Study of the Method of Multi-Frequency Signal Detection Based on the Adaptive Stochastic Resonance
Zhenyu Lu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Recently, the stochastic resonance effect has been widely used by the method of discovering and extracting weak periodic signals from strong noise through the stochastic resonance effect. The detection of the single-frequency weak signals by using stochastic resonance effect is widely used. However, the detection methods of the multifrequency weak signals need to be researched. According to the different frequency input signals of a given system, this paper puts forward a detection method of multifrequency signal by using adaptive stochastic resonance, which analyzed the frequency characteristics and the parallel number of the input signals, adjusted system parameters automatically to the low frequency signals in the fixed step size, and then measured the stochastic resonance phenomenon based on the frequency of the periodic signals to select the most appropriate indicators in the middle or high frequency. Finally, the optimized system parameters are founded and the frequency of the given signals is extracted in the frequency domain of the stochastic resonance output signals. Compared with the traditional detection methods, the method in this paper not only improves the work efficiency but also makes it more accurate by using the color noise, the frequency is more accurate being extracted from the measured signal. The consistency between the simulation results and analysis shows that this method is effective and feasible.
Highlights: • An adaptive-frequency Harmonic-Compensation structure is used. • The frequency spectrum of the grid current is analyzed for different scenarios. • A comparison with the normative of the harmonic distortions is carried out. • The algorithms can be used in any country regardless its nominal frequency. - Abstract: In this paper, an adaptive-frequency Harmonic-Compensation structure for a Voltage Source Inverter used in a 3-phase grid-connected Photovoltaic system is presented. The main purpose is to show the frequency adaptation of the used control algorithm in order to improve the compensation of the low-order utility grid current harmonics when frequency variations occur, which can be seen as an outstanding feature when comparing to conventional non-adaptive Harmonic-Compensator structures, and can be used in any country regardless its nominal frequency and maintaining its Harmonic Compensation capability without making any change in the control algorithm. The frequency spectrum of the utility grid current is analyzed for three different scenarios: Proportional Resonant Controller without Harmonic Compensation, Proportional Resonant Controller with Harmonic Compensation, and adaptive-frequency Proportional Resonant Controller with Harmonic Compensation; a comparison with the normative of its individual and total harmonic amplitude distortions is carried out for the three situations. In order to validate the algorithms, some simulations using MATLAB/SIMULINK from The MathWorks, Inc. are shown firstly, and secondly, some real-time digital simulations are carried out
Maeda, Yoshihiro; Wada, Masatake; Iwasaki, Makoto; Hirai, Hiromu
This paper presents an adaptive feedfowad (FF) compensation method based on a deadbeat control framework for fast and precise positioning in mechatronic systems. The conventional FF compensation approach can design a FF compensator by considering both the frequency shaping and amplitude of FF control input, to suppress the response variations due to the perturbations in plant resonance frequency. However, since the conventional approach is not adaptive against frequency variations, an overshoot and/or undershoot response at the settling region would deteriorate the positioning performance. In this research, therefore, the proposed FF compensation approach with an adaptive identification system for the resonance frequency is adopted to achieve the desired positioning performance. The effectiveness of the proposed FF compensation approach has been verified by experiments using a prototype of an industrial positioning device.
Rajiv K Gupta; Thallam V Padmanabhan
2011-01-01
Initial stability at the placement and development of osseointegration are two major issues for implant survival. Implant stability is a mechanical phenomenon which is related to the local bone quality and quantity, type of implant, and placement technique used. The application of a simple, clinically applicable, non-invasive test to assess implant stability and osseointegration is considered highly desirable. Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) is one of such techniques which is most frequent...
