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Sample records for adaptive resonance frequency

  1. Study of the Method of Multi-Frequency Signal Detection Based on the Adaptive Stochastic Resonance

    Zhenyu Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the stochastic resonance effect has been widely used by the method of discovering and extracting weak periodic signals from strong noise through the stochastic resonance effect. The detection of the single-frequency weak signals by using stochastic resonance effect is widely used. However, the detection methods of the multifrequency weak signals need to be researched. According to the different frequency input signals of a given system, this paper puts forward a detection method of multifrequency signal by using adaptive stochastic resonance, which analyzed the frequency characteristics and the parallel number of the input signals, adjusted system parameters automatically to the low frequency signals in the fixed step size, and then measured the stochastic resonance phenomenon based on the frequency of the periodic signals to select the most appropriate indicators in the middle or high frequency. Finally, the optimized system parameters are founded and the frequency of the given signals is extracted in the frequency domain of the stochastic resonance output signals. Compared with the traditional detection methods, the method in this paper not only improves the work efficiency but also makes it more accurate by using the color noise, the frequency is more accurate being extracted from the measured signal. The consistency between the simulation results and analysis shows that this method is effective and feasible.

  2. Adaptive-frequency Resonant Harmonic-Compensator structure for a 3-phase grid-connected photovoltaic system

    Highlights: • An adaptive-frequency Harmonic-Compensation structure is used. • The frequency spectrum of the grid current is analyzed for different scenarios. • A comparison with the normative of the harmonic distortions is carried out. • The algorithms can be used in any country regardless its nominal frequency. - Abstract: In this paper, an adaptive-frequency Harmonic-Compensation structure for a Voltage Source Inverter used in a 3-phase grid-connected Photovoltaic system is presented. The main purpose is to show the frequency adaptation of the used control algorithm in order to improve the compensation of the low-order utility grid current harmonics when frequency variations occur, which can be seen as an outstanding feature when comparing to conventional non-adaptive Harmonic-Compensator structures, and can be used in any country regardless its nominal frequency and maintaining its Harmonic Compensation capability without making any change in the control algorithm. The frequency spectrum of the utility grid current is analyzed for three different scenarios: Proportional Resonant Controller without Harmonic Compensation, Proportional Resonant Controller with Harmonic Compensation, and adaptive-frequency Proportional Resonant Controller with Harmonic Compensation; a comparison with the normative of its individual and total harmonic amplitude distortions is carried out for the three situations. In order to validate the algorithms, some simulations using MATLAB/SIMULINK from The MathWorks, Inc. are shown firstly, and secondly, some real-time digital simulations are carried out

  3. Adaptive Feedforward Compensation by Specified Step Settling Considering Resonance Frequency Variation and Constraint on Control Input Amplitude

    Maeda, Yoshihiro; Wada, Masatake; Iwasaki, Makoto; Hirai, Hiromu

    This paper presents an adaptive feedfowad (FF) compensation method based on a deadbeat control framework for fast and precise positioning in mechatronic systems. The conventional FF compensation approach can design a FF compensator by considering both the frequency shaping and amplitude of FF control input, to suppress the response variations due to the perturbations in plant resonance frequency. However, since the conventional approach is not adaptive against frequency variations, an overshoot and/or undershoot response at the settling region would deteriorate the positioning performance. In this research, therefore, the proposed FF compensation approach with an adaptive identification system for the resonance frequency is adopted to achieve the desired positioning performance. The effectiveness of the proposed FF compensation approach has been verified by experiments using a prototype of an industrial positioning device.

  4. Resonance frequency analysis

    Rajiv K Gupta; Thallam V Padmanabhan

    2011-01-01

    Initial stability at the placement and development of osseointegration are two major issues for implant survival. Implant stability is a mechanical phenomenon which is related to the local bone quality and quantity, type of implant, and placement technique used. The application of a simple, clinically applicable, non-invasive test to assess implant stability and osseointegration is considered highly desirable. Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) is one of such techniques which is most frequent...

  5. Resonance frequency analysis

    Rajiv K Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial stability at the placement and development of osseointegration are two major issues for implant survival. Implant stability is a mechanical phenomenon which is related to the local bone quality and quantity, type of implant, and placement technique used. The application of a simple, clinically applicable, non-invasive test to assess implant stability and osseointegration is considered highly desirable. Resonance frequency analysis (RFA is one of such techniques which is most frequently used now days. The aim of this paper was to review and analyze critically the current available literature in the field of RFA, and to also discuss based on scientific evidence, the prognostic value of RFA to detect implants at risk of failure. A search was made using the PubMed database to find all the literature published on "Resonance frequency analysis for implant stability" till date. Articles discussed in vivo or in vitro studies comparing RFA with other methods of implant stability measurement and articles discussing its reliability were thoroughly reviewed and discussed. A limited number of clinical reports were found. Various studies have demonstrated the feasibility and predictability of the technique. However, most of these articles are based on retrospective data or uncontrolled cases. Randomized, prospective, parallel-armed longitudinal human trials are based on short-term results and long-term follow up are still scarce in this field. Nonetheless, from available literature, it may be concluded that RFA technique evaluates implant stability as a function of stiffness of the implant bone interface and is influenced by factors such as bone type, exposed implant height above the alveolar crest. Resonance frequency analysis could serve as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for detecting the implant stability of dental implants during the healing stages and in subsequent routine follow up care after treatment. Future studies, preferably randomized

  6. An adaptive feedback circuit for MEMS resonators

    The first adaptive feedback circuit capable of detecting resonant frequencies for a wide range of MEMS resonators is presented. The feedback system presented implements a hill-climbing algorithm that sweeps actuation frequencies, locking onto the resonance condition at maximum cantilever amplitude response without limitations on the frequency range. To demonstrate its adaptability, a circuit implementation of this feedback algorithm was used to detect the resonant frequency of eight different cantilever-based sensors (width (W) = 1.4 µm, length (L) = 40–75 µm, and thickness (T) = 1.8 µm), resonating at 201.0 to 592.1 kHz. Additionally, the same circuit was used to track resonant frequency shifts due to isopropanol adsorption on three different chemical sensors with no modifications. The feedback electronics integrated with these resonator sensors provide a mass resolution limit of 123 femptograms. The realization of this system will enable real-time chip-scale sensor systems, providing an alternative to external instrumentation modules that perform sensor control and monitoring.

  7. Resonance and aspect matched adaptive radar (RAMAR)

    Barrett, Terence William

    2012-01-01

    The book describes a new form of radar for which the target response is frequency, i.e., resonance-dependent. The book provides both prototype designs and empirical results collected from a variety of targets. The new form of radar, called RAMAR (Resonance and Aspect Matched Adaptive Radar) advances radar - mere ranging and detection - to the level of RF spectroscopy, and permits an advance of spectroscopic methods from optical, through infra-red and into the RF spectral range. The book will describe how a target's response can be a function of frequency components in the transmitted signal's

  8. Coupled Resonance Laser Frequency Stabilization

    Burd, Shaun; Uys, Hermann; MAQClab Team

    2013-05-01

    We have demonstrated simultaneous laser frequency stabilization of a UV and IR laser, to the same photodiode signal derived from the UV laser only. For trapping and cooling Yb+ ions, a frequency stabilized laser is required at 369.9 nm to drive the S1/2-P1/2 cooling cycle. Since that cycle is not closed, a repump beam is needed at 935.18 nm to drive the D3/2-D[ 3 / 2 ] transition, which rapidly decays back to the S1/2 state. Our 369 nm laser is locked using Doppler free polarization spectroscopy of Yb+ ions, generated in a hollow cathode discharge lamp. Without pumping, the metastable D3/2 level is only sparsely populated, making direct absorption of 935 nm light difficult to detect. A resonant 369 nm pump laser can populate the D3/2 state, and fast repumping to the S1/2 ground state by on resonant 935 nm light, can be detected via the change in absorption of the 369 nm laser. This is accomplished using lock-in detection on the same photodiode signal to which the 369 nm laser is locked. In this way, simultaneous locking of two frequencies in very different spectral regimes is accomplished, while exploiting only the photodiode signal from one of the lasers. A rate equation model gives good qualitative agreement with experimental observation. This work was partially funded by the South African National Research Foundation.

  9. Ultra-high frequency magnetic resonance imaging

    Magill, Arthur W.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of radiofrequency probe design for Ultra High Frequency Magnetic Resonance Imaging (7T). The signal-to-noise ratio available in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is determined by the static magnetic field strength, causing a continued drive toward higher fields to enable faster image acquisition at finer spatial resolution. The resonant frequency increases linearly with static field strength. At 7T the proton resonant frequency is 300MHz, with a wavelength...

  10. Resonance frequency in respiratory distress syndrome

    Lee, S.; Milner, A

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To observe how the resonance frequency changes with the course of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), by examining the effect of changing static compliance on the resonance frequency in premature infants.
METHODS—In 12 ventilated premature infants with RDS (mean gestational age 26.6 weeks, mean birth weight 0.84 kg), resonance frequency and static compliance were determined serially using phase analysis and single breath mechanics technique respectively in the first ...

  11. Resonant frequencies of whispering gallery modes of dielectric resonator

    S.L. Badnilcar; N.Shanmugam; V. R. K. Murthy

    2001-01-01

    The modal spectrum of the whispering gallery modes of dielectric resonator depends mainly on its physical dimensions, dielectric constant, and to a lesser extent, on the environment. This paper carries investigation of the resonant frequencies in dielectric disc utilising the ring resonator model. Results of the structural design parameters are used to generate a nume!ical expression for describing the operational frequencies useful for computer-aided design applications. Theoretical ...

  12. Cavities for electron spin resonance: predicting the resonant frequency

    Colton, John; Miller, Kyle; Meehan, Michael; Spencer, Ross

    Microwave cavities are used in electron spin resonance to enhance magnetic fields. Dielectric resonators (DRs), pieces of high dielectric material, can be used to tailor the resonant frequency of a cavity. However, designing cavities with DRs to obtain desired frequencies is challenging and in general can only be done numerically with expensive software packages. We present a new method for calculating the resonant frequencies and corresponding field modes for cylindrically symmetric cavities and apply it to a cavity with vertically stacked DRs. The modes of an arbitrary cavity are expressed as an expansion of empty cavity modes. The wave equation for D gives rise to an eigenvalue equation whose eigenvalues are the resonant frequencies and whose eigenvectors yield the electric and magnetic fields of the mode. A test against theory for an infinitely long dielectric cylinder inside an infinite cavity yields an accuracy better than 0.4% for nearly all modes. Calculated resonant frequencies are also compared against experiment for quasi-TE011 modes in resonant cavities with ten different configurations of DRs; experimental results agree with predicted values with an accuracy better than 1.0%. MATLAB code is provided at http://www.physics.byu.edu/research/coltonlab/cavityresonance.

  13. High Energy Single Frequency Resonant Amplifier Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a single frequency high energy resonant amplifier for remote sensing. Current state-of-art technologies can not provide all...

  14. On Frequency Combs in Monolithic Resonators

    Savchenkov A. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical frequency combs have become indispensable in astronomical measurements, biological fingerprinting, optical metrology, and radio frequency photonic signal generation. Recently demonstrated microring resonator-based Kerr frequency combs point the way towards chip scale optical frequency comb generator retaining major properties of the lab scale devices. This technique is promising for integrated miniature radiofrequency and microwave sources, atomic clocks, optical references and femtosecond pulse generators. Here we present Kerr frequency comb development in a historical perspective emphasizing its similarities and differences with other physical phenomena. We elucidate fundamental principles and describe practical implementations of Kerr comb oscillators, highlighting associated solved and unsolved problems.

  15. Optical ballast and adaptive dynamic stable resonator

    Zhang Guang-Yin; Jiao Zhi-Yong; Guo Shu-Guang; Zhang Xiao-Hua; Gu Xue-Wen; Yan Cai-Fan; Wu Ding-Er; Song Feng

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a new concept of ‘optical ballast' is put forward. Optical ballast is a kind of device that can be used to decrease the variation and fluctuation of the propagation characteristics of light beams caused by the disturbance of refractive index of the medium. To illustrate the idea clearly and concretely, a fully adaptive dynamic stable solid-state laser resonator is presented as application example of optical ballast.

  16. Magnetic plasmonic Fano resonance at optical frequency.

    Bao, Yanjun; Hu, Zhijian; Li, Ziwei; Zhu, Xing; Fang, Zheyu

    2015-05-13

    Plasmonic Fano resonances are typically understood and investigated assuming electrical mode hybridization. Here we demonstrate that a purely magnetic plasmon Fano resonance can be realized at optical frequency with Au split ring hexamer nanostructure excited by an azimuthally polarized incident light. Collective magnetic plasmon modes induced by the circular electric field within the hexamer and each of the split ring can be controlled and effectively hybridized by designing the size and orientation of each ring unit. With simulated results reproducing the experiment, our suggested configuration with narrow line-shape magnetic Fano resonance has significant potential applications in low-loss sensing and may serves as suitable elementary building blocks for optical metamaterials. PMID:25594885

  17. Detection and Reduction of Middle-Frequency Resonance for Industrial Servo with Self-Tuning Lowpass Filter

    Wen-Yu Wang; An-Wen Shen

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for middle frequency resonance detection and reduction is proposed for speed control in industrial servo systems. Defects of traditional resonance reduction method based on adaptive notch filter in middle frequency range are analyzed. And the main reason is summarized as the difference between the resonance frequency and the oscillation frequency. A self-tuning low-pass filter is introduced in the speed feedback path, whose corner frequency is determined by FFT results and seve...

  18. Adaptive contrast imaging: transmit frequency optimization

    Ménigot, Sébastien; Novell, Anthony; Voicu, Iulian; Bouakaz, Ayache; Girault, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Since the introduction of ultrasound (US) contrast imaging, the imaging systems use a fixed emitting frequency. However it is known that the insonified medium is time-varying and therefore an adapted time-varying excitation is expected. We suggest an adaptive imaging technique which selects the optimal transmit frequency that maximizes the acoustic contrast. Two algorithms have been proposed to find an US excitation for which the frequency was optimal with microbubbles. Methods and Materials: Simulations were carried out for encapsulated microbubbles of 2 microns by considering the modified Rayleigh-Plesset equation for 2 MHz transmit frequency and for various pressure levels (20 kPa up to 420kPa). In vitro experiments were carried out using a transducer operating at 2 MHz and using a programmable waveform generator. Contrast agent was then injected into a small container filled with water. Results and discussions: We show through simulations and in vitro experiments that our adaptive imaging technique gives: 1) in case of simulations, a gain of acoustic contrast which can reach 9 dB compared to the traditional technique without optimization and 2) for in vitro experiments, a gain which can reach 18 dB. There is a non negligible discrepancy between simulations and experiments. These differences are certainly due to the fact that our simulations do not take into account the diffraction and nonlinear propagation effects. Further optimizations are underway.

  19. Multi-frequency modes in superconducting resonators: Bridging frequency gaps in off-resonant couplings

    Andersen, Christian Kraglund; Mølmer, Klaus

    2015-03-01

    A SQUID inserted in a superconducting waveguide resonator imposes current and voltage boundary conditions that makes it suitable as a tuning element for the resonator modes. If such a SQUID element is subject to a periodically varying magnetic flux, the resonator modes acquire frequency side bands. We calculate the multi-frequency eigenmodes and these can couple resonantly to physical systems with different transition frequencies and this makes the resonator an efficient quantum bus for state transfer and coherent quantum operations in hybrid quantum systems. As an example of the application, we determine their coupling to transmon qubits with different frequencies and we present a bi-chromatic scheme for entanglement and gate operations. In this calculation, we obtain a maximally entangled state with a fidelity F = 95 % . Our proposal is competitive with the achievements of other entanglement-gates with superconducting devices and it may offer some advantages: (i) There is no need for additional control lines and dephasing associated with the conventional frequency tuning of qubits. (ii) When our qubits are idle, they are far detuned with respect to each other and to the resonator, and hence they are immune to cross talk and Purcell-enhanced decay.

  20. Non-resonant energy harvesting via an adaptive bistable potential

    Haji Hosseinloo, Ashkan; Turitsyn, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    Narrow bandwidth and easy detuning, inefficiency in broadband and non-stationary excitations, and difficulties in matching a linear harvester’s resonance frequency to low-frequency excitations at small scales, have convinced researchers to investigate nonlinear, and in particular bistable, energy harvesters in recent years. However, bistable harvesters suffer from co-existing low and high energy orbits, and sensitivity to initial conditions, and have recently been proven inefficient when subjected to many real-world random and non-stationary excitations. Here, we propose a novel non-resonant buy-low-sell-high strategy that can significantly improve the harvester’s effectiveness at low frequencies in a much more robust fashion. This strategy could be realized by a passive adaptive bistable system. Simulation results confirm the high effectiveness of the adaptive bistable system following a buy-low-sell-high logic when subjected to harmonic and random non-stationary walking excitations compared to its conventional bistable and linear counterparts.

  1. An adaptive selective frequency damping method

    Jordi, Bastien; Cotter, Colin; Sherwin, Spencer

    2015-03-01

    The selective frequency damping (SFD) method is used to obtain unstable steady-state solutions of dynamical systems. The stability of this method is governed by two parameters that are the control coefficient and the filter width. Convergence is not guaranteed for arbitrary choice of these parameters. Even when the method does converge, the time necessary to reach a steady-state solution may be very long. We present an adaptive SFD method. We show that by modifying the control coefficient and the filter width all along the solver execution, we can reach an optimum convergence rate. This method is based on successive approximations of the dominant eigenvalue of the flow studied. We design a one-dimensional model to select SFD parameters that enable us to control the evolution of the least stable eigenvalue of the system. These parameters are then used for the application of the SFD method to the multi-dimensional flow problem. We apply this adaptive method to a set of classical test cases of computational fluid dynamics and show that the steady-state solutions obtained are similar to what can be found in the literature. Then we apply it to a specific vortex dominated flow (of interest for the automotive industry) whose stability had never been studied before. Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission - ANADE project under Grant Contract PITN-GA-289428.

  2. Reliable and integrated technique for determining resonant frequency in radio frequency resonators. Application to a high-precision resonant cavity-based displacement sensor

    Jauregui, Rigoberto; Asua, Estibaliz; Portilla, Joaquin; Etxebarria, Victor

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a reliable and integrated technique for determining the resonant frequency of radio frequency resonators, which can be of interest for different purposes. The approach uses a heterodyne scheme as phase detector coupled to a voltage-controlled oscillator. The system seeks the oscillator frequency that produces a phase null in the resonator, which corresponds to the resonant frequency. A complete explanation of the technique to determine the resonant frequency is presented and experimentally tested. The method has been applied to a high-precision displacement sensor based on resonant cavity, obtaining a theoretical nanometric precision.

  3. Study on resonance frequency distribution of high-overtone bulk acoustic resonators

    ZHANG Hui; WANG Zuoqing; ZHANG Shuyi

    2005-01-01

    Based on the method of characterizing piezo-films by the resonance frequency distributions, the factors influencing the resonance frequency distribution of a High-overtone Bulk Acoustic Resonator (HBAR) consisting of a piezoelectric thin film with twoelectrodes and a substrate are studied. Some HBARs are simulated. The results manifest that changing the acoustic impedance ratio of the substrate to piezo-film the distribution of the space of the parallel resonance frequency and the effective electromechanical coupling factor are changed. When the fundamental mode of the piezo-film is at high frequency, changing the acoustic impedance ratio of the electrode to piezo-film and the thickness of the electrodes make the resonance frequency distribution of HBARs change. These results manifest that the HBARs can be resonant at specified frequencies by means of adjusting the factors affecting the resonance frequency distribution.

  4. A vibration energy harvesting device with bidirectional resonance frequency tunability

    Vibration energy harvesting is an attractive technique for potential powering of wireless sensors and low power devices. While the technique can be employed to harvest energy from vibrations and vibrating structures, a general requirement independent of the energy transfer mechanism is that the vibration energy harvesting device operate in resonance at the excitation frequency. Most energy harvesting devices developed to date are single resonance frequency based, and while recent efforts have been made to broaden the frequency range of energy harvesting devices, what is lacking is a robust tunable energy harvesting technique. In this paper, the design and testing of a resonance frequency tunable energy harvesting device using a magnetic force technique is presented. This technique enabled resonance tuning to ± 20% of the untuned resonant frequency. In particular, this magnetic-based approach enables either an increase or decrease in the tuned resonant frequency. A piezoelectric cantilever beam with a natural frequency of 26 Hz is used as the energy harvesting cantilever, which is successfully tuned over a frequency range of 22–32 Hz to enable a continuous power output 240–280 µW over the entire frequency range tested. A theoretical model using variable damping is presented, whose results agree closely with the experimental results. The magnetic force applied for resonance frequency tuning and its effect on damping and load resistance have been experimentally determined

  5. Memory recall and spike-frequency adaptation

    Roach, James P.; Sander, Leonard M.; Zochowski, Michal R.

    2016-05-01

    The brain can reproduce memories from partial data; this ability is critical for memory recall. The process of memory recall has been studied using autoassociative networks such as the Hopfield model. This kind of model reliably converges to stored patterns that contain the memory. However, it is unclear how the behavior is controlled by the brain so that after convergence to one configuration, it can proceed with recognition of another one. In the Hopfield model, this happens only through unrealistic changes of an effective global temperature that destabilizes all stored configurations. Here we show that spike-frequency adaptation (SFA), a common mechanism affecting neuron activation in the brain, can provide state-dependent control of pattern retrieval. We demonstrate this in a Hopfield network modified to include SFA, and also in a model network of biophysical neurons. In both cases, SFA allows for selective stabilization of attractors with different basins of attraction, and also for temporal dynamics of attractor switching that is not possible in standard autoassociative schemes. The dynamics of our models give a plausible account of different sorts of memory retrieval.

  6. Mixed frequency excitation of an electrostatically actuated resonator

    Ramini, Abdallah

    2015-04-24

    We investigate experimentally and theoretically the dynamics of a capacitive resonator under mixed frequency excitation of two AC harmonic signals. The resonator is composed of a proof mass suspended by two cantilever beams. Experimental measurements are conducted using a laser Doppler vibrometer to reveal the interesting dynamics of the system when subjected to two-source excitation. A nonlinear single-degree-of-freedom model is used for the theoretical investigation. The results reveal combination resonances of additive and subtractive type, which are shown to be promising to increase the bandwidth of the resonator near primary resonance frequency. Our results also demonstrate the ability to shift the combination resonances to much lower or much higher frequency ranges. We also demonstrate the dynamic pull-in instability under mixed frequency excitation. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  7. Detection and Reduction of Middle-Frequency Resonance for Industrial Servo with Self-Tuning Lowpass Filter

    Wen-Yu Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for middle frequency resonance detection and reduction is proposed for speed control in industrial servo systems. Defects of traditional resonance reduction method based on adaptive notch filter in middle frequency range are analyzed. And the main reason is summarized as the difference between the resonance frequency and the oscillation frequency. A self-tuning low-pass filter is introduced in the speed feedback path, whose corner frequency is determined by FFT results and several self-tuning rules. With the proposed method the effective range of the adaptive filter is extended across the middle frequency range. Simulation and Experiment results show that the frequency detection is accurate and resonances during the speed steady states and dynamics are successfully reduced.

  8. Variable frequency iteration MPPT for resonant power converters

    Zhang, Qian; Bataresh, Issa; Chen, Lin

    2015-06-30

    A method of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) uses an MPPT algorithm to determine a switching frequency for a resonant power converter, including initializing by setting an initial boundary frequency range that is divided into initial frequency sub-ranges bounded by initial frequencies including an initial center frequency and first and second initial bounding frequencies. A first iteration includes measuring initial powers at the initial frequencies to determine a maximum power initial frequency that is used to set a first reduced frequency search range centered or bounded by the maximum power initial frequency including at least a first additional bounding frequency. A second iteration includes calculating first and second center frequencies by averaging adjacent frequent values in the first reduced frequency search range and measuring second power values at the first and second center frequencies. The switching frequency is determined from measured power values including the second power values.

  9. Low Frequency Scattering Resonance Wave in Strong Heterogeneity

    Liu, Yinbin

    2015-01-01

    Multiple scattering of wave in strong heterogeneity can cause resonance-like wave phenomenon where signal exhibits low frequency, high intensity, and slowly propagating velocity. For example, long period event in volcanic seismology and surface plasmon wave and quantum Hall effect in wave-particle interactions. Collective behaviour in a many-body system is usually thought to be the source for generating the anomaly. However, the detail physical mechanism is not fully understood. Here I show by wave field modeling for microscopic bubble cloud model and 1D heterogeneity that the anomaly is related to low frequency scattering resonance happened in transient regime. This low frequency resonance is a kind of wave coherent scattering enhancement phenomenon in strongly-scattered small-scale heterogeneity. Its resonance frequency is inversely proportional to heterogeneous scale and contrast and will further shift toward lower frequency with random heterogeneous scale and velocity fluctuations. Low frequency scatterin...

  10. A Quarter Ellipse Microstrip Resonator for Filters in Microwave Frequencies

    Samuel Á. Jaramillo-Flórez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the results of computational simulations and construction of quadrant elliptical resonators excited by coplanar slot line waveguide for designing microwave filters in RF communications systems. By means of the equation of optics, are explained the fundamentals of these geometry of resonators proposed. Are described the construction of quadrant elliptical resonators, one of microstrip and other two of cavity, of size different, and an array of four quadrant elliptical resonators in cascade. The results of the measures and the computational calculus of scattering S11 and S21 of elliptical resonators is made for to identify the resonant frequencies of the resonators studied, proving that these have performance in frequency as complete ellipses by the image effect due to their two mirror in both semiaxis, occupying less area, and the possible applications are discussed.

  11. Tunable characteristics of bending resonance frequency in magnetoelectric laminated composites

    Chen, Lei; Li, Ping; Wen, Yu-Mei; Zhu, Yong

    2013-07-01

    As the magnetoelectric (ME) effect in piezoelectric/magnetostrictive laminated composites is mediated by mechanical deformation, the ME effect is significantly enhanced in the vicinity of resonance frequency. The bending resonance frequency (fr) of bilayered Terfenol-D/PZT (MP) laminated composites is studied, and our analysis predicts that (i) the bending resonance frequency of an MP laminated composite can be tuned by an applied dc magnetic bias (Hdc) due to the ΔE effect; (ii) the bending resonance frequency of the MP laminated composite can be controlled by incorporating FeCuNbSiB layers with different thicknesses. The experimental results show that with Hdc increasing from 0 Oe (1 Oe=79.5775 A/m) to 700 Oe, the bending resonance frequency can be shifted in a range of 32.68 kHz bending resonance frequency of the MP laminated composite gradually increases from 33.66 kHz to 39.18 kHz. This study offers a method of adjusting the strength of dc magnetic bias or the thicknesses of the FeCuNbSiB layer to tune the bending resonance frequency for ME composite, which plays a guiding role in the ME composite design for real applications.

  12. Tunable characteristics of bending resonance frequency in magnetoelectric laminated composites

    Chen Lei; Li Ping; Wen Yu-Mei; Zhu Yong

    2013-01-01

    As the magnetoelectric (ME) effect in piezoelectric/magnetostrictive laminated composites is mediated by mechanical deformation,the ME effect is significantly enhanced in the vicinity of resonance frequency.The bending resonance frequency (fr) of bilayered Terfenol-D/PZT (MP) laminated composites is studied,and our analysis predicts that (i) the bending resonance frequency of an MP laminated composite can be tuned by an applied dc magnetic bias (Hdc) due to the △E effect; (ii) the bending resonance frequency of the MP laminated composite can be controlled by incorporating FeCuNbSiB layers with different thicknesses.The experimental results show that with Hdc increasing from 0Oe (1 Oe=79.5775 A/m)to 700 Oe,the bending resonance frequency can be shifted in a range of 32.68 kHz ≤ fr ≤ 33.96 kHz.In addition,with the thickness of the FeCuNbSiB layer increasing from 0 μm to 90 μm,the bending resonance frequency of the MP laminated composite gradually increases from 33.66 kHz to 39.18 kHz.This study offers a method of adjusting the strength of dc magnetic bias or the thicknesses of the FeCuNbSiB layer to tune the bending resonance frequency for ME composite,which plays a guiding role in the ME composite design for real applications.

  13. Analysis of morphological structuring elements generated using adaptive resonance theory

    Sharpe, John P.; Sungar, Nilgun; Narayanswamy, Ramkumar; Johnson, Kristina M.

    1995-03-01

    In this paper we consider the formation of morphological templates using adaptive resonance theory. We examine the role of object variability and noise on the clustering of different sized objects as a function of the vigilance parameter. We demonstrate that the fuzzy adaptive resonance theory is robust in the presence of noise but that for poor choice of vigilance there is a proliferation of prototypical categories. We apply the technique to detection of abnormal cells in pap smears.

  14. ANALYSIS OF PIEZOELECTRIC ENERGY HARVESTING DEVICE WITH ADJUSTABLE RESONANCE FREQUENCY

    Jiang Lei; Li Yuejuan; Marvin Cheng

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analytic method that adjusts resonance frequency of a piezoelectric vibration energy harvester.A mathematical model that estimates resonance frequency of cantilever is also proposed.Through moving an attached mass and changing its weight on the cantilever beam,resonance frequency of adopted piezoelectric device can be adjusted to match the frequency of ambient vibration sources,which is critical in order to harvest maximum amount of energy.The theoretical results are validated by experiments that move different masses along experimental cantilever beams.The results demonstrate that resonance frequency can be adjusted by an attached mass located at different positions on the cantilever beam.Different combinations of operational conditions that harvest maximum amount of energy are also discussed in this paper.

  15. Multi-resonance split ring resonator structures at sub-terahertz frequencies

    Galal, Hossam

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the computational development of novel architectures of multi-resonance Split Ring Resonators (SRRs), for efficient manipulation of Terahertz (THz) frequency beams. The conceived resonators are based on both a capacitive and inductive scheme. Simulation results have been obtained for a 60 GHz to 240 GHz operational bandwidth.

  16. Phase-Shift Control of Resonant Frequencies of Magnetostatic Wave Resonators

    Koike, Takuro; Nakazawa, Hiroaki

    1994-05-01

    We discuss a possible technique to control the resonant frequencies of a straight-edge magnetostatic wave (MSW) resonator without changing the external applied magnetic field and the circuit parameters of a feedback load circuit. The method is to use two additional microstrip electrodes at the edges of the resonator and two varactor diodes connected in series. Upon varying the bias voltages to the varactor diodes, the input admittance at the center electrode can be changed. Theoretical investigation reveals that very large resonant frequency shifts can be obtained by changing only the bias voltage change to the varactor diodes, which may be useful in mobile telephone applications in the gigaherz frequency range.

  17. Frequency comb transferred by surface plasmon resonance

    Geng, Xiao Tao; Chun, Byung Jae; Seo, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kwanyong; Yoon, Hana; Kim, Dong-Eon; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seungchul

    2016-01-01

    Frequency combs, millions of narrow-linewidth optical modes referenced to an atomic clock, have shown remarkable potential in time/frequency metrology, atomic/molecular spectroscopy and precision LIDARs. Applications have extended to coherent nonlinear Raman spectroscopy of molecules and quantum metrology for entangled atomic qubits. Frequency combs will create novel possibilities in nano-photonics and plasmonics; however, its interrelation with surface plasmons is unexplored despite the important role that plasmonics plays in nonlinear spectroscopy and quantum optics through the manipulation of light on a subwavelength scale. Here, we demonstrate that a frequency comb can be transformed to a plasmonic comb in plasmonic nanostructures and reverted to the original frequency comb without noticeable degradation of quantum metrology and subwavelength photonic circuits. PMID:26898307

  18. High-frequency and low-frequency effects on vibrational resonance in a synthetic gene network

    The high-frequency and low-frequency effects on vibrational resonance (VR) in a synthetic gene network are studied. Results show that the role of the high-frequency signal in VR acts as that of noise in stochastic resonance (SR), namely a high-frequency signal can change the effective value of the control parameter such that the random state–state transitions of the switch can happen. A low-frequency signal with lower frequency and higher amplitude tends to favor the response of the system. When VR occurs, the ratio of the optimal amplitude (Bopt) to the corresponding frequency (Ω) of the high-frequency signal is a definite constant. Furthermore, if noise is introduced into the system, noise plays a suppressive role for VR, and various resonance phenomena including the bell-shaped VR and VR without tuning are exhibited in the system

  19. Planar terahertz metamaterial with three-resonant frequencies

    Chen Zhi; Zhang Ya-Xin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we study a three-resonant metamaterial with the combination of dual-resonant and single-resonant metamaterials.We present a new method to design multi-resonant metamaterial,which has a smaller dimension than general symmetric and asymmetric multi-resonant metamaterials.Theoretical and experimental results show that the structure has three distinct absorption frequencies centering around 0.29 THz,0.46 THz,and 0.92 THz,and that each of them corresponds to a different resonant mode.Due to the good separation of the different resonances,this design provides a unique and effective method to construct multiband terahertz devices.

  20. Resonance Micro-Weighing of Sub-Picogram Mass with the Use of Adaptive Interferometer

    Romashko Roman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mass of macroscopic object is easily measured by a suitable balance. However, this approach becomes inapplicable if mass of microscopic object is to be determined. Alternative approach for mass measurement is based on using the micromechanical resonator as an inertial balance where oscillation frequency is shifted by small quantities of adsorbed mass. In this work we present experimental results of applying an adaptive interferometry technique based on dynamic hologram recorded in photorefractive CdTe crystal for measuring picogram mass adsorbed on micromechanical resonators with dimensions 215×40×15 μm3. It is also shown that the resonance micro-weighing system based on adaptive interferometer has potential for reducing the threshold of mass detection down to 10-17 g in the case of using a resonator with sub-micron dimensions

  1. Chemisorption-Induced Resonance Frequency Shift of a Microcantilever

    The autonomy and property of atoms/molecules adsorbed on the surface of a microcantilever can be probed by measuring its resonance frequency shift due to adsorption. The resonance frequency change of a cantilever induced by chemisorption is theoretically studied. Oxygen chemisorbed on the Si(100) surface is taken as a representative example. We demonstrate that the resonant response of the cantilever is mainly determined by the chemisorption-induced bending stiffness variation, which depends on the bond configurations formed by the adsorbed atoms and substrate atoms. This study is helpful for optimal design of microcantilever-based sensors for various applications. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  2. Micro--structured crystalline resonators for optical frequency comb generation

    Grudinin, Ivan S

    2014-01-01

    Optical frequency combs have recently been demonstrated in micro--resonators through nonlinear Kerr processes. Investigations in the past few years provided better understanding of micro--combs and showed that spectral span and mode locking are governed by cavity spectrum and dispersion. While various cavities provide unique advantages, dispersion engineering has been reported only for planar waveguides. In this Letter, we report a resonator design that combines dispersion control, mode crossing free spectrum, and ultra--high quality factor. We experimentally show that as the dispersion of a MgF2 resonator is flattened, the comb span increases reaching 700 nm with as low as 60 mW pump power at 1560 nm wavelength, corresponding to nearly 2000 lines separated by 46 GHz. The new resonator design may enable efficient low repetition rate coherent octave spanning frequency combs without the need for external broadening, ideal for applications in optical frequency synthesis, metrology, spectroscopy, and communicatio...

  3. Adaptive Radio Frequency Interference Mitigation for HF Surface Wave Radar

    WAN Xian-rong; KE Heng-yu; CHENG Feng

    2005-01-01

    The paper analyses the characteristics of radio frequency interference (RFI) in HF surface wave radar (HFSWR) which adopts the linear frequency modulated interrupted continuous wave (FMICW). RFI will influence all the range cells including all the positive frequency and negative frequency, and the negative frequency range cells contain only the interference information. Based on the above characteristics, we introduce and analyze a new adaptive interference mitigation beamforming algorithm using the negative frequency range cells samples to estimate the interference covariance matrix. Experimental results confirm that this general and robust algorithm can achieve effective RFI suppression using the data recorded by the HFSWR, located near Zhoushan in Zhejiang China.

  4. Radio Frequency Interference Suppression for Landmine Detection by Quadrupole Resonance

    Liu Guoqing; Jiang Yi; Xiong Hong; Li Jian; Barrall Geoffrey A

    2006-01-01

    The quadrupole resonance (QR) technology can be used as a confirming sensor for buried plastic landmine detection by detecting the explosives within the mine. We focus herein on the detection of TNT mines via the QR sensor. Since the frequency of the QR signal is located within the AM radio frequency band, the QR signal can be corrupted by strong radio frequency interferences (RFIs). Hence to detect the very weak QR signal, RFI mitigation is essential. Reference antennas, which receive RFIs ...

  5. Analysis of Continuous Microseismic Recordings: Resonance Frequencies and Unconventional Events

    Tary, J.; van der Baan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrofracture experiments, where fluids and proppant are injected into reservoirs to create fractures and enhance oil recovery, are often monitored using microseismic recordings. The total stimulated volume is then estimated by the size of the cloud of induced micro-earthquakes. This implies that only brittle failure should occur inside reservoirs during the fracturing. Yet, this assumption may not be correct, as the total energy injected into the system is orders of magnitude larger than the total energy associated with brittle failure. Instead of using only triggered events, it has been shown recently that the frequency content of continuous recordings may also provide information on the deformations occurring inside reservoirs. Here, we use different kinds of time-frequency transforms to track the presence of resonance frequencies. We analyze different data sets using regular, long-period and broadband geophones. The resonance frequencies observed are mainly included in the frequency band of 5-60 Hz. We systematically examine first the possible causes of resonance frequencies, dividing them into source, path and receiver effects. We then conclude that some of the observed frequency bands likely result from source effects. The resonance frequencies could be produced by either interconnected fluid-filled fractures in the order of tens of meters, or by small repetitive events occurring at a characteristic periodicity. Still, other mechanisms may occur or be predominant during reservoir fracturing, depending on the lithology as well as the pressure and temperature conditions at depth. During one experiment, both regular micro-earthquakes, long-period long-duration events (LPLD) and resonance frequencies are observed. The lower part of the frequency band of these resonance frequencies (5-30 Hz) overlaps with the anticipated frequencies of observed LPLDs in other experiments (<50 Hz). The exact origin of both resonance frequencies and LPLDs is still under debate

  6. Numerical modeling of seismic waves using frequency-adaptive meshes

    Hu, Jinyin; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2016-08-01

    An improved modeling algorithm using frequency-adaptive meshes is applied to meet the computational requirements of all seismic frequency components. It automatically adopts coarse meshes for low-frequency computations and fine meshes for high-frequency computations. The grid intervals are adaptively calculated based on a smooth inversely proportional function of grid size with respect to the frequency. In regular grid-based methods, the uniform mesh or non-uniform mesh is used for frequency-domain wave propagators and it is fixed for all frequencies. A too coarse mesh results in inaccurate high-frequency wavefields and unacceptable numerical dispersion; on the other hand, an overly fine mesh may cause storage and computational overburdens as well as invalid propagation angles of low-frequency wavefields. Experiments on the Padé generalized screen propagator indicate that the Adaptive mesh effectively solves these drawbacks of regular fixed-mesh methods, thus accurately computing the wavefield and its propagation angle in a wide frequency band. Several synthetic examples also demonstrate its feasibility for seismic modeling and migration.

  7. Adaptive Fourier Decomposition Based Time-Frequency Analysis

    Li-Ming Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The attempt to represent a signal simultaneously in time and frequency domains is full of challenges. The recently proposed adaptive Fourier decomposition (AFD) offers a practical approach to solve this problem. This paper presents the principles of the AFD based time-frequency analysis in three aspects: instantaneous frequency analysis, frequency spectrum analysis, and the spectrogram analysis. An experiment is conducted and compared with the Fourier transform in convergence rate and short-time Fourier transform in time-frequency distribution. The proposed approach performs better than both the Fourier transform and short-time Fourier transform.

  8. A high frequency resonance gravity gradiometer

    Bagaev, S. N.; Kvashnin, N. L.; Skvortsov, M. N. [Laser Physics Institute SB RAS, Novosibirsc (Russian Federation); Bezrukov, L. B.; Krysanov, V. A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Oreshkin, S. I.; Motylev, A. M.; Popov, S. M.; Samoilenko, A. A.; Yudin, I. S. [Lomonosov MSU, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Rudenko, V. N. [Institute of Nuclear Physics RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lomonosov MSU, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-06-15

    A new setup OGRAN—the large scale opto-acoustical gravitational detector is described. As distinguished from known gravitational bar detectors it uses the optical interferometrical readout for registering weak variations of gravity gradient at the kilohetz frequency region. At room temperature, its sensitivity is limited only by the bar Brownian noise at the bandwidth close to 100 Hz. It is destined for a search for rare events—gravitational pulses coincident with signals of neutrino scintillator (BUST) in the deep underground of Baksan Neutrino Observatory of INR RAS.

  9. Relationship between wingbeat frequency and resonant frequency of the wing in insects.

    Ha, Ngoc San; Truong, Quang Tri; Goo, Nam Seo; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we experimentally studied the relationship between wingbeat frequency and resonant frequency of 30 individuals of eight insect species from five orders: Odonata (Sympetrum flaveolum), Lepidoptera (Pieris rapae, Plusia gamma and Ochlodes), Hymenoptera (Xylocopa pubescens and Bombus rupestric), Hemiptera (Tibicen linnei) and Coleoptera (Allomyrina dichotoma). The wingbeat frequency of free-flying insects was measured using a high-speed camera while the natural frequency was determined using a laser displacement sensor along with a Bruel and Kjaer fast Fourier transform analyzer based on the base excitation method. The results showed that the wingbeat frequency was related to body mass (m) and forewing area (Af), following the proportionality f ~ m(1/2)/Af, while the natural frequency was significantly correlated with area density (f0 ~ mw/Af, mw is the wing mass). In addition, from the comparison of wingbeat frequency to natural frequency, the ratio between wingbeat frequency and natural frequency was found to be, in general, between 0.13 and 0.67 for the insects flapping at a lower wingbeat frequency (less than 100 Hz) and higher than 1.22 for the insects flapping at a higher wingbeat frequency (higher than 100 Hz). These results suggest that wingbeat frequency does not have a strong relation with resonance frequency: in other words, insects have not been evolved sufficiently to flap at their wings' structural resonant frequency. This contradicts the general conclusion of other reports--that insects flap at their wings' resonant frequency to take advantage of passive deformation to save energy. PMID:24166827

  10. Relationship between wingbeat frequency and resonant frequency of the wing in insects

    In this study, we experimentally studied the relationship between wingbeat frequency and resonant frequency of 30 individuals of eight insect species from five orders: Odonata (Sympetrum flaveolum), Lepidoptera (Pieris rapae, Plusia gamma and Ochlodes), Hymenoptera (Xylocopa pubescens and Bombus rupestric), Hemiptera (Tibicen linnei) and Coleoptera (Allomyrina dichotoma). The wingbeat frequency of free-flying insects was measured using a high-speed camera while the natural frequency was determined using a laser displacement sensor along with a Bruel and Kjaer fast Fourier transform analyzer based on the base excitation method. The results showed that the wingbeat frequency was related to body mass (m) and forewing area (Af), following the proportionality f ∼ m1/2/Af, while the natural frequency was significantly correlated with area density (f0 ∼ mw/Af, mw is the wing mass). In addition, from the comparison of wingbeat frequency to natural frequency, the ratio between wingbeat frequency and natural frequency was found to be, in general, between 0.13 and 0.67 for the insects flapping at a lower wingbeat frequency (less than 100 Hz) and higher than 1.22 for the insects flapping at a higher wingbeat frequency (higher than 100 Hz). These results suggest that wingbeat frequency does not have a strong relation with resonance frequency: in other words, insects have not been evolved sufficiently to flap at their wings' structural resonant frequency. This contradicts the general conclusion of other reports-–that insects flap at their wings' resonant frequency to take advantage of passive deformation to save energy. (paper)

  11. Acoustic Resonance Frequency Elimination Device for Safety Relief Valves

    Industry experience has shown that Safety Relief Valves (SRVs) and Steam Dryers installed in Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) experience vibration induced degradation and failures caused by acoustic resonance vibration of the main steam lines, resulting in decreased reliability and potential safety issues. The resonance is caused by vortex shedding from the standpipe inlet and acoustic standing waves in the standpipe, occurring when the two frequencies match. (Author)

  12. Investigation of Vertical Spiral Resonators for Low Frequency Metamaterial Design

    Zhu, Jiwen; Stevens, Christopher J; Edwards, David J

    2008-01-01

    This paper thoroughly explores the characteristics of vertical spiral resonators (VSR). They exhibit rela-tively high Q factors and sizes around a few percent of the free space wavelength, which make them ideal candi-dates for assembling metamaterial devices. A quasistatic model of VSR is obtained from simple analytical ex-pressions, and the effects of certain geometrical parameters on the resonant frequency are investigated.

  13. Design of tunable GHz-frequency optomechanical crystal resonators

    Pfeifer, Hannes; Zang, Leyun; Painter, Oskar

    2016-01-01

    We present a silicon optomechanical nanobeam design with a dynamically tunable acoustic mode at 10.2 GHz. The resonance frequency can be shifted by 90 kHz/V^2 with an on-chip capacitor that was optimized to exert forces up to 1 $\\mu$N at 10 V operation voltage. Optical resonance frequencies around 190 THz with Q factors up to $2.2 \\times 10^6$ place the structure in the well-resolved sideband regime with vacuum optomechanical coupling rates up to $g_0/2\\pi = 353$ kHz. Tuning can be used, for instance, to overcome variation in the device-to-device acoustic resonance frequency due to fabrication errors, paving the way for optomechanical circuits consisting of arrays of optomechanical cavities.

  14. Resonance at the Rabi frequency in a superconducting flux qubit

    Greenberg, Ya. S. [Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Il' ichev, E.; Oelsner, G. [common Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Jena (Germany); Shevchenko, S. N. [B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, Kharkov, Ukraine and V. Karazin Kharkov National University, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2014-10-15

    We analyze a system composed of a superconducting flux qubit coupled to a transmission-line resonator driven by two signals with frequencies close to the resonator's harmonics. The first strong signal is used for exciting the system to a high energetic state while a second weak signal is applied for probing effective eigenstates of the system. In the framework of doubly dressed states we showed the possibility of amplification and attenuation of the probe signal by direct transitions at the Rabi frequency. We present a brief review of theoretical and experimental works where a direct resonance at Rabi frequency have been investigated in superconducting flux qubits. The interaction of the qubit with photons of two harmonics has prospects to be used as a quantum amplifier (microwave laser) or an attenuator.

  15. Frequency-scanning marginal oscillator for ion cyclotron resonance spectroscopy

    Kemper, Paul R.; Bowers, Michael T.

    1982-07-01

    A number of ion cyclotron resonance applications have arisen in the past few years which require a frequency-scanned detection system. Since the traditional marginal oscillator detector has always been a fixed-frequency detector, alternative detection techniques such as bridge circuit detectors have become widely used. In this paper we present an alternative to the bridge detector, namely, a frequency-scanning marginal oscillator. Requirements and modifications necessary to convert a marginal oscillator to frequency scanning operation are discussed in detail and the necessary circuit diagrams presented. Finally, a theoretical comparison is made between bridge circuit and marginal oscillator sensitivities.

  16. Artificial excitation of ELF waves with frequency of Schumann resonance

    Streltsov, A. V.; Guido, T.; Tulegenov, B.; Labenski, J.; Chang, C.-L.

    2014-11-01

    We report results from the experiment aimed at the artificial excitation of extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic waves with frequencies corresponding to the frequency of Schumann resonance. Electromagnetic waves with these frequencies can form a standing pattern inside the spherical cavity formed by the surface of the Earth and the ionosphere. In the experiment the ELF waves were excited by heating the ionosphere with X-mode HF electromagnetic waves generated at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska. The experiment demonstrates that heating of the ionosphere can excite relatively large-amplitude electromagnetic waves with frequencies in the range 7.8-8.0 Hz when the ionosphere has a strong F layer, the frequency of the HF radiation is in the range 3.20-4.57 MHz, and the electric field greater than 5 mV/m is present in the ionosphere.

  17. A software sampling frequency adaptive algorithm for reducing spectral leakage

    PAN Li-dong; WANG Fei

    2006-01-01

    Spectral leakage caused by synchronous error in a nonsynchronous sampling system is an important cause that reduces the accuracy of spectral analysis and harmonic measurement.This paper presents a software sampling frequency adaptive algorithm that can obtain the actual signal frequency more accurately,and then adjusts sampling interval base on the frequency calculated by software algorithm and modifies sampling frequency adaptively.It can reduce synchronous error and impact of spectral leakage;thereby improving the accuracy of spectral analysis and harmonic measurement for power system signal where frequency changes slowly.This algorithm has high precision just like the simulations show,and it can be a practical method in power system harmonic analysis since it can be implemented easily.

  18. Frequency-tunable superconducting resonators via nonlinear kinetic inductance

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested a frequency-tunable high-Q superconducting resonator made from a niobium titanium nitride film. The frequency tunability is achieved by injecting a DC through a current-directing circuit into the nonlinear inductor whose kinetic inductance is current-dependent. We have demonstrated continuous tuning of the resonance frequency in a 180 MHz frequency range around 4.5 GHz while maintaining the high internal quality factor Qi > 180 000. This device may serve as a tunable filter and find applications in superconducting quantum computing and measurement. It also provides a useful tool to study the nonlinear response of a superconductor. In addition, it may be developed into techniques for measurement of the complex impedance of a superconductor at its transition temperature and for readout of transition-edge sensors

  19. Frequency-swept detector for ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometers

    Wronka, J.; Ridge, D. P.

    1982-04-01

    Design, construction, performance, and use of a frequency-swept bridge detector for ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry are described. Special features include characterization and simple automatic correction of phase shift to allow broadband detection. The result is a detection system that may be used either at constant field or constant frequency. Drift-mode operation is simplified in that it may be satisfactorily used without the various signal modulation schemes used in previous detectors. In the trapped mode the detector may be pulsed to control the timing of ion detection. This detector makes it possible to do frequency-swept double resonance experiments which provide spectra of all the product ions of a given reactant ion. Circuit schematics and typical frequency- and field-swept spectra are shown.

  20. Frequency-tunable superconducting resonators via nonlinear kinetic inductance

    Vissers, M. R.; Hubmayr, J.; Sandberg, M.; Gao, J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Chaudhuri, S. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Bockstiegel, C. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2015-08-10

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested a frequency-tunable high-Q superconducting resonator made from a niobium titanium nitride film. The frequency tunability is achieved by injecting a DC through a current-directing circuit into the nonlinear inductor whose kinetic inductance is current-dependent. We have demonstrated continuous tuning of the resonance frequency in a 180 MHz frequency range around 4.5 GHz while maintaining the high internal quality factor Q{sub i} > 180 000. This device may serve as a tunable filter and find applications in superconducting quantum computing and measurement. It also provides a useful tool to study the nonlinear response of a superconductor. In addition, it may be developed into techniques for measurement of the complex impedance of a superconductor at its transition temperature and for readout of transition-edge sensors.

  1. Wideband transmitter for low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer

    A wideband transmitter for a nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer for study of light nuclei is described. The use of a digital shaper of radio-frequency pulses and a directly coupled two-stage power amplifier makes large number of wideband transformers and power supplies unnecessary. The output power of the radio-frequency pulses is 160 W in the range of 0.1-10 MHz

  2. Photonic measurement of microwave frequency using a silicon microdisk resonator

    Liu, Li; Jiang, Fan; Yan, Siqi; Min, Shucun; He, Mengying; Gao, Dingshan; Dong, Jianji

    2015-01-01

    A simple photonic approach to the measurement of microwave signal frequency with adjustable measurement range and resolution is proposed and demonstrated. In this approach, the unknown microwave signal is converted to an optical signal with single sideband modulation. Subsequently, a notch microwave photonic filter (MPF) is implemented by employing a high-Q silicon microdisk resonator (MDR). The MPF is tunable by changing the frequency interval between the optical carrier and the MDR notch so as to obtain different amplitude responses. A fixed frequency-to-power mapping is established by obtaining an amplitude comparison function (ACF) of the microwave power ratio and the microwave frequency. A proof-of-concept experiment demonstrates a frequency measurement range of 10 GHz, with measurement error of ±0.1 GHz. Different frequency measurement ranges and resolutions are also discussed.

  3. Frequency comb formation in doubly resonant second-harmonic generation

    Leo, F; Ricciardi, I; De Rosa, M; Coen, S; Wabnitz, S; Erkintalo, M

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically study the generation of optical frequency combs and corresponding pulse trains in doubly resonant intracavity second-harmonic generation (SHG). We find that, despite the large temporal walk-off characteristic of realistic cavity systems, the nonlinear dynamics can be accurately and efficiently modelled using a pair of coupled mean-field equations. Through rigorous stability analysis of the system's steady-state continuous wave solutions, we demonstrate that walk-off can give rise to a new, previously unexplored regime of temporal modulation instability (MI). Numerical simulations performed in this regime reveal rich dynamical behaviours, including the emergence of temporal patterns that correspond to coherent optical frequency combs. We also demonstrate that the two coupled equations that govern the doubly resonant cavity behaviour can, under typical conditions, be reduced to a single mean-field equation akin to that describing the dynamics of singly resonant cavity SHG [F. Leo et al., Phys. ...

  4. Detection of electron paramagnetic resonance absorption using frequency modulation

    Hirata, Hiroshi; Kuyama, Toshifumi; Ono, Mitsuhiro; Shimoyama, Yuhei

    2003-10-01

    A frequency modulation (FM) method was developed to measure electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) absorption. The first-derivative spectrum of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) powder was measured with this FM method. Frequency modulation of up to 1.6 MHz (peak-to-peak) was achieved at a microwave carrier frequency of 1.1 GHz. This corresponds to a magnetic field modulation of 57 μT (peak-to-peak) at 40.3 mT. By using a tunable microwave resonator and automatic control systems, we achieved a practical continuous-wave (CW) EPR spectrometer that incorporates the FM method. In the present experiments, the EPR signal intensity was proportional to the magnitude of frequency modulation. The background signal at the modulation frequency (1 kHz) for EPR detection was also proportional to the magnitude of frequency modulation. An automatic matching control (AMC) system reduced the amplitude of noise in microwave detection and improved the baseline stability. Distortion of the spectral lineshape was seen when the spectrometer settings were not appropriate, e.g., with a lack of the open-loop gain in automatic tuning control (ATC). FM is an alternative to field modulation when the side-effect of field modulation is detrimental for EPR detection. The present spectroscopic technique based on the FM scheme is useful for measuring the first derivative with respect to the microwave frequency in investigations of electron-spin-related phenomena.

  5. Outer hair cell piezoelectricity: Frequency response enhancement and resonance behavior

    Weitzel, Erik K.; Tasker, Ron; Brownell, William E.

    2003-09-01

    Stretching or compressing an outer hair cell alters its membrane potential and, conversely, changing the electrical potential alters its length. This bi-directional energy conversion takes place in the cell's lateral wall and resembles the direct and converse piezoelectric effects both qualitatively and quantitatively. A piezoelectric model of the lateral wall has been developed that is based on the electrical and material parameters of the lateral wall. An equivalent circuit for the outer hair cell that includes piezoelectricity shows a greater admittance at high frequencies than one containing only membrane resistance and capacitance. The model also predicts resonance at ultrasonic frequencies that is inversely proportional to cell length. These features suggest all mammals use outer hair cell piezoelectricity to support the high-frequency receptor potentials that drive electromotility. It is also possible that members of some mammalian orders use outer hair cell piezoelectric resonance in detecting species-specific vocalizations.

