; Janowich, J; Kong, E; Larraburo, Y; Rolle, C; Johnston, E; Gazzaley, A

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive control is defined by a set of neural processes that allow us to interact with our complex environment in a goal-directed manner. Humans regularly challenge these control processes when attempting to simultaneously accomplish multiple goals (multitasking), generating interference as the result of fundamental information processing limitations. It is clear that multitasking behaviour has become ubiquitous in today's technologically dense world, and substantial evidence has accrued regarding multitasking difficulties and cognitive control deficits in our ageing population. Here we show that multitasking performance, as assessed with a custom-designed three-dimensional video game (NeuroRacer), exhibits a linear age-related decline from 20 to 79 years of age. By playing an adaptive version of NeuroRacer in multitasking training mode, older adults (60 to 85 years old) reduced multitasking costs compared to both an active control group and a no-contact control group, attaining levels beyond those achieved by untrained 20-year-old participants, with gains persisting for 6 months. Furthermore, age-related deficits in neural signatures of cognitive control, as measured with electroencephalography, were remediated by multitasking training (enhanced midline frontal theta power and frontal-posterior theta coherence). Critically, this training resulted in performance benefits that extended to untrained cognitive control abilities (enhanced sustained attention and working memory), with an increase in midline frontal theta power predicting the training-induced boost in sustained attention and preservation of multitasking improvement 6 months later. These findings highlight the robust plasticity of the prefrontal cognitive control system in the ageing brain, and provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, of how a custom-designed video game can be used to assess cognitive abilities across the lifespan, evaluate underlying neural mechanisms, and serve as a powerful tool

  18. The ADAPT design model: towards instructional control of transfer

    Jelsma, Otto; Merrienboer, van, Jeroen J.G.; Bijlstra, Jim P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of the ADAPT (Apply Delayed Automatization for Positive Transfer) design model. ADAPT is based upon production system models of learning and provides guidelines for developing instructional systems that offer transfer of leamed skills. The model suggests that transfer of training can be attributed to procedure overlap between the original training task and the transfer task, as well as to analogy between new problem solving situations and acquired co...

  19. Myoelectric Control for Adaptable Biomechanical Energy Harvesting.

    Selinger, Jessica C; Donelan, J Maxwell

    2016-03-01

    We have designed and tested a myoelectric controller that automatically adapts energy harvesting from the motion of leg joints to match the power available in different walking conditions. To assist muscles in performing negative mechanical work, the controller engages power generation only when estimated joint mechanical power is negative. When engaged, the controller scales its resistive torque in proportion to estimated joint torque, thereby automatically scaling electrical power generation in proportion to the available mechanical power. To produce real-time estimates of joint torque and mechanical power, the controller leverages a simple model that predicts these variables from measured muscle activity and joint angular velocity. We first tested the model using available literature data for a range of walking speeds and found that estimates of knee joint torque and power well match the corresponding literature profiles (torque R(2): 0.73-0.92; power R(2): 0.60-0.94). We then used human subject experiments to test the performance of the entire controller. Over a range of steady state walking speeds and inclines, as well as a number of non-steady state walking conditions, the myoelectric controller accurately identified when the knee generated negative mechanical power, and automatically adjusted the magnitude of electrical power generation. PMID:26841402

  20. Adaptive Control of Flexible Structures Using Residual Mode Filters

    Balas, Mark J.; Frost, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Flexible structures containing a large number of modes can benefit from adaptive control techniques which are well suited to applications that have unknown modeling parameters and poorly known operating conditions. In this paper, we focus on a direct adaptive control approach that has been extended to handle adaptive rejection of persistent disturbances. We extend our adaptive control theory to accommodate troublesome modal subsystems of a plant that might inhibit the adaptive controller. In some cases the plant does not satisfy the requirements of Almost Strict Positive Realness. Instead, there maybe be a modal subsystem that inhibits this property. This section will present new results for our adaptive control theory. We will modify the adaptive controller with a Residual Mode Filter (RMF) to compensate for the troublesome modal subsystem, or the Q modes. Here we present the theory for adaptive controllers modified by RMFs, with attention to the issue of disturbances propagating through the Q modes. We apply the theoretical results to a flexible structure example to illustrate the behavior with and without the residual mode filter. We have proposed a modified adaptive controller with a residual mode filter. The RMF is used to accommodate troublesome modes in the system that might otherwise inhibit the adaptive controller, in particular the ASPR condition. This new theory accounts for leakage of the disturbance term into the Q modes. A simple three-mode example shows that the RMF can restore stability to an otherwise unstable adaptively controlled system. This is done without modifying the adaptive controller design.

  1. Adaptive quality control for multimedia communications

    Santichai Chuaywong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia communications are communications with several types of media, such as audio, video and data. The current Internet has some levels of capability to support multimedia communications, unfortunately, the QoS (Quality of Service is still challenging. A large number of QoS mechanisms has been proposed; however, the main concern is for low levels, e.g. layer 2 (Data Link or 3 (Transport. In this paper, mechanisms for control the quality of audio and video are proposed. G.723.1 and MPEG-4 are used as the audio and video codec respectively. The proposed algorithm for adaptive quality control of audio communication is based on forward error correction (FEC. In the case of video communication, the proposed algorithm adapts the value of key frame interval, which is an encoding parameter of MPEG-4. We evaluated our proposed algorithms by computer simulation. We have shown that, in most cases, the proposed scheme gained a higher throughput compared to other schemes.

  2. Physiological and performance adaptations to high-intensity interval training.

    Gibala, Martin J; Jones, Andrew M

    2013-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) refers to exercise that is characterized by relatively short bursts of vigorous activity, interspersed by periods of rest or low-intensity exercise for recovery. In untrained and recreationally active individuals, short-term HIIT is a potent stimulus to induce physiological remodeling similar to traditional endurance training despite a markedly lower total exercise volume and training time commitment. As little as six sessions of 'all-out' HIIT over 14 days, totaling ∼15 min of intense cycle exercise within total training time commitment of ∼2.5 h, is sufficient to enhance exercise capacity and improve skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. From an athletic standpoint, HIIT is also an effective strategy to improve performance when supplemented into the already high training volumes of well-trained endurance athletes, although the underlying mechanisms are likely different compared to less trained subjects. Most studies in this regard have examined the effect of replacing a portion (typically ∼15-25%) of base/normal training with HIIT (usually 2-3 sessions per week for 4-8 weeks). It has been proposed that a polarized approach to training, in which ∼75% of total training volume be performed at low intensities, with 10-15% performed at very high intensities may be the optimal training intensity distribution for elite athletes who compete in intense endurance events. PMID:23899754

  3. Adaptive Torque Control of Variable Speed Wind Turbines

    Johnson, K. E.

    2004-08-01

    The primary focus of this work is a new adaptive controller that is designed to resemble the standard non-adaptive controller used by the wind industry for variable speed wind turbines below rated power. This adaptive controller uses a simple, highly intuitive gain adaptation law designed to seek out the optimal gain for maximizing the turbine's energy capture. It is designed to work even in real, time-varying winds.

  4. Synthesis of Adaptive Gain Robust Controllers for Polytopic Uncertain Systems

    Hidetoshi Oya; Daisuke Yamasaki; Shunya Nagai; Kojiro Hagino

    2015-01-01

    We present a new adaptive gain robust controller for polytopic uncertain systems. The proposed adaptive gain robust controller consists of a state feedback law with a fixed gain and a compensation input with adaptive gains which are tuned by updating laws. In this paper, we show that sufficient conditions for the existence of the proposed adaptive gain robust controller are given in terms of LMIs. Finally, illustrative examples are presented to show the effectiv...

  5. Robust Brain-Machine Interface Design Using Optimal Feedback Control Modeling and Adaptive Point Process Filtering.

    Shanechi, Maryam M; Orsborn, Amy L; Carmena, Jose M

    2016-04-01

    Much progress has been made in brain-machine interfaces (BMI) using decoders such as Kalman filters and finding their parameters with closed-loop decoder adaptation (CLDA). However, current decoders do not model the spikes directly, and hence may limit the processing time-scale of BMI control and adaptation. Moreover, while specialized CLDA techniques for intention estimation and assisted training exist, a unified and systematic CLDA framework that generalizes across different setups is lacking. Here we develop a novel closed-loop BMI training architecture that allows for processing, control, and adaptation using spike events, enables robust control and extends to various tasks. Moreover, we develop a unified control-theoretic CLDA framework within which intention estimation, assisted training, and adaptation are performed. The architecture incorporates an infinite-horizon optimal feedback-control (OFC) model of the brain's behavior in closed-loop BMI control, and a point process model of spikes. The OFC model infers the user's motor intention during CLDA-a process termed intention estimation. OFC is also used to design an autonomous and dynamic assisted training technique. The point process model allows for neural processing, control and decoder adaptation with every spike event and at a faster time-scale than current decoders; it also enables dynamic spike-event-based parameter adaptation unlike current CLDA methods that use batch-based adaptation on much slower adaptation time-scales. We conducted closed-loop experiments in a non-human primate over tens of days to dissociate the effects of these novel CLDA components. The OFC intention estimation improved BMI performance compared with current intention estimation techniques. OFC assisted training allowed the subject to consistently achieve proficient control. Spike-event-based adaptation resulted in faster and more consistent performance convergence compared with batch-based methods, and was robust to parameter

  6. Radiological control technician implementing continuing training

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has developed and is implementing a continuing training program for RCTs. This program was designed to meet the requirements of the DOE and Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual. The program is scheduled on a biennial (two year), six cycle format, where each cycle is seventeen weeks in length. This enables the technician to be in the classroom three times per year, for an average of four days each cycle. Content emphasis is placed on: academics review; lessons learned; new equipment and procedures; practical skills training; and oral board preparation. Academic reviews provide refresher training on core and site academics in both lecture and overview formats. During the first five cycles, an average of six lessons are presented. A preparatory exam is administered along with a quiz covering previous cycles. The sixth cycle is dedicated to an academic review of all previous lesson content, the final comprehensive exam, and the oral examination boards. In conjunction with continuing training, technicians receive additional company required training, providing a substantial cost savings to WHC. WHC employs approximately 300 RCTs

  7. An adaptive control system for wing TE shape control

    Dimino, I.; Concilio, A.; Schueller, M.; Gratias, A.

    2013-03-01

    A key technology to enable morphing aircraft for enhanced aerodynamic performance is the design of an adaptive control system able to emulate target structural shapes. This paper presents an approach to control the shape of a morphing wing by employing internal, integrated actuators acting on the trailing edge. The adaptive-wing concept employs active ribs, driven by servo actuators, controlled in turn by a dedicated algorithm aimed at shaping the wing cross section, according to a pre-defined geometry. The morphing control platform is presented and a suitable control algorithm is implemented in a dedicated routine for real-time simulations. The work is organized as follows. A finite element model of the uncontrolled, non-actuated structure is used to obtain the plant model for actuator torque and displacement control. After having characterized and simulated pure rotary actuator behavior over the structure, selected target wing shapes corresponding to rigid trailing edge rotations are achieved through both open-loop and closed-loop control logics.

  8. Model reference adaptive control and adaptive stability augmentation

    Henningsen, Arne; Ravn, Ole

    1993-01-01

    A comparison of the standard concepts in MRAC design suggests that a combination of the implicit and the explicit design techniques may lead to an improvement of the overall system performance in the presence of unmodelled dynamics. Using the ideas of adaptive stability augmentation a combined...

  9. Model reference adaptive control and adaptive stability augmentation

    Henningsen, Arne; Ravn, Ole

    A comparison of the standard concepts in MRAC design suggests that a combination of the implicit and the explicit design techniques may lead to an improvement of the overall system performance in the presence of unmodelled dynamics. Using the ideas of adaptive stability augmentation a combined...

  10. Adaptive nonlinear control for a research reactor

    Linearization by feedback of states is based on the idea of transform the nonlinear dynamic equation of a system in a linear form. This linear behavior can be achieve well in a complete way (input state) or in partial way (input output). This can be applied to systems of single or multiple inputs, and can be used to solve problems of stabilization and tracking of references trajectories. Comparing this method with conventional ones, linearization by feedback of states is exact in certain region of the space of state, instead of linear approximations of the equations in a certain point of the operation. In the presence of parametric uncertainties in the model of the system, the introduction of adaptive schemes provide a type toughness to the control system by nonlinear feedback, which gives as result the eventual cancellation of the nonlinear terms in the dynamic relationship between the output and the input of the auxiliary control. In the same way, it has been presented the design of a nonlinearizing control for the non lineal model of a TRIGA Mark III type reactor, with the aim of tracking a predetermined power profile. The asymptotic tracking of such profile is, at the present moment, in the stage of verification by computerized simulation the relative easiness in the design of auxiliary variable of control, as well as the decoupling action of the output variable, make very attractive the utilization of the method herein presented. (Author)

  11. A new adaptive scheme for the adaptive linearizing control of bioprocesses

    Ferreira, E. C.; Azevedo, S. Feyo de

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with the development of model-based adaptive control algorithms for bioprocess operation. Non-linear adaptive control laws are proposed for single input single output regulation. Parameters are continuously adapted following a new adaptive scheme which ensures second-order dynamics of the parameter error system. A computational study is presented of the application of this theory to baker’s yeast fermentation. Results put in evidence the efficient performance both of ...

  12. TRX Suspension Training: A New Functional Training Approach for Older Adults – Development, Training Control and Feasibility

    GAEDTKE, ANGUS; Morat, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Because of its proximity to daily activities functional training becomes more important for older adults. Sling training, a form of functional training, was primarily developed for therapy and rehabilitation. Due to its effects (core muscle activation, strength and balance improvements), sling training may be relevant for older adults. However, to our knowledge no recent sling training program for healthy older adults included a detailed training control which is indeed an essential component...

  13. Incidence of injury and physical performance adaptations during military training

    Rosendal, Lars; Langberg, Henning; Skov-Jensen, Arne;

    2003-01-01

    Strenuous physical activity, such as military training, is known to demand a high degree of physical performance and to cause overuse injuries. However, the exact relation between injury incidence and physical fitness level and the influence of military training on measures of functional performa......Strenuous physical activity, such as military training, is known to demand a high degree of physical performance and to cause overuse injuries. However, the exact relation between injury incidence and physical fitness level and the influence of military training on measures of functional...... performance, such as intermittent endurance capacity and maximal jump performance, are not fully described....

  14. Training of personnel for infection control.

    Crow, S

    1984-01-01

    The overall objectives for implementing an infection control program are to make hospital personnel aware of nosocomial infections and to educate these persons in their role in decreasing the risk of these infections. The infection control practitioner (ICP) implements these objectives by performing surveillance to determine problem areas and by developing policies and procedures that prevent and control nosocomial infections. Appropriate qualities for an ICP include initiative, leadership, communication skills, commitment, and charisma. Expertise in patient care practices, aseptic principles, sterilization practices, education, research, epidemiology, microbiology, infectious diseases, and psychology are acquired skills. Local, state, and national organizations, as well as universities, are responsible for ICP training, In the US the Centers for Disease Control have established a training program for the beginning ICP and the Association of Practitioners in Infection Control (APIC) has developed a study guide for developing infection control skills. The ultimate responsibility for education is an individual obligation, however. Certification of the ICP would insure a minimum level of knowledge, thereby standardizing and upgrading the practice of infection control. PMID:6557085

  15. Self-adaptive robot training of stroke survivors for continuous tracking movements

    Morasso Pietro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although robot therapy is progressively becoming an accepted method of treatment for stroke survivors, few studies have investigated how to adapt the robot/subject interaction forces in an automatic way. The paper is a feasibility study of a novel self-adaptive robot controller to be applied with continuous tracking movements. Methods The haptic robot Braccio di Ferro is used, in relation with a tracking task. The proposed control architecture is based on three main modules: 1 a force field generator that combines a non linear attractive field and a viscous field; 2 a performance evaluation module; 3 an adaptive controller. The first module operates in a continuous time fashion; the other two modules operate in an intermittent way and are triggered at the end of the current block of trials. The controller progressively decreases the gain of the force field, within a session, but operates in a non monotonic way between sessions: it remembers the minimum gain achieved in a session and propagates it to the next one, which starts with a block whose gain is greater than the previous one. The initial assistance gains are chosen according to a minimal assistance strategy. The scheme can also be applied with closed eyes in order to enhance the role of proprioception in learning and control. Results The preliminary results with a small group of patients (10 chronic hemiplegic subjects show that the scheme is robust and promotes a statistically significant improvement in performance indicators as well as a recalibration of the visual and proprioceptive channels. The results confirm that the minimally assistive, self-adaptive strategy is well tolerated by severely impaired subjects and is beneficial also for less severe patients. Conclusions The experiments provide detailed information about the stability and robustness of the adaptive controller of robot assistance that could be quite relevant for the design of future large scale

  16. Effects of different volume-equated resistance training loading strategies on muscular adaptations in well-trained men.

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Peterson, Mark D; Contreras, Bret; Sonmez, G T; Alvar, Brent A

    2014-10-01

    Regimented resistance training has been shown to promote marked increases in skeletal muscle mass. Although muscle hypertrophy can be attained through a wide range of resistance training programs, the principle of specificity, which states that adaptations are specific to the nature of the applied stimulus, dictates that some programs will promote greater hypertrophy than others. Research is lacking, however, as to the best combination of variables required to maximize hypertophic gains. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscular adaptations to a volume-equated bodybuilding-type training program vs. a powerlifting-type routine in well-trained subjects. Seventeen young men were randomly assigned to either a hypertrophy-type resistance training group that performed 3 sets of 10 repetition maximum (RM) with 90 seconds rest or a strength-type resistance training (ST) group that performed 7 sets of 3RM with a 3-minute rest interval. After 8 weeks, no significant differences were noted in muscle thickness of the biceps brachii. Significant strength differences were found in favor of ST for the 1RM bench press, and a trend was found for greater increases in the 1RM squat. In conclusion, this study showed that both bodybuilding- and powerlifting-type training promote similar increases in muscular size, but powerlifting-type training is superior for enhancing maximal strength. PMID:24714538

  17. Adaptive Dynamic Surface Control for Generator Excitation Control System

    Zhang Xiu-yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the generator excitation control system which is equipped with static var compensator (SVC and unknown parameters, a novel adaptive dynamic surface control scheme is proposed based on neural network and tracking error transformed function with the following features: (1 the transformation of the excitation generator model to the linear systems is omitted; (2 the prespecified performance of the tracking error can be guaranteed by combining with the tracking error transformed function; (3 the computational burden is greatly reduced by estimating the norm of the weighted vector of neural network instead of the weighted vector itself; therefore, it is more suitable for the real time control; and (4 the explosion of complicity problem inherent in the backstepping control can be eliminated. It is proved that the new scheme can make the system semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded. Simulation results show the effectiveness of this control scheme.

  18. HALF OF THRESHOLD ALGORITHM: AN ENHANCED LINEAR ADAPTIVE SKIPPING TRAINING ALGORITHM OR MULTILAYER FEEDFORWARD NEURAL NETWORKS

    Manjula Devi Ramasamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multilayer Feed Forward Neural Network (MFNN has been successfully administered architectures for solving a wide range of supervised pattern recognition tasks. The most problematic task of MFNN is training phase which consumes very long training time on very huge training datasets. An enhanced linear adaptive skipping training algorithm for MFNN called Half of Threshold (HOT is proposed in this research paper. The core idea of this study is to reduce the training time through random presentation of training input samples without affecting the network’s accuracy. The random presentation is done by partitioning the training dataset into two distinct classes, classified and misclassified class, based on the comparison result of the calculated error measure with half of threshold value. Only the input samples in the misclassified class are presented to the next epoch for training, whereas the correctly classified class is skipped linearly which dynamically reducing the number of input samples exhibited at every single epoch without affecting the network’s accuracy. Thus decreasing the size of the training dataset linearly can reduce the total training time, thereby speeding up the training process. This HOT algorithm can be implemented with any training algorithm used for supervised pattern classification and its implementation is very simple and easy. Simulation study results proved that HOT training algorithm achieves faster training than the other standard training algorithm.

  19. Neural adaptations to resistive exercise: mechanisms and recommendations for training practices.

    Gabriel, David A; Kamen, Gary; Frost, Gail

    2006-01-01

    It is generally accepted that neural factors play an important role in muscle strength gains. This article reviews the neural adaptations in strength, with the goal of laying the foundations for practical applications in sports medicine and rehabilitation. An increase in muscular strength without noticeable hypertrophy is the first line of evidence for neural involvement in acquisition of muscular strength. The use of surface electromyographic (SEMG) techniques reveal that strength gains in the early phase of a training regimen are associated with an increase in the amplitude of SEMG activity. This has been interpreted as an increase in neural drive, which denotes the magnitude of efferent neural output from the CNS to active muscle fibres. However, SEMG activity is a global measure of muscle activity. Underlying alterations in SEMG activity are changes in motor unit firing patterns as measured by indwelling (wire or needle) electrodes. Some studies have reported a transient increase in motor unit firing rate. Training-related increases in the rate of tension development have also been linked with an increased probability of doublet firing in individual motor units. A doublet is a very short interspike interval in a motor unit train, and usually occurs at the onset of a muscular contraction. Motor unit synchronisation is another possible mechanism for increases in muscle strength, but has yet to be definitely demonstrated. There are several lines of evidence for central control of training-related adaptation to resistive exercise. Mental practice using imagined contractions has been shown to increase the excitability of the cortical areas involved in movement and motion planning. However, training using imagined contractions is unlikely to be as effective as physical training, and it may be more applicable to rehabilitation. Retention of strength gains after dissipation of physiological effects demonstrates a strong practice effect. Bilateral contractions are

  20. PRACTICAL METHODS OF CONTROL AND ESTIMATING THE LEVEL OF SPORTSMEN’S TRAINING

    Victor MUNTIAN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the efficiency quotient in the competitionactivity of a sportsman facilitates the appreciation oftheir actual level of training. Basic data for researchingthe dynamics of the results are the control indicators.The results of the evaluation of the level of training onindicators of operative, current (present control, ofstage and final control allow realizing the individualcumulative indexes for each sportsman. In order toidentify the integrated index of the sportsmen’s training,it is necessary to cumulate the results of all the types ofcontrol. The aim of the study is to identify the practicalmethods to control and evaluate the individualcomponents of training, competition activity andintegrated level of training the sportsmen. The system oftypes of control suggested by the authors shows that thebasic data of studying the level of training of thesportsmen are indicators of initial evaluation. The totalof the sportsman’s results for all the types of controldetermines the individual cumulative index. Theformulas to calculate the integrated level of training andthe efficiency of the participation to competition of thesportsmen can identify their strong and weak points intraining, and according to them, make adaptations in thetraining curricula.Thus the control in the field of sports is an indicator ofthe level of sportsmen’s training, an instrument tooptimize the process of training and participation tocompetitions based on some objective evaluations of thedevelopment of the different qualities and of the integrallevel of training.

  1. A hybrid adaptive control strategy for a smart prosthetic hand

    Chen, Cheng-Hung; Naidu, D. Subbaram; Perez-Gracia, Alba; Schoen, Marco P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid of a soft computing technique of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and a hard computing technique of adaptive control for a two- dimensional movement of a prosthetic hand with a thumb and index finger. In particular, ANFIS is used for inverse kinematics, and the adaptive control is used for linearized dynamics to minimize tracking error. The simulations of this hybrid controller, when compared with the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller s...

  2. Effects of Methoxyisoflavone, Ecdysterone, and Sulfo-Polysaccharide Supplementation on Training Adaptations in Resistance-Trained Males

    Greenwood Michael

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Methoxyisoflavone (M, 20-hydroxyecdysone (E, and sulfo-polysaccharide (CSP3 have been marketed to athletes as dietary supplements that can increase strength and muscle mass during resistance-training. However, little is known about their potential ergogenic value. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these supplements affect training adaptations and/or markers of muscle anabolism/catabolism in resistance-trained athletes. Methods Forty-five resistance-trained males (20.5 ± 3 yrs; 179 ± 7 cm, 84 ± 16 kg, 17.3 ± 9% body fat were matched according to FFM and randomly assigned to ingest in a double blind manner supplements containing either a placebo (P; 800 mg/day of M; 200 mg of E; or, 1,000 mg/day of CSP3 for 8-weeks during training. At 0, 4, and 8-weeks, subjects donated fasting blood samples and completed comprehensive muscular strength, muscular endurance, anaerobic capacity, and body composition analysis. Data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA. Results No significant differences (p > 0.05 were observed in training adaptations among groups in the variables FFM, percent body fat, bench press 1 RM, leg press 1 RM or sprint peak power. Anabolic/catabolic analysis revealed no significant differences among groups in active testosterone (AT, free testosterone (FT, cortisol, the AT to cortisol ratio, urea nitrogen, creatinine, the blood urea nitrogen to creatinine ratio. In addition, no significant differences were seen from pre to post supplementation and/or training in AT, FT, or cortisol. Conclusion Results indicate that M, E, and CSP3 supplementation do not affect body composition or training adaptations nor do they influence the anabolic/catabolic hormone status or general markers of catabolism in resistance-trained males.

  3. Adaptive Controllers for Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motor Drive System using Adaptive-Network-based Fuzzy Interference System

    V. M. Varatharaju

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The tuning methodology for the parameters of adaptive speed controller causes a transient deviation of the response from the set reference following variation in load torque in a permanent-magnet brushless DC (BLDC motor drive system. Approach: This study develops a mathematical model of the BLDC drive system, firstly. Secondly, discusses a design of the closed loop drive system employing the Adaptive-Network-based Fuzzy Interference System (ANFIS. The nonlinear simulation model of the BLDC motors drive system with ANFIS control based is simulated in the MATLAB/SIMULINK platform. Results: The necessitated data for training the ANFIS control is generated by simulation of the system with conventional PI controller. Conclusion: The simulated electromagnetic torque and rotor speed signify the superiority of the proposed technique over the classical method.

  4. Space motion sickness preflight adaptation training: preliminary studies with prototype trainers

    Parker, D. E.; Rock, J. C.; von Gierke, H. E.; Ouyang, L.; Reschke, M. F.; Arrott, A. P.

    1987-01-01

    Preflight training frequently has been proposed as a potential solution to the problem of space motion sickness. The paper considers successively the otolith reinterpretation, the concept for a preflight adaptation trainer and the research with the Miami University Seesaw, the Wright Patterson Air-Force Base Dynamic Environment Simulator and the Visually Coupled Airborne Systems Simulator prototype adaptation trainers.

  5. Systematic Review of Engagement in Culturally Adapted Parent Training for Disruptive Behavior

    Butler, Ashley M.; Titus, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the literature reporting engagement (enrollment, attendance, and attrition) in culturally adapted parent training for disruptive behavior among racial/ethnic minority parents of children ages 2 to 7 years. The review describes the reported rates of engagement in adapted interventions and how engagement is analyzed in studies,…

  6. Adaptive Controller Design for Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor

    Prabhu, K; V. Murali Bhaskaran

    2014-01-01

    Continues Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) is an important issue in chemical process and a wide range of research in the area of chemical engineering. Temperature Control of CSTR has been an issue in the chemical control engineering since it has highly non-linear complex equations. This study presents problem of temperature control of CSTR with the adaptive Controller. The Simulation is done in MATLAB and result shows that adaptive controller is an efficient controller for temperature control of C...

  7. Training evaluation models: The experience of the European project ADAPT-FIT

    V. Carbone; MORVILLO,A

    2003-01-01

    This article illustrates the experience gained in relation to training evaluation models at the institute for services industry research (IRAT) of the national research council of Italy and the university of Naples 'Parthenope', through an intensive training and research activity implemented as part of the transnational integrated training project (FIT - formazione integrata transnazionale). The fit project, funded by the European programme adapt, is a joint action implemented by the academic...

  8. Muscle adaptations and performance enhancements of soccer training for untrained men

    Krustrup, Peter; Christensen, Jesper F.; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard;

    2010-01-01

    We examined the physical demands of small-sided soccer games in untrained middle-age males and muscle adaptations and performance effects over 12 weeks of recreational soccer training in comparison with continuous running. Thirty-eight healthy subjects (20-43 years) were randomized into a soccer...... weeks, but unaltered in RU. After 4 weeks VO(2max) and Yo-Yo IE2 performance were elevated (p < 0.05) to a similar extent in SO (7 and 37%) and RU (6 and 36%) but increased further (p < 0.05) from 4 to 12 weeks in SO (6 and 23%). In SO, 30-m sprint performance was improved (p < 0.05) by 0.11 +/- 0.02 s...... (SO), running (RU) and control (CO) group. Two-three weekly 1-h training sessions were performed. Muscle lactate (30.1 +/- 4.1 vs. 15.6 +/- 3.3 mmol/kg d.w.), blood lactate, blood glucose and time above 90% HR(max) (20 +/- 4% vs. 1 +/- 1%) were higher (p < 0.05) during training in SO than in RU. After...

  9. Improved semisupervised adaptation for a small training dataset in the brain-computer interface.

    Meng, Jianjun; Sheng, Xinjun; Zhang, Dingguo; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2014-07-01

    One problem in the development of brain-computer interface (BCI) systems is to minimize the amount of subject training on the premise of accurate classification. Hence, the challenge is how to train the BCI system effectively especially in the scenario with small amount of training data. In this paper, we introduce improved semisupervised adaptation based on common spatial pattern (CSP) features. The feature extraction and classification are performed jointly and iteratively. In the iteration step, training data are expanded by part of the testing data with labels which are predicted by a linear discriminant analysis classifier and/or a Bayesian linear discriminant analysis classifier in the previous iteration. Then CSP features are reextracted from the expanded training data, and the classifiers are retrained. Both self-training and cotraining paradigms are proposed for the improved semisupervised adaptation. Throughout the investigation on different number of initial training trials, we find that when a small number of training trials are used, e.g., a training session contains no more than 30 trials, similar classification performance to that of large training data items (40-50 trials) can be achieved. Effectiveness of the algorithms is verified by two competition datasets. Compared with several existing algorithms, the proposed semisupervised algorithms show improvements in classification accuracy for most of the competition datasets especially in the case of small training data. PMID:24122610

  10. Adaptive and Predictive Control of Liquid-Liquid Extractors Using Neural-Based Instantaneous Linearization Technique

    Mjalli, F. S.

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinearity of the extraction process is addressed via the application of instantaneous linearization to control the extract and raffinate concentrations. Two feed-forward neural networks with delayed inputs and outputs were trained and validated to capture the dynamics of the extraction process. These nonlinear models were then adopted in an instantaneous linearization algorithm into two control algorithms. The self-tuning adaptive control strategy was compared to an approximate model predi...

  11. Resistance Training: Physiological Responses and Adaptations (Part 2 of 4).

    Fleck, Stephen J.; Kraerner, William J.