Rajiv K Gupta
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Initial stability at the placement and development of osseointegration are two major issues for implant survival. Implant stability is a mechanical phenomenon which is related to the local bone quality and quantity, type of implant, and placement technique used. The application of a simple, clinically applicable, non-invasive test to assess implant stability and osseointegration is considered highly desirable. Resonance frequency analysis (RFA is one of such techniques which is most frequently used now days. The aim of this paper was to review and analyze critically the current available literature in the field of RFA, and to also discuss based on scientific evidence, the prognostic value of RFA to detect implants at risk of failure. A search was made using the PubMed database to find all the literature published on "Resonance frequency analysis for implant stability" till date. Articles discussed in vivo or in vitro studies comparing RFA with other methods of implant stability measurement and articles discussing its reliability were thoroughly reviewed and discussed. A limited number of clinical reports were found. Various studies have demonstrated the feasibility and predictability of the technique. However, most of these articles are based on retrospective data or uncontrolled cases. Randomized, prospective, parallel-armed longitudinal human trials are based on short-term results and long-term follow up are still scarce in this field. Nonetheless, from available literature, it may be concluded that RFA technique evaluates implant stability as a function of stiffness of the implant bone interface and is influenced by factors such as bone type, exposed implant height above the alveolar crest. Resonance frequency analysis could serve as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for detecting the implant stability of dental implants during the healing stages and in subsequent routine follow up care after treatment. Future studies, preferably randomized
An adaptive feedback circuit for MEMS resonators
The first adaptive feedback circuit capable of detecting resonant frequencies for a wide range of MEMS resonators is presented. The feedback system presented implements a hill-climbing algorithm that sweeps actuation frequencies, locking onto the resonance condition at maximum cantilever amplitude response without limitations on the frequency range. To demonstrate its adaptability, a circuit implementation of this feedback algorithm was used to detect the resonant frequency of eight different cantilever-based sensors (width (W) = 1.4 µm, length (L) = 40–75 µm, and thickness (T) = 1.8 µm), resonating at 201.0 to 592.1 kHz. Additionally, the same circuit was used to track resonant frequency shifts due to isopropanol adsorption on three different chemical sensors with no modifications. The feedback electronics integrated with these resonator sensors provide a mass resolution limit of 123 femptograms. The realization of this system will enable real-time chip-scale sensor systems, providing an alternative to external instrumentation modules that perform sensor control and monitoring.
Resonance and aspect matched adaptive radar (RAMAR)
Barrett, Terence William
2012-01-01
The book describes a new form of radar for which the target response is frequency, i.e., resonance-dependent. The book provides both prototype designs and empirical results collected from a variety of targets. The new form of radar, called RAMAR (Resonance and Aspect Matched Adaptive Radar) advances radar - mere ranging and detection - to the level of RF spectroscopy, and permits an advance of spectroscopic methods from optical, through infra-red and into the RF spectral range. The book will describe how a target's response can be a function of frequency components in the transmitted signal's
Coupled Resonance Laser Frequency Stabilization
Burd, Shaun; Uys, Hermann; MAQClab Team
2013-05-01
We have demonstrated simultaneous laser frequency stabilization of a UV and IR laser, to the same photodiode signal derived from the UV laser only. For trapping and cooling Yb+ ions, a frequency stabilized laser is required at 369.9 nm to drive the S1/2-P1/2 cooling cycle. Since that cycle is not closed, a repump beam is needed at 935.18 nm to drive the D3/2-D[ 3 / 2 ] transition, which rapidly decays back to the S1/2 state. Our 369 nm laser is locked using Doppler free polarization spectroscopy of Yb+ ions, generated in a hollow cathode discharge lamp. Without pumping, the metastable D3/2 level is only sparsely populated, making direct absorption of 935 nm light difficult to detect. A resonant 369 nm pump laser can populate the D3/2 state, and fast repumping to the S1/2 ground state by on resonant 935 nm light, can be detected via the change in absorption of the 369 nm laser. This is accomplished using lock-in detection on the same photodiode signal to which the 369 nm laser is locked. In this way, simultaneous locking of two frequencies in very different spectral regimes is accomplished, while exploiting only the photodiode signal from one of the lasers. A rate equation model gives good qualitative agreement with experimental observation. This work was partially funded by the South African National Research Foundation.
Ultra-high frequency magnetic resonance imaging
Magill, Arthur W.
2007-01-01
This thesis addresses the problem of radiofrequency probe design for Ultra High Frequency Magnetic Resonance Imaging (7T). The signal-to-noise ratio available in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is determined by the static magnetic field strength, causing a continued drive toward higher fields to enable faster image acquisition at finer spatial resolution. The resonant frequency increases linearly with static field strength. At 7T the proton resonant frequency is 300MHz, with a wavelength...