  6. Effect of metal coating and residual stress on the resonant frequency of MEMS resonators

    Ashok Kumar Pandey; K P Venkatesh; Rudra Pratap

    2009-08-01

    MEMS resonators are designed for a fixed resonant frequency. Therefore, any shift in the resonant frequency of the final fabricated structure can be a denting factor for its suitability towards a desired application. There are numerous factors which alter the designed resonant frequency of the fabricated resonator such as the metal layer deposited on top of the beam and the residual stresses present in the fabricated structure. While the metal coating, which acts as electrode, increases the stiffness and the effective mass of the composite structure, the residual stress increases or decreases the net stiffness if it is a tensile or compressive type respectively. In this paper, we investigate both these cases by taking two different structures, namely, the micro cantilever beam with gold layer deposited on its top surface and the MEMS gyroscope with residual stresses. First, we carry out experiments to characterize both these structures to find their resonant frequencies. Later, we analytically model those effects and compare them with the experimentally obtained values. Finally, it is found that the analytical models give an error of less than 10% with respect to the experimental results in both the cases.

  7. Analytical investigation into the resonance frequencies of a curling probe

    Arshadi, Ali; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2016-08-01

    The term ‘active plasma resonance spectroscopy’ (APRS) denotes a class of closely related plasma diagnostic methods which utilize the natural ability of plasmas to resonate on or near the electron plasma frequency {ω\\text{pe}} ; an electrical radio frequency signal (in the GHz range) is coupled into the plasma via an antenna or a probe, the spectral response is recorded and a mathematical model is employed to determine plasma parameters such as the plasma density and the electron temperature. The curling probe, recently invented by Liang et al (2011 Appl. Phys. Express 4 066101), is a novel realization of the APRS concept which has many practical advantages. In particular, it can be miniaturized and flatly embedded into the chamber wall, thus allowing the monitoring of plasma processes without contamination nor disturbance. Physically, the curling probe can be understood as a ‘coiled’ form of the hairpin probe (Stenzel 1976 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47 603). Assuming that the spiralization of the probe has little electrical effect, this paper investigates the characteristcs of a ‘straightened’ curling probe by modeling it as an infinite slot-type resonator that is in direct contact with the plasma. The diffraction of an incident plane wave at the slot is calculated by solving the cold plasma model and Maxwell’s equations simultaneously. The resonance frequencies of the probe are derived and are found to be in good agreement with the numerical results of the probe inventors.

  8. Black phosphorus nanoelectromechanical resonators vibrating at very high frequencies

    Wang, Zenghui; Jia, Hao; Zheng, Xuqian; Yang, Rui; Wang, Zefang; Ye, G. J.; Chen, X. H.; Shan, Jie; Feng, Philip X.-L.

    2014-12-01

    We report on the experimental demonstration of a new type of nanoelectromechanical resonator based on black phosphorus crystals. Facilitated by a highly efficient dry transfer technique, crystalline black phosphorus flakes are harnessed to enable drumhead resonators vibrating at high and very high frequencies (HF and VHF bands, up to ~100 MHz). We investigate the resonant vibrational responses from the black phosphorus crystals by devising both electrical and optical excitation schemes, in addition to measuring the undriven thermomechanical motions in these suspended nanostructures. Flakes with thicknesses from ~200 nm down to ~20 nm clearly exhibit elastic characteristics transitioning from the plate to the membrane regime. Both frequency- and time-domain measurements of the nanomechanical resonances show that very thin black phosphorus crystals hold interesting potential for moveable and vibratory devices and for semiconductor transducers where high-speed mechanical motions could be coupled to the attractive electronic and optoelectronic properties of black phosphorus.We report on the experimental demonstration of a new type of nanoelectromechanical resonator based on black phosphorus crystals. Facilitated by a highly efficient dry transfer technique, crystalline black phosphorus flakes are harnessed to enable drumhead resonators vibrating at high and very high frequencies (HF and VHF bands, up to ~100 MHz). We investigate the resonant vibrational responses from the black phosphorus crystals by devising both electrical and optical excitation schemes, in addition to measuring the undriven thermomechanical motions in these suspended nanostructures. Flakes with thicknesses from ~200 nm down to ~20 nm clearly exhibit elastic characteristics transitioning from the plate to the membrane regime. Both frequency- and time-domain measurements of the nanomechanical resonances show that very thin black phosphorus crystals hold interesting potential for moveable and vibratory

  9. Wavelet and adaptive filtration of the nuclear magnetic resonance signal

    Bartušek, Karel

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2002), s. 13 - 18. ISSN 0862-9846. [Datastat'01. Brno, 27.08.2001-30.08.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/96/1136; GA AV ČR IAA2065201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : Wavelet filtration * adaptive filtration * magnetic resonance signal Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  10. Resonant-frequency discharge in a multi-cell radio frequency cavity

    We are reporting experimental results on a microwave discharge operating at resonant frequency in a multi-cell radio frequency (RF) accelerator cavity. Although the discharge operated at room temperature, the setup was constructed so that it could be used for plasma generation and processing in fully assembled active superconducting radio-frequency cryo-module. This discharge offers a mechanism for removal of a variety of contaminants, organic or oxide layers, and residual particulates from the interior surface of RF cavities through the interaction of plasma-generated radicals with the cavity walls. We describe resonant RF breakdown conditions and address the issues related to resonant detuning due to sustained multi-cell cavity plasma. We have determined breakdown conditions in the cavity, which was acting as a plasma vessel with distorted cylindrical geometry. We discuss the spectroscopic data taken during plasma removal of contaminants and use them to evaluate plasma parameters, characterize the process, and estimate the volatile contaminant product removal

  11. Increasing ferromagnetic resonance frequency using lamination and shape

    El-Ghazaly, A.; White, R. M.; Wang, S. X.

    2015-05-01

    The magnetic permeability frequency spectrum is one of the most critical properties for the operation of high frequency magnetic devices in the gigahertz regime. Permeability is fairly constant up to the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) frequency, at which point the relative permeability drops to unity. Extending FMR to higher frequencies is thus imperative for developing GHz-range magnetic devices. The simulation and experimental investigations presented in this paper demonstrate how stacking layers to form a laminated film increases the FMR frequency by allowing flux closure between layers along the induced easy-axis direction. This flux closure reduces the demagnetization factor along the easy-axis direction by two orders of magnitude. This effect, however, is only observable in patterned films where the shape anisotropy is enough to result in variation of the FMR frequency. Experiments using patterned magnetic cores were performed to illustrate this effect. Through detailed investigation of the permeability spectra of both single layer and laminated CoTaZr magnetic films patterned into 500 μm × L films (where L ranged from 200 μm to 1000 μm), the FMR frequency was extracted and proven to increase as a result of lamination. The degree to which the frequency is boosted by lamination increases exponentially as the length of the film is decreased. Through a combination of lamination and shape demagnetization, the effective anisotropy, which directly relates to FMR frequency, was shown to increase by about 100%.

  12. Frequency resonance effect of neurons under low-frequency weak magnetic field

    We report on the frequency resonance effect observed in single neurons of mollusc Helix brain under low-frequency B=1 mT magnetic fields of frequency fM =0.1-80 Hz. The dependence of the firing frequency f with fM decreases as a Lorentzian, centered about the spontaneous, f 0 one ('window effect'). An explanation is provided based on the superdiamagnetism and Ca2+ coulomb explosion model, supplemented by the Ca2+ kinetics towards the Ca2+-dependent K+ channels, opening them. The Ca2+ ion diffusion time is obtained

  13. On geometrical scaling of split-ring and double-bar resonators at optical frequencies

    Tretyakov, Sergei

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider the resonant frequency of split-ring resonators and double-bar resonators used to create artificial magnetic response at terahertz and optical frequencies. It is known that geometrical scaling of the resonant frequency of split rings breaks down at high frequencies (in the visible) due to electromagnetic properties of metals at those frequencies. Here we will discuss this phenomenon in terms of equivalent inductance and capacitance of the ring, derive an approximate ...

  14. Tunable frequency combs based on dual microring resonators

    Miller, Steven A; Ramelow, Sven; Luke, Kevin; Dutt, Avik; Farsi, Alessandro; Gaeta, Alexander L; Lipson, Michal

    2015-01-01

    In order to achieve efficient parametric frequency comb generation in microresonators, external control of coupling between the cavity and the bus waveguide is necessary. However, for passive monolithically integrated structures, the coupling gap is fixed and cannot be externally controlled, making tuning the coupling inherently challenging. We design a dual-cavity coupled microresonator structure in which tuning one ring resonance frequency induces a change in the overall cavity coupling condition. We demonstrate wide extinction tunability with high efficiency by engineering the ring coupling conditions. Additionally, we note a distinct dispersion tunability resulting from coupling two cavities of slightly different path lengths, and present a new method of modal dispersion engineering. Our fabricated devices consist of two coupled high quality factor silicon nitride microresonators, where the extinction ratio of the resonances can be controlled using integrated microheaters. Using this extinction tunability...

  15. Experiments on resonance frequencies of synthetic jet actuators

    Kordík, Jozef; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Šafařík, Pavel

    Kaohsiung : National Pingtung University of Science and Technolog, 2009 - (Tai, C.), s. 32-37 ISBN N. [Pacific Symposium on Flow Visualization and Image Processing /7./ (PSFVIP-7 2009). Kaohsiung (TW), 16.11.2009-19.11.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200760801; GA ČR(CZ) GA101/09/1959 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : synthetic jet * synthetic jet actuator * resonance frequency Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  16. PWM high frequency oscillator in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    In this article we propose a new architecture for pulsed oscillator, in the area of radio frequency (RF), which operates with pulses of few microseconds in spectrometers of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Pulsed. This new topology substitutes the classic amplifying systems with valves by field effect semiconductors of the type MOS-FET channel N, allowing a larger compacting and efficiency. This oscillator possibly reaching potencies of the order of 103 Watts at a low cost. (author)

  17. The gyrokinetic resonant theory of low frequency electromagnetic perturbation

    Zhang, Shuangxi; Kishimoto, Yasuaki

    2016-01-01

    This paper pointed out that the traditional gyrokinetic theory dealing with low frequency electromagnetic perturbation violates the near identity transformation supposed to be obeyed by Lie perturbed transformation theory, if resonance happens between $\\omega$ and $\\mathbf{k}\\cdot \\mathbf{v}$. A modification is given to overcome this problem by not requiring all components in the first order Lagrangian 1-form equaling zero. And a numerical example is given as an application of the new theory.

  18. How far can the resonance frequencies give informations about the playing frequencies? The trumpet example

    Eveno, Pauline; Kieffer, Benoît; Gilbert, Joël; Petiot, Jean-François; Caussé, René

    2012-01-01

    International audience Measurements and calculations of the input impedance of wind musical instruments are now well mastered. The purpose of this work is to study experimentally how far the resonance frequencies of brass instruments, taken from their input impedance, are able to give informations about the playing frequencies. Three different trumpets, obtained by changing only the leadpipe of the same instrument, were considered for the experiment. After a measurement of the input impeda...

  19. Computing resonant frequency of C-shaped compact microstrip antennas by using ANFIS

    Akdagli, Ali; Kayabasi, Ahmet; Develi, Ibrahim

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the resonant frequency of C-shaped compact microstrip antennas (CCMAs) operating at UHF band is computed by using the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). For this purpose, 144 CCMAs with various relative dielectric constants and different physical dimensions were simulated by the XFDTD software package based on the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method. One hundred and twenty-nine CCMAs were employed for training, while the remaining 15 CCMAs were used for testing of the ANFIS model. Average percentage error (APE) values were obtained as 0.8413% and 1.259% for training and testing, respectively. In order to demonstrate its validity and accuracy, the proposed ANFIS model was also tested over the simulation data given in the literature, and APE was obtained as 0.916%. These results show that ANFIS can be successfully used to compute the resonant frequency of CCMAs.

  20. Device for measurement of power and shape of radio frequency pulses in nuclear magnetic resonance

    A design of an instrument to measure the power and shape of radio frequency (RF) pulses operating in a broad frequency range is described. The device is capable of measuring the pulse power up to 500 W of both CW and extremely short (∼1 μs) RF pulses of arbitrary period. The pulse envelope can be observed on a logarithmic scale on a corresponding instrument output using an inexpensive storage oscilloscope. The instrument consists of a coaxial measurement head, the RF processing circuits and an AD conversion and display unit. The whole device is based on widely available integrated circuits; thus, good reproducibility and adaptability of the design is ensured. Since the construction is intended to be used in particular (but not solely) in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we found it useful to provide a demonstration of two typical usage scenarios. Other application fields may comprise magnetic resonance imaging, radar and laser technology, power amplifier testing, etc. (technical design note)

  1. Effect of off-frequency sampling in magnetic resonance elastography.

    Johnson, Curtis L; Chen, Danchin D; Olivero, William C; Sutton, Bradley P; Georgiadis, John G

    2012-02-01

    In magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), shear waves at a certain frequency are encoded through bipolar gradients that switch polarity at a controlled encoding frequency and are offset in time to capture wave propagation using a controlled sampling frequency. In brain MRE, there is a possibility that the mechanical actuation frequency is different from the vibration frequency, leading to a mismatch with encoding and sampling frequencies. This mismatch can occur in brain MRE from causes both extrinsic and intrinsic to the brain, such as scanner bed vibrations or active damping in the head. The purpose of this work was to investigate how frequency mismatch can affect MRE shear stiffness measurements. Experiments were performed on a dual-medium agarose gel phantom, and the results were compared with numerical simulations to quantify these effects. It is known that off-frequency encoding alone results in a scaling of wave amplitude, and it is shown here that off-frequency sampling can result in two main effects: (1) errors in the overall shear stiffness estimate of the material on the global scale and (2) local variations appearing as stiffer and softer structures in the material. For small differences in frequency, it was found that measured global stiffness of the brain could theoretically vary by up to 12.5% relative to actual stiffness with local variations of up to 3.7% of the mean stiffness. It was demonstrated that performing MRE experiments at a frequency other than that of tissue vibration can lead to artifacts in the MRE stiffness images, and this mismatch could explain some of the large-scale scatter of stiffness data or lack of repeatability reported in the brain MRE literature. PMID:22055750

  2. Frequency Response Adaptive Control of a Refrigeration Cycle

    Jens G. Balchen

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A technique for the adaptation of controller parameters in a single control loop based upon the estimation of frequency response parameters has been presented in an earlier paper. This paper contains an extension and a generalization of the first method and results in a more versatile solution which is applicable to a wider range of process characteristics. The application of this adaptive control technique is illustrated by a laboratory refrigeration cycle in which the evaporator pressure controls the speed of the compressor.

  3. Low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonance with a dc SQUID

    Conventional pure nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is a technique well suited for the study of very large quadrupolar interactions. Numerous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques have been developed for the study of smaller quadrupolar interactions. However, there are many nuclei which have quadrupolar interactions of intermediate strength. Quadrupolar interactions in this region have traditionally been difficult or unfeasible to detect. This work describes the development and application of a SQUID NQR technique which is capable of measuring intermediate strength quadrupolar interactions, in the range of a few hundred kilohertz to several megahertz. In this technique, a dc SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) is used to monitor the longitudinal sample magnetization, as opposed to the transverse magnetization, as a rf field is swept in frequency. This allows the detection of low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonances over a very wide frequency range with high sensitivity. The theory of this NQR technique is discussed and a description of the dc SQUID system is given. In the following chapters, the spectrometer is discussed along with its application to the study of samples containing half-odd-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei, in particular boron-11 and aluminum-27. The feasibility of applying this NQR technique in the study of samples containing integer spin nuclei is discussed in the last chapter. 140 refs., 46 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Exoskeleton control for lower-extremity assistance based on adaptive frequency oscillators: adaptation of muscle activation and movement frequency.

    Aguirre-Ollinger, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we analyze a novel strategy for assisting the lower extremities based on adaptive frequency oscillators. Our aim is to use the control algorithm presented here as a building block for the control of powered lower-limb exoskeletons. The algorithm assists cyclic movements of the human extremities by synchronizing actuator torques with the estimated net torque exerted by the muscles. Synchronization is produced by a nonlinear dynamical system combining an adaptive frequency oscillator with a form of adaptive Fourier analysis. The system extracts, in real time, the fundamental frequency component of the net muscle torque acting on a specific joint. Said component, nearly sinusoidal in shape, is the basis for the assistive torque waveform delivered by the exoskeleton. The action of the exoskeleton can be interpreted as a virtual reduction in the mechanical impedance of the leg. We studied the ability of human subjects to adapt their muscle activation to the assistive torque. Ten subjects swung their extended leg while coupled to a stationary hip joint exoskeleton. The experiment yielded a significant decrease, with respect to unassisted movement, of the activation levels of an agonist/antagonist pair of muscles controlling the hip joint's motion, which suggests the exoskeleton control has potential for assisting human gait. A moderate increase in swing frequency was observed as well. We theorize that the increase in frequency can be explained by the impedance model of the assisted leg. Per this model, subjects adjust their swing frequency in order to control the amount of reduction in net muscle torque. PMID:25655955

  5. Robust time and frequency domain estimation methods in adaptive control

    Lamaire, Richard Orville

    1987-01-01

    A robust identification method was developed for use in an adaptive control system. The type of estimator is called the robust estimator, since it is robust to the effects of both unmodeled dynamics and an unmeasurable disturbance. The development of the robust estimator was motivated by a need to provide guarantees in the identification part of an adaptive controller. To enable the design of a robust control system, a nominal model as well as a frequency-domain bounding function on the modeling uncertainty associated with this nominal model must be provided. Two estimation methods are presented for finding parameter estimates, and, hence, a nominal model. One of these methods is based on the well developed field of time-domain parameter estimation. In a second method of finding parameter estimates, a type of weighted least-squares fitting to a frequency-domain estimated model is used. The frequency-domain estimator is shown to perform better, in general, than the time-domain parameter estimator. In addition, a methodology for finding a frequency-domain bounding function on the disturbance is used to compute a frequency-domain bounding function on the additive modeling error due to the effects of the disturbance and the use of finite-length data. The performance of the robust estimator in both open-loop and closed-loop situations is examined through the use of simulations.

  6. Vibrational resonance in adaptive small-world neuronal networks with spike-timing-dependent plasticity

    Yu, Haitao; Guo, Xinmeng; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile

    2015-10-01

    The phenomenon of vibrational resonance is investigated in adaptive Newman-Watts small-world neuronal networks, where the strength of synaptic connections between neurons is modulated based on spike-timing-dependent plasticity. Numerical results demonstrate that there exists appropriate amplitude of high-frequency driving which is able to optimize the neural ensemble response to the weak low-frequency periodic signal. The effect of networked vibrational resonance can be significantly affected by spike-timing-dependent plasticity. It is shown that spike-timing-dependent plasticity with dominant depression can always improve the efficiency of vibrational resonance, and a small adjusting rate can promote the transmission of weak external signal in small-world neuronal networks. In addition, the network topology plays an important role in the vibrational resonance in spike-timing-dependent plasticity-induced neural systems, where the system response to the subthreshold signal is maximized by an optimal network structure. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the introduction of inhibitory synapses can considerably weaken the phenomenon of vibrational resonance in the hybrid small-world neuronal networks with spike-timing-dependent plasticity.

  7. Adaptive frequency estimation by MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) method

    Karhunen, Juha; Nieminen, Esko; Joutsensalo, Jyrki

    During the last years, the eigenvector-based method called MUSIC has become very popular in estimating the frequencies of sinusoids in additive white noise. Adaptive realizations of the MUSIC method are studied using simulated data. Several of the adaptive realizations seem to give in practice equally good results as the nonadaptive standard realization. The only exceptions are instantaneous gradient type algorithms that need considerably more samples to achieve a comparable performance. A new method is proposed for constructing initial estimates to the signal subspace. The method improves often dramatically the performance of instantaneous gradient type algorithms. The new signal subspace estimate can also be used to define a frequency estimator directly or to simplify eigenvector computation.

  8. Frequency-selective analysis of multichannel magnetic resonance spectroscopy data.

    Sandgren, Niclas; Stoica, Petre

    2005-01-01

    In several practical magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) applications the user is interested only in the spectral content of a specific frequency band of the spectrum. A frequency-selective (or sub-band) method estimates only the parameters of those spectroscopic components that lie in a pre-selected frequency band of the spectrum in a computationally efficient manner. Multichannel MRS is a technique that employs phased-array receive coils to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the spectra by combining several simultaneous measurements of the magnetic resonance (MR) relaxation of an excited sample. In this paper we suggest a frequency-selective multichannel parameter estimation approach that combines the appealing features (high speed and improved SNR) of the two techniques above. The presented method shows parameter estimation accuracies comparable to those of existing fullband multichannel techniques in the high SNR case, but at a considerably lower computational complexity, and significantly better parameter estimation accuracies in low SNR scenarios. PMID:17282712

  9. Nano-resonator frequency response based on strain gradient theory

    This paper aims to explore the dynamic behaviour of a nano-resonator under ac and dc excitation using strain gradient theory. To achieve this goal, the partial differential equation of nano-beam vibration is first converted to an ordinary differential equation by the Galerkin projection method and the lumped model is derived. Lumped parameters of the nano-resonator, such as linear and nonlinear springs and damper coefficients, are compared with those of classical theory and it is demonstrated that beams with smaller thickness display greater deviation from classical parameters. Stable and unstable equilibrium points based on classic and non-classical theories are also compared. The results show that, regarding the applied dc voltage, the dynamic behaviours expected by classical and non-classical theories are significantly different, such that one theory predicts the un-deformed shape as the stable condition, while the other theory predicts that the beam will experience bi-stability. To obtain the frequency response of the nano-resonator, a general equation including cubic and quadratic nonlinearities in addition to parametric electrostatic excitation terms is derived, and the analytical solution is determined using a second-order multiple scales method. Based on frequency response analysis, the softening and hardening effects given by two theories are investigated and compared, and it is observed that neglecting the size effect can lead to two completely different predictions in the dynamic behaviour of the resonators. The findings of this article can be helpful in the design and characterization of the size-dependent dynamic behaviour of resonators on small scales. (paper)

  10. Radio Frequency Interference Suppression for Landmine Detection by Quadrupole Resonance

    Liu Guoqing

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The quadrupole resonance (QR technology can be used as a confirming sensor for buried plastic landmine detection by detecting the explosives within the mine. We focus herein on the detection of TNT mines via the QR sensor. Since the frequency of the QR signal is located within the AM radio frequency band, the QR signal can be corrupted by strong radio frequency interferences (RFIs. Hence to detect the very weak QR signal, RFI mitigation is essential. Reference antennas, which receive RFIs only, can be used together with the main antenna, which receives both the QR signal and the RFIs, for RFI mitigation. The RFIs are usually colored both spatially and temporally, and hence exploiting only the spatial diversity of the antenna array may not give the best performance. We exploit herein both the spatial and temporal correlations of the RFIs to improve the TNT detection performance.

  11. About resonance frequencies of aluminium alloy bending vibrations

    Using ultrasonic method resonance frequencies of bending vibrations and elastic moduli of aluminium alloy SAV-1 samples are investigated. On the base of spectra of bending vibrations in low-frequency range data on values of a number of elastic properties are obtained as well as dispersion characteristics of main moduli for number of frequencies before and after ionizing irradiation (60Co, 5x103-1.6x107 Gy) of samples. Considerable stability of sample elastic moduli during common storage conditions and nonlinear dose dependence of these parameters within wide range of absorbed doses are pointed out. Possible causes of revealed effects of radiation modification of elastic properties of SAV-1 alloy are analyzed

  12. Blade Crack Detection of Centrifugal Fan Using Adaptive Stochastic Resonance

    Bingbing Hu; Bing Li

    2015-01-01

    Centrifugal fans are widely used in various industries as a kind of turbo machinery. Among the components of the centrifugal fan, the impeller is a key part because it is used to transform kinetic energy into pressure energy. Crack in impeller’s blades is one of the serious hidden dangers. It is important to detect the cracks in the blades as early as possible. Based on blade vibration signals, this research applies an adaptive stochastic resonance (ASR) method to diagnose crack fault in cent...

  13. Wideband bioimpedance meter with the adaptive selection of frequency grid

    V. S. Mosiychuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For the diagnosis of functional state and structure of biological objects with weakly expressed irregularities it is important quickly and accurately to determine the amplitude- and phase-frequency characteristics. Therefore, the purpose of the article is a representation of the results of the development of biological objects high-speed impedance meter with the ability to select adaptive grid measuring frequencies in the extended band. Structure of the impedance meter. Developed instrument is designed to measure the impedance of the object on four-electrode method. The device uses a frequency synthesizer amplitude-phase detector integrally fabricated and active electrodes, by which the voltage controlled current source and the input buffer amplifiers with low input capacitance, are located in close proximity to the studied bioobject. This allowed to make measurements at frequencies up to 5 MHz. Instruments characteristics. To test the device characteristics the frequency characteristics of the test object (RC-chain impedance were measured. It is composed of 5 precision resistors and capacitors. Parameters of the elements were measured preliminarily by laboratory inductance, capacitance and resistance meter E7-12. The dependence of the measurement errors of the developed device in the frequency range from 1 kHz to 5 MHz is not more than 5% of the modulus of the impedance and not more than 2° of the phase.

  14. Superconducting radio-frequency resonator in magnetic fields up to 6 T

    Ebrahimi, M. S.; Stallkamp, N.; Quint, W.; Wiesel, M.; Vogel, M.; Martin, A.; Birkl, G.

    2016-07-01

    We have measured the characteristics of a superconducting radio-frequency resonator in an external magnetic field. The magnetic field strength has been varied with 10 mT resolution between zero and 6 T. The resonance frequency and the quality factor of the resonator have been found to change significantly as a function of the magnetic field strength. Both parameters show a hysteresis effect which is more pronounced for the resonance frequency. Quantitative knowledge of such behaviour is particularly important when experiments require specific values of resonance frequency and quality factor or when the magnetic field is changed while the resonator is in the superconducting state.

  15. Parametric study of the resonance frequency of synthetic jet actuators

    Kordík, Jozef; Šafařík, P.; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    Vol. 10/2008. Bydgoszcz : Polish Society of Mechanical Engineers and Technicians, 2008 - (Peszynski, K.), s. 57-58 ISBN 978-83-87982-08-9. [International Conference on Developments in Machinery Design and Control /12./. Nowogród (PL), 09.09.2008-12.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200760504; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06031 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : synthetic jet * synthetic jet actuator * resonance frequency Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  16. RF MEMS Fractal Capacitors With High Self-Resonant Frequencies

    Elshurafa, Amro M.

    2012-07-23

    This letter demonstrates RF microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fractal capacitors possessing the highest reported self-resonant frequencies (SRFs) in PolyMUMPS to date. Explicitly, measurement results show SRFs beyond 20 GHz. Furthermore, quality factors higher than 4 throughout a band of 1-15 GHz and reaching as high as 28 were achieved. Additional benefits that are readily attainable from implementing fractal capacitors in MEMS are discussed, including suppressing residual stress warping, eliminating the need for etching holes, and reducing parasitics. The latter benefits were acquired without any fabrication intervention. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. Optical sum-frequency generation in whispering gallery mode resonators

    Strekalov, Dmitry V; Huang, Yu-Ping; Kumar, Prem

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate sum-frequency generation in a nonlinear whispering gallery mode resonator between a telecom wavelength and the Rb D2 line, achieved through natural phase matching. Due to the strong optical field confinement and ultra high Q of the cavity, we achieve a 1000-fold enhancement in the conversion efficiency compared to existing waveguide-based devices. The experimental data are in agreement with the nonlinear dynamics and phase matching theory in the spherical geometry employed. The experimental and theoretical results point to a new platform to manipulate the color and quantum states of light waves toward applications such as atomic memory based quantum networking and logic operations with optical signals.

  18. Low frequency noise in resonant Josephson soliton oscillators

    Hansen, Jørn Bindslev; Holst, T.; Wellstood, Frederick C.;

    1991-01-01

    to the Nyquist voltage noise in a resistance equal to the dynamic resistance RD of the current-voltage characteristic of the bias point. In contrast, measurements of the linewidth of the microwave radiation from the same JTL showed that the spectral density of the underlying noise voltage scaled as R D2/RS where......The noise in the resonant soliton mode of long and narrow Josephson tunnel junctions (Josephson transmission lines or JTLs) have been measured in the frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 25 kHz by means of a DC SQUID. The measured white noise was found, to within a factor of two, to be equal...

  19. A time domain based method for the accurate measurement of Q-factor and resonance frequency of microwave resonators

    Gyüre, B.; Márkus, B. G.; Bernáth, B.; Simon, F., E-mail: ferenc.simon@univie.ac.at [Department of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics and MTA-BME Lendület Spintronics Research Group (PROSPIN), P.O. Box 91, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Murányi, F. [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT’IS), Zeughausstrasse 43, 8004 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-09-15

    We present a novel method to determine the resonant frequency and quality factor of microwave resonators which is faster, more stable, and conceptually simpler than the yet existing techniques. The microwave resonator is pumped with the microwave radiation at a frequency away from its resonance. It then emits an exponentially decaying radiation at its eigen-frequency when the excitation is rapidly switched off. The emitted microwave signal is down-converted with a microwave mixer, digitized, and its Fourier transformation (FT) directly yields the resonance curve in a single shot. Being a FT based method, this technique possesses the Fellgett (multiplex) and Connes (accuracy) advantages and it conceptually mimics that of pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance. We also establish a novel benchmark to compare accuracy of the different approaches of microwave resonator measurements. This shows that the present method has similar accuracy to the existing ones, which are based on sweeping or modulating the frequency of the microwave radiation.

  20. A time domain based method for the accurate measurement of Q-factor and resonance frequency of microwave resonators

    We present a novel method to determine the resonant frequency and quality factor of microwave resonators which is faster, more stable, and conceptually simpler than the yet existing techniques. The microwave resonator is pumped with the microwave radiation at a frequency away from its resonance. It then emits an exponentially decaying radiation at its eigen-frequency when the excitation is rapidly switched off. The emitted microwave signal is down-converted with a microwave mixer, digitized, and its Fourier transformation (FT) directly yields the resonance curve in a single shot. Being a FT based method, this technique possesses the Fellgett (multiplex) and Connes (accuracy) advantages and it conceptually mimics that of pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance. We also establish a novel benchmark to compare accuracy of the different approaches of microwave resonator measurements. This shows that the present method has similar accuracy to the existing ones, which are based on sweeping or modulating the frequency of the microwave radiation

  1. Planetary gearbox fault diagnosis using an adaptive stochastic resonance method

    Lei, Yaguo; Han, Dong; Lin, Jing; He, Zhengjia

    2013-07-01

    Planetary gearboxes are widely used in aerospace, automotive and heavy industry applications due to their large transmission ratio, strong load-bearing capacity and high transmission efficiency. The tough operation conditions of heavy duty and intensive impact load may cause gear tooth damage such as fatigue crack and teeth missed etc. The challenging issues in fault diagnosis of planetary gearboxes include selection of sensitive measurement locations, investigation of vibration transmission paths and weak feature extraction. One of them is how to effectively discover the weak characteristics from noisy signals of faulty components in planetary gearboxes. To address the issue in fault diagnosis of planetary gearboxes, an adaptive stochastic resonance (ASR) method is proposed in this paper. The ASR method utilizes the optimization ability of ant colony algorithms and adaptively realizes the optimal stochastic resonance system matching input signals. Using the ASR method, the noise may be weakened and weak characteristics highlighted, and therefore the faults can be diagnosed accurately. A planetary gearbox test rig is established and experiments with sun gear faults including a chipped tooth and a missing tooth are conducted. And the vibration signals are collected under the loaded condition and various motor speeds. The proposed method is used to process the collected signals and the results of feature extraction and fault diagnosis demonstrate its effectiveness.

  2. Blade Crack Detection of Centrifugal Fan Using Adaptive Stochastic Resonance

    Bingbing Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugal fans are widely used in various industries as a kind of turbo machinery. Among the components of the centrifugal fan, the impeller is a key part because it is used to transform kinetic energy into pressure energy. Crack in impeller’s blades is one of the serious hidden dangers. It is important to detect the cracks in the blades as early as possible. Based on blade vibration signals, this research applies an adaptive stochastic resonance (ASR method to diagnose crack fault in centrifugal fan. The ASR method, which can utilize the optimization ability of the grid search method and adaptively realize the optimal stochastic resonance system matching input signals, may weaken the noise and highlight weak characteristic and thus can diagnose the fault accurately. A centrifugal fan test rig is established and experiments with three cases of blades are conducted. In comparison with the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD analysis and the traditional Fourier transform method, the experiment verified the effectiveness of the current method in blade crack detection.

  3. Frequency locking in hair cells: Distinguishing between distinct resonant mechanisms

    Edri, Yuval; Yochelis, Arik

    2016-01-01

    The auditory system displays remarkable mechanical sensitivity and frequency discrimination. These attributes have been shown to rely on an amplification process, which requires biochemical feedback loops. In some systems, the active process was shown to lead to spontaneous oscillations of hair cell bundles. In the last decade, models that display proximity to an oscillatory onset (a.k.a. Hopf bifurcation) have gained increasing support due to many advantages in explaining the hearing phenomenology. Particularly, they exhibit resonant responses to distinct frequencies of incoming sound waves. Unlike previous studies, two types of driving forces are being examined: additive, in which the external forcing term does not couple directly on the systems observable (passive coupling), and parametric, in which the forcing term directly affects the observable and thus intrinsically modifies the systems properties (active coupling). By applying universal principles near the Hopf bifurcation onset, we find several funda...

  4. Ion cyclotron resonance bridge detector for frequency sweep

    Pitsakis, M.N.; Wobschall, D.C.

    1983-11-01

    An electronic ion cyclotron resonance detection system was designed and constructed. The ions are excited by sweeping the frequency of the electric field (3--300 kHz) using a sweep frequency generator with a nonlinear sweep voltage in order to maintain an approximately constant mass resolution. Ion detection is accomplished by a bridge with a phase-sensitive detector as a demodulator. The required reference signal for the phase-sensitive detector is generated by a circuit with a transfer function which approximates that of the ICR signal in order to obtain an accurate phase match between the signal source and the detector. The device is capable of detecting a minimum concentration of 50 ions/cm/sup 3/ over a mass range of 15 to 1500 amu.

  5. Ion cyclotron resonance bridge detector for frequency sweep

    Pitsakis, Michael N.; Wobschall, Darold C.

    1983-11-01

    An electronic ion cyclotron resonance detection system was designed and constructed. The ions are excited by sweeping the frequency of the electric field (3-300 kHz) using a sweep frequency generator with a nonlinear sweep voltage in order to maintain an approximately constant mass resolution. Ion detection is accomplished by a bridge with a phase-sensitive detector as a demodulator. The required reference signal for the phase-sensitive detector is generated by a circuit with a transfer function which approximates that of the ICR signal in order to obtain an accurate phase match between the signal source and the detector. The device is capable of detecting a minimum concentration of 50 ions/cm3 over a mass range of 15 to 1500 amu.

  6. Resonant interactions between cometary ions and low frequency electromagnetic waves

    We explore the conditions for resonance between cometary pick-up ions and parallel propagating electromagnetic waves. A model ring-beam distribution for the pick-up H2O+ ions is adopted which allows a direct comparison of the source of free energy for growth from either the beam or the gyrating ring in the limit near marginal stability. Under average solar wind conditions in the inner solar system the gyrating ring provides the dominant contribution to wave growth. The presence of a field-aligned beam is only important to allow resonance with R-mode waves which occur in two distinct frequency bands either well above or below the pick-up ion gyrofrequency. The most unstable mode is the low frequency R-mode or fast MHD wave, though higher frequency whistlers or low frequency L-mode waves may also be excited by the same source of free energy. The nature of the unstable waves is strongly influenced by the inclination α of the interplanetary field. In the frame of the solar wind such waves must propagate along the field in the direction upstream towards the Sun with a phase speed lower than the beaming velocity of the pick-up ions. The waves are consequently blown back away from the Sun and would thus be detected with a left-hand polarization by an observer in the cometary frame. We consider this the most likely mechanism to account for the interior MHD waves observed by satellites over an extended spatial region surrounding comets Giacobini-Zinner and Halley. (author)

  7. Chlorine nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer with accurate recording the resonant frequency

    A spectrometer with automatic frequency control (AFC) of the nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) detector has been developed for decreasing errors and automating measurement of NQR frequencies. A parametric superregenerator is used as a detector of signals in the NQR 35Cl spectrometer. A digital frequency meter and a band puncher are used for measuring and recording of the values of the synthesizer frequency; the recording of the first derivative of the NQR signal is done by a two-coordinate self-recorder. The AFC circuit consists of an audio generator, an amplidude detector, a selective low-frequency amplifier, a low-frequency phase detector, a direct-current amplifier and a voltage adder. The recording of the first derivative of the signal of NQR 35Cl in KClO3 at the modulation frequency of 250 Hz was given to illustrate the operation of the NQR spectrometer. The rems error of measurements of the NQR 35Cl in KClO3 frequency is +-1.5 Hz, which corresponds to possible sample temperature changes with an accuracy of +0.0003 K

  8. Resonant-frequency discharge in a multi-cell radio frequency cavity

    Popovic, S; Upadhyay, J; Mammosser, J; Nikolic, M; Vuskovic, L

    2014-11-07

    We are reporting experimental results on microwave discharge operating at resonant frequency in a multi-cell radio frequency (RF) accelerator cavity. Although the discharge operated at room temperature, the setup was constructed so that it could be used for plasma generation and processing in fully assembled active superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cryomodule (in situ operation). This discharge offers an efficient mechanism for removal of a variety of contaminants, organic or oxide layers, and residual particulates from the interior surface of RF cavities through the interaction of plasma-generated radicals with the cavity walls. We describe resonant RF breakdown conditions and address the problems related to generation and sustaining the multi-cell cavity plasma, which are breakdown and resonant detuning. We have determined breakdown conditions in the cavity, which was acting as a plasma vessel with distorted cylindrical geometry. We discuss the spectroscopic data taken during plasma removal of contaminants and use them to evaluate plasma parameters, characterize the process, and estimate the volatile contaminant product removal.

  9. Amplitude modulation reduces loudness adaptation to high-frequency tones

    Wynne, DP; George, SE; Zeng, FG

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Acoustical Society of America. Long-term loudness perception of a sound has been presumed to depend on the spatial distribution of activated auditory nerve fibers as well as their temporal firing pattern. The relative contributions of those two factors were investigated by measuring loudness adaptation to sinusoidally amplitude-modulated 12-kHz tones. The tones had a total duration of 180s and were either unmodulated or 100%-modulated at one of three frequencies (4, 20, or 100Hz), and ...

  10. Signal Adaptive System for Space/Spatial-Frequency Analysis

    Veselin N. Ivanović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the development of a multiple-clock-cycle implementation (MCI of a signal adaptive two-dimensional (2D system for space/spatial-frequency (S/SF signal analysis. The design is based on a method for improved S/SF representation of the analyzed 2D signals, also proposed here. The proposed MCI design optimizes critical design performances related to hardware complexity, making it a suitable system for real time implementation on an integrated chip. Additionally, the design allows the implemented system to take a variable number of clock cycles (CLKs (the only necessary ones regarding desirable—2D Wigner distribution-presentation of autoterms in different frequency-frequency points during the execution. This ability represents a major advantage of the proposed design which helps to optimize the time required for execution and produce an improved, cross-terms-free S/SF signal representation. The design has been verified by a field-programmable gate array (FPGA circuit design, capable of performing S/SF analysis of 2D signals in real time.

  11. Clinical evaluation of osseointegration using resonance frequency analysis.

    Satwalekar, Parth; Nalla, Sandeep; Reddy, Ramaswamy; Chowdary, Sheeba Glory

    2015-01-01

    The stability of the implant at the time of placement and during the development of the osseointegration process are the two major issues governing the implant survival. Implant stability is a mechanical phenomenon related to local factors such as bone quality, quantity, type of placement technique and type of implant used. The application of a user-friendly, clinically reliable, non-invasive method to assess implant stability and the osseointegration process is considered highly desirable. Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) is one such method which shows almost perfect reproducibility and repeatability after statistical analysis. The aim of this paper is to review the various methods used to assess implant stability and on the currently used RFA method which is being highly accepted in the recent times. PMID:26929512

  12. High frequency nano-optomechanical disk resonators in liquids

    Gil-Santos, E; Nguyen, D T; Hease, W; Lemaître, A; Ducci, S; Leo, G; Favero, I

    2015-01-01

    Vibrating nano- and micromechanical resonators have been the subject of research aiming at ultrasensitive mass sensors for mass spectrometry, chemical analysis and biomedical diagnosis. Unfortunately, their merits diminish dramatically in liquids due to dissipative mechanisms like viscosity and acoustic losses. A push towards faster and lighter miniaturized nanodevices would enable improved performances, provided dissipation was controlled and novel techniques were available to efficiently drive and read-out their minute displacement. Here we report on a nano-optomechanical approach to this problem using miniature semiconductor disks. These devices combine mechanical motion at high frequency above the GHz, ultra-low mass of a few picograms, and moderate dissipation in liquids. We show that high-sensitivity optical measurements allow to direct resolve their thermally driven Brownian vibrations, even in the most dissipative liquids. Thanks to this novel technique, we experimentally, numerically and analytically...

  13. Low radio frequency biased electron cyclotron resonance plasma etching

    Samukawa, Seiji; Toyosato, Tomohiko; Wani, Etsuo

    1991-03-01

    A radio frequency (rf) biased electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma etching technology has been developed to realize an efficient ion acceleration in high density and uniform ECR plasma for accurate Al-Si-Cu alloy film etching. In this technology, the substrate is located at the ECR position (875 G position) and the etching is carried out with a 400 kHz rf bias power. This Al-Si-Cu etching technology achieves a high etching rate (more than 5000 A/min), excellent etching uniformity (within ±5%), highly anisotropic etching, and Cu residue-free etching in only Cl2 gas plasma. These etching characteristics are accomplished by the combination of the dense and uniform ECR plasma generation at the ECR position with the efficient accelerated ion flux at the ECR position by using 400 kHz rf bias.

  14. A wide range sigma—delta fractional-N frequency synthesizer with adaptive frequency calibration

    A wide range fractional-N frequency synthesizer in 0.18 μm RF CMOS technology is implemented. A switched-capacitors bank LC-tank VCO and an adaptive frequency calibration technique are used to expand the frequency range. A 16-bit third-order sigma—delta modulator with dither is used to randomize the fractional spur. The active area is 0.6 mm2. The experimental results show the proposed frequency synthesizer consumes 4.3 mA from a single 1.8 V supply voltage except for buffers. The frequency range is 1.44–2.11 GHz and the frequency resolution is less than 0.4 kHz. The phase noise is −94 dBc/Hz - 100 kHz and −121 dBc/Hz - 1 MHz at the output of the prescaler with a loop bandwidth of approximately 120 kHz. The performance meets the requirements for the multi-band and multi-mode transceiver applications. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  15. Measurements of resonance frequencies of clarinet reeds and simulations

    Taillard, Pierre-André; Gross, Michel; Dalmont, Jean-Pierre; Kergomard, Jean

    2012-01-01

    A set of 55 clarinet reeds is observed by holography, collecting 2 series of measurements made under 2 different moisture contents, from which the resonance frequencies of the 15 first modes are deduced. A statistical analysis of the results reveals good correlations, but also significant differences between both series. Within a given series, flexural modes are not strongly correlated. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) shows that the measurements of each series can be described with 3 factors capturing more than 90% of the variance: the first is linked with transverse modes, the second with flexural modes of high order and the third with the first flexural mode. A forth factor is necessary to take into account the individual sensitivity to moisture content. Numerical 3D simulations are conducted by Finite Element Method, based on a given reed shape and an orthotropic model. A sensitivity analysis revels that, besides the density, the theoretical frequencies depend mainly on 2 parameters: $E_L$ and $G_{LT}...

  16. Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory, Diffusion Maps and their applications to Clustering and Biclustering

    Damelin, S. B.; Y. Gu; Wunsch II, D. C.; Xu, R

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an algorithm FARDiff (Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Dif- fusion) which combines Diffusion Maps and Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory to do clustering on high dimensional data. We describe some applications of this method and some problems for future research.

  17. A fast integral equation method for simulating high-field radio frequency coil arrays in magnetic resonance imaging

    A fast full-wave numerical approach was developed for simulating high-field multi-channel radio-frequency (RF) receive coil arrays in magnetic resonance imaging. To improve the efficiency, the impedance matrix was compressed by a multilevel adaptive cross approximation method. Furthermore, careful organization of multiple coil simulations was applied so that the impedance matrix associated with biological subjects is constructed and pre-conditioned only once. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach for RF coil simulations.

  18. Effects of Thickness Deviation of Elastic Plates in Multi-Layered Resonance Systems on Frequency Spectra

    ZHANG Hui; ZHANG Shu-Yi; FAN Li

    2009-01-01

    A model of high-overtone bulk acoustic resonators is used to study the effects of thickness deviation of elastic plates on resonance frequency spectra in planar multi-layered systems. The resonance frequency shifts induced by the thickness deviations of the elastic plates periodically vary with the resonance order, which depends on the acoustic impedance ratios of the elastic plates to piezoelectric patches. Additionally, the center lines of the frequency shift oscillations Hnearly change with the orders of the resonance modes, and their slopes are sensitive to the thickness deviations of the plates, which can be used to quantitatively evaluate the thickness deviations.

  19. Resonant frequencies of massless scalar field in rotating black-brane spacetime

    Jing Ji-Liang; Pan Qi-Yuan

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the resonant frequencies of the massless scalar field in the near extremal Kerr-like black-brahe spacetime. It is shown that the different angular quantum number will present different resonant frequencies. It is also shown that the real part of the resonant frequencies increases as the compact dimensions parameter μi increases, but the magnitude of the imaginary part decreases as μi increases.

  20. Using genetic algorithm based fuzzy adaptive resonance theory for clustering analysis

    LIU Bo; WANG Yong; WANG Hong-jian

    2006-01-01

    In the clustering applications field, fuzzy adaptive resonance theory system has been widely applied. But, three parameters of fuzzy adaptive resonance theory need to be adjusted manually for obtaining better clustering. It needs much time to test and does not assure a best result. Genetic algorithm is an optimal mathematical search technique based on the principles of natural selection and genetic recombination. So, to make the fuzzy adaptive resonance theory parameters choosing process automation, an approach incorporating genetic algorithm and fuzzy adaptive resonance theory neural network has been applied. Then, the best clustering result can be obtained.Through experiment, it can be proved that the most appropriate parameters of fuzzy adaptive resonance theory can be gained effectively by this approach.

  1. Stress adaptation and low-frequency impedance of rat lungs.

    Peslin, R; Duvivier, C; Bekkari, H; Reichart, E; Gallina, C

    1990-09-01

    At transpulmonary pressures (Ptp) of 7-12 cmH2O, pressure-volume hysteresis of isolated cat lungs has been found to be 20-50% larger than predicted from their amount of stress adaptation (J. Hildebrandt, J. Appl. Physiol. 28: 365-372, 1970). This behavior is inconsistent with linear viscoelasticity and has been interpreted in terms of plastoelasticity. We have reinvestigated this phenomenon in isolated lungs from 12 Wistar rats by measuring 1) the changes in Ptp after 0.5-ml step volume changes (initial Ptp of 5 cmH2O) and 2) their response to sinusoidal pressure forcing from 0.01 to 0.67 Hz (2 cmH2O peak to peak, mean Ptp of 6 cmH2O). Stress adaptation curves were found to fit approximately Hildebrandt's logarithmic model [delta Ptp/delta V = A - B.log(t)] from 0.2 to 100 s, where delta V is the step volume change, A and B are coefficients, and t is time. A and B averaged 1.06 +/- 0.11 and 0.173 +/- 0.019 cmH2O/ml, respectively, with minor differences between stress relaxation and stress recovery curves. The response to sinusoidal forcing was characterized by the effective resistance (Re) and elastance (EL). Re decreased from 2.48 +/- 0.41 cmH2O.ml-1.s at 0.01 Hz to 0.18 +/- 0.03 cmH2O.ml-1.s at 0.5 Hz, and EL increased from 0.99 +/- 0.10 to 1.26 +/- 0.20 cmH2O/ml on the same frequency range. These data were analyzed with the frequency-domain version of the same model, complemented by a Newtonian resistance (R) to account for airway resistance: Re = R + B/ (9.2f) and EL = A + 0.25B + B . log 2 pi f, where f is the frequency.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2246156

  2. Quantum dot admittance probed at microwave frequencies with an on-chip resonator

    Frey, T.; Leek, P. J.; Beck, M.; Faist, J.; Wallraff, A.; Ensslin, K.; Ihn, T.; Büttiker, M.

    2012-09-01

    We present microwave frequency measurements of the dynamic admittance of a quantum dot tunnel-coupled to a two-dimensional electron gas. The measurements are made via a high-quality 6.75 GHz on-chip resonator capacitively coupled to the dot. The resonator frequency is found to shift both down and up close to conductance resonance of the dot corresponding to a change of sign of the reactance of the system from capacitive to inductive. The observations are consistent with a scattering matrix model. The sign of the reactance depends on the detuning of the dot from conductance resonance and on the magnitude of the tunnel rate to the lead with respect to the resonator frequency. Inductive response is observed on a conductance resonance when tunnel coupling and temperature are sufficiently small compared to the resonator frequency.

  3. RF MEMS suspended band-stop resonator and filter for frequency and bandwidth continuous fine tuning

    We firstly propose the concept of a frequency and bandwidth fine-tuning method using an RF MEMS-based suspended tunable band-stop resonator. We experimentally show the feasibility of the continuously tuned resonator, including a second-order filter, which consists of cascaded resonators to achieve center frequency and bandwidth fine tuning. The structure consists of a freestanding half-wavelength (λ/2) resonator connected to a large displacement comb actuator. The lateral movement of the λ/2 resonator over the main transmission line produces different electromagnetic decoupling values from the main transmission line. The decoupled energy leads to continuous center frequency and bandwidth tuning using the band-stop resonator circuit for fine-tuning applications. The freestanding λ/2 resonator plays the role of a variable capacitor as well as a decoupling resonator in the proposed structure. The fabricated tunable filter shows suitability for Ku-band wireless communication system applications with continuous reconfiguration

  4. Temperature compensation method for the resonant frequency of a differential vibrating accelerometer using electrostatic stiffness control

    Differential vibrating accelerometer (DVA) is a resonant-type sensor which detects the change in the resonant frequency in the presence of acceleration input, i.e. inertial loading. However, the resonant frequency of micromachined silicon resonators is sensitive to the temperature change as well as the input acceleration. Therefore, to design a high-precision vibrating accelerometer, the temperature sensitivity of the resonant frequency has to be predicted and compensated accurately. In this study, a temperature compensation method for resonant frequency is proposed which controls the electrostatic stiffness of the dual-ended tuning fork (DETF) using the temperature-dependent dc voltage between the parallel plate electrodes. To do this, the electromechanical model is derived first to predict the change in the electrostatic stiffness and the resonant frequency resulting from the dc voltage between the resonator and the electrodes. Next, the temperature sensitivity of the resonant frequency is modeled, estimated and compared with the measured values. Then it is shown that the resonant frequency of the DETF can be kept constant in the operating temperature range by applying the temperature-dependent driving voltage to the parallel plate electrodes. The proposed method is validated through experiment. (paper)

  5. Temperature compensation method for the resonant frequency of a differential vibrating accelerometer using electrostatic stiffness control

    Lee, Jungshin; Rhim, Jaewook

    2012-09-01

    Differential vibrating accelerometer (DVA) is a resonant-type sensor which detects the change in the resonant frequency in the presence of acceleration input, i.e. inertial loading. However, the resonant frequency of micromachined silicon resonators is sensitive to the temperature change as well as the input acceleration. Therefore, to design a high-precision vibrating accelerometer, the temperature sensitivity of the resonant frequency has to be predicted and compensated accurately. In this study, a temperature compensation method for resonant frequency is proposed which controls the electrostatic stiffness of the dual-ended tuning fork (DETF) using the temperature-dependent dc voltage between the parallel plate electrodes. To do this, the electromechanical model is derived first to predict the change in the electrostatic stiffness and the resonant frequency resulting from the dc voltage between the resonator and the electrodes. Next, the temperature sensitivity of the resonant frequency is modeled, estimated and compared with the measured values. Then it is shown that the resonant frequency of the DETF can be kept constant in the operating temperature range by applying the temperature-dependent driving voltage to the parallel plate electrodes. The proposed method is validated through experiment.

  6. Noise Depression of Parasitic Capacitance for Frequency Detection of Micromechanical Bulk Disk Resonator

    Tang, Meng; Cagliani, Alberto; Escouflaire, Marie;

    2010-01-01

    A bulk disk resonator working in dynamic mode is used for mass detection. In the capacitive transduction scheme, the parasitic capacitance between the electrodes produces an anti resonance in the transmission curve, which distorts the phase shift at the resonant frequency and increases the...... minimal detectable mass of the sensor....

  7. Exploring the Frequency Stability Limits of Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators for Metrological Applications

    Chembo, Yanne K.; Baumgartel, Lukas; Grudinin, Ivan; Strekalov, Dmitry; Thompson, Robert; Yu, Nan

    2012-01-01

    Whispering gallery mode resonators are attracting increasing interest as promising frequency reference cavities. Unlike commonly used Fabry-Perot cavities, however, they are filled with a bulk medium whose properties have a significant impact on the stability of its resonance frequencies. In this context that has to be reduced to a minimum. On the other hand, a small monolithic resonator provides opportunity for better stability against vibration and acceleration. this feature is essential when the cavity operates in a non-laboratory environment. In this paper, we report a case study for a crystalline resonator, and discuss the a pathway towards the inhibition of vibration-and acceleration-induced frequency fluctuations.

  8. Waveguide-type optical passive ring resonator gyro using frequency modulation spectroscopy technique

    Liang, Ning; Lijun, Guo; Mei, Kong; Tuoyuan, Chen

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the experimental results of silica on a silicon ring resonator in a resonator micro optic gyroscope based on the frequency modulation spectroscopy technique by our research group. The ring resonator is composed of a 4 cm diameter silica waveguide. By testing at λ = 1550 nm, the FSR, FWHM and the depth of resonance are 3122 MHz, 103.07 MHz and 0.8 respectively. By using a polarization controller, the resonance curve under the TM mode can be inhibited. The depth of resonance increased from 0.8 to 0.8913, namely the finesse increase from 30.33 to 33.05. In the experiments, there is an acoustic-optical frequency shifter (AOFS) in each light loop. We lock the lasing frequency at the resonance frequency of the silica waveguide ring resonator for the counterclockwise lightwave; the frequency difference between the driving frequencies of the two AOFS is equivalent to the Sagnac frequency difference caused by gyro rotation. Thus, the gyro output is observed. The slope of the linear fit is about 0.330 mV/(°/s) based on the -900 to 900 kHz equivalent frequency and the gyro dynamic range is ±2.0 × 103 rad/s.

  9. Zero field anti ferromagnetic resonance at optical frequencies in dilute magnetic system

    Paul, Somnath; Sarkar, A.

    2015-06-01

    An experimental study of Antiferromagnetic resonance on Cobalt and Nickel oxide at room temperature has been undertaken. The zero field resonance frequency is detected in near infrared frequency regime. The measurement makes use of UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The overall results are found to be good and encouraging.