    1988-01-01

    Resistance training causes a variety of physiological reactions, including changes in muscle size, connective tissue size, and bone mineral content. This article summarizes data from a variety of studies and research. (JL)

  12. Modular and Adaptive Control of Sound Processing

    van Nort, Douglas

    parameters. In this view, desired gestural dynamics and sonic response are achieved through modular construction of mapping layers that are themselves subject to parametric control. Complementing this view of the design process, the work concludes with an approach in which the creation of gestural control/sound dynamics are considered in the low-level of the underlying sound model. The result is an adaptive system that is specialized to noise-based transformations that are particularly relevant in an electroacoustic music context. Taken together, these different approaches to design and evaluation result in a unified framework for creation of an instrumental system. The key point is that this framework addresses the influence that mapping structure and control dynamics have on the perceived feel of the instrument. Each of the results illustrate this using either top-down or bottom-up approaches that consider musical control context, thereby pointing to the greater potential for refined sonic articulation that can be had by combining them in the design process.

  13. Adaptive Inverse Optimal Control of a Magnetic Levitation System

    SATOH, YASUYUKI; Nakamura, Hisakazu; Katayama, Hitoshi; Nishitani, Hirokazu

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we proposed an adaptive inverse optimal controller for the magnetic levitation system. First, we designed an inverse optimal controller with a pre-feedback gravity compensator and applied it to the magnetic levitation system. However, this controller cannot guarantee any stability margin. We demonstrated that the controller did not work well (offset error remained) in the experiment. Hence, we proposed an improved controller via an adaptive control technique to guarantee the ...

  14. Adaptive Landing Gear: Optimum Control Strategy and Potential for Improvement

    Grzegorz Mikułowski; Łukasz Jankowski

    2009-01-01

    An adaptive landing gear is a landing gear (LG) capable of active adaptation to particular landing conditions by means of controlled hydraulic force. The objective of the adaptive control is to mitigate the peak force transferred to the aircraft structure during touch-down, and thus to limit the structural fatigue factor. This paper investigates the ultimate limits for improvement due to various strategies of active control. Five strategies are proposed and investigated numerically using a~va...

  15. System Dynamics and Adaptive Control for MEMS Gyroscope Sensor

    Juntao Fei; Hongfei Ding

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive control approach for Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) z-axis gyroscope sensor. The dynamical model of MEMS gyroscope sensor is derived and adaptive state tracking control for MEMS gyroscope is developed. The proposed adaptive control approaches can estimate the angular velocity and the damping and stiffness coefficients including the coupling terms due to the fabrication imperfection. The stability of the closed-loop systems is established with the propo...

  16. Adaptive tracking control of nonholonomic systems : an example

    Lefeber, AAJ Erjen; Nijmeijer, H Henk

    1999-01-01

    We study an example of an adaptive (state) tracking control problem for a four-wheel mobile robot, as it is an illustrative example of the general adaptive state-feedback tracking control problem. It turns out that formulating the adaptive state-feedback tracking control problem is not straightforward, since specifying the reference state-trajectory can be in conflict with not knowing certain parameters. Our example illustrates this difficulty and we propose a problem formulation for the adap...

  17. Carbohydrate availability and exercise training adaptation: too much of a good thing?

    Bartlett, Jonathan D; Hawley, John A; Morton, James P

    2015-01-01

    Traditional nutritional approaches to endurance training have typically promoted high carbohydrate (CHO) availability before, during and after training sessions to ensure adequate muscle substrate to meet the demands of high daily training intensities and volumes. However, during the past decade, data from our laboratories and others have demonstrated that deliberately training in conditions of reduced CHO availability can promote training-induced adaptations of human skeletal muscle (i.e. increased maximal mitochondrial enzyme activities and/or mitochondrial content, increased rates of lipid oxidation and, in some instances, improved exercise capacity). Such data have led to the concept of 'training low, but competing high' whereby selected training sessions are completed in conditions of reduced CHO availability (so as to promote training adaptation), but CHO reserves are restored immediately prior to an important competition. The augmented training response observed with training-low strategies is likely regulated by enhanced activation of key cell signalling kinases (e.g. AMPK, p38MAPK), transcription factors (e.g. p53, PPARδ) and transcriptional co-activators (e.g. PGC-1α), such that a co-ordinated up-regulation of both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes occurs. Although the optimal practical strategies to train low are not currently known, consuming additional caffeine, protein, and practising CHO mouth-rinsing before and/or during training may help to rescue the reduced training intensities that typically occur when 'training low', in addition to preventing protein breakdown and maintaining optimal immune function. Finally, athletes should practise 'train-low' workouts in conjunction with sessions undertaken with normal or high CHO availability so that their capacity to oxidise CHO is not blunted on race day. PMID:24942068

  18. Robust adaptive control of continuous system with unknown deadzone

    2000-01-01

    Presents an adaptive controller for continuous systems with unknown deadzones and known linear part which consists of an adaptive deadzone inverse to cancel the effects of deadzone and a linear-like control law to track the system output. It concludes from simulation results that this control possesses good robustness and improves the tracking performance of the system.

  19. Adaptation in the fuzzy self-organising controller

    Jantzen, Jan; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2003-01-01

    This simulation study provides an analysis of the adaptation mechanism in the self-organising fuzzy controller, SOC. The approach is to apply a traditional adaptive control viewpoint. A simplified performance measure in the SOC controller is used in a loss function, and thus the MIT rule implies an...

  20. Adaptive Linear Parameter Varying Control for Aeroservoelastic Suppression Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Adaptive control offers an opportunity to fulfill present and future aircraft safety objectives though automated vehicle recovery while maintaining performance and...

  1. Nonlinear Direct Robust Adaptive Control Using Lyapunov Method

    Chunbo Xiu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available    The problem of robust adaptive stabilization of a class of multi-input nonlinear systems with arbitrary unknown parameters and unknown structure of bounded variation have been considered. By employing the direct adaptive and control Lyapunov function method, a robust adaptive controller is designed to complete the globally adaptive stability of the system states. By employing our result, a kind of nonlinear system is analyzed, the concrete form of the control law is given and the meaningful quadratic control Lyapunov function for the system is constructed. Simulation of parallel manipulator is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Adaptive Clutch Engaging Process Control for Automatic Mechanical Transmission

    LIU Hai-ou; CHEN Hui-yan; DING Hua-rong; HE Zhong-bo

    2005-01-01

    Based on detail analysis of clutch engaging process control targets and adaptive demands, a control strategy which is based on speed signal, different from that of based on main clutch displacement signal, is put forward. It considers both jerk and slipping work which are the most commonly used quality evaluating indexes of vehicle starting phase. The adaptive control system and its reference model are discussed profoundly.Taking the adaptability to different starting gears and different road conditions as examples, some proving field test records are shown to illustrate the main clutch adaptive control strategy at starting phase. Proving field test gives acceptable results.

  3. Adaptive Linear Parameter Varying Control for Aeroservoelastic Suppression Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Adaptive control offers an opportunity to fulfill aircraft safety objectives though automated vehicle recovery while maintaining performance and stability...

  4. Effects of culturally adapted parent management training on Latino youth behavioral health outcomes.

    Martinez, Charles R; Eddy, J Mark

    2005-10-01

    A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction ratings, intervention participation and attendance, and overall program satisfaction. Intervention effects were evaluated by examining changes in parenting and youth adjustment for the intervention and control groups between baseline and intervention termination approximately 5 months later. Findings provided strong evidence for the feasibility of delivering the intervention in a larger community context. The intervention produced benefits in both parenting outcomes (i.e., general parenting, skill encouragement, overall effective parenting) and youth outcomes (i.e., aggression, externalizing, likelihood of smoking and use of alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs). Differential effects of the intervention were based on youth nativity status. PMID:16287384

  5. Can a 5 Week Strength Training Program Produce Range of Motion Adaptations in Amateur Female Tennis Players?

    Andrew L. SHIM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess range of motion adaptations in amateur tennis players based on the effects of a five week strength training program on the dominant and non-dominant arm. Subjects: An experimental and control group of six collegiate women tennis players (Div II and NAIA participated. After initial assessment, six subjects participated in a five week, four times a week, pre-season strength training program consisting of five exercises: External Rotation 90°, Seated Row, Scaption, Chest Press, and External Shoulder Rotation (Rubber tubing. Results: Data analysis through a paired t-test showed that there were no significant changes in ROM in the experimental group when compared to the control group. In conclusion, a strength training program is highly recommended for female overhead athletes combined with a proper flexibility regimen to promote best practice.

  6. Dynamics and Control of Adaptive Shells with Curvature Transformations

    H.S. Tzou

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive structures with controllable geometries and shapes are rather useful in many engineering applications, such as adaptive wings, variable focus mirrors, adaptive machines, micro-electromechanical systems, etc. Dynamics and feedback control effectiveness of adaptive shells whose curvatures are actively controlled and continuously changed are evaluated. An adaptive piezoelectric laminated cylindrical shell composite with continuous curvature changes is studied, and its natural frequencies and controlled damping ratios are evaluated. The curvature change of the adaptive shell starts from an open shallow shell (30° and ends with a deep cylindrical shell (360°. Dynamic characteristics and control effectiveness (via the proportional velocity feedback of this series of shells are investigated and compared at every 30° curvature change. Analytical solutions suggest that the lower modes are sensitive to curvature changes and the higher modes are relatively insensitive.

  7. Simulation and Rapid Prototyping of Adaptive Control Systems using the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink

    Ravn, Ole

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the design considerations and implementational aspects of the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink which has been developed in a prototype implementation. The concept behind the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink is to bridge the gap between simulation and prototype controller...... implementation. This is done using the code generation capabilities of Real Time Workshop in combination with C s-function blocks for adaptive control in Simulink. In the paper the design of each group of blocks normally found in adaptive controllers is outlined. The block types are, identification, controller...... design, controller and state variable filter.The use of the Adaptive Blockset is demonstrated using a simple laboratory setup. Both the use of the blockset for simulation and for rapid prototyping of a real-time controller are shown....

  8. Neural Control of Chronic Stress Adaptation

    James Herman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Stress initiates adaptive processes that allow the organism to physiologically cope with prolonged or intermittent exposure to real or perceived threats. A major component of this response is repeated activation of glucocorticoid secretion by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis, which promotes redistribution of energy in a wide range of organ systems, including the brain. Prolonged or cumulative increases in glucocorticoid secretion can reduce benefits afforded by enhanced stress reactivity and eventually become maladaptive. The long-term impact of stress is kept in check by the process of habituation, which reduces HPA axis responses upon repeated exposure to homotypic stressors and likely limits deleterious actions of prolonged glucocorticoid secretion. Habituation is regulated by limbic stress-regulatory sites, and is at least in part glucocorticoid feedback-dependent. Chronic stress also sensitizes reactivity to new stimuli. While sensitization may be important in maintaining response flexibility in response to new threats, it may also add to the cumulative impact of glucocorticoids on the brain and body. Finally, unpredictable or severe stress exposure may cause long-term and lasting dysregulation of the HPA axis, likely due to altered limbic control of stress effector pathways. Stress-related disorders, such as depression and PTSD, are accompanied by glucocorticoid imbalances and structural/ functional alterations in limbic circuits that resemble those seen following chronic stress, suggesting that inappropriate processing of stressful information may be part of the pathological process.

  9. Synthetic consciousness: the distributed adaptive control perspective.

    Verschure, Paul F M J

    2016-08-19

    Understanding the nature of consciousness is one of the grand outstanding scientific challenges. The fundamental methodological problem is how phenomenal first person experience can be accounted for in a third person verifiable form, while the conceptual challenge is to both define its function and physical realization. The distributed adaptive control theory of consciousness (DACtoc) proposes answers to these three challenges. The methodological challenge is answered relative to the hard problem and DACtoc proposes that it can be addressed using a convergent synthetic methodology using the analysis of synthetic biologically grounded agents, or quale parsing. DACtoc hypothesizes that consciousness in both its primary and secondary forms serves the ability to deal with the hidden states of the world and emerged during the Cambrian period, affording stable multi-agent environments to emerge. The process of consciousness is an autonomous virtualization memory, which serializes and unifies the parallel and subconscious simulations of the hidden states of the world that are largely due to other agents and the self with the objective to extract norms. These norms are in turn projected as value onto the parallel simulation and control systems that are driving action. This functional hypothesis is mapped onto the brainstem, midbrain and the thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical systems and analysed with respect to our understanding of deficits of consciousness. Subsequently, some of the implications and predictions of DACtoc are outlined, in particular, the prediction that normative bootstrapping of conscious agents is predicated on an intentionality prior. In the view advanced here, human consciousness constitutes the ultimate evolutionary transition by allowing agents to become autonomous with respect to their evolutionary priors leading to a post-biological Anthropocene.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. PMID

  10. Range of motion, neuromechanical, and architectural adaptations to plantar flexor stretch training in humans.

    Blazevich, A J; Cannavan, D; Waugh, C M; Miller, S C; Thorlund, J B; Aagaard, P; Kay, A D

    2014-09-01

    The neuromuscular adaptations in response to muscle stretch training have not been clearly described. In the present study, changes in muscle (at fascicular and whole muscle levels) and tendon mechanics, muscle activity, and spinal motoneuron excitability were examined during standardized plantar flexor stretches after 3 wk of twice daily stretch training (4 × 30 s). No changes were observed in a nonexercising control group (n = 9), however stretch training elicited a 19.9% increase in dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) and a 28% increase in passive joint moment at end ROM (n = 12). Only a trend toward a decrease in passive plantar flexor moment during stretch (-9.9%; P = 0.15) was observed, and no changes in electromyographic amplitudes during ROM or at end ROM were detected. Decreases in H(max):M(max) (tibial nerve stimulation) were observed at plantar flexed (gastrocnemius medialis and soleus) and neutral (soleus only) joint angles, but not with the ankle dorsiflexed. Muscle and fascicle strain increased (12 vs. 23%) along with a decrease in muscle stiffness (-18%) during stretch to a constant target joint angle. Muscle length at end ROM increased (13%) without a change in fascicle length, fascicle rotation, tendon elongation, or tendon stiffness following training. A lack of change in maximum voluntary contraction moment and rate of force development at any joint angle was taken to indicate a lack of change in series compliance of the muscle-tendon unit. Thus, increases in end ROM were underpinned by increases in maximum tolerable passive joint moment (stretch tolerance) and both muscle and fascicle elongation rather than changes in volitional muscle activation or motoneuron pool excitability. PMID:24947023

  11. Behavioral training promotes multiple adaptive processes following acute hearing loss

    Keating, P; Rosenior-Patten, O.; Dahmen, J. C.; Bell, O.; King, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    eLife digest The brain normally compares the timing and intensity of the sounds that reach each ear to work out a sound’s origin. Hearing loss in one ear disrupts these between-ear comparisons, which causes listeners to make errors in this process. With time, however, the brain adapts to this hearing loss and once again learns to localize sounds accurately. Previous research has shown that young ferrets can adapt to hearing loss in one ear in two distinct ways. The ferrets either learn to rem...

  12. Experimental investigation of adaptive control of a parallel manipulator

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Antrazi, Sami S.

    1992-01-01

    The implementation of a joint-space adaptive control scheme used to control non-compliant motion of a Stewart Platform-based Manipulator (SPBM) is presented. The SPBM is used in a facility called the Hardware Real-Time Emulator (HRTE) developed at Goddard Space Flight Center to emulate space operations. The SPBM is comprised of two platforms and six linear actuators driven by DC motors, and possesses six degrees of freedom. The report briefly reviews the development of the adaptive control scheme which is composed of proportional-derivative (PD) controllers whose gains are adjusted by an adaptation law driven by the errors between the desired and actual trajectories of the SPBM actuator lengths. The derivation of the adaptation law is based on the concept of model reference adaptive control (MRAC) and Lyapunov direct method under the assumption that SPBM motion is slow as compared to the controller adaptation rate. An experimental study is conducted to evaluate the performance of the adaptive control scheme implemented to control the SPBM to track a vertical and circular paths under step changes in payload. Experimental results show that the adaptive control scheme provides superior tracking capability as compared to fixed-gain controllers.

  13. Neuro-Genetic Adaptive Optimal Controller for DC Motor

    Mahmoud Mohamed Elkholy; Mohammed Abd Elhameed Abd Elnaiem

    2014-01-01

    Conventional speed controllers of DC motors suffer from being not adaptive, this is because of the nonlinearity in the motor model due to saturation. Structure of DC motor speed controller should vary according to its operating conditions, so that the transient performance is acceptable. In this paper an adaptive and optimal Neuro-Genetic controller is used to control a DC motor speed. GA will be used first to obtain the optimal controller parameter for each load torque and motor refer...

  14. Preparing for the Olympic Games: Training adaptation in endurance sports

    Rietjens, G.J.W.M.

    2002-01-01

    For most elite athletes winning an Olympic gold medal is the ultimate dream. To make this dream come true, in the first place one needs sufficient talent. However next to this talent, several years of training with large amounts of strenuous work is necessary. It is therefore not remarkable that the

  15. Shear stress mediates endothelial adaptations to exercise training in humans.

    Tinken, T.M.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Hopkins, N.; Dawson, E.A.; Cable, N.T.; Green, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Although episodic changes in shear stress have been proposed as the mechanism responsible for the effects of exercise training on the vasculature, this hypothesis has not been directly addressed in humans. We examined brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, an index of NO-mediated endothelial functi

  16. Training adaptation and heart rate variability in elite endurance athletes: opening the door to effective monitoring.

    Plews, Daniel J; Laursen, Paul B; Stanley, Jamie; Kilding, Andrew E; Buchheit, Martin

    2013-09-01

    The measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) is often considered a convenient non-invasive assessment tool for monitoring individual adaptation to training. Decreases and increases in vagal-derived indices of HRV have been suggested to indicate negative and positive adaptations, respectively, to endurance training regimens. However, much of the research in this area has involved recreational and well-trained athletes, with the small number of studies conducted in elite athletes revealing equivocal outcomes. For example, in elite athletes, studies have revealed both increases and decreases in HRV to be associated with negative adaptation. Additionally, signs of positive adaptation, such as increases in cardiorespiratory fitness, have been observed with atypical concomitant decreases in HRV. As such, practical ways by which HRV can be used to monitor training status in elites are yet to be established. This article addresses the current literature that has assessed changes in HRV in response to training loads and the likely positive and negative adaptations shown. We reveal limitations with respect to how the measurement of HRV has been interpreted to assess positive and negative adaptation to endurance training regimens and subsequent physical performance. We offer solutions to some of the methodological issues associated with using HRV as a day-to-day monitoring tool. These include the use of appropriate averaging techniques, and the use of specific HRV indices to overcome the issue of HRV saturation in elite athletes (i.e., reductions in HRV despite decreases in resting heart rate). Finally, we provide examples in Olympic and World Champion athletes showing how these indices can be practically applied to assess training status and readiness to perform in the period leading up to a pinnacle event. The paper reveals how longitudinal HRV monitoring in elites is required to understand their unique individual HRV fingerprint. For the first time, we demonstrate how

  17. The Effect of Plyometric Training on Trunk Muscle Pre-activation in Active Females with Trunk Neuromuscular Control Deficit

    M Hadadnezhad; R. Rajabi; A Ashraf Jamshidi; E Shirzad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Plyometric training via neuromuscular adaptations to the stretch reflex, elasticity of muscle and Golgi tendon organs has an important role in pre-activation of muscles. Due to lack of research in regard to effect of plyometric training on lumbo pelvic muscle, this study aimed to investigate the effect of plyometric training on lumbo pelvic muscle pre-activation in active females with trunk control deficit. Methods: Twenty-five active females who suffered from trunk control de...

  18. Learning from adaptive neural network output feedback control of a unicycle-type mobile robot.

    Zeng, Wei; Wang, Qinghui; Liu, Fenglin; Wang, Ying

    2016-03-01

    This paper studies learning from adaptive neural network (NN) output feedback control of nonholonomic unicycle-type mobile robots. The major difficulties are caused by the unknown robot system dynamics and the unmeasurable states. To overcome these difficulties, a new adaptive control scheme is proposed including designing a new adaptive NN output feedback controller and two high-gain observers. It is shown that the stability of the closed-loop robot system and the convergence of tracking errors are guaranteed. The unknown robot system dynamics can be approximated by radial basis function NNs. When repeating same or similar control tasks, the learned knowledge can be recalled and reused to achieve guaranteed stability and better control performance, thereby avoiding the tremendous repeated training process of NNs. PMID:26830003

  19. STOCHASTIC ADAPTIVE SWITCHING CONTROL BASED ON MULTIPLE MODELS

    ZHANG Yanxia; GUO Lei

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that the transient behaviors of the traditional adaptive control may be very poor in general, and that the adaptive control designed based on switching between multiple models is an intuitively appealing and practically feasible approach to improve the transient performances. In this paper, we shall prove that for a typical class of linear systems disturbed by random noises, the multiple model based least-squares (LS)adaptive switching control is stable and convergent, and has the same convergence rate as that established for the standard least-squares-based self-tunning regulators. Moreover,the mixed case combining adaptive models with fixed models is also considered.

  20. Pulse front control with adaptive optics

    Sun, B.; Salter, P. S.; Booth, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    The focusing of ultrashort laser pulses is extremely important for processes including microscopy, laser fabrication and fundamental science. Adaptive optic elements, such as liquid crystal spatial light modulators or membrane deformable mirrors, are routinely used for the correction of aberrations in these systems, leading to improved resolution and efficiency. Here, we demonstrate that adaptive elements used with ultrashort pulses should not be considered simply in terms of wavefront modification, but that changes to the incident pulse front can also occur. We experimentally show how adaptive elements may be used to engineer pulse fronts with spatial resolution.

  1. Use of control room simulators for training of NPP personnel

    The objective of this report is to provide NPP managers, training center managers and personnel involved with control room simulator training with practical information they can use to improve the performance of their personnel. While the emphasis in this report is on simulator training of control room personnel using full scope simulators, information is also provided on how organizations have effectively used control room simulators for training of other NPP Personnel, Vienna (AT) including simulators other than full-scope simulators. The documents includes: the main body with current practices and recommendations; selected examples from countries; a CD ROM with all examples (different languages). The document will be available on the IAEA web site. The topics describes are: trends in simulators training; designing and developing training involving room simulators; implementation of simulator training; evaluating the effectiveness of simulator training; simulator instructor competence; application of different types of simulators in the training of NPP personnel (other than full scope simulators

  2. Adaptive Intelligent Ventilation Noise Control Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for quiet on-orbit crew quarters (CQ), Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Adaptive Intelligent Ventilation Noise...

  3. Adaptive Intelligent Ventilation Noise Control Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA needs for quiet crew volumes in a space habitat, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Adaptive Intelligent Ventilation Noise...

  4. A Self-Adaptive Control Method for Uncertainty Systems Based on ANN with AEP

    WANG Ping; YANG Ru-qing

    2007-01-01

    A self-adaptive control method is proposed basedon an artificial neural network(ANN) with acceleratedevolutionary programming(AEP.) algorithm. The neuralnetwork is used to model the uncertainty process, fromwhich the teacher signals are produced online to regulate theparameters of the controller. The accelerated evolutionaryprogramming is used to train the neural network. Theexperiment results show that the method can obviouslyimprove the dynamic performance of uncertainty systems.

  5. Limb skeletal muscle adaptation in athletes after training at altitude

    Mizuno, M; Juel, C; Bro-Rasmussen, Thomas;

    1990-01-01

    Morphological and biochemical characteristics of biopsies obtained from gastrocnemius (GAS) and triceps brachii muscle (TRI), as well as maximal O2 uptake (VO2 max) and O2 deficit, were determined in 10 well-trained cross-country skiers before and after a 2-wk stay (2,100 m above sea level) and...... training (2,700 m above sea level) at altitude. On return to sea level, VO2 max was the same as the prealtitude value, whereas an increase in O2 deficit (29%) and in short-term running performance (17%) was observed (P less than 0.05). GAS showed maintained capillary supply but a 10% decrease in...

  6. Preparing for the Olympic Games: Training adaptation in endurance sports

    Rietjens, G.J.W.M.

    2002-01-01

    For most elite athletes winning an Olympic gold medal is the ultimate dream. To make this dream come true, in the first place one needs sufficient talent. However next to this talent, several years of training with large amounts of strenuous work is necessary. It is therefore not remarkable that the time required for adequate recovery may easily be compromised. Doing so, an athlete is often challenging the optimal balance between exercise and recovery. The general purpose of this study was to...

  7. Does subchondral bone of the equine proximal phalanx adapt to race training?

    Noble, Phillipa; Singer, Ellen R; Jeffery, Nathan S

    2016-07-01

    sagittal groove in the central coronal section in the raced than the unraced group. The Contralateral to Fracture group demonstrated significantly greater variance of volumetric bone mineral density compared with the Raced Control and Unraced Control (P bone volumetric bone mineral density and thickness in the Contralateral to Fracture group (P = 0.005). The findings demonstrate that differences exist in subchondral bone volumetric bone mineral density and thickness across the proximal osteochondral surface of the equine first phalanx in horses with different training histories. The findings also demonstrate that the subchondral bone of the sagittal groove of the equine first phalanx adapts to race-training in the race-fit groups (Raced Control and Contralateral to Fracture) with an increase in volumetric bone mineral density relative to unraced controls. Within the race-trained groups, the Contralateral to Fracture bones had a greater variance of volumetric bone mineral density, suggesting that stress-induced bone adaptation had become more erratic, potentially contributing to the aetiology of sagittal fractures of the first phalanx in the Thoroughbred racehorse. PMID:27075139

  8. SOFC temperature evaluation based on an adaptive fuzzy controller

    Xiao-juan WU; Xin-jian ZHU; Guang-yi CAO; Heng-yong TU

    2008-01-01

    The operating temperature of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack is a very important parameter to be controlled, which impacts the performance of the SOFC due to thermal cycling. In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy control method based on an affine nonlinear temperature model is developed to control the temperature of the SOFC within a specified range. Fuzzy logic systems are used to approximate nonlinear functions in the SOFC system and an adaptive technique is employed to construct the controller. Compared with the traditional fuzzy and proportion-integral-derivative (PID) control, the simulation results show that the designed adaptive fuzzy control method performed much better. So it is feasible to build an adaptive fuzzy controller for temperature control of the SOFC.

  9. The Pilates method and cardiorespiratory adaptation to training.

    Tinoco-Fernández, Maria; Jiménez-Martín, Miguel; Sánchez-Caravaca, M Angeles; Fernández-Pérez, Antonio M; Ramírez-Rodrigo, Jesús; Villaverde-Gutiérrez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Although all authors report beneficial health changes following training based on the Pilates method, no explicit analysis has been performed of its cardiorespiratory effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible changes in cardiorespiratory parameters with the Pilates method. A total of 45 university students aged 18-35 years (77.8% female and 22.2% male), who did not routinely practice physical exercise or sports, volunteered for the study and signed informed consent. The Pilates training was conducted over 10 weeks, with three 1-hour sessions per week. Physiological cardiorespiratory responses were assessed using a MasterScreen CPX apparatus. After the 10-week training, statistically significant improvements were observed in mean heart rate (135.4-124.2 beats/min), respiratory exchange ratio (1.1-0.9) and oxygen equivalent (30.7-27.6) values, among other spirometric parameters, in submaximal aerobic testing. These findings indicate that practice of the Pilates method has a positive influence on cardiorespiratory parameters in healthy adults who do not routinely practice physical exercise activities. PMID:27357919

  10. Adaptive sliding mode control for a class of chaotic systems

    Farid, R.; Ibrahim, A.; Zalam, B., E-mail: ramy5475@yahoo.com [Menofia University, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Department of Industrial Electronics and Control, Menuf, Menofia (Egypt)

    2015-03-30

    Chaos control here means to design a controller that is able to mitigating or eliminating the chaos behavior of nonlinear systems that experiencing such phenomenon. In this paper, an Adaptive Sliding Mode Controller (ASMC) is presented based on Lyapunov stability theory. The well known Chua's circuit is chosen to be our case study in this paper. The study shows the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive sliding mode controller.

  11. Adaptive learning fuzzy control of a mobile robot

    In this report a problem is studied to construct a fuzzy controller for a mobile robot to move autonomously along a given reference direction curve, for which control rules are generated and acquired through an adaptive learning process. An adaptive learning fuzzy controller has been developed for a mobile robot. Good properties of the controller are shown through the travelling experiments of the mobile robot. (author)

  12. Discrete Model Reference Adaptive Control System for Automatic Profiling Machine

    Peng Song; Guo-kai Xu; Xiu-chun Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Automatic profiling machine is a movement system that has a high degree of parameter variation and high frequency of transient process, and it requires an accurate control in time. In this paper, the discrete model reference adaptive control system of automatic profiling machine is discussed. Firstly, the model of automatic profiling machine is presented according to the parameters of DC motor. Then the design of the discrete model reference adaptive control is proposed, and the control rules...

  13. Adaptive sliding mode control for a class of chaotic systems

    Chaos control here means to design a controller that is able to mitigating or eliminating the chaos behavior of nonlinear systems that experiencing such phenomenon. In this paper, an Adaptive Sliding Mode Controller (ASMC) is presented based on Lyapunov stability theory. The well known Chua's circuit is chosen to be our case study in this paper. The study shows the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive sliding mode controller

  14. Systems and Methods for Derivative-Free Adaptive Control

    Yucelen, Tansel (Inventor); Kim, Kilsoo (Inventor); Calise, Anthony J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An adaptive control system is disclosed. The control system can control uncertain dynamic systems. The control system can employ one or more derivative-free adaptive control architectures. The control system can further employ one or more derivative-free weight update laws. The derivative-free weight update laws can comprise a time-varying estimate of an ideal vector of weights. The control system of the present invention can therefore quickly stabilize systems that undergo sudden changes in dynamics, caused by, for example, sudden changes in weight. Embodiments of the present invention can also provide a less complex control system than existing adaptive control systems. The control system can control aircraft and other dynamic systems, such as, for example, those with non-minimum phase dynamics.

  15. An adaptive active control for the modified Chua's circuit

    In this Letter, it is shown that a couple of the modified Chua's systems with different parameters and initial conditions can be synchronized using active control when the values of parameters both in drive system and response system are known aforehand. Furthermore, an adaptive active control approach is proposed based on Lyapunov stability theory to make the states of two identical Chua's systems with unknown constant parameters be asymptotically synchronized. In addition, the proposed adaptive active control method guarantees that the designed controller is independent to those uncertain parameters. Simulation results by using both active control and adaptive active control are provided, and the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed adaptive active control are demonstrated

  16. The Feasibility of Cognitive Adaption Training for Outpatients with Schizophrenia in Integrated Treatment

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Hansen, J. P.; Østergaard, B.;

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive adaptation training (CAT) has been tested as a psychosocial treatment, showing promising results. To date there are no reported tests of CAT treatment outside the United States. Thus, we decided to adjust CAT treatment and apply it to an Integrated Treatment setting in Denmark. In this ......Cognitive adaptation training (CAT) has been tested as a psychosocial treatment, showing promising results. To date there are no reported tests of CAT treatment outside the United States. Thus, we decided to adjust CAT treatment and apply it to an Integrated Treatment setting in Denmark...