Resonance frequency in respiratory distress syndrome
Lee, S.; Milner, A
2000-01-01
AIM—To observe how the resonance frequency changes with the course of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), by examining the effect of changing static compliance on the resonance frequency in premature infants. METHODS—In 12 ventilated premature infants with RDS (mean gestational age 26.6 weeks, mean birth weight 0.84 kg), resonance frequency and static compliance were determined serially using phase analysis and single breath mechanics technique respectively in the first ...
Resonant frequencies of whispering gallery modes of dielectric resonator
S.L. Badnilcar; N.Shanmugam; V. R. K. Murthy
2001-01-01
The modal spectrum of the whispering gallery modes of dielectric resonator depends mainly on its physical dimensions, dielectric constant, and to a lesser extent, on the environment. This paper carries investigation of the resonant frequencies in dielectric disc utilising the ring resonator model. Results of the structural design parameters are used to generate a nume!ical expression for describing the operational frequencies useful for computer-aided design applications. Theoretical ...
Cavities for electron spin resonance: predicting the resonant frequency
Colton, John; Miller, Kyle; Meehan, Michael; Spencer, Ross
Microwave cavities are used in electron spin resonance to enhance magnetic fields. Dielectric resonators (DRs), pieces of high dielectric material, can be used to tailor the resonant frequency of a cavity. However, designing cavities with DRs to obtain desired frequencies is challenging and in general can only be done numerically with expensive software packages. We present a new method for calculating the resonant frequencies and corresponding field modes for cylindrically symmetric cavities and apply it to a cavity with vertically stacked DRs. The modes of an arbitrary cavity are expressed as an expansion of empty cavity modes. The wave equation for D gives rise to an eigenvalue equation whose eigenvalues are the resonant frequencies and whose eigenvectors yield the electric and magnetic fields of the mode. A test against theory for an infinitely long dielectric cylinder inside an infinite cavity yields an accuracy better than 0.4% for nearly all modes. Calculated resonant frequencies are also compared against experiment for quasi-TE011 modes in resonant cavities with ten different configurations of DRs; experimental results agree with predicted values with an accuracy better than 1.0%. MATLAB code is provided at http://www.physics.byu.edu/research/coltonlab/cavityresonance.
High Energy Single Frequency Resonant Amplifier Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a single frequency high energy resonant amplifier for remote sensing. Current state-of-art technologies can not provide all...
On Frequency Combs in Monolithic Resonators
Savchenkov A. A.
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Optical frequency combs have become indispensable in astronomical measurements, biological fingerprinting, optical metrology, and radio frequency photonic signal generation. Recently demonstrated microring resonator-based Kerr frequency combs point the way towards chip scale optical frequency comb generator retaining major properties of the lab scale devices. This technique is promising for integrated miniature radiofrequency and microwave sources, atomic clocks, optical references and femtosecond pulse generators. Here we present Kerr frequency comb development in a historical perspective emphasizing its similarities and differences with other physical phenomena. We elucidate fundamental principles and describe practical implementations of Kerr comb oscillators, highlighting associated solved and unsolved problems.
Optical ballast and adaptive dynamic stable resonator
Zhang Guang-Yin; Jiao Zhi-Yong; Guo Shu-Guang; Zhang Xiao-Hua; Gu Xue-Wen; Yan Cai-Fan; Wu Ding-Er; Song Feng
2004-01-01
In this paper a new concept of ‘optical ballast' is put forward. Optical ballast is a kind of device that can be used to decrease the variation and fluctuation of the propagation characteristics of light beams caused by the disturbance of refractive index of the medium. To illustrate the idea clearly and concretely, a fully adaptive dynamic stable solid-state laser resonator is presented as application example of optical ballast.
Magnetic plasmonic Fano resonance at optical frequency.
Bao, Yanjun; Hu, Zhijian; Li, Ziwei; Zhu, Xing; Fang, Zheyu
2015-05-13
Plasmonic Fano resonances are typically understood and investigated assuming electrical mode hybridization. Here we demonstrate that a purely magnetic plasmon Fano resonance can be realized at optical frequency with Au split ring hexamer nanostructure excited by an azimuthally polarized incident light. Collective magnetic plasmon modes induced by the circular electric field within the hexamer and each of the split ring can be controlled and effectively hybridized by designing the size and orientation of each ring unit. With simulated results reproducing the experiment, our suggested configuration with narrow line-shape magnetic Fano resonance has significant potential applications in low-loss sensing and may serves as suitable elementary building blocks for optical metamaterials. PMID:25594885
Wen-Yu Wang; An-Wen Shen
2012-01-01
A novel method for middle frequency resonance detection and reduction is proposed for speed control in industrial servo systems. Defects of traditional resonance reduction method based on adaptive notch filter in middle frequency range are analyzed. And the main reason is summarized as the difference between the resonance frequency and the oscillation frequency. A self-tuning low-pass filter is introduced in the speed feedback path, whose corner frequency is determined by FFT results and seve...