  10. Waveguide-type optical passive ring resonator gyro using frequency modulation spectroscopy technique

    This paper reports the experimental results of silica on a silicon ring resonator in a resonator micro optic gyroscope based on the frequency modulation spectroscopy technique by our research group. The ring resonator is composed of a 4 cm diameter silica waveguide. By testing at λ = 1550 nm, the FSR, FWHM and the depth of resonance are 3122 MHz, 103.07 MHz and 0.8 respectively. By using a polarization controller, the resonance curve under the TM mode can be inhibited. The depth of resonance increased from 0.8 to 0.8913, namely the finesse increase from 30.33 to 33.05. In the experiments, there is an acoustic-optical frequency shifter (AOFS) in each light loop. We lock the lasing frequency at the resonance frequency of the silica waveguide ring resonator for the counterclockwise lightwave; the frequency difference between the driving frequencies of the two AOFS is equivalent to the Sagnac frequency difference caused by gyro rotation. Thus, the gyro output is observed. The slope of the linear fit is about 0.330 mV/(°/s) based on the −900 to 900 kHz equivalent frequency and the gyro dynamic range is ±2.0 × 103 rad/s. (semiconductor devices)

  11. Adaptive multimode signal reconstruction from time-frequency representations.

    Meignen, Sylvain; Oberlin, Thomas; Depalle, Philippe; Flandrin, Patrick; McLaughlin, Stephen

    2016-04-13

    This paper discusses methods for the adaptive reconstruction of the modes of multicomponent AM-FM signals by their time-frequency (TF) representation derived from their short-time Fourier transform (STFT). The STFT of an AM-FM component or mode spreads the information relative to that mode in the TF plane around curves commonly called ridges. An alternative view is to consider a mode as a particular TF domain termed a basin of attraction. Here we discuss two new approaches to mode reconstruction. The first determines the ridge associated with a mode by considering the location where the direction of the reassignment vector sharply changes, the technique used to determine the basin of attraction being directly derived from that used for ridge extraction. A second uses the fact that the STFT of a signal is fully characterized by its zeros (and then the particular distribution of these zeros for Gaussian noise) to deduce an algorithm to compute the mode domains. For both techniques, mode reconstruction is then carried out by simply integrating the information inside these basins of attraction or domains. PMID:26953184

  12. Frequency Characteristics of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotube Resonator with Different Length

    Jun-Ha LEE; Jeong-Won KANG; Kim, Jin-Tae

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have conducted classical molecular dynamics simulations for DWCNTs of various wall lengths to investigate their use as ultrahigh frequency nano-mechanical resonators. We sought to determine the variations in the frequency of these resonators according to changes in the DWCNT wall lengths. For a double-walled carbon nanotube resonator with a shorter inner nanotube, the shorter inner nanotube can be considered to be a flexible core, and thus, the length influences the fundamen...

  13. Resonant frequency of gold/polycarbonate hybrid nano resonators fabricated on plastics via nano-transfer printing

    Siwak Nathan; Ghodssi Reza; Dechaumphai Edward; Zhang Zhao; Li Teng

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We report the fabrication of gold/polycarbonate (Au/PC) hybrid nano resonators on plastic substrates through a nano-transfer printing (nTP) technique, and the parametric studies of the resonant frequency of the resulting hybrid nano resonators. nTP is a nanofabrication technique that involves an assembly process by which a printable layer can be transferred from a transfer substrate to a device substrate. In this article, we applied nTP to fabricate Au/PC hybrid nano resonators on a ...

  14. A self-resonant micro flow velocity sensor based on a resonant frequency shift by flow-induced vibration

    We report the development of a self-resonant flow sensor based on a resonant frequency shift due to flow-induced vibrations. The vibration of a microcantilever beam, induced by a turbulent flow, is modulated with its own natural frequency, and the resonant frequency is shifted by a surface stress on the beam due to fluid drag force. The vibration induced by air flow is measured by using a piezoelectric PZT material on a silicon cantilever beam. The theoretical resonant frequencies of two cantilever beams (lengths: 610 µm and 2000 µm) are 12416 Hz and 1155 Hz, respectively. For the air flow velocities of 2.8 m s−1 and 9.7 m s−1, the shifted resonant frequencies of the cantilever beam whose length is 610 µm are 12 810 Hz and 15 602 Hz, respectively. Sensitivities of the two self-resonant flow sensors with the 610 and 2000 µm long beams are approximately 384 ± 15 Hz/(m/s) and 20.4 ± 0.6 Hz/(m/s), respectively.

  15. Analysis of a shielded TE011 mode composite dielectric resonator for stable frequency reference

    N D Kataria; K S Daya; V G Das

    2002-05-01

    Analysis of a TE011 mode composite sapphire–rutile dielectric resonator has been carried out to study the temperature variation of resonance frequency, close to the Cs atomic clock hyperfine frequency of 9.192 GHz. The complementary behavior of dielectric permittivity with temperature of the composite has been exploited to obtain the desired turning point in the resonant frequency. The frequency of the composite structure is found to be independent of the shield diameter beyond four times the puck diameter.

  16. Mechanically Tunable Dielectric Resonator Metasurfaces at Visible Frequencies.

    Gutruf, Philipp; Zou, Chengjun; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Sriram, Sharath; Fumeaux, Christophe

    2016-01-26

    Devices that manipulate light represent the future of information processing. Flat optics and structures with subwavelength periodic features (metasurfaces) provide compact and efficient solutions. The key bottleneck is efficiency, and replacing metallic resonators with dielectric resonators has been shown to significantly enhance performance. To extend the functionalities of dielectric metasurfaces to real-world optical applications, the ability to tune their properties becomes important. In this article, we present a mechanically tunable all-dielectric metasurface. This is composed of an array of dielectric resonators embedded in an elastomeric matrix. The optical response of the structure under a uniaxial strain is analyzed by mechanical-electromagnetic co-simulations. It is experimentally demonstrated that the metasurface exhibits remarkable resonance shifts. Analysis using a Lagrangian model reveals that strain modulates the near-field mutual interaction between resonant dielectric elements. The ability to control and alter inter-resonator coupling will position dielectric metasurfaces as functional elements of reconfigurable optical devices. PMID:26617198

  17. Sub-wavelength resonant structures at microwave and optical frequencies

    Simić, Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Sub-wavelength scale resonant structures have been at the forefront of physics and engineering in the past decade. They offer a path for creation of new materials and great advancements in the field of photonics. This dissertation deals with design, fabrication and characterization of sub -wavelength resonant structures. In the first part, we investigate the application of passive sub-wavelength resonators in meta-materials --- materials that have electromagnetic properties otherwise unattain...

  18. Resonant Frequency Calculation and Optimal Design of Peano Fractal Antenna for Partial Discharge Detection

    Jian Li,; Changkui Cheng; Lianwei Bao; Tianyan Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-high-frequency (UHF) approaches have caught increasing attention recently and have been considered as a promising technology for online monitoring partial discharge (PD) signals. This paper presents a Peano fractal antenna for UHF PD online monitoring of transformer with small size and multiband. The approximate formula for calculating the first resonant frequency of the Peano fractal antenna is presented. The results show that the first resonant frequency of the Peano fractal antenna i...

  19. Resonance Analysis of High-Frequency Electrohydraulic Exciter Controlled by 2D Valve

    Guojun Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The resonant characteristic of hydraulic system has not been described yet because it is necessarily restricted by linear assumptions in classical fluid theory. A way of the resonance analysis is presented for an electrohydraulic exciter controlled by 2D valve. The block diagram of this excitation system is established by extracting nonlinear parts from the traditional linearization analysis; as a result the resonant frequency is obtained. According to input energy from oil source which is equal to the reverse energy to oil source, load pressure and load flow are solved analytically as the working frequency reaches the natural frequency. The analytical expression of resonant peak is also derived without damping. Finally, the experimental system is built to verify the theoretical analysis. The initial research on resonant characteristic will lay theoretical foundation and make useful complement for resonance phenomena of classical fluid theory in hydraulic system.

  20. Stochastic resonance of a damped oscillator with frequency fluctuation driven by a periodic external force

    Considering a damped linear oscillator model subjected to a white noise with an inherent angular frequency and a periodic external driving force, we derive the analytic expression of the first moment of output response, and study the stochastic resonance phenomenon in a system. The results show that the output response of this system behaves as a simple harmonic vibration, of which the frequency is the same as the external driving frequency, and the variations of amplitude with the driving frequency and the inherent frequency present a bona fide stochastic resonance. (general)

  1. Stochastic resonance of a damped oscillator with frequency fluctuation driven by a periodic external force

    Zhang Ling-Ying; Jin Guo-Xiang; Cao Li; Wang Zhi-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Considering a damped linear oscillator model subjected to a white noise with an inherent angular frequency and a periodic external driving force,we derive the analytic expression of the first moment of output response,and study the stochastic resonance phenomenon in a system.The results show that the output response of this system behaves as a simple harmonic vibration,of which the frequency is the same as the external driving frequency,and the variations of amplitude with the driving frequency and the inherent frequency present a bona fide stochastic resonance.

  2. Multi-frequency resonator based on dual-band S-shaped left-handed material.

    Wang, Dongxing; Ran, Lixin; Wu, Bae-Ian; Chen, Hongsheng; Huangfu, Jiangtao; Grzegorczyk, Tomasz M; Kong, J A

    2006-12-11

    In this paper, we experimentally realize a one-dimensional RHM (Right-handed Material)-LHM (Left-handed Material) multi-frequency resonator that consists of a dual-negative-band LHM and air arranged in an X-band waveguide. Multi-resonant frequencies are observed within two left-handed bands of the LHM. The effects of the loss and the hyperbolic dispersion relation of LHM layer are discussed. The incorporation of such a LHM into the resonator design allows more flexibility to realize multi-resonance. PMID:19529656

  3. Frequency Characteristics of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotube Resonator with Different Length

    Jun-Ha LEE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have conducted classical molecular dynamics simulations for DWCNTs of various wall lengths to investigate their use as ultrahigh frequency nano-mechanical resonators. We sought to determine the variations in the frequency of these resonators according to changes in the DWCNT wall lengths. For a double-walled carbon nanotube resonator with a shorter inner nanotube, the shorter inner nanotube can be considered to be a flexible core, and thus, the length influences the fundamental frequency. In this paper, we analyze the variation in frequency of ultra-high frequency nano-mechnical resonators constructed from DWCNTs with different wall lengths.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.12951

  4. Running, hopping and trotting: tuning step frequency to the resonant frequency of the bouncing system favors larger animals.

    Cavagna, Giovanni A; Legramandi, Mario A

    2015-10-01

    A long-lasting challenge in comparative physiology is to understand why the efficiency of the mechanical work done to maintain locomotion increases with body mass. It has been suggested that this is due to a more elastic step in larger animals. Here, we show in running, hopping and trotting animals, and in human running during growth, that the resonant frequency of the bouncing system decreases with increasing body mass and is, surprisingly, independent of species or gait. Step frequency roughly equals the resonant frequency in trotting and running, whereas it is about half the resonant frequency in hopping. The energy loss by elastic hysteresis during loading and unloading the bouncing system from its equilibrium position decreases with increasing body mass. Similarity to a symmetrical bounce increases with increasing body mass and, for a given body mass, seems to be maximal in hopping, intermediate in trotting and minimal in running. We conclude that: (1) tuning step frequency to the resonant frequency of the bouncing system coincides with a lower hysteresis loss in larger, more-compliant animals; (2) the mechanism of gait per se affects similarity with a symmetrical bounce, independent of hysteresis; and (3) the greater efficiency in larger animals may be due, at least in part, to a lower hysteresis loss. PMID:26347555

  5. On the frequency and field linewidth conversion of ferromagnetic resonance spectra

    Both frequency swept and field swept ferromagnetic resonance measurements have been carried out for a number of different samples with negligible, moderate and significant extrinsic frequency independent linewidth contribution to analyze the correlation between the experimentally measured frequency and field linewidths. Contrary to the belief commonly held by many researchers, it is found that the frequency and field linewidth conversion relation does not hold for all cases. Instead it holds only for samples with negligible frequency independent linewidth contributions. For samples with non-negligible frequency independent linewidth contribution, the field linewidth values converted from the measured frequency linewidth are larger than the experimentally measured field linewidth. A close examination of the literature reveals that previously reported results support our findings, with successful conversions related to samples with negligible frequency independent linewidth contributions and unsuccessful conversions related to samples with significant frequency independent linewidth. The findings are important in providing guidance in ferromagnetic resonance linewidth conversions. (paper)

  6. Mechanical design of RFQ resonator cavities in the 400-MHz frequency range

    Many RFQ resonator-cavity design concepts have been proposed in the 400-MHz frequency range. Los Alamos has been evaluating RFQ resonator-cavity designs that provide acceptable combinations of necessary mechanical features, easy tunability and long-term stability. Four RFQ resonator test cavities have been fabricated to test rf joints between the RFQ vanes and the resonator cavity. Two of these joints (the C-seal and the rf clamp-joint) allow vane movement for tuning. These test data, and the design of the present generation of RFQ resonator cavities, are presented

  7. Radiation-induced frequency transients in AT, BT, and SC cut quartz resonators

    Earlier studies of transient frequency changes in high-purity swept AT quartz resonators led to the conclusion that impurity-induced effects were small, while the observed changes were qualitatively and quantitatively well characterized in terms of the time changing temperature of the vibrating quartz and its effect on frequency. 5 MHz, AT cut fifth overtone, and BT and SC cut third overtone resonators were prepared from a single stone of Sawyer swept Premium-Q quartz. The resonators were operated in precision ovenized oscillators at or near their turnover temperatures. Pulsed irradiation, at dose levels of the order of 104 rads (Si) per pulse, was accomplished at Sandia. The experimental data display negative frequency transients for the AT cut resonators, positive frequency transients for the BT cut resonators, and very small transient effects for the SC cut resonators. From these experimental results, it is concluded that no measurable impurity-induced frequency changes are observed in this high-purity swept-quartz and that the frequency transients are accurately modelled in terms of transient temperature effects stemming from the thermal characteristics of the resonator structure

  8. External Ear Resonant Amplitude and Frequency of 3-7 Year Old Children

    Amir Hossein Zare

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To measure external ear resonant amplitude and frequency in children (3-7 years old and to compare with adult measures. Method and materials: The external ear resonance peak amplitude and frequency of 63 children 3-7 years old were recorded. All of the children had normal tympanogram and there was no cerumen in external auditory canal. 20 adult of 21-24 years old (10 male , 10 female were selected in order to compare with children that had normal tympanogram. The tests included : 1-otoscopy 2- tympanometry 3-microphone probe tube test. Results: The average of resonance peak frequency for children and adult is 4200 Hz and 3200 Hz , respectively. The resonance frequency of children had significantly diffrence with average of resonance frequency in adults. The average of resonance peak amplitude for children and adult is 17.70 dB and 17.17 dB , respectively. Conclusion: Resonant frequency and amplitude affect the hearing aid prescription and fitting process and calculating insertion gain; so, this measures seem should be considered in children hearing aid fitting.

  9. Research on the influence of dimension and location of reflective film on the resonance frequency of quartz tuning fork

    Zhang Zhouqiang; Jia Shuhai; Ma Binshan; Chen Hualing

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effected of dimension and location of reflective film on the resonance frequency. Simulation results indicate that the location of reflective film has a greater impact on the resonance frequency of QTF. The higher the position of reflective film, the lower the resonance frequency of QTF. Furthermore, the resonance frequency can also be affected by the dimension of reflective film. However, the reflective film in the middle of the QTF arm is not sensitive to the dimension of ref...

  10. Ultra-Narrow Bandwidth Optical Resonators for Integrated Low Frequency Noise Lasers

    Spencer, Daryl T.

    The development of narrowband resonators has far reaching applications in integrated optics. As a precise reference of wavelength, filters can be used in sensors, metrology, nonlinear optics, microwave photonics, and laser stabilization. In this work, we develop record high quality factor (Q) Si 3N4 waveguide resonators, and utilize them to stabilize a heterogeneously integrated Si/III V laser. To increase the Q factor of waveguide resonators, particular attention is given to loss mechanisms. Propagation loss of filtering is performed with Si resonant mirrors in the laser cavity. A 30 million Q factor Si3N4 resonator is used with electrical feedback to reduce close in noise and frequency walk off. The laser shows high frequency noise levels of 60x103 Hz2/Hz corresponding to 160 kHz linewidth, and the low frequency noise is suppressed 33 dB to 103 Hz2/Hz with the PDH system.

  11. Adaptive synthesis method for broadband array with frequency invariant beam pattern

    ZHUWeijie; SUNJincai; ZENGXiangyang

    2003-01-01

    Based on adaptive technique, a design method for broadband array with frequency invariant beam pattern is presented. For a given beam pattern, the all design process can be completed automatically by computer without deriving expression of weight vector. The design process is divided into three steps: (1) Evaluate the weight vector in reference frequency by numerical method. (2) Obtain the weight vectors in other frequency by adaptive technique.(3) For the design target of frequency response given by weight vector at different frequency point, design FIR filter. The proposed method can be applied to arbitrary array and have no restriction on element patterns.

  12. Achieving Optimal Self-Adaptivity for Dynamic Tuning of Organic Semiconductors through Resonance Engineering.

    Tao, Ye; Xu, Lijia; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Runfeng; Li, Huanhuan; Xu, Hui; Zheng, Chao; Huang, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Current static-state explorations of organic semiconductors for optimal material properties and device performance are hindered by limited insights into the dynamically changed molecular states and charge transport and energy transfer processes upon device operation. Here, we propose a simple yet successful strategy, resonance variation-based dynamic adaptation (RVDA), to realize optimized self-adaptive properties in donor-resonance-acceptor molecules by engineering the resonance variation for dynamic tuning of organic semiconductors. Organic light-emitting diodes hosted by these RVDA materials exhibit remarkably high performance, with external quantum efficiencies up to 21.7% and favorable device stability. Our approach, which supports simultaneous realization of dynamically adapted and selectively enhanced properties via resonance engineering, illustrates a feasible design map for the preparation of smart organic semiconductors capable of dynamic structure and property modulations, promoting the studies of organic electronics from static to dynamic. PMID:27403886

  13. Single-frequency and tunable operation of a continuous intracavity-frequency-doubled singly resonant optical parametric oscillator.

    My, Thu-Hien; Drag, Cyril; Bretenaker, Fabien

    2008-07-01

    A widely tunable continuous intracavity-frequency-doubled singly resonant optical parametric oscillator based on MgO-doped periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate crystal is described. The idler radiation resonating in the cavity is frequency doubled by an intracavity BBO crystal. Pumped in the green, this system can provide up to 485 mW of single-frequency orange radiation. The system is continuously temperature tunable between 1170 and 1355 nm for the idler, 876 and 975 nm for the signal, and between 585 and 678 nm for the doubled idler. The free-running power and frequency stability of the system have been observed to be better than those for a single-mode dye laser. PMID:18594663

  14. Design of LCL Filters With LCL Resonance Frequencies Beyond the Nyquist Frequency for Grid-Connected Converters

    Tang, Yi; Yao, Wenli; Loh, Poh Chiang;

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel LCL filter design method and its current control for grid-connected converters. With the proposed design method, it is possible to set the resonance frequency of the LCL filter to be higher than the Nyquist frequency, i.e., half of the system sampling frequency, and this...... observation is so far not discussed in the literature. In this case, a very cost-effective LCL filter design can be achieved for the grid-connected converters, whose dominant switching harmonics may appear at double the switching frequency, e.g., in unipolar-modulated three-level full-bridge converters and 12...... examples are given, with one of them optimizing the utilization of passive filter inductors, and another one being robust against grid impedance variation. Comprehensive experimental results, showing the high-quality output current and excellent resonance attenuation, are presented in this paper, which are...

  15. Design of LCL-filters with LCL resonance frequencies beyond the Nyquist frequency for grid-connected inverters

    Tang, Yi; Yao, Wenli; Loh, Poh Chiang;

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel LCL-filter design method and its current control for grid-connected converters. With the proposed design method, it is possible to set the resonance frequency of the LCL-filter to be higher than the Nyquist frequency, i.e. half of the system sampling frequency, and this...... observation is so far not discussed in the literature. In this case, very cost-effective LCL-filter design can be achieved for grid-connected converters whose dominant switching harmonics may appear at double of the switching frequency, e.g. in unipolar modulated three-level full bridge converters and 12...... current and excellent resonance attenuation are presented in the paper, which are also in very good agreement with those simulated ones. These results successfully verify the feasibility of the proposed LCL-filter design and its current control....

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging for adaptive cobalt tomotherapy: A proposal

    Kron Tomas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI provides excellent soft tissue contrast for oncology applications. We propose to combine a MRI scanner with a helical tomotherapy (HT system to enable daily target imaging for improved conformal radiation dose delivery to a patient. HT uses an intensity-modulated fan-beam that revolves around a patient, while the patient slowly advances through the plane of rotation, yielding a helical beam trajectory. Since the use of a linear accelerator to produce radiation may be incompatible with the pulsed radiofrequency and the high and pulsed magnetic fields required for MRI, it is proposed that a radioactive Cobalt-60 (60Co source be used instead to provide the radiation. An open low field (0.25 T MRI system is proposed where the tomotherapy ring gantry is located between two sets of Helmholtz coils that can generate a sufficiently homogenous main magnetic field. It is shown that the two major challenges with the design, namely acceptable radiation dose rate (and therefore treatment duration and moving parts in strong magnetic field, can be addressed. The high dose rate desired for helical tomotherapy delivery can be achieved using two radiation sources of 220TBq (6000Ci each on a ring gantry with a source to axis-of-rotation distance of 75 cm. In addition to this, a dual row multi-leaf collimator (MLC system with 15 mm leaf width at isocentre and relatively large fan beam widths between 15 and 30 mm per row shall be employed. In this configuration, the unit would be well-suited for most pelvic radiotherapy applications where the soft tissue contrast of MRI will be particularly beneficial. Non-magnetic MRI compatible materials must be used for the rotating gantry. Tungsten, which is non-magnetic, can be used for primary collimation of the fan-beam as well as for the MLC, which allows intensity modulated radiation delivery. We propose to employ a low magnetic Cobalt compound, sycoporite (CoS for the Cobalt source material

  17. The characteristics of plasma-sheath resonances in a non-uniform radio-frequency plasma

    Plasma-sheath resonances in the resonance-probe were first reported by Takayama et al. in 1960. At that time the resonance was thought to occur at the plasma frequency; later work, however, showed that a plasma-sheath resonance was taking place. In this paper the authors plotted the ratio of RF field in the probe sheath to the RF probe voltage versus ω/ωep, and found that the ratio passed through a maximum when the probe was at resonance. The maximum corresponded to a ratio ω/ωep less than 1, the resonance frequency was confirmed to be below the plasma frequency and the open-quotes series resonance modelclose quotes was verified. After this definitive paper on the subject the interest of resonance probe moved into more practical applications. These include: determining the collision frequency between the electrons and neutrals in a low density plasma; measuring the electron density in the ionosphere; measuring the averaged densities of the charged particles as well as their temperature in a bounded plasma with an external magnetic field; studying antenna signals in space plasmas, etc. It is apparent that the harmonics developing in the plasma may weaken the conventional open-quotes drivenclose quotes Langmuir probe technique which is widely used in plasma research. There have been many attempts to resolve this problem, for example, driving, actively, the first two RF harmonics that appear across the probe sheath to achieve more precise plasma parameters. Nevertheless, it has been recently found that the natural frequency of the plasma-sheath system can be much more influential than the contributions from the external circuitry at certain fairly low pressures. This in particular when the plasma-sheath resonance coincides with one of the harmonics of the fundamental frequency. In this contribution we present some theoretical and experimental aspects of the plasma-sheath resonance in a parallel-plate RF plasma reactor

  18. Single-Chip Multiple-Frequency RF MEMS Resonant Platform for Wireless Communications Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel, single-chip, multiple-frequency platform for RF/IF filtering and clock reference based on contour-mode aluminum nitride (AlN) MEMS piezoelectric resonators...

  19. High-Frequency Resonant Matrix Converter using IGBT-Based Bidirectional Switches for Induction Heating

    Jami Rajesh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a novel type soft switching utility frequency AC- high frequency AC converter using asymmetrical PWM bidirectional active switches which can be defined as high frequency resonant matrix converter.This power frequency changer can directly convert utility frequency AC power to high frequency AC power ranging more than 20kHz up to 100kHz. Only one active edge resonant capacitor-assisted soft switching high frequency load resonant cyclo-converter is based on asymmetrical duty cycle PWM strategy. This high frequency cyclo-converter uses bidirectional IGBTs composed of anti-parallel one-chip reverse blocking IGBTs. This high frequency cycloconverter has some remarkable features as electrolytic capacitorless DC busline link, unity power factor correction and sinewave line current shaping, simple configuration with minimum circuit components and low cost, high efficiency and downsizing. This series load resonant cycloconverter incorporating bidirectional active power switches is developed and implemented for high efficiency consumer induction heated food cooking appliances. Its operating principle is described by using equivalent circuits. Its operating performances as soft switching operating ranges and high frequency effective power regulation characteristics are discussed on the basis of simulation and experimental results.

  20. Resonance frequencies of a cavity containing a compressible viscous fluid

    Conca, C.; Planchard, J.; Vanninathan, M.

    1993-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the resonance spectrum of a cavity containing a compressible viscous fluid. This system admits a discrete infinite sequence of eigenvalues whose real parts are negative, which is interpreted as the damping effect introduced by viscosity. Only a finite number of them have non-zero imaginary parts and this number depends on viscosity; a simple criterion is given for their position in the complex plane. The case of a cavity containing an elastic mechanical system immersed in the fluid is also examined; from a qualitative point of view, the nature of the resonance spectrum remains unchanged.

  1. Frequency Coded Chipless RFID Tag using Spurline Resonators

    Sumi, M.; Dinesh, R.; C. M. Nijas; Mridula, S.; P. Mohanan

    2014-01-01

    A novel compact chipless RFID tag using spurline resonators is discussed in this paper. The detection of the tag's ID is using the spectral signature of a spurline resonator circuit. The tag has a data capacity of 8-bits in the range 2.38 to 4.04 GHz. The tag consists of a spurline multiresonating circuit and two cross polarised antennas. The prototype of the tag is fabricated on a substrate C-MET/LK4.3 of dielectric constant 4.3 and loss tangent 0.0018. The measured results show that group ...

  2. Fabrication of Terahertz Wave Resonators with Alumina Diamond Photonic Crystals for Frequency Amplification in Water Solvents

    Ohta, N; Niki, T; Kirihara, S, E-mail: n-ohta@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Smart Processing Research Center, Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0047 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Terahertz wave resonators composed of alumina photonic crystals with diamond lattice structures were designed and fabricated by using micro stereolithography. These three dimensional periodic structures can reflect perfectly electromagnetic waves through Bragg diffraction. A micro glass cell including water solutions was put between the photonic crystals as a novel resonance sensor with terahertz frequency range. The localized and amplified waves in the resonators were measured by a spectroscopy, and visualized by theoretical simulations.

  3. Dark resonances in the field of frequency shifted feedback laser radiation

    Romanenko, V. I.; Romanenko, A. V.; Yatsenko, L. P.; Kazakov, G. A.; Litvinov, A. N.; Matisov, B. G.; Rozhdestvensky, Yu. V.

    2010-01-01

    We present a theory of dark resonances in a fluorescence of a three-level atom gas interacting with a polychromatic field of a frequency shifted feedback (FSF) laser. We show that conditions for the resonance observation are optimal when the phase relations between the laser spectral components provide generation of a light pulses train. We study analytically the field broadening and the light shift of the resonances.

  4. Dark resonances in the field of frequency-shifted feedback laser radiation

    Romanenko, V. I.; Romanenko, A. V.; Yatsenko, L. P.; Kazakov, G. A.; Litvinov, A. N.; Matisov, B. G.; Rozhdestvensky, Yu V.

    2010-11-01

    We present a theory of dark resonances in fluorescence of a three-level atom gas interacting with a polychromatic field of a frequency-shifted feedback laser. We show that conditions for the resonance observation are optimal when the phase relations between the laser spectral components provide generation of a light pulse train. We study analytically the field broadening and the light shift of the resonances.

  5. Dark resonances in the field of frequency-shifted feedback laser radiation

    We present a theory of dark resonances in fluorescence of a three-level atom gas interacting with a polychromatic field of a frequency-shifted feedback laser. We show that conditions for the resonance observation are optimal when the phase relations between the laser spectral components provide generation of a light pulse train. We study analytically the field broadening and the light shift of the resonances.

  6. Dark resonances in the field of frequency-shifted feedback laser radiation

    Romanenko, V I; Romanenko, A V; Yatsenko, L P [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 46, Nauky Avenue, Kyiv 03028 (Ukraine); Kazakov, G A; Litvinov, A N; Matisov, B G [St Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 29, Polytechnicheskaya st, St. Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Rozhdestvensky, Yu V, E-mail: vr@iop.kiev.u, E-mail: andrey.litvinov@mail.r [S I Vavilov State Optical Institute 12, Birzhevaya Liniya st, St Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation)

    2010-11-14

    We present a theory of dark resonances in fluorescence of a three-level atom gas interacting with a polychromatic field of a frequency-shifted feedback laser. We show that conditions for the resonance observation are optimal when the phase relations between the laser spectral components provide generation of a light pulse train. We study analytically the field broadening and the light shift of the resonances.

  7. Resonances in BSO with frequency shifted input beams

    Buchhave, Preben; Vasnetsov, M.; Lyuksyutov, S.

    1996-01-01

    In this publication we report experiments with a frequency modulated offset frequency, which illustrate in which situations the problem may be considered linear, and in which it may not. Surprisingly we find, that even in the region of subharmonic generation, the space-charge field of the primary...

  8. Use of a radio-frequency resonance circuit in studies of alkali ionization in flames

    The construction of a radio-frequency resonance system and its use in the study of alkali metal ionization in flames is described. The author re-determines the values of the alkali ionization rate constants for a CO flame with N2 as diluent gas of known temperature using the RF resonance method. (Auth.)

  9. Resonance and cut-off surfaces in the ion cyclotron frequency range in toroidal geometry

    Resonances and cut-offs of the fast Alfven and ion-cyclotron waves have been studied for a multicomponent plasma in a toroidal axisymmetric geometry. The resonance and cut-off frequencies are given by eigenvalues of ordinary differential equations on the rosonance and cut-off sufaces, respectively. These surfaces coincide with magnetic surfaces. (author)

  10. Thermal self-frequency locking of doubly-resonant optical parametric oscillator

    Hansen, P.L.; Buchhave, Preben

    1997-01-01

    refractice index of the crystal and alters the optical path length of the cavity. This effect may lend to self-frequency locking of the OPO to a specific resonance of the signal and idler fields, and it also results in peculiarities in the transient response of the system as it is scanned through resonance...

  11. Very High Frequency Resonant DC/DC Converters for LED Lighting

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a very high frequency DC/DC converter for LED lighting. Several resonant topologies are compared and their usability discussed. At the end the resonant SEPIC converter is chosen based on the achievable power density and total bill of material. Simulations of a 51 MHz converter...

  12. Resonant method for the measurement of the glass transition temperature at high frequencies

    A resonant method for the accurate determination of the glass transition temperature in polymers is presented. A composite oscillator driven by a piezoelectric crystal, in longitudinal oscillations and at a frequency of the order of 50 k Hz, is employed. The changes in the storage modulus of the specimen with temperature can be obtained from the changes if the resonant frequency of the composite. Finally, some data obtained in a specimen of vulcanized rubber are discussed in detail. (author). 27 refs, 4 figs

  13. Graphene-hexagonal boron nitride resonant tunneling diodes as high-frequency oscillators

    Gaskell, J.; Eaves, L.; Novoselov, K. S.; Mishchenko, A.; Geim, A. K.; Fromhold, T. M.; Greenaway, M. T.

    2015-01-01

    We assess the potential of two-terminal graphene-hBN-graphene resonant tunneling diodes as high-frequency oscillators, using self-consistent quantum transport and electrostatic simulations to determine the time-dependent response of the diodes in a resonant circuit. We quantify how the frequency and power of the current oscillations depend on the diode and circuit parameters including the doping of the graphene electrodes, device geometry, alignment of the graphene lattices, and the circuit i...

  14. The Quantitative Analysis to Inferior Oil with Electronic Nose Based on Adaptive Multilayer Stochastic Resonance

    Hong Men

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study makes the three acryl glycerin polymers, oxidation three acryl glycerins, and low carbon number fatty acid as inferior oil feature index. Using double steady state stochastic resonance signal-to-noise ratio analysis methods make the quantitative analysis to inferior oil. This paper analyzes the stochastic resonance. Introduces the principle detection system structure based on adaptive multilayer stochastic resonance algorithm in inferior oil quantitativeanalysis; and make adaptive double stochastic resonance model and inferior oil as example, give the simulation and numerical analysis of this model of the system. The results show that the system can obtain more accurate quality the proportion of the inferior oil information. At the same time, this method can effectively solve the semiconductor gas sensors of the baseline drift problem. The method of stochastic resonance has a lot of application prospect in improving the system performance.

  15. Sheath-wave-related resonances in the frequency response of a cylindrical monopole in a plasma

    A floating or negatively biased antenna immersed in a plasma is surrounded by an ion sheath. The antenna-sheath-plasma system may support slow surface waves at driving frequencies below the electron plasma frequency. Resonances associated with these so-called sheath waves are observed at certain frequencies in the antenna's response to an applied sinusoidal signal. A detailed experimental study of these resonances is presented here for a short cylindrical monopole in a low-pressure isotropic argon plasma. The effect on the resonance frequencies of a dc bias applied to the antenna and of plasma density and antenna length was investigated. Good agreement was obtained with the theoretical predictions derived from a known dispersion equation for sheath waves. From the experimental data, the relationship between sheath thickness and antenna potential, and the frequency dependence of the antenna admittance could be derived

  16. Low-frequency resonance curves associated with non-linear internal friction

    Computer-controlled electronic instrumentation to scan the amplitude/frequency and phase angle/frequency curves for a sample in a low-frequency pendulum is described. Examples are presented of both 'hard' and 'soft' resonant frequency curves associated with amplitude-dependent internal friction and dynamic elastic modulus changes. Using the data from much faster, simpler, free-decay experiments, it is shown that both the amplitude/frequency and phase angle/frequency curves can be calculated with good accuracy, despite the non-linearities involved

  17. The origin of SH-wave resonance frequencies in sedimentary layers

    van der Baan, Mirko

    2009-09-01

    Resonance frequencies are often analysed in geo-engineering studies to evaluate seismic risk and microzonation in urban areas. The Nakamura technique constitutes a popular approach that computes the spectral ratio of horizontal-to-vertical ground motion in ambient noise recordings to reveal the existence of any site resonance frequencies. Its theoretical basis remains however unclear with some authors arguing that the method de-emphasizes any Rayleigh-wave contributions and that the resonance frequencies are solely caused by vertically incident SH waves. Other authors explain the same resonance frequencies by the ellipticity of the fundamental Rayleigh wave. Recent numerical simulations reveal that the magnitude of the peak frequency is proportional to the relative portion of Love waves present. This study demonstrates that Love waves alone can be responsible for any observed resonance frequencies in sedimentary layers. Yet sharp SH-wave resonance frequencies are only excited by a source in the bedrock. These resonance frequencies are caused by inhomogeneous waves excited by the bedrock source that tunnel through the high-velocity bedrock to emerge in the low-velocity sediments with a very reduced range of slownesses. The resulting SH waves are then free to interfere constructively thereby creating the observed resonance frequencies. This general trigger mechanism leads to resonances that are almost offset independent. The resulting resonance frequencies map onto points of maximum curvature in the Love-wave phase-velocity dispersion curves at or just beyond the critical horizontal slowness. They can be analysed with the quarter-wavelength law if a large velocity contrast exists between the unconsolidated sediments and the bedrock. A minor modification of the quarter-wavelength law provides more accurate predictions, also for smaller velocity contrasts. Multisource simulations show that site amplification factors as determined by horizontal-over-vertical (H

  18. Advances in Computational High-Resolution Mechanical Spectroscopy HRMS Part II: Resonant Frequency – Young's Modulus

    In this paper, we compare the values of the resonant frequency f0 of free decaying oscillations computed according to the parametric OMI method (Optimization in Multiple Intervals) and nonparametric DFT-based (discrete Fourier transform) methods as a function of the sampling frequency. The analysis is carried out for free decaying signals embedded in an experimental noise recorded for metallic samples in a low-frequency resonant mechanical spectrometer. The Yoshida method (Y), the Agrez' method (A), and new interpolated discrete Fourier transform (IpDFT) methods, that is, the Yoshida-Magalas (YM) and (YMC) methods developed by the authors are carefully compared for the resonant frequency f0 = 1.12345 Hz and the logarithmic decrement, δ = 0.0005. Precise estimation of the resonant frequency (Youngs' modulus ∼ f02) for real experimental conditions, i.e., for exponentially damped harmonic signals embedded in an experimental noise, is a complex task. In this work, various computing methods are analyzed as a function of the sampling frequency used to digitize free decaying oscillations. The importance of computing techniques to obtain reliable and precise values of the resonant frequency (i.e. Young's modulus) in materials science is emphasized.

  19. Scattering resonance of elastic wave and low-frequency equivalent slow wave

    Meng, X.; Liu, H.; Hu, T.; Yang, L.

    2015-12-01

    Transmitted wave occurs as fast p-wave and slow p-wave in certain conditions when seismic waves travel through inhomogeneous layers. Energy of slow p-waves is strongest at some frequency band, but rather weak at both high frequency band and low frequency band, called scattering resonance. For practical seismic exploration, the frequency of slow p-wave occurs is below 10Hz, which cannot be explained by Biot's theory which predicts existence of the slow p-wave at ultrasonic band in the porous media. The slow p-wave equation have been derived, but which only adapted to explaining slow p-wave in the ultrasonic band. Experimental observations exhibit that slow p-wave also exists in nonporous media but with enormous low-velocity interbeds. When vertical incidence, elastic wave is simplified as compressing wave, the generation of slow waves is independent on shear wave. In the case of flat interbed and gas bubble, Liu (2006) has studied the transmission of acoustic waves, and found that the slow waves below the 10Hz frequency band can be explained. In the case of general elastic anisotropy medium, the tiheoretical research on the generation of slow waves is insufficient. Aiming at this problem, this paper presents an exponential mapping method based on transmitted wave (Magnus 1954), which can successfully explain the generation of the slow wave transmission in that case. Using the prediction operator (Claerbout 1985) to represent the transmission wave, this can be derived as first order partial differential equation. Using expansions in the frequency domain and the wave number domain, we find that the solutions have different expressions in the case of weak scattering and strong scattering. Besides, the method of combining the prediction operator and the exponential map is needed to extend to the elastic wave equation. Using the equation (Frazer and Fryer 1984, 1987), we derive the exponential mapping solution for the prediction operator of the general elastic medium

  20. Quantum dot admittance probed at microwave frequencies with an on-chip resonator

    Frey, T; Leek, P. J.; M. Beck; Faist, J.; Wallraff, A.; Ensslin, K.; Ihn, T.; Büttiker, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present microwave frequency measurements of the dynamic admittance of a quantum dot tunnel coupled to a two-dimensional electron gas. The measurements are made via a high-quality 6.75 GHz on-chip resonator capacitively coupled to the dot. The resonator frequency is found to shift both down and up close to conductance resonance of the dot corresponding to a change of sign of the reactance of the system from capacitive to inductive. The observations are consistent with a scattering matrix mo...

  1. Point-Wise Phase Matching for Nonlinear Frequency Generation in Dielectric Resonators

    Yu, Nan (Inventor); Strekalov, Dmitry V. (Inventor); Lin, Guoping (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An optical resonator fabricated from a uniaxial birefringent crystal, such as beta barium borate. The crystal is cut with the optical axis not perpendicular to a face of the cut crystal. In some cases the optical axis lies in the plane of the cut crystal face. An incident (input) electromagnetic signal (which can range from the infrared through the visible to the ultraviolet) is applied to the resonator. An output signal is recovered which has a frequency that is an integer multiple of the frequency of the input signal. In some cases a prism is used to evanescently couple the input and the output signals to the resonator.

  2. Nanotribological surface characterization by frequency modulated torsional resonance mode AFM

    Yurtsever, Ayhan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop an experimental method to measure in-plane surface properties on the nanometer scale by torsional resonance mode atomic force microscopy and to understand the underlying system dynamics. The invention of the atomic force microscope (AFM) and the advances in development of new AFM based techniques have significantly enhanced the capability to probe surface properties with nanometer resolution. However, most of these techniques are based on a flexural oscillat...

  3. Wideband transmitter of a low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer

    A wideband transmitter of a nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer for light niclei investigation is described. Use of digital radio frequency pulse shaper and two-stage power amplifier with direct coupling permitted to avoid use of a large amount of wideband transformers and power suppliers. The output power of radio frequency pulses is 160 W in the 0.1-10 MHz range

  4. Graphene-hexagonal boron nitride resonant tunneling diodes as high-frequency oscillators

    We assess the potential of two-terminal graphene-hexagonal boron nitride-graphene resonant tunneling diodes as high-frequency oscillators, using self-consistent quantum transport and electrostatic simulations to determine the time-dependent response of the diodes in a resonant circuit. We quantify how the frequency and power of the current oscillations depend on the diode and circuit parameters including the doping of the graphene electrodes, device geometry, alignment of the graphene lattices, and the circuit impedances. Our results indicate that current oscillations with frequencies of up to several hundred GHz should be achievable

  5. Graphene-hexagonal boron nitride resonant tunneling diodes as high-frequency oscillators

    Gaskell, J.; Fromhold, T. M.; Greenaway, M. T. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Eaves, L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Novoselov, K. S.; Mishchenko, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Geim, A. K. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Centre for Mesoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-07

    We assess the potential of two-terminal graphene-hexagonal boron nitride-graphene resonant tunneling diodes as high-frequency oscillators, using self-consistent quantum transport and electrostatic simulations to determine the time-dependent response of the diodes in a resonant circuit. We quantify how the frequency and power of the current oscillations depend on the diode and circuit parameters including the doping of the graphene electrodes, device geometry, alignment of the graphene lattices, and the circuit impedances. Our results indicate that current oscillations with frequencies of up to several hundred GHz should be achievable.

  6. Graphene-hexagonal boron nitride resonant tunneling diodes as high-frequency oscillators

    Gaskell, J.; Eaves, L.; Novoselov, K. S.; Mishchenko, A.; Geim, A. K.; Fromhold, T. M.; Greenaway, M. T.

    2015-09-01

    We assess the potential of two-terminal graphene-hexagonal boron nitride-graphene resonant tunneling diodes as high-frequency oscillators, using self-consistent quantum transport and electrostatic simulations to determine the time-dependent response of the diodes in a resonant circuit. We quantify how the frequency and power of the current oscillations depend on the diode and circuit parameters including the doping of the graphene electrodes, device geometry, alignment of the graphene lattices, and the circuit impedances. Our results indicate that current oscillations with frequencies of up to several hundred GHz should be achievable.

  7. Off-resonance frequency operation for power transfer in a loosely coupled air core transformer

    Scudiere, Matthew B

    2012-11-13

    A power transmission system includes a loosely coupled air core transformer having a resonance frequency determined by a product of inductance and capacitance of a primary circuit including a primary coil. A secondary circuit is configured to have a substantially same product of inductance and capacitance. A back EMF generating device (e.g., a battery), which generates a back EMF with power transfer, is attached to the secondary circuit. Once the load power of the back EMF generating device exceeds a certain threshold level, which depends on the system parameters, the power transfer can be achieved at higher transfer efficiency if performed at an operating frequency less than the resonance frequency, which can be from 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency.

  8. Tunability of resonance frequencies in a superconducting microwave resonator by using SrTiO sub 3 ferroelectric films

    Sok, J; Lee, E H

    1998-01-01

    An applied dc voltage varies the dielectric constant of ferroelectric SrTiO sub 3 films. A tuning mechanism for superconducting microwave resonators was realized by using the variation in the dielectric constant of SrTiO sub 3 films. In order to estimate the values of the capacitance, C, and the loss tangent, tan delta, of SrTiO sub 3 ferroelectric capacitors, we used high-temperature superconducting microwave resonators which were composed of two ports, two poles, and dc bias circuits at the zero-field points. SrTiO sub 3 ferroelectric capacitors successfully controlled the resonant frequency of the resonator. Resonant frequencies of 3.98 GHz and 4.20 GHz were measured at bias voltages of 0 V and 50 V which correspond to capacitance values of 0.94 pF and 0.7pF, respectively. The values of the loss tangent, tan delta sub e sub f sub f , obtained in this measurements, were about 0.01.

  9. A process-induced-frequency-drift resilient 32 kHz MEMS resonator

    This paper applies a frequency-drift resilient method for a 32 768 Hz lateral capacitive microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonator design to make its resonant frequency insensitive to process-induced variation. The basic idea of the method is to synthesize the design of the supported springs and the releasing holes in the proof mass so that process-induced effective spring constant variation is approximately balanced by effective mass variation, and thus to keep their ratio and determined resonant frequency approximately unchanged. The 32 768 Hz MEMS resonator has been fabricated based on 30 µm silicon-on-insulator wafer for real-time clock application. The related testing results of more than 100 working devices from two different wafers show that the resonant frequencies are in the range of 32 102 ± 25 Hz and obey basically the normal distribution, and the drift from the designed value is less than 2.1%. The method is expected to significantly improve the reliability and fabrication yield of MEMS resonator, and can also be extended to other vibrating MEMS devices. (paper)

  10. Complex resonance frequencies of a finite, circular radiating duct with an infinite flange

    Mallaroni, Bastien; Kergomard, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The pressure field inside a flanged duct of finite length radiating on one side in an infinite medium can be described from the knowledge of a radiation matrix impedance, as proposed by Zorumski. In order to calculate the resonance frequencies (which are complex because of the energy loss by radiation), the formulation used in Zorumski's theory must be modified as it is not valid for complex frequencies. The analytical development of the Green's function in free space used by Zorumski depends on the integrals of Bessel functions which become divergent for complex frequencies. This paper purposes a development of the Green's function which is valid for all frequencies. The results are applied to the calculation of the complex resonance frequencies of a flanged duct of finite length, by using a formulation of the internal pressure based upon cascade impedance matrices. It presents and discusses the influence of higher order duct modes and the results for several duct radius/length ratios.

  11. Frequency Adaptive Repetitive Control of Grid-Tied Single-Phase PV Inverters

    Zhou, Keliang; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    The internal model principle based Repetitive Control (RC) offers an accurate control strategy for grid-tied power converters to feed sinusoidal current into the grid. However, in the presence of grid frequency variations, the conventional RC fails to produce high quality feeding current. This...... paper thus explores a frequency adaptive repetitive control strategy for grid converters, which employs fractional delay filters in order to adapt to the change of the grid frequency. Case studies with experimental results of a single-phase grid-connected PV inverter system are provided to verify the...... proposed controller....

  12. Resonant frequency detection and adjustment method for a capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge

    Hu, M.; Bai, Y. Z., E-mail: abai@mail.hust.edu.cn; Zhou, Z. B., E-mail: zhouzb@mail.hust.edu.cn; Li, Z. X.; Luo, J. [MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurement, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-05-15

    The capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge is widely used in ultra-sensitive space accelerometers due to their simple structure and high resolution. In this paper, the front-end electronics of an inductive-capacitive resonant bridge transducer is analyzed. The analysis result shows that the performance of this transducer depends upon the case that the AC pumping frequency operates at the resonance point of the inductive-capacitive bridge. The effect of possible mismatch between the AC pumping frequency and the actual resonant frequency is discussed, and the theoretical analysis indicates that the output voltage noise of the front-end electronics will deteriorate by a factor of about 3 due to either a 5% variation of the AC pumping frequency or a 10% variation of the tuning capacitance. A pre-scanning method to determine the actual resonant frequency is proposed followed by the adjustment of the operating frequency or the change of the tuning capacitance in order to maintain expected high resolution level. An experiment to verify the mismatching effect and the adjustment method is provided.

  13. Resonant frequency detection and adjustment method for a capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge

    Hu, M.; Bai, Y. Z.; Zhou, Z. B.; Li, Z. X.; Luo, J.

    2014-05-01

    The capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge is widely used in ultra-sensitive space accelerometers due to their simple structure and high resolution. In this paper, the front-end electronics of an inductive-capacitive resonant bridge transducer is analyzed. The analysis result shows that the performance of this transducer depends upon the case that the AC pumping frequency operates at the resonance point of the inductive-capacitive bridge. The effect of possible mismatch between the AC pumping frequency and the actual resonant frequency is discussed, and the theoretical analysis indicates that the output voltage noise of the front-end electronics will deteriorate by a factor of about 3 due to either a 5% variation of the AC pumping frequency or a 10% variation of the tuning capacitance. A pre-scanning method to determine the actual resonant frequency is proposed followed by the adjustment of the operating frequency or the change of the tuning capacitance in order to maintain expected high resolution level. An experiment to verify the mismatching effect and the adjustment method is provided.

  14. Investigation of Frequency-Domain Link Adaptation for a 5-MHz OFDMA/HSDPA system

    Pokhariyal, Akhilesh; Kolding, Troels E.; Frederiksen, Frank;

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate frequency domain link adaptation (FDLA), e.g. utilizing the frequency selectivity of the channel in an OFDMA system. To make the study specific and based on realistic parameters, we re-use the specifications from a recent 3GPP 5-MHz OFDMA study item. The link...... adaptation and the frequency domain link adaptation are developed in a way compliant with the basic HSDPA specifications. With FDLA we show up to 75% cell throughput gain over the OFDMA reference system at the cost of increased uplink channel quality signaling overhead for frequency selective channels. We...... find that optimum waterfilling power distribution only provides a marginal gain over a simpler on/off equal power distribution algorithm per sub-carrier pool when signaling imperfections are taken into account....

  15. On-line adaptive line frequency noise cancellation from a nuclear power measuring channel

    Qadir Javed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available On-line software for adaptively canceling 50 Hz line frequency noise has been designed and tested at Pakistan Research Reactor 1. Line frequency noise causes much problem in weak signals acquisition. Sometimes this noise is so dominant that original signal is totally corrupted. Although notch filter can be used for eliminating this noise, but if signal of interest is in close vicinity of 50 Hz, then original signal is also attenuated and hence overall performance is degraded. Adaptive noise removal is a technique which could be employed for removing line frequency without degrading the desired signal. In this paper line frequency noise has been eliminated on-line from a nuclear power measuring channel. The adaptive LMS algorithm has been used to cancel 50 Hz noise. The algorithm has been implemented in labVIEW with NI 6024 data acquisition card. The quality of the acquired signal has been improved much as can be seen in experimental results.

  16. Selective engineering of cavity resonance for frequency matching in optical parametric processes

    Lu, Xiyuan; Rogers, Steven [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Jiang, Wei C. [Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Lin, Qiang, E-mail: qiang.lin@rochester.edu [Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

    2014-10-13

    We propose to selectively engineer a single cavity resonance to achieve frequency matching for optical parametric processes in high-Q microresonators. For this purpose, we demonstrate an approach, selective mode splitting (SMS), to precisely shift a targeted cavity resonance, while leaving other cavity modes intact. We apply SMS to achieve efficient parametric generation via four-wave mixing in high-Q silicon microresonators. The proposed approach is of great potential for broad applications in integrated nonlinear photonics.

  17. Selective engineering of cavity resonance for frequency matching in optical parametric processes

    Lu, Xiyuan; Jiang, Wei C; Lin, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    We propose to selectively engineer a single cavity resonance to achieve frequency matching for optical parametric processes in high-Q microresonators. For this purpose, we demonstrate an approach, selective mode splitting (SMS), to precisely shift a targeted cavity resonance, while leaving other cavity modes intact. We apply SMS to achieve efficient parametric generation via four-wave mixing in high-Q silicon microresonators. The proposed approach is of great potential for broad applications in integrated nonlinear photonics.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF ACOUSTIC MODELS FOR HIGH FREQUENCY RESONATORS FOR TURBOCHARGED IC-ENGINES

    Wang, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Automotive turbo compressors generate high frequency noise in the air intake system. This sound generation is of importance for the perceived sound quality of luxury cars and may need to be controlled by the use of silencers. The silencers usually contain resonators with slits, perforates and cavities. The purpose of the work reported is to develop acoustic models for these resonators where relevant effects such as the effect of realistic mean flow on losses and possibly 3D effects are consid...

  19. High-frequency and resonance properties of niobium-based superconducting planar structures

    We have investigated the Josephson and resonance properties of niobium--oxide--lead planar superconducting structures, constituting a film tunnel transition with many bridges through the oxide layer. The current--voltage characteristics and the nonlinear properties of such structures practically do not differ from the characteristics and properties of niobium superconducting point contacts. The capacitance of the structures does not limit their use at frequencies of 1011--1012 Hz since the frequency limit is determined by the properties of the bridges, their critical current, and the resistance of the normal state. The resonance frequency and the Q-factor of a planar structure as a strip resonator are determined by the size of the structure and the temperature. The velocity of propagation of an electromagnetic wave in such structures is 0.04--0.06 of the wave velocity in vacuo

  20. A robust adaptive load frequency control for micro-grids

    Khooban, Mohammad-Hassan; Niknam, Taher; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to introduce a novel robust load frequency control (LFC) strategy for micro-grid(s) (MG(s)) in islanded mode operation. Admittedly, power generators in MG(s) cannot supply steady electric power output and sometimes cause unbalance between supply and demand. Battery energy...... storage system (BESS) is one of the effective solutions to these problems. Due to the high cost of the BESS, a new idea of Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) is that a battery of Electric-Vehicle (EV) can be applied as a tantamount large-scale BESS in MG(s). As a result, a new robust control strategy for an islanded...

  1. Resonance interaction between cold Rb atoms and a frequency comb

    Full text: A long life time of atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) makes it a powerful tool to study interactions with optical fields processing small cross sections. Since the life time in MOT can reach a few seconds, even processes with characteristic rates of 1 -s1 can be easily analyzed if they result in losses of trapped atoms. We have investigated the interaction of laser-cooled 87Rb atoms in a MOT with a femtosecond (fs) laser radiation in the spectral region 760-820 nm. We show that in a wide range of average intensities of the fs laser field (2) the dominating process is the cascade ionization. In this case the femtosecond radiation interacts with the atomic ensemble both as spectrally-narrow components (a frequency comb) and as a powerful ionizing laser field. Atoms excited by a single mode of a frequency comb from the 5P3/2(F = 3) to the 5D5/2(F = 2, 3, 4) hyperfine sublevels are consequently ionized by a full power of the fs laser from the 5D level to the continuum. By tuning the repetition rate frep of the fs laser we observe the periodic spectrum in the MOT luminescence at 780 nm (the cooling transition) reproducing the hyperfine structure of the 5D level. We have quantitatively analyzed the ionization of the 5D5/2 level by monitoring the loading rate of the MOT at different powers of the fs laser radiation using an auxiliary cw laser locked to the 5P3/2(F = 3) → 5D5/2(F = 4) at 776 nm. A sensitive method allowing accurate determination of the 5/2 5D level population is developed. (author)

  2. Adaptive Feed-Forward Control of Low Frequency Interior Noise

    Kletschkowski, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This book presents a mechatronic approach to Active Noise Control (ANC). It describes the required elements of system theory, engineering acoustics, electroacoustics and adaptive signal processing in a comprehensive, consistent and systematic manner using a unified notation. Furthermore, it includes a design methodology for ANC-systems, explains its application and describes tools to be used for ANC-system design. From the research point of view, the book presents new approaches to sound source localization in weakly damped interiors. One is based on the inverse finite element method, the other is based on a sound intensity probe with an active free field. Furthermore, a prototype of an ANC-system able to reach the physical limits of local (feed-forward) ANC is described. This is one example for applied research in ANC-system design. Other examples are given for (i) local ANC in a semi-enclosed subspace of an aircraft cargo hold and (ii) for the combination of audio entertainment with ANC.