  17. The Feasibility of Cognitive Adaptation Training for Outpatients with Schizophrenia in Integrated Treatment

    Hansen, Jens Peter; Ostergaard, Birte; Nordentoft, Merete;

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive adaptation training (CAT) has been tested as a psychosocial treatment, showing promising results. To date there are no reported tests of CAT treatment outside the United States. Thus, we decided to adjust CAT treatment and apply it to an Integrated Treatment setting in Denmark. In this ......Cognitive adaptation training (CAT) has been tested as a psychosocial treatment, showing promising results. To date there are no reported tests of CAT treatment outside the United States. Thus, we decided to adjust CAT treatment and apply it to an Integrated Treatment setting in Denmark...

  18. Integrating dynamic stopping, transfer learning and language models in an adaptive zero-training ERP speller

    Kindermans, Pieter-Jan; Tangermann, Michael; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Schrauwen, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Most BCIs have to undergo a calibration session in which data is recorded to train decoders with machine learning. Only recently zero-training methods have become a subject of study. This work proposes a probabilistic framework for BCI applications which exploit event-related potentials (ERPs). For the example of a visual P300 speller we show how the framework harvests the structure suitable to solve the decoding task by (a) transfer learning, (b) unsupervised adaptation, (c) langu...

  19. Flexible Satellite Attitude Control via Adaptive Fuzzy Linearization

    GUAN Ping; LIU Xiang-dong; CHEN Jia-bin; LIU Xiao-he

    2005-01-01

    The adaptive fuzzy control is combined with input-output linearization control to constitute the hybrid controller. The control method is then applied to the attitude maneuver control of the flexible satellite.The basic control structure is given. The rules of the controller parameter selection, which guarantee the attitude stabilization of the satellite with parameter uncertainties, have been analyzed. Simulation results show that the precise attitude control is accomplished in spite of the uncertainty in the system.

  20. Cognitive adaptation training combined with assertive community treatment:- A randomised longitudinal trial

    Hansen, Jens Peter; Østergaard, Birte; Nordentoft, Merete; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive adaptation training (CAT) targets the adaptive behaviour of patients with schizophrenia and has shown promising results regarding the social aspects of psychosocial treatment. As yet, no reports have appeared on the use of CAT in combination with assertive community treatment (ACT). Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of CAT in comparison with ACT, focusing on social functions (primary outcome), symptoms, relapse, re-hospitalisation, and quality of life of outpatients with schizo...

  1. The Reduced-order Design of Robust Adaptive Backstepping Controller

    WUZhao-Jing; XIEXue-Jun; ZHANGSi-Ying

    2005-01-01

    For a class of systems with unmodeled dynamics, robust adaptive stabilization problem is considered in this paper. Firstly, by a series of coordinate changes, the original system is reparameterized. Then, by introducing a reduced-order observer, an error system is obtained. Based on the system, a reduced-order adaptive backstepping controller design scheme is given. It is proved that all the signals in the adaptive control system are globally uniformly bounded, and the regulation error converges to zero asymptotically. Due to the order deduction of the controller, the design scheme in this paper has more practical values. A simulation example further demonstrates the efficiency of the control scheme.

  2. Linear Perturbation Adaptive Control of Hydraulically Driven Manipulators

    Andersen, T.O.; Hansen, M.R.; Conrad, Finn

    2004-01-01

    A method for synthesis of a robust adaptive scheme for a hydraulically driven manipulator, that takes full advantage of any known system dynamics to simplify the adaptive control problem for the unknown portion of the dynamics is presented. The control method is based on adaptive perturbation...... control.Using the Lyapunov approach, under slowly time-varying assumptions, it is shown that the tracking error and the parameter error remain bounded. This bound is a function of the ideal parameters and a bounded disturbance. The control algorithm decouples and linearizes the manipulator so that each...... joint behaves as an independent second-order system with fixed dynamics....

  3. Linear Perturbation Adaptive Control of Hydraulically Driven Manipulators

    Andersen, T.O.; Hansen, M.R.; Conrad, Finn

    control.Using the Lyapunov approach, under slowly time-varying assumptions, it is shown that the tracking error and the parameter error remain bounded. This bound is a function of the ideal parameters and a bounded disturbance. The control algorithm decouples and linearizes the manipulator so that each......A method for synthesis of a robust adaptive scheme for a hydraulically driven manipulator, that takes full advantage of any known system dynamics to simplify the adaptive control problem for the unknown portion of the dynamics is presented. The control method is based on adaptive perturbation...

  4. Adaptive control strategies for cooperative dual-arm manipulators

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    Three strategies for adaptive control of cooperative dual-arm robots are discussed. Implementation of these adaptive controllers does not require the use of complex mathematical models of the arm dynamics or knowledge of the arm dynamic parameters or load parameters. These strategies have simple structures, and are computationally fast for on-line implementation with high sampling rates. In all three cases, the coupling effects between the arms through the load are treated as disturbances which are rejected by the adaptive controllers while following desired commands in a common frame of reference. Simulation results demonstrate the usefulness of the controllers.

  5. HMM-Based Style Control for Expressive Speech Synthesis with Arbitrary Speaker's Voice Using Model Adaptation

    Nose, Takashi; Tachibana, Makoto; Kobayashi, Takao

    This paper presents methods for controlling the intensity of emotional expressions and speaking styles of an arbitrary speaker's synthetic speech by using a small amount of his/her speech data in HMM-based speech synthesis. Model adaptation approaches are introduced into the style control technique based on the multiple-regression hidden semi-Markov model (MRHSMM). Two different approaches are proposed for training a target speaker's MRHSMMs. The first one is MRHSMM-based model adaptation in which the pretrained MRHSMM is adapted to the target speaker's model. For this purpose, we formulate the MLLR adaptation algorithm for the MRHSMM. The second method utilizes simultaneous adaptation of speaker and style from an average voice model to obtain the target speaker's style-dependent HSMMs which are used for the initialization of the MRHSMM. From the result of subjective evaluation using adaptation data of 50 sentences of each style, we show that the proposed methods outperform the conventional speaker-dependent model training when using the same size of speech data of the target speaker.

  6. Adaptive online inverse control of a shape memory alloy wire actuator using a dynamic neural network

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators exhibit severe hysteresis, a nonlinear behavior, which complicates control strategies and limits their applications. This paper presents a new approach to controlling an SMA actuator through an adaptive inverse model based controller that consists of a dynamic neural network (DNN) identifier, a copy dynamic neural network (CDNN) feedforward term and a proportional (P) feedback action. Unlike fixed hysteresis models used in most inverse controllers, the proposed one uses a DNN to identify online the relationship between the applied voltage to the actuator and the displacement (the inverse model). Even without a priori knowledge of the SMA hysteresis and without pre-training, the proposed controller can precisely control the SMA wire actuator in various tracking tasks by identifying online the inverse model of the SMA actuator. Experiments were conducted, and experimental results demonstrated real-time modeling capabilities of DNN and the performance of the adaptive inverse controller. (paper)

  7. Adaptive P300 based control system

    Jin J; Allison B.Z.; Sellers E.W.; Brunner & C.; Horki P.; Wang X; Neuper C.

    2011-01-01

    An adaptive P300 brain-computer interface (BCI) using a 12 × 7 matrix explored new paradigms to improve bit rate and accuracy. During online use, the system adaptively selects the number of flashes to average. Five different flash patterns were tested. The 19-flash paradigm represents the typical row/column presentation (i.e., 12 columns and 7 rows). The 9- and 14-flash A & B paradigms present all items of the 12 × 7 matrix three times using either nine or 14 flashes (instead of 19), decreasi...

  8. Open Groups: Adaptations in Implementing a Parent Training Program

    Donna-Jean P. Brock

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Programs that focus on positive parenting have been shown to improve parental attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors, and increase parent and child bonding. These programs are typically conducted in a closed group format. However, when individual or community needs are more immediate, programmers sometimes opt for an open group format. To determine the effectiveness of this adaptation to an open group format, the present study compared both groups on parental outcomes. Methods: Both closed and open group formats were offered and implemented between January 2009 and December 2012. Participants for both formats were recruited through similar means and the format placement for each family was determined by the immediacy of the need for an intervention, the time lapse until a new cycle would begin, and scheduling flexibility. Chi-Square analyses were conducted to determine demographic differences between the two groups and gain scores were calculated from the pre- and post-test AAPI-2 scales within a mixed MANOVA to determine group for-mat effectiveness. Results: Though open groups contained higher risk families; parental out-come improvements were significant for both groups. All participants, regardless of group membership, demonstrated the same statistically significant improvements following completion of the program. Conclusion: Findings provide support for adapting group formats when necessary to fit community and individual needs.

  9. Working Memory Training in Post-Secondary Students with ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Karizma Mawjee

    Full Text Available To determine whether standard-length computerized training enhances working memory (WM, transfers to other cognitive domains and shows sustained effects, when controlling for motivation, engagement, and expectancy.97 post-secondary students (59.8% female aged 18-35 years with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, were randomized into standard-length adaptive Cogmed WM training (CWMT; 45-min/session, a shortened-length adaptive version of CWMT (15 min/session that controlled for motivation, engagement and expectancy of change, or into a no training group (waitlist-control group. All three groups received weekly telephone calls from trained coaches, who supervised the CWMT and were independent from the research team. All were evaluated before and 3 weeks post-training; those in the two CWMT groups were also assessed 3 months post-training. Untrained outcome measures of WM included the WAIS-IV Digit Span (auditory-verbal WM, CANTAB Spatial Span (visual-spatial WM and WRAML Finger Windows (visual-spatial WM. Transfer-of-training effects included measures of short-term memory, cognitive speed, math and reading fluency, complex reasoning, and ADHD symptoms.Performance on 5/7 criterion measures indicated that shortened-length CWMT conferred as much benefit on WM performance as did standard-length training, with both CWMT groups improving more than the waitlist-control group. Only 2 of these findings remained robust after correcting for multiple comparisons. Follow-up analyses revealed that post-training improvements on WM performance were maintained for at least three months. There was no evidence of any transfer effects but the standard-length group showed improvement in task-specific strategy use.This study failed to find robust evidence of benefits of standard-length CWMT for improving WM in college students with ADHD and the overall pattern of findings raise questions about the specificity of training effects.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01657721.

  10. Adaptive torque control of variable speed wind turbines

    Johnson, Kathryn E.

    Wind is a clean, renewable resource that has become more popular in recent years due to numerous advances in technology and public awareness. Wind energy is quickly becoming cost competitive with fossil fuels, but further reductions in the cost of wind energy are necessary before it can grow into a fully mature technology. One reason for higher-than-necessary cost of the wind energy is uncertainty in the aerodynamic parameters, which leads to inefficient controllers. This thesis explores an adaptive control technique designed to reduce the negative effects of this uncertainty. The primary focus of this work is a new adaptive controller that is designed to resemble the standard non-adaptive controller used by the wind industry. The standard controller was developed for variable speed wind turbines operating below rated power. The new adaptive controller uses a simple, highly intuitive gain adaptation law intended to seek out the optimal gain for maximizing the turbine's energy capture. It is designed to work even in real, time-varying winds. The adaptive controller has been tested both in simulation and on a real turbine, with numerous experimental results provided in this work. Simulations have considered the effects of erroneous wind measurements and time-varying turbine parameters, both of which are concerns on the real turbine. The adaptive controller has been found to operate as desired under realistic operating conditions, and energy capture has increased on the real turbine as a result. Theoretical analyses of the standard and adaptive controllers were performed, as well, providing additional insight into the system. Finally, a few extensions were made with the intent of making the adaptive control idea even more appealing in the commercial wind turbine market.

  11. Hormesis and adaptive cellular control systems

    Hormetic dose response occurs for many endpoints associated with exposures of biological organisms to environmental stressors. Cell-based U- or inverted U-shaped responses may derive from common processes involved in activation of adaptive responses required to protect cells from...

  12. Effect of additional speed endurance training on performance and muscle adaptations

    Gunnarsson, Thomas; Christensen, Peter Møller; Holse, Kris;

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study examined the effect of additional speed-endurance training during the season on muscle adaptations and performance of trained soccer players. METHODS: Eighteen sub-elite soccer players performed one session with 6-9 30-s intervals at an intensity of 90-95 % ofmaximal...... intensity (speed endurance training; SET) a week for 5 weeks (SET-intervention). Before and after the SET-intervention the players carried out the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 (Yo- Yo IR2) test, a sprint test (10- and 30-m) and an agility test. In addition, seven of the players had a resting muscle...

  13. Partial restoration of dietary fat induced metabolic adaptations to training by 7 days of carbohydrate diet

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W; Richter, Erik A;

    2002-01-01

    -fat (Fat-CHO; 62% fat, 21% carbohydrate) and 6 a high-carbohydrate diet (CHO; 20% fat, 65% carbohydrate) for 7 wk, and thereafter both groups consumed the carbohydrate diet for an eighth week. Training was performed throughout. After 8 wk, during 60 min of exercise (71 +/- 1% pretraining maximal oxygen...... +/- 59 vs. 688 +/- 43 mmol/kg dry wt) in Fat-CHO than in CHO. In conclusion, shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet and training causes increased resting muscle glycogen levels but impaired leg glucose uptake and similar muscle glycogen breakdown, despite higher resting levels......, compared with when the carbohydrate diet is consumed throughout training....

  14. Parameter Identification and Adaptive Control Applied to the Inverted Pendulum

    Carlos A. Saldarriaga-Cortés; Víctor D. Correa-Ramírez; Didier Giraldo-Buitrago

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to implement an adaptive control of the inverted pendulum system; which uses the recursive square minimum method for the identification of a dynamic digital model of the plant and then, with its estimated parameters, tune in real time a pole placement control. The plant to be used is an unstable and nonlinear system. This fact, combined with the adaptive controller characteristics, allows the obtained results to be extended to a great variety of systems. The ...

  15. Revisionist integral deferred correction with adaptive step-size control

    Christlieb, Andrew

    2015-03-27

    © 2015 Mathematical Sciences Publishers. Adaptive step-size control is a critical feature for the robust and efficient numerical solution of initial-value problems in ordinary differential equations. In this paper, we show that adaptive step-size control can be incorporated within a family of parallel time integrators known as revisionist integral deferred correction (RIDC) methods. The RIDC framework allows for various strategies to implement stepsize control, and we report results from exploring a few of them.

  16. Fully probabilistic control design in an adaptive critic framework

    Herzallah, R.; Kárný, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 10 (2011), s. 1128-1135. ISSN 0893-6080 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Stochastic control design * Fully probabilistic design * Adaptive control * Adaptive critic Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 2.182, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/AS/karny-0364820.pdf

  17. Adaptive Flight Control Design with Optimal Control Modification on an F-18 Aircraft Model

    Burken, John J.; Nguyen, Nhan T.; Griffin, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    In the presence of large uncertainties, a control system needs to be able to adapt rapidly to regain performance. Fast adaptation is referred to as the implementation of adaptive control with a large adaptive gain to reduce the tracking error rapidly; however, a large adaptive gain can lead to high-frequency oscillations which can adversely affect the robustness of an adaptive control law. A new adaptive control modification is presented that can achieve robust adaptation with a large adaptive gain without incurring high-frequency oscillations as with the standard model-reference adaptive control. The modification is based on the minimization of the Y2 norm of the tracking error, which is formulated as an optimal control problem. The optimality condition is used to derive the modification using the gradient method. The optimal control modification results in a stable adaptation and allows a large adaptive gain to be used for better tracking while providing sufficient robustness. A damping term (v) is added in the modification to increase damping as needed. Simulations were conducted on a damaged F-18 aircraft (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) with both the standard baseline dynamic inversion controller and the adaptive optimal control modification technique. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed modification in tracking a reference model.

  18. Dual-thread parallel control strategy for ophthalmic adaptive optics

    Yu, Yongxin; Zhang, Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    To improve ophthalmic adaptive optics speed and compensate for ocular wavefront aberration of high temporal frequency, the adaptive optics wavefront correction has been implemented with a control scheme including 2 parallel threads; one is dedicated to wavefront detection and the other conducts wavefront reconstruction and compensation. With a custom Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor that measures the ocular wave aberration with 193 subapertures across the pupil, adaptive optics has achieved a ...

  19. A Formal Specification for a Real-Time Train Controller

    Kramer, Simon

    2001-01-01

    We give a formal specification for a real-time controller for trains that operate on the Italian railway network. The controller will control train movements and is part of a larger system destined to guarantee safety with respect to dangers originating from train traffic in the railway network. Based on an informal specification document from the Italian railway company, we construct a simple state-based model and formalise it in terms of the property-based specification language TRIO. The o...

  20. Effects of Zinc Magnesium Aspartate (ZMA Supplementation on Training Adaptations and Markers of Anabolism and Catabolism

    Almada Anthony

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examined whether supplementing the diet with a commercial supplement containing zinc magnesium aspartate (ZMA during training affects zinc and magnesium status, anabolic and catabolic hormone profiles, and/or training adaptations. Forty-two resistance trained males (27 ± 9 yrs; 178 ± 8 cm, 85 ± 15 kg, 18.6 ± 6% body fat were matched according to fat free mass and randomly assigned to ingest in a double blind manner either a dextrose placebo (P or ZMA 30–60 minutes prior to going to sleep during 8-weeks of standardized resistance-training. Subjects completed testing sessions at 0, 4, and 8 weeks that included body composition assessment as determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, 1-RM and muscular endurance tests on the bench and leg press, a Wingate anaerobic power test, and blood analysis to assess anabolic/catabolic status as well as markers of health. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results indicated that ZMA supplementation non-significantly increased serum zinc levels by 11 – 17% (p = 0.12. However, no significant differences were observed between groups in anabolic or catabolic hormone status, body composition, 1-RM bench press and leg press, upper or lower body muscular endurance, or cycling anaerobic capacity. Results indicate that ZMA supplementation during training does not appear to enhance training adaptations in resistance trained populations.

  1. Effect of adapted karate training on quality of life and body balance in 50-year-old men

    Marie-Ludivine Chateau-Degat

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Marie-Ludivine Chateau-Degat1, Gérard Papouin2, Philippe Saint-Val3, Antonio Lopez21Axe sante des populations et environmentale, CHUQ, Laval University, Quebec, Canada; 2Service de Cardiologie, Centre Hospitalier Territorial du Taone, 3Fédération Tahitienne de Karaté, Papeete, French PolynesiaBackground: Aging is associated with a decrease in physical skills, sometimes accompanied by a change in quality of life (QOL. Long-term martial arts practice has been proposed as an avenue to counter these deleterious effects. The general purpose of this pilot study was to identify the effects of an adapted karate training program on QOL, depression, and motor skills in 50-year-old men.Methods and design: Fifteen 50-year-old men were enrolled in a one-year prospective experiment. Participants practiced adapted karate training for 90 minutes three times a week. Testing sessions, involving completion of the MOS 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF36 and Beck Depression Inventory, as well as motor and effort evaluation, were done at baseline, and six and 12 months.Results: Compared with baseline, participants had better Beck Depression Inventory scores after one year of karate training (P < 0.01 and better perception of their physical health (P < 0.01, but not on the mental dimension (P < 0.49. They also improved their reaction time scores for the nondominant hand and sway parameters in the eyes-closed position (P < 0.01.Conclusion: Regular long-term karate practice had favorable effects on mood, perception of physical health confirmed by better postural control, and improved performance on objective physical testing. Adapted karate training would be an interesting option for maintaining physical activity in aging.Keywords: karate, balance, training, sport, aging

  2. Design of Low Complexity Model Reference Adaptive Controllers

    Hanson, Curt; Schaefer, Jacob; Johnson, Marcus; Nguyen, Nhan

    2012-01-01

    Flight research experiments have demonstrated that adaptive flight controls can be an effective technology for improving aircraft safety in the event of failures or damage. However, the nonlinear, timevarying nature of adaptive algorithms continues to challenge traditional methods for the verification and validation testing of safety-critical flight control systems. Increasingly complex adaptive control theories and designs are emerging, but only make testing challenges more difficult. A potential first step toward the acceptance of adaptive flight controllers by aircraft manufacturers, operators, and certification authorities is a very simple design that operates as an augmentation to a non-adaptive baseline controller. Three such controllers were developed as part of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration flight research experiment to determine the appropriate level of complexity required to restore acceptable handling qualities to an aircraft that has suffered failures or damage. The controllers consist of the same basic design, but incorporate incrementally-increasing levels of complexity. Derivations of the controllers and their adaptive parameter update laws are presented along with details of the controllers implementations.

  3. Discriminative training of self-structuring hidden control neural models

    Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Hartmann, Uwe; Hunnerup, Preben

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a new training algorithm for self-structuring hidden control neural (SHC) models. The SHC models were trained non-discriminatively for speech recognition applications. Better recognition performance can generally be achieved, if discriminative training is applied instead. Thus...

  4. Self-paced training for quality control inspectors

    The authors discuss the need for quality control (QC) training in the nuclear industry and propose requirements for QC training. This paper presents an overview of a self-paced training program for QC, including the characteristics and structure of such a program

  5. Hormonal and Physiological Adaptations to High-Intensity Interval Training in Professional Male Canoe Polo Athletes.

    Sheykhlouvand, Mohsen; Khalili, Erfan; Agha-Alinejad, Hamid; Gharaat, Mohammadali

    2016-03-01

    Sheykhlouvand, M, Khalili, E, Agha-Alinejad, H, and Gharaat, M. Hormonal and physiological adaptations to high-intensity interval training in professional male canoe polo athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(3): 859-866, 2016-This study compared the effects of 2 different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) programs in professional male canoe polo athletes. Responses of peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), ventilatory threshold (VT), peak and mean anaerobic power output (PPO and MPO), blood volume, and hormonal adaptations to HIIT were examined. Male athletes (n = 21, age: 24 ± 3 years; height: 181 ± 4 cm; mass: 85 ± 6 kg; and body fat: 12.9 ± 2.7%) were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups (N = 7): (a) (G1) interval paddling with variable volume (6, 7, 8, 9, 9, 9, 8, 7, 6 repetitions per session from first to ninth session, respectively) × 60 second at lowest velocity that elicited V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak (vV[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), 1:3 work to recovery ratio; (b) (G2) interval paddling with variable intensity (6 × 60 second at 100, 110, 120, 130, 130, 130, 120, 110, 100% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2peak from first to ninth session, respectively, 1:3 work to recovery); and (c) (GCON) the control group performed three 60 minutes paddling sessions (75% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) per week for 3 weeks. High-intensity interval training resulted in significant (except as shown) increases compared with pretest, in V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak (G1 = +8.8% and G2 = +8.5%), heart rate at VT (b·min) (G1 = +9.7% and G2 = +5.9%) and (%maximum) (G1 = +6.9%; p = 0.29 and G2 = +6.5%), PPO (G1 = +9.7% and G2 = +12.2%), MPO (G1 = +11.1%; p = 0.29 and G2 = +16.2%), total testosterone (G1 = +29.4% and G2 = +16.7%), total testosterone/cortisol ratio (G1 = +40.9% and G2 = +28.1%), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (G1 = +1.7% and G2 = +1.3%). No significant changes were found in GCON. High-intensity interval paddling may improve both aerobic and anaerobic

  6. Radiological Control Technician: Phase 1, Site academic training lesson plans

    This volume provides lesson plans for training radiological control technicians. Covered here is basic radiological documentation, counting errors, dosimetry, environmental monitoring, and radiation instruments

  7. Temperature modeling and control of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell based on adaptive neural fuzzy technology

    Qi Zhidong; Zhu Xinjian; Cao Guangyi

    2006-01-01

    Aiming at on-line controlling of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) stack, an adaptive neural fuzzy inference technology is adopted in the modeling and control of DMFC temperature system. In the modeling process, an Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) identification model of DMFC stack temperature is developed based on the input-output sampled data, which can avoid the internal complexity of DMFC stack. In the controlling process, with the network model trained well as the reference model of the DMFC control system, a novel fuzzy genetic algorithm is used to regulate the parameters and fuzzy rules of a neural fuzzy controller. In the simulation, compared with the nonlinear Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) and traditional fuzzy algorithm, the improved neural fuzzy controller designed in this paper gets better performance, as demonstrated by the simulation results.

  8. Disturbance Accommodating Adaptive Control with Application to Wind Turbines

    Frost, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive control techniques are well suited to applications that have unknown modeling parameters and poorly known operating conditions. Many physical systems experience external disturbances that are persistent or continually recurring. Flexible structures and systems with compliance between components often form a class of systems that fail to meet standard requirements for adaptive control. For these classes of systems, a residual mode filter can restore the ability of the adaptive controller to perform in a stable manner. New theory will be presented that enables adaptive control with accommodation of persistent disturbances using residual mode filters. After a short introduction to some of the control challenges of large utility-scale wind turbines, this theory will be applied to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.

  9. Revitalisation thermal column drive train control system

    Revitalisation thermal columns propulsion train control system is very urgent to be implemented because of the test results and observation, control system performance is not normal, there are several components that must be renewed. Components includes MCB, magnetic contactors, push buttons, indicator lights and wiring. Drive motor is used to power 1.5 kW 3 phase, 380 volts and 50 Hz, nominal current (In = 3.75 A). Thermal column is one of the irradiation facility at the Kartini reactor has a beam-shaped room of measuring 1.2 X 1.2 X 1.6 m contains graphite blocks 10.2 X 10.2 X 127 cm(1) and is tangentially connected to the Kartini reactor core. Graphite blocks mounted reflector extends from the outer side to the inner surface of the door closer. Door closer contains barite concrete as radiation shielding and can be moved forward and backward to close and to open using a rotating motor to spin the wheel transmission system for running on rails. (author)

  10. Neural control of chronic stress adaptation

    James eHerman

    2013-01-01

    Stress initiates adaptive processes that allow the organism to physiologically cope with prolonged or intermittent exposure to real or perceived threats. A major component of this response is repeated activation of glucocorticoid secretion by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, which promotes redistribution of energy in a wide range of organ systems, including the brain. Prolonged or cumulative increases in glucocorticoid secretion can reduce benefits afforded by enhanced s...

  11. Oral quercetin supplementation hampers skeletal muscle adaptations in response to exercise training

    Casuso, R A; Martínez-López, E J; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup;

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to test exercise-induced adaptations on skeletal muscle when quercetin is supplemented. Four groups of rats were tested: quercetin sedentary, quercetin exercised, placebo sedentary, and placebo exercised. Treadmill exercise training took place 5 days a week for 6 weeks. Quercetin groups ...

  12. Adaptive optimization and control using neural networks

    Mead, W.C.; Brown, S.K.; Jones, R.D.; Bowling, P.S.; Barnes, C.W.

    1993-10-22

    Recent work has demonstrated the ability of neural-network-based controllers to optimize and control machines with complex, non-linear, relatively unknown control spaces. We present a brief overview of neural networks via a taxonomy illustrating some capabilities of different kinds of neural networks. We present some successful control examples, particularly the optimization and control of a small-angle negative ion source.

  13. Effects of systemic hypoxia on human muscular adaptations to resistance exercise training.

    Kon, Michihiro; Ohiwa, Nao; Honda, Akiko; Matsubayashi, Takeo; Ikeda, Tatsuaki; Akimoto, Takayuki; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Hirano, Yuichi; Russell, Aaron P

    2014-06-01

    Hypoxia is an important modulator of endurance exercise-induced oxidative adaptations in skeletal muscle. However, whether hypoxia affects resistance exercise-induced muscle adaptations remains unknown. Here, we determined the effect of resistance exercise training under systemic hypoxia on muscular adaptations known to occur following both resistance and endurance exercise training, including muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), one-repetition maximum (1RM), muscular endurance, and makers of mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), citrate synthase (CS) activity, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), and capillary-to-fiber ratio. Sixteen healthy male subjects were randomly assigned to either a normoxic resistance training group (NRT, n = 7) or a hypoxic (14.4% oxygen) resistance training group (HRT, n = 9) and performed 8 weeks of resistance training. Blood and muscle biopsy samples were obtained before and after training. After training muscle CSA of the femoral region, 1RM for bench-press and leg-press, muscular endurance, and skeletal muscle VEGF protein levels significantly increased in both groups. The increase in muscular endurance was significantly higher in the HRT group. Plasma VEGF concentration and skeletal muscle capillary-to-fiber ratio were significantly higher in the HRT group than the NRT group following training. Our results suggest that, in addition to increases in muscle size and strength, HRT may also lead to increased muscular endurance and the promotion of angiogenesis in skeletal muscle. PMID:24907297

  14. Adaptive Human Control Gains During Precision Grip

    Erik D. Engeberg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Eight human test subjects attempted to track a desired position trajectory with an instrumented manipulandum (MN. The test subjects used the MN with three different levels of stiffness. A transfer function was developed to represent the human application of a precision grip from the data when the test subjects initially displaced the MN so as to learn the position mapping from the MN onto the display. Another transfer function was formed from the data of the remainder of the experiments, after significant displacement of the MN occurred. Both of these transfer functions accurately modelled the system dynamics for a portion of the experiments, but neither was accurate for the duration of the experiments because the human grip dynamics changed while learning the position mapping. Thus, an adaptive system model was developed to describe the learning process of the human test subjects as they displaced the MN in order to gain knowledge of the position mapping. The adaptive system model was subsequently validated following comparison with the human test subject data. An examination of the average absolute error between the position predicted by the adaptive model and the actual experimental data yielded an overall average error of 0.34mm for all three levels of stiffness.

  15. Adaptive tracking control for a class of uncertain chaotic systems

    Chen Feng-Xiang; Wang Wei; Zhang Wei-Dong

    2007-01-01

    The paper is concerned with adaptive tracking problem for a class of chaotic system with time-varying uncertainty,but bounded by norm polynomial. Based on adaptive technique, it proposes a novel controller to asymptotically track the arbitrary desired bounded trajectory. Simulation on the Rossler chaotic system is performed and the result verifies the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Stability and Performance Metrics for Adaptive Flight Control

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Nguyen, Nhan; VanEykeren, Luarens

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of verifying adaptive control techniques for enabling safe flight in the presence of adverse conditions. Since the adaptive systems are non-linear by design, the existing control verification metrics are not applicable to adaptive controllers. Moreover, these systems are in general highly uncertain. Hence, the system's characteristics cannot be evaluated by relying on the available dynamical models. This necessitates the development of control verification metrics based on the system's input-output information. For this point of view, a set of metrics is introduced that compares the uncertain aircraft's input-output behavior under the action of an adaptive controller to that of a closed-loop linear reference model to be followed by the aircraft. This reference model is constructed for each specific maneuver using the exact aerodynamic and mass properties of the aircraft to meet the stability and performance requirements commonly accepted in flight control. The proposed metrics are unified in the sense that they are model independent and not restricted to any specific adaptive control methods. As an example, we present simulation results for a wing damaged generic transport aircraft with several existing adaptive controllers.