Adaptive contrast imaging: transmit frequency optimization
Ménigot, Sébastien; Novell, Anthony; Voicu, Iulian; Bouakaz, Ayache; Girault, Jean-Marc
2010-01-01
Introduction: Since the introduction of ultrasound (US) contrast imaging, the imaging systems use a fixed emitting frequency. However it is known that the insonified medium is time-varying and therefore an adapted time-varying excitation is expected. We suggest an adaptive imaging technique which selects the optimal transmit frequency that maximizes the acoustic contrast. Two algorithms have been proposed to find an US excitation for which the frequency was optimal with microbubbles. Methods and Materials: Simulations were carried out for encapsulated microbubbles of 2 microns by considering the modified Rayleigh-Plesset equation for 2 MHz transmit frequency and for various pressure levels (20 kPa up to 420kPa). In vitro experiments were carried out using a transducer operating at 2 MHz and using a programmable waveform generator. Contrast agent was then injected into a small container filled with water. Results and discussions: We show through simulations and in vitro experiments that our adaptive imaging technique gives: 1) in case of simulations, a gain of acoustic contrast which can reach 9 dB compared to the traditional technique without optimization and 2) for in vitro experiments, a gain which can reach 18 dB. There is a non negligible discrepancy between simulations and experiments. These differences are certainly due to the fact that our simulations do not take into account the diffraction and nonlinear propagation effects. Further optimizations are underway.
Andersen, Christian Kraglund; Mølmer, Klaus
2015-03-01
A SQUID inserted in a superconducting waveguide resonator imposes current and voltage boundary conditions that makes it suitable as a tuning element for the resonator modes. If such a SQUID element is subject to a periodically varying magnetic flux, the resonator modes acquire frequency side bands. We calculate the multi-frequency eigenmodes and these can couple resonantly to physical systems with different transition frequencies and this makes the resonator an efficient quantum bus for state transfer and coherent quantum operations in hybrid quantum systems. As an example of the application, we determine their coupling to transmon qubits with different frequencies and we present a bi-chromatic scheme for entanglement and gate operations. In this calculation, we obtain a maximally entangled state with a fidelity F = 95 % . Our proposal is competitive with the achievements of other entanglement-gates with superconducting devices and it may offer some advantages: (i) There is no need for additional control lines and dephasing associated with the conventional frequency tuning of qubits. (ii) When our qubits are idle, they are far detuned with respect to each other and to the resonator, and hence they are immune to cross talk and Purcell-enhanced decay.
Non-resonant energy harvesting via an adaptive bistable potential
Haji Hosseinloo, Ashkan; Turitsyn, Konstantin
2016-01-01
Narrow bandwidth and easy detuning, inefficiency in broadband and non-stationary excitations, and difficulties in matching a linear harvester’s resonance frequency to low-frequency excitations at small scales, have convinced researchers to investigate nonlinear, and in particular bistable, energy harvesters in recent years. However, bistable harvesters suffer from co-existing low and high energy orbits, and sensitivity to initial conditions, and have recently been proven inefficient when subjected to many real-world random and non-stationary excitations. Here, we propose a novel non-resonant buy-low-sell-high strategy that can significantly improve the harvester’s effectiveness at low frequencies in a much more robust fashion. This strategy could be realized by a passive adaptive bistable system. Simulation results confirm the high effectiveness of the adaptive bistable system following a buy-low-sell-high logic when subjected to harmonic and random non-stationary walking excitations compared to its conventional bistable and linear counterparts.