  3. Dependence of excitation frequency of resonant circuit on RF irradiation position of MRI equipment

    Hyperthermia using implants is a cancer treatment in which cancer tissue is heated to over 42.5 deg C to selectively kill the cancer cells. In this study, a resonant circuit was used as an implant, and a weak magnetic field of radiofrequency (RF) pulses from a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) device was used as an excitation source. We report here how the temperature of the resonant circuit was controlled by changing the excitation frequency of the MRI. As a result, the temperature rise of the resonant circuit was successfully found to depend on its position in the MRI device. This significant result indicates that the temperature of the resonant circuit can be controlled only by adjusting the excitation position. Accurate temperature control is therefore expected to be possible by combining this control technique with the temperature measurement function of MRI equipment. (author)

  4. Radio frequency spectral characterization and model parameters extraction of high Q optical resonators

    Abdallah, Zeina; Boucher, Yann G.; Fernandez, Arnaud; Balac, Stéphane; Llopis, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    A microwave domain characterization approach is proposed to determine the properties of high quality factor optical resonators. This approach features a very high precision in frequency and aims to acquire a full knowledge of the complex transfer function (amplitude and phase) characterizing an optical resonator using a microwave vector network analyzer. It is able to discriminate between the different coupling regimes, from the under-coupling to the selective amplification, and it is used together with a model from which the main resonator parameters are extracted, i.e. coupling factor, intrinsic losses, phase slope, intrinsic and external quality factor.

  5. Measurement of the 14N nuclear quadrupole resonance frequencies by the solid effect

    Seliger, J.; Žagar, V.

    2008-07-01

    1H- 14N nuclear quadrupole double resonance using magnetic field cycling between high and low magnetic field and solid effect in the low magnetic field is analyzed in details. The transition probabilities per unit time for the solid-effect transitions are calculated. The double resonance spectra are calculated in the limiting cases of fast and slow nitrogen spin-lattice relaxation. The double resonance spectra are measured in histamine and quinolinic acid. The experimental spectra are analyzed and the 14N NQR frequencies are determined.

  6. Resonance of Gaussian Electromagnetic Field to the High Frequency Gravitational Waves

    Li, Jin; Zhang, Lu; Lin, Kai; Wen, Hao

    2016-08-01

    We consider a Gaussian Beam (GB) resonant system for high frequency gravitational waves (HFGWs) detection. At present, we find the optimal signal strength in theory through setting the magnetic component of GB in a standard gaussian form. Under the synchro-resonance condition, we study the signal strength (i.e., transverse perturbative photon fluxes) from the relic HFGWs (predicted by ordinary inflationary model) and the braneworld HFGWs (from braneworld scenarios). Both of them would generate potentially detectable transverse perturbative photon fluxes (PPFs). Furthermore we find optimal system parameters and the relationship between frequency and effective width of energy fluxes accumulation.

  7. A silicon photonics circuit based on micro-ring resonators in the instantaneous frequency measurement system

    Wang, Wanjun; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Jun; Feng, Junbo; Guo, Jin

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a compact silicon photonics circuit is proposed. It consists of add-drop filter, input/output grating coupler. The resonance peak of add-drop filter can be tuned with the assist of p-i-n diode. The unknown frequency of microwave is loaded at the optical wave and coupled into the chip. The optical power ratio of through port and drop port is monotonous, which is corresponding to the unknown frequency. Meanwhile, the resonance peak of the ring can shift with the assist of p-i-n diode.

  8. Optical fiber strain sensor using fiber resonator based on frequency comb Vernier spectroscopy

    Zhang, Liang; Lu, Ping; Chen, Li;

    2012-01-01

    A novel (to our best knowledge) optical fiber strain sensor using a fiber ring resonator based on frequency comb Vernier spectroscopy is proposed and demonstrated. A passively mode-locked optical fiber laser is employed to generate a phased-locked frequency comb. Strain applied to the optical fiber...... of the fiber ring resonator can be measured with the transmission spectrum. A good linearity is obtained between displacement and the inverse of wavelength spacing with an R2 of 0.9989, and high sensitivities better than 40  pm/με within the range of 0 to 10  με are achieved. The sensitivity can be...

  9. Resonance of Gaussian Electromagnetic Field to the High Frequency Gravitational Waves

    Li, Jin; Zhang, Lu; Lin, Kai; Wen, Hao

    2016-04-01

    We consider a Gaussian Beam (GB) resonant system for high frequency gravitational waves (HFGWs) detection. At present, we find the optimal signal strength in theory through setting the magnetic component of GB in a standard gaussian form. Under the synchro-resonance condition, we study the signal strength (i.e., transverse perturbative photon fluxes) from the relic HFGWs (predicted by ordinary inflationary model) and the braneworld HFGWs (from braneworld scenarios). Both of them would generate potentially detectable transverse perturbative photon fluxes (PPFs). Furthermore we find optimal system parameters and the relationship between frequency and effective width of energy fluxes accumulation.

  10. Outphasing control of gallium nitride based very high frequency resonant converters

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an outphasing modulation control method suitable for line regulation of very high frequency resonant converters is described. The pros and cons of several control methods suitable for very high frequency resonant converters are described and compared to outphasing modulation. Then the...... modulation technique is described and the design equations given. Finally a design example is given for a converter consisting of two class E inverters with a lossless combiner and a common half bridge rectifier. It is shown how outphasing modulation can be used for line regulation while insuring equal and...

  11. Outphasing Control of Gallium Nitride based Very High Frequency Resonant Converter

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Perreault, David J.; Knott, Arnold;

    2015-01-01

    — In this paper an outphasing modulation control method suitable for line regulation of very high frequency resonant converters is described. The pros and cons of several control methods suitable for very high frequency resonant converters are described and compared to outphasing modulation. Then...... the modulation technique is described and the design equations given. Finally a design example is given for a converter consisting of two class E inverters with a lossless combiner and a common half bridge rectifier. It is shown how outphasing modulation can be used for line regulation while insuring...

  12. Exact thickness-shear resonance frequency of electroded piezoelectric crystal plates

    WANG Ji; SHEN Li-jun

    2005-01-01

    The determination of the precise thickness-shear frequency of electroded crystal plates has practical importance in quartz crystal resonator design and fabrication, especially when the high fundamental thickness-shear frequency has reduced the crystal plate thickness to such a degree that proper consideration of the effect of electrodes is very important. The electrodes effect as mass loading in the estimation of the resonance frequency has to be modified to consider the stiffness of electrodes, as the relative strength is increasingly noticeable. By following a known procedure in the determination of the thickness-shear frequency of an infinite AT-cut crystal plate, frequency equations of crystal plate without and with piezoelectric effect are obtained in terms of elastic constants and the electrode material density. After solving these equations for the usual design parameters of crystal resonators, the design process can be optimized to pinpoint the precise configuration to avoid time-consuming trial and reduction steps. Since these equations and solutions are presented for widely used materials and parameters, they can be easily integrated into the existing crystal resonator design and manufacturing processes.

  13. Pulse width modulation based pneumatic frequency tuner of the superconducting resonators at IUAC

    The existing phase locking scheme of the quarter wave resonators (QWR) used in superconducting linear accelerator (LINAC) of IUAC consists of a fast time (electronic) and a slow time (pneumatic) control. Presently, piezo based mechanical tuners are being used to phase lock the resonators installed in the second and third accelerating modules of LINAC. However, due to space constraint, the piezo tuner can't be implemented on the resonators of the first accelerating module. Therefore, helium gas operated mechanical tuners are being used to phase lock the resonators against the master oscillator (MO) frequency. The present pneumatic frequency tuner has limitations of non-linearity, hysteresis and slow response time. To overcome these problems and to improve the dynamics of the existing tuner, a new pulse width modulation (PWM) based pneumatic frequency tuning system was adopted and successfully tested. After successful test, the PWM based pneumatic frequency tuner was installed in four QWR of the first accelerating module of LINAC. During beam run the PWM based frequency tuner performed well and the cavities could be phase locked at comparatively higher accelerating fields. A comparison of the existing tuning mechanism and the PWM based tuning system along with the test results will be presented in the paper. (author)

  14. A high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer for multi-dimensional, -frequency and -phase pulsed measurements

    Cho, Franklin H; Takahashi, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    We describe instrumentation for a high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) spectroscopy. The instrumentation is operated in the frequency range of 107$-$120 GHz and 215$-$240 GHz and in the magnetic field range of 0$-$12.1 Tesla. The spectrometer consisting of a high-frequency high-power solid-state source, a quasioptical system, a phase-sensitive detection system, a cryogenic-free superconducting magnet and a $^4$He cryostat enables multi-frequency continuous-wave EPR spectroscopy as well as pulsed EPR measurements with a few hundred nanosecond pulses. Here we discuss the details of the design and the pulsed EPR sensitivity of the instrumentation. We also present performance of the instrumentation in unique experiments including PELDOR spectroscopy to probe correlations in an insulating electronic spin system and application of dynamical decoupling techniques to extend spin coherence of electron spins in an insulating solid-state system.

  15. High-frequency QPOs as a problem in physics: non-linear resonance

    Kluzniak, W; Lee, W H; Abramowicz, Marek A.; Kluzniak, Wlodek; Lee, William H.

    2004-01-01

    The presence of a kHz frequency in LMXBs has been expected from scaling laws, by analogy with the QPO phenomenon in HMXB X-ray pulsars. Interpretation of the two kHz frequencies, observed in accreting neutron stars, in terms of non-linear resonance in strong-field gravity led to the prediction of twin QPOs in black hole systems, in a definite frequency ratio (such as 2/3). The imprint of a subharmonic of the 401 Hz rotation rate in the frequencies of the QPOs detected in the accreting millisecond pulsar is at once a signature of non-linear resonance and of coupling between accretion disk modes and the neutron star spin.

  16. Microwave and RF Applications for Micro-resonator based Frequency Combs

    Nguyen, Thach G; Ferrera, Marcello; Pasquazi, Alessia; Peccianti, Marco; Chu, Sai T; Little, Brent E; Morandotti, Roberto; Mitchell, Arnan; Moss, David J

    2015-01-01

    Photonic integrated circuits that exploit nonlinear optics in order to generate and process signals all-optically have achieved performance far superior to that possible electronically - particularly with respect to speed. We review the recent achievements based in new CMOS-compatible platforms that are better suited than SOI for nonlinear optics, focusing on radio frequency (RF) and microwave based applications that exploit micro-resonator based frequency combs. We highlight their potential as well as the challenges to achieving practical solutions for many key applications. These material systems have opened up many new capabilities such as on-chip optical frequency comb generation and ultrafast optical pulse generation and measurement. We review recent work on a photonic RF Hilbert transformer for broadband microwave in-phase and quadrature-phase generation based on an integrated frequency optical comb. The comb is generated using a nonlinear microring resonator based on a CMOS compatible, high-index contr...

  17. Optical frequency comb generation from aluminum nitride micro-ring resonator

    Jung, Hojoong; Xiong, Chi; Fong, King Y.; Zhang, Xufeng; Hong X. Tang

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum nitride is an appealing nonlinear optical material for on-chip wavelength conversion. Here we report optical frequency comb generation from high quality factor aluminum nitride micro-ring resonators integrated on silicon substrates. By engineering the waveguide structure to achieve near-zero dispersion at telecommunication wavelengths and optimizing the phase matching for four-wave mixing, frequency combs are generated with a single wavelength continuous-wave pump laser. The Kerr coe...

  18. High Frequency Soft Switching Of PWM Boost Converter Using Auxiliary Resonant Circuit

    C. P. Sai Kiran; M. Vishnu Vardhan

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents High frequency Soft Switching DC-DC boost Converter. The circuit consists of a general Boost Converter with an additional resonant circuit which has a switch, inductor, capacitor and a diode.In general Boost Converter circuits have snubber circuits where switching losses are dissipated in external passive resistors; which is known as hard switching. As the switching frequency of PWM converters is increased its switching losses and conduction losses also in...

  19. Quilted Gabor frames - a new concept for adaptive time-frequency representation

    Doerfler, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Certain signal classes such as audio signals call for signal representations with the ability to adapt to the signal's properties. In this article we introduce the new concept of quilted frames, which aim at adaptivity in time-frequency representations. As opposed to Gabor or wavelet frames, this new class of frames allows for the adaptation of the signal analysis to the local requirements of signals under consideration. Quilted frames are constructed directly in the time-frequency domain in a signal-adaptive manner. Validity of the frame property guarantees the possibility to reconstruct the original signal. The frame property is shown for specific situations and the Bessel property is proved for the general setting. Strategies for reconstruction from coefficients obtained with quilted Gabor frames and numerical simulations are provided as well.

  20. High-Pass Filtering at Vestibular Frequencies by Transducer Adaptation in Mammalian Saccular Hair Cells

    Songer, Jocelyn E.; Eatock, Ruth Anne

    2011-11-01

    The mammalian saccule detects head tilt and low-frequency head accelerations as well as higher-frequency bone vibrations and sounds. It has two different hair cell types, I and II, dispersed throughout two morphologically distinct regions, the striola and extrastriola. Afferents from the two zones have distinct response dynamics which may arise partly from zonal differences in hair cell properties. We find that type II hair cells in the rat saccular epithelium adapt with a time course appropriate for influencing afferent responses to head motions. Moreover, striolar type II hair cells adapted by a greater extent than extrastriolar type II hair cells and had greater phase leads in the mid-frequency range (5-50 Hz). These differences suggest that hair cell transduction may contribute to zonal differences in the adaptation of vestibular afferents to head motions.

  1. Operation of the CAPRICE electron cyclotron resonance ion source applying frequency tuning and double frequency heating.

    Maimone, F; Tinschert, K; Celona, L; Lang, R; Mäder, J; Rossbach, J; Spädtke, P

    2012-02-01

    The properties of the electromagnetic waves heating the electrons of the ECR ion sources (ECRIS) plasma affect the features of the extracted ion beams such as the emittance, the shape, and the current, in particular for higher charge states. The electron heating methods such as the frequency tuning effect and the double frequency heating are widely used for enhancing the performances of ECRIS or even for the routine operation during the beam production. In order to better investigate these effects the CAPRICE ECRIS has been operated using these techniques. The ion beam properties for highly charged ions have been measured with beam diagnostic tools. The reason of the observed variations of this performance can be related to the different electromagnetic field patterns, which are changing inside the plasma chamber when the frequency is varying. PMID:22380151

  2. Resonant modal group theory of membrane-type acoustical metamaterials for low-frequency sound attenuation

    Ma, Fuyin; Wu, Jiu Hui; Huang, Meng

    2015-09-01

    In order to overcome the influence of the structural resonance on the continuous structures and obtain a lightweight thin-layer structure which can effectively isolate the low-frequency noises, an elastic membrane structure was proposed. In the low-frequency range below 500 Hz, the sound transmission loss (STL) of this membrane type structure is greatly higher than that of the current sound insulation material EVA (ethylene-vinyl acetate copo) of vehicle, so it is possible to replace the EVA by the membrane-type metamaterial structure in practice engineering. Based on the band structure, modal shapes, as well as the sound transmission simulation, the sound insulation mechanism of the designed membrane-type acoustic metamaterials was analyzed from a new perspective, which had been validated experimentally. It is suggested that in the frequency range above 200 Hz for this membrane-mass type structure, the sound insulation effect was principally not due to the low-level locally resonant mode of the mass block, but the continuous vertical resonant modes of the localized membrane. So based on such a physical property, a resonant modal group theory is initially proposed in this paper. In addition, the sound insulation mechanism of the membrane-type structure and thin plate structure were combined by the membrane/plate resonant theory.

  3. Frequency Dependence of Resonance Field of One-Dimensional Heisenberg Antiferromagnet KCuF3

    SHI Qing-Fan; L(U) Zhen; MA Mu-Yan; MA Chao; LI Liang-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    @@ The frequency dependence of the in-plane angular change of the antiferromagnetic resonance (AFMR) field of KCuF3 is systematically measured at frequencies ranging from 3.8 to 10.6 GHz at 4.2K. The effect of inequivalent g-tensors is found to gradually diminish with decreasing the frequency, and completely vanish when the frequency is decreased to the lower-frequency branch of C-band, while the effect of the effective anisotropy field is significantly enhanced with decreasing the frequency. The calculated AFMR field Hres based on the eight-sublattice model proposed by Yamada and Kato [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 63 (1994)289] is in good agreement with the experimental data.

  4. Noninvasive MRI thermometry with the proton resonance frequency (PRF) method: in vivo results in human muscle

    De Poorter, J; De Wagter, C; De Deene, Y;

    1995-01-01

    The noninvasive thermometry method is based on the temperature dependence of the proton resonance frequency (PRF). High-quality temperature images can be obtained from phase information of standard gradient-echo sequences with an accuracy of 0.2 degrees C in phantoms. This work was focused on the...

  5. Frequency, Prognosis and Surgical Treatment of Structural Abnormalities Seen with Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Childhood Epilepsy

    Berg, Anne T.; Mathern, Gary W.; Bronen, Richard A.; Fulbright, Robert K.; DiMario, Francis; Testa, Francine M.; Levy, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiology of lesions identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), along with the use of pre-surgical evaluations and surgery in childhood-onset epilepsy patients has not previously been described. In a prospectively identified community-based cohort of children enrolled from 1993 to 1997, we examined (i) the frequency of lesions…

  6. Mode conversion and electron heating near the upper hybrid resonance frequency

    Mode conversion near the upper hybrid resonance frequency and electron heating are studied using a one-dimensional electromagnetic relativistic particle code. It is found that for a sufficiently small pump field E0, E02/4πnT/sub e/ less than or equal to 0.01, electron heating is localized in a region near the electron cyclotron layer where the pump frequency is equal to the local electron gyrofrequency. For stronger pump fields, electron heating takes place more or less uniformly across a region between the upper hybrid resonance layer and the cyclotron layer. In addition, a significant fraction of electromagnetic energy associated with the pump is found to be reflected back into the vacuum from a region in the plasma near the upper hybrid resonance layer for both strong (E02/4πnT/sub e/ approx. = 1) and weak pumps (E02/4πnT/sub e/ << 1)

  7. Nanoliter liquid characterization by open whispering-gallery mode dielectric resonators at millimeter wave frequencies

    Shaforost, E. N.; Klein, N.; Vitusevich, S. A.; Offenhäusser, A.; Barannik, A. A.

    2008-10-01

    We present an approach for identification and concentration determination of liquids of pico to nanoliter volumes at a frequency of 35 GHz based on a whispering-gallery mode (WGM) dielectric resonator technique. A quasioptical coupling scheme based on dielectric image waveguides was employed to excite high-Q running wave WGMs with uniform azimuthal field distribution in cylindrical sapphire disks with quality factors up to 4×105 at room temperature. Measurement of the liquid induced changes in the resonator quality factor and resonance frequency has been performed for droplets down to 90 pl volume spotted at different positions on the surface of the sapphire disk. We have employed our method for concentration determination of ethanol, glucose, and albumin dissolved in water. Solutions with concentration values well below 10% could be clearly separated from pure water. Our method is promising for the characterization of biological liquids.

  8. Ab initio analysis of frequency selective surfaces based on conventional and complementary split ring resonators

    Marqués, R.; Baena, J. D.; Beruete, M.; Falcone, F.; Lopetegi, T.; Sorolla, M.; Martín, F.; Garcia, J.

    2005-02-01

    Frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) made up of periodic arrays of split ring resonators (SRRs) are analysed. This analysis includes complementary screens, or complementary SRR-FSSs (CSRR-FSSs). It is shown that these FSSs show a dual behaviour, with a stop/pass band behaviour at the frequency of resonance of the SRRs/CSRRs. Cross-polarization effects in the SRR and the CSRR are considered, and it is shown that they permit resonance to occur for normally incident plane wave excitation. This latter property of SRRs and CSRRs also implies that the FSSs considered may act as polarizers and polarization converters as well. An analytical theory, valid for perfectly conducting and infinitely thin screens, is proposed for the SRR-FSSs and CSRR-FSSs. These approximations are valid in the microwave and millimetre-wave range, and up to the terahertz range.

  9. Numerical and experimental investigation of a low-frequency measurement technique: differential acoustic resonance spectroscopy

    Yin, Hanjun; Zhao, Jianguo; Tang, Genyang; Ma, Xiaoyi; Wang, Shangxu

    2016-06-01

    Differential acoustic resonance spectroscopy (DARS) has been developed to determine the elastic properties of saturated rocks within the kHz frequency range. This laboratory technique is based on considerations from perturbation theory, wherein the resonance frequencies of the resonant cavity with and without a perturbation sample are used to estimate the acoustic properties of the test sample. In order to better understand the operating mechanism of DARS and therefore optimize the procedure, it is important to develop an accurate and efficient numerical model. Accordingly, this study presents a new multiphysics model by coupling together considerations from acoustics, solid mechanics, and electrostatics. The numerical results reveal that the newly developed model can successfully simulate the acoustic pressure field at different resonance modes, and that it can accurately reflect the measurement process. Based on the understanding of the DARS system afforded by the numerical simulation, we refine the system configuration by utilizing cavities of different lengths and appropriate radii to broaden the frequency bandwidth and ensure testing accuracy. Four synthetic samples are measured to test the performance of the optimized DARS system, in conjunction with ultrasonic and static measurements. For nonporous samples, the estimated bulk moduli are shown to be independent of the different measurement methods (i.e. DARS or ultrasonic techniques). In contrast, for sealed porous samples, the differences in bulk moduli between the low- and high-frequency techniques can be clearly observed; this discrepancy is attributed to frequency dispersion. In summary, the optimized DARS system with an extended frequency range of 500–2000 Hz demonstrates considerable utility in investigating the frequency dependence of the acoustic properties of reservoir rocks.

  10. Adaptive Threshold Clipper Combining Receiver for Fast Frequency Hopping Systems during Partial-Band Noise Jamming

    肖立民; 许希斌; 姚彦

    2001-01-01

    Diversity combining technologies are analyzed for fastfrequency-hopping spread spectrum systems during partial-band noise jamming to develop a novel combining receiver called an Adaptive Threshold Clipper Combining Receiver (ATCCR). The optimal clipping level for an ATCCR is analyzed, computed, and compared with several other diversity combining technologies. Since the ATCCR can estimate the power of the jamming and the number of jammed frequency cells to adaptively adjust the clipper's threshold, the system performance using the adaptive threshold clipper combining technique can be greatly improved.

  11. Adaptive frequency-separation-based energy management system for electric vehicles

    Florescu, Adrian; Bacha, Seddik; Munteanu, Iulian; Bratcu, Antoneta Iuliana; Rumeau, Axel

    2015-04-01

    This paper deals with an adaptive frequency-based power sharing method between batteries and ultracapacitors (UC) as power sources within an electric vehicle. An adaptive frequency splitter is used for routing the low-frequency content of power demand into the battery and its high-frequency content into the UC system, taking profit from the UC as a peak power unit. Autonomy may thus be increased while preserving battery state of health and ensuring that UC voltage variations remain confined within certain desired range. Results obtained by real-time experiments on a dedicated test rig validate the proposed energy management approach and recommend it to be applied as power source coordination method to microgrids in general.

  12. Lithofacies identification using multiple adaptive resonance theory neural networks and group decision expert system

    Chang, H.-C.; Kopaska-Merkel, D. C.; Chen, H.-C.; Rocky, Durrans S.

    2000-01-01

    Lithofacies identification supplies qualitative information about rocks. Lithofacies represent rock textures and are important components of hydrocarbon reservoir description. Traditional techniques of lithofacies identification from core data are costly and different geologists may provide different interpretations. In this paper, we present a low-cost intelligent system consisting of three adaptive resonance theory neural networks and a rule-based expert system to consistently and objectively identify lithofacies from well-log data. The input data are altered into different forms representing different perspectives of observation of lithofacies. Each form of input is processed by a different adaptive resonance theory neural network. Among these three adaptive resonance theory neural networks, one neural network processes the raw continuous data, another processes categorial data, and the third processes fuzzy-set data. Outputs from these three networks are then combined by the expert system using fuzzy inference to determine to which facies the input data should be assigned. Rules are prioritized to emphasize the importance of firing order. This new approach combines the learning ability of neural networks, the adaptability of fuzzy logic, and the expertise of geologists to infer facies of the rocks. This approach is applied to the Appleton Field, an oil field located in Escambia County, Alabama. The hybrid intelligence system predicts lithofacies identity from log data with 87.6% accuracy. This prediction is more accurate than those of single adaptive resonance theory networks, 79.3%, 68.0% and 66.0%, using raw, fuzzy-set, and categorical data, respectively, and by an error-backpropagation neural network, 57.3%. (C) 2000 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Spectral and angular characteristics of dielectric resonator metasurface at optical frequencies

    Zou, Longfang [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TH (United Kingdom); López-García, Martin; Oulton, Ruth; Klemm, Maciej [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TH (United Kingdom); Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Fumeaux, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.fumeaux@adelaide.edu.au [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Shah, Charan M.; Mitchell, Arnan; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Sriram, Sharath [Functional Materials and Microsystems Research Group, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne VIC 3001 (Australia)

    2014-11-10

    The capability of manipulating light at subwavelength scale has fostered the applications of flat metasurfaces in various fields. Compared to metallic structure, metasurfaces made of high permittivity low-loss dielectric resonators hold the promise of high efficiency by avoiding high conductive losses of metals at optical frequencies. This letter investigates the spectral and angular characteristics of a dielectric resonator metasurface composed of periodic sub-arrays of resonators with a linearly varying phase response. The far-field response of the metasurface can be decomposed into the response of a single grating element (sub-array) and the grating arrangement response. The analysis also reveals that coupling between resonators has a non-negligible impact on the angular response. Over a wide wavelength range, the simulated and measured angular characteristics of the metasurface provide a definite illustration of how different grating diffraction orders can be selectively suppressed or enhanced through antenna sub-array design.

  14. Spectral and angular characteristics of dielectric resonator metasurface at optical frequencies

    The capability of manipulating light at subwavelength scale has fostered the applications of flat metasurfaces in various fields. Compared to metallic structure, metasurfaces made of high permittivity low-loss dielectric resonators hold the promise of high efficiency by avoiding high conductive losses of metals at optical frequencies. This letter investigates the spectral and angular characteristics of a dielectric resonator metasurface composed of periodic sub-arrays of resonators with a linearly varying phase response. The far-field response of the metasurface can be decomposed into the response of a single grating element (sub-array) and the grating arrangement response. The analysis also reveals that coupling between resonators has a non-negligible impact on the angular response. Over a wide wavelength range, the simulated and measured angular characteristics of the metasurface provide a definite illustration of how different grating diffraction orders can be selectively suppressed or enhanced through antenna sub-array design

  15. Research on the influence of dimension and location of reflective film on the resonance frequency of quartz tuning fork

    Zhang Zhouqiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effected of dimension and location of reflective film on the resonance frequency. Simulation results indicate that the location of reflective film has a greater impact on the resonance frequency of QTF. The higher the position of reflective film, the lower the resonance frequency of QTF. Furthermore, the resonance frequency can also be affected by the dimension of reflective film. However, the reflective film in the middle of the QTF arm is not sensitive to the dimension of reflective film. The frequency is close to the resonance frequency of the QTF model without reflective film, it is about 30259Hz. We can increase the length and width of reflective film to improve the laser reflection on the QTF surface. Therefore, this position is suitable for the detection of photo-acoustic spectroscopy. The analysis results provide a theoretical basis for researching new photo-acoustic spectrum remote sensing device.

  16. Arnol'd tongues for a resonant injection-locked frequency divider: analytical and numerical results

    Bartuccelli, Michele; Deane, Jonathan H.B.; Gentile, Guido;

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider a resonant injection-locked frequency divider which is of interest in electronics, and we investigate the frequency locking phenomenon when varying the amplitude and frequency of the injected signal. We study both analytically and numerically the structure of the Arnol......’d tongues in the frequency–amplitude plane. In particular, we provide exact analytical formulae for the widths of the tongues, which correspond to the plateaux of the devil’s staircase picture. The results account for numerical and experimental findings presented in the literature for special driving terms...... and, additionally, extend the analysis to a more general setting....

  17. CFAVC scheme for high frequency series resonant inverter-fed domestic induction heating system

    Nagarajan, Booma; Reddy Sathi, Rama

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the investigations on the constant frequency asymmetric voltage cancellation control in the AC-AC resonant converter-fed domestic induction heating system. Conventional fixed frequency control techniques used in the high frequency converters lead to non-zero voltage switching operation and reduced output power. The proposed control technique produces higher output power than the conventional fixed-frequency control strategies. In this control technique, zero-voltage-switching operation is maintained during different duty cycle operation for reduction in the switching losses. Complete analysis of the induction heating power supply system with asymmetric voltage cancellation control is discussed in this article. Simulation and experimental study on constant frequency asymmetric voltage cancellation (CFAVC)-controlled full bridge series resonant inverter is performed. Time domain simulation results for the open and closed loop of the system are obtained using MATLAB simulation tool. The simulation results prove the control of voltage and power in a wide range. PID controller-based closed loop control system achieves the voltage regulation of the proposed system for the step change in load. Hardware implementation of the system under CFAVC control is done using the embedded controller. The simulation and experimental results validate the performance of the CFAVC control technique for series resonant-based induction cooking system.

  18. Four-channel magnetic resonance imaging receiver using frequency domain multiplexing

    He, Wang; Qin, Xu; Jiejing, Ren; Gengying, Li

    2007-01-01

    An alternative technique that uses frequency domain multiplexing to acquire phased array magnetic resonance images is discussed in detail. The proposed method has advantages over traditional independent receiver chains in that it utilizes an analog-to-digital converter and a single-chip multicarrier receiver with high performance to reduce the size and cost of the phased array receiver system. A practical four-channel digital receiver using frequency domain multiplexing was implemented and verified on a home-built 0.3T magnetic resonance imaging system. The experimental results confirmed that the cross talk between each channel was below -60dB, the phase fluctuations were about 1°, and there was no obvious signal-to-noise ratio degradation. It is demonstrated that the frequency domain multiplexing is a valuable and economical technique, particularly for array coil systems where the multichannel receiver is indispensable and dynamic range is not a critical problem.

  19. Signal detection for frequency-shift keying via short-time stochastic resonance

    A series of short-time stochastic resonance (SR) phenomena, realized in a bistable receiver, can be utilized to detect a train of information represented by signals that adopt frequency-shift keying (FSK). It is demonstrated that the values of noise intensity at resonance regions are close for adjacent periodic signals with an appropriate frequency separation. This establishes the possibility of decoding subthreshold or slightly suprathreshold M-ary FSK signals in bistable receivers. Furthermore, the mechanism of FSK signal detection via short-time SR effects is elucidated in terms of the receiver response speed. This phenomenon provides a possible mechanism for information processing in a bistable device operating in nonstationary noisy environments, where even the inputs appear over a short timescale or have a frequency shift

  20. High-frequency current oscillations in graphene-boron nitride resonant tunnel diodes

    Greenaway, Mark; Gaskell, Jenn; Eaves, Laurence; Novoselov, Kostya; Mishchenko, Artem; Geim, Andre; Fromhold, Mark

    The successful realisation of multilayer graphene-hBN-graphene resonant tunnelling diodes (graphene- RTDs) with negative differential conductance (NDC) and MHz current oscillations offers the exciting possibility of exploiting them as high-frequency oscillators and mixers. In this paper, we examine their potential for generating higher frequencies by simulating the oscillations in the tunnel current and charge that arise when the device is biased in the NDC region and placed in a resonant circuit. Using the Bardeen transfer Hamiltonian method, we examine the effect on the device characteristics of the twist angle, θ, between the two graphene electrodes, the hBN barrier thickness and of the carrier density in the graphene electrodes, which can be adjusted by chemical doping or by an applied bias voltage. The simulations accurately reproduce our recently-reported measurements on these RTDs (Fig. 4,). The results of simulations show that frequencies of tens of GHz are achievable by optimising the device parameters. Leverhulme Trust, UK.

  1. Controlled degradation stochastic resonance in adaptive averaging cell-based architectures

    Aymerich Capdevila, Nivard; Cotofana, Sorin; Rubio Sola, Jose Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we first analyze the degradation stochastic resonance (DSR) effect in the context of adaptive averaging (AD-AVG) architectures. The AD-AVG is the adaptive version of the well-known AVG architecture . It is an optimized fault-tolerant design for future technologies with very high rates of failures and defects. With system degradation the AD-AVG reliability is diminishing, as expected, but at a certain moment in time it increases due to the DSR occurrence, which is counterintuiti...

  2. Dielectric measurements of nanoliter liquids with a photonic crystal resonator at terahertz frequencies

    Hanham, S. M.; Watts, C.; Otter, W. J.; Lucyszyn, S.; Klein, N.

    2015-07-01

    We present a highly sensitive technique for determining the complex permittivity of nanoliter liquid samples in the terahertz band based on a photonic crystal resonator and microcapillary. Liquids are characterized by using a capillary tube to introduce a ˜4 nl liquid sample into the electromagnetic field of a resonant mode confined by an L3 resonant cavity in a high-resistivity silicon photonic crystal slab. Monitoring the perturbation of the resonant frequency and unloaded Q-factor of the resonant mode at 100 GHz and ˜5800, respectively, allows a sample's permittivity to be calculated. An analytical model describing the system response based on perturbation theory and quasi-static analysis of the electric field within the capillary is also presented and found to agree well with FEM simulations and experimental measurements of ethanol-water mixtures of various concentrations for low to moderate loss tangents of the liquid samples. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by measuring the complex permittivity of several bioliquids, including suspensions of red and white blood cells. These results represent a step towards a lab-on-a-chip device for the analysis of extremely small quantities of biological, toxic, explosive, and other liquid types at terahertz frequencies.

  3. Dielectric measurements of nanoliter liquids with a photonic crystal resonator at terahertz frequencies

    We present a highly sensitive technique for determining the complex permittivity of nanoliter liquid samples in the terahertz band based on a photonic crystal resonator and microcapillary. Liquids are characterized by using a capillary tube to introduce a ∼4 nl liquid sample into the electromagnetic field of a resonant mode confined by an L3 resonant cavity in a high-resistivity silicon photonic crystal slab. Monitoring the perturbation of the resonant frequency and unloaded Q-factor of the resonant mode at 100 GHz and ∼5800, respectively, allows a sample's permittivity to be calculated. An analytical model describing the system response based on perturbation theory and quasi-static analysis of the electric field within the capillary is also presented and found to agree well with FEM simulations and experimental measurements of ethanol-water mixtures of various concentrations for low to moderate loss tangents of the liquid samples. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by measuring the complex permittivity of several bioliquids, including suspensions of red and white blood cells. These results represent a step towards a lab-on-a-chip device for the analysis of extremely small quantities of biological, toxic, explosive, and other liquid types at terahertz frequencies

  4. Flexible structured high-frequency film bulk acoustic resonator for flexible wireless electronics

    Flexible electronics have inspired many novel and very important applications in recent years and various flexible electronic devices such as diodes, transistors, circuits, sensors, and radiofrequency (RF) passive devices including antennas and inductors have been reported. However, the lack of a high-performance RF resonator is one of the key bottlenecks to implement flexible wireless electronics. In this study, for the first time, a novel ultra-flexible structured film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) is proposed. The flexible FBAR is fabricated on a flexible polyimide substrate using piezoelectric thin film aluminum nitride (AlN) for acoustic wave excitation. Both the shear wave and longitudinal wave can be excited under the surface interdigital electrodes configuration we proposed. In the case of the thickness extension mode, a flexible resonator with a working frequency as high as of 5.2325 GHz has been realized. The resonators stay fully functional under bending status and after repeated bending and re-flattening operations. This flexible high-frequency resonator will serve as a key building block for the future flexible wireless electronics, greatly expanding the application scope of flexible electronics. (paper)

  5. A frequency controlled LCL - T resonant converter for H- ion source

    An H- ion source is being developed at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore. An LCL-T resonant power converter with variable frequency control is proposed which is utilized to develop a -20 kV/100 mA high voltage (HV) power supply for extraction of H- ions. The LCL-T resonant topology offers many advantages like gainful utilization of the transformer parasitics as a part of resonant network and low circulating current. The power converter is operated with variable frequency control and above resonance to get well known zero-voltage switching (ZVS) advantages for full bridge semiconductor switches in full load range. The converter energizes the symmetrical Cockcroft-Walton (CW) based HV generator to achieve required high voltage. The CW circuit is an attractive solution for HV generation since it has features like low stored energy and low output ripple. The HV power supply is operated in constant current (CC) mode with closed loop control and soft start of the power supply is achieved by sweeping the switching frequency from 40 kHz to defined operating point. Design parameters, simulation results and experimental results of the power converter are presented in this paper. (author)

  6. Frequency-comb formation in doubly resonant second-harmonic generation

    Leo, F.; Hansson, T.; Ricciardi, I.; De Rosa, M.; Coen, S.; Wabnitz, S.; Erkintalo, M.

    2016-04-01

    We theoretically study the generation of optical frequency combs and corresponding pulse trains in doubly resonant intracavity second-harmonic generation (SHG). We find that, despite the large temporal walk-off characteristic of realistic cavity systems, the nonlinear dynamics can be accurately and efficiently modeled using a pair of coupled mean-field equations. Through rigorous stability analysis of the system's steady-state continuous-wave solutions, we demonstrate that walk-off can give rise to an unexplored regime of temporal modulation instability. Numerical simulations performed in this regime reveal rich dynamical behaviors, including the emergence of temporal patterns that correspond to coherent optical frequency combs. We also demonstrate that the two coupled equations that govern the doubly resonant cavity behavior can, under typical conditions, be reduced to a single mean-field equation akin to that describing the dynamics of singly-resonant-cavity SHG [F. Leo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 033901 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.033901]. This reduced approach allows us to derive a simple expression for the modulation instability gain, thus permitting us to acquire significant insight into the underlying physics. We anticipate that our work will have a wide impact on the study of frequency combs in emerging doubly resonant cavity SHG platforms, including quadratically nonlinear microresonators.

  7. Damping of Inter-Area Low Frequency Oscillation Using an Adaptive Wide-Area Damping Controller

    Yao, Wei; Jiang, L.; Fang, Jiakun; Wen, Jinyu; Wang, Shaorong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive wide-area damping controller (WADC) based on generalized predictive control (GPC) and model identification for damping the inter-area low frequency oscillations in large-scale inter-connected power system. A recursive least-squares algorithm (RLSA) with a varying f...

  8. Optimizing the Adaptive Stochastic Resonance and Its Application in Fault Diagnosis

    Liu, Xiaole; Yang, Jianhua; Liu, Houguang; Cheng, Gang; Chen, Xihui; Xu, Dan

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents an adaptive stochastic resonance method based on the improved artificial fish swarm algorithm. By this method, we can enhance the weak characteristic signal which is submerged in a heavy noise. We can also adaptively lead the stochastic resonance to be optimized to the greatest extent. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by both numerical simulation and lab experimental vibration signals including normal, a chipped tooth and a missing tooth of planetary gearboxes under the loaded condition. Both theoretical and experimental results show that this method can effectively extract weak characteristics in a heavy noise. In the experiment, each weak fault feature is extracted successfully from the fault planetary gear. When compared with the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) method, the method proposed in this paper has been found to give remarkable performance.

  9. Decentralized & Adaptive Load-Frequency Control Scheme of Variable Speed Wind Turbines

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2014-01-01

    In power systems with high penetration of Wind Power (WP), transferring a part of Load Frequency Control (LFC) burden to variable speed Wind Turbines (WTs) is inevitable. The conventional LFC schemes merely rely on frequency information and since frequency is a common variable throughout...... and therefore determining the contribution factor of each individual WT to gain an adaptive LFC approach. The Electrical Distance (ED) concept confirms that the locally measured voltage decay is a proper criterion of closeness to the disturbance place. Numerical simulations carried out in DigSilent Power...

  10. A novel radio frequency coil for veterinary magnetic resonance imaging system

    In this article, a novel designed radio frequency (RF) coil is designed and built for the imaging of puppies in a V-shape permanent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. Two sets of Helmholtz coil pairs with a V-shape structure are used to improve the holding of an animal in the coil. The homogeneity and the sensitivity of the RF field in the coil are analysed by theoretical calculation. The size and the shape of the new coil are optimized and validated by simulation through using the finite element method (FEM). Good magnetic resonance (MR) images are achieved on a shepherd dog. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  11. Numerical Investigation of Terahertz Emission Properties of Microring Difference-Frequency Resonators

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Bisgaard, Christer Zoffmann; Andronico, Alessio;

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the electromagnetic design of whispering gallery mode (WGM) terahertz (THz) resonators. Terahertz radiation is generated by difference-frequency mixing of two electrically pumped high-order near-infrared laser WGM's at room temperature in the active cavity. Due to the leaky nature of...... symmetry by modification of the dielectric environment of the resonator, and demonstrate a fabrication-optimized structure based on a concentric grating design which efficiently couples the emitted radiation into a narrow, near-gaussian forward-propagating cone of well-defined linear or circular...

  12. Dynamic nuclear polarization-magnetic resonance imaging at low ESR irradiation frequency for ascorbyl free radicals

    Shinji Ito; Fuminori Hyodo

    2016-01-01

    Highly water-soluble ubiquinone-0 (CoQ0) reacts with ascorbate monoanion (Asc) to mediate the production of ascorbyl free radicals (AFR). Using aqueous reaction mixture of CoQ0 and Asc, we obtained positively enhanced dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-magnetic resonance (MR) images of the AFR at low frequency (ranging from 515 to 530 MHz) of electron spin resonance (ESR) irradiation. The shape of the determined DNP spectrum was similar to ESR absorption spectra with doublet spectral peaks. T...

  13. A novel radio frequency coil for veterinary magnetic resonance imaging system

    Meng, Bin; Huang, Kai-Wen; Wang, Wei-Min

    2010-07-01

    In this article, a novel designed radio frequency (RF) coil is designed and built for the imaging of puppies in a V-shape permanent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. Two sets of Helmholtz coil pairs with a V-shape structure are used to improve the holding of an animal in the coil. The homogeneity and the sensitivity of the RF field in the coil are analysed by theoretical calculation. The size and the shape of the new coil are optimized and validated by simulation through using the finite element method (FEM). Good magnetic resonance (MR) images are achieved on a shepherd dog.

  14. Two Novel Measurements for the Drive-Mode Resonant Frequency of a Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscope

    Ancheng Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the drive-mode resonance frequency of a micromachined vibratory gyroscope (MVG, one needs to measure it accurately and efficiently. The conventional approach to measure the resonant frequency is by performing a sweep frequency test and spectrum analysis. The method is time-consuming and inconvenient because of the requirements of many test points, a lot of data storage and off-line analyses. In this paper, we propose two novel measurement methods, the search method and track method, respectively. The former is based on the magnitude-frequency characteristics of the drive mode, utilizing a one-dimensional search technique. The latter is based on the phase-frequency characteristics, applying a feedback control loop. Their performances in precision, noise resistivity and efficiency are analyzed through detailed simulations. A test system is implemented based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA and experiments are carried out. By comparing with the common approach, feasibility and superiorities of the proposed methods are validated. In particular, significant efficiency improvements are achieved whereby the conventional frequency method consumes nearly 5,000 s to finish a measurement, while only 5 s is needed for the track method and 1 s for the search method.

  15. Self-Oscillation-Based Frequency Tracking for the Drive and Detection of Resonance Magnetometers.

    Tian, Zheng; Ren, Dahai; You, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a drive and detection method for Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS)-based Lorentz-force resonance magnetometers. Based on the proposed MEMS magnetometer, a drive and detection method was developed by using self-oscillation to adjust the mismatch between the mechanical resonance frequency and the coil drive frequency as affected by temperature fluctuations and vibration amplitude changes. Not only was the signal-to-noise ratio enhanced by the proposed method compared to the traditional method, but the test system automatically reached resonance frequency very rapidly when powered on. Moreover, the linearity and the measurement range were improved by the magnetic feedback generated by the coil. Test results indicated that the sensitivity of the proposed magnetometer is 59.6 mV/μT and its noise level is 0.25 μT. When operating in ±65 μT, its nonlinearity is 2.5‰-only one-tenth of the former prototype. Its power consumption is only about 250 mW and its size is only 28 mm × 28 mm × 10 mm, or about one-eighth of the original sensor; further, unlike the former device, it can distinguish both positive and negative magnetic fields. The proposed method can also be applied in other MEMS sensors such as gyroscopes and micromirrors to enhance their frequency tracking ability. PMID:27213401

  16. Coupled modes, frequencies and fields of a dielectric resonator and a cavity using coupled mode theory

    Elnaggar, Sameh Y.; Tervo, Richard; Mattar, Saba M.

    2014-01-01

    Probes consisting of a dielectric resonator (DR) inserted in a cavity are important integral components of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometers because of their high signal-to-noise ratio. This article studies the behavior of this system, based on the coupling between its dielectric and cavity modes. Coupled-mode theory (CMT) is used to determine the frequencies and electromagnetic fields of this coupled system. General expressions for the frequencies and field distributions are derived for both the resulting symmetric and anti-symmetric modes. These expressions are applicable to a wide range of frequencies (from MHz to THz). The coupling of cavities and DRs of various sizes and their resonant frequencies are studied in detail. Since the DR is situated within the cavity then the coupling between them is strong. In some cases the coupling coefficient, κ, is found to be as high as 0.4 even though the frequency difference between the uncoupled modes is large. This is directly attributed to the strong overlap between the fields of the uncoupled DR and cavity modes. In most cases, this improves the signal to noise ratio of the spectrometer. When the DR and the cavity have the same frequency, the coupled electromagnetic fields are found to contain equal contributions from the fields of the two uncoupled modes. This situation is ideal for the excitation of the probe through an iris on the cavity wall. To verify and validate the results, finite element simulations are carried out. This is achieved by simulating the coupling between a cylindrical cavity's TE011 and the dielectric insert's TE01δ modes. Coupling between the modes of higher order is also investigated and discussed. Based on CMT, closed form expressions for the fields of the coupled system are proposed. These expressions are crucial in the analysis of the probe's performance.

  17. Low-distortion detection system for frequency-swept ion cyclotron resonance spectrometry

    Wise, M. B.; Freiser, B. S.

    1986-07-01

    A high-performance frequency-swept capacitance bridge detector for ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) spectrometry has been constructed in our laboratory. Although the basic design of the system is similar to that of previously reported bridge circuits, careful design, layout, construction, and component selection have resulted in excellent frequency-swept performance over a bandwidth of 15 kHz to 1 MHz. At a magnetic field strength of 1.0 T, this corresponds to a mass range of 15-1000 Daltons. Problems with base-line drift and frequency-dependent signal distortion common to many other designs have been significantly reduced. Circuit diagrams are included for all parts of the detector and frequency response curves have been included where appropriate. In addition, several simple circuit diagrams for support devices have also been included.

  18. Low-distortion detection system for frequency-swept ion cyclotron resonance spectrometry

    Wise, M.B.; Freiser, B.S.

    1986-07-01

    A high-performance frequency-swept capacitance bridge detector for ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) spectrometry has been constructed in our laboratory. Although the basic design of the system is similar to that of previously reported bridge circuits, careful design, layout, construction, and component selection have resulted in excellent frequency-swept performance over a bandwidth of 15 kHz to 1 MHz. At a magnetic field strength of 1.0 T, this corresponds to a mass range of 15--1000 Daltons. Problems with base-line drift and frequency-dependent signal distortion common to many other designs have been significantly reduced. Circuit diagrams are included for all parts of the detector and frequency response curves have been included where appropriate. In addition, several simple circuit diagrams for support devices have also been included.

  19. Generation of high-frequency combs locked to atomic resonances by quantum phase modulation

    Liu, Zuoye; Cavaletto, Stefano M; Harman, Zoltán; Keitel, Christoph H; Pfeifer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A general mechanism for the generation of frequency combs referenced to atomic resonances is put forward. The mechanism is based on the periodic phase control of a quantum system's dipole response. We develop an analytic description of the comb spectral structure, depending on both the atomic and the phase-control properties. We further suggest an experimental implementation of our scheme: Generating a frequency comb in the soft-x-ray spectral region, which can be realized with currently available techniques and radiation sources. The universality of this mechanism allows the generalization of frequency-comb technology to arbitrary frequencies, including the hard-x-ray regime by using reference transitions in highly charged ions.

  20. First Mode Schumann Resonance Frequency Variation During a Solar Proton Event

    Minu Sanfui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A severe X-ray flare occurred on 06 - 07 March 2012 followed by a solar proton event (SPE. During this event we studied the variation in frequency of the first Schumann resonance (SR spectra mode from the recorded data over Kolkata (22.56°N, 88.5°E. The first mode frequency enhanced (~8.14 Hz, 3.85% during the solar X-ray bursts and immediately after its value decreased (~7.44 Hz, 5.13% during the proton event. The influences of SPE and X-ray bursts upon the SR frequency fluctuation are explained in terms of the changes in medium ionization, i.e., the change in dielectric property and two layer reflection height variation in the waveguide. The geomagnetic storm effect on the modification of this frequency variation occurring during that time is also considered.

  1. Thin film Lamb wave resonators in frequency control and sensing applications: a review

    This work makes an overview of the progress made during the last decade with regard to a novel class of piezoelectric microwave devices employing acoustic Lamb waves in micromachined thin film membranes. This class of devices is referred to as either thin film Lamb wave resonators or piezoelectric contour-mode resonators both employing thin film aluminum nitride membranes. These devices are of interest for applications in both frequency control and sensing. High quality factor Lamb wave resonators exhibiting low noise, low loss and thermally stable performance are demonstrated and their application in high resolution gravimetric and pressure sensors further discussed. A specific emphasis is put on the ability of these devices to operate in contact with liquids. Future research directions are further outlined. (topical review)

  2. Coherent Control of Ultra-High Frequency Acoustic Resonances in Photonic Crystal Fibers

    Wiederhecker, G S; Fragnito, H L; Russell, P St J

    2007-01-01

    UHF (ultra-high frequency) acoustic resonances (~2 GHz) trapped within the glass core (1 micron diameter) of a photonic crystal fibre are excited electrostrictively using laser pulses of duration 100 ps and energy 500 pJ. Using precisely timed sequences of such driving pulses, we achieve coherent control of the acoustic resonances by constructive or destructive interference, demonstrating both enhancement and suppression of the vibrations. A sequence of resonantly-timed pulses (limited to 25 by the capacity of the erbium-doped fibre amplifier used) provides a 100-fold increase in the amplitude of the vibrational mode. The results are explained and interpreted using a semi-analytical theory, and supported by precise numerical simulations of the complex light-matter interaction.

  3. Fabrication and Frequency Response Characteristics of AlN-Based Solidly Mounted Resonator

    XIONG Juan; GU Hao-Shuang; HU Kuan; HU Ming-Zhe

    2009-01-01

    @@ Film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) with solidly mounted resonator (SMR)-type is carried out by rf magnetic sputtering. To fabricate SMR-type FBAR, alternative high and low acoustic impedance layers, Mo/Ti multilayer, are adopted as Bragg reflector deposited by dc magnetron sputtering. The influences of sputtering pressure, substrate temperature and sputtering power on the surface roughness of Bragg reflector layer are discussed. From the atom force microscopy (AFM) analysis, the surface roughness of the Bragg reflector is improved remarkably by controlling deposition conditions. Under the appropriate sputtering condition, AIN thin films with highly c-axis-preferred orientation are deposited by rf magnetron sputtering. The performance of fabricated Mo/Ti SMR shows that the electromechanical coupling coefficient is 3.89%, the series and parallel resonant frequencies appear at 2.49 and 2.53 GHz, with their quality factors 134.2 and 97.6, respectively.

  4. Resonant acoustic frequencies of a tandem cascade. Part 1. Zero relative motion

    Woodley, B. M.; Peake, N.

    1999-08-01

    In this paper we study the acoustic scattering between two flat-plate cascades, with the aim of investigating the possible existence of trapped modes. In practical terms this question is related to the phenomenon of acoustic resonance in turbomachinery, whereby such resonant modes are excited to large amplitude by unsteady processes such as vortex shedding. We use the Wiener Hopf technique to analyse the scattering of the various wave fields by the cascade blades, and by considering the fields between adjacent blades, as well as between the cascades, we are able to take full account of the genuinely finite blade chords. Analytic expressions for the various scattering matrices are derived, and an infinite-dimensional matrix equation is formed, which is then investigated numerically for singularity. One advantage of this formulation is that it allows the constituent parts of the system to be analysed individually, so that for instance the behaviour of the gap between the blade rows alone can be investigated by omitting the finite-chord terms in the equations. We demonstrate that the system exhibits two types of resonance, at a wide range of parameter values. First, there is a cut-on/cut-off resonance associated with the gap between the rows, and corresponding to modes propagating parallel to the front face of the cascades. Second, there is a resonance of the downstream row, akin to a Parker mode, driven at low frequencies by a vorticity wave produced by trapped duct modes in the upstream row, and at higher frequencies by radiation modes (and the vorticity wave) between the blade rows. The predictions for this second set of resonances are shown to be in excellent agreement with previous experimental data. The resonant frequencies are also seen to be real for this twin cascade system, indicating that the resonances correspond to genuine trapped modes. The analysis in this paper is completed with non-zero axial flow but with zero relative rotation between the cascades

  5. A high-frequency response and a nonlinear coherent generation in resonant-tunneling diodes within a broad frequency range with electron-electron interaction

    Within the framework of a sequential quantum mechanical model, the response and the power of a coherent generation have been obtained numerically in a resonant-tunneling diode in a wide range of frequencies with the electron-electron interaction. The quantum regime of generation is shown to be sustained under the electron-electron interaction. Thus, a high-power generation is probable under frequencies exceeding the width of the resonant level

  6. Frequency Locking and Stabilization Regimes in High-Power Gyrotrons with Low-Q Resonators

    Zotova, I. V.; Ginzburg, N. S.; Denisov, G. G.; Rozental', R. M.; Sergeev, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Using a nonstationary self-consistent model, we analyze the frequency locking and stabilization regimes arising in gyrotrons with low-Q resonators under the action of an external signal or when reflections from a remote nonresonant load are introduced. In the simulations, we used the parameters of high-power gyrotrons designed for controlled thermonuclear fusion with optimized resonator profile. This approach makes it possible to determine output characteristics of the gyrotrons operated in considered regimes taking into account the effect of the incident wave (external or reflected) on the longitudinal field structure with greater precision compared with the earlier results based on the fixed RF-field structure approximation, while qualitative results of the two approaches coincide. Analysis of the effect of reflections from a remote load has demonstrated a substantial dependence of the efficiency of the gyrotron frequency stabilization on the ratio between the characteristic time scale of the synchronism detuning fluctuations and the signal delay time.

  7. Optical frequency comb generation from aluminum nitride micro-ring resonator

    Jung, Hojoong; Fong, King Y; Zhang, Xufeng; Tang, Hong X

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum nitride is an appealing nonlinear optical material for on-chip wavelength conversion. Here we report optical frequency comb generation from high quality factor aluminum nitride micro-ring resonators integrated on silicon substrates. By engineering the waveguide structure to achieve near-zero dispersion at telecommunication wavelengths and optimizing the phase matching for four-wave mixing, frequency combs are generated with a single wavelength continuous-wave pump laser. The Kerr coefficient (n2) of aluminum nitride is further extracted from our experimental results.