  17. L1 adaptive output-feedback control architectures

    Kharisov, Evgeny

    This research focuses on development of L 1 adaptive output-feedback control. The objective is to extend the L1 adaptive control framework to a wider class of systems, as well as obtain architectures that afford more straightforward tuning. We start by considering an existing L1 adaptive output-feedback controller for non-strictly positive real systems based on piecewise constant adaptation law. It is shown that L 1 adaptive control architectures achieve decoupling of adaptation from control, which leads to bounded away from zero time-delay and gain margins in the presence of arbitrarily fast adaptation. Computed performance bounds provide quantifiable performance guarantees both for system output and control signal in transient and steady state. A noticeable feature of the L1 adaptive controller is that its output behavior can be made close to the behavior of a linear time-invariant system. In particular, proper design of the lowpass filter can achieve output response, which almost scales for different step reference commands. This property is relevant to applications with human operator in the loop (for example: control augmentation systems of piloted aircraft), since predictability of the system response is necessary for adequate performance of the operator. Next we present applications of the L1 adaptive output-feedback controller in two different fields of engineering: feedback control of human anesthesia, and ascent control of a NASA crew launch vehicle (CLV). The purpose of the feedback controller for anesthesia is to ensure that the patient's level of sedation during surgery follows a prespecified profile. The L1 controller is enabled by anesthesiologist after he/she achieves sufficient patient sedation level by introducing sedatives manually. This problem formulation requires safe switching mechanism, which avoids controller initialization transients. For this purpose, we used an L1 adaptive controller with special output predictor initialization routine

  18. Adaptive Virtual Reality Training to Optimize Military Medical Skills Acquisition and Retention.

    Siu, Ka-Chun; Best, Bradley J; Kim, Jong Wook; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Ritter, Frank E

    2016-05-01

    The Department of Defense has pursued the integration of virtual reality simulation into medical training and applications to fulfill the need to train 100,000 military health care personnel annually. Medical personnel transitions, both when entering an operational area and returning to the civilian theater, are characterized by the need to rapidly reacquire skills that are essential but have decayed through disuse or infrequent use. Improved efficiency in reacquiring such skills is critical to avoid the likelihood of mistakes that may result in mortality and morbidity. We focus here on a study testing a theory of how the skills required for minimally invasive surgery for military surgeons are learned and retained. Our adaptive virtual reality surgical training system will incorporate an intelligent mechanism for tracking performance that will recognize skill deficiencies and generate an optimal adaptive training schedule. Our design is modeling skill acquisition based on a skill retention theory. The complexity of appropriate training tasks is adjusted according to the level of retention and/or surgical experience. Based on preliminary work, our system will improve the capability to interactively assess the level of skills learning and decay, optimizes skill relearning across levels of surgical experience, and positively impact skill maintenance. Our system could eventually reduce mortality and morbidity by providing trainees with the reexperience they need to help make a transition between operating theaters. This article reports some data that will support adaptive tutoring of minimally invasive surgery and similar surgical skills. PMID:27168575

  19. Physiological Adaptations to Training in Competitive Swimming: A Systematic Review

    Costa, Mário J.; Balasekaran, Govindasamy; Vilas-Boas, J. Paulo; Barbosa, Tiago M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize longitudinal studies on swimming physiology and get implications for daily practice. A computerized search of databases according to the PRISMA statement was employed. Studies were screened for eligibility on inclusion criteria: (i) present two testing points; (ii) on swimming physiology; (iii) using adult elite swimmers; (iv) no case-studies or with small sample sizes. Two independent reviewers used a checklist to assess the methodological quality of the studies. Thirty-four studies selected for analysis were gathered into five main categories: blood composition (n=7), endocrine secretion (n=11), muscle biochemistry (n=7), cardiovascular response (n=8) and the energetic profile (n=14). The mean quality index was 10.58 ± 2.19 points demonstrating an almost perfect agreement between reviewers (K = 0.93). It can be concluded that the mixed findings in the literature are due to the diversity of the experimental designs. Micro variables obtained at the cellular or molecular level are sensitive measures and demonstrate overtraining signs and health symptoms. The improvement of macro variables (i.e. main physiological systems) is limited and may depend on the athletes’ training background and experience. PMID:26839618

  20. Engaging African American Fathers in Behavioral Parent Training: To Adapt or Not Adapt

    Kohl, Patricia L.; Seay, Kristen D.

    2015-01-01

    The Positive Parenting Program, Triple P, is an evidence-based parenting program with strong empirical support that increases parenting skills and decreases child behavior problems. Few studies on Triple P include fathers or African American fathers. This study was undertaken to determine if adaptation to Triple P level 4 is necessary to ensure fit with urban African American fathers.

  1. Adaptive control in series load PWM induction heating inverters

    Szelitzky, Tibor; Henrietta Dulf, Eva

    2013-12-01

    Permanent variations of the electric properties of the load in induction heating equipment make difficult to control the plant. To overcome these disadvantages, the authors propose a new approach based on adaptive control methods. For real plants it is enough to present desired performances or start-up variables for the controller, from which the algorithms tune the controllers by itself. To present the advantages of the proposed controllers, comparisons are made to a PI controller tuned through Ziegler-Nichols method.

  2. Adaptive artificial neural network for autonomous robot control

    Arras, Michael K.; Protzel, Peter W.; Palumbo, Daniel L.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: neural network controller for robot arm positioning with visual feedback; initial training of the arm; automatic recovery from cumulative fault scenarios; and error reduction by iterative fine movements.

  3. Prolonged adaptation to fat-rich diet and training; effects on body fat stores and insulin resistance in man

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the effect of prolonged adaptation to training and fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet on body composition and insulin resistance.......To investigate the effect of prolonged adaptation to training and fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet on body composition and insulin resistance....

  4. Missile guidance law design using adaptive cerebellar model articulation controller.

    Lin, Chih-Min; Peng, Ya-Fu

    2005-05-01

    An adaptive cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) is proposed for command to line-of-sight (CLOS) missile guidance law design. In this design, the three-dimensional (3-D) CLOS guidance problem is formulated as a tracking problem of a time-varying nonlinear system. The adaptive CMAC control system is comprised of a CMAC and a compensation controller. The CMAC control is used to imitate a feedback linearization control law and the compensation controller is utilized to compensate the difference between the feedback linearization control law and the CMAC control. The online adaptive law is derived based on the Lyapunov stability theorem to learn the weights of receptive-field basis functions in CMAC control. In addition, in order to relax the requirement of approximation error bound, an estimation law is derived to estimate the error bound. Then the adaptive CMAC control system is designed to achieve satisfactory tracking performance. Simulation results for different engagement scenarios illustrate the validity of the proposed adaptive CMAC-based guidance law. PMID:15940993

  5. Discrete Time Optimal Adaptive Control for Linear Stochastic Systems

    JIANG Rui; LUO Guiming

    2007-01-01

    The least-squares(LS)algorithm has been used for system modeling for a long time. Without any excitation conditions, only the convergence rate of the common LS algorithm can be obtained. This paper analyzed the weighted least-squares(WLS)algorithm and described the good properties of the WLS algorithm. The WLS algorithm was then used for daptive control of linear stochastic systems to show that the linear closed-loop system was globally stable and that the system identification was consistent. Compared to the past optimal adaptive controller,this controller does not impose restricted conditions on the coefficients of the system, such as knowing the first coefficient before the controller. Without any persistent excitation conditions, the analysis shows that, with the regulation of the adaptive control, the closed-loop system was globally stable and the adaptive controller converged to the one-step-ahead optimal controller in some sense.

  6. Adaptive slope compensation for high bandwidth digital current mode controller

    Taeed, Fazel; Nymand, Morten

    converter duty cycle. The adaptive slope compensation provides optimum controller operation in term of bandwidth over wide range of operating points. In this paper operation principle of the controller is discussed. The proposed controller is implemented in an FPGA to control a 100 W buck converter. The......An adaptive slope compensation method for digital current mode control of dc-dc converters is proposed in this paper. The compensation slope is used for stabilizing the inner current loop in peak current mode control. In this method, the compensation slope is adapted with the variations in...... experimental results of measured loop-gain at different operating points are presented to validate the theoretical performance of the controller....

  7. Novel hybrid adaptive controller for manipulation in complex perturbation environments.

    Alex M C Smith

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a hybrid control scheme, combining the advantages of task-space and joint-space control. The controller is based on a human-like adaptive design, which minimises both control effort and tracking error. Our novel hybrid adaptive controller has been tested in extensive simulations, in a scenario where a Baxter robot manipulator is affected by external disturbances in the form of interaction with the environment and tool-like end-effector perturbations. The results demonstrated improved performance in the hybrid controller over both of its component parts. In addition, we introduce a novel method for online adaptation of learning parameters, using the fuzzy control formalism to utilise expert knowledge from the experimenter. This mechanism of meta-learning induces further improvement in performance and avoids the need for tuning through trial testing.

  8. Adaptive Importance Sampling for Control and Inference

    Kappen, H. J.; Ruiz, H. C.

    2016-03-01

    Path integral (PI) control problems are a restricted class of non-linear control problems that can be solved formally as a Feynman-Kac PI and can be estimated using Monte Carlo sampling. In this contribution we review PI control theory in the finite horizon case. We subsequently focus on the problem how to compute and represent control solutions. We review the most commonly used methods in robotics and control. Within the PI theory, the question of how to compute becomes the question of importance sampling. Efficient importance samplers are state feedback controllers and the use of these requires an efficient representation. Learning and representing effective state-feedback controllers for non-linear stochastic control problems is a very challenging, and largely unsolved, problem. We show how to learn and represent such controllers using ideas from the cross entropy method. We derive a gradient descent method that allows to learn feed-back controllers using an arbitrary parametrisation. We refer to this method as the path integral cross entropy method or PICE. We illustrate this method for some simple examples. The PI control methods can be used to estimate the posterior distribution in latent state models. In neuroscience these problems arise when estimating connectivity from neural recording data using EM. We demonstrate the PI control method as an accurate alternative to particle filtering.

  9. Adult Development, Control, and Adaptive Functioning.

    Schulz, Richard; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Research suggests that primary control increases as humans develop from infancy through middle age and then decreases in old age. To minimize losses, individuals rely on cognitively based secondary control processes in middle and old age. Literature on adult control processes is reviewed. (SLD)

  10. Gait adaptability training improves obstacle avoidance and dynamic stability in patients with cerebellar degeneration.

    Fonteyn, Ella M R; Heeren, Anita; Engels, Jasper-Jan C; Boer, Jasper J Den; van de Warrenburg, Bart P C; Weerdesteyn, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    Balance and gait problems in patients with cerebellar degeneration lead to reduced mobility, loss of independence, and frequent falls. It is currently unclear, however, whether balance and gait capacities can be improved by training in this group of patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of gait adaptability training on obstacle avoidance and dynamic stability during adaptive gait. Ten patients with degenerative cerebellar ataxia received 10 protocolized gait adaptability training sessions of 1 h each during 5 weeks. Training was performed on a treadmill with visual stepping targets and obstacles projected on the belt's surface. As the primary outcome, we used an obstacle avoidance task while walking on a treadmill. We determined avoidance success rates, as well as dynamic stability during the avoidance manoeuvre. Clinical ratings included the scale for the assessment of ataxia (SARA), 10 m walking test, timed up-and-go test, berg balance scale, and the obstacle subtask of the emory functional ambulation profile (EFAP). Following the intervention, success rates on the obstacle avoidance task had significantly improved compared to pre-intervention. For successful avoidance, participants allowed themselves smaller stability margins in the sagittal plane in the (shortened) pre-crossing step. However, in the subsequent steps they returned to baseline stability values more effectively than before training. SARA scores and the EFAP obstacle subtask improved significantly as well. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence of a beneficial effect of gait adaptability training on obstacle avoidance capacity and dynamic stability in patients with cerebellar degeneration. PMID:24786476

  11. MUSCLE FIBER SPECIFIC ANTIOXIDATIVE SYSTEM ADAPTATION TO SWIM TRAINING IN RATS: INFLUENCE OF INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA

    Olga Gonchar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of intermittent hypoxia at rest and in combination with long-term high-intensity swimming exercise on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system adaptation in skeletal muscles differing in fiber type composition. High-intensity chronic exercise was performed as swimming training with load that corresponded to ~ 75 % VO2max (30 min·day-1, 5 days·wk-1, for 4 wk. Intermittent hypoxic training (IHT consisted of repeated episodes of hypoxia (12%O2, 15 min, interrupted by equal periods of recovery (5 sessions/day, for 2 wk. Sessions of IHT were used during the first two weeks and during the last two weeks of chronic exercise. Oxidative (red gastrocnemius and soleus, mix and glycolytic (white gastrocnemius muscles were sampled. Our results indicated that high-intensity swim training in combination with sessions of IHT induced more profound antioxidative adaptations in skeletal muscles than the exercise training only. This adaptation has muscle fiber type specificity and is reflected in significantly elevated superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in highly oxidative muscle only. Training adaptation of GSH system (reduced glutathione content, activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, NADPH-supplying enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase occurred both in slow- and fast-twitch muscles. However, this process was more effective in oxidative muscles. IHT attenuated the increase in TBARS content induced by high-intensity swimming training. The test on exercise tolerance demonstrated a significant elevation of the swimming time to exhaustion after IHT at rest and after IHT in conjunction with high-intensity exercise in comparison with untrained and chronically exercised rats. These results confirmed that sessions of IHT might improve exercise tolerance and increase maximal work capacity

  12. A continually online-trained neural network controller for brushless DC motor drives

    Rubaai, A.; Kotaru, R.; Kankam, M.D.

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, a high-performance controller with simultaneous online identification and control is designed for brushless dc motor drives. The dynamics of the motor/load are modeled online, and controlled using two different neural network based identification and control schemes, as the system is in operation. In the first scheme, an attempt is made to control the rotor angular speed, utilizing a single three-hidden-layer network. The second scheme attempts to control the stator currents, using a predetermined control law as a function of the estimated states. This schemes incorporates three multilayered feedforward neural networks that are online trained, using the Levenburg-Marquadt training algorithm. The control of the direct and quadrature components of the stator current successfully tracked a wide variety of trajectories after relatively short online training periods. The control strategy adapts to the uncertainties of the motor/load dynamics and, in addition, learns their inherent nonlinearities. Simulation results illustrated that a neurocontroller used in conjunction with adaptive control schemes can result in a flexible control device which may be utilized in a wide range of environments.

  13. High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the proposed project is the development of High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) systems to drive plant growth. Solar...

  14. Integrated Damage-Adaptive Control System (IDACS) Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI, in collaboration with Boeing Phantom Works, proposes to develop and test an efficient Integrated Damage Adaptive Control System (IDACS). The proposed system...

  15. $l^p$ Gain Bounds for Switched Adaptive Controllers

    French, Mark; Trenn, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    A class of discrete plants controlled by a switching adaptive strategy is considered, and $l^p$ bounds, $1 \\le p \\le \\infty$, are obtained for the closed loop gain relating input and output disturbances to internal signals.

  16. High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project is the continued development of the High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) system. Solar radiation is not a viable...

  17. Fault Adaptive Control of Overactuated Systems Using Prognostic Estimation

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Most fault adaptive control research addresses the preservation of system stability or functionality in the presence of a specific failure (fault). This paper...

  18. Integrated Damage-Adaptive Control System (IDACS) Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI proposes to further develop, implement and test the damage-adaptive control algorithms developed in Phase I within the framework of an Integrated Damage...

  19. Bi-Objective Optimal Control Modification Adaptive Control for Systems with Input Uncertainty

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new model-reference adaptive control method based on a bi-objective optimal control formulation for systems with input uncertainty. A parallel predictor model is constructed to relate the predictor error to the estimation error of the control effectiveness matrix. In this work, we develop an optimal control modification adaptive control approach that seeks to minimize a bi-objective linear quadratic cost function of both the tracking error norm and predictor error norm simultaneously. The resulting adaptive laws for the parametric uncertainty and control effectiveness uncertainty are dependent on both the tracking error and predictor error, while the adaptive laws for the feedback gain and command feedforward gain are only dependent on the tracking error. The optimal control modification term provides robustness to the adaptive laws naturally from the optimal control framework. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive control approach.

  20. Modeling and simulation for train control system using cellular automata

    LI; KePing; GAO; ZiYou; YANG; LiXing

    2007-01-01

    Train control system plays a key role in railway traffic. Its function is to manage and control the train movement on railway networks. In our previous works, based on the cellular automata (CA) model, we proposed several models and algorithms for simulating the train movement under different control system conditions. However, these models are only suitable for some simple traffic conditions. Some basic factors, which are important for train movement, are not considered. In this paper, we extend these models and algorithms and give a unified formula. Using the proposed method, we analyze and discuss the space-time diagram of railway traffic flow and the trajectories of the train movement. The numerical simulation and analytical results demonstrate that the unified CA model is an effective tool for simulating the train control system.

  1. Controling contagious processes on temporal networks via adaptive rewiring

    Belik, Vitaly; Hövel, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    We consider recurrent contagious processes on a time-varying network. As a control procedure to mitigate the epidemic, we propose an adaptive rewiring mechanism for temporary isolation of infected nodes upon their detection. As a case study, we investigate the network of pig trade in Germany. Based on extensive numerical simulations for a wide range of parameters, we demonstrate that the adaptation mechanism leads to a significant extension of the parameter range, for which most of the index nodes (origins of the epidemic) lead to vanishing epidemics. We find that diseases with detection times around a week and infectious periods up to 3 months can be effectively controlled. Furthermore the performance of adaptation is very heterogeneous with respect to the index node. We identify index nodes that are most responsive to the adaptation strategy and quantify the success of the proposed adaptation scheme in dependence on the infectious period and detection times.

  2. Adaptive Non-linear Control of Hydraulic Actuator Systems

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Conrad, Finn

    Presentation of two new developed adaptive non-liner controllers for hydraulic actuator systems to give stable operation and improved performance.Results from the IMCIA project supported by the Danish Technical Research Council (STVF).......Presentation of two new developed adaptive non-liner controllers for hydraulic actuator systems to give stable operation and improved performance.Results from the IMCIA project supported by the Danish Technical Research Council (STVF)....

  3. Adaptive Fuzzy-Lyapunov Controller Using Biologically Inspired Swarm Intelligence

    Alejandro Carrasco Elizalde; Peter Goldsmith

    2008-01-01

    The collective behaviour of swarms produces smarter actions than those achieved by a single individual. Colonies of ants, flocks of birds and fish schools are examples of swarms interacting with their environment to achieve a common goal. This cooperative biological intelligence is the inspiration for an adaptive fuzzy controller developed in this paper. Swarm intelligence is used to adjust the parameters of the membership functions used in the adaptive fuzzy controller. The rules of the cont...

  4. Adaptive Non-linear Control of Hydraulic Actuator Systems

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Conrad, Finn

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of two new developed adaptive non-liner controllers for hydraulic actuator systems to give stable operation and improved performance.Results from the IMCIA project supported by the Danish Technical Research Council (STVF).......Presentation of two new developed adaptive non-liner controllers for hydraulic actuator systems to give stable operation and improved performance.Results from the IMCIA project supported by the Danish Technical Research Council (STVF)....

  5. Scalable Harmonization of Complex Networks With Local Adaptive Controllers

    Kárný, Miroslav; Herzallah, R.

    -, - (2016). ISSN 2168-2216 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13502S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Adaptive control * Adaptive estimation * Bayes methods * Complex networks * Decentralized control * Feedback * Feedforward systems * Recursive estimation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.699, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/AS/karny-0457337.pdf

  6. Gait Adaptability Training Improves Both Postural Stability and Dual-Tasking Ability

    Brady, Rachel A.; Batson, Crystal D.; Peters, Brian T.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    After spaceflight, the process of readapting to Earth's gravity commonly presents crewmembers with a variety of locomotor challenges. Our recent work has shown that the ability to adapt to a novel discordant sensorimotor environment can be increased through preflight training, so one focus of our laboratory has been the development of a gait training countermeasure to expedite the return of normal locomotor function after spaceflight. We used a training system comprising a treadmill mounted on a motion base facing a virtual visual scene that provided a variety of sensory challenges. As part of their participation in a larger retention study, 10 healthy adults completed 3 training sessions during which they walked on a treadmill at 1.1 m/s while receiving discordant support-surface and visual manipulations. After a single training session, subjects stride frequencies improved, and after 2 training sessions their auditory reaction times improved, where improvement was indicated by a return toward baseline values. Interestingly, improvements in reaction time came after stride frequency improvements plateaued. This finding suggests that postural stability was given a higher priority than a competing cognitive task. Further, it demonstrates that improvement in both postural stability and dual-tasking can be achieved with multiple training exposures. We conclude that, with training, individuals become more proficient at walking in discordant sensorimotor conditions and are able to devote more attention to competing tasks.

  7. SEVERE OBESITY SHIFTS METABOLIC THRESHOLDS BUT DOES NOT ATTENUATE AEROBIC TRAINING ADAPTATIONS IN ZUCKER RATS

    Thiago Santos Rosa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Severe obesity affects metabolism with potential to influence the lactate and glycemic response to different exercise intensities in untrained and trained rats. Here we evaluated metabolic thresholds and maximal aerobic capacity in rats with severe obesity and lean counterparts at pre- and post-training. Zucker rats (obese: n = 10, lean: n = 10 were submitted to constant treadmill bouts, to determine the maximal lactate steady state, and an incremental treadmill test, to determine the lactate threshold, glycemic threshold and maximal velocity at pre and post 8 weeks of treadmill training. Velocities of the lactate threshold and glycemic threshold agreed with the maximal lactate steady state velocity on most comparisons. The maximal lactate steady state velocity occurred at higher percentage of the maximal velocity in Zucker rats at pre-training than the percentage commonly reported and used for training prescription for other rat strains (i.e., 60% (obese = 78±9% and lean = 68±5%, P 0.05, whereas increase in maximal velocity was greater in the obese group (P <0.05 vs. lean. In conclusion, lactate threshold, glycemic threshold and maximal lactate steady state occurred at similar exercise intensity in Zucker rats at pre- and post-training. Severe obesity shifted metabolic thresholds to higher exercise intensity at pre-training, but did not attenuate submaximal and maximal aerobic training adaptations.

  8. Adaptive control with an expert system based supervisory level. Thesis

    Sullivan, Gerald A.

    1991-01-01

    Adaptive control is presently one of the methods available which may be used to control plants with poorly modelled dynamics or time varying dynamics. Although many variations of adaptive controllers exist, a common characteristic of all adaptive control schemes, is that input/output measurements from the plant are used to adjust a control law in an on-line fashion. Ideally the adjustment mechanism of the adaptive controller is able to learn enough about the dynamics of the plant from input/output measurements to effectively control the plant. In practice, problems such as measurement noise, controller saturation, and incorrect model order, to name a few, may prevent proper adjustment of the controller and poor performance or instability result. In this work we set out to avoid the inadequacies of procedurally implemented safety nets, by introducing a two level control scheme in which an expert system based 'supervisor' at the upper level provides all the safety net functions for an adaptive controller at the lower level. The expert system is based on a shell called IPEX, (Interactive Process EXpert), that we developed specifically for the diagnosis and treatment of dynamic systems. Some of the more important functions that the IPEX system provides are: (1) temporal reasoning; (2) planning of diagnostic activities; and (3) interactive diagnosis. Also, because knowledge and control logic are separate, the incorporation of new diagnostic and treatment knowledge is relatively simple. We note that the flexibility available in the system to express diagnostic and treatment knowledge, allows much greater functionality than could ever be reasonably expected from procedural implementations of safety nets. The remainder of this chapter is divided into three sections. In section 1.1 we give a detailed review of the literature in the area of supervisory systems for adaptive controllers. In particular, we describe the evolution of safety nets from simple ad hoc techniques, up

  9. Adaptive Attitude Control of the Crew Launch Vehicle

    Muse, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    An H(sub infinity)-NMA architecture for the Crew Launch Vehicle was developed in a state feedback setting. The minimal complexity adaptive law was shown to improve base line performance relative to a performance metric based on Crew Launch Vehicle design requirements for all most all of the Worst-on-Worst dispersion cases. The adaptive law was able to maintain stability for some dispersions that are unstable with the nominal control law. Due to the nature of the H(sub infinity)-NMA architecture, the augmented adaptive control signal has low bandwidth which is a great benefit for a manned launch vehicle.

  10. Synchronization of general complex networks via adaptive control schemes

    Ping He; Chun-Guo Jing; Chang-Zhong Chen; Tao Fan; Hassan Saberi Nik

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, the synchronization problem of general complex networks is investigated by using adaptive control schemes. Time-delay coupling, derivative coupling, nonlinear coupling etc. exist universally in real-world complex networks. The adaptive synchronization scheme is designed for the complex network with multiple class of coupling terms. A criterion guaranteeing synchronization of such complex networks is established by employing the Lyapunov stability theorem and adaptive control schemes. Finally, an illustrative example with numerical simulation is given to show the feasibility and efficiency of theoretical results.

  11. Adaptive Generalized Predictive Control for Mechatronic Systems

    Belda, Květoslav; Böhm, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 8 (2006), s. 1830-1837. ISSN 1109-2777 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP102/06/P275; GA ČR GA102/05/0271 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : on-line identification * predictive control * input/output equations of predictions * real-time control Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/belda-0040149.pdf

  12. Adaptive fuzzy logic control for solar buildings

    El-Deen, M. M. G. Naser

    2002-01-01

    Significant progress has been made on maximising passive solar heating loads through the careful selection of glazing, orientation and internal mass within building spaces. Control of space heating in buildings of this type has become a complex problem. Additionally, and in common with most building control applications, there is a need to develop control solutions that permit simple and transparent set up and commissioning procedures. This work concerns the development and testing of an adap...

  13. Human Adaptation to the Control of Fire

    Wrangham, Richard W.; Carmody, Rachel Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Charles Darwin attributed human evolutionary success to three traits. Our social habits and anatomy were important, he said, but the critical feature was our intelligence, because it led to so much else, including such traits as language, weapons, tools, boats, and the control of fire. Among these, he opined, the control of fire was “probably the greatest ever [discovery] made by man, excepting language.” Despite this early suggestion that the control of fire was even more important than tool...

  14. Robust adaptive fuzzy control scheme for nonlinear system with uncertainty

    Mingjun ZHANG; Huaguang ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a robust adaptive fuzzy control scheme for a class of nonlinear system with uncertainty is proposed. First, using prior knowledge about the plant we obtain a fuzzy model, which is called the generalized fuzzy hyperbolic model (GFHM). Secondly, for the case that the states of the system are not available an observer is designed and a robust adaptive fuzzy output feedback control scheme is developed. The overall control system guarantees that the tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of origin and that all signals involved are uniformly bounded. The main advantages of the proposed control scheme are that the human knowledge about the plant under control can be used to design the controller and only one parameter in the adaptive mechanism needs to be on-line adjusted.

  15. Adaptive process control using fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms

    Karr, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GA's) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's). GA's are search algorithms that rapidly locate near-optimum solutions to a wide spectrum of problems by modeling the search procedures of natural genetics. FLC's are rule based systems that efficiently manipulate a problem environment by modeling the 'rule-of-thumb' strategy used in human decision making. Together, GA's and FLC's possess the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a control element to manipulate the problem environment, and a learning element to adjust to the changes in the problem environment. Details of an overall adaptive control system are discussed. A specific laboratory acid-base pH system is used to demonstrate the ideas presented.

  16. Adaptive Process Control with Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithms

    Karr, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GA's) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's). GA's are search algorithms that rapidly locate near-optimum solutions to a wide spectrum of problems by modeling the search procedures of natural genetics. FLC's are rule based systems that efficiently manipulate a problem environment by modeling the 'rule-of-thumb' strategy used in human decision-making. Together, GA's and FLC's possess the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a control element to manipulate the problem environment, an analysis element to recognize changes in the problem environment, and a learning element to adjust to the changes in the problem environment. Details of an overall adaptive control system are discussed. A specific laboratory acid-base pH system is used to demonstrate the ideas presented.

  17. Energy-optimal control model for train movements

    Li Ke-Ping; Gao Zi-You; Mao Bao-Hua

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new cellular automaton (CA) model for train movement simulations under mixed traffic conditions. A kind of control strategy is employed for trains to reduce energy consumption. In the proposed CA model, the driver controls the train movements by using some updated rules. In order to obtain a good insight into the evolution behaviours of the rail traffic flow, we investigate the space-time diagram of the rail traffic flow and the trajectories of the train movements. The numerical simulation results demonstrate that the proposed CA model can well describe the dynamic behaviours of the train movements. Some complex phenomena of train movements can be reproduced, such as the train delay propagations, etc.

  18. Differential Effects of Military Training on Fat-Free Mass and Plasma Amino Acid Adaptations in Men and Women

    McClung, James P.; Lee M. Margolis; Williams, Kelly W; Young, Andrew J.; J. Philip Karl; Rood, Jennifer C.; Cable, Sonya J; Pasiakos, Stefan M.

    2012-01-01

    Fat-free mass (FFM) adaptations to physical training may differ between sexes based on disparities in fitness level, dietary intake, and levels of plasma amino acids (AA). This investigation aimed to determine FFM and plasma AA responses to military training, examine whether adaptations differ between male and female recruits, and explore potential associations between FFM and AA responses to training. Body composition and plasma AA levels were assessed in US Army recruits (n = 209, 118 males...

  19. 12 CFR 1731.5 - Internal controls, procedures, and training.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal controls, procedures, and training. 1731.5 Section 1731.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS MORTGAGE FRAUD REPORTING § 1731.5 Internal controls, procedures, and training. An Enterprise...

  20. 78 FR 11236 - Positive Train Control Public Forum

    2013-02-15

    ... SAFETY BOARD Positive Train Control Public Forum On Wednesday, February 27, 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a Forum titled, ``Positive Train Control: Is it on Track?'' The Forum will begin at 9:00 a.m. is open to all and the attendance is free (no registration required)....

  1. High-performance adaptive intelligent Direct Torque Control schemes for induction motor drives

    Vasudevan M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed comparison between viable adaptive intelligent torque control strategies of induction motor, emphasizing advantages and disadvantages. The scope of this paper is to choose an adaptive intelligent controller for induction motor drive proposed for high performance applications. Induction motors are characterized by complex, highly non-linear, time varying dynamics, inaccessibility of some states and output for measurements and hence can be considered as a challenging engineering problem. The advent of torque and flux control techniques have partially solved induction motor control problems, because they are sensitive to drive parameter variations and performance may deteriorate if conventional controllers are used. Intelligent controllers are considered as potential candidates for such an application. In this paper, the performance of the various sensor less intelligent Direct Torque Control (DTC techniques of Induction motor such as neural network, fuzzy and genetic algorithm based torque controllers are evaluated. Adaptive intelligent techniques are applied to achieve high performance decoupled flux and torque control. This paper contributes: i Development of Neural network algorithm for state selection in DTC; ii Development of new algorithm for state selection using Genetic algorithm principle; and iii Development of Fuzzy based DTC. Simulations have been performed using the trained state selector neural network instead of conventional DTC and Fuzzy controller instead of conventional DTC controller. The results show agreement with those of the conventional DTC.