An adaptive selective frequency damping method
Jordi, Bastien; Cotter, Colin; Sherwin, Spencer
2015-03-01
The selective frequency damping (SFD) method is used to obtain unstable steady-state solutions of dynamical systems. The stability of this method is governed by two parameters that are the control coefficient and the filter width. Convergence is not guaranteed for arbitrary choice of these parameters. Even when the method does converge, the time necessary to reach a steady-state solution may be very long. We present an adaptive SFD method. We show that by modifying the control coefficient and the filter width all along the solver execution, we can reach an optimum convergence rate. This method is based on successive approximations of the dominant eigenvalue of the flow studied. We design a one-dimensional model to select SFD parameters that enable us to control the evolution of the least stable eigenvalue of the system. These parameters are then used for the application of the SFD method to the multi-dimensional flow problem. We apply this adaptive method to a set of classical test cases of computational fluid dynamics and show that the steady-state solutions obtained are similar to what can be found in the literature. Then we apply it to a specific vortex dominated flow (of interest for the automotive industry) whose stability had never been studied before. Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission - ANADE project under Grant Contract PITN-GA-289428.
Jauregui, Rigoberto; Asua, Estibaliz; Portilla, Joaquin; Etxebarria, Victor
2015-03-01
This paper presents a reliable and integrated technique for determining the resonant frequency of radio frequency resonators, which can be of interest for different purposes. The approach uses a heterodyne scheme as phase detector coupled to a voltage-controlled oscillator. The system seeks the oscillator frequency that produces a phase null in the resonator, which corresponds to the resonant frequency. A complete explanation of the technique to determine the resonant frequency is presented and experimentally tested. The method has been applied to a high-precision displacement sensor based on resonant cavity, obtaining a theoretical nanometric precision.
Study on resonance frequency distribution of high-overtone bulk acoustic resonators
ZHANG Hui; WANG Zuoqing; ZHANG Shuyi
2005-01-01
Based on the method of characterizing piezo-films by the resonance frequency distributions, the factors influencing the resonance frequency distribution of a High-overtone Bulk Acoustic Resonator (HBAR) consisting of a piezoelectric thin film with twoelectrodes and a substrate are studied. Some HBARs are simulated. The results manifest that changing the acoustic impedance ratio of the substrate to piezo-film the distribution of the space of the parallel resonance frequency and the effective electromechanical coupling factor are changed. When the fundamental mode of the piezo-film is at high frequency, changing the acoustic impedance ratio of the electrode to piezo-film and the thickness of the electrodes make the resonance frequency distribution of HBARs change. These results manifest that the HBARs can be resonant at specified frequencies by means of adjusting the factors affecting the resonance frequency distribution.
A vibration energy harvesting device with bidirectional resonance frequency tunability
Vibration energy harvesting is an attractive technique for potential powering of wireless sensors and low power devices. While the technique can be employed to harvest energy from vibrations and vibrating structures, a general requirement independent of the energy transfer mechanism is that the vibration energy harvesting device operate in resonance at the excitation frequency. Most energy harvesting devices developed to date are single resonance frequency based, and while recent efforts have been made to broaden the frequency range of energy harvesting devices, what is lacking is a robust tunable energy harvesting technique. In this paper, the design and testing of a resonance frequency tunable energy harvesting device using a magnetic force technique is presented. This technique enabled resonance tuning to ± 20% of the untuned resonant frequency. In particular, this magnetic-based approach enables either an increase or decrease in the tuned resonant frequency. A piezoelectric cantilever beam with a natural frequency of 26 Hz is used as the energy harvesting cantilever, which is successfully tuned over a frequency range of 22–32 Hz to enable a continuous power output 240–280 µW over the entire frequency range tested. A theoretical model using variable damping is presented, whose results agree closely with the experimental results. The magnetic force applied for resonance frequency tuning and its effect on damping and load resistance have been experimentally determined
Memory recall and spike-frequency adaptation
Roach, James P.; Sander, Leonard M.; Zochowski, Michal R.
2016-05-01
The brain can reproduce memories from partial data; this ability is critical for memory recall. The process of memory recall has been studied using autoassociative networks such as the Hopfield model. This kind of model reliably converges to stored patterns that contain the memory. However, it is unclear how the behavior is controlled by the brain so that after convergence to one configuration, it can proceed with recognition of another one. In the Hopfield model, this happens only through unrealistic changes of an effective global temperature that destabilizes all stored configurations. Here we show that spike-frequency adaptation (SFA), a common mechanism affecting neuron activation in the brain, can provide state-dependent control of pattern retrieval. We demonstrate this in a Hopfield network modified to include SFA, and also in a model network of biophysical neurons. In both cases, SFA allows for selective stabilization of attractors with different basins of attraction, and also for temporal dynamics of attractor switching that is not possible in standard autoassociative schemes. The dynamics of our models give a plausible account of different sorts of memory retrieval.