  8. Time-of-flight detection of ultra-cold atoms using resonant frequency modulation imaging.

    Hardman, K S; Wigley, P B; Everitt, P J; Manju, P; Kuhn, C C N; Robins, N P

    2016-06-01

    Resonant frequency modulation imaging is used to detect free falling ultra-cold atoms. A theoretical comparison of fluorescence imaging (FI) and frequency modulation imaging (FMI) is made, indicating that for low optical depth clouds, FMI accomplished a higher signal-to-noise ratio under conditions necessary for a 200 μm spatially resolved atom interferometer. A 750 ms time-of-flight measurement reveals near atom shot-noise limited number measurements of 2×106 Bose-condensed Rb87 atoms. The detection system is applied to high precision spinor BEC based atom interferometer. PMID:27244400

  9. Fractal frequency spectrum in laser resonators and three-dimensional geometric topology of optical coherent waves

    Tung, J. C.; Tuan, P. H.; Liang, H. C.; Huang, K. F.; Chen, Y. F.

    2016-08-01

    We theoretically verify that the symmetry breaking in spherical resonators can result in a fractal frequency spectrum that is full of numerous new accidental degeneracies to cluster around the unperturbed degenerate cavity. We further experimentally discover that the fractal frequency spectrum excellently reflects the intimate connection between the emission power and the degenerate mode numbers. It is observed that the wave distributions of lasing modes at the accidental degeneracies are strongly concentrated on three-dimensional (3D) geometric topology. Considering the overlapping effect, the wave representation of the coherent states is analytically derived to manifest the observed 3D geometric surfaces.

  10. Microwave and RF applications for micro-resonator based frequency combs

    Nguyen, Thach G.; Shoeiby, Mehrdad; Ferrera, Marcello; Pasquazi, Alessia; Peccianti, Marco; Chu, Sai T.; Little, Brent E.; Morandotti, Roberto; Mitchell, Arnan; Moss, David J.

    2016-02-01

    Photonic integrated circuits that exploit nonlinear optics in order to generate and process signals all-optically have achieved performance far superior to that possible electronically - particularly with respect to speed. We review the recent achievements based in new CMOS-compatible platforms that are better suited than SOI for nonlinear optics, focusing on radio frequency (RF) and microwave based applications that exploit micro-resonator based frequency combs. We highlight their potential as well as the challenges to achieving practical solutions for many key applications. These material systems have opened up many new capabilities such as on-chip optical frequency comb generation and ultrafast optical pulse generation and measurement. We review recent work on a photonic RF Hilbert transformer for broadband microwave in-phase and quadrature-phase generation based on an integrated frequency optical comb. The comb is generated using a nonlinear microring resonator based on a CMOS compatible, high-index contrast, doped-silica glass platform. The high quality and large frequency spacing of the comb enables filters with up to 20 taps, allowing us to demonstrate a quadrature filter with more than a 5-octave (3 dB) bandwidth and an almost uniform phase response.

  11. Finite frequency noise for Laughlin state investigated by a resonant circuit

    We study the finite frequency (F.F.) noise properties of edge states in the Laughlin state. We investigate the model of a resonant detector coupled to a quantum point contact in the weak-backscattering limit. In particular we discuss the impact of possible renormalization of the Luttinger exponent, due to environmental effects, on the measured quantities and we propose a simple way to extract such non-universal parameters from noise measurements

  12. Validation of the load-resilient ion cyclotron resonance frequency antenna concept on Tore Supra plasmas

    In the framework of the ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating development at CEA Cadarache, a prototype antenna based on the load-resilient electrical layout foreseen for ITER has been built. This prototype was recently tested in Tore Supra. The ITER-like electrical scheme has been validated during fast perturbations at the edge plasma. Clear load resilience properties are reported. Main conclusions and consequences to be learned for the development of ITER antenna are discussed. (author)

  13. Measurement of Primary and Secondary Stability of Dental Implants by Resonance Frequency Analysis Method in Mandible

    Mehran Shokri; Arash Daraeighadikolaei

    2013-01-01

    Background. There is no doubt that the success of the dental implants depends on the stability. The aim of this work was to measure the stability of dental implants prior to loading the implants, using a resonance frequency analysis (RFA) by Osstell mentor device. Methods. Ten healthy and nonsmoker patients over 40 years of age with at least six months of complete or partial edentulous mouth received screw-type dental implants by a 1-stage procedure. RFA measurements were obtained at surgery ...

  14. High Frequency Resonance Damping of DFIG based Wind Power System under Weak Network

    Song, Yipeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    in the Rotor Side Converter (RSC) or in the Grid Side Converter (GSC), through the introduction of virtual positive capacitor or virtual negative inductor to reshape the DFIG system impedance and mitigate the high frequency resonance. A detailed theoretical explanation on the virtual positive...... capacitor or virtual negative inductor has been given, and their parameters are also optimally designed. The proposed DFIG system damping control strategy has been validated by experimental results....

  15. Nanomechanical structures with 91 MHz resonance frequency fabricated by local deposition and dry etching

    Kim, GM; Kawai, S.; Nagashio, M; Kawakatsu, H.; Brugger, J.

    2004-01-01

    We report an all-dry, two-step, surface nanoengineering method to fabricate nanomechanical elements without photolithography. It is based on the local deposition through a nanostencil of a well-defined aluminum pattern onto a silicon/silicon-nitride substrate, followed by plasma etching to release the structures. The suspended 100-nm-wide, 2-mum-long, and 300-nm-thick nanolevers and nanobridges have natural resonance frequencies of 50 and 91 MHz, respectively. The fabrication method is scalab...

  16. Validation of the load-resilient ion cyclotron resonance frequency antenna concept on Tore Supra plasmas

    Vulliez, K.; Argouarch, A.; Bosia, G.; Berger-By, G.; Bremond, S.; Colas, L.; Lombard, G.; Mendes, A.; Millon, L.; Mollard, P.; Volpe, D.; Beaumont, B.; Bécoulet, A.; Clairet, F.; Ekedahl, A.; Elkhaldi, M.; Gunn, J.; Hoang, G. T.; Tore Supra Team

    2008-06-01

    In the framework of the ion cyclotron resonance frequency heating development at CEA Cadarache, a prototype antenna based on the load-resilient electrical layout foreseen for ITER has been built. This prototype was recently tested in Tore Supra. The ITER-like electrical scheme has been validated during fast perturbations at the edge plasma. Clear load resilience properties are reported. The main conclusions and consequences learned from the development of the ITER antenna are discussed.

  17. A Simplified Analytical Technique for High Frequency Characterization of Resonant Tunneling Diode

    DESSOUKI, A. A. S.; ABDALLAH, R. M.; Aly, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    his paper proposes a simplified analytical technique for high frequency characterization of the resonant tunneling diode (RTD). An equivalent circuit of the RTD that consists of a parallel combination of conductance, G (V, f), and capacitance, C (V, f) is formulated. The proposed approach uses the measured DC current versus voltage characteristic of the RTD to extract the equivalent circuit elements parameters in the entire bias range. Using the proposed analytical technique, ...

  18. Seismic noise filters, vertical resonance frequency reduction with geometric anti-springs: a feasibility study

    The achievement of low resonance frequency in vertical action oscillators is the most difficult of the basic ingredients for seismic noise attenuation filters. These oscillations are achieved by means of 'anti-springs' systems coupled with more classical suspension springs. Magnetic anti-springs have been used so far. Geometric anti-springs have been studied and the concept tested in this work, opening the way to a simpler and better performance seismic attenuation filters. (author)

  19. Multi-frequency proportional-resonant (MFPR) current controller for PWM VSC under unbalanced supply conditions

    2007-01-01

    This letter presents a multi-frequency proportional-resonant (MFPR) current controller developed for PWM voltage source converter (VSC) under the unbalanced supply voltage conditions. The delta operator is used in place of the shift operator for the implementation of MFPR by using a low-cost fixed-point DSP. The experimental results with an alternative control strategy validated the feasibility of the proposed MFPR current controller for the PWM VSC during voltage unbalance.

  20. Redistribution of light frequency by multiple scattering in a resonant atomic vapor

    Carvalho, J C de A; Oriá, M; Chevrollier, M; de Silans, T Passerat

    2015-01-01

    The propagation of light in a resonant atomic vapor can \\textit{a priori} be thought of as a multiple scattering process, in which each scattering event redistributes both the direction and the frequency of the photons. Particularly, the frequency redistribution may result in L\\'evy flights of photons, directly affecting the transport properties of light in a resonant atomic vapor and turning this propagation into a superdifusion process. Here, we report on a Monte-Carlo simulation developed to study the evolution of the spectrum of the light in a resonant thermal vapor. We observe the gradual change of the spectrum and its convergence towards a regime of Complete Frequency Redistribution as the number of scattering events increases. We also analyse the probability density function of the step length of photons between emissions and reabsorptions in the vapor, which governs the statistics of the light diffusion. We observe two different regime in the light transport: superdiffusive when the vapor is excited n...

  1. Dynamics of suspended microchannel resonators conveying opposite internal fluid flow: Stability, frequency shift and energy dissipation

    Zhang, Wen-Ming; Yan, Han; Jiang, Hui-Ming; Hu, Kai-Ming; Peng, Zhi-Ke; Meng, Guang

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the dynamics of suspended microchannel resonators which convey internal flows with opposite directions are investigated. The fluid-structure interactions between the laminar fluid flow and oscillating cantilever are analyzed by comprehensively considering the effects of velocity profile, flow viscosity and added flowing particle. A new model is developed to characterize the dynamic behavior of suspended microchannel resonators with the fluid-structure interactions. The stability, frequency shift and energy dissipation of suspended microchannel resonators are analyzed and discussed. The results demonstrate that the frequency shifts induced by the added flowing particle which are obtained from the new model have a good agreement with the experimental data. The steady mean flow can cause the frequency shift and influence the stability of the dynamic system. As the flow velocity reaches the critical value, the coupled-mode flutter occurs via a Hamiltonian Hopf bifurcation. The perturbation flow resulted from the vibration of the microcantilever leads to energy dissipation, while the steady flow does not directly cause the damping which increases with the increasing of the flow velocity predicted by the classical model. It can also be found that the steady flow firstly changes the mode shape of the cantilever and consequently affects the energy dissipation.

  2. Carbon Nanofiber-Based, High-Frequency, High-Q, Miniaturized Mechanical Resonators

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Epp, Larry W.; Bagge, Leif

    2011-01-01

    High Q resonators are a critical component of stable, low-noise communication systems, radar, and precise timing applications such as atomic clocks. In electronic resonators based on Si integrated circuits, resistive losses increase as a result of the continued reduction in device dimensions, which decreases their Q values. On the other hand, due to the mechanical construct of bulk acoustic wave (BAW) and surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators, such loss mechanisms are absent, enabling higher Q-values for both BAW and SAW resonators compared to their electronic counterparts. The other advantages of mechanical resonators are their inherently higher radiation tolerance, a factor that makes them attractive for NASA s extreme environment planetary missions, for example to the Jovian environments where the radiation doses are at hostile levels. Despite these advantages, both BAW and SAW resonators suffer from low resonant frequencies and they are also physically large, which precludes their integration into miniaturized electronic systems. Because there is a need to move the resonant frequency of oscillators to the order of gigahertz, new technologies and materials are being investigated that will make performance at those frequencies attainable. By moving to nanoscale structures, in this case vertically oriented, cantilevered carbon nanotubes (CNTs), that have larger aspect ratios (length/thickness) and extremely high elastic moduli, it is possible to overcome the two disadvantages of both bulk acoustic wave (BAW) and surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators. Nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS) that utilize high aspect ratio nanomaterials exhibiting high elastic moduli (e.g., carbon-based nanomaterials) benefit from high Qs, operate at high frequency, and have small force constants that translate to high responsivity that results in improved sensitivity, lower power consumption, and im - proved tunablity. NEMS resonators have recently been demonstrated using topdown

  3. An Adaptive Single-Well Stochastic Resonance Algorithm Applied to Trace Analysis of Clenbuterol in Human Urine

    Shaofei Xie; Bingren Xiang; Suyun Xiang; Wei Wang

    2012-01-01

    Based on the theory of stochastic resonance, an adaptive single-well stochastic resonance (ASSR) coupled with genetic algorithm was developed to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of weak chromatographic signals. In conventional stochastic resonance algorithm, there are two or more parameters needed to be optimized and the proper parameters values were obtained by a universal searching within a given range. In the developed ASSR, the optimization of system parameter was simplified and automati...

  4. Resonant multi-frequency method for Kelvin probe force microscopy in air

    The multi-frequency method, recently introduced in atomic force microscopy (AFM), has shown remarkable enhancement of sensitivity and resolution of microscopy with a variety of heterogeneous materials. Under ambient conditions, Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is commonly carried out using only the first flexural eigenmode of the micro-cantilever probe. Here we report a resonant multi-frequency method for KPFM in air. To implement this method, the first eigenmode of the cantilever probe is used for topography imaging, whereas the second one is used to measure the local contact potential difference in the two-pass mode with the tip lifted. By introducing an additional feedback controller, a multi-frequency KPFM (MF-KPFM) is developed upon a commercial AFM. The performance of MF-KPFM, including the feedback controller, sensitivity and noise, lift height of the cantilever and lateral resolution, is evaluated and optimized. The capabilities of MF-KPFM are demonstrated by characterizing a charge pattern on a polymer electret. The results show that the lateral resolution of KPFM in air can be improved by the resonant multi-frequency method. (paper)

  5. Generation of THz frequency using PANDA ring resonator for THz imaging

    Ong CT

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available MA Jalil1, Afroozeh Abdolkarim2, T Saktioto2, CT Ong3, Preecha P Yupapin41Ibnu Sina Institute of Fundamental Science Studies, Nanotechnology Research Alliance, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM,81310, Johor Bahru, Malaysia; 2Institute of Advanced Photonics Science, Nanotechnology Research Alliance, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM, 81310, Johor Bahru, Malaysia; 3Department of Mathematics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 81310 Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia; 4Nanoscale Science and Engineering Research Alliance (N'SERA, Advanced Research Center for Photonics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520, ThailandAbstract: In this study, we have generated terahertz (THz frequency by a novel design of microring resonators for medical applications. The dense wavelength-division multiplexing can be generated and obtained by using a Gaussian pulse propagating within a modified PANDA ring resonator and an add/drop filter system. Our results show that the THz frequency region can be obtained between 40–50 THz. This area of frequency provides a reliable frequency band for THz pulsed imaging.Keywords: THz imaging, THz technology, MRRs, PANDA, add/drop filter

  6. Recent developments in phyroshock simulation using fixtures with tunable resonant frequencies

    Davie, N.T.; Bateman, V.I.

    1994-02-01

    Pyroshock is a potentially severe environment produced by the detonation of explosively actuated components and stage separation hardware. Electronic components exposed to pyroshock events during flight or deployment can be damaged by this high frequency, high G shock. Flight qualification of these components may be accomplished using one of many existing techniques to simulate the pyroshock environment in the laboratory. Two new techniques developed at Sandia National Laboratories allow larger components to be tested to a wide variety of pyroshock environments. The frequency content and amplitude of the simulated pyroshock can be easily controlled in a predictable manner. The pyroshock environment is produced by the resonant response of a test fixture that has been excited by a mechanical impact. The resonant fixture has a dominant frequency that can be continuously adjusted over a frequency range that is typically found in most pyroshock environments. The test apparatus and techniques utilized by each method will be described in this paper. Experimental results will be presented which illustrate the capabilities of each method.

  7. Capabilities, performance, and future possibilities of high frequency polyphase resonant converters

    High Frequency Polyphase Resonant Power Conditioning (PRPC) techniques developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are now being utilized for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator klystron RF amplifier power systems. Three different styles of polyphase resonant converter modulators were developed for the SNS application. The various systems operate up to 140 kV, or 11 MW pulses, or up to 1.1 MW average power, all from a DC input of +/- 1.2 kV. Component improvements realized with the SNS effort coupled with new applied engineering techniques have resulted in dramatic changes in RF power conditioning topology. As an example, the high-voltage transformers are over 100 times smaller and lighter than equivalent 60 Hz versions. With resonant conversion techniques, load protective networks are not required. A shorted load de-tunes the resonance and little power transfer can occur. This provides for power conditioning systems that are inherently self-protective, with automatic fault 'ride-through' capabilities. By altering the Los Alamos design, higher power and CW power conditioning systems can be realized without further demands of the individual component voltage or current capabilities. This has led to designs that can accommodate 30 MW long pulse applications and megawatt class CW systems with high efficiencies. The same PRPC techniques can also be utilized for lower average power systems (∼250 kW). This permits the use of significantly higher frequency conversion techniques that result in extremely compact systems with short pulse (10 to 100 us) capabilities. These lower power PRPC systems may be suitable for medical Linacs and mobile RF systems. This paper will briefly review the performance achieved for the SNS accelerator and examine designs for high efficiency megawatt class CW systems and 30 MW peak power applications. The devices and designs for compact higher frequency converters utilized for short pulse

  8. Capabilities, performance, and future possibilities of high frequency polyphase resonant converters

    Reass, W. A. (William A.); Baca, D. M. (David M.); Bradley, J. T. (Joseph T.), III; Hardek, T. W. (Thomas W.); Kwon, S. I. (Sung-Il); Lynch, M. T. (Michael T.); Rees, D. E. (Daniel E.)

    2004-01-01

    High Frequency Polyphase Resonant Power Conditioning (PRPC) techniques developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are now being utilized for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator klystron RF amplifier power systems. Three different styles of polyphase resonant converter modulators were developed for the SNS application. The various systems operate up to 140 kV, or 11 MW pulses, or up to 1.1 MW average power, all from a DC input of +/- 1.2 kV. Component improvements realized with the SNS effort coupled with new applied engineering techniques have resulted in dramatic changes in RF power conditioning topology. As an example, the high-voltage transformers are over 100 times smaller and lighter than equivalent 60 Hz versions. With resonant conversion techniques, load protective networks are not required. A shorted load de-tunes the resonance and little power transfer can occur. This provides for power conditioning systems that are inherently self-protective, with automatic fault 'ride-through' capabilities. By altering the Los Alamos design, higher power and CW power conditioning systems can be realized without further demands of the individual component voltage or current capabilities. This has led to designs that can accommodate 30 MW long pulse applications and megawatt class CW systems with high efficiencies. The same PRPC techniques can also be utilized for lower average power systems ({approx}250 kW). This permits the use of significantly higher frequency conversion techniques that result in extremely compact systems with short pulse (10 to 100 us) capabilities. These lower power PRPC systems may be suitable for medical Linacs and mobile RF systems. This paper will briefly review the performance achieved for the SNS accelerator and examine designs for high efficiency megawatt class CW systems and 30 MW peak power applications. The devices and designs for compact higher frequency converters utilized

  9. Adaptive Estimation of Line-of-sight Rate Measurement from a Radio Frequency Seeker

    Anand M. Tapas

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The line-of-sight (LOS rate output from a radio frequency (RF seeker is widely used during the homing phase guidance of a tactical missile: The LOS rate is noisy and needs to be filtered.The application of an adaptive Kalman filter for the L.OS rate state estimation has been studied. This filter requires minimal a priori knowledge about technical parameters of the seeker. It isalso capable of estimating the variable noise statistics.

  10. Observation of resonant energy transfer between identical-frequency laser beams

    Afeyan, B. B.; Cohen, B. I.; Estabrook, K. G.; Glenzer, S. H.; Joshi, C.; Kirkwood, R. K.; Moody, J. D.; Wharton, K. B.

    1998-12-09

    Enhanced transmission of a low intensity laser beam is observed when crossed with an identical-frequency beam in a plasma with a flow velocity near the ion sound speed. The time history of the enhancement and the dependence on the flow velocity strongly suggest that this is due to energy transfer between the beams via a resonant ion wave with zero frequency in the laboratory frame. The maximum energy transfer has been observed when the beams cross in a region with Mach 1 flow. The addition of frequency modulation on the crossing beams is seen to reduce the energy transfer by a factor of two. Implications for indirect-drive fusion schemes are discussed.

  11. Frequency Tuning Study on Half-wave Resonator for China ADS in IMP

    He, Shoubo; Yue, Weiming; Zhang, Cong; Zhang, Shenghu; Zhao, Hongwei

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of the China Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System (CADS) project, a 162.5MHz superconducting half-wave resonator (HWR) for low energy section of high power proton linac promoted by Institute of Modern Physics (IMP) is under development. For the geometrical design of superconducting cavities, the RF and mechanical coupled analysis are essential to predict the deformation of the cavity walls and the frequency detuning. Bath helium pressure and Lorentz force detuning effect for the HWR cavity are presented in this paper. Tuning system has been investigated to control the frequency shift perturbed by changing the distance along the beam axis of the cavity. The simulation results performed with ANSYS code show the tuning system can adjust and compensate the frequency drift of cavity due to external vibrations and fluctuation during operation.

  12. High-frequency resonant tunnelling diode oscillator with high-output power

    Wang, Jue; Alharbi, Khalid; Ofiare, Afesomeh; Khalid, Ata; Cumming, David; Wasige, Edward

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a prototype G-band (140 GHz-220 GHz) monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) resonant tunneling diode (RTD) oscillator is reported. The oscillator employs two In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs RTD devices in the circuit to increase the output power. The measured output power was about 0.34 mW (-4.7 dBm) at 165.7 GHz, which is the highest power reported for RTD oscillator in G-band frequency range. This result demonstrates the validity of the high frequency/high power RTD oscillator design. It indicates that RTD devices, as one of the terahertz (THz) source candidates, have promising future for room-temperature THz applications in such as imaging, wireless communication and spectroscopy analysis, etc. By optimizing RTD oscillator design, it is expected that considerably higher power (>1 mW) at THz frequencies (>300 GHz) will be obtained.

  13. Field and frequency modulated sub-THz electron spin resonance spectrometer

    Caspers, Christian; da Silva, Pedro Freire; Soundararajan, Murari; Haider, M. Ali; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe

    2016-05-01

    260-GHz radiation is used for a quasi-optical electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer which features both field and frequency modulation. Free space propagation is used to implement Martin-Puplett interferometry with quasi-optical isolation, mirror beam focusing, and electronic polarization control. Computer-aided design and polarization pathway simulation lead to the design of a compact interferometer, featuring lateral dimensions less than a foot and high mechanical stability, with all components rated for power levels of several Watts suitable for gyrotron radiation. Benchmark results were obtained with ESR standards (BDPA, DPPH) using field modulation. Original high-field ESR of 4f electrons in Sm3+-doped Ceria was detected using frequency modulation. Distinct combinations of field and modulation frequency reach a signal-to-noise ratio of 35 dB in spectra of BDPA, corresponding to a detection limit of about 1014 spins.

  14. EVENT-DRIVEN SIMULATION OF INTEGRATE-AND-FIRE MODELS WITH SPIKE-FREQUENCY ADAPTATION

    Lin Xianghong; Zhang Tianwen

    2009-01-01

    The evoked spike discharges of a neuron depend critically on the recent history of its electrical activity. A well-known example is the phenomenon of spike-frequency adaptation that is a commonly observed property of neurons. In this paper, using a leaky integrate-and-fire model that includes an adaptation current, we propose an event-driven strategy to simulate integrate-and-fire models with spike-frequency adaptation. Such approach is more precise than traditional clock-driven numerical integration approach because the timing of spikes is treated exactly. In experiments, using event-driven and clock-driven strategies we simulated the adaptation time course of single neuron and the random network with spike-timing dependent plasticity, the results indicate that (1) the temporal precision of spiking events impacts on neuronal dynamics of single as well as network in the different simulation strategies and (2) the simulation time scales linearly with the total number of spiking events in the event-driven simulation strategies.

  15. Robust Adaptive Beamforming for Multiple Signals of Interest with Cycle Frequency Error

    Huang Chia-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of robust adaptive array beamforming by exploiting the signal cyclostationarity. Recently, a novel cyclostationarity-exploiting beamforming method has been proposed by J.-H. Lee and C.-C. Huang (2009 for dealing with the situation of multiple signals of interest (SOI based on the LS-SCORE algorithm. This method is referred to as the multiple LS-SCORE (MLS-SCORE algorithm. However, the MLS-SCORE algorithm suffers from severe performance degradation even if there is a small mismatch in the cycle frequencies of the SOIs. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of the MLS-SCORE algorithm in the presence of cycle frequency error (CFE. The output SINR of an adaptive beamforming using the MLS-SCORE algorithm deteriorates like a function as the number of data snapshots increases. To tackle this difficulty, we present an efficient method to find an appropriate estimate for each of the cycle frequencies of the SOIs iteratively to achieve robust adaptive beamforming against the CFE. Simulation results for showing the effectiveness of the proposed method are provided.

  16. The mass load effect on the resonant acoustic frequencies of colloidal semiconductor nanoplatelets

    Girard, Adrien; Saviot, Lucien; Pedetti, Silvia; Tessier, Mickaël D.; Margueritat, Jérémie; Gehan, Hélène; Mahler, Benoit; Dubertret, Benoit; Mermet, Alain

    2016-07-01

    Resonant acoustic modes of ultrathin CdS and CdSe colloidal nanoplatelets (NPLs) with varying thicknesses were probed using low frequency Raman scattering. The spectra are dominated by an intense band ascribed to the thickness breathing mode of the 2D nanostructures. The measured Raman frequencies show strong deviations with respect to the values expected for simple bare plates, all the more so as the thickness is reduced. The deviation is shown to arise from the additional mass of the organic ligands that are bound to the free surfaces of the nanoplatelets. The calculated eigen frequencies of vibrating platelets weighed down by the mass of the organic ligands are in very good agreement with the observed experimental behaviours. This finding opens up a new possibility of nanomechanical sensing such as nanobalances.Resonant acoustic modes of ultrathin CdS and CdSe colloidal nanoplatelets (NPLs) with varying thicknesses were probed using low frequency Raman scattering. The spectra are dominated by an intense band ascribed to the thickness breathing mode of the 2D nanostructures. The measured Raman frequencies show strong deviations with respect to the values expected for simple bare plates, all the more so as the thickness is reduced. The deviation is shown to arise from the additional mass of the organic ligands that are bound to the free surfaces of the nanoplatelets. The calculated eigen frequencies of vibrating platelets weighed down by the mass of the organic ligands are in very good agreement with the observed experimental behaviours. This finding opens up a new possibility of nanomechanical sensing such as nanobalances. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/C5NR07383A

  17. A Simplified Analytical Technique for High Frequency Characterization of Resonant Tunneling Diode

    DESSOUKI, A. A. S.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available his paper proposes a simplified analytical technique for high frequency characterization of the resonant tunneling diode (RTD. An equivalent circuit of the RTD that consists of a parallel combination of conductance, G (V, f, and capacitance, C (V, f is formulated. The proposed approach uses the measured DC current versus voltage characteristic of the RTD to extract the equivalent circuit elements parameters in the entire bias range. Using the proposed analytical technique, the frequency response - including the high frequency range - of many characteristic aspects of the RTD is investigated. Also, the maximum oscillation frequency of the RTD is calculated. The results obtained have been compared with those concluded and reported in the literature. The reported results in literature were obtained through simulation of the RTD at high frequency using either a computationally complicated quantum simulator or through difficult RF measurements. A similar pattern of results and highly concordant conclusion are obtained. The proposed analytical technique is simple, correct, and appropriate to investigate the behavior of the RTD at high frequency. In addition, the proposed technique can be easily incorporated into SPICE program to simulate circuits containing RTD.

  18. High-frequency electron resonances and surface waves in unmagnetized bounded plasmas

    Bowers, Kevin James

    2001-10-01

    As all laboratory and industrial plasma devices have boundaries, understanding the plasma-wall interaction is critical. This thesis explores high frequency (beyond the ion plasma frequency) resonances and surface waves in unmagnetized bounded plasmas. Special emphasis is placed on low-temperature plasmas in planar systems as such are useful for materials processing. Chapter 1, Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 conduct simulation studies of electron series resonance sustained discharges with comparisons to theory and experiment. These plasmas have many desirable characteristics (resistive V-I phase, frequency tunable density, low-temperature, low- pressure). Surface wave plasmas are the natural extension to resonant plasmas and are promising for use in large-area plasma sources. Appropriate for large-area device modeling, an electromagnetic theory of surface wave propagation in a warm non-uniform plasma is developed and compared to previous theoretical work (Chapter 4 and Chapter 5). In Chapter 6, several PIC simulations are conducted to validate the electromagnetic theory. In Chapter 7, numerical techniques suitable for computing the wave dispersion and impedance in a large-area low- temperature plasma are developed. Utilizing much of the research conducted here, Chapter 8 demonstrates a novel application of surface waves. Through a resonant wave-particle interaction (``Landau resonant heating''), the electron velocity distribution function is controllably modified by a standing surface wave excited with a distributed periodic electrode. Simulation results indicate this Landau resonant heating can be used to dramatically enhance important reactions in low-temperature low- pressure plasmas including electron-impact excitation and electron-impact ionization. In conducting this research, an algorithm to effectively eliminate cache thrashing in a particle-in-cell simulation was developed, resulting in a 40 to 70 percent performance gain on typical workstations. The algorithm is

  19. On the self-excitation mechanisms of Plasma Series Resonance oscillations in single- and multi-frequency capacitive discharges

    Schuengel, Edmund; Korolov, Ihor; Derzsi, Aranka; Donko, Zoltan; Schulze, Julian

    2016-01-01

    The self-excitation of plasma series resonance (PSR) oscillations is a prominent feature in the current of low pressure capacitive radio frequency (RF) discharges. This resonance leads to high frequency oscillations of the charge in the sheaths and enhances electron heating. Up to now, the phenomenon has only been observed in asymmetric discharges. There, the nonlinearity in the voltage balance, which is necessary for the self-excitation of resonance oscillations with frequencies above the applied frequencies, is caused predominantly by the quadratic contribution to the charge-voltage relation of the plasma sheaths. Using PIC/MCC simulations of single- and multi- frequency capacitive discharges and an equivalent circuit model, we demonstrate that other mechanisms such as a cubic contribution to the charge-voltage relation of the plasma sheaths and the time dependent bulk electron plasma frequency can cause the self-excitation of PSR oscillations, as well. These mechanisms have been neglected in previous model...

  20. All-dielectric frequency selective surface design based on dielectric resonator

    Zheng-Bin, Wang; Chao, Gao; Bo, Li; Zhi-Hang, Wu; Hua-Mei, Zhang; Ye-Rong, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we propose an all-dielectric frequency selective surface (FSS) composed of periodically placed high-permittivity dielectric resonators and a three-dimensional (3D) printed supporter. Mie resonances in the dielectric resonators offer strong electric and magnetic dipoles, quadrupoles, and higher order terms. The re-radiated electric and magnetic fields by these multipoles interact with the incident fields, which leads to total reflection or total transmission in some special frequency bands. The measured results of the fabricated FSS demonstrate a stopband fractional bandwidth (FBW) of 22.2%, which is consistent with the simulated result. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61201030, 61372045, 61472045, and 61401229), the Science and Technology Project of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BE2015002), the Open Research Program of the State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves, China (Grant Nos. K201616 and K201622), and the Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications Scientific Foundation, China (Grant No. NY214148).

  1. A study of the effect of an external magnetic field on the resonant frequency of magnetic fluids

    Fannin, P. C.; Charles, S. W.; Relihan, T.

    1996-09-01

    The complex magnetic susceptibility, χ( ω) = χ'( ω) - i χ″( ω), of two magnetic fluids has been measured over the frequency range 0.1 to 6 GHz, and ferromagnetic resonance observed, indicated by the real component of the susceptibility going negative at a frequency, fres. In this study the dependence of fres, on the presence of an external magnetic field, H, in the approximate range 0 to 68 KA/m has been examined for colloidal suspensions of magnetite particles and cobalt particles in isopar M. In both cases, plots of this dependence are found to be linear with slopes having values of the magnetogyric ratio, γ, within experimental error. These plots enable the average value of the internal anisotropy field, overlineHA, to be measured, from which mean values of the magnetic anisotropy constant of the particles, overlineK, are derived. The experimental profiles of χ'(ω) and χ″(ω), for the magnetite particle system as a function of H, have been fitted to modified equations of Raikher and Shliomis suitably adapted to include a normal distribution of particle energy barriers, KeffV, to the rotation of the magnetic moments. It is found that KeffV varies linearly with increasing H, whilst the standard deviation of the distribution of KeffV decreases with increase in H. The main contribution to the resonant linewidth, Δω, for the larger values of H, arises from the mean random spacial distribution of HA, and is given by γ overlineHA. This is consistent with the experimental observations.

  2. ARTgrid: A Two-Level Learning Architecture Based on Adaptive Resonance Theory

    Marko Švaco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel neural network architecture based on adaptive resonance theory (ART called ARTgrid that can perform both online and offline clustering of 2D object structures. The main novelty of the proposed architecture is a two-level categorization and search mechanism that can enhance computation speed while maintaining high performance in cases of higher vigilance values. ARTgrid is developed for specific robotic applications for work in unstructured environments with diverse work objects. For that reason simulations are conducted on random generated data which represents actual manipulation objects, that is, their respective 2D structures. ARTgrid verification is done through comparison in clustering speed with the fuzzy ART algorithm and Adaptive Fuzzy Shadow (AFS network. Simulation results show that by applying higher vigilance values (ρ>0.85 clustering performance of ARTgrid is considerably better, while lower vigilance values produce comparable results with the original fuzzy ART algorithm.

  3. Quanty for core level spectroscopy - excitons, resonances and band excitations in time and frequency domain

    Haverkort, Maurits W.

    2016-05-01

    Depending on the material and edge under consideration, core level spectra manifest themselves as local excitons with multiplets, edge singularities, resonances, or the local projected density of states. Both extremes, i.e., local excitons and non-interacting delocalized excitations are theoretically well under control. Describing the intermediate regime, where local many body interactions and band-formation are equally important is a challenge. Here we discuss how Quanty, a versatile quantum many body script language, can be used to calculate a variety of different core level spectroscopy types on solids and molecules, both in the frequency as well as the time domain. The flexible nature of Quanty allows one to choose different approximations for different edges and materials. For example, using a newly developed method merging ideas from density renormalization group and quantum chemistry [1-3], Quanty can calculate excitons, resonances and band-excitations in x-ray absorption, photoemission, x-ray emission, fluorescence yield, non-resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, resonant inelastic x-ray scattering and many more spectroscopy types. Quanty can be obtained from: http://www.quanty.org.

  4. Rectangular split-ring resonators with single-split and two-splits under different excitations at microwave frequencies

    Zahertar, S.; Yalcinkaya, A. D.; Torun, H.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, transmission characteristics of rectangular split-ring resonators with single-split and two-splits are analyzed at microwave frequencies. The resonators are coupled with monopole antennas for excitation. The scattering parameters of the devices are investigated under different polarizations of E and H fields. The magnetic resonances induced by E and H fields are identified and the differences in the behavior of the resonators due to orientations of the fields are explained based on simulation and experimental results. The addition of the second split of the device is investigated considering different configurations of the excitation vectors. It is demonstrated that the single-split and the two-splits resonators exhibit identical transmission characteristics for a certain excitation configuration as verified with simulations and experiments. The presented resonators can effectively function as frequency selective media for varying excitation conditions.

  5. Frequency-Domain Adaptive Algorithm for Network Echo Cancellation in VoIP

    Patrick A. Naylor

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new low complexity, low delay, and fast converging frequency-domain adaptive algorithm for network echo cancellation in VoIP exploiting MMax and sparse partial (SP tap-selection criteria in the frequency domain. We incorporate these tap-selection techniques into the multidelay filtering (MDF algorithm in order to mitigate the delay inherent in frequency-domain algorithms. We illustrate two such approaches and discuss their tradeoff between convergence performance and computational complexity. Simulation results show an improvement in convergence rate for the proposed algorithm over MDF and significantly reduced complexity. The proposed algorithm achieves a convergence performance close to that of the recently proposed, but substantially more complex improved proportionate MDF (IPMDF algorithm.

  6. Frequency-Domain Adaptive Algorithm for Network Echo Cancellation in VoIP

    Doroslovăcki Milŏs

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new low complexity, low delay, and fast converging frequency-domain adaptive algorithm for network echo cancellation in VoIP exploiting MMax and sparse partial (SP tap-selection criteria in the frequency domain. We incorporate these tap-selection techniques into the multidelay filtering (MDF algorithm in order to mitigate the delay inherent in frequency-domain algorithms. We illustrate two such approaches and discuss their tradeoff between convergence performance and computational complexity. Simulation results show an improvement in convergence rate for the proposed algorithm over MDF and significantly reduced complexity. The proposed algorithm achieves a convergence performance close to that of the recently proposed, but substantially more complex improved proportionate MDF (IPMDF algorithm.

  7. Optimization of amplitude-frequency characteristic three elements band-pass filter with dielectric resonator by genetic algorithm

    A. A. Trubin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It’s proposed the program that is searching the coupling coefficients of dielectric resonators answering to the necessary gain-frequency characteristic of band pass microwave filter. The program is based on a genetic algorithm.

  8. Two-dimensional resonance frequency tuning approach for vibration-based energy harvesting

    Dong, Lin; Prasad, M. G.; Fisher, Frank T.

    2016-06-01

    Vibration-based energy harvesting seeks to convert ambient vibrations to electrical energy and is of interest for, among other applications, powering the individual nodes of wireless sensor networks. Generally it is desired to match the resonant frequencies of the device to the ambient vibration source to optimize the energy harvested. This paper presents a two-dimensionally (2D) tunable vibration-based energy harvesting device via the application of magnetic forces in two-dimensional space. These forces are accounted for in the model separately, with the transverse force contributing to the transverse stiffness of the system while the axial force contributes to a change in axial stiffness of the beam. Simulation results from a COMSOL magnetostatic 3D model agree well with the analytical model and are confirmed with a separate experimental study. Furthermore, analysis of the three possible magnetization orientations between the fixed and tuning magnets shows that the transverse parallel magnetization orientation is the most effective with regards to the proposed 2D tuning approach. In all cases the transverse stiffness term is in general significantly larger than the axial stiffness contribution, suggesting that from a tuning perspective it may be possible to use these stiffness contributions for coarse and fine frequency tuning, respectively. This 2D resonant frequency tuning approach extends earlier 1D approaches and may be particularly useful in applications where space constraints impact the available design space of the energy harvester.

  9. Influence of the Basset force on the resonant behavior of an oscillator with fluctuating frequency

    Rekker, A., E-mail: Astrid.Rekker@tlu.ee; Mankin, R., E-mail: Romi.Mankin@tlu.ee [Institute of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Tallinn University, 29 Narva Road, 10120 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2015-10-28

    The influence of hydrodynamic interactions, such as Stokes and Basset forces, on the dynamics of a harmonically trapped Brownian tracer is considered. A generalized Langevin equation is used to describe the tracer’s response to an external periodic force and to dichotomous fluctuations of the stiffness of the trapping potential. Relying on the Shapiro-Loginov formula, exact expressions for the complex susceptibility and for the response function are presented. On the basis of these exact formulas, it is demonstrated that interplay of a multiplicative colored noise and the Basset force induced memory effects can generate a variety of cooperation effects, such as multiresonance versus the driving frequency, as well as stochastic resonance versus noise parameters. In particular, in certain parameter regions the response function exhibits a resonance-like enhancement at intermediate values of the intensity of the Basset force. Conditions for the appearance of these effects are also discussed.

  10. Frequency control of a 1163 nm singly resonant OPO based on MgO:PPLN.

    Gross, P; Lindsay, I D; Lee, C J; Nittmann, M; Bauer, T; Bartschke, J; Warring, U; Fischer, A; Kellerbauer, A; Boller, K-J

    2010-03-15

    We report the realization of a singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SRO) that is designed to provide narrow-bandwidth, continuously tunable radiation at a wavelength of 1163 nm for optical cooling of osmium ions. The SRO is based on periodically poled, magnesium-oxide-doped lithium niobate and pumped at 532 nm. The output coupling of the resonant idler wave is adjusted to yield up to 400 mW of 1163 nm radiation, with a bandwidth of a few megahertz. For continuous frequency tuning of the idler wave, the SRO is equipped with an intracavity etalon, and the cavity length is controlled with a piezo-actuated mirror synchronized to the etalon angle. PMID:20237610

  11. Influence of the Basset force on the resonant behavior of an oscillator with fluctuating frequency

    Rekker, A.; Mankin, R.

    2015-10-01

    The influence of hydrodynamic interactions, such as Stokes and Basset forces, on the dynamics of a harmonically trapped Brownian tracer is considered. A generalized Langevin equation is used to describe the tracer's response to an external periodic force and to dichotomous fluctuations of the stiffness of the trapping potential. Relying on the Shapiro-Loginov formula, exact expressions for the complex susceptibility and for the response function are presented. On the basis of these exact formulas, it is demonstrated that interplay of a multiplicative colored noise and the Basset force induced memory effects can generate a variety of cooperation effects, such as multiresonance versus the driving frequency, as well as stochastic resonance versus noise parameters. In particular, in certain parameter regions the response function exhibits a resonance-like enhancement at intermediate values of the intensity of the Basset force. Conditions for the appearance of these effects are also discussed.

  12. Near- and far-field scattering resonance frequency shift in dielectric and perfect electric conducting cylinders.

    Yuffa, Alex J; Gutierrez, Yael; Sanz, Juan M; Alcaraz de la Osa, Rodrigo; Saiz, José M; González, Francisco; Moreno, Fernando; Videen, Gorden

    2016-03-01

    The ability to infer near-field scattering properties from far-field measurements is of paramount importance in nano-optics. Recently we derived an approximate formula for predicting the frequency shift between near- and far-field intensity peaks in the case of a dielectric sphere. In this work we demonstrate that almost an identical formula can be used to predict the resonance shift of a dielectric cylinder and a perfectly conducting cylinder. We find the redshift of the resonance peak of the perfect electric conducting cylinder to be approximately 2 orders of magnitude greater than for the dielectric cylinder. The errors in our approximate analytic formula for predicting the redshift are approximately only twice as great. Furthermore, we apply the redshift formula to a silicon cylinder and discuss its magneto-dielectric properties, which may be of interest in design of metamaterials. PMID:26974908

  13. Application of the confluent Heun functions to study the physics of black holes: resonant frequencies and scattering of scalar waves

    Vieira, H S

    2016-01-01

    We study the scattering and the resonant frequencies (quasispectrum) of charged massive scalar waves by Kerr-Newman-Kasuya spacetime (dyon black hole). The equations of motion are written into a Heun form, and its analytical solutions are obtained. We obtain the resonant frequencies expression and the general exact regular partial wave solution. The special cases of the Kerr and Schwarzschild black holes are analyzed and the solutions are shown.

  14. Compact infrared continuous-wave double-pass single-frequency doubly-resonant OPO

    Boucon, Anne; Bretenaker, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a compact continuous-wave single-frequency doubly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (DRO) in a double-pass pump configuration with a control of the relative phase between the reflected waves. The nested DRO cavity allows single longitudinal mode operation together with low threshold and high efficiency. Thermal effects are managed by chopping the pump beam, allowing continuous tuning of the emitted wavelength. The infrared idler wave (3200-3800 nm) can be used for gas detection and the threshold pump power is compatible with diode pumping.

  15. Virtual Resonance and Frequency Difference Generation by van der Waals Interaction

    Tetard, L.; Passian, A.; Eslami, S.; Jalili, N.; Farahi, R. H.; Thundat, T.

    2011-05-01

    The ability to explore the interior of materials for the presence of inhomogeneities was recently demonstrated by mode synthesizing atomic force microscopy [L. Tetard, A. Passian, and T. Thundat, Nature Nanotech. 5, 105 (2009).NNAABX1748-338710.1038/nnano.2009.454]. Proposing a semiempirical nonlinear force, we show that difference frequency ω- generation, regarded as the simplest synthesized mode, occurs optimally when the force is tuned to van der Waals form. From a parametric study of the probe-sample excitation, we show that the predicted ω- oscillation agrees well with experiments. We then introduce the concept of virtual resonance to show that probe oscillations at ω- can efficiently be enhanced.

  16. Modeling of Nanophotonic Resonators with the Finite-Difference Frequency-Domain Method

    Ivinskaya, Aliaksandra; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Shyroki, Dzmitry

    2011-01-01

    Finite-difference frequency-domain method with perfectly matched layers and free-space squeezing is applied to model open photonic resonators of arbitrary morphology in three dimensions. Treating each spatial dimension independently, nonuniform mesh of continuously varying density can be built...... easily to better resolve mode features. We explore the convergence of the eigenmode wavelength $lambda $ and quality factor $Q$ of an open dielectric sphere and of a very-high- $Q$ photonic crystal cavity calculated with different mesh density distributions. On a grid having, for example, 10 nodes per...

  17. Analysis of Frequency Spectrum of Laser-Induced Vibration of Microbeam Resonators

    FANG Dai-Ning; SUN Yu-xin; SOH Ai-Kah

    2006-01-01

    The vibration phenomenon during pulsed laser heating of micro-beams is investigated.The beam is made of silicon and js heated by a laser pulse with a non-Gaussian temporal profile and with an ultrashort pulse duration of 2ps.which incites vibration due to the thermoelastic damping effect.This coupled thermoelastic problem is solved using an analytical-numerical technique based on the Laplace transformation.The damping ratio and resonant frequency shift ratio of beams due t0 the air damping effect and the thermoelastic damping ettect are also examined and discusssed.

  18. Application of Inductively Coupled Wireless Radio Frequency Probe to Knee Joint in Magnetic Resonance Image

    Yuki Katayama

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An inductively coupled wireless coil for a radio frequency (RF probe has been designed and applied to a human knee joint to improve the signal to noise ratio (SNR in a magnetic resonance image (MRI. A birdcage type of a primary coil and a Helmholtz type of a wireless secondary coil have been manufactured. The coils were applied to a human knee with a 3 T MRI system. SNR was calculated both in the proton density image and in the T2 weighted image of MRI. The experimental results show that the designed coils are effective to increase SNR in the human knee MRI.

  19. High frequency cascaded resonant transformer rectifier power supply for neutral beam injection

    Neutral beam injection for fusion requires DC megavolt power sources at several amperes. The conventional methods of using series or shunt fed multipliers cannot provide the current while the 60 Hz coupled transformer method is difficult to modularize because of size and stores excessive amounts of energy. A technique which borrows from several technologies has been investigated and shows promise for a satisfactory solution. This technique uses resonant multistage high frequency (100 kHz) series coupled ferrite transformer with rectifiers to produce megavolts at several amperes of current. Modularity, high efficiency and low energy storage are desirable features of this power source

  20. Wavelength-sized GaAs optomechanical resonators with GHz frequency

    Ding, Lu; Senellart, Pascale; Lemaitre, Aristide; Ducci, Sara; Leo, Giuseppe; Favero, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    We report on wavelength-sized GaAs optomechanical disk resonators showing ultra-strong optomechanical interaction. We observe optical transduction of a disk mechanical breathing mode with 1.4 GHz frequency and effective mass of ~ 2 pg. The measured vacuum optomechanical coupling rate reaches 0.8 MHz, with a related differential optomechanical coupling factor of 485 GHz/nm. The disk Brownian motion is optically resolved with a sensitivity of 10-17 m/{\\sqrt}Hz at room temperature and pressure.

  1. High Frequency Soft Switching Of PWM Boost Converter Using Auxiliary Resonant Circuit

    C. P. Sai Kiran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This thesis presents High frequency Soft Switching DC-DC boost Converter. The circuit consists of a general Boost Converter with an additional resonant circuit which has a switch, inductor, capacitor and a diode.In general Boost Converter circuits have snubber circuits where switching losses are dissipated in external passive resistors; which is known as hard switching. As the switching frequency of PWM converters is increased its switching losses and conduction losses also increases. This restricts the use of PWM technique. New Zero Voltage Transition-Zero Current Transition (ZVT-ZCT PWM converter equipped with the snubber provides the most desirable features of both ZVT and ZCT converters presented previously. Moreover all semiconductors devices operate with soft switching and hence losses are reduced.

  2. Spin-torque diode radio-frequency detector with voltage tuned resonance

    Skowroński, Witold, E-mail: skowron@agh.edu.pl; Frankowski, Marek; Stobiecki, Tomasz [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Wrona, Jerzy [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Singulus Technologies, Kahl am Main 63796 (Germany); Ogrodnik, Piotr [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Barnaś, Józef [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland)

    2014-08-18

    We report on a voltage-tunable radio-frequency (RF) detector based on a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ). The spin-torque diode effect is used to excite and/or detect RF oscillations in the magnetic free layer of the MTJ. In order to reduce the overall in-plane magnetic anisotropy of the free layer, we take advantage of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at the interface between ferromagnetic and insulating layers. The applied bias voltage is shown to have a significant influence on the magnetic anisotropy, and thus on the resonance frequency of the device. This influence also depends on the voltage polarity. The obtained results are accounted for in terms of the interplay of spin-transfer-torque and voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy effects.

  3. Interaction between a low-frequency electrostatic mode and resonant magnetic perturbations in MAST

    Robinson, J. R.; Hnat, B.; Dura, P.; Kirk, A.; Tamain, P.; the MAST Team

    2012-10-01

    A strong ≈10 kHz mode is detected in both potential and density fluctuations of the edge plasma of the MAST tokamak using a reciprocating probe. The mode is radially localized, with outer limit ≈2 cm inside the separatrix, and is affected on application of resonant magnetic perturbations generated by external coils. A shift in frequency with plasma rotation is found, and a rapid suppression of the mode is observed when it can couple to the imposed n = 3 magnetic perturbations in the rotating frame. Non-linear coupling to high wave number turbulence is evident, and an increase in power of turbulence fluctuations is seen after suppression. These observations are then interpreted in the context of known low-frequency plasma modes present in the toroidal configuration. A possibility that the observed mode is a geodesic acoustic mode is considered and motivated by observations.

  4. Interaction between a low-frequency electrostatic mode and resonant magnetic perturbations in MAST

    A strong ≈10 kHz mode is detected in both potential and density fluctuations of the edge plasma of the MAST tokamak using a reciprocating probe. The mode is radially localized, with outer limit ≈2 cm inside the separatrix, and is affected on application of resonant magnetic perturbations generated by external coils. A shift in frequency with plasma rotation is found, and a rapid suppression of the mode is observed when it can couple to the imposed n = 3 magnetic perturbations in the rotating frame. Non-linear coupling to high wave number turbulence is evident, and an increase in power of turbulence fluctuations is seen after suppression. These observations are then interpreted in the context of known low-frequency plasma modes present in the toroidal configuration. A possibility that the observed mode is a geodesic acoustic mode is considered and motivated by observations. (paper)

  5. Electrogravitational Resonance of a Gaussian Beam to a High-Frequency Relic Gravitational Wave

    李芳昱; 唐孟希

    2001-01-01

    We consider the resonant response of a Gaussian beam passing through a static magnetic field to a high-frequency relic gravitational wave (GW). It is found that under the synchroresonance condition, the first-order perturbative electromagnetic energy fluxes will contain a "left circular wave" and a "right circular wave" around the symmetrical axis of the Gaussian beam, but the perturbative effects produced by the + and × polarization of the GW have a different physical behaviour. For the high-frequency relic GW with vg = 1010 Hz, h = l0-30, recently expected by the quintessential inflationary models, the corresponding perturbative photon flux passing through the region 10-2 m2 would be expected to be 104 s-1. This is the largest perturbative photon flux we have recently analysed and estimated using the typical laboratory parameters.

  6. Radiation induced frequency and resistance changes in electrolyzed high purity quartz resonators

    Radiation induced frequency and resistance changes in precision 5 MHz AT-cut quartz resonators fabricated from electrolyzed, high purity quarts are described. A description is given of the radiation measurement methods, transient and steady-state data, and the results of thermal modeling. It is concluded that SARP optical and Premium-Q quartz may be pure enough as grown that (1) the usual frequency time dependent recovery characteristic of t/sup -1/2/ is not observed; (2) without electrolysis, the impurity levels are nevertheless high enough to cause a significant decrease in Q for a short time following a pulse of ionizing radiation; (3) electrolysis can further reduce radiation response so that impurity effects are no longer significant; and (4) the transient radiation response in electrolyzed quartz is primarily thermal in nature

  7. Adaptive noise cancelling and time-frequency techniques for rail surface defect detection

    Liang, B.; Iwnicki, S.; Ball, A.; Young, A. E.

    2015-03-01

    Adaptive noise cancelling (ANC) is a technique which is very effective to remove additive noises from the contaminated signals. It has been widely used in the fields of telecommunication, radar and sonar signal processing. However it was seldom used for the surveillance and diagnosis of mechanical systems before late of 1990s. As a promising technique it has gradually been exploited for the purpose of condition monitoring and fault diagnosis. Time-frequency analysis is another useful tool for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis purpose as time-frequency analysis can keep both time and frequency information simultaneously. This paper presents an ANC and time-frequency application for railway wheel flat and rail surface defect detection. The experimental results from a scaled roller test rig show that this approach can significantly reduce unwanted interferences and extract the weak signals from strong background noises. The combination of ANC and time-frequency analysis may provide us one of useful tools for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of railway vehicles.

  8. Bi-resonant structure with piezoelectric PVDF films for energy harvesting from random vibration sources at low frequency

    Liang, Shanshan; Crovetto, Andrea; Peng, Zhuoteng;

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a bi-resonant structure of piezoelectric PVDF films energy harvester (PPEH), which consists of two cantilevers with resonant frequencies of 15 Hz and 22 Hz. With increased acceleration, the vibration amplitudes of the two cantilever-mass structures are increased and collision...... and experiments with piezoelectric elements show that the energy harvesting device with the bi-resonant structure can generate higher power output than that of the sum of the two separate devices from random vibration sources at low frequency, and hence significantly improves the vibration-to- electricity...

  9. Planar Lithographed Superconducting LC Resonators for Frequency-Domain Multiplexed Readout Systems

    Rotermund, K.; Barch, B.; Chapman, S.; Hattori, K.; Lee, A.; Palaio, N.; Shirley, I.; Suzuki, A.; Tran, C.

    2016-03-01

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments are increasing the number of transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers to increase sensitivity. In order to maintain low thermal loading of the sub-Kelvin stage, the frequency-domain multiplexing (FDM) factor has to increase accordingly. FDM is achieved by placing TES bolometers in series with inductor-capacitor (LC) resonators, which select the readout frequency. The multiplexing factor can be raised with a large total readout bandwidth and small frequency spacing between channels. The inductance is kept constant to maintain a uniform readout bandwidth across detectors, while the maximum acceptable value is determined by bolometer stability. Current technology relies on commercially available ceramic chip capacitors. These have high scatter in their capacitance thereby requiring large frequency spacing. Furthermore, they have high equivalent series resistance (ESR) at higher frequencies and are time consuming and tedious to hand assemble via soldering. A solution lies in lithographed, planar spiral inductors (currently in use by some experiments) combined with interdigitated capacitors on a silicon (Si) substrate. To maintain reasonable device dimensions, we have reduced trace and gap widths of the LCs to 4 \\upmu m. We increased the inductance from 16 to 60 \\upmu H to achieve a higher packing density, a requirement for FDM systems with large multiplexing factors. Additionally, the Si substrate yields low ESR values across the entire frequency range and lithography makes mass production of LC pairs possible. We reduced mutual inductance between inductors by placing them in a checkerboard pattern with the capacitors, thereby increasing physical distances between adjacent inductors. We also reduce magnetic coupling of inductors with external sources by evaporating a superconducting ground plane onto the backside of the substrate. We report on the development of lithographed LCs in the 1-5 MHz range for use

  10. Planar Lithographed Superconducting LC Resonators for Frequency-Domain Multiplexed Readout Systems

    Rotermund, K.; Barch, B.; Chapman, S.; Hattori, K.; Lee, A.; Palaio, N.; Shirley, I.; Suzuki, A.; Tran, C.