  2. An adaptive learning control system for aircraft

    Mekel, R.; Nachmias, S.

    1978-01-01

    A learning control system and its utilization as a flight control system for F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) research aircraft is studied. The system has the ability to adjust a gain schedule to account for changing plant characteristics and to improve its performance and the plant's performance in the course of its own operation. Three subsystems are detailed: (1) the information acquisition subsystem which identifies the plant's parameters at a given operating condition; (2) the learning algorithm subsystem which relates the identified parameters to predetermined analytical expressions describing the behavior of the parameters over a range of operating conditions; and (3) the memory and control process subsystem which consists of the collection of updated coefficients (memory) and the derived control laws. Simulation experiments indicate that the learning control system is effective in compensating for parameter variations caused by changes in flight conditions.

  3. Game-based training environment for nuclear plant control room

    Nuclear power plant's safety is very important problem. In this very conscientious environment if operator has a little mistake, they may threaten with many people influence their safety. Therefore, operating training of control room is very important. However, the operator training is in limited space and time. Each operator must go to simulative control room do some training. If we can let each trainee having more time to do training and does not go to simulative control room. It may have some advantages for trainee. Moreover, in the traditional training ways, each operator may through the video, teaching manual or through the experienced instructor to learn the knowledge. This training way may let operator feel bored and stressful. So, in this paper aims, we hope utilizing virtual reality technology developing a game-based virtual training environment of control room. Finally, we will use presence questionnaire evaluating realism and feasibility of our virtual training environment. Expecting this initial concept of game-based virtual training environment can attract trainees having more learning motivation to do training in off-hour. (author)

  4. Backstepping design of missile guidance and control based on adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control

    Ran Maopeng; Wang Qing; Hou Delong; Dong Chaoyang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated missile guidance and control law based on adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control. The integrated model is formulated as a block-strict-feedback nonlinear system, in which modeling errors, unmodeled nonlinearities, target maneuvers, etc. are viewed as unknown uncertainties. The adaptive nonlinear control law is designed based on backstepping and sliding mode control techniques. An adaptive fuzzy system is adopted to approximate the coupling nonlinear functions of...

  5. Long-term fat diet adaptation effects on performance, training capacity, and fat utilization

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2002-01-01

    performance enhancement after long-term fat-rich diet adaptation. Attainment of optimal performance is among other factors dependent also on the quality and quantity of the training performed. When exercise intensity is increased, there is an increased need for carbohydrates. On the other hand, consumption of......It is well known that adaptation to a fat-rich carbohydrate-poor diet results in lower resting muscle glycogen content and a higher rate of fat oxidation during exercise when compared with a carbohydrate-rich diet. The net effect of such an adaptation could potentially be a sparing of muscle...... glycogen, and because muscle glycogen storage is coupled to endurance performance, it is possible that adaptation to a high-fat diet potentially could enhance endurance performance. Therefore, the first issue in this review is to critically evaluate the available evidence for a potential endurance...

  6. Robust adaptive control for interval time-delay systems

    Yizhong WANG; Huaguang ZHANG; Jun YANG

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the robust adaptive control problems for a class of interval time-delay systems and a class of large-scale interconnected systems. The nonlinear uncertainties of the systems under study are bounded by high-order polynomial functions with unknown gains. Firstly, the adaptive feedback controller which can guarantee the stability of the closed-loop system in the sense of uniform ultimate boundedness is proposed. Then the proposed adaptive idea is extended to robust stabilizing designing method for a class of large-scale interconnected systems. Here, another problem we address is to design a decentralized feedback adaptive controller such that the closed-loop system is stable in the sense of uniform ultimate boundedness for all admissible uncertainties and time-delay. Finally, an illustrative example is given to show the validity of the proposed approach.

  7. Merging of Multistep Predictors for Decentralized Adaptive Control

    Šmídl, Václav; Andrýsek, Josef

    Seattle : IEEE, 2008, s. 3414-3415. ISBN 978-1-4244-2078-0. [American Control Conference. Seattle (US), 11.06.2008-13.06.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GP102/08/P250 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : adaptive control * decentralised control * probability Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/AS/smidl-merging of multistep predictors for decentralized adaptive.pdf

  8. Frequency Response Adaptive Control of a Refrigeration Cycle

    Jens G. Balchen

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A technique for the adaptation of controller parameters in a single control loop based upon the estimation of frequency response parameters has been presented in an earlier paper. This paper contains an extension and a generalization of the first method and results in a more versatile solution which is applicable to a wider range of process characteristics. The application of this adaptive control technique is illustrated by a laboratory refrigeration cycle in which the evaporator pressure controls the speed of the compressor.

  9. Adaptive control strategies for a class of nonlinear propagation bioprocesses

    This paper presents the control problem of a class of propagation bio-processes that are carried out in fixed bed reactors. Since the dynamics of these processes are described by partial differential equations, in order to obtain useful models for control purposes, a possible method consists of approximation of their infinitely order associated models by finite order models. A class of nonlinear adaptive controllers are then designed based on these finite order models, which consist of a set of ordinary differential equations obtained here by orthogonal collocation method. Computer simulations conducted in the case of a fixed bed reactor are included to illustrate the performances of the proposed adaptive controllers. (authors)

  10. Adaptive Backstepping Control of Lightweight Tower Wind Turbine

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Borup, Kasper Trolle; Niemann, Hans Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of operating a wind turbine with lightweight tower in the full load region exploiting an adaptive nonlinear controller that allows the turbine to dynamically lean against the wind while maintaining nominal power output. The use of lightweight structures for...... towers and foundations would greatly reduce the construction cost of the wind turbine, however extra features ought be included in the control system architecture to avoid tower collapse. An adaptive backstepping collective pitch controller is proposed for tower point tracking control, i.e. to modify the...

  11. Dynamic multimedia stream adaptation and rate control for heterogeneous networks

    SZWABE Andrzej; SCHORR Andreas; HAUCK Franz J.; KASSLER Andreas J.

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic adaptation of multimedia content is seen as an important feature of next generation networks and pervasive systems enabling terminals and applications to adapt to changes in e.g. context, access network, and available Quality-of-Service(QoS) due to mobility of users, devices or sessions. We present the architecture of a multimedia stream adaptation service which enables communication between terminals having heterogeneous hardware and software capabilities and served by heterogeneous networks. The service runs on special content adaptation nodes which can be placed at any location within the network. The flexible structure of our architecture allows using a variety of different adaptation engines. A generic transcoding engine is used to change the codec of streams. An MPEG-21 Digital Item Adaptation (DIA) based transformation engine allows adjusting the data rate of scalable media streams. An intelligent decision-taking engine implements adaptive flow control which takes into account current network QoS parameters and congestion information. Measurements demonstrate the quality gains achieved through adaptive congestion control mechanisms under conditions typical for a heterogeneous network.

  12. Qualified operator training in the simulated control room environment

    Full text: Mainly designed for the training of the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 operators, the virtual simulated environment allows the training of the already qualified operators for Cernavoda NPP Unit 1, adding to the already trained knowledge, the differences which has occurred in the Unit 2 design. Using state-of-the-art computers and displays and qualified software, the virtual simulated panels could offer a viable alternative to classic hardware-based training. This approach allows quick training of the new procedures required by the new configuration of the re-designed operator panels in the main control room of Cernavoda NPP Unit 2. (authors)

  13. Online Adaptive Error Compensation SVM-Based Sliding Mode Control of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Kaijia Xue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV is a nonlinear dynamic system with uncertainties and noises. Therefore, an appropriate control system has an obligation to ensure the stabilization and navigation of UAV. This paper mainly discusses the control problem of quad-rotor UAV system, which is influenced by unknown parameters and noises. Besides, a sliding mode control based on online adaptive error compensation support vector machine (SVM is proposed for stabilizing quad-rotor UAV system. Sliding mode controller is established through analyzing quad-rotor dynamics model in which the unknown parameters are computed by offline SVM. During this process, the online adaptive error compensation SVM method is applied in this paper. As modeling errors and noises both exist in the process of flight, the offline SVM one-time mode cannot predict the uncertainties and noises accurately. The control law is adjusted in real-time by introducing new training sample data to online adaptive SVM in the control process, so that the stability and robustness of flight are ensured. It can be demonstrated through the simulation experiments that the UAV that joined online adaptive SVM can track the changing path faster according to its dynamic model. Consequently, the proposed method that is proved has the better control effect in the UAV system.

  14. Decentralized adaptive control of manipulators - Theory, simulation, and experimentation

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a simple decentralized adaptive-control scheme for multijoint robot manipulators based on the independent joint control concept. The control objective is to achieve accurate tracking of desired joint trajectories. The proposed control scheme does not use the complex manipulator dynamic model, and each joint is controlled simply by a PID (proportional-integral-derivative) feedback controller and a position-velocity-acceleration feedforward controller, both with adjustable gains. Simulation results are given for a two-link direct-drive manipulator under adaptive independent joint control. The results illustrate trajectory tracking under coupled dynamics and varying payload. The proposed scheme is implemented on a MicroVAX II computer for motion control of the three major joints of a PUMA 560 arm. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate that trajectory tracking is achieved despite coupled nonlinear joint dynamics.

  15. Adaptive predictive control for simple mechatronic systems

    Belda, Květoslav; Böhm, Josef

    Athens: WSEAS, 2006 - (Bardis, N.; Mladenov, V.), s. 307-312 ISBN 960-8457-47-5. [WSEAS International Conference on System. Athens (GR), 10.07.2006-12.07.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP102/06/P275; GA ČR GA102/05/0271 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : on-line identification * predictive control * input/output equations of predictions * real time control Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/belda-0040145.pdf

  16. Robust adaptive control of nonlinearly parameterized systems with unmodeled dynamics

    LIU Yu-sheng; CHEN Jiang; LI Xing-yuan

    2006-01-01

    Many physical systems such as biochemical processes and machines with friction are of nonlinearly parameterized systems with uncertainties.How to control such systems effectively is one of the most challenging problems.This paper presents a robust adaptive controller for a significant class of nonlinearly parameterized systems.The controller can be used in cases where there exist parameter and nonlinear uncertainties,unmodeled dynamics and unknown bounded disturbances.The design of the controller is based on the control Lyapunov function method.A dynamic signal is introduced and adaptive nonlinear damping terms are used to restrain the effects of unmodeled dynamics,nonlinear uncertainties and unknown bounded disturbances.The backstepping procedure is employed to overcome the complexity in the design.With the proposed method,the estimation of the unknown parameters of the system is not required and there is only one adaptive parameter no matter how high the order of the system is and how many unknown parameters.there are.It is proved theoretically that the proposed robust adaptive control scheme guarantees the stability of nonlinearly parameterized system.Furthermore,all the states approach the equilibrium in arbitrary precision by choosing some design constants appropriately.Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed robust adaptive controller.

  17. Adaptive Feedfoward Feedback Control Framework Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel approach is proposed for the suppression of the aircraft's structural vibration to increase the resilience of the flight control law in the presence of the...

  18. Identification and dual adaptive control of a turbojet engine

    Merrill, W.; Leininger, G.

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to utilize the design methods of modern control theory to realize a 'dual-adaptive' feedback control unit for a highly non-linear single spool airbreathing turbojet engine. Using a very detailed and accurate simulation of the non-linear engine as the data source, linear operating point models of unspecified dimension are identified. Feedback control laws are designed at each operating point for a prespecified set of sampling rates using sampled-data output regulator theory. The control system sampling rate is determined by an adaptive sampling algorithm in correspondence with turbojet engine performance. The result is a 'dual-adpative' control law that is functionally dependent upon the sampling rate selected and environmental operating conditions. Simulation transients demonstrate the utility of the dual-adaptive design to improve on-board computer utilization while maintaining acceptable levels of engine performance.

  19. An integrated approach to modeling and adaptive control

    HAN Zhi-gang

    2006-01-01

    In the book (Adaptive Identification,Prediction and Control-Multi Level Recursive Approach), the concept of dynamical linearization of nonlinear systems has been presented.This dynamical linearization is formal only,not a real linearization.From the linearization procedure,we can find a new approach of system identification,which is on-line real-time modeling and real-time feedback control correction.The modeling and real-time feedback control have been integrated in the identification approach,with the parameter adaptation model being abandoned.The structure adaptation of control systems has been achieved,which avoids the complex modeling steps.The objective of this paper is to introduce the approach of integrated modeling and control.

  20. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller of switched reluctance motor

    Tahour Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS control for switched reluctance motor (SRM speed. The ANFIS has the advantages of expert knowledge of the fuzzy inference system and the learning capability of neural networks. An adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller of the motor speed is then designed and simulated. Digital simulation results show that the designed ANFIS speed controller realizes a good dynamic behaviour of the motor, a perfect speed tracking with no overshoot and a good rejection of impact loads disturbance. The results of applying the adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller to a SRM give better performance and high robustness than those obtained by the application of a conventional controller (PI.

  1. Control Reallocation Strategies for Damage Adaptation in Transport Class Aircraft

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Krishnakumar, K.; Limes, Greg; Bryant, Don

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the feasibility, potential benefits and implementation issues associated with retrofitting a neural-adaptive flight control system (NFCS) to existing transport aircraft, including both cable/hydraulic and fly-by-wire configurations. NFCS uses a neural network based direct adaptive control approach for applying alternate sources of control authority in the presence of damage or failures in order to achieve desired flight control performance. Neural networks are used to provide consistent handling qualities across flight conditions, adapt to changes in aircraft dynamics and to make the controller easy to apply when implemented on different aircraft. Full-motion piloted simulation studies were performed on two different transport models: the Boeing 747-400 and the Boeing C-17. Subjects included NASA, Air Force and commercial airline pilots. Results demonstrate the potential for improving handing qualities and significantly increased survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

  2. Nonlinear Adaptive Robust Force Control of Hydraulic Load Simulator

    YAO Jianyong; JIAO Zongxia; YAO Bin; SHANG Yaoxing; DONG Wenbin

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the high performance force control of hydraulic load samulator.Many prevtous works for hydraultc force control are based on their linearization equations,but hydraulic inherent nonlinear properties and uncertainties make the conventional feedback proportional-integral-derivative control not yield to high-performance requirements.In this paper,a nonlinear system model is derived and linear parameterization is made for adaptive control.Then a discontinuous projection-based nonlinear adaptive robust force controller is developed for hydraulic load simulator.The proposed controller constructs an asymptotically stable adaptive controller and adaptation laws,which can compensate for the system nonlinearities and uncertain parameters.Meanwhile a well-designed robust controller is also developed to cope with the hydraulic system uncertain nonlinearities.The controller achieves a guaranteed transient performance and final tracking accuracy in the presence of both parametric uncertainties and uncertain nonlinearities; in the absence of uncertain nonlinearities,the scheme also achieves asymptotic tracking performance.Simulation and experiment comparative results are obtained to verify the high-performance nature of the proposed control strategy and the tracking accuracy is greatly improved.

  3. Design of an adaptable nonlinear controller

    The study of the behavior of a nuclear reactor is of great importance as it allows to know a priori the conditions at which a reactor is submitted. In the sareactor are the design and simulation of control algorithms based on the theories of modern control with the objective of improving improving the performance criterions as well as to guarantee the the stability of the retrofitting system. (author)

  4. ADAPTIVE CHANGES OF MYOSIN ISOFORMS IN RESPONSE TO LONG-TERM STRENGTH AND POWER TRAINING IN MIDDLE-AGED MEN

    Raivo Puhke

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the adaptive changes in myosin heavy chain (MHC and light chain (MLC isoforms in human vastus lateralis muscle caused by long-term strength and power training (54 weeks, approximately 3 times a week in untrained middle- aged men (16 in the training and 6 in the control group. Muscular MHC and MLC isoforms were determined by means of SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. During the training period, maximal anaerobic cycling power increased by 64 W (p < 0.001 and the maximal jumping height by 1.5 cm (p < 0. 05 in the training group, but no significant changes were found in the control group. However, the group by time effect was not significant. In the training group, the increase of the maximal jumping height correlated with the number of strength and power training sessions (r = 0.56; p < 0.05. The change of the proportion of MHC IIa isoform from 52.6 ± 12.2% to 59.4 ± 11.6% did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.070 for group by time; within training group p = 0.061 and neither did the change of the proportion of MHC IIx isoform from 18.1 ± 11.4% to 11.1 ± 9.1% (p = 0.104 for group by time; within training group p=0.032. The degree of change of MHC IIx isoform correlated with the amount of earlier recreational sports activity (r = 0.61; p < 0.05. In the training group, the changes of MLC1s isoform correlated negatively with the changes of MLC1f isoform (r = -0. 79; p < 0.05 as well as with the changes in maximal anaerobic cycling power (r = -0.81; p < 0.05, and positively with those of MHC I isoform (r = 0.81; p < 0.05. In conclusion, the long- term strength and power training ~3 times a week seemed to have only slight effects on fast MHC isoforms in the vastus lateralis muscle of untrained middle-aged men; the proportion of MHC IIa tended to increase and that of MHC IIx tended to decrease. No changes in MLC isoform profile could be shown

  5. Integration of Online Parameter Identification and Neural Network for In-Flight Adaptive Control

    Hageman, Jacob J.; Smith, Mark S.; Stachowiak, Susan

    2003-01-01

    An indirect adaptive system has been constructed for robust control of an aircraft with uncertain aerodynamic characteristics. This system consists of a multilayer perceptron pre-trained neural network, online stability and control derivative identification, a dynamic cell structure online learning neural network, and a model following control system based on the stochastic optimal feedforward and feedback technique. The pre-trained neural network and model following control system have been flight-tested, but the online parameter identification and online learning neural network are new additions used for in-flight adaptation of the control system model. A description of the modification and integration of these two stand-alone software packages into the complete system in preparation for initial flight tests is presented. Open-loop results using both simulation and flight data, as well as closed-loop performance of the complete system in a nonlinear, six-degree-of-freedom, flight validated simulation, are analyzed. Results show that this online learning system, in contrast to the nonlearning system, has the ability to adapt to changes in aerodynamic characteristics in a real-time, closed-loop, piloted simulation, resulting in improved flying qualities.

  6. Exercise training improves fasting glucose control

    Lewis N

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lynda Norton,1 Kevin Norton,2 Nicole Lewis21School of Medicine, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia; 2School of Health Science, University of South Australia, Adelaide, AustraliaPurpose: Numerous studies have measured changes in fasting blood glucose (FBG levels in response to physical activity (PA interventions. While studies involving clinical populations such as type 2 diabetics typically report significant reductions, most others report no change in FBG. This study investigated changes in FBG in apparently healthy adults following a PA intervention.Methods: We measured fingertip samples for FBG pre and post a 40-day PA program in 575 insufficiently active adults. The PA goal was at least 30 minutes of moderate exercise daily, and there was 73% compliance.Results: A PA questionnaire showed the average level of activity was 69 ± 46 min/wk preintervention, and this increased to 635 ± 458 min/wk postintervention. When the change in FBG was regressed against baseline FBG levels, there was a significant negative relationship (y = 2.623 – 0.471 × x; r = 0.472; P < 0.0001. The regression line showed, on average, subjects with low pre-study glucose levels had increased FBG while those with high levels had reductions in FBG.Conclusion: It appears that the body's response to PA training is to upregulate glucose control, which is reflected in tighter FBG levels around a physiological set point (5.6 mmol/L, in the present study. Regulation of blood glucose is a complex neuroendocrine process with numerous organs involved, but it was not possible in the present study to determine which of these regulatory steps are involved in exercise-induced changes of FBG.Keywords: physical activity, glucagon, insulin sensitivity

  7. Nonlinear self-training adaptive equalization for partial-response systems

    Cherubini, Giovanni

    1994-02-01

    In this paper we discuss a new self-training algorithm for adaptive equalization of multilevel partial-response class-4 (PRIV) systems. Adaptive distributed-arithmetic equalizers are considered, where the process of multiplying the tap signals with tap gains and summing the resulting products is replaced by a procedure involving only table look-up and shift-and-add operations. Classical self-training adaptation schemes for linear adaptive equalizers do not converge if applied to distributed-arithmetic equalizers, because of the inherent nonlinearity of the system during the adaptation process. Here we show that, by adopting a generalized stochastic gradient to adjust the look-up tables, the mean-square error converges to a value which depends on the system parameters. For practical system implementation, a two-step modified algorithm is proposed to closely approach in the steady state the minimum achievable mean-square error. Numerical results are presented for multilevel PRIV systems for high-rate data transmission over twisted-pair cables.

  8. N-acetyl-4-aminophenol and musculoskeletal adaptations to resistance exercise training

    Jankowski, Catherine M.; Gozansky, Wendolyn S.; MacLean, Paul S.; Shulman, Benjamin; Wolfe, Pamela; Schwartz, Robert S.; Kohrt, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (ACET) may impair musculoskeletal adaptations to progressive resistance exercise training (PRT) by inhibiting exercise-induced muscle protein synthesis and bone formation. To test the hypothesis that ACET would diminish training-induced increases in fat-free mass (FFM) and osteogenesis, untrained men (n = 26) aged ≥50 years participated in 16 weeks of high-intensity PRT and bone-loading exercises and were randomly assigned to take ACET (1,000 mg/day) or placebo (PLAC) 2...

  9. MUSCLE FIBER SPECIFIC ANTIOXIDATIVE SYSTEM ADAPTATION TO SWIM TRAINING IN RATS: INFLUENCE OF INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA

    Olga Gonchar

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of intermittent hypoxia at rest and in combination with long-term high-intensity swimming exercise on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system adaptation in skeletal muscles differing in fiber type composition. High-intensity chronic exercise was performed as swimming training with load that corresponded to ~ 75 % VO2max (30 min·day-1, 5 days·wk-1, for 4 wk). Intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) consisted of repeated episodes o...

  10. Mixture-based adaptive probabilistic control

    Kárný, Miroslav; Böhm, Josef; Guy, Tatiana Valentine; Nedoma, Petr

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2003), s. 119-132. ISSN 0890-6327 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/02/0204; GA ČR GA102/00/P045 Grant ostatní: ProDaCTool(XE) IST-1999-12058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : Bayesian identification * fully probabilistic control * finite mixtures Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.602, year: 2003 http://library.utia.cas.cz/prace/20030048.ps

  11. Neural and Fuzzy Adaptive Control of Induction Motor Drives

    This paper proposes an adaptive neural network speed control scheme for an induction motor (IM) drive. The proposed scheme consists of an adaptive neural network identifier (ANNI) and an adaptive neural network controller (ANNC). For learning the quoted neural networks, a back propagation algorithm was used to automatically adjust the weights of the ANNI and ANNC in order to minimize the performance functions. Here, the ANNI can quickly estimate the plant parameters and the ANNC is used to provide on-line identification of the command and to produce a control force, such that the motor speed can accurately track the reference command. By combining artificial neural network techniques with fuzzy logic concept, a neural and fuzzy adaptive control scheme is developed. Fuzzy logic was used for the adaptation of the neural controller to improve the robustness of the generated command. The developed method is robust to load torque disturbance and the speed target variations when it ensures precise trajectory tracking with the prescribed dynamics. The algorithm was verified by simulation and the results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the IM designed controller

  12. Adaptive controller design for feedrate maximization of machining process

    F. Cus

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: An adaptive control system is built which controlling the cutting force and maintaining constant roughness of the surface being milled by digital adaptation of cutting parameters.Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the use of combining the methods of neural networks, fuzzy logic and PSO evolutionary strategy (Particle Swarm Optimization in modeling and adaptively controlling the process of end milling. An overall approach of hybrid modeling of cutting process (ANfis-system, used for working out the CNC milling simulator has been prepared. The basic control design is based on the control scheme (UNKS consisting of two neural identificators of the process dynamics and primary regulator.Findings: The experimental results show that not only does the milling system with the design controller have high robustness, and global stability but also the machining efficiency of the milling system with the adaptive controller is much higher than for traditional CNC milling system. Experiments have confirmed efficiency of the adaptive control system, which is reflected in improved surface quality and decreased tool wear.Research limitations/implications: The proposed architecture for on-line determining of optimal cutting conditions is applied to ball-end milling in this paper, but it is obvious that the system can be extended to other machines to improve cutting efficiency.Practical implications: The results of experiments demonstrate the ability of the proposed system to effectively regulate peak cutting forces for cutting conditions commonly encountered in end milling operations. The high accuracy of results within a wide range of machining parameters indicates that the system can be practically applied in industry.Originality/value: By the hybrid process modeling and feed-forward neural control scheme (UNKS the combined system for off-line optimization and adaptive adjustment of cutting parameters is built.

  13. An Adaptive Multivariable Control System for Hydroelectric Generating Units

    Gunne J. Hegglid

    1983-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an adaptive multivariable control system for hydroelectric generating units. The system is based on a detailed mathematical model of the synchronous generator, the water turbine, the exiter system and turbine control servo. The models of the water penstock and the connected power system are static. These assumptions are not considered crucial. The system uses a Kalman filter for optimal estimation of the state variables and the parameters of the electric grid equivalent. The multivariable control law is computed from a Riccatti equation and is made adaptive to the generators running condition by means of a least square technique.

  14. A Decentralized Adaptive Approach to Fault Tolerant Flight Control

    Wu, N. Eva; Nikulin, Vladimir; Heimes, Felix; Shormin, Victor

    2000-01-01

    This paper briefly reports some results of our study on the application of a decentralized adaptive control approach to a 6 DOF nonlinear aircraft model. The simulation results showed the potential of using this approach to achieve fault tolerant control. Based on this observation and some analysis, the paper proposes a multiple channel adaptive control scheme that makes use of the functionally redundant actuating and sensing capabilities in the model, and explains how to implement the scheme to tolerate actuator and sensor failures. The conditions, under which the scheme is applicable, are stated in the paper.

  15. Dynamical singularities in adaptive delayed-feedback control.

    Saito, Asaki; Konishi, Keiji

    2011-09-01

    We demonstrate the dynamical characteristics of adaptive delayed-feedback control systems, exploiting a discrete-time adaptive control method derived for carrying out detailed analysis. In particular, the systems exhibit singularities such as power-law decay of the distribution of transient times and almost zero finite-time Lyapunov exponents. We can explain these results by characterizing such systems as having (1) a Jacobian matrix with unity eigenvalue in the whole phase space, and (2) parameters approaching a stability boundary proven to be identical with that of (nonadaptive) delayed-feedback control. PMID:22060398

  16. Adaptive Control of Truss Structures for Gossamer Spacecraft

    Yang, Bong-Jun; Calise, Anthony J.; Craig, James I.; Whorton, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    Neural network-based adaptive control is considered for active control of a highly flexible truss structure which may be used to support solar sail membranes. The objective is to suppress unwanted vibrations in SAFE (Solar Array Flight Experiment) boom, a test-bed located at NASA. Compared to previous tests that restrained truss structures in planar motion, full three dimensional motions are tested. Experimental results illustrate the potential of adaptive control in compensating for nonlinear actuation and modeling error, and in rejecting external disturbances.

  17. Adaptive Landing Gear: Optimum Control Strategy and Potential for Improvement

    Grzegorz Mikułowski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive landing gear is a landing gear (LG capable of active adaptation to particular landing conditions by means of controlled hydraulic force. The objective of the adaptive control is to mitigate the peak force transferred to the aircraft structure during touch-down, and thus to limit the structural fatigue factor. This paper investigates the ultimate limits for improvement due to various strategies of active control. Five strategies are proposed and investigated numerically using a~validated model of a real, passive landing gear as a reference. Potential for improvement is estimated statistically in terms of the mean and median (significant peak strut forces as well as in terms of the extended safe sinking velocity range. Three control strategies are verified experimentally using a laboratory test stand.

  18. Adaptive Fuzzy-Lyapunov Controller Using Biologically Inspired Swarm Intelligence

    Alejandro Carrasco Elizalde

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The collective behaviour of swarms produces smarter actions than those achieved by a single individual. Colonies of ants, flocks of birds and fish schools are examples of swarms interacting with their environment to achieve a common goal. This cooperative biological intelligence is the inspiration for an adaptive fuzzy controller developed in this paper. Swarm intelligence is used to adjust the parameters of the membership functions used in the adaptive fuzzy controller. The rules of the controller are designed using a computing-with-words approach called Fuzzy-Lyapunov synthesis to improve the stability and robustness of an adaptive fuzzy controller. Computing-with-words provides a powerful tool to manipulate numbers and symbols, like words in a natural language.

  19. Parameter Identification and Adaptive Control Applied to the Inverted Pendulum

    Carlos A. Saldarriaga-Cortés

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to implement an adaptive control of the inverted pendulum system; which uses the recursive square minimum method for the identification of a dynamic digital model of the plant and then, with its estimated parameters, tune in real time a pole placement control. The plant to be used is an unstable and nonlinear system. This fact, combined with the adaptive controller characteristics, allows the obtained results to be extended to a great variety of systems. The results show that the above methodology was implemented satisfactorily in terms of estimation, stability and control of such a system. It was established that adaptive techniques have a proper performance even in systems with complex features such as nonlinearity and instability.

  20. Adaptive Contingency Control: Wind Turbine Operation Integrated with Blade Condition Monitoring

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We report here on first steps towards integrating systems health monitoring with adaptive contingency controls. In the scenario considered, the adaptive controller...

  1. Control biológico del entrenamiento de resistencia. Biological control of endurance training.

    González Gross, Marcela

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa alta exigencia en los deportistas de elite hace cada vez más necesario controlar el proceso de adaptación al entrenamiento. El objetivo de esta revisión es analizar la información biológica de un análisis de sangre, al objeto de obtener información de la carga de entrenamiento en atletas de resistencia. La mayor parte de los parámetros sanguíneos han sido empleados, más que para determinar el proceso del entrenamiento, precisamente, para lo opuesto: el sobreentrenamiento. La concentración en plasma de sustratos metabólicos (glucosa y ácidos grasos no son parámetros que pueda utilizarse para controlar el entrenamiento, debido a las bajas especificidad y sensibilidad. No obstante, la concentración de determinados enzimas que intervienen en la utilización de los sustratos puede ser importante. Valores de creatín kinasa superiores a 200 U/l en una persona sana sugiere claramente que la carga de entrenamiento total de una determinada sesión ha sido elevada. La concentración en plasma de algún producto de degradación del catabolismo también puede señalar la adaptación del organismo al entrenamiento. La concentración de ácido láctico en plasma es la herramienta más común en la valoración de la carga de entrenamiento. La concentración de urea es un buen marcador biológico de la carga de entrenamiento. Valores superiores a 8 mmol/l en varones y de 6,5 mmol/l en mujeres, indican que el entrenamiento ha sido muy intenso. La determinación de otros productos (amonio o sustratos (glutamina se han utilizado para detectar el sobreentrenamiento.AbstractThe high exigency in the elite sportsmen does more necessary to control the process of training adaptation. The purpose of this review is to analyze the biological information of a blood analysis to obtain data of load training in endurance athletes. Most blood parameters has been used to evaluate the overtraining state instead of determining the training process. The

  2. On flexible CAD of adaptive control and identification algorithms

    Christensen, Anders; Ravn, Ole

    SLLAB is a MATLAB-family software package for solving control and identification problems. This paper concerns the planning of a general-purpose subroutine structure for solving identification and adaptive control problems. A general-purpose identification algorithm is suggested, which allows a t...