Mixed frequency excitation of an electrostatically actuated resonator
Ramini, Abdallah
2015-04-24
We investigate experimentally and theoretically the dynamics of a capacitive resonator under mixed frequency excitation of two AC harmonic signals. The resonator is composed of a proof mass suspended by two cantilever beams. Experimental measurements are conducted using a laser Doppler vibrometer to reveal the interesting dynamics of the system when subjected to two-source excitation. A nonlinear single-degree-of-freedom model is used for the theoretical investigation. The results reveal combination resonances of additive and subtractive type, which are shown to be promising to increase the bandwidth of the resonator near primary resonance frequency. Our results also demonstrate the ability to shift the combination resonances to much lower or much higher frequency ranges. We also demonstrate the dynamic pull-in instability under mixed frequency excitation. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
Wen-Yu Wang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A novel method for middle frequency resonance detection and reduction is proposed for speed control in industrial servo systems. Defects of traditional resonance reduction method based on adaptive notch filter in middle frequency range are analyzed. And the main reason is summarized as the difference between the resonance frequency and the oscillation frequency. A self-tuning low-pass filter is introduced in the speed feedback path, whose corner frequency is determined by FFT results and several self-tuning rules. With the proposed method the effective range of the adaptive filter is extended across the middle frequency range. Simulation and Experiment results show that the frequency detection is accurate and resonances during the speed steady states and dynamics are successfully reduced.
Variable frequency iteration MPPT for resonant power converters
Zhang, Qian; Bataresh, Issa; Chen, Lin
2015-06-30
A method of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) uses an MPPT algorithm to determine a switching frequency for a resonant power converter, including initializing by setting an initial boundary frequency range that is divided into initial frequency sub-ranges bounded by initial frequencies including an initial center frequency and first and second initial bounding frequencies. A first iteration includes measuring initial powers at the initial frequencies to determine a maximum power initial frequency that is used to set a first reduced frequency search range centered or bounded by the maximum power initial frequency including at least a first additional bounding frequency. A second iteration includes calculating first and second center frequencies by averaging adjacent frequent values in the first reduced frequency search range and measuring second power values at the first and second center frequencies. The switching frequency is determined from measured power values including the second power values.
Low Frequency Scattering Resonance Wave in Strong Heterogeneity
Liu, Yinbin
2015-01-01
Multiple scattering of wave in strong heterogeneity can cause resonance-like wave phenomenon where signal exhibits low frequency, high intensity, and slowly propagating velocity. For example, long period event in volcanic seismology and surface plasmon wave and quantum Hall effect in wave-particle interactions. Collective behaviour in a many-body system is usually thought to be the source for generating the anomaly. However, the detail physical mechanism is not fully understood. Here I show by wave field modeling for microscopic bubble cloud model and 1D heterogeneity that the anomaly is related to low frequency scattering resonance happened in transient regime. This low frequency resonance is a kind of wave coherent scattering enhancement phenomenon in strongly-scattered small-scale heterogeneity. Its resonance frequency is inversely proportional to heterogeneous scale and contrast and will further shift toward lower frequency with random heterogeneous scale and velocity fluctuations. Low frequency scatterin...
A Quarter Ellipse Microstrip Resonator for Filters in Microwave Frequencies
Samuel Á. Jaramillo-Flórez
2013-11-01
Full Text Available This work describes the results of computational simulations and construction of quadrant elliptical resonators excited by coplanar slot line waveguide for designing microwave filters in RF communications systems. By means of the equation of optics, are explained the fundamentals of these geometry of resonators proposed. Are described the construction of quadrant elliptical resonators, one of microstrip and other two of cavity, of size different, and an array of four quadrant elliptical resonators in cascade. The results of the measures and the computational calculus of scattering S11 and S21 of elliptical resonators is made for to identify the resonant frequencies of the resonators studied, proving that these have performance in frequency as complete ellipses by the image effect due to their two mirror in both semiaxis, occupying less area, and the possible applications are discussed.