    2016-07-01

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments are increasing the number of transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers to increase sensitivity. In order to maintain low thermal loading of the sub-Kelvin stage, the frequency-domain multiplexing (FDM) factor has to increase accordingly. FDM is achieved by placing TES bolometers in series with inductor-capacitor (LC) resonators, which select the readout frequency. The multiplexing factor can be raised with a large total readout bandwidth and small frequency spacing between channels. The inductance is kept constant to maintain a uniform readout bandwidth across detectors, while the maximum acceptable value is determined by bolometer stability. Current technology relies on commercially available ceramic chip capacitors. These have high scatter in their capacitance thereby requiring large frequency spacing. Furthermore, they have high equivalent series resistance (ESR) at higher frequencies and are time consuming and tedious to hand assemble via soldering. A solution lies in lithographed, planar spiral inductors (currently in use by some experiments) combined with interdigitated capacitors on a silicon (Si) substrate. To maintain reasonable device dimensions, we have reduced trace and gap widths of the LCs to 4 \\upmu m. We increased the inductance from 16 to 60 \\upmu H to achieve a higher packing density, a requirement for FDM systems with large multiplexing factors. Additionally, the Si substrate yields low ESR values across the entire frequency range and lithography makes mass production of LC pairs possible. We reduced mutual inductance between inductors by placing them in a checkerboard pattern with the capacitors, thereby increasing physical distances between adjacent inductors. We also reduce magnetic coupling of inductors with external sources by evaporating a superconducting ground plane onto the backside of the substrate. We report on the development of lithographed LCs in the 1-5 MHz range for use

  11. Diagnostics of the plasma series resonance effect in radio-frequency discharges

    The intention of the paper is to give an example on how different plasma diagnostics can be combined in a synergistic way in order to investigate new physics. The link between the individual diagnostics has to be provided by theoretical concepts that predict certain relations between the different plasma parameters. The example chosen here is the effect of self-excited plasma series resonances in asymmetric capacitively coupled RF discharges. These resonance oscillations lead to high frequency current oscillations and are caused by a series resonance between the capacitive sheath and the effective inductance of the bulk which results from electron inertia. The non-linearity of the sheath is essential for the self-excitation of these oscillations. Laser spectroscopic electric field measurements, phase and space resolved optical emission spectroscopy, current, voltage, and Langmuir probe measurements are combined. The synergistic effect of these diagnostics in combination with a simple analytical model for the modification of the electron energy distribution function by electron beams yields information on cause and effect of electron heating and a better understanding of these fundamental phenomena

  12. Wireless Displacement Sensing of Micromachined Spiral-Coil Actuator Using Resonant Frequency Tracking

    Mohamed Sultan Mohamed Ali

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a method that enables real-time displacement monitoring and control of micromachined resonant-type actuators using wireless radiofrequency (RF. The method is applied to an out-of-plane, spiral-coil microactuator based on shape-memory-alloy (SMA. The SMA spiral coil forms an inductor-capacitor resonant circuit that is excited using external RF magnetic fields to thermally actuate the coil. The actuation causes a shift in the circuit’s resonance as the coil is displaced vertically, which is wirelessly monitored through an external antenna to track the displacements. Controlled actuation and displacement monitoring using the developed method is demonstrated with the microfabricated device. The device exhibits a frequency sensitivity to displacement of 10 kHz/µm or more for a full out-of-plane travel range of 466 µm and an average actuation velocity of up to 155 µm/s. The method described permits the actuator to have a self-sensing function that is passively operated, thereby eliminating the need for separate sensors and batteries on the device, thus realizing precise control while attaining a high level of miniaturization in the device.

  13. High-Q sapphire-rutile frequency-temperature compensated microwave dielectric resonators.

    Tobar, M E; Krupka, J; Hartnett, J G; Ivanov, E N; Woode, R A

    1998-01-01

    A sapphiro-rutile composite resonator was constructed from a cylindrical sapphire monocrystal with two thin disks of monocrystal rutile held tightly against the ends. Because rutile exhibits low loss and an opposite temperature coefficient of permittivity to sapphire, it is an ideal material for compensating the frequency-temperature dependence of a sapphire resonator. Most of the electromagnetic modes in the composite structure exhibited turning points (or compensation points) in the frequency-temperature characteristic. The temperatures of compensation for the WG quasi TM modes were measured to be below 90 K with Q-factors of the order of a few million depending on the mode. For WG quasi TE modes, the temperatures of compensation were measured to be between 100 to 160 K with Q-factors of the order of a few hundreds of thousands, depending on the mode. The second derivatives of the compensation points were measured to be of the order 0.1 ppm/K(2 ), which agreed well with the predicted values. PMID:18244235

  14. Sub-optical wavelength acoustic wave modulation of integrated photonic resonators at microwave frequencies.

    Tadesse, Semere Ayalew; Li, Mo

    2014-01-01

    Light-sound interactions have long been exploited in various acousto-optic devices based on bulk crystalline materials. Conventionally, these devices operate in megahertz frequency range where the acoustic wavelength is much longer than the optical wavelength and a long interaction length is required to attain significant coupling. With nanoscale transducers, acoustic waves with sub-optical wavelengths can now be excited to induce strong acousto-optic coupling in nanophotonic devices. Here we demonstrate microwave frequency surface acoustic wave transducers co-integrated with nanophotonic resonators on piezoelectric aluminum nitride substrates. Acousto-optic modulation of the resonance modes at above 10 GHz with the acoustic wavelength significantly below the optical wavelength is achieved. The phase and modal matching conditions in this scheme are investigated for efficient modulation. The new acousto-optic platform can lead to novel optical devices based on nonlinear Brillouin processes and provides a direct, wideband link between optical and microwave photons for microwave photonics and quantum optomechanics. PMID:25400144

  15. Resonant acoustic frequencies of a tandem cascade. Part 2. Rotating blade rows

    Woodley, B. M.; Peake, N.

    1999-08-01

    In Part 1 (Woodley & Peake 1999) we described a method for predicting the occurrence of resonant states in a system comprising twin cascades in zero relative motion. We now demonstrate how that work can be extended to account for the case of more practical interest, in which the upstream cascade (rotor) is rotating in the transverse direction relative to the downstream cascade (stator). Time periodicity now forces the temporal frequency of any disturbance to be an integer multiple of the rotor passing frequency in the stator frame, and vice versa, and this leads to the requirement to sum over a discrete set of temporal modes, as well as over the spatial modes already described in Part 1. The mechanisms by which temporal and spatial modes are scattered by the blade rows is made clear by the analytical approach adopted here; the scattering of the incident pressure (and, for the stator, vorticity) fields by each row in its own frame is completed using results similar to those presented in Part 1, and the fields in the two frames then matched across the inter-row gap to provide a single matrix equation. Specimen results for the conditioning of this equation are given, and although it seems more difficult to obtain very strong excitation than it was for zero rotation, the significance of Parker resonance of the stator is again apparent.

  16. Development of a Magnetron Resonance Frequency Auto Tuning System for Medical Xband [9300 MHz] RF Linear Accelerator

    The total components of the accelerator are the magnetron, electron gun, accelerating structure, a set of solenoid magnets, four sets of steering coils, a modulator, and a circulator. One of the accelerator components of the accelerating structure is made of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC), and its volume is changed according to the ambient temperature. As the volume changes, the resonant frequency of the accelerating structure is changed. Accordingly, the resonance frequency is mismatched between the source of the magnetron and the accelerating structure. An automatic frequency tuning system is automatically matched with the resonant frequency of the magnetron and accelerating structure, which allows a high output power and reliable accelerator operation. An automatic frequency tuning system is composed of a step motor control part for correcting the frequency of the source and power measuring parts, i.e., the forward and reflected power between the magnetron and accelerating structure. In this paper, the design, fabrication, and RF power test of the automatic frequency tuning system for the X-band linac are presented. A frequency tuning system was developed to overcome an unstable accelerator operation owing to the frequency mismatch between the magnetron and accelerating structure. The frequency measurement accuracy is 100 kHz and 0.72 degree per pulse

  17. Generation of constant-amplitude radio-frequency sweeps at a tunnel junction for spin resonance STM

    Paul, William; Baumann, Susanne; Lutz, Christopher P.; Heinrich, Andreas J.

    2016-07-01

    We describe the measurement and successful compensation of the radio-frequency transfer function of a scanning tunneling microscope over a wide frequency range (15.5-35.5 GHz) and with high dynamic range (>50 dB). The precise compensation of cabling resonances and attenuations is critical for the production of constant-voltage frequency sweeps for electric-field driven electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments. We also demonstrate that a well-calibrated tunnel junction voltage is necessary to avoid spurious ESR peaks that can arise due to a non-flat transfer function.

  18. Evidence of resonant mode coupling and the relationship between low and high frequencies in a rapidly rotating A star

    Breger, Michel (Hrsg.); Montgomery, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    In the theory of resonant mode coupling, the parent and child modes are directly related in frequency and phase. The oscillations present in the fast rotating Delta Scuti star KIC 8054146 allow us to test the most general and generic aspects of such a theory. The only direct way to separate the parent and coupled (child) modes is to examine the correlations in amplitude variability between the different frequencies. For the dominant family of related frequencies, only a single mode and a trip...

  19. Design of radio frequency pulse waveforms for mitigating signal inhomogeneity in magnetic resonance imaging due to metallic implants

    Woo, Taeseong; Kim, Dongmin; Someya, Takao; Sekino, Masaki

    2015-05-01

    Metallic implants can result in considerable inhomogeneity in the signal intensity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), because the implant generates a shielding effect to the applied radio-frequency (RF) magnetic fields. In this study, we propose an acquisition method to mitigate the signal inhomogeneities using an adaptive RF pulse waveform. The effectiveness of the method was investigated using both numerical simulations and experiments. The RF pulse waveform was calculated based on inverse analyses of the Bloch equation incorporating the measured RF field distribution within the object. A simulation was carried out using a simplified numerical model of RF field inhomogeneity assumed at the center of model. An RF pulse waveform was designed to recover the attenuated signal region in the given model, and we show a significant improvement in the signal homogeneity compared with that obtained using a conventional pulse. We implemented the proposed method on a 7T-MRI system to show the efficacy experimentally. Test samples were fabricated from agarose gel with inserted copper or aluminum implants of different thicknesses. The RF pulse for selective excitation was calculated after mapping the RF field distribution of each imaging object. The acquired images exhibit an improvement in the homogeneity at the region of metallic implants. These results indicate that the proposed method is effective for MRI measurements of objects containing metallic implants.

  20. In vivo assessment of cold adaptation in insect larvae by magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Daniel Mietchen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Temperatures below the freezing point of water and the ensuing ice crystal formation pose serious challenges to cell structure and function. Consequently, species living in seasonally cold environments have evolved a multitude of strategies to reorganize their cellular architecture and metabolism, and the underlying mechanisms are crucial to our understanding of life. In multicellular organisms, and poikilotherm animals in particular, our knowledge about these processes is almost exclusively due to invasive studies, thereby limiting the range of conclusions that can be drawn about intact living systems. METHODOLOGY: Given that non-destructive techniques like (1H Magnetic Resonance (MR imaging and spectroscopy have proven useful for in vivo investigations of a wide range of biological systems, we aimed at evaluating their potential to observe cold adaptations in living insect larvae. Specifically, we chose two cold-hardy insect species that frequently serve as cryobiological model systems--the freeze-avoiding gall moth Epiblema scudderiana and the freeze-tolerant gall fly Eurosta solidaginis. RESULTS: In vivo MR images were acquired from autumn-collected larvae at temperatures between 0 degrees C and about -70 degrees C and at spatial resolutions down to 27 microm. These images revealed three-dimensional (3D larval anatomy at a level of detail currently not in reach of other in vivo techniques. Furthermore, they allowed visualization of the 3D distribution of the remaining liquid water and of the endogenous cryoprotectants at subzero temperatures, and temperature-weighted images of these distributions could be derived. Finally, individual fat body cells and their nuclei could be identified in intact frozen Eurosta larvae. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that high resolution MR techniques provide for interesting methodological options in comparative cryobiological investigations, especially in vivo.

  1. A self-adaptive stochastic resonance system design and study in chaotic interference

    The us of stochastic resonance (SR) can effectively achieve the detection of weak signal in white noise and colored noise. However, SR in chaotic interference is seldom involved. In view of the requirements for the detection of weak signal in the actual project and the relationship between the signal, chaotic interference, and nonlinear system in the bistable system, a self-adaptive SR system based on genetic algorithm is designed in this paper. It regards the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as a fitness function and the system parameters are jointly encoded to gain optimal bistable system parameters, then the input signal is processed in the SR system with the optimal system parameters. Experimental results show that the system can keep the best state of SR under the condition of low input SNR, which ensures the effective detection and process of weak signal in low input SNR. (general)

  2. Ultra-high frequency, high Q/volume micromechanical resonators in a planar AlN phononic crystal

    Ghasemi Baboly, M.; Alaie, S.; Reinke, C. M.; El-Kady, I.; Leseman, Z. C.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the first design and experimental demonstration of an ultrahigh frequency complete phononic crystal (PnC) bandgap aluminum nitride (AlN)/air structure operating in the GHz range. A complete phononic bandgap of this design is used to efficiently and simultaneously confine elastic vibrations in a resonator. The PnC structure is fabricated by etching a square array of air holes in an AlN slab. The fabricated PnC resonator resonates at 1.117 GHz, which corresponds to an out-of-plane mode. The measured bandgap and resonance frequencies are in very good agreement with the eigen-frequency and frequency-domain finite element analyses. As a result, a quality factor/volume of 7.6 × 1017/m3 for the confined resonance mode was obtained that is the largest value reported for this type of PnC resonator to date. These results are an important step forward in achieving possible applications of PnCs for RF communication and signal processing with smaller dimensions.

  3. Environmental-adaptability analysis of an all polarization-maintaining fiber-based optical frequency comb.

    Feng, Ye; Xu, Xin; Hu, Xiaohong; Liu, Yuanshan; Wang, Yishan; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Zhi; Duan, Lina; Zhao, Wei; Cheng, Zhao

    2015-06-29

    We demonstrate an all polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber-based optical frequency comb and provide the detailed environmental stability analysis results. The frequency comb has been built by commercial available PM fiber completely, and its static uncertainty in optical domain is 350 Hz in 1 s when referenced to a low noise oven controlled crystal oscillator. The acoustic resonant frequencies of the system have been measured. It is proved that acoustic-vibration induced phase noise could be eliminated by low pass vibration-isolation structure. Further, the existence of the optimum working temperature is illustrated. At this temperature (289.6 K), the out-loop integrated phase noise of f(r) and the temperature-drift induced instability of f(CEO) reach the lowest level 31.6 μrad and 0 kHz/(mW∙K) respectively. Finally, the system is proved to be stable under different humidity (18% ~80%) by a 240-day-long record of the f(CEO). PMID:26191762

  4. Spin torque resonant vortex core expulsion for an efficient radio-frequency detection scheme

    Cros, V.; Jenkins, A. S.; Lebrun, R.; Bortolotti, P.; Grimaldi, E.; Tsunegi, S.; Kubota, H.; Yakushiji, K.; Fukushima, A.; Yuasa, S.

    It has been proposed by Tulaparkur et al.[1ref] that a high frequency detector based on the so called spin-diode effect in spin transfer oscillators could eventually replace conventional Schottky diodes, due to their nanoscale size, frequency tunability, and large output sensitivity. Although a promising candidate for ICT applications, the output voltage generated from this effect is consistently low. Here we present a scheme for a new type of spintronics-based high frequency detector based on the expulsion of the vortex core of a magnetic tunnel junction. The resonant expulsion of the core leads to a large and sharp change in resistance associated with the difference in magnetoresistance between the vortex ground state and the final C-state, which is predominantly in either the parallel or anti-parallel direction relative to the polariser layer. Interestingly, this reversible effect is independent of the incoming rf current amplitude, offering a compelling perspective for a fast real-time rf threshold detector. REF : EU FP7 Grant (MOSAIC No. ICT-FP7-317950 is acknowledged.

  5. High-resolution magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) with adaptive averaging: diagnostic performance evaluation

    Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of an interactive, adaptively averaged (AA) two-dimensional (2D) magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) technique in patients with suspected biliary disease by comparison to the standard MRC technique. Materials and methods: The AA 2D MRC method registers the images after acquisition, allowing summation of multiple images to improve the signal:noise ratio (SNR) and thereby potentially improve the visualization of bile ducts. One hundred and twenty-eight patients underwent both 2D conventional and AA magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Twenty-seven patients were excluded from the analysis as AA images could not be properly obtained due to technical failures. All examinations were performed using a 1.5 T whole-body MR system and a four-channel torso phased array coil. Images of 101 patients were adaptively averaged using an in-house developed program written in IDL. Two readers qualitatively evaluated the studies in consensus, blinded to acquisition details and without knowledge of clinical information. Results: The AA technique was significantly better than the conventional 2D MRC for the visualization of the second-order branch intrahepatic ducts (p < 00001). Overall, there was no significant difference in the diagnostic confidence between two techniques (p = 0.12). However, the AA technique showed a trend towards more confident diagnosis of biliary strictures (p = 0.055), likely due to better diagnostic confidence in identifying second order branch intrahepatic duct strictures (p = 0.054). Conclusion: Excluding those patients those patients in whom either satisfactory respiratory gating or a suitable kernel placement was not achieved, AA 2D MRC demonstrated a significant improvement in visualization of intrahepatic duct branches compared to standard MRC

  6. IMITATING THE MODEL OF THE FREQUENCY CONVERTER - INDUCTION MOTOR OF A PUMP WATER SYSTEM WITH ADAPTIVE CONTROL ALGORITHM

    Taranov D. M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents main water supply systems and justifies the choice of direct flow of water supply system in the application of regulation of electric drive for pumps, which doesn’t have any tanks to create pressures required for fire-governmental purposes. This avoids interruption in the supply of reserve while water freezing. In the article the substantiation of the necessity of implementation of adaptive algorithm in modern-WIDE frequency converters by a substantiation of the number of stages of ratio control of voltage-frequency mains. It was revealed that the number of degrees of regulation of 10-12 gives optimum. Modern frequency converters allow you to change the regulation law, establishing 3-5 points of regulation. Therefore, the introduction of adaptive algorithm will reduce the power consumption of the electric drive of the pump of the water supply system. The article shows the simulation model of the "the converter frequency-induction motor," plots of the stator current of mains frequency and active power, surface speed and phase current when changing the voltage and frequency of the mains. These dependences confirm to have applicability of adaptive algorithm in the regulation of modern frequency converters with the skalar administration. Simulation model confirms the sub-physical experiments on a real motor and frequency converter with adaptive control algorithm. As a result of the selection of the parameters, we obtain the voltage reduction of the phase current, and reduce electricity consumption by 5-7%

  7. Block Iterative/Adaptive Frequency-Domain Channel Estimation for Cyclic-Prefixed Single-Carrier Broadband Wireless Systems

    Jong-Seob Baek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new block iterative/adaptive frequency-domain channel estimation scheme, in which a channel frequency response (CFR is estimated iteratively by the proposed weighted element-wise block adaptive frequency-domain channel estimation (WEB-CE scheme using the soft information obtained by a soft-input soft-output (SISO decoder. In the WEB-CE, an equalizer coefficient is calculated by minimizing a weighted conditional squared-norm of the a posteriori error vector with respect to its correction term. Simulation results verify the superiority of the WEB-CE in a time-varying typical urban (TU channel.

  8. Characterization of the eigenmode frequency spectrum influenced by the polarization states and light field distribution in a nonplanar ring resonator.

    Li, Dong; Bi, Chao; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-04-20

    We present the evolution of the eigenmode frequency spectrum in a nonplanar ring resonator based on the Jones matrix and the Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction integral. Taking the modes TEM(q+1)01 and TEMq10 with different polarization states as examples, we numerically derive the frequency difference between them versus the folding angles of the resonator by considering the polarization and the light field distribution of the eigenmodes synchronously. It can be found that the extreme values of frequency difference between TEM(q+1)01 and TEMq10 are particularly affected by the polarization states of the eigenmode, and the locations of these consecutive extreme values correspond to the total image rotation angle with values of the integer multiple of 90°. Moreover, the influence of the resonator structure on the frequency difference of eigenmodes with the identical polarization state is also analyzed. The results prove that the frequency difference between the fundamental mode and higher order modes declines with the increase of the spherical mirrors' radius of curvature but increases with the augmentation of the resonator's total length. These interesting findings are important for the mode selection in high-accuracy ring laser gyroscopes with nonplanar structure by modulating the polarization states and the light field distribution of the eigenmodes to control the frequency difference between them. PMID:27140100

  9. Photonic superdiffusive motion in resonance line radiation trapping - partial frequency redistribution effects

    Alves-Pereira, A R; Martinho, J M G; Berberan-Santos, M N

    2007-01-01

    The relation between the jump length probability distribution function and the spectral line profile in resonance atomic radiation trapping is considered for Partial Frequency Redistribution (PFR) between absorbed and reemitted radiation. The single line Opacity Distribution Function [M.N. Berberan-Santos et.al. J.Chem.Phys. 125, 174308 (2006)] is generalized for PFR and used to discuss several possible redistribution mechanisms (pure Doppler broadening, combined natural and Doppler broadening and combined Doppler, natural and collisional broadening). It is shown that there are two coexisting scales with a different behavior: the small scale is controlled by the intricate PFR details while the large scale is essentially given by the atom rest frame redistribution asymptotic. The pure Doppler and combined natural, Doppler and collisional broadening are characterized by both small and large scale superdiffusive Levy flight behaviors while the combined natural and Doppler case has an anomalous small scale behavi...

  10. Measurement of sound velocity made easy using harmonic resonant frequencies with everyday mobile technology

    Hirth, Michael; Kuhn, Jochen; Müller, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Recent articles about smartphone experiments have described their applications as experimental tools in different physical contexts.1-4 They have established that smartphones facilitate experimental setups, thanks to the small size and diverse functions of mobile devices, in comparison to setups with computer-based measurements. In the experiment described in this article, the experimental setup is reduced to a minimum. The objective of the experiment is to determine the speed of sound with a high degree of accuracy using everyday tools. An article published recently proposes a time-of-flight method where sound or acoustic pulses are reflected at the ends of an open tube.5 In contrast, the following experiment idea is based on the harmonic resonant frequencies of such a tube, simultaneously triggered by a noise signal.

  11. Electromagnetic Response of High-Frequency Gravitational Waves by Coupling Open Resonant Cavity

    LI Fang-Yu; CHEN Ying; WANG Ping

    2007-01-01

    We present a new detecting scheme of high-frequency gravitational waves(HFGWs) in the GHz band,the scheme consists of a high-quality-factor open microwave cavity,a static magnetic field passing through the cavity and an electromagnetic (EM)normal mode stored in the cavity.It is found that under the resonant condition firstand second-order perturbation EM effects have almost the same detecting sensitivity to the HFGWs in the GHz band (h~10-26,v~5GHz),but the former contains more information from the HFGWs.We akso provide a very brief review for possible improving way of the sensitivity.This scheme would be Highly complementary to other schemes of detecting the HFGWs.

  12. Simple analytical expression for the peak-frequency shifts of plasmonic resonances for sensing

    Yang, Jianji; Lalanne, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    We derive a closed-form expression that accurately predicts the peak frequency-shift and broadening induced by tiny perturbations of plasmonic nanoresonators without critically relying on repeated electrodynamic simulations of the spectral response of nanoresonator for various locations, sizes or shapes of the perturbing objects. The force of the present approach, in comparison with other approaches of the same kind, is that the derivation is supported by a mathematical formalism based on a rigorous normalization of the resonance modes of nanoresonators consisting of lossy and dispersive materials. Accordingly, accurate predictions are obtained for a large range of nanoparticle shapes and sizes, used in various plasmonic nanosensors, even beyond the quasistatic limit. The expression gives quantitative insight, and combined with an open-source code, provides accurate and fast predictions that are ideally suited for preliminary designs or for interpretation of experimental data. It is also valid for photonic re...

  13. High frequency electro-optic measurement of strained silicon racetrack resonators

    Borghi, Massimo; Mancinelli, Mattia; Merget, Florian; Witzens, Jeremy; Bernard, Martino; Ghulinyan, Mher; Pucker, Georg; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we report on time resolved electro-optic measurements in strained silicon resonators. Strain is induced by applying a mechanical deformation to the device. It is demonstrated that the linear electro-optic effect vanishes when the applied voltage modulation varies much faster than the free carrier lifetime, and that this occurs independently on the level of the applied stress. This demonstrates that, at frequencies which lie below the free carrier recombination rate, the electro-optic modulation is caused by plasma carrier dispersion. After normalizing out free carrier effects, it is found an upper limit of (8 +/- 3) pm/V to the value of the strain induced χ(2)eff, zzz tensor component. This is an order of magnitude lower than the previously reported values for static electro-optic measurements.

  14. Optical sum-frequency generation in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator

    We demonstrate sum-frequency generation between a telecom wavelength and the Rb D2 line, achieved through natural phase matching in a nonlinear whispering gallery mode resonator. Due to the strong optical field confinement and ultra high Q of the cavity, the process saturates already at sub-mW pump peak power, at least two orders of magnitude lower than in existing waveguide-based devices. The experimental data are in agreement with the nonlinear dynamics and phase matching theory based on spherical geometry. Our experimental and theoretical results point toward a new platform for manipulating the color and quantum states of light waves for applications such as atomic memory based quantum networking and logic operations with optical signals. (paper)

  15. Use of a radio-frequency resonance circuit in studies of alkali ionization in flames

    The context of the investigations are outlined with a short review about recent flame studies at Utrecht University and a discussion about discrepancies and agreements in the literature concerning alkali ionization in flames. The measuring technique chosen is described and the general design of the radio-frequency resonance system presented. The optical track measurements and the theoretical calculations of flame rise velocity are dealt with. The collisional ionization rate constants for Na, K and Cs are determined. The collisional-ionization rate constant for lithium is treated separately by reason of the hydroxide formation. Finally a theoretical model for the conducting flame in a weak, alternating electric field is developed. The relation betaeen the admittance and the flame conductivity in first order approximations is derived. (Auth.)

  16. Designing shielded radio-frequency phased-array coils for magnetic resonance imaging

    Xu Wen-Long; Zhang Ju-Cheng; Li Xia; Xu Bing-Qiao; Tao Gui-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,an approach to the design of shielded radio-frequency (RF) phased-array coils for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is proposed.The target field method is used to find current densities distributed on primary and shield coils.The stream function technique is used to discretize current densities and to obtain the winding patterns of the coils.The corresponding highly ill-conditioned integral equation is solved by the Tikhonov regularization with a penalty function related to the minimum curvature.To balance the simplicity and smoothness with the homogeneity of the magnetic field of the coil's winding pattern,the selection of a penalty factor is discussed in detail.

  17. Tuning the resonant frequencies of a drop by a magnetic field

    Jamin, Timothée; Bacri, Jean-Claude; Falcon, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We report an experimental study of a magnetic liquid drop deposited on a superhydrophobic substrate and subjected to vertical vibrations in presence of a static magnetic field. It is well-known that a flattened drop of usual liquid displays oscillating lobes at its periphery when vibrated. By adding ferromagnetic nanoparticles to a water drop and varying the strength of the magnetic field, we are experimentally able to efficiently tune the resonant frequencies of the drop. By using conservation energy arguments, we show that the magnetic field contribution is equivalent to adding an effective negative surface tension to the drop. Our model is found in good agreement with the experiments with no fitting parameter.

  18. Adjustable ferromagnetic resonance frequency in CoO/CoFeB system

    Bonneau-Brault, A.; Dubourg, S.; Thiaville, A.; Rioual, S.; Valente, D.

    2015-01-01

    Static and dynamic properties of (CoO/CoFeB)n multilayers have been investigated. An anisotropy field enhancement was evidenced when the CoO layer was deposited under the CoFeB layer. Tuning the relative CoFeB and CoO layers thicknesses, high ferromagnetic resonance frequencies up to 4 GHz were achieved. The coupling effect between the CoO and CoFeB layers was induced by a dipolar coupling due to the anisotropic roughness topology of the CoO layer. This anisotropic roughness was induced by the deposition geometry and evidenced by atomic force microscopy. The strength of the dipolar interfacial coupling was calculated thanks to Schlömann's model. Multilayer stacks were fabricated and the magnetic properties observed for the trilayers could be maintained.

  19. Adjustable ferromagnetic resonance frequency in CoO/CoFeB system

    Bonneau-Brault, A. [CEA Le Ripault, BP16, 37260 Monts (France); GREMAN, CNRS UMR 7347, University of Tours, 37200 Tours (France); Dubourg, S. [CEA Le Ripault, BP16, 37260 Monts (France); Thiaville, A. [LPS, CNRS UMR 8502, University of Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Rioual, S. [LMB EA4522, University of Brest, 6 av. Le Gorgeu, 29238 Brest Cedex 3 (France); Valente, D. [GREMAN, CNRS UMR 7347, University of Tours, 37200 Tours (France)

    2015-01-21

    Static and dynamic properties of (CoO/CoFeB){sub n} multilayers have been investigated. An anisotropy field enhancement was evidenced when the CoO layer was deposited under the CoFeB layer. Tuning the relative CoFeB and CoO layers thicknesses, high ferromagnetic resonance frequencies up to 4 GHz were achieved. The coupling effect between the CoO and CoFeB layers was induced by a dipolar coupling due to the anisotropic roughness topology of the CoO layer. This anisotropic roughness was induced by the deposition geometry and evidenced by atomic force microscopy. The strength of the dipolar interfacial coupling was calculated thanks to Schlömann's model. Multilayer stacks were fabricated and the magnetic properties observed for the trilayers could be maintained.

  20. Adjustable ferromagnetic resonance frequency in CoO/CoFeB system

    Static and dynamic properties of (CoO/CoFeB)n multilayers have been investigated. An anisotropy field enhancement was evidenced when the CoO layer was deposited under the CoFeB layer. Tuning the relative CoFeB and CoO layers thicknesses, high ferromagnetic resonance frequencies up to 4 GHz were achieved. The coupling effect between the CoO and CoFeB layers was induced by a dipolar coupling due to the anisotropic roughness topology of the CoO layer. This anisotropic roughness was induced by the deposition geometry and evidenced by atomic force microscopy. The strength of the dipolar interfacial coupling was calculated thanks to Schlömann's model. Multilayer stacks were fabricated and the magnetic properties observed for the trilayers could be maintained

  1. Tuning the resonant frequencies of a drop by a magnetic field

    Jamin, Timothée; Djama, Yacine; Bacri, Jean-Claude; Falcon, Eric

    2016-06-01

    We report an experimental study of a magnetic liquid drop deposited on a superhydrophobic substrate and subjected to vertical vibrations in the presence of a static magnetic field. It is well known that a flattened drop of usual liquid displays oscillating lobes at its periphery when vibrated. By adding ferromagnetic nanoparticles to a water drop and varying the strength of the magnetic field, we are experimentally able to efficiently tune the resonant frequencies of the drop. By using conservation energy arguments, we show that the magnetic field contribution is equivalent to adding an effective negative surface tension to the drop. Our model is found to be in good agreement with the experiments with no fitting parameter.

  2. Efficient blue light generation using periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate via resonant frequency doubling

    Khademian, Ali; Jadhav, Shilpa; Shiner, David

    2014-05-01

    Convenient high power blue diode lasers with single frequency operation are still under developments and are not as well developed and cost effective as IR laser sources. Harmonic generation of IR lasers provide a viable alternative source of blue and UV light. Magnesium oxide doped periodically poled Stoichiometric Lithium Tantalate (PPMgO:SLT) has been reported to have the lowest blue, IR and blue induced IR absorption (BLIIRA) among ferroelectric crystals such as Lithium Niobate (PPLN) and Potassium Titanyl Phosphate (PPKTP). All these properties, along with higher thermal conductivity, make this crystal an excellent candidate for efficient blue light generation using second harmonic generation (SHG) in a resonant buildup cavity. Efficient resonant doubling is very sensitive to various cavity and crystal loss mechanisms. Recently we obtained 400 mW of blue light at 486 nm with net conversion efficiency of 77% using a 515 mW fiber grating stabilized IR source. Sources of conversion loss have been identified and evaluated with various methods in our investigation. These include reflection, scattering, absorption, and polarization rotation of IR light in the crystal, as well as mode mismatching and spherical aberration due to focusing lenses. The locking and electronic control functions of the cavity are automated using an internally mounted single chip microcontroller with embedded DSP (digital signal processor). Work is supported by NSF grant.

  3. Localized magnetic fields enhance the field sensitivity of the gyrotropic resonance frequency of a magnetic vortex

    Fried, Jasper P.; Metaxas, Peter J.

    2016-02-01

    We have carried out micromagnetic simulations of the gyrotropic resonance mode of a magnetic vortex in the presence of spatially localized and spatially uniform out-of-plane magnetic fields. We show that the field-induced change in the gyrotropic mode frequency is significantly larger when the field is centrally localized over lengths which are comparable to or a few times larger than the vortex core radius. When aligned with the core magnetization, such fields generate an additional confinement of the core. This confinement increases the vortex stiffness in the small-displacement limit, leading to a resonance shift which is greater than that expected for a uniform out-of-plane field of the same amplitude. Fields generated by uniformly magnetized spherical particles having a fixed separation from the disk are found to generate analogous effects except that there is a maximum in the shift at intermediate particle sizes where field localization and stray field magnitude combine optimally to generate a maximum confinement.

  4. Dynamic nuclear polarization-magnetic resonance imaging at low ESR irradiation frequency for ascorbyl free radicals

    Ito, Shinji; Hyodo, Fuminori

    2016-02-01

    Highly water-soluble ubiquinone-0 (CoQ0) reacts with ascorbate monoanion (Asc) to mediate the production of ascorbyl free radicals (AFR). Using aqueous reaction mixture of CoQ0 and Asc, we obtained positively enhanced dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-magnetic resonance (MR) images of the AFR at low frequency (ranging from 515 to 530 MHz) of electron spin resonance (ESR) irradiation. The shape of the determined DNP spectrum was similar to ESR absorption spectra with doublet spectral peaks. The relative locational relationship of spectral peaks in the DNP spectra between the AFR (520 and 525 MHz), 14N-labeled carbamoyl-PROXYL (14N-CmP) (526.5 MHz), and Oxo63 (522 MHz) was different from that in the X-band ESR spectra, but were similar to that in the 300-MHz ESR spectra. The ratio of DNP enhancement to radical concentration for the AFR was higher than those for 14N-CmP, Oxo63, and flavin semiquinone radicals. The spectroscopic DNP properties observed for the AFR were essentially the same as those for AFR mediated by pyrroloquinoline quinone. Moreover, we made a success of in vivo DNP-MR imaging of the CoQ0-mediated AFR which was administered by the subcutaneous and oral injections as an imaging probe.

  5. A method of calculating total respiratory system compliance from resonant frequency: validity in a rabbit model.

    Schulze, A; Schaller, P; Dinger, J; Winkler, U; Gmyrek, D

    1990-12-01

    Ten anesthetized, tracheotomized, adult rabbits were used to test the validity of a method for calculation of total respiratory system compliance from resonant frequency (Cr). Reference values were obtained during constant flow inflation of the relaxed respiratory system by dividing the volume gain by the related difference in pressure at the airway opening (inflation method compliance, Ci). The animals were connected to a new type of servo-controlled infant ventilator. Besides volume-controlled mechanical ventilation at constant inspiratory flow rate and intermittent mandatory ventilation, there is a negative ventilator resistance mode integrated in this device for resistive unloading (Schulze A, Schaller P, Gehrhardt B, Mädler H-J, Gmyrek D: Pediatr Res 28:79-82, 1990). To measure resonant frequency (fr), the respiratory system was totally unloaded for a short period by a negative ventilator resistance exceeding the combined resistances of the endotracheal tube and airways. This evoked a continuous oscillation at fr. By analogy with electrical circuit theory, Cr was calculated according to C = 1/(4 pi 2.I.fr2) where C is compliance and I is inertance. The inertance of the endotracheal tube is given and that of the bronchial tree was ignored assuming a much greater total cross-sectional area and therefore much lower inertance when compared with the endotracheal tube. Three pairs of Ci - Cr values were obtained from each animal: 1) during intact respiratory muscle activity; 2) after pancuronium relaxation, and 3) after surfactant depletion by saline washout.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2284157

  6. Resonance amplification of left-handed transmission at optical frequencies by stimulated emission of radiation in active metamaterials

    Dong, Zheng-Gao; Liu, Hui; Li, Tao; Zhu, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Shu-Ming; Cao, Jing-Xiao; Zhu, Shi-Ning; Zhang, X.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that left-handed resonance transmission from metallic metamaterial, composed of periodically arranged double rings, can be extended to visible spectrum by introducing an active medium layer as the substrate. The severe ohmic loss inside metals at optical frequencies is compensated by stimulated emission of radiation in this active system. Due to the resonance amplification mechanism of recently proposed lasing spaser, the left-handed transmission band can be restored up to 610 ...

  7. Resonance-enhanced two-photon sum-frequency generation in NiO and KNiF3

    Satoh, Tokuya; Lottermoser, Thomas; Fiebig, Manfred

    2004-10-01

    Resonance-enhanced sum-frequency generation is introduced as a novel tool for investigation of magnetically ordered compounds. A tunable laser at frequency ω1 is used to excite an intermediate electronic transition resonantly while a second laser at frequency ω2 is used to scan the nonlinear spectrum at ω1+ω2. The technique is particularly useful for investigation of centrosymmetric compounds since resonance enhancement at ω1 leads to large nonlinear signals even in the case of weakly allowed nonlinear processes. The technique is demonstrated on antiferromagnetic NiO and KNiF3 and also shown to be useful for investigation of samples with large thickness or absorption.

  8. Resonant frequency of the silicon micro-structure of MEMS vector hydrophone in fluid-structure interaction

    Guojun Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The MEMS vector hydrophone developed by the North University of China has advantages of high Signal to Noise Ratio, ease of array integration, etc. However, the resonance frequency of the MEMS device in the liquid is different from that in the air due to the fluid-structure interaction (FSI. Based on the theory of Fluid-Solid Coupling, a generalized distributed mass attached on the micro-structure has been found, which results in the resonance frequency of the microstructure in the liquid being lower than that in the air. Then, an FSI simulation was conducted by ANSYS software. Finally, the hydrophone was measured by using a shaking table and a vector hydrophone calibration system respectively. Results show that, due to the FSI, the resonance frequency of the MEMS devices of the bionic vector hydrophone in the liquid declines approximately 30% compared to the case in the air.

  9. Extended temporal Lugiato-Lefever equation and the effect of conjugate fields in optical resonator frequency combs

    Loures, Cristian Redondo; Biancalana, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Starting from the infinite-dimensional Ikeda map, we derive an extended temporal Lugiato-Lefever equation that may account for the effects of the conjugate electromagnetic fields (also called `negative frequency fields'). In the presence of nonlinearity in a ring cavity, these fields lead to new forms of modulational instability and resonant radiations. Numerical simulations based on the new extended Lugiato-Lefever model show that the negative-frequency resonant radiations emitted by ultrashort cavity solitons can impact Kerr frequency comb formation in externally pumped temporal optical cavities of small size. Our theory is very general, is not based on the slowly-varying envelope approximation, and the predictions are relevant to all kinds of resonators, such as fiber loops, microrings and microtoroids.

  10. Adaptive grid artifact reduction in the frequency domain with spatial properties for x-ray images

    Kim, Dong Sik; Lee, Sanggyun

    2012-03-01

    By applying band-rejection filters (BRFs) in the frequency domain, we can efficiently reduce the grid artifacts, which are caused by using the antiscatter grid in obtaining x-ray digital images. However, if the frequency component of the grid artifact is relatively close to that of the object, then simply applying a BRF may seriously distort the object and cause the ringing artifacts. Since the ringing artifacts are quite dependent on the shape of the object to be recovered in the spatial domain, the spatial property of the x-ray image should be considered in applying BRFs. In this paper, we propose an adaptive filtering scheme, which can cooperate such different properties in the spatial domain. In the spatial domain, we compare several approaches, such as the mangnitude, edge, and frequency-modulation (FM) model-based algorithms, to detect the ringing artifact or the grid artifact component. In order to perform a robust detection whether the ringing artifact is strong or not, we employ the FM model for the extracted signal, which corresponds to a specific grid artifact. A detection of the position for the ringing artifact is then conducted based on the slope detection algorithm, which is commonly used as an FM discriminator in the communication area. However, the detected position of the ringing artifact is not accurate. Hence, in order to obtain an accurate detection result, we combine the edge-based approach with the FM model approach. Numerical result for real x-ray images shows that applying BRFs in the frequency domain in conjunction with the spatial property of the ringing artifact can successfully remove the grid artifact, distorting the object less.

  11. Low-frequency resonances of the refractive index in weakly ionized plasma with an admixture of dust

    The propagation of low-frequency electromagnetic waves along the magnetic field in weakly ionized plasma with an admixture of dust is studied in the framework of the Hall magnetohydrodynamics. Explicit expressions for the coefficients of magnetic field diffusion in plasma are derived. The resonance of the refractive index is found to occur for either right- or left-hand polarized waves. A quantitative criterion is obtained that allows one to determine the polarization of waves that experience resonance at given plasma parameters. The physical mechanism of the resonance is discussed, and the obtained results are compared with the available literature data

  12. A nonlinear theory of a coherent generation in the resonant tunnel diodes within a broad frequency range

    Numerical solution to the Schroedinger equation with open boundary conditions is found out, which makes it possible to describe coherent generation in resonant-tunneling diodes in a broad interval of frequencies and field amplitudes. Within the linear field area approximation results obtained coincide with a high degree of accuracy with analytical results. The power of generation is calculated as a function of the current and other parameters of the resonant-tunneling diode. It is demonstrated that the high-power generation is possible in the quantum regime at frequencies exceeding the level width, i. e. within the THz range

  13. A Dual-Bridge LLC Resonant Converter with Fixed-Frequency PWM Control for Wide Input Applications

    Xiaofeng, Sun; Li, Xiaohua; Shen, Yanfeng;

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a dual-bridge (DB) LLC resonant converter for wide input applications. The topology is an integration of a half-bridge (HB) LLC circuit and a full-bridge (FB) LLC circuit. The fixed-frequency PWM control is employed and a range of twice the minimum input voltage can be covered....... Compared with the traditional pulse frequency modulation (PFM) controlled HB/FB LLC resonant converter, the voltage gain range is independent of the quality factor and the magnetizing inductor has little influence on the voltage gain, which can simplify the parameter selection process and benefit the...

  14. Bumps, breathers, and waves in a neural network with spike frequency adaptation

    We introduce a continuum model of neural tissue that includes the effects of spike frequency adaptation (SFA). The basic model is an integral equation for synaptic activity that depends upon nonlocal network connectivity, synaptic response, and the firing rate of a single neuron. We consider a phenomenological model of SFA via a simple state-dependent threshold firing rate function. As without SFA, Mexican-hat connectivity allows for the existence of spatially localized states (bumps). Importantly recent Evans function techniques are used to show that bumps may destabilize leading to the emergence of breathers and traveling waves. Moreover, a similar analysis for traveling pulses leads to the conditions necessary to observe a stable traveling breather. Simulations confirm our theoretical predictions and illustrate the rich behavior of this model

  15. CONSTITUTIVE COMPUTATIONAL MODELLING FOUNDATION OF PIEZOELECTRONIC MICROSTRUCTURES AND APPLICATION TO HIGH-FREQUENCY MICROCHIP DSAW RESONATORS

    张武; 唐锦春

    2002-01-01

    This paper establishes a piezoelectric constitutive computational approach based on generalized eigenvalue and multivariable finite element solutions with potential applications to accurate and effective analysis of layered piezoelectric microstructures of arbitrary geometries and different anisotropic materials, to ease the limitation of current computer capacity in analyzing large-scale high-frequency disturbed surface acoustic waves (DSAW) by mounted electrodes in piezoelectric devices such as microchip SAW resonators. A new incompatible generalized hybrid/mixed element GQM5 is also proposed for improving predictions of the piezoelectric surface mount thermal stresses that are shear-dominated. The (generalized) plane strain constitutive model is numerically verified for piezoelectric finite element computation. With the help of computational piezoelectricity (electro-mechanics) for general layered structures with metal electrodes and anisotropic piezoelectric substrates, some new interesting, reliable and fundamental constitutive finite element results are obtained for high-frequency piezoelectric and mechanical SAW propagations and can be used for further applications. The ST-cut FEA results agree quite well with available exact and lab solutions for free surface case.

  16. Effect of non-ideal clamping shape on the resonance frequencies of silicon nanocantilevers

    Guillon, Samuel; Saya, Daisuke; Mazenq, Laurent; Nicu, Liviu [CNRS, LAAS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Perisanu, Sorin; Vincent, Pascal [LPMCN, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS, 43 boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lazarus, Arnaud; Thomas, Olivier, E-mail: sguillon@laas.fr [Structural Mechanics and Coupled Systems Laboratory, Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, 2 rue Conte, 75003 Paris (France)

    2011-06-17

    In this paper, we investigate the effects of non-ideal clamping shapes on the dynamic behavior of silicon nanocantilevers. We fabricated silicon nanocantilevers using silicon on insulator (SOI) wafers by employing stepper ultraviolet (UV) lithography, which permits a resolution of under 100 nm. The nanocantilevers were driven by electrostatic force inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Both lateral and out-of-plane resonance frequencies were visually detected with the SEM. Next, we discuss overhanging of the cantilever support and curvature at the clamping point in the silicon nanocantilevers, which generally arises in the fabrication process. We found that the fundamental out-of-plane frequency of a realistically clamped cantilever is always lower than that for a perfectly clamped cantilever, and depends on the cantilever width and the geometry of the clamping point structure. Using simulation with the finite-elements method, we demonstrate that this discrepancy is attributed to the particular geometry of the clamping point (non-zero joining curvatures and a flexible overhanging) that is obtained in the fabrication process. The influence of the material orthotropy is also investigated and is shown to be negligible.

  17. Control considerations for high frequency, resonant, power processing equipment used in large systems

    Mildice, J. W.; Schreiner, K. E.; Wolff, F.

    1987-01-01

    Addressed is a class of resonant power processing equipment designed to be used in an integrated high frequency (20 KHz domain), utility power system for large, multi-user spacecraft and other aerospace vehicles. It describes a hardware approach, which has been the basis for parametric and physical data used to justify the selection of high frequency ac as the PMAD baseline for the space station. This paper is part of a larger effort undertaken by NASA and General Dynamics to be sure that all potential space station contractors and other aerospace power system designers understand and can comfortably use this technology, which is now widely used in the commercial sector. In this paper, we will examine control requirements, stability, and operational modes; and their hardware impacts from an integrated system point of view. The current space station PMAD system will provide the overall requirements model to develop an understanding of the performance of this type of system with regard to: (1) regulation; (2) power bus stability and voltage control; (3) source impedance; (4) transient response; (5) power factor effects; and (6) limits and overloads.

  18. Frequency and magnetic resonance imaging patterns of tuberculous spondylitis lesions in adults

    To find out the frequency and patterns of various lesions in tuberculous spondylitis in adults on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Radiology Department, Military Hospital (MH) Rawalpindi, from September 2006 to March 2007. Methodology: Patients with features suggestive of tuberculous spondylitis underwent plain T1- weighted and T2 -weighted images and T1-weighted contrast enhanced images in both axial and sagittal sections. The data was analyzed in terms of frequency and patterns of various lesions of tuberculous spondylitis causing abnormal signals in spinal and paraspinal areas. Mean + standard deviation were calculated for numerical data using SPSS version 15. Results: Out of 75 patients, 39 were females. The mean age was 42.4 years. Involvement occurred through SV1 vertebral levels. Most common involvement was seen in the thoracic vertebrae (40%) followed by lumbar vertebrae. The most common MRI feature was abnormal signal intensities appearing hypointense on T1W and hyperintense on T2W sequences with heterogeneous enhancement of the vertebral body in all patients. The characteristic findings of spinal tuberculosis included destruction of two adjacent vertebral bodies and opposing end plates, destruction of intervening disc, and occurrence of paravertebral and epidural abscesses. Conclusion: MR imaging of spinal tuberculosis, characteristically show contiguous involvement of two vertebrae along with the intervening disc, skip lesions, and paraspinal collections and provides critical information about the involvement of spinal cord and the extent of the disease. (author)

  19. Waves on fluid-loaded shells and their resonance frequency spectrum

    Bao, X.L.; Uberall, H.; Raju, P.K.;

    2005-01-01

    Technical requirements for elastic (metal) cylindrical shells include the knowledge of their natural frequency spectrum. These shells may be empty and fluid-immersed, or fluid-filled in an ambient medium of air, or doubly fluid-loaded inside and out. They may support circumferential waves, or axi...... axial direction if the cylindrical shell is terminated at both ends. In this way, we obtain (circumferential and axial wave) eigenfrequency spectra for water filled aluminum and steel shells, and also for brass shells (axial-wave resonances only).......Technical requirements for elastic (metal) cylindrical shells include the knowledge of their natural frequency spectrum. These shells may be empty and fluid-immersed, or fluid-filled in an ambient medium of air, or doubly fluid-loaded inside and out. They may support circumferential waves, or...... axially propagating waves both in the shell material, and in the fluid loading. Previous results by Bao et al. (J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105 (1999) 2704) were obtained for the circumferential-wave dispersion curves on doubly loaded aluminum shells; the present study extends this to fluid-filled shells in air...

  20. On-chip multi spectral frequency standard replication by stabilizing a microring resonator to a molecular line

    Zektzer, Roy; Stern, Liron; Mazurski, Noa; Levy, Uriel

    2016-07-01

    Stabilized laser lines are highly desired for myriad of applications ranging from precise measurements to optical communications. While stabilization can be obtained by using molecular or atomic absorption references, these are limited to specific frequencies. On the other hand, resonators can be used as wide band frequency references. Unfortunately, such resonators are unstable and inaccurate. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a chip-scale multispectral frequency standard replication operating in the spectral range of the near IR. This is obtained by frequency locking a microring resonator (MRR) to an acetylene absorption line. The MRR consists of a Si3N4 waveguides with microheater on top of it. The thermo-optic effect is utilized to lock one of the MRR resonances to an acetylene line. This locked MRR is then used to stabilize other laser sources at 980 nm and 1550 nm wavelength. By beating the stabilized laser to another stabilized laser, we obtained frequency instability floor of 4 ×10-9 at around 100 s in terms of Allan deviation. Such stable and accurate chip scale sources are expected to serve as important building block in diverse fields such as communication and metrology.

  1. Interference Excision in Spread Spectrum Communications Using Adaptive Positive Time-Frequency Analysis

    Krishnan Sridhar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel algorithm to excise single and multicomponent chirp-like interferences in direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS communications. The excision algorithm consists of two stages: adaptive signal decomposition stage and directional element detection stage based on the Hough-Radon transform (HRT. Initially, the received spread spectrum signal is decomposed into its time-frequency (TF functions using an adaptive signal decomposition algorithm, and the resulting TF functions are mapped onto the TF plane. We then use a line detection algorithm based on the HRT that operates on the image of the TF plane and detects energy varying directional elements that satisfy a parametric constraint. Interference is modeled by reconstructing the corresponding TF functions detected by the HRT, and subtracted from the received signal. The proposed technique has two main advantages: (i it localizes the interferences on the TF plane with no cross-terms, thus facilitating simple filtering techniques based on thresholding of the TF functions, and is an efficient way to excise the interference; (ii it can be used for the detection of any directional interferences that can be parameterized. Simulation results with synthetic models have shown successful performance with linear and quadratic chirp interferences for single and multicomponent interference cases. The proposed method excises the interference even under very low SNR conditions of  dB, and the technique could be easily extended to any interferences that could be represented by a parametric equation in the TF plane.

  2. On the role of electron energy distribution function in double frequency heating of electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasmas.

    Schachter, L; Stiebing, K E; Dobrescu, S

    2014-02-01

    Double frequency heating (DFH) is a tool to improve the output of highly charged ions particularly from modern electron cyclotron resonance ion source installations with very high RF-frequencies. In order to gain information on the DFH-mechanism and on the role of the lower injected frequency we have carried out a series of dedicated experiments where we have put emphasis on the creation of a discrete resonance surface also for this lower frequency. Our well-established method of inserting an emissive MD (metal-dielectric) liner into the plasma chamber of the source is used in these experiments as a tool of investigation. In this way, the electron temperature and density for both ECR zones is increased in a controlled manner, allowing conclusions on the role of the change of the electron-energy-distribution function with and without DFH. PMID:24593498

  3. Third-order effects in resonant sum-frequency-generation signals at electrified metal/liquid interfaces

    Koelsch, Patrick; Muglali, Mutlu; Rohwerder, Michael; Erbe, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Vibrational sum-frequency-generation (SFG) spectroscopy experiments at electrified interfaces involve incident laser radiation at frequencies in the IR and near-IR/visible regions as well as a static electric field on the surface. Here we show that mixing the three fields present on the surface can result in third-order effects in resonant SFG signals. This was achieved for closed packed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with molecular groups of high optical nonlinearity and surface potentials...

  4. Temperature Frequency Characteristics of Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) Polymer Coated Rayleigh Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Resonators for Gas-Phase Sensor Applications

    Radeva, Ekaterina I.; Esmeryan, Karekin D.; Ivan D. Avramov

    2012-01-01

    Temperature induced frequency shifts may compromise the sensor response of polymer coated acoustic wave gas-phase sensors operating in environments of variable temperature. To correct the sensor data with the temperature response of the sensor the latter must be known. This study presents and discusses temperature frequency characteristics (TFCs) of solid hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) polymer coated sensor resonators using the Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (RSAW) mode on ST-cut quartz. Using ...

  5. Observation of millimeter-wave oscillations from resonant tunneling diodes and some theoretical considerations of ultimate frequency limits

    Sollner, T. C. L. G.; Brown, E. R.; Goodhue, W. D.; Le, H. Q.

    1987-01-01

    Recent observations of oscillation frequencies up to 56 GHz in resonant tunneling structures are discussed in relation to calculations by several authors of the ultimate frequency limits of these devices. It is found that calculations relying on the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation give limits well below the observed oscillation frequencies. Two other techniques for calculating the upper frequency limit were found to give more reasonable results. One method employs the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation obtained by Kundrotas and Dargys (1986); the other uses the energy width of the transmission function for electrons through the double-barrier structure. This last technique is believed to be the most accurate since it is based on general results for the lifetime of any resonant state. It gives frequency limits on the order of 1 THz for two recently fabricated structures. It appears that the primary limitation of the oscillation frequency for double-barrier resonant-tunneling diodes is imposed by intrinsic device circuit parameters and by the transit time of the depletion layer rather than by time delays encountered in the double-barrier region.

  6. Split Hopkinson Resonant Bar Test for Sonic-Frequency Acoustic Velocity and Attenuation Measurements of Small, Isotropic Geologic Samples

    Nakagawa, S.