  3. Adaptive control of a manipulator with a flexible link

    Yang, Y. P.; Gibson, J. S.

    1988-01-01

    An adaptive controller for a manipulator with one rigid link and one flexible link is presented. The performance and robustness of the controller are demonstrated by numerical simulation results. In the simulations, the manipulator moves in a gravitational field and a finite element model represents the flexible link.

  4. Study on rule-based adaptive fuzzy excitation control technology

    Zhao, Hui; Wang, Hong-jun; Liu, Lu-yuan; Yue, You-jun

    2008-10-01

    Power system is a kind of typical non-linear system, it is hard to achieve excellent control performance with conventional PID controller under different operating conditions. Fuzzy parameter adaptive PID exciting controller is very efficient to overcome the influence of tiny disturbances, but the performance of the control system will be worsened when operating conditions of the system change greatly or larger disturbances occur. To solve this problem, this article presents a rule adaptive fuzzy control scheme for synchronous generator exciting system. In this scheme the control rule adaptation is implemented by regulating the value of parameter di under the given proportional divisors K1, K2 and K3 of fuzzy sets Ai and Bi. This rule adaptive mechanism is constituted by two groups of original rules about the self-generation and self-correction of the control rule. Using two groups of rules, the control rule activated by status 1 and 2 in figure 2 system can be regulated automatically and simultaneously at the time instant k. The results from both theoretical analysis and simulation show that the presented scheme is effective and feasible and possesses good performance.

  5. Direct adaptive control for nonlinear uncertain system based on control Lyapunov function method

    Chen Yimei; Han Zhengzhi; Tang Houjun

    2006-01-01

    The problem of adaptive stabilization of a class of multi-input nonlinear systems with unknown parameters both in the state vector-field and the input vector-field has been considered. By employing the control Lyapunov function method, a direct adaptive controller is designed to complete the global adaptive stability of the uncertain system. At the same time, the controller is also verified to possess the optimality. Example and simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Postural control adaptation during galvanic vestibular and vibratory proprioceptive stimulation.

    Fransson, Per-Anders; Hafström, Anna; Karlberg, Mikael; Magnusson, Måns; Tjäder, Annika; Johansson, Rolf

    2003-01-01

    he objective for this study was to investigate whether the adaptation of postural control was similar during galvanic vestibular stimulation and during vibratory proprioceptivestimulation of the calf muscles. Healthy subjects were tested during erect stance with eyes open or closed. An analysis method designed to consider the adaptive adjustments was used to evaluate the motion dynamics and the evoked changes of posture and stimulation response.Galvanic vestibular stimulation induced primaril...

  7. Adaptive active vibration isolation – A control perspective

    Landau Ioan Doré

    2015-01-01

    The paper will review a number of recent developments for adaptive feedback compensation of multiple unknown and time-varying narrow band disturbances and for adaptive feedforward compensation of broad band disturbances in the presence of the inherent internal positive feedback caused by the coupling between the compensator system and the measurement of the image of the disturbance. Some experimental results obtained on a relevant active vibration control system will illustrate the performance of the various algorithms presented.

  8. Adaptation of Sonix+ to control the D3 diffractometer

    The work is devoted to the adaptation of the Sonix+ software tool kit to control the powder diffractometer D3 at one of the beams of the IVV-2M reactor at the Neutron Complex for Materials Research in the Institute of Metal Physics (Zarechny). Sonix+ was designed for instruments at the IBR-2 reactor using the time-of-flight mode of spectra accumulation. However, the underlying solutions simplified the software adaptation for use at stationary reactors.

  9. Adaptive model based control for wastewater treatment plants

    Niet, de, A.; Vrugt, van de, Noëlle Maria; Korving, Hans; Boucherie, Richard J.; Savic, D.A.; Kapelan, Z.; Butler, D.

    2011-01-01

    In biological wastewater treatment, nitrogen and phosphorous are removed by activated sludge. The process requires oxygen input via aeration of the activated sludge tank. Aeration is responsible for about 60% of the energy consumption of a treatment plant. Hence optimization of aeration can contribute considerably to the increase of energy-efficiency in wastewater treatment. To this end, we introduce an adaptive model based control strategy for aeration called adaptive WOMBAT. The strategy is...

  10. Adaptive Media Access Control for Energy Harvesting - Wireless Sensor Networks

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Dragoni, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    ODMAC (On-Demand Media Access Control) is a recently proposed MAC protocol designed to support individual duty cycles for Energy Harvesting — Wireless Sensor Networks (EH-WSNs). Individual duty cycles are vital for EH-WSNs, because they allow nodes to adapt their energy consumption to the ever...... three key properties of EH-WSNs: adaptability of energy consumption, distributed energy-aware load balancing and support for different application-specific requirements....

  11. Adaptive significance of avian beak morphology for ectoparasite control

    Clayton, Dale H.; Moyer, Brett R; Bush, Sarah E.; Jones, Tony G; Gardiner, David W; Rhodes, Barry B; Goller, Franz

    2005-01-01

    The beaks of Darwin's finches and other birds are among the best known examples of adaptive evolution. Beak morphology is usually interpreted in relation to its critical role in feeding. However, the beak also plays an important role in preening, which is the first line of defence against harmful ectoparasites such as feather lice, fleas, bugs, flies, ticks and feather mites. Here, we show a feature of the beak specifically adapted for ectoparasite control. Experimental trimming of the tiny (...

  12. Making laser safety training more cognitively effective: making training videos interactive and adaptive

    Cherrett, Tom; Gates, James C.; John, Pearl; Holdaway-Salmon, Laura; Price, Joseph; Wills, Gary B; Dror, Itiel E.

    2009-01-01

    The cost of health and safety failures to UK industry is currently estimated at £6.5 billion per annum. Better health and safety education (particularly re-training) across all skill levels is seen as an integral part of any solution. Traditional lecture-based courses often fail to re-create the dynamic realities of managing health and safety on-site or in-the-lab, and therefore do not sufficiently engage the students in deeper learning (which results in remembering and using what was learned...

  13. Inhibitory control gains from higher-order cognitive strategy training.

    Motes, Michael A; Gamino, Jacquelyn F; Chapman, Sandra B; Rao, Neena K; Maguire, Mandy J; Brier, Matthew R; Kraut, Michael A; Hart, John

    2014-02-01

    The present study examined the transfer of higher-order cognitive strategy training to inhibitory control. Middle school students enrolled in a comprehension- and reasoning-focused cognitive strategy training program and passive controls participated. The training program taught students a set of steps for inferring essential gist or themes from materials. Both before and after training or a comparable duration in the case of the passive controls, participants completed a semantically cued Go/No-Go task that was designed to assess the effects of depth of semantic processing on response inhibition and components of event-related potentials (ERP) related to response inhibition. Depth of semantic processing was manipulated by varying the level of semantic categorization required for response selection and inhibition. The SMART-trained group showed inhibitory control gains and changes in fronto-central P3 ERP amplitudes on inhibition trials; whereas, the control group did not. The results provide evidence of the transfer of higher-order cognitive strategy training to inhibitory control and modulation of ERPs associated with semantically cued inhibitory control. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for cognitive strategy training, models of cognitive abilities, and education. PMID:24286804

  14. Training-induced behavioral and brain plasticity in inhibitory control

    Lucas eSpierer; Camille eChavan; Aurelie Lynn Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in inhibitory control, the ability to suppress ongoing or planned motor or cognitive processes, contribute to many psychiatric and neurological disorders. The rehabilitation of inhibition-related disorders may therefore benefit from neuroplasticity-based training protocols aiming at normalizing inhibitory control proficiency and the underlying brain networks. Current literature on training-induced behavioral and brain plasticity in inhibitory control suggests that improvements may fo...

  15. Modeling and Simulation of Sport Games, Sport Movements, and Adaptations to Training (Dagstuhl Seminar 15382)

    Duarte, Ricardo; Eskofier, Björn; Rumpf, Martin; Wiemeyer, Josef

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 15382 "Modeling and Simulation of Sport Games, Sport Movements, and Adaptations to Training". The primary goal of the seminar was the continuation of the interdisciplinary and transdisciplinarity research in sports and computer science with the emphasis on modeling and simulation technologies. In this seminar, experts on modeling and simulation from computer science, sport science, and industry were invited to discuss rece...

  16. Placental and vascular adaptations to exercise training before and during pregnancy in the rat

    Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Banek, Christopher T; Bauer, Ashley J.; Gingery, Anne; Dreyer, Hans C.

    2012-01-01

    Although exercise during pregnancy is generally recommended and thought to be beneficial to mother and fetus, the nature of the adaptations to exercise during pregnancy and how they may be beneficial remain poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that exercise may stimulate expression of several cytoprotective and pro-angiogenic molecules such as heat shock proteins (HSP) and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF). We hypothesized that exercise training during pregnancy improves angioge...

  17. Adaptive quality control for multimedia communications

    Santichai Chuaywong; Sinchai Kamolphiwong; Thossaporn Kamolphiwong; Kevin Robert Elz; Suthon Sae-Wong

    2008-01-01

    Multimedia communications are communications with several types of media, such as audio, video and data. The current Internet has some levels of capability to support multimedia communications, unfortunately, the QoS (Quality of Service) is still challenging. A large number of QoS mechanisms has been proposed; however, the main concern is for low levels, e.g. layer 2 (Data Link) or 3 (Transport). In this paper, mechanisms for control the quality of audio and video are proposed. G.723.1 and MP...

  18. Creatine supplementation does not enhance submaximal aerobic training adaptations in healthy young men and women.

    Reardon, T F; Ruell, P A; Fiatarone Singh, M A; Thompson, C H; Rooney, K B

    2006-10-01

    The benefits of dietary creatine supplementation on muscle performance are generally related to an increase in muscle phosphocreatine content. However, creatine supplementation may benefit endurance sports through increased glycogen re-synthesis following exercise. This study investigated the effect of creatine supplementation on muscle glycogen content, submaximal exercise fuel utilisation and endurance performance following 4 weeks of endurance training. Thirteen healthy, physically active, non-vegetarian subjects volunteered to take part and completed the study. Subjects were supplemented with either creatine monohydrate (CREAT, n = 7) or placebo-maltodextrin (CON, n = 6). Submaximal fuel utilisation and endurance performance were assessed before and after a 4 week endurance training program. Muscle biopsies were also collected before and following training for assessment of muscle creatine and glycogen content. Training increased quadriceps glycogen content to the same degree (approximately 20%) in both groups (P = 0.04). There was a significant training effect on submaximal fuel utilisation and improved endurance performance. However, there was no significant treatment effect of creatine supplementation. Creatine supplementation does not effect metabolic adaptations to endurance training. PMID:16896727

  19. Locomotor, cardiocirculatory and metabolic adaptations to training in Andalusian and Anglo-Arabian horses.

    Muñoz, A; Santisteban, R; Rubio, M D; Agüera, E I; Escribano, B M; Castejón, F M

    1999-02-01

    The effects of two training programmes in 20 Andalusian and 12 Anglo-Arabian horses were evaluated by an increasing intensity work test at velocities of 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 m sec(-1). Heart rate was monitored and blood samples were drawn at rest and after each velocity to analyse packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration, plasma lactate and potassium levels. Furthermore, the programmes were video-taped and stride length, duration and frequency, stance (restraint and propulsion), swing phase durations and stride vertical component were measured. The training protocol of the Andalusian horses produced significant decreases in the cardiovascular, haematological and metabolic responses to exercise. Locomotory training adaptation consisted of an increased stride frequency and a reduced stride length and vertical stride component. The last variable was the limiting factor of stride length both before and after training in the Andalusian horses. A different training protocol for show-jumping competition in Anglo-Arabian horses failed to show significant differences in the studied parameters to the work test, although an increase in stride length at velocities of over 6 m sec(-1) was observed. Stride vertical component did not have an effect on the physiological response to exercise, either before or after training. PMID:10088708

  20. Adaptive Neuro-Predictive Position/Velocity Control of Robot Manipulators in Work Space

    Mohammad Farrokhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (NMPC for hybrid position/velocity control of robot manipulators. Robot dynamics have generally uncertainties, including parameters variations, unknown nonlinearities of the robot, payload variations, and torque disturbances form the environment. The cost function of the NMPC is defined in such a way that by adjusting its weighting parameters, the end-effector of the robot tracks a predefined geometry path in Cartesian space with a constant velocity. Moreover, to eliminate the uncertainties, a neural network with Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm is used to estimate adaptively the model of the robot. The closed-loop stability is demonstrated using Lyapunov theory. The validity of the proposed control method is shown by simulation results on a 3-DOF robot manipulator actuated by DC servomotors.

  1. System identification and adaptive control theory and applications of the neurofuzzy and fuzzy cognitive network models

    Boutalis, Yiannis; Kottas, Theodore; Christodoulou, Manolis A

    2014-01-01

    Presenting current trends in the development and applications of intelligent systems in engineering, this monograph focuses on recent research results in system identification and control. The recurrent neurofuzzy and the fuzzy cognitive network (FCN) models are presented.  Both models are suitable for partially-known or unknown complex time-varying systems. Neurofuzzy Adaptive Control contains rigorous proofs of its statements which result in concrete conclusions for the selection of the design parameters of the algorithms presented. The neurofuzzy model combines concepts from fuzzy systems and recurrent high-order neural networks to produce powerful system approximations that are used for adaptive control. The FCN model  stems  from fuzzy cognitive maps and uses the notion of “concepts” and their causal relationships to capture the behavior of complex systems. The book shows how, with the benefit of proper training algorithms, these models are potent system emulators suitable for use in engineering s...

  2. Arm and leg substrate utilization and muscle adaptation after prolonged low-intensity training

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2010-01-01

    This review will focus on current data where substrate metabolism in arm and leg muscle is investigated and discuss the presence of higher carbohydrate oxidation and lactate release observed during arm compared with leg exercise. Furthermore, a basis for a possible difference in substrate...... partitioning between endogenous and exogenous substrate during arm and leg exercise will be debated. Moreover the review will probe if differences between arm and leg muscle are merely a result of different training status rather than a qualitative difference in limb substrate regulation. Along this line the...... review will address the available studies on low-intensity training performed separately with arm or legs or as whole-body training to evaluate if this leads to different adaptations in arm and leg muscle resulting in different substrate utilization patterns during separate arm or leg exercise at...

  3. Integrating dynamic stopping, transfer learning and language models in an adaptive zero-training ERP speller

    Kindermans, Pieter-Jan; Tangermann, Michael; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Schrauwen, Benjamin

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Most BCIs have to undergo a calibration session in which data is recorded to train decoders with machine learning. Only recently zero-training methods have become a subject of study. This work proposes a probabilistic framework for BCI applications which exploit event-related potentials (ERPs). For the example of a visual P300 speller we show how the framework harvests the structure suitable to solve the decoding task by (a) transfer learning, (b) unsupervised adaptation, (c) language model and (d) dynamic stopping. Approach. A simulation study compares the proposed probabilistic zero framework (using transfer learning and task structure) to a state-of-the-art supervised model on n = 22 subjects. The individual influence of the involved components (a)-(d) are investigated. Main results. Without any need for a calibration session, the probabilistic zero-training framework with inter-subject transfer learning shows excellent performance—competitive to a state-of-the-art supervised method using calibration. Its decoding quality is carried mainly by the effect of transfer learning in combination with continuous unsupervised adaptation. Significance. A high-performing zero-training BCI is within reach for one of the most popular BCI paradigms: ERP spelling. Recording calibration data for a supervised BCI would require valuable time which is lost for spelling. The time spent on calibration would allow a novel user to spell 29 symbols with our unsupervised approach. It could be of use for various clinical and non-clinical ERP-applications of BCI.

  4. Adaptive independent joint control of manipulators - Theory and experiment

    Seraji, H.

    1988-01-01

    The author presents a simple decentralized adaptive control scheme for multijoint robot manipulators based on the independent joint control concept. The proposed control scheme for each joint consists of a PID (proportional integral and differential) feedback controller and a position-velocity-acceleration feedforward controller, both with adjustable gains. The static and dynamic couplings that exist between the joint motions are compensated by the adaptive independent joint controllers while ensuring trajectory tracking. The proposed scheme is implemented on a MicroVAX II computer for motion control of the first three joints of a PUMA 560 arm. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate that trajectory tracking is achieved despite strongly coupled, highly nonlinear joint dynamics. The results confirm that the proposed decentralized adaptive control of manipulators is feasible, in spite of strong interactions between joint motions. The control scheme presented is computationally very fast and is amenable to parallel processing implementation within a distributed computing architecture, where each joint is controlled independently by a simple algorithm on a dedicated microprocessor.

  5. Adaptive control system having hedge unit and related apparatus and methods

    Johnson, Eric Norman (Inventor); Calise, Anthony J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The invention includes an adaptive control system used to control a plant. The adaptive control system includes a hedge unit that receives at least one control signal and a plant state signal. The hedge unit generates a hedge signal based on the control signal, the plant state signal, and a hedge model including a first model having one or more characteristics to which the adaptive control system is not to adapt, and a second model not having the characteristic(s) to which the adaptive control system is not to adapt. The hedge signal is used in the adaptive control system to remove the effect of the characteristic from a signal supplied to an adaptation law unit of the adaptive control system so that the adaptive control system does not adapt to the characteristic in controlling the plant.

  6. CACTUS: Command and Control Training Using Knowledge-Based Simulations

    Hartley, Roger; Ravenscroft, Andrew; Williams, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    The CACTUS project was concerned with command and control training of large incidents where public order may be at risk, such as large demonstrations and marches. The training requirements and objectives of the project are first summarized justifying the use of knowledge-based computer methods to support and extend conventional training…

  7. Fire Prevention and Control Training in the Oil Industry.

    Edney, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    Training for fire prevention and control in the petroleum industry is vital for all personnel, clerical and management as well as operators, maintenance men, and drivers. Basic training practices in Britain stressing safety, vigilance, preparation, and realistic exercises are described. (MF)

  8. 77 FR 73589 - Positive Train Control Systems (RRR)

    2012-12-11

    ... of processor-based train control systems. See 70 FR 11,052 (Mar. 7, 2005) (codified at 49 CFR part... passenger trains operating at greater than 59 miles per hour under Sec. 236.0(c)(2). See 75 FR 2598 at 2607...); Louisville Jeffersonville Bridge Co. v. United States, 249 U.S. 543 (1919); see also 66 FR 4104, 4148 (Jan...

  9. Adaptive Control of Flexible Redundant Manipulators Using Neural Networks

    SONG Yimin; LI Jianxin; WANG Shiyu; LIU Jianping

    2006-01-01

    An investigation on the neural networks based active vibration control of flexible redundant manipulators was conducted.The smart links of the manipulator were synthesized with the flexible links to which were attached piezoceramic actuators and strain gauge sensors.A nonlinear adaptive control strategy named neural networks based indirect adaptive control (NNIAC) was employed to improve the dynamic performance of the manipulator.The mathematical model of the 4-layered dynamic recurrent neural networks (DRNN) was introduced.The neuro-identifier and the neurocontroller featuring the DRNN topology were designed off line so as to enhance the initial robustness of the NNIAC.By adjusting the neuro-identifier and the neuro-controller alternatively,the manipulator was controlled on line for achieving the desired dynamic performance.Finally,a planar 3R redundant manipulator with one smart link was utilized as an illustrative example.The simulation results proved the validity of the control strategy.

  10. Control of multi-machine using adaptive fuzzy

    Bouchiba Bousmaha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An indirect Adaptive fuzzy excitation control (IAFLC of power systems based on multi-input-multi-output linearization technique is developed in this paper. The power system considered in this paper consists of two generators and infinite bus connected through a network of transformers and transmission lines. The fuzzy controller is constructed from fuzzy feedback linearization controller whose parameters are adjusted indirectly from the estimates of plant parameters. The adaptation law adjusts the controller parameters on-line so that the plant output tracks the reference model output. Simulation results shown that the proposed controller IAFLC, compared with a controller based on tradition linearization technique can enhance the transient stability of the power system.

  11. Adaptive Dynamic Programming for Control Algorithms and Stability

    Zhang, Huaguang; Luo, Yanhong; Wang, Ding

    2013-01-01

    There are many methods of stable controller design for nonlinear systems. In seeking to go beyond the minimum requirement of stability, Adaptive Dynamic Programming for Control approaches the challenging topic of optimal control for nonlinear systems using the tools of  adaptive dynamic programming (ADP). The range of systems treated is extensive; affine, switched, singularly perturbed and time-delay nonlinear systems are discussed as are the uses of neural networks and techniques of value and policy iteration. The text features three main aspects of ADP in which the methods proposed for stabilization and for tracking and games benefit from the incorporation of optimal control methods: • infinite-horizon control for which the difficulty of solving partial differential Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equations directly is overcome, and  proof provided that the iterative value function updating sequence converges to the infimum of all the value functions obtained by admissible control law sequences; • finite-...

  12. Adaptive control of large space structures using recursive lattice filters

    Sundararajan, N.; Goglia, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The use of recursive lattice filters for identification and adaptive control of large space structures is studied. Lattice filters were used to identify the structural dynamics model of the flexible structures. This identification model is then used for adaptive control. Before the identified model and control laws are integrated, the identified model is passed through a series of validation procedures and only when the model passes these validation procedures is control engaged. This type of validation scheme prevents instability when the overall loop is closed. Another important area of research, namely that of robust controller synthesis, was investigated using frequency domain multivariable controller synthesis methods. The method uses the Linear Quadratic Guassian/Loop Transfer Recovery (LQG/LTR) approach to ensure stability against unmodeled higher frequency modes and achieves the desired performance.

  13. Method and system for training dynamic nonlinear adaptive filters which have embedded memory

    Rabinowitz, Matthew (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Described herein is a method and system for training nonlinear adaptive filters (or neural networks) which have embedded memory. Such memory can arise in a multi-layer finite impulse response (FIR) architecture, or an infinite impulse response (IIR) architecture. We focus on filter architectures with separate linear dynamic components and static nonlinear components. Such filters can be structured so as to restrict their degrees of computational freedom based on a priori knowledge about the dynamic operation to be emulated. The method is detailed for an FIR architecture which consists of linear FIR filters together with nonlinear generalized single layer subnets. For the IIR case, we extend the methodology to a general nonlinear architecture which uses feedback. For these dynamic architectures, we describe how one can apply optimization techniques which make updates closer to the Newton direction than those of a steepest descent method, such as backpropagation. We detail a novel adaptive modified Gauss-Newton optimization technique, which uses an adaptive learning rate to determine both the magnitude and direction of update steps. For a wide range of adaptive filtering applications, the new training algorithm converges faster and to a smaller value of cost than both steepest-descent methods such as backpropagation-through-time, and standard quasi-Newton methods. We apply the algorithm to modeling the inverse of a nonlinear dynamic tracking system 5, as well as a nonlinear amplifier 6.

  14. Space motion sickness preflight adaptation training Preliminary studies with prototype trainers

    Parker, D. E.; Ouyang, L.; Rock, J. C.; Von Gierke, H. E.; Reschke, M. F.

    1985-01-01

    Based on the otolith tilt-translation reinterpretation hypothesis (Parker et al., 1985), preflight adaptation procedures and several preflight adaptation trainers (PATs) have been developed. Two PAT prototypes, the Miami University Seesaw (MUS) and the Dynamic Environmental Simulator (DES), include a physical room that is moved relative to the restrained subject. Results from the MUS and DES PAT experiments indicate that exposure to the produced sensory rearrangement can change eye movement reflexes. The changes persisted for a period longer than the training exposure period, indicating similarity with the eye-movement reflexes observed immediately postflight in weightlessness-adapted astronauts. It is concluded that the apparatus and procedures to preadapt astronauts to the sensory rearrangement of weightless space flight can be developed on the basis of the reported PATs and procedures. The third PAT prototype tested, which employs a computer-generated scene, failed to produce changes similar to those recorded in the MUS and DES experiments.

  15. STOCHASTIC ADAPTIVE SWITCHING CONTROL BASED ON MULTIPLE MODELS

    ZHANGYanxia; GUOLei

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that the transient behaviors of the traditional adaptive control may be very poor in general,and that the adaptive control designed based in switching between multiple models is an intuitively appealing and practically feasible approach to improve the transient performances.In this paper,we shall prove that for a typical class of linear systems disturbed by random noises,the multiple model based least-equares(LS)adaptive switching control is statble and convergent and has the same convergence rate as that established for the standard least-squares-based self-tunning regulators.Moreover,the mixed case combining adative models with fixed models is also considered.

  16. Adaptive nonlinear control using input normalized neural networks

    An adaptive feedback linearization technique combined with the neural network is addressed to control uncertain nonlinear systems. The neural network-based adaptive control theory has been widely studied. However, the stability analysis of the closed-loop system with the neural network is rather complicated and difficult to understand, and sometimes unnecessary assumptions are involved. As a result, unnecessary assumptions for stability analysis are avoided by using the neural network with input normalization technique. The ultimate boundedness of the tracking error is simply proved by the Lyapunov stability theory. A new simple update law as an adaptive nonlinear control is derived by the simplification of the input normalized neural network assuming the variation of the uncertain term is sufficiently small

  17. Robust adaptive output feedback control of nonlinearly parameterized systems

    LIU Yusheng; LI Xingyuan

    2007-01-01

    The ideas of adaptive nonlinear damping and changing supply functions were used to counteract the effects of parameter and nonlinear uncertainties,unmodeled dynamics and unknown bounded disturbances.The high-gain observer was used to estimate the state of the system.A robust adaptive output feedback control scheme was proposed for nonlinearly parameterized systems represented by inputoutput models.The scheme does not need to estimate the unknown parameters nor add a dynamical signal to dominate the effects of unmodeled dynamics.It is proven that the proposed control scheme guarantees that all the variables in the closed-loop system are bounded and the mean-square tracking error can be made arbitrarily small by choosing some design parameters appropriately.Simulation results have illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed robust adaptive control scheme.

  18. Parallel computation of geometry control in adaptive truss structures

    Ramesh, A. V.; Utku, S.; Wada, B. K.

    1992-01-01

    The fast computation of geometry control in adaptive truss structures involves two distinct parts: the efficient integration of the inverse kinematic differential equations that govern the geometry control and the fast computation of the Jacobian, which appears on the right-hand-side of the inverse kinematic equations. This paper present an efficient parallel implementation of the Jacobian computation on an MIMD machine. Large speedup from the parallel implementation is obtained, which reduces the Jacobian computation to an O(M-squared/n) procedure on an n-processor machine, where M is the number of members in the adaptive truss. The parallel algorithm given here is a good candidate for on-line geometry control of adaptive structures using attached processors.

  19. Decoding information by following parameter modulation with parameter adaptive control

    Zhou, Changsong; Lai, C.-H.

    1999-06-01

    It has been proposed to realize secure communication using chaotic synchronization via transmission of a binary message encoded by parameter modulation in the chaotic system. This paper considers the use of parameter adaptive control techniques to extract the message, based on the assumptions that we know the equation form of the chaotic system in the transmitter but do not have access to the precise values of the parameters which are kept secret as a secure set. In the case in which a synchronizing system can be constructed using parameter adaptive control by the transmitted signal and the synchronization is robust to parameter mismatches, the parameter modulation can be revealed and the message decoded without resorting to exact parameter values in the secure set. A practical local Lyapunov function method for designing parameter adaptive control rules based on originally synchronized systems is presented.

  20. A Comprehensive Robust Adaptive Controller for Gust Load Alleviation

    Elisa Capello; Giorgio Guglieri; Fulvia Quagliotti

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is the implementation and validation of an adaptive controller for aircraft gust load alleviation. The contribution of this paper is the design of a robust controller that guarantees the reduction of the gust loads, even when the nominal conditions change. Some preliminary results are presented, considering the symmetric aileron deflection as control device. The proposed approach is validated on subsonic transport aircraft for different mass and flight conditions. ...

  1. Multiple Estimation Architecture in Discrete-Time Adaptive Mixing Control

    Simone Baldi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive mixing control (AMC is a recently developed control scheme for uncertain plants, where the control action coming from a bank of precomputed controller is mixed based on the parameter estimates generated by an on-line parameter estimator. Even if the stability of the control scheme, also in the presence of modeling errors and disturbances, has been shown analytically, its transient performance might be sensitive to the initial conditions of the parameter estimator. In particular, for some initial conditions, transient oscillations may not be acceptable in practical applications. In order to account for such a possible phenomenon and to improve the learning capability of the adaptive scheme, in this paper a new mixing architecture is developed, involving the use of parallel parameter estimators, or multi-estimators, each one working on a small subset of the uncertainty set. A supervisory logic, using performance signals based on the past and present estimation error, selects the parameter estimate to determine the mixing of the controllers. The stability and robustness properties of the resulting approach, referred to as multi-estimator adaptive mixing control (Multi-AMC, are analytically established. Besides, extensive simulations demonstrate that the scheme improves the transient performance of the original AMC with a single estimator. The control scheme and the analysis are carried out in a discrete-time framework, for easier implementation of the method in digital control.

  2. The effects of interset rest on adaptation to 7 weeks of explosive training in young soccer players.

    Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Andrade, David C; Alvarez, Cristian; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Martínez, Cristian; Báez-Sanmartín, Eduardo; Silva-Urra, Juan; Burgos, Carlos; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of plyometric training using 30, 60, or 120 s of rest between sets on explosive adaptations in young soccer players. Four groups of athletes (age 10.4 ± 2.3 y; soccer experience 3.3 ± 1.5 y) were randomly formed: control (CG; n = 15), plyometric training with 30 s (G30; n = 13), 60 s (G60; n = 14), and 120 s (G120; n = 12) of rest between training sets. Before and after intervention players were measured in jump ability, 20-m sprint time, change of direction speed (CODS), and kicking performance. The training program was applied during 7 weeks, 2 sessions per week, for a total of 840 jumps. After intervention the G30, G60 and G120 groups showed a significant (p = 0.0001 - 0.04) and small to moderate effect size (ES) improvement in the countermovement jump (ES = 0.49; 0.58; 0.55), 20 cm drop jump reactive strength index (ES = 0.81; 0.89; 0.86), CODS (ES = -1.03; -0.87; -1.04), and kicking performance (ES = 0.39; 0.49; 0.43), with no differences between treatments. The study shows that 30, 60, and 120 s of rest between sets ensure similar significant and small to moderate ES improvement in jump, CODS, and kicking performance during high-intensity short-term explosive training in young male soccer players. Key pointsReplacing some soccer drills by low volume high-intensity plyometric training would be beneficial in jumping, change of direction speed, and kicking ability in young soccer players.A rest period of 30, 60 or 120 seconds between low-volume high-intensity plyometric sets would induce significant and similar explosive adaptations during a short-term training period in young soccer players.Data from this research can be helpful for soccer trainers in choosing efficient drills and characteristics of between sets recovery programs to enhance performances in young male soccer players. PMID:24790481

  3. Adaptive control of uncertain time-delay chaotic systems

    Zhuhong ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    This work investigates adaptive control of a large class of uncertain me-delay chaotic systems (UTCSs) with unknown general perturbation terms bounded by a polynomial ( unknown gains). Associated with the different cases of known and unknown system matrices, two corresponding adaptive controllers are proposed to stabilize unstable fixed points of the systems by means of Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequalities (LMI) which can be solved easily by convex optimization algorithms. Two examples are used for examining the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  4. Decentralized model reference adaptive control of large flexible structures

    Lee, Fu-Ming; Fong, I-Kong; Lin, Yu-Hwan

    1988-01-01

    A decentralized model reference adaptive control (DMRAC) method is developed for large flexible structures (LFS). The development follows that of a centralized model reference adaptive control for LFS that have been shown to be feasible. The proposed method is illustrated using a simply supported beam with collocated actuators and sensors. Results show that the DMRAC can achieve either output regulation or output tracking with adequate convergence, provided the reference model inputs and their time derivatives are integrable, bounded, and approach zero as t approaches infinity.

  5. The Adaptive Control of FES-assisted Indoor Rowing Exercise

    Hussain, Zakaria; Bin Zaidan, Martha Arbayani; M.O. Tokhi; Jailani, Rozita

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an adaptive control mechanism for FES-assisted indoor rowing exercise (FES-rowing). The FES-rowing is intro-duced as a total body exercise for rehabilitation of function of lower body through the application of functional elec-trical stimulation (FES). A model of the rowing ergometer with humanoid is developed using the visual Nastran soft-ware environment (vN4D). A fuzzy logic control (FLC) scheme is designed in Matlab/Simulink and adapted online by pr...

  6. Rotor Field Oriented Control with adaptive Iron Loss Compensation

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.

    1999-01-01

    It is well known from the literature that iron loses in an induction motor implies field angle estimation errors and hence detuning problems. In this paper a new method for estimating the iron loss resistor in an induction motor is presented. The method is based on a traditional dynamic model of ...... current controlled in a Field Oriented Control scheme. This deviation is used to force a MIT-rule based adaptive estimator. An adaptive compensator containing the developed estimator is introduced and verified by simulations and tested by real time experiments....

  7. Adaptive optimization of agile organization of command and control resource

    Yang Chunhui; Liu Junxian; Chen Honghui; Luo Xueshan

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive optimization is one of the means that agile organization of command and control resource (AOC2R) adapts for the dynamic battlefield environment. A math model of the adaptive optimization of AOC2R is put forward by analyzing the interrelating concept and research. The model takes the adaptive process as a multi-stage decision making problem. The 2-phases method is presented to calculate the model, which obtains the related parameters by running the colored Petri net (CPN) model of AOC2R and then searches for the result by ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm integrated with genetic optimization techniques. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm greatly improves the performance of AOC2R.

  8. Backstepping design of missile guidance and control based on adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control

    Ran Maopeng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated missile guidance and control law based on adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control. The integrated model is formulated as a block-strict-feedback nonlinear system, in which modeling errors, unmodeled nonlinearities, target maneuvers, etc. are viewed as unknown uncertainties. The adaptive nonlinear control law is designed based on backstepping and sliding mode control techniques. An adaptive fuzzy system is adopted to approximate the coupling nonlinear functions of the system, and for the uncertainties, we utilize an online-adaptive control law to estimate the unknown parameters. The stability analysis of the closed-loop system is also conducted. Simulation results show that, with the application of the adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control, small miss distances and smooth missile trajectories are achieved, and the system is robust against system uncertainties and external disturbances.

  9. Backstepping design of missile guidance and control based on adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control

    Ran Maopeng; Wang Qing; Hou Delong; Dong Chaoyang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated missile guidance and control law based on adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control. The integrated model is formulated as a block-strict-feedback nonlinear system, in which modeling errors, unmodeled nonlinearities, target maneuvers, etc. are viewed as unknown uncertainties. The adaptive nonlinear control law is designed based on backstepping and sliding mode control techniques. An adaptive fuzzy system is adopted to approximate the coupling nonlinear functions of the system, and for the uncertainties, we utilize an online-adaptive control law to estimate the unknown parameters. The stability analysis of the closed-loop system is also conducted. Simulation results show that, with the application of the adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control, small miss distances and smooth missile trajectories are achieved, and the system is robust against system uncertainties and external disturbances.

  10. Increasing the effectiveness of instrumentation and control training programs using integrated training settings and a systematic approach to training

    The performance of plant maintenance-related tasks assigned to instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) technicians can be broken down into physical skills required to do the task; resident knowledge of how to do the task; effect of maintenance on plant operating conditions; interactions with other plant organizations such as operations, radiation protection, and quality control; and knowledge of consequences of miss-action. A technician who has learned about the task in formal classroom presentations has not had the advantage of integrating that knowledge with the requisite physical and communication skills; hence, the first time these distinct and vital parts of the task equation are put together is on the job, during initial task performance. On-the-job training provides for the integration of skills and knowledge; however, this form of training is limited by plant conditions, availability of supporting players, and training experience levels of the personnel conducting the exercise. For licensed operations personnel, most nuclear utilities use formal classroom and a full-scope control room simulator to achieve the integration of skills and knowledge in a controlled training environment. TU Electric has taken that same approach into maintenance areas by including identical plant equipment in a laboratory setting for the large portion of training received by maintenance personnel at its Comanche Peak steam electric station. The policy of determining training needs and defining the scope of training by using the systematic approach to training has been highly effective and provided training at a reasonable cost (approximately $18.00/student contact hour)

  11. Mentoring SFRM: A New Approach to International Space Station Flight Controller Training

    Huning, Therese; Barshi, Immanuel; Schmidt, Lacey

    2008-01-01

    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) of the Johnson Space Center is responsible for providing continuous operations support for the International Space Station (ISS). Operations support requires flight controllers who are skilled in team performance as well as the technical operations of the ISS. Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), a NASA adapted variant of Crew Resource Management (CRM), is the competency model used in the MOD. ISS flight controller certification has evolved to include a balanced focus on development of SFRM and technical expertise. The latest challenge the MOD faces is how to certify an ISS flight controller (operator) to a basic level of effectiveness in 1 year. SFRM training uses a two-pronged approach to expediting operator certification: 1) imbed SFRM skills training into all operator technical training and 2) use senior flight controllers as mentors. This paper focuses on how the MOD uses senior flight controllers as mentors to train SFRM skills. Methods: A mentor works with an operator throughout the training flow. Inserted into the training flow are guided-discussion sessions and on-the-job observation opportunities focusing on specific SFRM skills, including: situational leadership, conflict management, stress management, cross-cultural awareness, self care and team care while on-console, communication, workload management, and situation awareness. The mentor and operator discuss the science and art behind the skills, cultural effects on skills applications, recognition of good and bad skills applications, recognition of how skills application changes subtly in different situations, and individual goals and techniques for improving skills. Discussion: This mentoring program provides an additional means of transferring SFRM knowledge compared to traditional CRM training programs. Our future endeavors in training SFRM skills (as well as other organization s) may benefit from adding team performance skills mentoring. This paper

  12. Laser vision based adaptive fill control system for TIG welding

    2008-01-01

    The variation of joint groove size during tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding will result in the non-uniform fill of deposited metal. To solve this problem, an adaptive fill control system was developed based on laser vision sensing. The system hardware consists of a modular development kit (MDK) as the real-time image capturing system, a computer as the controller, a D/A conversion card as the interface of controlled variable output, and a DC TIG welding system as the controlled device. The system software is developed and the developed feature extraction algorithm and control strategy are of good accuracy and robustness. Experimental results show that the system can implement adaptive fill of melting metal with high stability, reliability and accuracy. The groove is filled well and the quality of the weld formation satisfies the relevant industry criteria.

  13. Direct Adaptive Aircraft Control Using Dynamic Cell Structure Neural Networks

    Jorgensen, Charles C.

    1997-01-01

    A Dynamic Cell Structure (DCS) Neural Network was developed which learns topology representing networks (TRNS) of F-15 aircraft aerodynamic stability and control derivatives. The network is integrated into a direct adaptive tracking controller. The combination produces a robust adaptive architecture capable of handling multiple accident and off- nominal flight scenarios. This paper describes the DCS network and modifications to the parameter estimation procedure. The work represents one step towards an integrated real-time reconfiguration control architecture for rapid prototyping of new aircraft designs. Performance was evaluated using three off-line benchmarks and on-line nonlinear Virtual Reality simulation. Flight control was evaluated under scenarios including differential stabilator lock, soft sensor failure, control and stability derivative variations, and air turbulence.

  14. Study on Adaptive Control with Neural Network Compensation

    单剑锋; 黄忠华; 崔占忠

    2004-01-01

    A scheme of adaptive control based on a recurrent neural network with a neural network compensation is presented for a class of nonlinear systems with a nonlinear prefix. The recurrent neural network is used to identify the unknown nonlinear part and compensate the difference between the real output and the identified model output. The identified model of the controlled object consists of a linear model and the neural network. The generalized minimum variance control method is used to identify pareters, which can deal with the problem of adaptive control of systems with unknown nonlinear part, which can not be controlled by traditional methods. Simulation results show that this algorithm has higher precision, faster convergent speed.

  15. Dynamic Performance of Grid Converters using Adaptive DC Voltage Control

    Trintis, Ionut; Sun, Bo; Guerrero, Josep M.; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Abrahamsen, Flemming; Thøgersen, Paul Bach

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates a controller that ensures minimum operating dc-link voltage of a back-to-back converter system. The dc-link voltage adapts its reference based on the system state, reference given by an outer loop to the dc-link voltage controller. The operating dc-link voltage should be k...... kept as low as possible to increase the power conversion efficiency and increase the reliability of converters. The dynamic performance of the proposed controller is investigated by simulations and experiments.......This paper investigates a controller that ensures minimum operating dc-link voltage of a back-to-back converter system. The dc-link voltage adapts its reference based on the system state, reference given by an outer loop to the dc-link voltage controller. The operating dc-link voltage should be...

  16. Neural network approach to continuous-time direct adaptive optimal control for partially unknown nonlinear systems.

    Vrabie, Draguna; Lewis, Frank

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we present in a continuous-time framework an online approach to direct adaptive optimal control with infinite horizon cost for nonlinear systems. The algorithm converges online to the optimal control solution without knowledge of the internal system dynamics. Closed-loop dynamic stability is guaranteed throughout. The algorithm is based on a reinforcement learning scheme, namely Policy Iterations, and makes use of neural networks, in an Actor/Critic structure, to parametrically represent the control policy and the performance of the control system. The two neural networks are trained to express the optimal controller and optimal cost function which describes the infinite horizon control performance. Convergence of the algorithm is proven under the realistic assumption that the two neural networks do not provide perfect representations for the nonlinear control and cost functions. The result is a hybrid control structure which involves a continuous-time controller and a supervisory adaptation structure which operates based on data sampled from the plant and from the continuous-time performance dynamics. Such control structure is unlike any standard form of controllers previously seen in the literature. Simulation results, obtained considering two second-order nonlinear systems, are provided. PMID:19362449

  17. Effect Of Plyometric Training On Vertical Jump Performance And Neuromuscular Adaptation In Volleyball Player

    Dara Hosseini

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of 12-week plyometric training on vertical jump performance (Vj), maximal surface EMG, M-wave amplitude, M�wave latency, and nerve conduction velocity (NCV) in men volleyball player. Thirty junior high school volleyball players' volunteers (age: 17.53� 0.74; Height: 177.67� 3.14; Weight: 61.31 � 5.32) were divided into plyometric training [PT] (n=15) and control group[c] (n=15). PT group trained so.w' but C group didn't participate in...

  18. Locomotor Adaptation Improves Balance Control, Multitasking Ability and Reduces the Metabolic Cost of Postural Instability

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R. A.; Batson, C. D.; Miller, C. A.; Ploutz-Snyder, R. J.; Guined, J. R.; Buxton, R. E.; Cohen, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    During exploration-class missions, sensorimotor disturbances may lead to disruption in the ability to ambulate and perform functional tasks during the initial introduction to a novel gravitational environment following a landing on a planetary surface. The overall goal of our current project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability training program to facilitate rapid adaptation to these environments. We have developed a unique training system comprised of a treadmill placed on a motion-base facing a virtual visual scene. It provides an unstable walking surface combined with incongruent visual flow designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. Greater metabolic cost incurred during balance instability means more physical work is required during adaptation to new environments possibly affecting crewmembers? ability to perform mission critical tasks during early surface operations on planetary expeditions. The goal of this study was to characterize adaptation to a discordant sensory challenge across a number of performance modalities including locomotor stability, multi-tasking ability and metabolic cost. METHODS: Subjects (n=15) walked (4.0 km/h) on a treadmill for an 8 -minute baseline walking period followed by 20-minutes of walking (4.0 km/h) with support surface motion (0.3 Hz, sinusoidal lateral motion, peak amplitude 25.4 cm) provided by the treadmill/motion-base system. Stride frequency and auditory reaction time were collected as measures of locomotor stability and multi-tasking ability, respectively. Metabolic data (VO2) were collected via a portable metabolic gas analysis system. RESULTS: At the onset of lateral support surface motion, subj ects walking on our treadmill showed an increase in stride frequency and auditory reaction time indicating initial balance and multi-tasking disturbances. During the 20-minute adaptation period, balance control and multi-tasking performance improved. Similarly, throughout the 20-minute adaptation period, VO2 gradually

  19. Whole body vibration training--improving balance control and muscle endurance.

    Ramona Ritzmann

    Full Text Available Exercise combined with whole body vibration (WBV is becoming increasingly popular, although additional effects of WBV in comparison to conventional exercises are still discussed controversially in literature. Heterogeneous findings are attributed to large differences in the training designs between WBV and "control" groups in regard to training volume, load and type. In order to separate the additional effects of WBV from the overall adaptations due to the intervention, in this study, a four-week WBV training setup was compared to a matched intervention program with identical training parameters in both training settings except for the exposure to WBV. In a repeated-measures matched-subject design, 38 participants were assigned to either the WBV group (VIB or the equivalent training group (CON. Training duration, number of sets, rest periods and task-specific instructions were matched between the groups. Balance, jump height and local static muscle endurance were assessed before and after the training period. The statistical analysis revealed significant interaction effects of group×time for balance and local static muscle endurance (p<0.05. Hence, WBV caused an additional effect on balance control (pre vs. post VIB +13%, p<0.05 and CON +6%, p = 0.33 and local static muscle endurance (pre vs. post VIB +36%, p<0.05 and CON +11%, p = 0.49. The effect on jump height remained insignificant (pre vs. post VIB +3%, p = 0.25 and CON ±0%, p = 0.82. This study provides evidence for the additional effects of WBV above conventional exercise alone. As far as balance and muscle endurance of the lower leg are concerned, a training program that includes WBV can provide supplementary benefits in young and well-trained adults compared to an equivalent program that does not include WBV.

  20. Model-free adaptive control of advanced power plants

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L.; Wang, Qiang

    2015-08-18

    A novel 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controller with a set of artificial neural networks as part of the controller is introduced. A 3.times.3 MFA control system using the inventive 3.times.3 MFA controller is described to control key process variables including Power, Steam Throttle Pressure, and Steam Temperature of boiler-turbine-generator (BTG) units in conventional and advanced power plants. Those advanced power plants may comprise Once-Through Supercritical (OTSC) Boilers, Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Boilers, and Once-Through Supercritical Circulating Fluidized-Bed (OTSC CFB) Boilers.

  1. Applications of active adaptive noise control to jet engines

    Shoureshi, Rahmat; Brackney, Larry

    1993-01-01

    During phase 2 research on the application of active noise control to jet engines, the development of multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) active adaptive noise control algorithms and acoustic/controls models for turbofan engines were considered. Specific goals for this research phase included: (1) implementation of a MIMO adaptive minimum variance active noise controller; and (2) turbofan engine model development. A minimum variance control law for adaptive active noise control has been developed, simulated, and implemented for single-input/single-output (SISO) systems. Since acoustic systems tend to be distributed, multiple sensors, and actuators are more appropriate. As such, the SISO minimum variance controller was extended to the MIMO case. Simulation and experimental results are presented. A state-space model of a simplified gas turbine engine is developed using the bond graph technique. The model retains important system behavior, yet is of low enough order to be useful for controller design. Expansion of the model to include multiple stages and spools is also discussed.

  2. Adaptive robot training for the treatment of incoordination in Multiple Sclerosis

    Casadio Maura

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebellar symptoms are extremely disabling and are common in Multiple Sclerosis (MS subjects. In this feasibility study, we developed and tested a robot therapy protocol, aimed at the rehabilitation of incoordination in MS subjects. Methods Eight subjects with clinically defined MS performed planar reaching movements while grasping the handle of a robotic manipulandum, which generated forces that either reduced (error-reducing, ER or enhanced (error-enhancing, EE the curvature of their movements, assessed at the beginning of each session. The protocol was designed to adapt to the individual subjects' impairments, as well as to improvements between sessions (if any. Each subject went through a total of eight training sessions. To compare the effect of the two variants of the training protocol (ER and EE, we used a cross-over design consisting of two blocks of sessions (four ER and four EE; 2 sessions/week, separated by a 2-weeks rest period. The order of application of ER and EE exercises was randomized across subjects. The primary outcome measure was the modification of the Nine Hole Peg Test (NHPT score. Other clinical scales and movement kinematics were taken as secondary outcomes. Results Most subjects revealed a preserved ability to adapt to the robot-generated forces. No significant differences were observed in EE and ER training. However over sessions, subjects exhibited an average 24% decrease in their NHPT score. The other clinical scales showed small improvements for at least some of the subjects. After training, movements became smoother, and their curvature decreased significantly over sessions. Conclusions The results point to an improved coordination over sessions and suggest a potential benefit of a short-term, customized, and adaptive robot therapy for MS subjects.

  3. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Controller Experimental Design for DC Motor Connected to Unbalanced Load

    Reza Nejati

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In two recent decades, fuzzy controllers have been used in controlling different systems successfully. In this article, a new method is given for controlling of permanent magnetic DC motor connected to unbalanced load. Imbalance of load leads to machine vibrations, fluctuation of power, making exhaustion in machine shaft, and equipment depreciation. In this article neuro-fuzzy controllers are used for controlling unbalanced load. Because of non-linear nature of load and machine, machine fluctuations are different in various speeds. For making controller adaptive with machine, using an artificial neural network, the input-output coefficients are be updated in any speed. Optimized coefficients obtained by using of direct search method, and with these coefficients, artificial neural network trained with Lauvenberg-Marcoardet method. Operational results obtained from developed system, shows the efficiency of given method.

  4. An adaptive robust controller for time delay maglev transportation systems

    Milani, Reza Hamidi; Zarabadipour, Hassan; Shahnazi, Reza

    2012-12-01

    For engineering systems, uncertainties and time delays are two important issues that must be considered in control design. Uncertainties are often encountered in various dynamical systems due to modeling errors, measurement noises, linearization and approximations. Time delays have always been among the most difficult problems encountered in process control. In practical applications of feedback control, time delay arises frequently and can severely degrade closed-loop system performance and in some cases, drives the system to instability. Therefore, stability analysis and controller synthesis for uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems are important both in theory and in practice and many analytical techniques have been developed using delay-dependent Lyapunov function. In the past decade the magnetic and levitation (maglev) transportation system as a new system with high functionality has been the focus of numerous studies. However, maglev transportation systems are highly nonlinear and thus designing controller for those are challenging. The main topic of this paper is to design an adaptive robust controller for maglev transportation systems with time-delay, parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. In this paper, an adaptive robust control (ARC) is designed for this purpose. It should be noted that the adaptive gain is derived from Lyapunov-Krasovskii synthesis method, therefore asymptotic stability is guaranteed.

  5. ROBUST ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF NONHOLONOMIC SYSTEMS WITH UNCERTAINTIES

    慕小武; 虞继敏; 毕卫萍; 程代展

    2004-01-01

    Robust adaptive control of nonholonomic systems in chained form with linearly parameterized and strongly nonlinear disturbance and drift terms is dicussed.The novelty of the proposed method is a combined use of the state-scaling and the back-stepping procedure.

  6. Adaptive Superheat Control of a Refrigeration Plant using Backstepping

    Rasmussen, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    . A new low order nonlinear model of the evaporator is developed and used in a backstepping design of an adaptive nonlinear controller.  The stability of the proposed method is validated theoretically by Lyapunov analysis and experimental results shows the performance of the system for a wide range of...

  7. Adaptive feed forward in the LANL RF control system

    This paper describes an adaptive feed forward system that corrects repetitive errors in the amplitude and phase of the RF field of a pulsed accelerator. High-frequency disturbances that are beyond the effective bandwidth of the RF-field feedback control system can be eliminated with a feed forward system. Many RF-field disturbances for a pulsed accelerator are repetitive, occurring at the same relative time in every pulse. This design employs digital signal processing hardware to adaptively determine and track the control signals required to eliminate the repetitive errors in the feedback control system. In order to provide the necessary high-frequency response, the adaptive feed forward hardware provides the calculated control signal prior to the repetitive disturbance that it corrects. This system has been demonstrated to reduce the transient disturbances caused by beam pulses. Furthermore, it has been shown to negate high-frequency phase and amplitude oscillations in a high-power klystron amplifier caused by PFN ripple on the high-voltage. The design and results of the adaptive feed forward system are presented. (Author) 3 figs., 2 refs

  8. Evaluating adaptive cruise control strategies in worst-case scenarios

    Willigen, W.H. van; Schut, M.C.; Kester, L.J.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with safety in (cooperative) adaptive cruise control systems. In these systems, the speed of the cars is maintained automatically, based on the preferred speed of the driver and the speed of the preceding car. Technologies that are used in these systems, such as radar and rad

  9. Adaptive Insecure Attachment and Resource Control Strategies during Middle Childhood

    Chen, Bin-Bin; Chang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    By integrating the life history theory of attachment with resource control theory, the current study examines the hypothesis that insecure attachment styles reorganized in middle childhood are alternative adaptive strategies used to prepare for upcoming competition with the peer group. A sample of 654 children in the second through seventh grades…

  10. A proposal for an Adaptive Information Filtering and Control Concept

    Maas, H.L.M.M.; Meiler, P.P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a concept to manage the information exchange between the operators and their consoles (the interface to the computer system) within a Command and Control (C2) centre. Application of his concept will result in a more effective and efficient information exchange, using adaptive in

  11. Adaptive feedforward in the LANL rf control system

    This paper describes an adaptive feedforward system that corrects repetitive errors in the amplitude and phase of the RF field of a pulsed accelerator. High-frequency disturbances that are beyond the effective bandwidth of the RF field feedback control system can be eliminated with a feedforward system. Many RF field disturbances for a pulsed accelerator are repetitive, occurring at the same relative time in every pulse. This design employs digital signal processing hardware to adaptively determine and track the control signals required to eliminate the repetitive errors in the feedback control system. In order to provide the necessary high-frequency response, the adaptive feedforward hardware provides the calculated control signal prior to the repetitive disturbance that it corrects. This system has been demonstrated to reduce the transient disturbances caused by beam pulses. Furthermore, it has been shown to negate high-frequency phase and amplitude oscillations in a high-power klystron amplifier caused by PFN ripple on the high-voltage. The design and results of the adaptive feedforward system are presented

  12. Adaptive Current Control with PI-Fuzzy Compound Controller for Shunt Active Power Filter

    Juntao Fei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive control technology and PI-fuzzy compound control technology are proposed to control an active power filter (APF. AC side current compensation and DC capacitor voltage tracking control strategy are discussed and analyzed. Model reference adaptive controller for the AC side current compensation is derived and established based on Lyapunov stability theory; proportional and integral (PI fuzzy compound controller is designed for the DC side capacitor voltage control. The adaptive current controller based on PI-fuzzy compound system is compared with the conventional PI controller for active power filter. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility and satisfactory performance of the proposed control strategies. It is shown that the proposed control method has an excellent dynamic performance such as small current tracking error, reduced total harmonic distortion (THD, and strong robustness in the presence of parameters variation and nonlinear load.

  13. Variable Neural Adaptive Robust Control: A Switched System Approach

    Lian, Jianming; Hu, Jianghai; Zak, Stanislaw H.

    2015-05-01

    Variable neural adaptive robust control strategies are proposed for the output tracking control of a class of multi-input multi-output uncertain systems. The controllers incorporate a variable-structure radial basis function (RBF) network as the self-organizing approximator for unknown system dynamics. The variable-structure RBF network solves the problem of structure determination associated with fixed-structure RBF networks. It can determine the network structure on-line dynamically by adding or removing radial basis functions according to the tracking performance. The structure variation is taken into account in the stability analysis of the closed-loop system using a switched system approach with the aid of the piecewise quadratic Lyapunov function. The performance of the proposed variable neural adaptive robust controllers is illustrated with simulations.

  14. Generation of controller of an underwater robot for constant altitude cruising by self-training. 2nd Report. ; Modification of forward model and adaptation process. Jiko kunren ni yoru kaichu robot no teikodo koko. 2. ; Forward model to controller no chosei hoho no kairyo

    Suto, T.; Ura, T. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science)

    1993-12-01

    As a guidance system to be applied to constant altitude cruising of the self-controlling underwater robot, improvement of the SONCS (composed from controller network and forward model network) proposed in the previous paper by the author's laboratory is reported. The forward model network was divided into three modules respectively holding a function representing dynamics of the robot and deriving the quantity of state at a next time-step, a function of deriving the data of distance measurement at the next step, and a function of calculating the altitude from the data of distance measurement. A difference type network which represents the output with the increment from the input and a learning method which generates temporary instruction data train from the signals reversely propagating the forward network and thereby adjusts the controller network were introduced. Effectiveness of these three technical improvements was demonstrated based on numerical simulation. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  15. France panel discussion 'education and training for industry'. To effectively adapt and renew workforce competences

    EDF Operation and Engineering Company is the World's leading Nuclear Operator with the most important Nuclear fleet in Europe. Most of French operating nuclear plants were constructed within a small time window. Few new plants have come on line within the last decade. As a result, most operating plants today have an ageing workforce that is going to retire in large numbers. In the next ten years, 40% of EDF nuclear workforce is going to retire, in average 600 people per year and 1000 people at the peak. At the same time, EDF Company potential restructuring are opportunities to provide internal personnel for Nuclear Power Plants. The first generation of nuclear industry workforce was hired during nuclear plant starting and testing. That was an opportunity for training in the field without nuclear hazard. In addition, the NPP requirements increased dramatically through the last twenty years. This situation led to start a project to effectively adapt and renew workforce competences in the 19 EDF NPP in France. The presentation will focused on two main ways to achieve this goal. - A consistent program developed in 2007 to adapt our non-technical internal workforce for nuclear competences and skills needed. - A reliable Nuclear Educational and Training Program called 'Nuclear Academy' created for nuclear hired workforce based on team building, sister plants association, Senior workers and management presentations, and field training. (author)

  16. Optimal Multitrial Prediction Combination and Subject-Specific Adaptation for Minimal Training Brain Switch Designs.

    Spyrou, Loukianos; Blokland, Yvonne; Farquhar, Jason; Bruhn, Jorgen

    2016-06-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems are traditionally designed by taking into account user-specific data to enable practical use. More recently, subject independent (SI) classification algorithms have been developed which bypass the subject specific adaptation and enable rapid use of the system. A brain switch is a particular BCI system where the system is required to distinguish from two separate mental tasks corresponding to the on-off commands of a switch. Such applications require a low false positive rate (FPR) while having an acceptable response time (RT) until the switch is activated. In this work, we develop a methodology that produces optimal brain switch behavior through subject specific (SS) adaptation of: a) a multitrial prediction combination model and b) an SI classification model. We propose a statistical model of combining classifier predictions that enables optimal FPR calibration through a short calibration session. We trained an SI classifier on a training synchronous dataset and tested our method on separate holdout synchronous and asynchronous brain switch experiments. Although our SI model obtained similar performance between training and holdout datasets, 86% and 85% for the synchronous and 69% and 66% for the asynchronous the between subject FPR and TPR variability was high (up to 62%). The short calibration session was then employed to alleviate that problem and provide decision thresholds that achieve when possible a target FPR=1% with good accuracy for both datasets. PMID:26529768

  17. Microgrid Stability Controller Based on Adaptive Robust Total SMC

    Xiaoling Su; Minxiao Han; Josep M. Guerrero; Hai Sun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a microgrid stability controller (MSC) in order to provide existing distributed generation units (DGs) the additional functionality of working in islanding mode without changing their control strategies in grid-connected mode and to enhance the stability of the microgrid. Microgrid operating characteristics and mathematical models of the MSC indicate that the system is inherently nonlinear and time-variable. Therefore, this paper proposes an adaptive robust total sliding...

  18. Hybrid adaptive feedforward control of structures to seismic inputs

    Matevosian, Armond

    1996-01-01

    The key conclusions of this research are: 1. The EFXLMS algorithm demonstrated superior performance than the FXLMS algorithm during fast adaptive processes, in particular for non-stationary inputs. 2. Good attenuation of the peak. and root-mean-square (rms) values of the structural responses using the hybrid control system were observed for most of the real accelerograms. It was also observed that the hybrid control system always improved the performance of the passive contr...

  19. Robust Adaptive Dynamic Programming for Optimal Nonlinear Control Design

    Jiang, Yu; Jiang, Zhong-Ping

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the robust optimal control design for uncertain nonlinear systems from a perspective of robust adaptive dynamic programming (robust-ADP). The objective is to fill up a gap in the past literature of ADP where dynamic uncertainties or unmodeled dynamics are not addressed. A key strategy is to integrate tools from modern nonlinear control theory, such as the robust redesign and the backstepping techniques as well as the nonlinear small-gain theorem, with the theory of ADP. The...

  20. Adaptive Control of the Chaotic System via Singular System Approach

    Yudong Li; Tianyu Zhang; Yujun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the control problem of the chaotic system subject to disturbance. The sliding mode surface is designed by singular system approach, and sufficient condition for convergence is given. Then, the adaptive sliding mode controller is designed to make the state arrive at the sliding mode surface in finite time. Finally, Lorenz system is considered as an example to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Adaptive Proactive Inhibitory Control for Embedded Real-Time Applications

    Yang, Shufan; McGinnity, T. Martin; Wong-Lin, KongFatt

    2012-01-01

    Psychologists have studied the inhibitory control of voluntary movement for many years. In particular, the countermanding of an impending action has been extensively studied. In this work, we propose a neural mechanism for adaptive inhibitory control in a firing-rate type model based on current findings in animal electrophysiological and human psychophysical experiments. We then implement this model on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) prototyping system, using dedicated real-time hardwa...