    2011-04-01

    Mechanical properties (seismic velocities and attenuation) of geological materials are often frequency dependent, which necessitates measurements of the properties at frequencies relevant to a problem at hand. Conventional acoustic resonant bar tests allow measuring seismic properties of rocks and sediments at sonic frequencies (several kilohertz) that are close to the frequencies employed for geophysical exploration of oil and gas resources. However, the tests require a long, slender sample, which is often difficult to obtain from the deep subsurface or from weak and fractured geological formations. In this paper, an alternative measurement technique to conventional resonant bar tests is presented. This technique uses only a small, jacketed rock or sediment core sample mediating a pair of long, metal extension bars with attached seismic source and receiver - the same geometry as the split Hopkinson pressure bar test for large-strain, dynamic impact experiments. Because of the length and mass added to the sample, the resonance frequency of the entire system can be lowered significantly, compared to the sample alone. The experiment can be conducted under elevated confining pressures up to tens of MPa and temperatures above 100 C, and concurrently with x-ray CT imaging. The described Split Hopkinson Resonant Bar (SHRB) test is applied in two steps. First, extension and torsion-mode resonance frequencies and attenuation of the entire system are measured. Next, numerical inversions for the complex Young's and shear moduli of the sample are performed. One particularly important step is the correction of the inverted Young's moduli for the effect of sample-rod interfaces. Examples of the application are given for homogeneous, isotropic polymer samples and a natural rock sample.

  7. Dual-resonant polarization-independent and wide-angle metamaterial absorber in X-band frequency

    Ayop, Osman; Rahim, Mohamad Kamal A.; Murad, Noor Asniza; Samsuri, Noor Asmawati

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the analysis of dual-resonant polarization-independent metamaterial absorber with wide operating angle in X-band frequency. Two circular rings with different radius are used as resonating elements. The resonating elements which are made by copper are printed on two surfaces (top and bottom) of dual-layer FR4 substrate. At the middle layer, a full copper layer is placed. The performance of dual-resonant circular ring metamaterial absorber is observed using CST software. From simulated result, the proposed structure achieves high absorbance, which is 96.41 and 93.61 % at 9 and 11 GHz, respectively, for normal incident wave. For measurement, the resonant frequencies are found at 9.39 and 11.63 GHz with absorbance of 99.07 and 83.70 %, respectively. Then, the structure is also simulated for oblique incident angles. It is observed that the operating angle of the proposed metamaterial absorber is 70° for TE modes and 67° for TM modes. Measurement for oblique incident angle is done to validate the simulated result. Mutual agreement is achieved between simulated and measured result with slight frequency shift and ripples.

  8. Green, red and IR frequency comb line generation from single IR pump in AlN microring resonator

    Jung, Hojoong; Guo, Xiang; Fischer, Debra; Tang, Hong X

    2014-01-01

    On-chip frequency comb generations enable compact broadband sources for spectroscopic sensing and precision spectroscopy. Recent microcomb studies focus on infrared spectral regime and have difficulty in accessing visible regime. Here, we demonstrate comb-like visible frequency line generation through second, third harmonic, and sum frequency conversion of a Kerr comb within a high Q aluminum nitride microring resonator pumped by a single telecom laser. The strong power enhancement, in conjunction with the unique combination of Pockels and Kerr optical nonlinearity of aluminum nitride, leads to cascaded frequency conversions in the visible spectrum. High-resolution spectroscopic study of the visible frequency lines indicates matched free spectrum range over all the bands. This frequency doubling and tripling effect in a single microcomb structure offers great potential for comb spectroscopy and self-referencing comb.

  9. Use of spin labels to study membrane proteins by high-frequency electron nuclear double resonance spectroscopy

    Orlinkskii, S.B.; Borovykh, I.V.; Zielke, V.; Steinhoff, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    The applicability of spin labels to study membrane proteins by high-frequency electron nuclear double resonance spectroscopy is demonstrated. With the use of bacteriorhodopsin embedded in a lipid membrane as an example, the spectra of protons of neighboring amino acids are recorded, electric field g

  10. Phoneme restoration and empirical coverage of Interactive Activation and Adaptive Resonance models of human speech processing.

    Grossberg, Stephen; Kazerounian, Sohrob

    2016-08-01

    Magnuson [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137, 1481-1492 (2015)] makes claims for Interactive Activation (IA) models and against Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) models of speech perception. Magnuson also presents simulations that claim to show that the TRACE model can simulate phonemic restoration, which was an explanatory target of the cARTWORD ART model. The theoretical analysis and review herein show that these claims are incorrect. More generally, the TRACE and cARTWORD models illustrate two diametrically opposed types of neural models of speech and language. The TRACE model embodies core assumptions with no analog in known brain processes. The cARTWORD model defines a hierarchy of cortical processing regions whose networks embody cells in laminar cortical circuits as part of the paradigm of laminar computing. cARTWORD further develops ART speech and language models that were introduced in the 1970s. It builds upon Item-Order-Rank working memories, which activate learned list chunks that unitize sequences to represent phonemes, syllables, and words. Psychophysical and neurophysiological data support Item-Order-Rank mechanisms and contradict TRACE representations of time, temporal order, silence, and top-down processing that exhibit many anomalous properties, including hallucinations of non-occurring future phonemes. Computer simulations of the TRACE model are presented that demonstrate these failures. PMID:27586743

  11. Frequency of referral of patients with safety-related contraindications to magnetic resonance imaging

    Purpose: To analyse the frequency of patients with absolute and relative contraindications to magnetic resonance (MR) imaging who were actually referred to an outpatient imaging centre for an MR examination Materials and methods: Altogether a total of 51,547 consecutive patients were included between November 1997 and December 2005. Reasons preventing MR imaging were classified into the following categories: absolute and relative contraindications. Results: The referral frequency of patients with absolute contraindications to MR imaging was 0.41% (211 of 51,547 patients; 95% CI, 0.36-0.47%). The absolute contraindications were shrapnels located in biologically sensitive areas (121 patients, 0.23%; 95% CI, 0.20-0.28%), cardiac pacemakers (42 patients, 0.08%; 95% CI, 0.06-0.11%), and other unsafe implants (48 patients, 0.09%; 95% CI, 0.07-0.12%). Also patients with a relative contraindication to MR imaging were referred such as women with a first-trimester pregnancy (13 patients, 0.03%; 95% CI, 0.01-0.04%). Conclusion: Surprisingly, a considerable number of patients (0.41%) with cardiac pacemakers, other metallic implants (not approved for MR), or shrapnels are referred to MR facilities despite the well-known recommendations not to examine such patients. Thus, absolute contraindications to MR imaging are commonly found among patients referred for MR examinations and every effort needs to be made to screen patients prior to MR imaging for such contraindications to avoid detrimental results. Also, institutions placing implants (approved and unapproved for MR) should become legally responsible for providing the required information to the patients and their physicians

  12. Formation mechanism of the low-frequency locally resonant band gap in the two-dimensional ternary phononic crystals

    Wang Gang; Liu Yao-Zong; Wen Ji-Hong; Yu Dian-Long

    2006-01-01

    The low-frequency band gap and the corresponding vibration modes in two-dimensional ternary locally resonant phononic crystals are restudied successfully with the lumped-mass method. Compared with the work of C. Goffaux and J. Sanchez-Dehesa (Phys. Rev. B 67 14 4301(2003)), it is shown that there exists an error of about 50% in their calculated results of the band structure, and one band is missing in their results. Moreover, the in-plane modes shown in their paper are improper, which results in the wrong conclusion on the mechanism of the ternary locally resonant phononic crystals. Based on the lumped-mass method and better description of the vibration modes according to the band gaps, the locally resonant mechanism in forming the subfrequency gaps is thoroughly analysed. The rule used to judge whether a resonant mode in the phononic crystals can result in a corresponding subfrequency gap is also verified in this ternary case.

  13. On adaptive frequency hopping to combat coexistence interference between bluetooth and IEEE 802.11b with practical resource constraints

    Chek, MCH; Kwok, YK

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to traditional frequency hopping techniques, Adaptive Frequency Hopping (AFH) is a low cost and low power solution to avoid interference dynamically. While each AFH algorithm proposed previously is shown to be efficient, a detailed performance analysis of various AFH mechanisms under realistic resource constraints is yet to be done. In particular, based on our performance study on Bluetooth systems presented in this paper, we have found that the AFH mechanism adopted by IEEE 802.1...

  14. Frequency-adaptive grid-virtual-flux synchronization by multiple second-order generalized integrators under distorted grid conditions

    Yingjie WANG; Liu, Haiyuan; HAN, XUELONG; Wang, Kangan

    2015-01-01

    With some of the intermittent new energy and large nonlinear loads, grid voltage unbalance, harmonics, and frequency deviation are increasing year by year. The voltage source converter (VSC) is seriously affected by the various unexpected factors, and the presence of grid impedance makes the situation worse. In order to make the VSC track the nonideal grid quickly and accurately, this paper proposes a frequency-adaptive grid-virtual-flux synchronization by multiple second-order generalized in...

  15. Effects of core position of locally resonant scatterers on low-frequency acoustic absorption in viscoelastic panel

    Zhong, Jie; Wen, Ji-Hong; Zhao, Hong-Gang; Yin, Jian-Fei; Yang, Hai-Bin

    2015-08-01

    Locally resonant sonic materials, due to their ability to control the propagation of low-frequency elastic waves, have become a promising option for underwater sound absorption materials. In this paper, the finite element method is used to investigate the absorption characteristics of a viscoelastic panel periodically embedded with a type of infinite-long non-coaxially cylindrical locally resonant scatterers (LRSs). The effect of the core position in the coating layer of the LRS on the low-frequency (500 Hz-3000 Hz) sound absorption property is investigated. With increasing the longitudinal core eccentricity e, there occur few changes in the absorptance at the frequencies below 1500 Hz, however, the absorptance above 1500 Hz becomes gradually better and the valid absorption (with absorptance above 0.8) frequency band (VAFB) of the viscoelastic panel becomes accordingly broader. The absorption mechanism is revealed by using the displacement field maps of the viscoelastic panel and the steel slab. The results show two typical resonance modes. One is the overall resonance mode (ORM) caused by steel backing, and the other is the core resonance mode (CRM) caused by LRS. The absorptance of the viscoelastic panel by ORM is induced mainly by the vibration of the steel slab and affected little by core position. On the contrary, with increasing the core eccentricity, the CRM shifts toward high frequency band and decouples with the ORM, leading to two separate absorption peaks and the broadened VAFB of the panel. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51275519).

  16. Interference Excision in Spread Spectrum Communications Using Adaptive Positive Time-Frequency Analysis

    Sridhar Krishnan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel algorithm to excise single and multicomponent chirp-like interferences in direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS communications. The excision algorithm consists of two stages: adaptive signal decomposition stage and directional element detection stage based on the Hough-Radon transform (HRT. Initially, the received spread spectrum signal is decomposed into its time-frequency (TF functions using an adaptive signal decomposition algorithm, and the resulting TF functions are mapped onto the TF plane. We then use a line detection algorithm based on the HRT that operates on the image of the TF plane and detects energy varying directional elements that satisfy a parametric constraint. Interference is modeled by reconstructing the corresponding TF functions detected by the HRT, and subtracted from the received signal. The proposed technique has two main advantages: (i it localizes the interferences on the TF plane with no cross-terms, thus facilitating simple filtering techniques based on thresholding of the TF functions, and is an efficient way to excise the interference; (ii it can be used for the detection of any directional interferences that can be parameterized. Simulation results with synthetic models have shown successful performance with linear and quadratic chirp interferences for single and multicomponent interference cases. The proposed method excises the interference even under very low SNR conditions of −10 dB, and the technique could be easily extended to any interferences that could be represented by a parametric equation in the TF plane.

  17. A Novel Micro- and Nano-Scale Positioning Sensor Based on Radio Frequency Resonant Cavities

    Estibaliz Asua

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In many micro- and nano-scale technological applications high sensitivity displacement sensors are needed, especially in ultraprecision metrology and manufacturing. In this work a new way of sensing displacement based on radio frequency resonant cavities is presented and experimentally demonstrated using a first laboratory prototype. The principle of operation of the new transducer is summarized and tested. Furthermore, an electronic interface that can be used together with the displacement transducer is designed and proved. It has been experimentally demonstrated that very high and linear sensitivity characteristic curves, in the range of some kHz/nm; are easily obtainable using this kind of transducer when it is combined with a laboratory network analyzer. In order to replace a network analyzer and provide a more affordable, self-contained, compact solution, an electronic interface has been designed, preserving as much as possible the excellent performance of the transducer, and turning it into a true standalone positioning sensor. The results obtained using the transducer together with a first prototype of the electronic interface built with cheap discrete elements show that positioning accuracies in the micrometer range are obtainable using this cost-effective solution. Better accuracies would also be attainable but using more involved and costly electronics interfaces.

  18. Safety and reliability of Radio Frequency Identification Devices in Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography

    Fretz Christian

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radio Frequency Identification (RFID devices are becoming more and more essential for patient safety in hospitals. The purpose of this study was to determine patient safety, data reliability and signal loss wearing on skin RFID devices during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and computed tomography (CT scanning. Methods Sixty RFID tags of the type I-Code SLI, 13.56 MHz, ISO 18000-3.1 were tested: Thirty type 1, an RFID tag with a 76 × 45 mm aluminum-etched antenna and 30 type 2, a tag with a 31 × 14 mm copper-etched antenna. The signal loss, material movement and heat tests were performed in a 1.5 T and a 3 T MR system. For data integrity, the tags were tested additionally during CT scanning. Standardized function tests were performed with all transponders before and after all imaging studies. Results There was no memory loss or data alteration in the RFID tags after MRI and CT scanning. Concerning heating (a maximum of 3.6°C and device movement (below 1 N/kg no relevant influence was found. Concerning signal loss (artifacts 2 - 4 mm, interpretability of MR images was impaired when superficial structures such as skin, subcutaneous tissues or tendons were assessed. Conclusions Patients wearing RFID wristbands are safe in 1.5 T and 3 T MR scanners using normal operation mode for RF-field. The findings are specific to the RFID tags that underwent testing.

  19. Error analysis for intrinsic quality factor measurement in superconducting radio frequency resonators

    Melnychuk, O.; Grassellino, A.; Romanenko, A.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss error analysis for intrinsic quality factor (Q0) and accelerating gradient (Eacc) measurements in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) resonators. The analysis is applicable for cavity performance tests that are routinely performed at SRF facilities worldwide. We review the sources of uncertainties along with the assumptions on their correlations and present uncertainty calculations with a more complete procedure for treatment of correlations than in previous publications [T. Powers, in Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on RF Superconductivity, SuP02 (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 24-27]. Applying this approach to cavity data collected at Vertical Test Stand facility at Fermilab, we estimated total uncertainty for both Q0 and Eacc to be at the level of approximately 4% for input coupler coupling parameter β1 in the [0.5, 2.5] range. Above 2.5 (below 0.5) Q0 uncertainty increases (decreases) with β1 whereas Eacc uncertainty, in contrast with results in Powers [in Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on RF Superconductivity, SuP02 (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 24-27], is independent of β1. Overall, our estimated Q0 uncertainty is approximately half as large as that in Powers [in Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on RF Superconductivity, SuP02 (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 24-27].

  20. High-frequency electro-optic measurement of strained silicon racetrack resonators.

    Borghi, M; Mancinelli, M; Merget, F; Witzens, J; Bernard, M; Ghulinyan, M; Pucker, G; Pavesi, L

    2015-11-15

    The observation of the electro-optic effect in strained silicon waveguides has been considered a direct manifestation of an induced χ(2) nonlinearity in the material. In this work, we perform high-frequency measurements on strained silicon racetrack resonators. Strain is controlled by a mechanical deformation of the waveguide. It is shown that any optical modulation vanishes, independent of the applied strain, when the applied voltage varies much faster than the carrier effective lifetime and that the DC modulation is also largely independent of the applied strain. This demonstrates that plasma carrier dispersion is responsible for the observed electro-optic effect. After normalizing out free-carrier effects, our results set an upper limit of (8±3) pm/V to the induced high-speed effective χeff,zzz(2) tensor element at an applied stress of -0.5 GPa. This upper limit is about 1 order of magnitude lower than previously reported values for static electro-optic measurements. PMID:26565856

  1. Neutron intensity modulation and time-focusing with integrated Larmor and resonant frequency techniques

    Zhao, Jinkui; Hamilton, William A.; Lee, Sung-Woo; Robertson, J. L.; Crow, Lowell; Kang, Yoon W.

    2015-09-01

    The analysis of neutron diffraction experiments often assumes that neutrons are elastically scattered from the sample. However, there is growing evidence that a significant fraction of the detected neutrons is in fact inelastically scattered, especially from soft materials and aqueous samples. Ignoring these inelastic contributions gives rise to inaccurate experimental results. To date, there has been no simple method with broad applicability for inelastic signal separation in neutron diffraction experiments. Here, we present a simple and robust method that we believe could be suited for this purpose. We use two radio frequency resonant spin flippers integrated with a Larmor precession field to modulate the neutron intensity and to encode the inelastic scattering information into the neutron data. All three components contribute to the spin encoding. The Larmor field serves several additional purposes. Its usage facilitates neutron time-focusing, eliminates the need for stringent magnetic shielding, and allows for compact setups. The scheme is robust, simple, and flexible. We believe that, with further improvements, it has the potential of adding inelastic signal discrimination capabilities to many existing diffraction instruments in the future.

  2. High frequency electro-optic measurement of strained silicon racetrack resonators

    Borghi, M; Merget, F; Witzens, J; Bernard, M; Ghulinyan, M; Pucker, G; Pavesi, L

    2015-01-01

    The observation of the electro-optic effect in strained silicon waveguides has been considered as a direct manifestation of an induced $\\chi^{(2)}$ non-linearity in the material. In this work, we perform high frequency measurements on strained silicon racetrack resonators. Strain is controlled by a mechanical deformation of the waveguide. It is shown that any optical modulation vanishes independently of the applied strain when the applied voltage varies much faster than the carrier effective lifetime, and that the DC modulation is also largely independent of the applied strain. This demonstrates that plasma carrier dispersion is responsible for the observed electro-optic effect. After normalizing out free carrier effects, our results set an upper limit of $8\\,pm/V$ to the induced high-speed $\\chi^{(2)}_{eff,zzz}$ tensor element at an applied stress of $-0.5\\,GPa$. This upper limit is about one order of magnitude lower than the previously reported values for static electro-optic measurements.

  3. Test particle simulations of resonant interactions between energetic electrons and discrete, multi-frequency artificial whistler waves in the plasmasphere

    Modulated high frequency (HF) heating of the ionosphere provides a feasible means of artificially generating extremely low frequency (ELF)/very low frequency (VLF) whistler waves, which can leak into the inner magnetosphere and contribute to resonant interactions with high energy electrons. Combining the ray tracing method and test particle simulations, we evaluate the effects of energetic electron resonant scattering driven by the discrete, multi-frequency artificially generated ELF/VLF waves. The simulation results indicate a stochastic behavior of electrons and a linear profile of pitch angle and kinetic energy variations averaged over all test electrons. These features are similar to those associated with single-frequency waves. The computed local diffusion coefficients show that, although the momentum diffusion of relativistic electrons due to artificial ELF/VLF whistlers with a nominal amplitude of ∼ 1 pT is minor, the pitch angle scattering can be notably efficient at low pitch angles near the loss cone, which supports the feasibility of artificial triggering of multi-frequency ELF/VLF whistler waves for the removal of high energy electrons from the magnetosphere. We also investigate the dependences of diffusion coefficients on the frequency interval (Δf) of the discrete, multi-frequency waves. We find that there is a threshold value of Δf for which the net diffusion coefficient of multi-frequency whistlers is inversely proportional to Δf (proportional to the frequency components Nw) when Δf is below the threshold value but it remains unchanged with increasing Δf when Δf is larger than the threshold value. This is explained as being due to the fact that the resonant scattering effect of broadband waves is the sum of the effects of each frequency in the ‘effective frequency band’. Our results suggest that the modulation frequency of HF heating of the ionosphere can be appropriately selected with reasonable frequency intervals so that better

  4. Investigation of anti-Stokes Raman processes at phonon-polariton resonance: from Raman oscillation, frequency upconversion to Raman amplification.

    Ding, Yujie J

    2015-03-01

    Raman oscillation, frequency upconversion, and Raman amplification can be achieved in a second-order nonlinear medium at the phonon-polariton resonance. By beating two optical fields, a second-order nonlinear polarization is generated inside the medium. Such a polarization induces a spatially uniform nonpropagating electric field at the beat frequency, which in turn mixes with the input optical field at the lower frequency to generate or amplify the anti-Stokes optical field. Raman oscillation can be efficiently reached for the copropagating configuration. In comparison, efficient frequency upconversion and large amplifications are achievable for the counterpropagating configuration. These Raman processes can be used to effectively remove transverse-optical phonons before decaying to lower-frequency phonons, achieve laser cooling, and significantly enhance coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering. The counterpropagating configuration offers advantages for amplifying extremely weak signals. PMID:25723418

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar spine disc diseases. Frequency of false negatives; Imagerie par resonance magnetique pour pathologie discale lombaire. Frequence des faux-negatifs

    Berthelot, J.M.; Maugars, Y.; Delecrin, Y.; Caillon, F.; Prost, A. [Hopital Hotel-Dieu de Nantes, 44 (France)

    1995-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has had an impressive impact on evaluation of degenerative diseases of the spine. Nevertheless, false negatives can occur on images involving lumbar discs. Degenerative disc diseases documented on discography and/or pathology examination of the discs can go unrecognized. Likewise sensitivity for the detection of protruding disc hernias is not totally satisfactory (20% false negatives). Finally, a magnetic resonance image visualizing displacement of the disc is not specific (10 to 15% false positives); images showing protrusion or hernia can be seen in 30% of asymptomatic patients. Although MRI gives slightly more information than other imaging techniques, false images do exist. Moreover, the usefulness of MRI to demonstrate disc disease in case of a negative CT-scan remains to be demonstrated. (authors). 26 refs.

  6. Ultra-sparse metasurface for high reflection of low-frequency sound based on artificial Mie resonances.

    Cheng, Y; Zhou, C; Yuan, B G; Wu, D J; Wei, Q; Liu, X J

    2015-10-01

    Acoustic metamaterials offer great flexibility for manipulating sound waves and promise unprecedented functionality, ranging from transformation acoustics, super-resolution imaging to acoustic cloaking. However, the design of acoustic metamaterials with exciting functionality remains challenging with traditional approaches using classic acoustic elements such as Helmholtz resonators and membranes. Here we demonstrate an ultraslow-fluid-like particle with intense artificial Mie resonances for low-frequency airborne sound. Eigenstate analysis and effective parameter retrieval show two individual negative bands in the single-size unit cell, one of which exhibits a negative bulk modulus supported by the monopolar Mie resonance, whereas the other exhibits a negative mass density induced by the dipolar Mie resonance. The unique single-negative nature is used to develop an ultra-sparse subwavelength metasurface with high reflectance for low-frequency sound. We demonstrate a 0.15λ-thick, 15%-filling ratio metasurface with an insertion loss over 93.4%. The designed Mie resonators provide diverse routes to construct novel acoustic devices with versatile applications. PMID:26322718

  7. Ultra-sparse metasurface for high reflection of low-frequency sound based on artificial Mie resonances

    Cheng, Y.; Zhou, C.; Yuan, B. G.; Wu, D. J.; Wei, Q.; Liu, X. J.

    2015-10-01

    Acoustic metamaterials offer great flexibility for manipulating sound waves and promise unprecedented functionality, ranging from transformation acoustics, super-resolution imaging to acoustic cloaking. However, the design of acoustic metamaterials with exciting functionality remains challenging with traditional approaches using classic acoustic elements such as Helmholtz resonators and membranes. Here we demonstrate an ultraslow-fluid-like particle with intense artificial Mie resonances for low-frequency airborne sound. Eigenstate analysis and effective parameter retrieval show two individual negative bands in the single-size unit cell, one of which exhibits a negative bulk modulus supported by the monopolar Mie resonance, whereas the other exhibits a negative mass density induced by the dipolar Mie resonance. The unique single-negative nature is used to develop an ultra-sparse subwavelength metasurface with high reflectance for low-frequency sound. We demonstrate a 0.15λ-thick, 15%-filling ratio metasurface with an insertion loss over 93.4%. The designed Mie resonators provide diverse routes to construct novel acoustic devices with versatile applications.

  8. Frequency and Spatial Domains Adaptive-based Enhancement Technique for Thermal Infrared Images

    Debasis Chaudhuri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Low contrast and noisy image limits the amount of information conveyed to the user. With the proliferation of digital imagery and computer interface between man-and-machine, it is now viable to consider digital enhancement in the image before presenting it to the user, thus increasing the information throughput. With better contrast, target detection and discrimination can be improved. The paper presents a sequence of filtering operations in frequency and spatial domains to improve the quality of the thermal infrared (IR images. Basically, two filters – homomorphic filter followed by adaptive Gaussian filter are applied to improve the quality of the thermal IR images. We have systematically evaluated the algorithm on a variety of images and carefully compared it with the techniques presented in the literature. We performed an evaluation of three filter banks such as homomorphic, Gaussian 5×5 and the proposed method, and we have seen that the proposed method yields optimal PSNR for all the thermal images. The results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is efficient for enhancement of thermal IR images.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 5, September 2014, pp.451-457, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.6873

  9. Alternative Adaptive Filter Structures for Improved Radio Frequency Interference Cancellation in Radio Astronomy

    Mitchell, D A; Sault, R J

    2010-01-01

    In radio astronomy, reference signals from auxiliary antennas that receive only the radio frequency interference (RFI) can be modified to model the RFI environment at the astronomy receivers. The RFI can then be canceled from the astronomy signal paths. However, astronomers typically only require signal statistics. If the RFI statistics are changing slowly, the cancellation can be applied to the signal correlations at a much lower rate than is required for standard adaptive filters. In this paper we describe five canceler setups; precorrelation and postcorrelation cancelers that use one or two reference signals in different ways. The theoretical residual RFI and added noise levels are examined and are demonstrated using microwave television RFI at the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The RFI is attenuated to below the system noise, a reduction of at least 20 dB. While dual-reference cancelers add more reference noise than single-reference cancelers, this noise is zero-mean and only adds to the system noise,...

  10. Time-domain self-consistent theory of frequency-locking regimes in gyrotrons with low-Q resonators

    A time-domain theory of frequency-locking gyrotron oscillators with low-Q resonators has been developed. The presented theory is based on the description of wave propagation by a parabolic equation taking into account the external signal by modification of boundary conditions. We show that the developed model can be effectively used for simulations of both single- and multi-mode operation regimes in gyrotrons driven by an external signal. For the case of low-Q resonators typical for powerful gyrotrons, the external signal can influence the axial field profile inside the interaction space significantly and, correspondingly, the value of the electron orbital efficiency

  11. Variations of the Magnetosphere Resonance Frequencies During Magnetic Storm of July 15——16, 2000

    A. Potapov; A. Polyakov; T. Polyushkina; H. Zhao

    2005-01-01

    ULF observations at two mid-latitude sites during the large geomagnetic storm of July 15-16,2000 were used to trace variations of resonance frequencies of the field line resonators. A brief description of the geomagnetic disturbance as it was observed on the ground, at the geostationary orbit, and before the Earth's bow shock is given. Then a detailed study of ULF dynamic spectra from Borok and Mondy is performed for8 succesive 6-hour intervals of July 15 and 16. In conclusion some tasks for the future work are listed.

  12. An analysis of the OI 1304 A dayglow using a Monte Carlo resonant scattering model with partial frequency redistribution

    Meier, R. R.; Lee, J.-S.

    1982-01-01

    The transport of resonance radiation under optically thick conditions is shown to be accurately described by a Monte Carlo model of the atomic oxygen 1304 A airglow triplet in which partial frequency redistribution, temperature gradients, pure absorption and multilevel scattering are accounted for. All features of the data can be explained by photoelectron impact excitation and the resonant scattering of sunlight, where the latter source dominates below 100 and above 500 km and is stronger at intermediate altitudes than previously thought. It is concluded that the OI 1304 A emission can be used in studies of excitation processes and atomic oxygen densities in planetary atmospheres.

  13. Frequency pre-tuning of the niobium-sputtered quarter-wave resonator for HIE-ISOLDE project at CERN

    Zhang, P.; D`Elia, A.; Venturini Delsolaro, W.; Artoos, K.

    2015-10-01

    Superconducting quarter-wave resonators (QWRs) will be used in the superconducting linac upgrade in the frame of the HIE-ISOLDE project at CERN. The QWRs are made of bulk copper and have their inner surface covered with sputtered niobium. Their resonant frequency is 101.28 MHz at 4.5 K. Each cavity will be equipped with a tuning system to both minimize the forward power and compensate the frequency variations during production and beam operation. After a careful examination of all contributors to the frequency variation, we decomposed them into two components: frequency shift and its uncertainties. A pre-tuning step was subsequently added to the production sequence prior to niobium sputtering to accommodate the frequency shift mainly due to mechanical tolerances during substrate production, substrate surface treatment, niobium sputtering and cooldown process. To this end, the length of the QWR was chosen as a free parameter for the pre-tuning. Consequently the tuning system needs only to compensate the frequency uncertainties and Lorentz force detuning, thus its design has been largely simplified and its production cost was reduced by 80% comparing to its previous version. We have successfully applied this tuning scheme to five HIE-ISOLDE QWRs and the measured tuning error was 2.4 ± 1.9 kHz. This is well consistent with our calculations and well recoverable by the current simplified tuning system. It is worth noticing that the pre-tuning method only involves one-time measurement of the cavity's resonant frequency and its outer conductor length. This paper focuses on HIE-ISOLDE high-β QWR, but the method can be applied to HIE-ISOLDE low-β QWRs and other variants of QWR-like cavities.

  14. Effect of resonance frequency, power input, and saturation gas type on the oxidation efficiency of an ultrasound horn.

    Rooze, Joost; Rebrov, Evgeny V; Schouten, Jaap C; Keurentjes, Jos T F

    2011-01-01

    The sonochemical oxidation efficiency (η(ox)) of a commercial titanium alloy ultrasound horn has been measured using potassium iodide as a dosimeter at its main resonance frequency (20 kHz) and two higher resonance frequencies (41 and 62 kHz). Narrow power and frequency ranges have been chosen to minimise secondary effects such as changing bubble stability, and time available for radical diffusion from the bubble to the liquid. The oxidation efficiency, η(ox), is proportional to the frequency and to the power transmitted to the liquid (275 mL) in the applied power range (1-6 W) under argon. Luminol radical visualisation measurements show that the radical generation rate increases and a redistribution of radical producing zones is achieved at increasing frequency. Argon, helium, air, nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide have been used as saturation gases in potassium iodide oxidation experiments. The highest η(ox) has been observed at 5 W under air at 62 kHz. The presence of carbon dioxide in air gives enhanced nucleation at 41 and 62 kHz and has a strong influence on η(ox). This is supported by the luminol images, the measured dependence of η(ox) on input power, and bubble images recorded under carbon dioxide. The results give insight into the interplay between saturation gas and frequency, nucleation, and their effect on η(ox). PMID:20573535

  15. An Adaptive Single-Well Stochastic Resonance Algorithm Applied to Trace Analysis of Clenbuterol in Human Urine

    Shaofei Xie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory of stochastic resonance, an adaptive single-well stochastic resonance (ASSR coupled with genetic algorithm was developed to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of weak chromatographic signals. In conventional stochastic resonance algorithm, there are two or more parameters needed to be optimized and the proper parameters values were obtained by a universal searching within a given range. In the developed ASSR, the optimization of system parameter was simplified and automatic implemented. The ASSR was applied to the trace analysis of clenbuterol in human urine and it helped to significantly improve the limit of detection and limit of quantification of clenbuterol. Good linearity, precision and accuracy of the proposed method ensure that it could be an effective tool for trace analysis and the improvement of detective sensibility of current detectors.

  16. Development and experimental evaluation of theoretical models for ion cyclotron resonance frequency heating of tokamak plasmas

    Heating with electromagnetic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is a well-established method for auxiliary heating of present-day tokamak plasmas and is envisaged as one of the main heating techniques for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and future reactor plasmas. In order to predict the performance of ICRF heating in future machines, it is important to benchmark present theoretical modelling with experimental results on present tokamaks. This thesis reports on development and experimental evaluation of theoretical models for ICRF heating at the Joint European Torus (JET). Several ICRF physics effects and scenarios have been studied. Direct importance to the ITER is the theoretical analysis of ICRF heating experiments with deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas. These experiments clearly demonstrate the potential of ICRF heating for auxiliary heating of reactor plasmas. In particular, scenarios with potential for good bulk ion heating and enhanced D-T fusion reactivity have been identified. Good bulk ion heating is essential for reactor plasmas in order to obtain a high ion temperature and a high fusion reactivity. In JET good bulk ion heating with ICRF waves has been achieved in high-performance discharges by adding ICRF heating to neutral beam injection. In these experiments, as in other JET discharges where damping at higher harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency takes place, so-called finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects play an important role. Due to FLR effects, the resonating ion velocity distribution function can have a strong influence on the power deposition. Evidence for this effect has been obtained from the third harmonic deuterium heating experiments. Because of FLR effects, the wave-particle interaction can also become weak at certain ion energies, which prevents resonating ions from reaching higher energies. When interacting with the wave, an ion receives not only a change in energy but also a change in

  17. Development and experimental evaluation of theoretical models for ion cyclotron resonance frequency heating of tokamak plasmas

    Mantsinen, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Dept. of Technical Physics

    1999-06-01

    Heating with electromagnetic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is a well-established method for auxiliary heating of present-day tokamak plasmas and is envisaged as one of the main heating techniques for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and future reactor plasmas. In order to predict the performance of ICRF heating in future machines, it is important to benchmark present theoretical modelling with experimental results on present tokamaks. This thesis reports on development and experimental evaluation of theoretical models for ICRF heating at the Joint European Torus (JET). Several ICRF physics effects and scenarios have been studied. Direct importance to the ITER is the theoretical analysis of ICRF heating experiments with deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas. These experiments clearly demonstrate the potential of ICRF heating for auxiliary heating of reactor plasmas. In particular, scenarios with potential for good bulk ion heating and enhanced D-T fusion reactivity have been identified. Good bulk ion heating is essential for reactor plasmas in order to obtain a high ion temperature and a high fusion reactivity. In JET good bulk ion heating with ICRF waves has been achieved in high-performance discharges by adding ICRF heating to neutral beam injection. In these experiments, as in other JET discharges where damping at higher harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency takes place, so-called finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects play an important role. Due to FLR effects, the resonating ion velocity distribution function can have a strong influence on the power deposition. Evidence for this effect has been obtained from the third harmonic deuterium heating experiments. Because of FLR effects, the wave-particle interaction can also become weak at certain ion energies, which prevents resonating ions from reaching higher energies. When interacting with the wave, an ion receives not only a change in energy but also a change in

  18. A Frequency-Domain Adaptive Filter (FDAF) Prediction Error Method (PEM) Framework for Double-Talk-Robust Acoustic Echo Cancellation

    Gil-Cacho, Jose M.; van Waterschoot, Toon; Moonen, Marc;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new framework to tackle the double-talk (DT) problem in acoustic echo cancellation (AEC). It is based on a frequency-domain adaptive filter (FDAF) implementation of the so-called prediction error method adaptive filtering using row operations (PEM-AFROW) leading to the...... FDAF-PEM-AFROW algorithm. We show that FDAF-PEM-AFROW is by construction related to the best linear unbiased estimate (BLUE) of the echo path. We depart from this framework to show an improvement in performance with respect to other adaptive filters minimizing the BLUE criterion, namely the PEM......-AFROW and the FDAF-NLMS with near-end signal normalization. One of the contributions is to propose the instantaneous pseudo-correlation (IPC) measure between the near-end signal and the loudspeaker signal. The IPC measure serves as an indication of the effect of a DT situation occurring during adaptation...

  19. Development of Energy Efficiency Design Map based on acoustic resonance frequency of suction muffler in compressor

    Highlights: • Development of Energy Efficiency Design Map. • Experimental validation of Energy Efficiency Design Map. • Suggestion regarding the Acoustically Supercharged Energy Efficiency. • Sensitivity analysis of the Energy Efficiency Ratio with respect to acoustic pressure. • Suggestion regarding the hybrid coupling method for acoustic analysis in compressor. - Abstract: The volumetric efficiency of the Internal Combustion (IC) engine and compressor can be increased by properly adjusting the acoustic resonance frequency of the suction muffler or the suction valve timing without any additional equipment or power source. This effect is known as acoustic supercharging. However, the energy efficiency has become more important than the volumetric efficiency because of the energy shortage issue and factors influencing consumers’ purchasing decisions. Therefore, methods for increasing the energy efficiency using the acoustic effect in the suction part of IC engine and compressor should be considered. In this study, a systematic method for improving the energy efficiency using the acoustic effect in the suction part of the compressor used in refrigerators and air conditioners was developed for the first time. This effect is named as the Acoustically Supercharged Energy Efficiency (ASEE). For the ASEE, first, a hybrid coupling method was suggested for the acoustical analysis in the suction part of the compressor. Next, an Energy Efficiency Design Map (EEDM) was proposed. This can serve as a design guide for suction mufflers in terms of the energy efficiency. Finally, sensitivity analyses of the Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) and total massflow rate with respect to the acoustic pressure were conducted to identify the relationship between the acoustic pressure and the suction valve motion. This provides the physical background for the EEDM

  20. Magnetic resonance micro-imaging of the human skin in vivo using miniature radio frequency coils

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has developed to one of the backbones of modern medical diagnostics since its first use in the 1970s. The large number of different image contrasts and the possibility to assess clinically relevant physiological parameters, especially for soft tissues, combined with the non-invasiveness and safety of the technique have been the basis for its great success. Nevertheless, is a relatively insensitive method, since it can only detect signal from a small fraction of the spins available in the investigated tissues. The higher the spatial resolution of the experiment, the lower the number of spins that effectively contribute to the signal that is acquired. This is especially critical for MR micro-imaging with voxel volumes that are about 1000-fold smaller than for standard imaging techniques. This intrinsic loss in signal can be partially recovered by operating at higher field strength, using more sensitive radio frequency detectors and optimized hardware and acquisition strategies. In this work, a combination of all these aspects has been achieved, in order to depict the network of small blood vessels in the human skin of living subjects. The demonstrated techniques allow for acquisition of a volume covering all skin layers in an area of ∼ 2 cm2 with isotropic voxel sizes of 80-100 μm in about 10 minutes. Dedicated post-processing algorithms have been developed for higher specificity of vessel detection and visualization and for the extraction of descriptive quantitative parameters of the vessel tree. The images and vessel parameters could serve as a basis for early diagnostics and classification of systemic inflammatory vascular diseases like vasculitis. Due to the non-invasiveness of the method, longitudinal studies in the course of treatment could be performed to monitor its success. (author)

  1. Novel architecture for ultra-stable micro-ring resonator based optical frequency combs

    Pasquazi, Alessia; Peccianti, Marco; Clerici, Matteo; Ferrera, Marcello; Razzari, Luca; Duchesne, David; Little, Brent E; Chu, Sai T; Moss, David J; Morandotti, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    We report a novel geometry for OPOs based on nonlinear microcavity resonators. This approach relies on a self-locked scheme that enables OPO emission without the need for thermal locking of the pump laser to the microcavity resonance. By exploiting a CMOS-compatible microring resonator, we achieve oscillation with a complete absence of shutting down, or self-terminating behavior, a very common occurrence in externally pumped OPOs. Further, this scheme consistently produces very wide bandwidth (>300nm, limited by our experimental set-up) combs that oscillate at a spacing of the FSR of the micro cavity resonance.

  2. Decoupling crossover in asymmetric broadside coupled split-ring resonators at terahertz frequencies

    Keiser, G. R.; Strikwerda, Andrew; Fan, K.; Young, V.; Zhang, X.; Averitt, R. D.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the electromagnetic response of asymmetric broadside coupled split-ring resonators (ABC-SRRs) as a function of the relative in-plane displacement between the two component SRRs. The asymmetry is defined as the difference in the capacitive gap widths (Δg) between the two resonators...... inductive coupling. However, for ABC-SRRs, in-plane shifting between the two resonators by more than 0.375 Lo (Lo= SRR sidelength) results in a transition to a response with two resonant modes, associated with decoupling in the ABC-SRRs. For increasing Δg, the decoupling transition begins at the same...

  3. Estimation of the whole-body averaged SAR of grounded human models for plane wave exposure at respective resonance frequencies.

    Hirata, Akimasa; Yanase, Kazuya; Laakso, Ilkka; Chan, Kwok Hung; Fujiwara, Osamu; Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Soichi; Conil, Emmanuelle; Wiart, Joe

    2012-12-21

    According to the international guidelines, the whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (WBA-SAR) is used as a metric of basic restriction for radio-frequency whole-body exposure. It is well known that the WBA-SAR largely depends on the frequency of the incident wave for a given incident power density. The frequency at which the WBA-SAR becomes maximal is called the 'resonance frequency'. Our previous study proposed a scheme for estimating the WBA-SAR at this resonance frequency based on an analogy between the power absorption characteristic of human models in free space and that of a dipole antenna. However, a scheme for estimating the WBA-SAR in a grounded human has not been discussed sufficiently, even though the WBA-SAR in a grounded human is larger than that in an ungrounded human. In this study, with the use of the finite-difference time-domain method, the grounded condition is confirmed to be the worst-case exposure for human body models in a standing posture. Then, WBA-SARs in grounded human models are calculated at their respective resonant frequencies. A formula for estimating the WBA-SAR of a human standing on the ground is proposed based on an analogy with a quarter-wavelength monopole antenna. First, homogenized human body models are shown to provide the conservative WBA-SAR as compared with anatomically based models. Based on the formula proposed here, the WBA-SARs in grounded human models are approximately 10% larger than those in free space. The variability of the WBA-SAR was shown to be ±30% even for humans of the same age, which is caused by the body shape. PMID:23202273

  4. Development and characterization of high-frequency resonance-enhanced microjet actuators for control of high-speed jets

    Upadhyay, Puja; Gustavsson, Jonas P. R.; Alvi, Farrukh S.

    2016-05-01

    For flow control applications requiring high-frequency excitation, very few actuators have sufficient dynamic response and/or control authority to be useful in high-speed flows. Due to this reason, experiments involving high-frequency excitation, attempted in the past, have been limited to either low-frequency actuation with reasonable control authority or moderate-frequency actuation with limited control authority. The current work expands on the previous development of the resonance-enhanced microactuators to design actuators that are capable of producing high-amplitude pulses at much higher frequencies [O (10 kHz)]. Using lumped element modeling, two actuators have been designed with nominal frequencies of 20 and 50 kHz. Extensive benchtop characterization using acoustic measurements as well as optical diagnostics using a high-resolution micro-schlieren setup is employed to characterize the dynamic response of these actuators. The actuators performed at a range of frequencies, 20.3-27.8 and 54.8-78.2 kHz, respectively. In addition to providing information on the actuator flow physics and performance at various operating conditions, this study serves to develop easy-to-integrate high-frequency actuators for active control of high-speed jets. Preliminary testing of these actuators is performed by implementing the 20-kHz actuator on a Mach 0.9 free jet flow field for noise reduction. Acoustic measurements in the jet near field demonstrate attenuation of radiated noise at all observation angles.

  5. Frequency Comb Generation in 300 nm Thick SiN Concentric-Racetrack-Resonators: Overcoming the Material Dispersion Limit

    Kim, Sangsik; Wang, Cong; Jaramillo-Villegas, Jose A; Xue, Xiaoxiao; Bao, Chengying; Xuan, Yi; Leaird, Daniel E; Weiner, Andrew M; Qi, Minghao

    2016-01-01

    Kerr nonlinearity based frequency combs and solitons have been generated from on-chip optical microresonators with high quality factors and global or local anomalous dispersion. However, fabrication of such resonators usually requires materials and/or processes that are not standard in semiconductor manufacturing facilities. Moreover, in certain frequency regimes such as visible and ultra-violet, the large normal material dispersion makes it extremely difficult to achieve anomalous dispersion. Here we present a concentric racetrack-shaped resonator that achieves anomalous dispersion in a 300 nm thick silicon nitride film, suitable for semiconductor manufacturing but previously thought to result only in waveguides with high normal dispersion, a high intrinsic Q of 1.5 million, and a novel mode-selective coupling scheme that allows coherent combs to be generated. We also provide evidence suggestive of soliton-like pulse formation in the generated comb. Our method can achieve anomalous dispersion over moderately...

  6. Adaptation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in cystic fibrosis: molecular diversity, mutation frequency and antibiotic resistance.

    Vidigal, P G; Dittmer, S; Steinmann, E; Buer, J; Rath, P-M; Steinmann, J

    2014-07-01

    Due to the continuous exposure to a challenging environment and repeated antibiotic treatment courses, bacterial populations in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients experience selective pressure causing the emergence of mutator phenotypes. In this study we investigated the genotypic diversity, mutation frequency and antibiotic resistance of S. maltophilia isolates chronically colonizing CF patients. S. maltophilia was isolated from a total of 90 sputum samples, collected sequentially from 19 CF patients admitted between January 2008 and March 2012 at the University Hospital Essen, Germany. DNA fingerprinting by repetitive-sequence-based PCR revealed that 68.4% (n=13) of CF patients harbored different S. maltophilia genotypes during the 4-year study course. Out of 90 S. maltophilia isolates obtained from chronically colonized CF patients, 17.8% (n=16) were hypomutators, 27.7% (n=25), normomutators, 23.3% (n=21), weak hypermutators and 31.2% (n=28) strong hypermutators. We also found that mutation rates of the most clonally related genotypes varied over time with the tendency to become less mutable. Mutator isolates were found to have no significant increase in resistance against eight different antibiotics versus nonmutators. Sequencing of the mismatch repair genes mutL, mutS and uvrD revealed alterations that resulted in amino acid changes in their corresponding proteins. Here, we could demonstrate that several different S. maltophilia genotypes are present in CF patients and as a sign of adaption their mutation status switches over time to a less mutator phenotype without increasing resistance. These results suggest that S. maltophilia attempts to sustain its biological fitness as mechanism for long-term persistence in the CF lung. PMID:24836944

  7. Hilbert Transform based Quadrature Hybrid RF Photonic Coupler via a Micro-Resonator Optical Frequency Comb Source

    Nguyen, Thach G; Chu, Sai T; Little, Brent E; Morandotti, Roberto; Mitchell, Arnan; Moss, David J

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a photonic RF Hilbert transformer for broadband microwave in-phase and quadrature-phase generation based on an integrated frequency optical comb, generated using a nonlinear microring resonator based on a CMOS compatible, high-index contrast, doped-silica glass platform. The high quality and large frequency spacing of the comb enables filters with up to 20 taps, allowing us to demonstrate a quadrature filter with more than a 5-octave (3 dB) bandwidth and an almost uniform phase response.

  8. Calculation of the resonance frequency change for a cavity charged by a plasma with or without a static magnetic field

    In the mere case of a cold plasma with or without static magnetic field, are given two methods of calculation of resonance frequency shift and absorption in a cylindrical cavity crossed by a plasma column: 1. A perturbation method, already known and used for electronic density measurements is restated and its application is used for several high frequency cavity modes. 2. An exact method employing Maxwell's equations, which however necessitates a computer, is compared with the first one; it permits a determination of the validity limits of the perturbation method and to draw conclusions,

  9. Hairpin resonator probes with frequency domain boxcar operation for time resolved density measurements in pulsed RF discharges

    Peterson, David; Kummerer, Theresa; Coumou, David; Shannon, Steven

    2014-10-01

    In this work, microsecond time resolved electron density measurements in pulsed RF discharges are shown using an automated hairpin resonance probe using relatively low cost electronics, on par with normal Langmuir probe boxcar mode operation. A low cost signal generator is used to produce the applied microwave frequency and the reflected waveform is filtered to remove the RF component. The signal is then heterodyned with a simple frequency mixer to produce a dc signal read by an oscilloscope to determine the electron density. The applied microwave frequency is automatically shifted in small increments in a frequency boxcar routine through a Labview™program to determine the resonant frequency. A simple dc sheath correction is then easily applied since the probe is fully floating, producing low cost, high fidelity, and highly reproducible electron density measurements. The measurements are made in a capacitively coupled, parallel plate configuration in a 13.56 MHz, 50--200 W RF discharge pulsed at 500 Hz, 200 W, 50% duty cycle. The gas input ranged from 50--100 mTorr pure Ar or with 5--10% O/He mixtures.

  10. Experimental definition of relative losses of high-frequency power in complex shape resonator elements

    Experimental determination of distribution of losses in resonator elements by measuring its quality factor at different surface resistances of an element of interest is discribed. The measuring technique for an unknown surfce resistance is considered. The dependence of losses on flanges of the 2N resonator on the face area is determined. The errors of obtained results are analyzed

  11. Mapping The Resonance Frequency of Sedimentary Layers in the Vicinity of a Permanent Seismic Station in Undermined Area

    Lednická, M. (Markéta); Kaláb, Z. (Zdeněk)

    2014-01-01

    Resonant frequency and its changes in the surroundings of the permanent seismic station in the village of Stonava have been studied in this paper. Three different sets of seismic events were elaborated: local mining induced seismic events, distant earthquakes and seismic noise. Two data sets recorded at the permanent seismic station STO2 were used for spectral ratio computation using the HVSR method. First data set contains 20 records of mining induced seismic events with maximum epicental di...

  12. Development of a Relation between Slot Lengths of Microstrip Antenna and Its Resonant Frequencies Using Soft Computing Tool

    P.Pradhan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A new method of calculation of resonant frequencyof a rectangular patch antenna using Artificial NeuralNetwork (ANN has been adopted in this paper.ANN model has been developed and tested infrequency range of 1GHz to 3GHz to analyzeresonant frequency and slot length in rectangularMicrostrip Patch Antenna. The results obtained usingANN, are compared to the results obtained usingsoftware FEKO and experiment.

  13. Very high resolution saturation spectroscopy of lutetium isotopes via cw single-frequency laser resonance ionization mass spectrometry

    In this paper, we discuss the use of Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS) to perform isotopically selective saturation spectroscopy of lutetium isotopes. Utilizing this technique, it is shown that accurate measurements of the relative frequencies of hyperfine (HF) components for different isotopes easily can be made without the need for an isotopically enriched sample. The precision with which the HF splitting constants can be determined is estimated to be ∼5 times greater than in previous work

  14. Adaptive determination of cut-off frequencies for filtering the in-cylinder pressure in diesel engines combustion analysis

    In-cylinder pressure analysis is a key tool for engine research and diagnosis and it has been object of study from the beginning of the internal combustion engines. One of its most useful application is combustion analysis on the basis of the First Law of Thermodynamics. However, heat release law calculations use the in-cylinder pressure derivative signal. Hence, the noise is increased and pressure filtering becomes necessary to remove high frequency noise, thus allowing for accurate combustion analyses. In this work, a methodology to set the cut-off frequency of a low-pass filter is proposed. Statistical criteria are used to separate the signal from the noise through the calculation of the Discrete Fourier Transform of several consecutive in-cylinder pressures cycles. Thus, only physically meaningful information is preserved. The proposed methodology is compared with some adaptive and non-adaptive algorithms used to select the cut-off frequencies, and it shows a good ability to adapt to different engine operating conditions. - Highlights: →Combustion analysis is performed by means of in-cylinder pressure measurement. →Filtering is necessary due to high noise and dispersion in the measurement. →A proposed methodology to select cut-off frequencies is proposed. →The methodology is compared with other filters, showing a better behaviour.

  15. MRI thermometry in phantoms by use of the proton resonance frequency shift method: application to interstitial laser thermotherapy

    Olsrud, Johan; Wirestam, Ronnie; Brockstedt, Sara; Persson, Bertil R.R. [Department of Radiation Physics, Lund University Hospital, SE-221 85 Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, Annika M.K. [Department of Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Tranberg, Karl-Goeran [Department of Surgery, Lund University Hospital, SE-221 85 Lund (Sweden); Staahlberg, Freddy [Department of Radiation Physics, Lund University Hospital, SE-221 85 Lund (Sweden); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Lund University Hospital, SE-221 85 Lund (Sweden)

    1998-09-01

    In this work the temperature dependence of the proton resonance frequency was assessed in agarose gel with a high melting temperature (95 deg. C) and in porcine liver in vitro at temperatures relevant to thermotherapy (25-80 deg. C). Furthermore, an optically tissue-like agarose gel phantom was developed and evaluated for use in MRI. The phantom was used to visualize temperature distributions from a diffusing laser fibre by means of the proton resonance frequency shift method. An approximately linear relationship (0.0085 ppm deg. C{sup -1}) between proton resonance frequency shift and temperature change was found for agarose gel, whereas deviations from a linear relationship were observed for porcine liver. The optically tissue-like agarose gel allowed reliable MRI temperature monitoring, and the MR relaxation times (T{sub 1} and T{sub 2}) and the optical properties were found to be independently alterable. Temperature distributions around a diffusing laser fibre, during irradiation and subsequent cooling, were assessed with high spatial resolution (voxel size = 4.3 mm{sup 3}) and with random uncertainties ranging from 0.3 deg. C to 1.4 deg. C (1 SD) with a 40 s scan time. (author)

  16. A 3 to 5 GHz low-phase-noise fractional-N frequency synthesizer with adaptive frequency calibration for GSM/PCS/DCS/WCDMA transceivers

    A low-phase-noise Σ—Δ fractional-N frequency synthesizer for GSM/PCS/DCS/WCDMA transceivers is presented. The voltage controlled oscillator is designed with a modified digital controlled capacitor array to extend the tuning range and minimize phase noise. A high-resolution adaptive frequency calibration technique is introduced to automatically choose frequency bands and increase phase-noise immunity. A prototype is implemented in 0.13 μm CMOS technology. The experimental results show that the designed 1.2 V wideband frequency synthesizer is locked from 3.05 to 5.17 GHz within 30 μs, which covers all five required frequency bands. The measured in-band phase noise are −89, −95.5 and −101 dBc/Hz for 3.8 GHz, 2 GHz and 948 MHz carriers, respectively, and accordingly the out-of-band phase noise are −121, −123 and −132 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset, which meet the phase-noise-mask requirements of the above-mentioned standards. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  17. PT-symmetric microring lasers: Self-adapting broadband mode-selective resonators

    Hodaei, Hossein; Heinrich, Matthias; Christodoulides, Demetrios N; Khajavikhan, Mercedeh

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that stable single longitudinal mode operation can be readily achieved in PT-symmetric arrangements of coupled microring resonators. Whereas any active resonator is in principle capable of displaying single-wavelength operation, selective breaking of PT-symmetry can be utilized to systematically enhance the maximum achievable gain of this mode, even if a large number of competing longitudinal or transverse resonator modes fall within the amplification bandwidth of the inhomogeneously broadened active medium. This concept is robust with respect to fabrication tolerances, and its mode selectivity is established without the need for additional components or specifically designed filters. Our results may pave the way for a new generation of versatile cavities lasing at a desired longitudinal resonance. Along these lines, traditionally highly multi-moded microring resonator configurations can be fashioned to suppress all but one longitudinal mode.

  18. Ion cyclotron resonance frequency heating in JET during initial operations with the ITER-like wall

    Jacquet, P., E-mail: philippe.jacquet@ccfe.ac.uk; Monakhov, I.; Arnoux, G.; Brix, M.; Graham, M.; Meigs, A.; Sirinelli, A. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Bobkov, V.; Devaux, S.; Drewelow, P.; Pütterich, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, Garching (Germany); Colas, L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Czarnecka, A. [Association Euratom-IPPLM, Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Lerche, E.; Van-Eester, D. [Association EURATOM-Belgian State, ERM-KMS, Brussels (Belgium); Mayoral, M.-L. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); EFDA Close Support Unit, Garching (Germany); Brezinsek, S. [IEK-4, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Jülich (Germany); Campergue, A.-L. [Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, F77455 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Klepper, C. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6169 (United States); Milanesio, D. [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Electronics, Torino (Italy); and others

    2014-06-15

    In 2011/12, JET started operation with its new ITER-Like Wall (ILW) made of a tungsten (W) divertor and a beryllium (Be) main chamber wall. The impact of the new wall materials on the JET Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) operation is assessed and some important properties of JET plasmas heated with ICRF are highlighted. A ∼ 20% reduction of the antenna coupling resistance is observed with the ILW as compared with the JET carbon (JET-C) wall. Heat-fluxes on the protecting limiters close the antennas, quantified using Infra-Red thermography (maximum 4.5 MW/m{sup 2} in current drive phasing), are within the wall power load handling capabilities. A simple RF sheath rectification model using the antenna near-fields calculated with the TOPICA code can reproduce the heat-flux pattern around the antennas. ICRF heating results in larger tungsten and nickel (Ni) contents in the plasma and in a larger core radiation when compared to Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) heating. The location of the tungsten ICRF specific source could not be identified but some experimental observations indicate that main-chamber W components could be an important impurity source: for example, the divertor W influx deduced from spectroscopy is comparable when using RF or NBI at same power and comparable divertor conditions, and Be evaporation in the main chamber results in a strong reduction of the impurity level. In L-mode plasmas, the ICRF specific high-Z impurity content decreased when operating at higher plasma density and when increasing the hydrogen concentration from 5% to 15%. Despite the higher plasma bulk radiation, ICRF exhibited overall good plasma heating performance; the power is typically deposited at the plasma centre while the radiation is mainly from the outer part of the plasma bulk. Application of ICRF heating in H-mode plasmas has started, and the beneficial effect of ICRF central electron heating to prevent W accumulation in the plasma core has been observed.

  19. Evidence of resonant mode coupling and the relationship between low and high frequencies in a rapidly rotating a star

    In the theory of resonant mode coupling, the parent and child modes are directly related in frequency and phase. The oscillations present in the fast rotating δ Sct star KIC 8054146 allow us to test the most general and generic aspects of such a theory. The only direct way to separate the parent and coupled (child) modes is to examine the correlations in amplitude variability between the different frequencies. For the dominant family of related frequencies, only a single mode and a triplet are the origins of nine dominant frequency peaks ranging from 2.93 to 66.30 cycles day–1 (as well as dozens of small-amplitude combination modes and a predicted and detected third high-frequency triplet). The mode-coupling model correctly predicts the large amplitude variations of the coupled modes as a product of the amplitudes of the parent modes, while the phase changes are also correctly modeled. This differs from the behavior of 'normal' combination frequencies in that the amplitudes are three orders of magnitude larger and may exceed even the amplitudes of the parent modes. We show that two dominant low frequencies at 5.86 and 2.93 cycles day–1 in the gravity-mode region are not harmonics of each other, and their properties follow those of the almost equidistant high-frequency triplet. We note that the previously puzzling situation of finding two strong peaks in the low-frequency region related by nearly a factor of two in frequency has been seen in other δ Sct stars as well.

  20. Evidence of resonant mode coupling and the relationship between low and high frequencies in a rapidly rotating a star

    Breger, M.; Montgomery, M. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    In the theory of resonant mode coupling, the parent and child modes are directly related in frequency and phase. The oscillations present in the fast rotating δ Sct star KIC 8054146 allow us to test the most general and generic aspects of such a theory. The only direct way to separate the parent and coupled (child) modes is to examine the correlations in amplitude variability between the different frequencies. For the dominant family of related frequencies, only a single mode and a triplet are the origins of nine dominant frequency peaks ranging from 2.93 to 66.30 cycles day{sup –1} (as well as dozens of small-amplitude combination modes and a predicted and detected third high-frequency triplet). The mode-coupling model correctly predicts the large amplitude variations of the coupled modes as a product of the amplitudes of the parent modes, while the phase changes are also correctly modeled. This differs from the behavior of 'normal' combination frequencies in that the amplitudes are three orders of magnitude larger and may exceed even the amplitudes of the parent modes. We show that two dominant low frequencies at 5.86 and 2.93 cycles day{sup –1} in the gravity-mode region are not harmonics of each other, and their properties follow those of the almost equidistant high-frequency triplet. We note that the previously puzzling situation of finding two strong peaks in the low-frequency region related by nearly a factor of two in frequency has been seen in other δ Sct stars as well.

  1. Evidence of Resonant Mode Coupling and the Relationship between Low and High Frequencies in a Rapidly Rotating a Star

    Breger, M.; Montgomery, M. H.

    2014-03-01

    In the theory of resonant mode coupling, the parent and child modes are directly related in frequency and phase. The oscillations present in the fast rotating δ Sct star KIC 8054146 allow us to test the most general and generic aspects of such a theory. The only direct way to separate the parent and coupled (child) modes is to examine the correlations in amplitude variability between the different frequencies. For the dominant family of related frequencies, only a single mode and a triplet are the origins of nine dominant frequency peaks ranging from 2.93 to 66.30 cycles day-1 (as well as dozens of small-amplitude combination modes and a predicted and detected third high-frequency triplet). The mode-coupling model correctly predicts the large amplitude variations of the coupled modes as a product of the amplitudes of the parent modes, while the phase changes are also correctly modeled. This differs from the behavior of "normal" combination frequencies in that the amplitudes are three orders of magnitude larger and may exceed even the amplitudes of the parent modes. We show that two dominant low frequencies at 5.86 and 2.93 cycles day-1 in the gravity-mode region are not harmonics of each other, and their properties follow those of the almost equidistant high-frequency triplet. We note that the previously puzzling situation of finding two strong peaks in the low-frequency region related by nearly a factor of two in frequency has been seen in other δ Sct stars as well.

  2. Control of Ferromagnetic Resonance Frequency and Frequency Linewidth by Electrical Fields in FeCo/[Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.68-[PbTiO3]0.32(011) Heterostructures

    Phuoc, Nguyen N.; Ong, C. K.

    2016-06-01

    We report our detailed investigation of the electrical tuning of the ferromagnetic resonance frequency and frequency linewidth in multiferroic heterostructures consisting of FeCo thin films grown onto [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3) O3]0.68-[PbTiO3]0.32 (PMN-PT) substrates with NiFe underlayers. Our study shows that the electrical tuning range of both ferromagnetic resonance frequency and frequency linewidth in this FeCo/PMN-PT heterostructure can be very large. Specifically, the resonance frequency can be tuned from 1.8 GHz to 10.3 GHz, and the frequency linewidth can be changed from 1.6 GHz to 7.3 GHz. The electrical tuning of these microwave properties is discussed in conjunction with the result from the static magnetic characterization and is explained based on the strain-driven magnetoelectric heterostructured effect.

  3. Deterministic phase engineering for optical Fano resonances with arbitrary lineshape and frequencies.

    Lin, Jiao; Huang, Lujun; Yu, Yiling; He, Sailing; Cao, Linyou

    2015-07-27

    We present an approach of deterministic phase engineering that can enable the rational design of optical Fano resonances with arbitrarily pre-specified lineshapes. Unlike all the approaches previously used to design optical Fano resonances, which fall short of designing the resonances with arbitrary lineshapes because of the lack of information for the optical phases involved, we develop our approach by capitalizing on unambiguous knowledge for the phase of optical modes. Optical Fano resonances arise from the interference of photons interacting with two optical modes with substantially different quality factors. We find that the phase difference of the two modes involved in optical Fano resonances is determined by the eigenfrequency difference of the modes. This allows us to deterministically engineer the phase by tuning the eigenfrequency, which may be very straightforward. We use dielectric grating structures as an example to illustrate the notion of deterministic engineering for the design of optical Fano resonances with arbitrarily pre-specified symmetry, linewidth, and wavelengths. PMID:26367578

  4. Egalisation adaptative et non invasive de la reponse temps-frequence d'une petite salle

    Martin, Tristan

    In this research, we are interested in sound, environment wherein it propagates, the interaction between the sound wave and a transmission channel, and the changes induced by the components of an audio chain. The specific context studied is that of listening to music on loudspeakers. For the environment in which sound wave propagates, like for any transmission channel, there are mathematical functions used to characterize the changes induced by a channel on the signal therethrough. An electric signal serves as a input for a system, in this case consisting of an amplifier, a loudspeaker, and the room where the listening takes place, which according to its characteristics, returns as an output at the listening position, an altered sound wave. Frequency response, impulse response, transfer function, the mathematics used are no different from those used commonly for the characterization of a transmission channel or the expression of the outputs of a linear system to its inputs. Naturally, there is a purpose to this modeling exercise: getting the frequency response of the amplifier/loundspeaker/room chain makes possible its equalization. It is common in many contexts of listening to find a filter inserted into the audio chain between the source (Eg CD player) and the amplifier/loudspeaker that converts the electrical signal to an acoustic signal propagated in the room. This filter, called "equalizer" is intended to compensate the frequency effect of the components of the audio chain and the room on the sound signal that will be transmitted. Properties for designing this filter are derived from those of the audio chain. Although analytically rigorous, physical approach, focusing on physical modeling of the loudspeaker and the propagation equation of the acoustic wave is ill-suited to rooms with complex geometry and changing over time. The second approach, experimental modeling, and therefore that addressed in this work, ignores physical properties. The system audio chain

  5. Evidence of resonant mode coupling and the relationship between low and high frequencies in a rapidly rotating A star

    Breger, Michel

    2014-01-01

    In the theory of resonant mode coupling, the parent and child modes are directly related in frequency and phase. The oscillations present in the fast rotating Delta Scuti star KIC 8054146 allow us to test the most general and generic aspects of such a theory. The only direct way to separate the parent and coupled (child) modes is to examine the correlations in amplitude variability between the different frequencies. For the dominant family of related frequencies, only a single mode and a triplet are the origins of nine dominant frequency peaks ranging from 2.93 to 66.30 cycles per day (as well as dozens of small-amplitude combination modes and a predicted and detected third high-frequency triplet). The mode-coupling model correctly predicts the large amplitude variations of the coupled modes as a product of the amplitudes of the parent modes, while the phase changes are also correctly modeled. This differs from the behavior of 'normal' combination frequencies in that the amplitudes are three orders of magnitu...

  6. Resonances

    an impetus or drive to that account: change, innovation, rupture, or discontinuity. Resonances: Historical Essays on Continuity and Change explores the historiographical question of the modes of interrelation between these motifs in historical narratives. The essays in the collection attempt to...... realize theoretical consciousness through historical narrative ‘in practice’, by discussing selected historical topics from Western cultural history, within the disciplines of history, literature, visual arts, musicology, archaeology, philosophy, and theology. The title Resonances indicates the overall...

  7. Third-order effects in resonant sum-frequency-generation signals at electrified metal/liquid interfaces.

    Koelsch, Patrick; Muglali, Mutlu; Rohwerder, Michael; Erbe, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Vibrational sum-frequency-generation (SFG) spectroscopy experiments at electrified interfaces involve incident laser radiation at frequencies in the IR and near-IR/visible regions as well as a static electric field on the surface. Here we show that mixing the three fields present on the surface can result in third-order effects in resonant SFG signals. This was achieved for closed packed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with molecular groups of high optical nonlinearity and surface potentials similar to those typically applied in cyclic voltammograms. Broadband SFG spectroscopy was applied to study a hydrophobic well-ordered araliphatic SAM on a Au(111) surface using a thin-layer analysis cell for spectro-electrochemical investigations in a 100 mM NaOH electrolyte solution. Resonant contributions were experimentally separated from non-resonant contributions of the Au substrate and theoretically analyzed using a fitting function including third-order terms. The resulting ratio of third-order to second-order susceptibilities was estimated to be [Formula: see text](10(-10)) m/V. PMID:24235781

  8. Effect of spike-timing-dependent plasticity on coherence resonance and synchronization transitions by time delay in adaptive neuronal networks

    Xie, Huijuan; Gong, Yubing; Wang, Qi

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we numerically study how time delay induces multiple coherence resonance (MCR) and synchronization transitions (ST) in adaptive Hodgkin-Huxley neuronal networks with spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP). It is found that MCR induced by time delay STDP can be either enhanced or suppressed as the adjusting rate Ap of STDP changes, and ST by time delay varies with the increase of Ap, and there is optimal Ap by which the ST becomes strongest. It is also found that there are optimal network randomness and network size by which ST by time delay becomes strongest, and when Ap increases, the optimal network randomness and optimal network size increase and related ST is enhanced. These results show that STDP can either enhance or suppress MCR and optimal STDP can enhance ST induced by time delay in the adaptive neuronal networks. These findings provide a new insight into STDP's role for the information processing and transmission in neural systems.

  9. Rician noise reduction in magnetic resonance images using adaptive non-local mean and guided image filtering

    Mahmood, Muhammad Tariq; Chu, Yeon-Ho; Choi, Young-Kyu

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a Rician noise reduction method for magnetic resonance (MR) images. The proposed method is based on adaptive non-local mean and guided image filtering techniques. In the first phase, a guidance image is obtained from the noisy image through an adaptive non-local mean filter. Sobel operators are applied to compute the strength of edges which is further used to control the spread of the kernel in non-local mean filtering. In the second phase, the noisy and the guidance images are provided to the guided image filter as input to restore the noise-free image. The improved performance of the proposed method is investigated using the simulated and real data sets of MR images. Its performance is also compared with the previously proposed state-of-the art methods. Comparative analysis demonstrates the superiority of the proposed scheme over the existing approaches.

  10. Effects of pulse frequency modulation on three-step resonance laser ionization

    Through numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation the authors illustrate the effects of frequency modulation laser upon the excitation of a four-level system irradiated by simultaneous laser pulse. When the laser power is sufficiently great and the frequency modulation parameters are suitable, it shows that the frequency modulation excitation applied to a Gaussin statistical distribution of detunings can obtain more effective three-step photoionization than monochromatic or amplitude modulation excitation does

  11. Singly-resonant sum frequency generation of visible light in a semiconductor disk laser

    Andersen, Martin Thalbitzer; Schlosser, P.J.; J. E. Hastie; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Dawson, M.D.; Pedersen, Christian

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a generic approach for visible light generation is presented. It is based on sum frequency generation between a semiconductor disk laser and a solid-state laser, where the frequency mixing is achieved within the cavity of the semiconductor disk laser using a singlepass of the solid-state laser light. This exploits the good beam quality and high intra-cavity power present in the semiconductor disk laser to achieve high conversion efficiency. Combining sum frequency mixing and sem...

  12. Symmetric and Asymmetric Split Ring Resonators for Biosensing at Terahertz Frequencies

    Naranjo, Guillermo; Peralta, Xomalin

    2015-03-01

    Food allergies have become a major health concern around the world. Peanut allergies are particularly important because they affect over 5 million people in the United States. We are proposing to develop a metamaterial-based sensor for peanut allergens. The detection mechanism we will tap into is the change in a metamaterial's resonant response due to the presence of a biomolecule in the gap region. Using a commercial-grade simulator based on the finite-difference time-domain method, we have simulated the terahertz transmission and reflection spectra of three different split-ring resonator designs with and without a biomolecule present. By modifying the overall symmetry of the resonator and the geometry of the gap region, we have modified the resonant response and increased its sensitivity. The increased sensitivity is demonstrated by repeating the simulations with a layer of peroxidase conjugated immunoglobulin G (PX-IgG) in the gap region and quantifying the resulting resonant shift. These results are the basis for the proposed allergen sensors. UTSA MBRS-RISE Research Training Program.

  13. Estimation of breast density: An adaptive moment preserving method for segmentation of fibroglandular tissue in breast magnetic resonance images

    Purpose: Breast density has been found to be a potential indicator for breast cancer risk. The estimation of breast density can be seen as a segmentation problem on fibroglandular tissues from a breast magnetic resonance image. The classic moment preserving is a thresholding method, which can be applied to determine an appropriate threshold value for fibroglandular tissue segmentation. Methods: This study proposed an adaptive moment preserving method, which combines the classic moment preserving and a thresholding adjustment method. The breast MR images are firstly performed to extract the fibroglandular tissue from the breast tissue. The next step is to obtain the areas of the fibroglandular tissue and the whole breast tissue. Finally, breast density can be estimated for the given breast. Results: The Friedman test shows that the qualities of segmentation are insignificant with p < 0.000 and Friedman chi-squared = 1116.12. The Friedman test shows that there would be significant differences in the sum of the ranks of at least one segmentation method. Average ranks indicate that the performance of the four methods is ranked as adaptive moment preserving, fuzzy c-means, moment preserving, and Kapur's method in order. Among the four methods, adaptive moment preserving also achieves the minimum values of MAE and RMSE with 9.2 and 12. Conclusion: This study has verified that the proposed adaptive moment preserving can identify and segment the fibroglandular tissues from the 2D breast MR images and estimate the degrees of breast density.

  14. Broadband wireless radio frequency power telemetry using a metamaterial resonator embedded with non-foster impedance circuitry

    Fu, Guoqing; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2015-05-01

    Wireless powering of implantable biomedical devices and smart radio frequency identification (RFID) tags with very low profile antennas is desired. We propose a low profile electrically small antenna for near-field wireless power telemetry employing a metamaterial Split Ring Resonator (SRR) antenna. SRRs can be designed for operation over wide frequencies from RF to visible. However, they are inherently narrowband making them sensitive to component mismatch with respect to external transmit antenna. Here, we propose an embedding of a non-foster impedance circuitry into the metamaterial SRR structure that imparts conjugate negative complex impedance to this resonator antenna thereby increasing the effective bandwidth and thus overcoming the fundamental limit for efficient signal coupling. We demonstrate the concept through extensive numerical simulations and a prototype system at the board level using discrete off-the-shelf components and printed circuit SRR antenna at 500 MHz. We show that the power transfer between SRR receive antenna and the external transmit loop antenna is improved by more than 8 dB over a wide frequency band (from 525 MHz to 635 MHz), before and after non-foster circuit activation.

  15. Frequency Modulation Induced by using the Linear Phase Modulation Method used in a Resonator Micro-optic Gyro

    HONG Ling-Fei; ZHANG Chun-Xi; FENG Li-Shuang; YU Huai-Yong; LEI Ming

    2012-01-01

    Resonator micro-optic gyro (R-MOG) sensing rotation angular-velocity is based on Sagnac effect.We present a frequency modulation (FM) induced by the analog triangle-waveform phase modulation (ATAW-PM) technique in an R-MOG.Compared with the traditional serrodyne phase modulation or digital phase modulation methods,the proposed modulation technique has the intrinsic advantage in free of sweeping-back or step-effect induced pulse noise.The influence on dynamic range and resolution of the R-MOG by the parameters of analog trianglewaveform is theoretically analyzed.Experiments are carried out on an R-MOG composed of an integrated optic resonator with a free spectral range (FSR) and a fitness (F) of 1.6GHz and 61,respectively.Dynamic range of ±500 deg/s and bias drift of 0.6 deg/s over 1 h and 0.05 deg/s for 60 s are reliably obtained.%Resonator micro-optic gyro (R-MOG) sensing rotation angular-velocity is based on Sagnac effect. We present a frequency modulation (FM) induced by the analog triangle-waveform phase modulation (ATAW-PM) technique in an R-MOG. Compared with the traditional serrodyne phase modulation or digital phase modulation methods, the proposed modulation technique has the intrinsic advantage in free of sweeping-back or step-effect induced pulse noise. The influence on dynamic range and resolution of the R-MOG by the parameters of analog triangle-waveform is theoretically analyzed. Experiments are carried out on an R-MOG composed of an integrated optic resonator with a free spectral range (FSR) and a Btness (F) of 1.6 GHz and 61, respectively. Dynamic range of ±500 deg/s and bias drift of 0.6deg/s over 1 h and 0.05deg/s for 60s are reliably obtained.

  16. Radio-frequency magnetic susceptibility of spin ice crystals Dy2Ti2O7 using tunnel diode resonator

    Teknowijoyo, Serafim; Cho, Kyuil; Tanatar, Makariy A.; Prozorov, Ruslan; Cava, Robert J.; Krizan, Jason W.; Ames Laboratory; Iowa State University Team; Princeton University Collaboration

    Spin ice compound, Dy2Ti2O7, has shown complex frequency - dependent magnetic behavior at low temperatures. While the DC measurements show conventional paramagnetic behavior, finite frequency susceptibility shows two regimes, - complex kagomé ice behavior at around 2 K and spin collective behavior above 10 K, depending on the frequency. Conventional AC susceptometry is limited to frequencies in a kHz range, but to get an insight into the possible Arrhenius activated behavior and characteristic relaxation times, higher frequencies are desired. We used self-oscillating tunnel-diode resonator (TDR) to probe magnetic susceptibility at 14.6 MHz, in the presence of a DC magnetic field and down to 50 mK. We found an unusual non-monotonic field dependence of the lower transition temperature, most likely associated with different spin configurations in a kagomé ice and an activated behavior of the upper transition, which has now shifted to 50 K range. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE BES MSED and was performed at the Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University under Contract DE-AC02-07CH11358. The work at Princeton university was supported by DOE BES Grant Number DE-FG02-08ER46544.

  17. Microwave photonic filter with a continuously tunable central frequency using an SOI high-Q microdisk resonator

    Utilizing a high-Q microdisk resonator (MDR) on a single silicon-on-insulator (SOI) chip, a compact microwave photonic filter (MPF) with a continuously tunable central frequency is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Assisted by the optical single side-band (OSSB) modulation, the optical frequency response of the MDR is mapped to the microwave frequency response to form an MPF with a continuously tunable central frequency and a narrow 3-dB bandwidth. In the experiment, using an MDR with a compact size of 20×20 μm2 and a high Q factor of 1.07×105, we obtain a compact MPF with a high rejection ratio of about 40 dB, a 3-dB bandwidth of about 2 GHz, and a frequency tuning range larger than 12 GHz. Our approach may allow the implementation of very compact, low-cost, low-consumption, and integrated notch MPF in a silicon chip. (atomic and molecular physics)

  18. Development of Integrated Electronics for Readout of High Frequency Micro/Nano-mechanical Resonator

    Tang, Meng

    Micro størrelse bulk type resonatorer er blevet udviklet gennern de sidste fem år til anvendelse inden for elektronikbranchen til lav strøm og billige alternativer til både passive og aktive komponenter. Dog kan denne type bulk resonator også bruges til bio/kemiske sensorer hvor, da på grund af d...

  19. Vibration-induced displacement using high-frequency resonators and friction layers

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    A mathematical model is set up to quantify vibration-induced motions of a slider with an imbedded resonator. A simple approximate expression is presented for predicting average velocities of the slider, agreeing fairly well with numerical integration of the full equations of motion. The simple...

  20. The Effect of Electronic Paramagnetism on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Frequencies in Metals

    Townes, C. H.; Herring, C.; Knight, W. D.

    1950-09-22

    Observations on the shifts of nuclear resonances in metals ( Li{sup 7}, Na{sup 23}, Cu {sup 63}, Be{sup 9}, Pb{sup 207}, Al{sup 27}, and Ca{sup 69} ) due to free electron paramagnetism; comparison with theoretical values.

  1. Vibration-induced displacement using high-frequency resonators and friction layers

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    1998-01-01

    A mathematical model is set up to quantify vibration-induced motions of a slider with an imbedded resonator. A simple approximate expression is presented for predicting average velocities of the slider, agreeing fairly well with numerical integration of the full equations of motion. The simple ex...

  2. Unified analytical expressions for calculating resonant frequencies, transimpedances, and equivalent input noise current densities of tuned receiver front ends

    Liu, Qing Zhong

    1992-01-01

    Unified analytical expressions have been derived for calculating the resonant frequencies, transimpedance and equivalent input noise current densities of the four most widely used tuned optical receiver front ends built with FETs and p-i-n diodes. A more accurate FET model has been used to improve...... the accuracy of the analysis. The Miller capacitance has been taken into account, and its impact on the performances of the tuned front ends has been demonstrated. The accuracy of the expressions has been verified by Touchstone simulations. The agreement between the calculated and simulated...

  3. Long-distance pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps

    Klofai, Yerima [Department of Physics, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Maroua, PO Box 46 Maroua (Cameroon); Essimbi, B Z [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde 1, PO Box 812 Yaounde (Cameroon); Jaeger, D, E-mail: bessimb@yahoo.fr [ZHO, Optoelectronik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs)/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps is investigated for long-distance propagation of short pulses. Applying perturbative analysis, we show that the dynamics of each line is reduced to an expanded Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation. Moreover, it is found by computer experiments that the soliton developed in NLTLs experiences an exponential amplitude decay on the one hand and an exponential amplitude growth on the other. As a result, the behavior of a pulse in special electrical networks made of concatenated pieces of lines is closely similar to the transmission of information in optical/electrical communication systems.

  4. Superconducting electron tunneling as detection method for low frequency resonant vibration modes of interstitials in fcc lead

    The influence of crystal defects on the phonon spectra was studied for fcc lead using superconducting tunneling spectroscopy. The theory predicts low frequency modes for the vibrational states of interstitials in (100) dumbbell configuration. Low temperature irradiation of superconducting point contacts with fast ions (point contact thickness small compared to the average ion range) showed radiation-induced structures in the low-energy part of the Eliashberg function for lead. These resonant modes are reduced by annealing at 18.5 K; they are attributed to small interstitial clusters. The radiation-induced structures are completely removed by room temperature annealing. (orig.)

  5. Long-distance pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps

    Pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs)/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps is investigated for long-distance propagation of short pulses. Applying perturbative analysis, we show that the dynamics of each line is reduced to an expanded Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation. Moreover, it is found by computer experiments that the soliton developed in NLTLs experiences an exponential amplitude decay on the one hand and an exponential amplitude growth on the other. As a result, the behavior of a pulse in special electrical networks made of concatenated pieces of lines is closely similar to the transmission of information in optical/electrical communication systems.

  6. Singly-resonant sum frequency generation of visible light in a semiconductor disk laser

    Andersen, Martin Thalbitzer; Schlosser, P.J.; Hastie, J.E.;

    2009-01-01

    -state laser light. This exploits the good beam quality and high intra-cavity power present in the semiconductor disk laser to achieve high conversion efficiency. Combining sum frequency mixing and semiconductor disk lasers in this manner allows in principle for generation of any wavelength within the visible......In this paper a generic approach for visible light generation is presented. It is based on sum frequency generation between a semiconductor disk laser and a solid-state laser, where the frequency mixing is achieved within the cavity of the semiconductor disk laser using a singlepass of the solid...... spectrum, by appropriate choice of semiconductor material and single-pass laser wavelength....

  7. Rogue wave triggered at a critical frequency of a nonlinear resonant medium

    He, Jingsong; Xu, Shuwei; Porsezian, K.; Cheng, Yi; Dinda, P. Tchofo

    2016-06-01

    We consider a two-level atomic system interacting with an electromagnetic field controlled in amplitude and frequency by a high intensity laser. We show that the amplitude of the induced electric field admits an envelope profile corresponding to a breather soliton. We demonstrate that this soliton can propagate with any frequency shift with respect to that of the control laser, except a critical frequency, at which the system undergoes a structural discontinuity that transforms the breather in a rogue wave. A mechanism of generation of rogue waves by means of an intense laser field is thus revealed.

  8. Adaptive Noise Cancellation System for Low Frequency Transmission of Sound in Open Fan Aircraft

    Steven Griffin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of a structural/acoustic model of a section of a large aircraft to help define the sensor/actuator architecture that was used in a hardware demonstration of adaptive noise cancellation. Disturbances considered were representative of propeller-induced disturbances from an open fan aircraft. Controller on and controller off results from a hardware demonstration on a portion of a large aircraft are also included. The use of the model has facilitated the development of a new testing technique, closely related to modal testing, that can be used to find good structural actuator locations for adaptive noise cancellation.

  9. Adapt

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  10. High power doubly resonant all-intracavity deep blue laser at 447 nm based on sum-frequency-mixing technology

    YongjiYu; Guangyong Jin; Chao Wang; Xinyu Chen; Jiaxi Guo; Yibo Wang

    2009-01-01

    @@ A high power continuous-wave deep blue laser at 447 nm is obtained by using a doubly cavity and a type Π critical phase matching KTP crystal for intracavity sum-frequency-mixing.With the incident pump power of 240 W for the Nd:YAP crystal and 120 W for the other Nd:YAP crystal, the deep blue laser output of 5.7 W at 447 nm with near fundamental mode is obtained, and the beam quality M2 value equals 2.53 in both horizontal and vertical directions at the maximum output power.The power stability is better than 2% at the maximum output power during half an hour.The experimental results show that the intracavity sum-frequency mixing by doubly resonant is an effective method for high power blue laser.

  11. Four-wave mixing parametric oscillation and frequency comb generation at visible wavelengths in a silica microbubble resonator

    Yang, Yong; Kasumie, Sho; Zhao, Guangming; Xu, Linhua; Ward, Jonathan; Yang, Lan; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2016-01-01

    Frequency comb generation in microresonators at visible wavelengths has found applications in a variety of areas such as metrology, sensing, and imaging. To achieve Kerr combs based on four-wave mixing in a microresonator, dispersion must be in the anomalous regime. In this work, we demonstrate dispersion engineering in a microbubble resonator (MBR) fabricated by a two-CO$_2$ laser beam technique. By decreasing the wall thickness of the MBR down to 1.4 $\\mu$m, the zero dispersion wavelength shifts to values shorter than 764 nm, making phase matching possible around 765 nm. With the optical \\textit{Q}-factor of the MBR modes being greater than $10^7$, four-wave mixing is observed at 765 nm for a pump power of 3 mW. By increasing the pump power, parametric oscillation is achieved, and a frequency comb with 14 comb lines is generated at visible wavelengths.

  12. Adaptive Tuning of Frequency Thresholds Using Voltage Drop Data in Decentralized Load Shedding

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Faria Da Silva, Filipe Miguel; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    Load shedding (LS) is the last firewall and the most expensive control action against power system blackout. In the conventional under frequency LS (UFLS) schemes, the load drop locations are already determined independently of the event location. Furthermore, the frequency thresholds of LS relays are prespecified and constant values which may not be a comprehensive solution for widespread range of possible events. This paper addresses the decentralized LS in which the instantaneous voltage d...

  13. Constant-frequency multi-resonant converter-fed DC motor drives

    Chau, KT; Ching, TW; Chan, CC

    1996-01-01

    Low-inductance dc motors with high power density and low rotor inertia are becoming more attractive, particularly for servo applications. In order to maintain their current ripples within acceptable levels, power converters need to operate at high switching frequencies. However, the increase in switching frequencies realizable by hard-switching techniques accompanies the increase in switching losses and switching stresses. In this paper, recent soft-switching dc-dc converters are discussed fo...

  14. Resonance and frequency-locking phenomena in spatially extended phytoplankton–zooplankton system with additive noise and periodic forces

    It is known that natural systems are undeniably subject to random fluctuations, arising from either environmental variability or internal effects. In this paper, we present a spatial version of the phytoplankton–zooplankton model that includes some important factors such as external periodic forces, noise, and diffusion processes. The spatially extended phytoplankton–zooplankton system is from the original study by Scheffer (Scheffer 1991 Oikos 62 271). Our results show that the spatially extended system exhibits a resonant pattern and frequency-locking phenomena. The system also shows that the noise and the external periodic forces play a constructive role in the Scheffer's model: (i) the noise can enhance the oscillation of phytoplankton species' density and form large clusters in space when the noise intensity is within a certain interval; (ii) the external periodic forces can induce 4:1 and 1:1 frequency-locking and spatially homogeneous oscillation phenomena to appear; and (iii) resonant patterns are observed in the system when the spatial noises and external periodic forces are both turned on. Moreover, we find that the 4:1 frequency locking transforms into 1:1 frequency locking when the noise intensity is increased. In addition to elucidating our results outside the domain of Turing instability, we provide further analysis of linear stability with the help of numerical calculation using the Maple software. Significantly, oscillations are enhanced in the system when the noise term is present. These results indicate that the oceanic plankton bloom may be partly due to interplay between the stochastic factors and external forces instead of deterministic factors. These results also may help us to understand the effects arising from the undeniable susceptibility to random fluctuations in oceanic plankton bloom

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar spine disc diseases. Frequency of false negatives

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has had an impressive impact on evaluation of degenerative diseases of the spine. Nevertheless, false negatives can occur on images involving lumbar discs. Degenerative disc diseases documented on discography and/or pathology examination of the discs can go unrecognized. Likewise sensitivity for the detection of protruding disc hernias is not totally satisfactory (20% false negatives). Finally, a magnetic resonance image visualizing displacement of the disc is not specific (10 to 15% false positives); images showing protrusion or hernia can be seen in 30% of asymptomatic patients. Although MRI gives slightly more information than other imaging techniques, false images do exist. Moreover, the usefulness of MRI to demonstrate disc disease in case of a negative CT-scan remains to be demonstrated. (authors). 26 refs

  16. Adjustable low frequency and broadband metamaterial absorber based on magnetic rubber plate and cross resonator

    Cheng, Yongzhi; Nie, Yan; Wang, Xian; Gong, Rongzhou

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, the magnetic rubber plate absorber (MRPA) and metamaterial absorber (MA) based on MRP substrate were proposed and studied numerically and experimentally. Based on the characteristic of L-C resonances, experimental results show that the MA composed of cross resonator (CR) embedded single layer MRP could be adjustable easily by changing the wire length and width of CR structure and MRP thickness. Finally, experimental results show that the MA composed of CR-embedded two layers MRP with the total thickness of 2.42 mm exhibit a -10 dB absorption bandwidth from 1.65 GHz to 3.7 GHz, which is 1.86 times wider than the same thickness MRPA.

  17. Transient Schr\\"odinger-Poisson Simulations of a High-Frequency Resonant Tunneling Diode Oscillator

    Mennemann, Jan-Frederik; Kosina, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Transient simulations of a resonant tunneling diode oscillator are presented. The semiconductor model for the diode consists of a set of time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equations coupled to the Poisson equation for the electric potential. The one-dimensional Schr\\"odinger equations are discretized by the finite-difference Crank-Nicolson scheme using memory-type transparent boundary conditions which model the injection of electrons from the reservoirs. This scheme is unconditionally stable and reflection-free at the boundary. An efficient recursive algorithm due to Arnold, Ehrhardt, and Sofronov is used to implement the transparent boundary conditions, enabling simulations which involve a very large number of time steps. Special care has been taken to provide a discretization of the boundary data which is completely compatible with the underlying finite-difference scheme. The transient regime between two stationary states and the self-oscillatory behavior of an oscillator circuit, containing a resonant tunneling ...

  18. An Adaptive Systematic Lossy Error Protection Scheme for Broadcast Applications Based on Frequency Filtering and Unequal Picture Protection

    Marie Ramon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic lossy error protection (SLEP is a robust error resilient mechanism based on principles of Wyner-Ziv (WZ coding for video transmission over error-prone networks. In an SLEP scheme, the video bitstream is separated into two parts: a systematic part consisting of a video sequence transmitted without channel coding, and additional information consisting of a WZ supplementary stream. This paper presents an adaptive SLEP scheme in which the WZ stream is obtained by frequency filtering in the transform domain. Additionally, error resilience varies adaptively depending on the characteristics of compressed video. We show that the proposed SLEP architecture achieves graceful degradation of reconstructed video quality in the presence of increasing transmission errors. Moreover, it provides good performances in terms of error protection as well as reconstructed video quality if compared to solutions based on coarser quantization, while offering an interesting embedded scheme to apply digital video format conversion.

  19. Detailing radio frequency heating induced by coronary stents: a 7.0 tesla magnetic resonance study

    Santoro, D; Winter, L. de; Mueller, A; Vogt, J; Renz, W.; Ozerdem, C; Graessl, A; Tkachenko, V.; Schulz-Menger, J.; Niendorf, T

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity gain of ultrahigh field Magnetic Resonance (UHF-MR) holds the promise to enhance spatial and temporal resolution. Such improvements could be beneficial for cardiovascular MR. However, intracoronary stents used for treatment of coronary artery disease are currently considered to be contra-indications for UHF-MR. The antenna effect induced by a stent together with RF wavelength shortening could increase local radiofrequency (RF) power deposition at 7.0 T and bears the potential ...

  20. Detailing Radio Frequency Heating Induced by Coronary Stents: A 7.0 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Study

    Davide Santoro; Lukas Winter; Alexander Müller; Julia Vogt; Wolfgang Renz; Celal Ozerdem; Andreas Grässl; Valeriy Tkachenko; Jeanette Schulz-Menger; Thoralf Niendorf

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity gain of ultrahigh field Magnetic Resonance (UHF-MR) holds the promise to enhance spatial and temporal resolution. Such improvements could be beneficial for cardiovascular MR. However, intracoronary stents used for treatment of coronary artery disease are currently considered to be contra-indications for UHF-MR. The antenna effect induced by a stent together with RF wavelength shortening could increase local radiofrequency (RF) power deposition at 7.0 T and bears the potential ...

  1. Radio frequency probes for ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging

    Lee, Daniel James

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the design, construction and testing of a dome coil. The dome coil is hemispherical in shape and is intended to be used within a set of hemispherical gradient coils in a seven tesla magnetic resonance imaging magnet. The dome coil has eight independent elements and is designed to be used for parallel transmission and reception. It is shown that the dome coil produces less specific absorption rate than a conventional birdcage coil and is suitable for head imaging. A st...

  2. On frequency optimization of assymetric resonant inductive coupling wireless power transfer links

    Egidos, Nuria; Bou, Elisenda; Sedwick, Raymond; Alarcón Cot, Eduardo José

    2014-01-01

    Resonant Inductive Coupling Wireless Power Transfer (RIC-WPT) is a leading field of research due to the growing number of applications that can benefit from this technology: from biomedical implants to consumer electronics, fractionated spacecraft and electric vehicles amongst others. However, current applications are limited to symetric point-to-point-links. New challenges and applications of RIC-WPT emphasize the necessity to explore, predict and optimize the behavior of these links for dif...

  3. Transient Schr\\"odinger-Poisson Simulations of a High-Frequency Resonant Tunneling Diode Oscillator

    Mennemann, Jan-Frederik; Jüngel, Ansgar; Kosina, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Transient simulations of a resonant tunneling diode oscillator are presented. The semiconductor model for the diode consists of a set of time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equations coupled to the Poisson equation for the electric potential. The one-dimensional Schr\\"odinger equations are discretized by the finite-difference Crank-Nicolson scheme using memory-type transparent boundary conditions which model the injection of electrons from the reservoirs. This scheme is unconditionally stable and re...

  4. Viscoelastic properties of the ferret brain measured in vivo at multiple frequencies by magnetic resonance elastography

    Feng, Y.; Clayton, E. H.; Chang, Y.; Okamoto, R.J.; Bayly, P.V.

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of the dynamic mechanical behavior of brain tissue is essential for understanding and simulating the mechanisms of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Changes in mechanical properties may also reflect changes in the brain due to aging or disease. In this study, we used magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) to measure the viscoelastic properties of ferret brain tissue in vivo. Three-dimensional (3D) displacement fields were acquired during wave propagation in the brain induced by ha...

  5. Optical pathology of human brain metastasis of lung cancer using combined resonance Raman and spatial frequency spectroscopies

    Zhou, Yan; Liu, Cheng-hui; Pu, Yang; Cheng, Gangge; Zhou, Lixin; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Ke; Alfano, Robert R.

    2016-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy has become widely used for diagnostic purpose of breast, lung and brain cancers. This report introduced a new approach based on spatial frequency spectra analysis of the underlying tissue structure at different stages of brain tumor. Combined spatial frequency spectroscopy (SFS), Resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopic method is used to discriminate human brain metastasis of lung cancer from normal tissues for the first time. A total number of thirty-one label-free micrographic images of normal and metastatic brain cancer tissues obtained from a confocal micro- Raman spectroscopic system synchronously with examined RR spectra of the corresponding samples were collected from the identical site of tissue. The difference of the randomness of tissue structures between the micrograph images of metastatic brain tumor tissues and normal tissues can be recognized by analyzing spatial frequency. By fitting the distribution of the spatial frequency spectra of human brain tissues as a Gaussian function, the standard deviation, σ, can be obtained, which was used to generate a criterion to differentiate human brain cancerous tissues from the normal ones using Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. This SFS-SVM analysis on micrograph images presents good results with sensitivity (85%), specificity (75%) in comparison with gold standard reports of pathology and immunology. The dual-modal advantages of SFS combined with RR spectroscopy method may open a new way in the neuropathology applications.

  6. Electromechanical design and construction of a rotating radio-frequency coil system for applications in magnetic resonance.

    Trakic, Adnan; Weber, Ewald; Li, Bing Keong; Wang, Hua; Liu, Feng; Engstrom, Craig; Crozier, Stuart

    2012-04-01

    While recent studies have shown that rotating a single radio-frequency (RF) coil during the acquisition of magnetic resonance (MR) images provides a number of hardware advantages (i.e., requires only one RF channel, avoids coil-coil coupling and facilitates large-scale multinuclear imaging), they did not describe in detail how to build a rotating RF coil system. This paper presents detailed engineering information on the electromechanical design and construction of a MR-compatible RRFC system for human head imaging at 2 T. A custom-made (bladeless) pneumatic Tesla turbine was used to rotate the RF coil at a constant velocity, while an infrared optical encoder measured the selected frequency of rotation. Once the rotating structure was mechanically balanced and the compressed air supply suitably regulated, the maximum frequency of rotation measured ~14.5 Hz with a 2.4% frequency variation over time. MR images of a water phantom and human head were obtained using the rotating RF head coil system. PMID:22231668

  7. Optical whispering-gallery mode resonators for applications in optical communication and frequency control

    Grutter, Karen Esther

    High quality factor (Q) optical whispering gallery mode resonators are a key component in many on-chip optical systems, such as delay lines, modulators, and add-drop filters. They are also a convenient, compact structure for studying optomechanical interactions on-chip. In all these applications, optical Q is an important factor for high performance. For optomechanical reference oscillators in particular, high mechanical Q is also necessary. Previously, optical microresonators have been made in a wide variety of materials, but it has proven challenging to demonstrate high optical Q and high mechanical Q in a single, integrated device. This work demonstrates a new technique for achieving high optical Q on chip, a fully-integrated tunable filter with ultra-narrow minimum bandwidth, and the effect of material choice and device design on optical Q, mechanical Q and phase noise in microring optomechanical oscillators. To achieve a high optical Q, phosphosilicate glass (PSG) is studied as a resonator material. The low melting point of PSG enables wafer-scale reflow, which reduces sidewall roughness without significantly changing lithographically-defined dimensions. With this process, optical Qs up to 1.5 x 10. 7 are achieved, overten times higher than typical silicon optical resonators. These high-Q PSG resonators are then integrated with MEMS-actuated waveguides in a tunable-bandwidth filter. Due to the high Q of the PSG resonator, this device has a best-to-date minimum bandwidth of 0.8 GHz, with a tuning range of 0.8 to 8.5GHz. Finally, microring optomechanical oscillators (OMOs) in PSG, stoichiometric silicon nitride, and silicon are fabricated, and their performance is compared after characterization via a tapered optical fiber in vacuum. The silicon nitride device has the best performance, with a mechanical Q of more than 1 x 10. 4and record-breaking OMO phase noise of -102 dBc/Hz at a 1 kHz offset from a 72 MHz carrier.

  8. Bidirectional electrothermal electromagnetic torsional microactuators for large angular motion at dc mode and high frequency resonance mode operation

    This paper presents a novel design of a bidirectional torsional micromirror utilizing vertically driven electrothermal electromagnetic silicon beam actuators to generate large angular motion in both static mode and high-frequency resonance mode with low operational voltages. The microactuators are fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer using three photo masks in order to form two different thicknesses of single crystal silicon (SCS) device layer and backside cavities. When the driving bias is applied to the device in the static mode operation, four buckle beams placed alongside the torsion bars are subjected to thermal expansion and buckle in the vertical direction generating torsional displacement of the micromirror with respect to two torsion bars, the center of rotation. The direction of buckle is controlled by the Lorentz force caused by the current flowing through the silicon beams to be buckled in the magnetic field applied, enabling the bidirectional motion of the torsional micromirror. At resonance, Lorentz force itself drives the actuator instead of thermal expansion force from the buckle beams. The maximum static angular displacement of the torsional actuator is 13.42° (26.84°, optical angle) under a driving dc voltage of 7.5 V. In the resonance mode operation, the measured angular displacement is 8.22° (16.44°, optical angle) at 10.64 kHz under sinusoidal driving voltages of 0 to 4.4 V

  9. Flexible metamaterial narrow-band-pass filter based on magnetic resonance coupling between ultra-thin bilayer frequency selective surfaces

    A novel flexible metamaterial narrow-band-pass filter is designed and proved to be reliable by both numerical simulations and experimental measurements. The unit cell of the designed structure consists of circle ring resonators on top of a thin dielectric layer backed by a metallic mesh. The investigations on the distribution of the surface current and magnetic field as well as the analysis of the equivalent circuit model reveal that the magnetic resonance response between layers induced by the reverse surface current contributes to the high quality factor band-pass property. Importantly, it is a flexible design with a tunable resonance frequency by just changing the radius of the circle rings and can also be easily extended to have the multi-band-pass property. Moreover, this simplified structure with low duty cycle and ultra-thin thickness is also a symmetric design which is insensitive to the polarization and incident angles. Therefore, such a metamaterial narrow-band-pass filter is of great importance in the practical applications such as filtering and radar stealth, and especially for the conformal structure applications in the infrared and optical window area. (paper)

  10. On the dispersion management of fluorite whispering-gallery mode resonators for Kerr optical frequency comb generation in the telecom and mid-infrared range

    Lin, Guoping

    2015-01-01

    Optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators have been very attracting platforms for versatile Kerr frequency comb generations. We report a systematic study on the material dispersion of various optical materials that are capable of supporting quality factors above $10^9$. Using an analytical approximation of WGM resonant frequencies in disk resonators, we investigate the effect of the geometry and transverse mode order on the total group-velocity dispersion ($GVD$). We demonstrate that the major radii and the radial mode indices play an important role in tailoring the $GVD$ of WGM resonators. In particular, our study shows that in WGM disk-resonators, the polar families of modes have very similar $GVD$, while the radial families of modes feature dispersion values that can differ by up to several orders of magnitude. The effect of these giant dispersion shifts are experimentally evidenced in Kerr comb generation with magnesium fluoride. From a more general perspective, this critical feature enables to pus...

  11. Biomechanical evaluation of oversized drilling technique on primary implant stability measured by insertion torque and resonance frequency analysis

    Santamaría-Arrieta, Gorka; Brizuela-Velasco, Aritza; Fernández-González, Felipe J.; Chávarri-Prado, David; Chento-Valiente, Yelko; Solaberrieta, Eneko; Diéguez-Pereira, Markel; Yurrebaso-Asúa, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the influence of implant site preparation depth on primary stability measured by insertion torque and resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Material and Methods Thirty-two implant sites were prepared in eight veal rib blocks. Sixteen sites were prepared using the conventional drilling sequence recommended by the manufacturer to a working depth of 10mm. The remaining 16 sites were prepared using an oversize drilling technique (overpreparation) to a working depth of 12mm. Bone density was determined using cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT). The implants were placed and primary stability was measured by two methods: insertion torque (Ncm), and RFA (implant stability quotient [ISQ]). Results The highest torque values were achieved by the conventional drilling technique (10mm). The ANOVA test confirmed that there was a significant correlation between torque and drilling depth (p0.05) at either measurement direction (cortical and medullar). No statistical relation between torque and ISQ values was identified, or between bone density and primary stability (p >0.05). Conclusions Vertical overpreparation of the implant bed will obtain lower insertion torque values, but does not produce statistically significant differences in ISQ values. Key words:Implant stability quotient, overdrilling, primary stability, resonance frequency analysis, torque.

  12. Determination of intensity and position of the extracted electron beam at ELSA by means of high-frequency resonators

    The electron stretcher facility ELSA provides an electron beam of a few hundred pA used for the generation of bremsstrahlung photons probing the nucleon structure in a detector setup. For the correct interpretation of the events registered, the persistence of the beam position over time is crucial. Its continuous monitoring has been enabled by setting up a measurement system based on resonant cavities. Position signals at a frequency of 1.5 GHz and below one aW of power can be abstracted from the beam without degrading its quality. After frequency down-conversion to a few kHz, a narrow bandwidth detection performed by lock-in amplifiers separates them from noise. A maximum sample rate of 9 Hz and a resolution of one tenth of a millimeter could be achieved. The position signals have to be normalized to the beam current which is monitored by another dedicated resonator. The measurement precision down to a few pA allows for the accelerator extraction mechanism to be controlled by a feedback loop in order to obtain the respective requested current. (orig.)

  13. Adaptive role of increased frequency of polypurine tracts in mRNA sequences of thermophilic prokaryotes

    Paz, Arnon; Mester, David; Baca, Ivan; Nevo, Eviatar; Korol, Abraham

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of an organism's adaptation to high temperatures has been investigated intensively in recent years. It was suggested that the macromolecules of thermophilic microorganisms (especially proteins) have structural features that enhance their thermostability. We compared mRNA sequences of 72 fully sequenced prokaryotic proteomes (14 thermophilic and 58 mesophilic species). Although the differences between the percentage of adenine plus guanine content of whole mRNAs of different prok...

  14. US Mains Stacked Very High Frequency Self-oscillating Resonant Power Converter with Unified Rectifier

    Pedersen, Jeppe Arnsdorf; Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Mønster, Jakob Døllner; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    This paper describes a Very High Frequency (VHF) converter made with three Class-E inverters and a single ClassDE rectifier. The converter is designed for the US mains (120 V, 60 Hz) and can deliver 9 W to a 60 V LED. The converter has a switching frequency of 37 MHz and achieves an efficiency of...... 89.4%. With VHF converters the power density can be improved and the converter described in this paper has a power density of 2.14 W/cm3. The power factor (PF) requrements of mains connected equepment is fulfilled with a power factor of 0.96....

  15. Analysis of algorithms for detection of resonance frequencies in vibration measurements on super heater tubes; Analys av algoritmer foer detektering av resonansfrekvenser i vibrationsmaetningar paa oeverhettartuber

    Eriksson, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    Combustion of fuel in thermal power plants emits particles which creates coatings on the super heater tubes. The coatings isolate the tubes and impairs the efficiency of the heat transfer. Cleaning the tubes occurs while the power plant is running but without any knowledge of the actual coating. A change in frequency corresponds to a change in mass of the coatings. This thesis has been focusing in estimating resonance frequencies in vibration measurements made by strain gauges on the tubes. To improve the estimations a target tracking algorithm had been added. The results indicates that it is possible to estimate the resonance frequencies but the algorithms need to be verified on more signals.

  16. Multipurpose High Frequency Electron Spin Resonance Spectrometer for Condensed Matter Research

    Nagy, Kalman L; Quintavalle, Dario; Feher, Titusz; Janossy, Andras

    2009-01-01

    We describe a quasi-optical multifrequency ESR spectrometer operating in the 75-225 GHz range and optimized at 210 GHz for general use in condensed matter physics, chemistry and biology. The quasi-optical bridge detects the change of mm wave polarization at the ESR. A controllable reference arm maintains a mm wave bias at the detector. The attained sensitivity of 2x10^10 spin/G/(Hz)1/2, measured on a dilute Mn:MgO sample in a non-resonant probe head at 222.4 GHz and 300 K, is comparable to co...

  17. Sexual dimorphism of the zebra finch syrinx indicates adaptation for high fundamental frequencies in males.

    Tobias Riede

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many songbirds the larger vocal repertoire of males is associated with sexual dimorphism of the vocal control centers and muscles of the vocal organ, the syrinx. However, it is largely unknown how these differences are translated into different acoustic behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that the sound generating structures of the syrinx, the labia and the associated cartilaginous framework, also display sexual dimorphism. One of the bronchial half rings that position and tense the labia is larger in males, and the size and shape of the labia differ between males and females. The functional consequences of these differences were explored by denervating syringeal muscles. After denervation, both sexes produced equally low fundamental frequencies, but the driving pressure generally increased and was higher in males. Denervation strongly affected the relationship between driving pressure and fundamental frequency. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The syringeal modifications in the male syrinx, in concert with dimorphisms in neural control and muscle mass, are most likely the foundation for the potential to generate an enhanced frequency range. Sexually dimorphic vocal behavior therefore arises from finely tuned modifications at every level of the motor cascade. This sexual dimorphism in frequency control illustrates a significant evolutionary step towards increased vocal complexity in birds.

  18. Nonlinear beam clean-up using resonantly enhanced sum-frequency mixing

    Karamehmedovic, Emir; Pedersen, Christian; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin;

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of improving the beam quality and obtaining high conversion efficiency in nonlinear sum-frequency generation. A 765 nm beam from an external cavity tapered diode laser is single-passed through a nonlinear crystal situated in the high intracavity field of a 1342 nm N...

  19. Transient Schrödinger-Poisson simulations of a high-frequency resonant tunneling diode oscillator

    Mennemann, Jan-Frederik; Jüngel, Ansgar; Kosina, Hans

    2013-04-01

    Transient simulations of a resonant tunneling diode oscillator are presented. The semiconductor model for the diode consists of a set of time-dependent Schrödinger equations coupled to the Poisson equation for the electric potential. The one-dimensional Schrödinger equations are discretized by the finite-difference Crank-Nicolson scheme using memory-type transparent boundary conditions which model the injection of electrons from the reservoirs. This scheme is unconditionally stable and reflection-free at the boundary. An efficient recursive algorithm due to Arnold, Ehrhardt, and Sofronov is used to implement the transparent boundary conditions, enabling simulations which involve a very large number of time steps. Special care has been taken to provide a discretization of the boundary data which is completely compatible with the underlying finite-difference scheme. The transient regime between two stationary states and the self-oscillatory behavior of an oscillator circuit, containing a resonant tunneling diode, is simulated for the first time.

  20. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of bladder cancer and implications for biological image-adapted radiotherapy

    Purpose. To assess the role of image parameters derived from dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) in bladder cancer staging, and to investigate the potential use of such parameter images in biological image-adapted radiotherapy (RT). Materials and methods. High-resolution volumetric interpolated breath-hold (VIBE) DCEMRI of 26 patients diagnosed with bladder cancer was performed. DCEMRI parameters derived from tumor and muscle contrast uptake curves were extracted and subjected to correlation analysis with tumor volume as well as clinical, pathological, histological and T2-weighted MR tumor stage. For parameters showing a significant correlation with tumor stage, 3D malignancy maps were generated. As an initial step towards delivery of biologically adapted intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) it was hypothesized that the malignancy map could be used as a RT dose prescription map. Simulating IMRT delivery with multi-leaf collimators (MLCs), idealized dose distributions, constituted by dose cubes, were adapted to the prescription map. The size of the dose cubes were varied to mimic MLCs of varying leaf width. The difference between the adapted and prescribed dose distributions was quantified by the root mean square deviation (RMSD). Results. No significant relationships were found between tumor volume and extracted DCEMRI parameters. The normalized area between tumor and muscle contrast uptake curves (nABC) evaluated from 0-180 seconds (nABC180) and 0-480s (nABC480) correlated significantly with tumor stage (p=0.047 and p=0.035, respectively). Dose prescription maps for 10 patients were generated from the nABC480. The RMSD between the prescribed and adapted dose distribution decreased with decreasing size of the dose cubes. Large interpatient variations in the RMSD and in the dependence of the RMSD on different dose cube sizes were found. Conclusions. The nABC180 and nABC480 may provide added value in staging of bladder cancer. High