  2. Adaptive Proactive Inhibitory Control for Embedded Real-time Applications

    Shufan Yang

    2012-01-01

    Psychologists have studied the inhibitory control of voluntary movement for many years. In particular, the countermanding of an impending action has been extensively studied. In this work, we propose a neural mechanism for adaptive inhibitory control in a firing-rate type model based on current findings in animal electrophysiological and human psychophysical experiments. We then implement this model on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) prototyping system, using dedicated real-time hardwa...

  3. Flexible parylene actuator for micro adaptive flow control

    Pornsin-Sirirak, T. N.; Tai, Y. C.; Nassef, H.; Ho, C M

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the first flexible parylene electrostatic actuator valves intended for micro adaptive flow control for the future use on the wings of micro-air-vehicle (MAV). The actuator diaphragm is made of two layers of parylene membranes with offset vent holes. Without electrostatic actuation, air can move freely from one side of the skin to the other side through the vent holes. With actuation, these vent holes are sealed and the airflow is controlled. The membrane behaves as a comp...

  4. Adaptive Control of the Chaotic System via Singular System Approach

    Yudong Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the control problem of the chaotic system subject to disturbance. The sliding mode surface is designed by singular system approach, and sufficient condition for convergence is given. Then, the adaptive sliding mode controller is designed to make the state arrive at the sliding mode surface in finite time. Finally, Lorenz system is considered as an example to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Adaptive Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Javaid, N.; Ahmad, A.; A. Rahim; Z.A. Khan; M. Ishfaq; Qasim, U.

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) are widely used for applications such as modern health-care systems, where wireless sensors (nodes) monitor the parameter(s) of interest. Nodes are provided with limited battery power and battery power is dependent on radio activity. MAC protocols play a key role in controlling the radio activity. Therefore, we present Adaptive Medium Access Control (A-MAC) protocol for WBANs supported by linear programming models for the minimization of energy consumption ...

  6. Active Inference, homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control

    Pezzulo, G; Rigoli, F.; Friston, K.

    2015-01-01

    We review a theory of homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control within the Active Inference framework. Our aim is to connect two research streams that are usually considered independently; namely, Active Inference and associative learning theories of animal behaviour. The former uses a probabilistic (Bayesian) formulation of perception and action, while the latter calls on multiple (Pavlovian, habitual, goal-directed) processes for homeostatic and behavioural control. We offer a...

  7. ADAPTIVE CONTROLLER AND ITS APPLICATION IN FORCE SYSTEM OF ASYMMETRIC CYLINDER CONTROLLED BY SYMMETRIC VALVE

    2007-01-01

    Partial pressure, system vibration and asymmetric system dynamic performance exit in asymmetric cylinder controller by symmetric valve hydraulic system. To solve this problem in the force control system, model reference adaptive controller is designed using equilibrium point stability theory and output error equation polynomial. The reference model is selected in such a way that it meets the system dynamic performance. Hardware configuration of asymmetric cylinder controlled by asymmetric valve hydraulic system is replaced by intelligent control algorithm, thus the cost is lowered and easy to application. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed adaptive control sheme has good adaptive ability and well solves asymmetric dynamic performance problem. The designed adaptive controller is fairly robust to load disturbance and system parameter variation.

  8. High User Control in Game Design Elements Increases Compliance and In-game Performance in a Memory Training Game

    Nagle, Aniket; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Computer games are increasingly being used for training cognitive functions like working memory and attention among the growing population of older adults. While cognitive training games often include elements like difficulty adaptation, rewards, and visual themes to make the games more enjoyable and effective, the effect of different degrees of afforded user control in manipulating these elements has not been systematically studied. To address this issue, two distinct implementations of the ...

  9. High user control in game design elements increases compliance and in-game performance in a memory training game

    Aniket eNagle; Robert eRiener; Peter eWolf

    2015-01-01

    Computer games are increasingly being used for training cognitive functions like working memory and attention among the growing population of older adults. While cognitive training games often include elements like difficulty adaptation, rewards, and visual themes to make the games more enjoyable and effective, the effect of different degrees of afforded user control in manipulating these elements has not been systematically studied. To address this issue, two distinct implementations of the ...

  10. A Comprehensive Robust Adaptive Controller for Gust Load Alleviation

    Elisa Capello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is the implementation and validation of an adaptive controller for aircraft gust load alleviation. The contribution of this paper is the design of a robust controller that guarantees the reduction of the gust loads, even when the nominal conditions change. Some preliminary results are presented, considering the symmetric aileron deflection as control device. The proposed approach is validated on subsonic transport aircraft for different mass and flight conditions. Moreover, if the controller parameters are tuned for a specific gust model, even if the gust frequency changes, no parameter retuning is required.

  11. Decentralized adaptive generalized predictive control for structural vibration

    LU Minyue; GU Zhongquan

    2005-01-01

    A decentralized generalized predictive control (GPC) algorithm is developed for strongly coupled multi-input multi-output systems with parallel computation. The algorithm is applied to adaptive control of structural vibration. The key steps in this algorithm are to group the actuators and the sensors and then to pair these groups into subsystems. It is important that the on-line identification and the control law design can be a parallel process for all these subsystems. It avoids the high computation cost in ordinary predictive control,and is of great advantage especially for large-scale systems.

  12. The Effects of Interset Rest on Adaptation to 7 Weeks of Explosive Training in Young Soccer Players

    Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the effects of plyometric training using 30, 60, or 120 s of rest between sets on explosive adaptations in young soccer players. Four groups of athletes (age 10.4 ± 2.3 y; soccer experience 3.3 ± 1.5 y were randomly formed: control (CG; n = 15, plyometric training with 30 s (G30; n = 13, 60 s (G60; n = 14, and 120 s (G120; n = 12 of rest between training sets. Before and after intervention players were measured in jump ability, 20-m sprint time, change of direction speed (CODS, and kicking performance. The training program was applied during 7 weeks, 2 sessions per week, for a total of 840 jumps. After intervention the G30, G60 and G120 groups showed a significant (p = 0.0001 – 0.04 and small to moderate effect size (ES improvement in the countermovement jump (ES = 0.49; 0.58; 0.55, 20 cm drop jump reactive strength index (ES = 0.81; 0.89; 0.86, CODS (ES = -1.03; -0.87; -1.04, and kicking performance (ES = 0.39; 0.49; 0.43, with no differences between treatments. The study shows that 30, 60, and 120 s of rest between sets ensure similar significant and small to moderate ES improvement in jump, CODS, and kicking performance during high-intensity short-term explosive training in young male soccer players.

  13. Cyber Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems

    Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a serious cyber security challenge. To combat this growing challenge, government, private industry, and academia are working together to reduce cyber risks. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a key contributor to the Department of Energy National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), both of which focus on improving the overall security posture of ICS in the national critical infrastructure. In support of the NSTB, INL hosts a dedicated SCADA testing facility which consists of multiple control systems supplied by leading national and international manufacturers. Within the test bed, INL researchers systematically examine control system components and work to identify vulnerabilities. In support of the CSSP, INL develops and conducts training courses which are designed to increase awareness and defensive capabilities for IT/Control System professionals. These trainings vary from web-based cyber security trainings for control systems engineers to more advanced hands-on training that culminates with a Red Team/ Blue Team exercise that is conducted within an actual control systems environment. INL also provides staffing and operational support to the DHS Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Security Operations Center which responds to and analyzes control systems cyber incidents across the 18 US critical infrastructure sectors.

  14. Carboy Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems

    Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a serious cyber security challenge. To combat this growing challenge, government, private industry, and academia are working together to reduce cyber risks. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a key contributor to the Department of Energy National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), both of which focus on improving the overall security posture of ICS in the national critical infrastructure. In support of the NSTB, INL hosts a dedicated SCADA testing facility which consists of multiple control systems supplied by leading national and international manufacturers. Within the test bed, INL researchers systematically examine control system components and work to identify vulnerabilities. In support of the CSSP, INL develops and conducts training courses which are designed to increase awareness and defensive capabilities for IT/Control System professionals. These training vary from web-based cyber security training for control systems engineers to more advanced hands-on training that culminates with a Red Team/Blue Team exercise that is conducted within an actual control systems environment. INL also provides staffing and operational support to the DHS Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Security Operations Center which responds to and analyzes control systems cyber incidents across the 18 US critical infrastructure sectors

  15. Design of a biped locomotion controller based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems

    Shieh, M-Y; Chang, K-H [Department of E. E., Southern Taiwan University, 1 Nantai St., YungKang City, Tainan County 71005, Taiwan (China); Lia, Y-S [Executive Director Office, ITRI, Southern Taiwan Innovation Park, Tainan County, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: myshieh@mail.stut.edu.tw

    2008-02-15

    This paper proposes a method for the design of a biped locomotion controller based on the ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) inverse learning model. In the model developed here, an integrated ANFIS structure is trained to function as the system identifier for the modeling of the inverse dynamics of a biped robot. The parameters resulting from the modeling process are duplicated and integrated as those of the biped locomotion controller to provide favorable control action. As the simulation results show, the proposed controller is able to generate a stable walking cycle for a biped robot. Moreover, the experimental results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed controller is satisfactory under conditions when the robot stands in different postures or moves on a rugged surface.

  16. Design of a biped locomotion controller based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems

    This paper proposes a method for the design of a biped locomotion controller based on the ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) inverse learning model. In the model developed here, an integrated ANFIS structure is trained to function as the system identifier for the modeling of the inverse dynamics of a biped robot. The parameters resulting from the modeling process are duplicated and integrated as those of the biped locomotion controller to provide favorable control action. As the simulation results show, the proposed controller is able to generate a stable walking cycle for a biped robot. Moreover, the experimental results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed controller is satisfactory under conditions when the robot stands in different postures or moves on a rugged surface

  17. Learning an EMG Controlled Game: Task-Specific Adaptations and Transfer.

    van Dijk, Ludger; van der Sluis, Corry K; van Dijk, Hylke W; Bongers, Raoul M

    2016-01-01

    Video games that aim to improve myoelectric control (myogames) are gaining popularity and are often part of the rehabilitation process following an upper limb amputation. However, direct evidence for their effect on prosthetic skill is limited. This study aimed to determine whether and how myogaming improves EMG control and whether performance improvements transfer to a prosthesis-simulator task. Able-bodied right-handed participants (N = 28) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. The intervention group was trained to control a video game (Breakout-EMG) using the myosignals of wrist flexors and extensors. Controls played a regular Mario computer game. Both groups trained 20 minutes a day for 4 consecutive days. Before and after training, two tests were conducted: one level of the Breakout-EMG game, and grasping objects with a prosthesis-simulator. Results showed a larger increase of in-game accuracy for the Breakout-EMG group than for controls. The Breakout-EMG group moreover showed increased adaptation of the EMG signal to the game. No differences were found in using a prosthesis-simulator. This study demonstrated that myogames lead to task-specific myocontrol skills. Transfer to a prosthesis task is therefore far from easy. We discuss several implications for future myogame designs. PMID:27556154

  18. A novel adaptive force control method for IPMC manipulation

    Hao, Lina; Sun, Zhiyong; Li, Zhi; Su, Yunquan; Gao, Jianchao

    2012-07-01

    IPMC is a type of electro-active polymer material, also called artificial muscle, which can generate a relatively large deformation under a relatively low input voltage (generally speaking, less than 5 V), and can be implemented in a water environment. Due to these advantages, IPMC can be used in many fields such as biomimetics, service robots, bio-manipulation, etc. Until now, most existing methods for IPMC manipulation are displacement control not directly force control, however, under most conditions, the success rate of manipulations for tiny fragile objects is limited by the contact force, such as using an IPMC gripper to fix cells. Like most EAPs, a creep phenomenon exists in IPMC, of which the generated force will change with time and the creep model will be influenced by the change of the water content or other environmental factors, so a proper force control method is urgently needed. This paper presents a novel adaptive force control method (AIPOF control—adaptive integral periodic output feedback control), based on employing a creep model of which parameters are obtained by using the FRLS on-line identification method. The AIPOF control method can achieve an arbitrary pole configuration as long as the plant is controllable and observable. This paper also designs the POF and IPOF controller to compare their test results. Simulation and experiments of micro-force-tracking tests are carried out, with results confirming that the proposed control method is viable.

  19. Robust observer-based adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller

    Oveisi, Atta; Nestorović, Tamara

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a new observer-based adaptive fuzzy integral sliding mode controller is proposed based on the Lyapunov stability theorem. The plant is subjected to a square-integrable disturbance and is assumed to have mismatch uncertainties both in state- and input-matrices. Based on the classical sliding mode controller, the equivalent control effort is obtained to satisfy the sufficient requirement of sliding mode controller and then the control law is modified to guarantee the reachability of the system trajectory to the sliding manifold. In order to relax the norm-bounded constrains on the control law and solve the chattering problem of sliding mode controller, a fuzzy logic inference mechanism is combined with the controller. An adaptive law is then introduced to tune the parameters of the fuzzy system on-line. Finally, for evaluating the controller and the robust performance of the closed-loop system, the proposed regulator is implemented on a real-time mechanical vibrating system.

  20. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system based automatic generation control

    Hosseini, S.H.; Etemadi, A.H. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran)

    2008-07-15

    Fixed gain controllers for automatic generation control are designed at nominal operating conditions and fail to provide best control performance over a wide range of operating conditions. So, to keep system performance near its optimum, it is desirable to track the operating conditions and use updated parameters to compute control gains. A control scheme based on artificial neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), which is trained by the results of off-line studies obtained using particle swarm optimization, is proposed in this paper to optimize and update control gains in real-time according to load variations. Also, frequency relaxation is implemented using ANFIS. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated via simulations. Compliance of the proposed method with NERC control performance standard is verified. (author)

  1. Replicability of sight word training and phonics training in poor readers: a randomised controlled trial

    G McArthur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of effective treatments for children with reading impairment, paired with growing concern about the lack of scientific replication in psychological science, the aim of this study was to replicate a quasi-randomised trial of sight word and phonics training using a randomised controlled trial (RCT design. One group of poor readers (N = 41 did 8 weeks of phonics training (i.e., phonological decoding and then 8 weeks of sight word training (i.e., whole-word recognition. A second group did the reverse order of training. Sight word and phonics training each had a large and significant valid treatment effect on trained irregular words and word reading fluency. In addition, combined sight word and phonics training had a moderate and significant valid treatment effect on nonword reading accuracy and fluency. These findings demonstrate the reliability of both phonics and sight word training in treating poor readers in an era where the importance of scientific reliability is under close scrutiny.

  2. Adaptation of perceptual responses to low load blood flow restriction training

    Martín-Hernández, Juan; Ruiz-Aguado, Jorge; Herrero, Juan Azael;

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the adaptive response of ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and pain over six consecutive training sessions. Thirty subjects were assigned to either a blood flow restricted training group (BFRT) or a high intensity group (HIT). BFRT group performed four...... set. Per-session RPE and pain were considered as the average value throughout all sets. RPE dropped from Session 4 following HIT (8.5 to 7.6, p<0.05) and from Session 5 following BFRT (7.4 to 6.0, p<0.01). Perceived pain dropped from Session 5 in both groups (HIT: 6.2 to 5.4 and BFRT: 8.1 to 6.3, p<0...

  3. Cognitive Adaptation Training combined with assertive community treatment: A Randomised Longitudinal Trial

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Hansen, J. P.; Østergaard, B.;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive adaptation training (CAT) targets the adaptive behaviour of patients with schizophrenia and has shown promising results regarding the social aspects of psychosocial treatment. As yet, no reports have appeared on the use of CAT in combination with assertive community treatment...... (ACT). Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of CAT in comparison with ACT, focusing on social functions (primary outcome), symptoms, relapse, re-hospitalisation, and quality of life of outpatients with schizophrenia. METHODS: The trial was a parallel, randomised, multicentre trial conducted in three...... centres treating patients with a first episode of schizophrenia disorder. A total of 62 outpatients diagnosed as having schizophrenia were randomly assigned to CAT+ACT or ACT alone. The CAT was conducted in the patient's home and included instruction in prompting for specific actions. The treatment lasted...

  4. Dynamic data-driven sensor network adaptation for border control

    Bein, Doina; Madan, Bharat B.; Phoha, Shashi; Rajtmajer, Sarah; Rish, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Given a specific scenario for the border control problem, we propose a dynamic data-driven adaptation of the associated sensor network via embedded software agents which make sensor network control, adaptation and collaboration decisions based on the contextual information value of competing data provided by different multi-modal sensors. We further propose the use of influence diagrams to guide data-driven decision making in selecting the appropriate action or course of actions which maximize a given utility function by designing a sensor embedded software agent that uses an influence diagram to make decisions about whether to engage or not engage higher level sensors for accurately detecting human presence in the region. The overarching goal of the sensor system is to increase the probability of target detection and classification and reduce the rate of false alarms. The proposed decision support software agent is validated experimentally on a laboratory testbed for multiple border control scenarios.

  5. A Robot Manipulator with Adaptive Fuzzy Controller in Obstacle Avoidance

    Sreekumar, Muthuswamy

    2016-03-01

    Building robots and machines to act within a fuzzy environment is a problem featuring complexity and ambiguity. In order to avoid obstacles, or move away from it, the robot has to perform functions such as obstacle identification, finding the location of the obstacle, its velocity, direction of movement, size, shape, and so on. This paper presents about the design, and implementation of an adaptive fuzzy controller designed for a 3 degree of freedom spherical coordinate robotic manipulator interfaced with a microcontroller and an ultrasonic sensor. Distance between the obstacle and the sensor and its time rate are considered as inputs to the controller and how the manipulator to take diversion from its planned trajectory, in order to avoid collision with the obstacle, is treated as output from the controller. The obstacles are identified as stationary or moving objects and accordingly adaptive self tuning is accomplished with three set of linguistic rules. The prototype of the manipulator has been fabricated and tested for collision avoidance by placing stationary and moving obstacles in its planned trajectory. The performance of the adaptive control algorithm is analyzed in MATLAB by generating 3D fuzzy control surfaces.

  6. Adaptation with disturbance attenuation in nonlinear control systems

    Basar, T. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    We present an optimization-based adaptive controller design for nonlinear systems exhibiting parametric as well as functional uncertainty. The approach involves the formulation of an appropriate cost functional that places positive weight on deviations from the achievement of desired objectives (such as tracking of a reference trajectory while the system exhibits good transient performance) and negative weight on the energy of the uncertainty. This cost functional also translates into a disturbance attenuation inequality which quantifies the effect of the presence of uncertainty on the desired objective, which in turn yields an interpretation for the optimizing control as one that optimally attenuates the disturbance, viewed as the collection of unknown parameters and unknown signals entering the system dynamics. In addition to this disturbance attenuation property, the controllers obtained also feature adaptation in the sense that they help with identification of the unknown parameters, even though this has not been set as the primary goal of the design. In spite of this adaptation/identification role, the controllers obtained are not of certainty-equivalent type, which means that the identification and the control phases of the design are not decoupled.

  7. Adaptive Vibration Control System for MR Damper Faults

    Juan C. Tudón-Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several methods have been proposed to estimate the force of a semiactive damper, particularly of a magnetorheological damper because of its importance in automotive and civil engineering. Usually, all models have been proposed assuming experimental data in nominal operating conditions and some of them are estimated for control purposes. Because dampers are prone to fail, fault estimation is useful to design adaptive vibration controllers to accommodate the malfunction in the suspension system. This paper deals with the diagnosis and estimation of faults in an automotive magnetorheological damper. A robust LPV observer is proposed to estimate the lack of force caused by a damper leakage in a vehicle corner. Once the faulty damper is isolated in the vehicle and the fault is estimated, an Adaptive Vibration Control System is proposed to reduce the fault effect using compensation forces from the remaining healthy dampers. To fulfill the semiactive damper constraints in the fault adaptation, an LPV controller is designed for vehicle comfort and road holding. Simulation results show that the fault observer has good performance with robustness to noise and road disturbances and the proposed AVCS improves the comfort up to 24% with respect to a controlled suspension without fault tolerance features.

  8. A Robot Manipulator with Adaptive Fuzzy Controller in Obstacle Avoidance

    Sreekumar, Muthuswamy

    2016-07-01

    Building robots and machines to act within a fuzzy environment is a problem featuring complexity and ambiguity. In order to avoid obstacles, or move away from it, the robot has to perform functions such as obstacle identification, finding the location of the obstacle, its velocity, direction of movement, size, shape, and so on. This paper presents about the design, and implementation of an adaptive fuzzy controller designed for a 3 degree of freedom spherical coordinate robotic manipulator interfaced with a microcontroller and an ultrasonic sensor. Distance between the obstacle and the sensor and its time rate are considered as inputs to the controller and how the manipulator to take diversion from its planned trajectory, in order to avoid collision with the obstacle, is treated as output from the controller. The obstacles are identified as stationary or moving objects and accordingly adaptive self tuning is accomplished with three set of linguistic rules. The prototype of the manipulator has been fabricated and tested for collision avoidance by placing stationary and moving obstacles in its planned trajectory. The performance of the adaptive control algorithm is analyzed in MATLAB by generating 3D fuzzy control surfaces.

  9. Beaconless adaptive-optics technique for HEL beam control

    Khizhnyak, Anatoliy; Markov, Vladimir

    2016-05-01

    Effective performance of forthcoming laser systems capable of power delivery on a distant target requires an adaptive optics system to correct atmospheric perturbations on the laser beam. The turbulence-induced effects are responsible for beam wobbling, wandering, and intensity scintillation, resulting in degradation of the beam quality and power density on the target. Adaptive optics methods are used to compensate for these negative effects. In its turn, operation of the AOS system requires a reference wave that can be generated by the beacon on the target. This report discusses a beaconless approach for wavefront correction with its performance based on the detection of the target-scattered light. Postprocessing of the beacon-generated light field enables retrieval and detailed characterization of the turbulence-perturbed wavefront -data that is essential to control the adaptive optics module of a high-power laser system.

  10. A response surface method based on support vector machines trained with an adaptive experimental design

    Structural reliability is nowadays largely used to take into account uncertainties related to the input data of a structural model. When the structural response becomes complex, the mechanical model is designed within the framework of the finite element method and therefore, the computational time required by a coupling reliability/finite element analysis is driven by the number of performance function calls. This paper aims at proposing an original approach to approximate implicit limit state functions. It is based on the support vector machine used in regression trained with an adaptive experimental design. Several numerical examples proposed in the published literature are considered to assess the efficiency of the proposed method. (authors)

  11. Feedback control for a train-like vehicle

    This paper presents a feedback nonlinear control law for a train-like vehicle (TLV) used in nuclear power-station maintenance. The front cart is either manual or automated guided. The rear carts are feedback controlled. The control objective is to ensure that the rear carts track the path produced (on-line) by the front cart. This controller was experimentally tested on the TLV-prototype. (authors). 4 figs., 4 refs

  12. Radiological Control Technician: Phase 1, Site academic training study guides

    This volume is a study guide for training Radiological Control Technicians. Provided herein are support materials for learning radiological documentation, communication systems, counting errors and statistics, dosimetry, contamination control, airborne sampling program methods, respiratory protection, radiological source control, environmental monitoring, access control and work area setup, radiological work coverage, shipment and receipt for radioactive material, radiological incidents and emergencies, personnel decontamination, first aid, radiation survey instrumentation, contamination monitoring, air sampling, and counting room equipment

  13. Export control training - Experience and pedagogical lessons learned

    This series of slides draws a picture of the training offerings in export control within the framework of the International Nonproliferation Export Control Program. These courses are organized around 3 topics: licensing, enterprise outreach and enforcement. There are about 10 courses, a brief content of their curricula is given. The goal of these courses is not to make participants into export control experts or trade analysts, but enable them to properly take export controls into account. (A.C.)

  14. Perilipin 5 is dispensable for normal substrate metabolism and in the adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise training.

    Mohktar, Ruzaidi A M; Montgomery, Magda K; Murphy, Robyn M; Watt, Matthew J

    2016-07-01

    Cytoplasmic lipid droplets provide a reservoir for triglyceride storage and are a central hub for fatty acid trafficking in cells. The protein perilipin 5 (PLIN5) is highly expressed in oxidative tissues such as skeletal muscle and regulates lipid metabolism by coordinating the trafficking and the reversible interactions of effector proteins at the lipid droplet. PLIN5 may also regulate mitochondrial function, although this remains unsubstantiated. Hence, the aims of this study were to examine the role of PLIN5 in the regulation of skeletal muscle substrate metabolism during acute exercise and to determine whether PLIN5 is required for the metabolic adaptations and enhancement in exercise tolerance following endurance exercise training. Using muscle-specific Plin5 knockout mice (Plin5(MKO)), we show that PLIN5 is dispensable for normal substrate metabolism during exercise, as reflected by levels of blood metabolites and rates of glycogen and triglyceride depletion that were indistinguishable from control (lox/lox) mice. Plin5(MKO) mice exhibited a functional impairment in their response to endurance exercise training, as reflected by reduced maximal running capacity (20%) and reduced time to fatigue during prolonged submaximal exercise (15%). The reduction in exercise performance was not accompanied by alterations in carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during submaximal exercise. Similarly, mitochondrial capacity (mtDNA, respiratory complex proteins, citrate synthase activity) and mitochondrial function (oxygen consumption rate in muscle fiber bundles) were not different between lox/lox and Plin5(MKO) mice. Thus, PLIN5 is dispensable for normal substrate metabolism during exercise and is not required to promote mitochondrial biogenesis or enhance the cellular adaptations to endurance exercise training. PMID:27189934

  15. Flexible Joints Robotic Manipulator Control By Adaptive Gain Smooth Sliding Observer-Controller

    A. FILIPESCU

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive gain sliding observer for uncertain parameter nonlinear systems together with an adaptive gain sliding controller is proposed in this paper. It considered nonlinear, SISO affine systems, with uncertainties in steady-state functions and parameters. A further parameter term, adaptively updated, has been introduced in steady state space model of the controlled system, in order to obtain useful information despite fault detection and isolation. By using of the sliding observer with adaptive gain, the robustness to uncertainties is increased and the parameters adaptively updated can provide useful information in fault detection. Also, the state estimation error is bounded accordingly with bound limits of the uncertainties. The both of them, the sliding adaptive observer and sliding controller are designed to fulfill the attractiveness condition of its corresponding switching surface. An application to a single arm with flexible joint robot is presented. In order to alleviate chattering, a parameterized tangent hyperbolic has been used as switching function, instead of pure relay one, to the observer and the controller. Also, the gains of the switching functions, to the sliding observer and sliding controller are adaptively updated depending of estimation error and tracking error, respectively. By the using adaptive gains, the transient and tracking response can be improved.

  16. Identification and adaptive neural network control of a DC motor system with dead-zone characteristics.

    Peng, Jinzhu; Dubay, Rickey

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, an adaptive control approach based on the neural networks is presented to control a DC motor system with dead-zone characteristics (DZC), where two neural networks are proposed to formulate the traditional identification and control approaches. First, a Wiener-type neural network (WNN) is proposed to identify the motor DZC, which formulates the Wiener model with a linear dynamic block in cascade with a nonlinear static gain. Second, a feedforward neural network is proposed to formulate the traditional PID controller, termed as PID-type neural network (PIDNN), which is then used to control and compensate for the DZC. In this way, the DC motor system with DZC is identified by the WNN identifier, which provides model information to the PIDNN controller in order to make it adaptive. Back-propagation algorithms are used to train both neural networks. Also, stability and convergence analysis are conducted using the Lyapunov theorem. Finally, experiments on the DC motor system demonstrated accurate identification and good compensation for dead-zone with improved control performance over the conventional PID control. PMID:21788017

  17. Traffic Modelling for Moving-Block Train Control System

    TANG Tao; LI Ke-Ping

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new cellular automaton (CA) model for train control system simulation.In the proposed CA model,the driver reactions to train movements are captured by some updated rules.The space-time diagram of traffic flow and the trajectory of train movement is used to obtain insight into the characteristic behavior of railway traffic flow.A number of simulation results demonstrate that the proposed CA model can be successfully used for the simulations of railway traffic.Not only the characteristic behavior of railway traffic flow can be reproduced,but also the simulation values of the minimum time headway are close to the theoretical values.

  18. Traffic Modelling for Moving-Block Train Control System

    This paper presents a new cellular automaton (CA) model for train control system simulation. In the proposed CA model, the driver reactions to train movements are captured by some updated rules. The space-time diagram of traffic flow and the trajectory of train movement is used to obtain insight into the characteristic behavior of railway traffic flow. A number of simulation results demonstrate that the proposed CA model can be successfully used for the simulations of railway traffic. Not only the characteristic behavior of railway traffic flow can be reproduced, but also the simulation values of the minimum time headway are close to the theoretical values.

  19. Direct model reference adaptive control of a flexible robotic manipulator

    Meldrum, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Quick, precise control of a flexible manipulator in a space environment is essential for future Space Station repair and satellite servicing. Numerous control algorithms have proven successful in controlling rigid manipulators wih colocated sensors and actuators; however, few have been tested on a flexible manipulator with noncolocated sensors and actuators. In this thesis, a model reference adaptive control (MRAC) scheme based on command generator tracker theory is designed for a flexible manipulator. Quicker, more precise tracking results are expected over nonadaptive control laws for this MRAC approach. Equations of motion in modal coordinates are derived for a single-link, flexible manipulator with an actuator at the pinned-end and a sensor at the free end. An MRAC is designed with the objective of controlling the torquing actuator so that the tip position follows a trajectory that is prescribed by the reference model. An appealing feature of this direct MRAC law is that it allows the reference model to have fewer states than the plant itself. Direct adaptive control also adjusts the controller parameters directly with knowledge of only the plant output and input signals.

  20. VFI-based Robotic Arm Control for Natural Adaptive Motion

    Woosung Yang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Since neural oscillator based control methods can generate rhythmic motion without information on system dynamics, they can be a promising alternative to traditional motion planning based control approaches. However, for field application, they still need to be robust against unexpected forces or changes in environments so as to be able to generate “natural motion” like most biological systems. In this study a biologically inspired control algorithm that combines neural oscillators and virtual force is proposed. This work gives the condition with respect to parameters tuning to stably activate the neural oscillators. This is helpful to achieve motion adaptability to environmental changes keeping the motion repeatability. He efficacy and efficiency of the proposed methods are tested in the control of a planar three-linkage robotic arm. It is shown that the proposed controller generates a given circular path stably and repeatedly, even with unexpected contact with a wall. The adaptivity of motion control is also tested in control of a robotic arm with redundant degrees of freedom. The proposed control algorithm works throughout the simulations and experiments.