Tunable characteristics of bending resonance frequency in magnetoelectric laminated composites
Chen, Lei; Li, Ping; Wen, Yu-Mei; Zhu, Yong
2013-07-01
As the magnetoelectric (ME) effect in piezoelectric/magnetostrictive laminated composites is mediated by mechanical deformation, the ME effect is significantly enhanced in the vicinity of resonance frequency. The bending resonance frequency (fr) of bilayered Terfenol-D/PZT (MP) laminated composites is studied, and our analysis predicts that (i) the bending resonance frequency of an MP laminated composite can be tuned by an applied dc magnetic bias (Hdc) due to the ΔE effect; (ii) the bending resonance frequency of the MP laminated composite can be controlled by incorporating FeCuNbSiB layers with different thicknesses. The experimental results show that with Hdc increasing from 0 Oe (1 Oe=79.5775 A/m) to 700 Oe, the bending resonance frequency can be shifted in a range of 32.68 kHz bending resonance frequency of the MP laminated composite gradually increases from 33.66 kHz to 39.18 kHz. This study offers a method of adjusting the strength of dc magnetic bias or the thicknesses of the FeCuNbSiB layer to tune the bending resonance frequency for ME composite, which plays a guiding role in the ME composite design for real applications.
Tunable characteristics of bending resonance frequency in magnetoelectric laminated composites
Chen Lei; Li Ping; Wen Yu-Mei; Zhu Yong
2013-01-01
As the magnetoelectric (ME) effect in piezoelectric/magnetostrictive laminated composites is mediated by mechanical deformation,the ME effect is significantly enhanced in the vicinity of resonance frequency.The bending resonance frequency (fr) of bilayered Terfenol-D/PZT (MP) laminated composites is studied,and our analysis predicts that (i) the bending resonance frequency of an MP laminated composite can be tuned by an applied dc magnetic bias (Hdc) due to the △E effect; (ii) the bending resonance frequency of the MP laminated composite can be controlled by incorporating FeCuNbSiB layers with different thicknesses.The experimental results show that with Hdc increasing from 0Oe (1 Oe=79.5775 A/m)to 700 Oe,the bending resonance frequency can be shifted in a range of 32.68 kHz ≤ fr ≤ 33.96 kHz.In addition,with the thickness of the FeCuNbSiB layer increasing from 0 μm to 90 μm,the bending resonance frequency of the MP laminated composite gradually increases from 33.66 kHz to 39.18 kHz.This study offers a method of adjusting the strength of dc magnetic bias or the thicknesses of the FeCuNbSiB layer to tune the bending resonance frequency for ME composite,which plays a guiding role in the ME composite design for real applications.
Analysis of morphological structuring elements generated using adaptive resonance theory
Sharpe, John P.; Sungar, Nilgun; Narayanswamy, Ramkumar; Johnson, Kristina M.
1995-03-01
In this paper we consider the formation of morphological templates using adaptive resonance theory. We examine the role of object variability and noise on the clustering of different sized objects as a function of the vigilance parameter. We demonstrate that the fuzzy adaptive resonance theory is robust in the presence of noise but that for poor choice of vigilance there is a proliferation of prototypical categories. We apply the technique to detection of abnormal cells in pap smears.
ANALYSIS OF PIEZOELECTRIC ENERGY HARVESTING DEVICE WITH ADJUSTABLE RESONANCE FREQUENCY
Jiang Lei; Li Yuejuan; Marvin Cheng
2012-01-01
This paper presents an analytic method that adjusts resonance frequency of a piezoelectric vibration energy harvester.A mathematical model that estimates resonance frequency of cantilever is also proposed.Through moving an attached mass and changing its weight on the cantilever beam,resonance frequency of adopted piezoelectric device can be adjusted to match the frequency of ambient vibration sources,which is critical in order to harvest maximum amount of energy.The theoretical results are validated by experiments that move different masses along experimental cantilever beams.The results demonstrate that resonance frequency can be adjusted by an attached mass located at different positions on the cantilever beam.Different combinations of operational conditions that harvest maximum amount of energy are also discussed in this paper.
Multi-resonance split ring resonator structures at sub-terahertz frequencies
Galal, Hossam
2016-01-01
This paper reports on the computational development of novel architectures of multi-resonance Split Ring Resonators (SRRs), for efficient manipulation of Terahertz (THz) frequency beams. The conceived resonators are based on both a capacitive and inductive scheme. Simulation results have been obtained for a 60 GHz to 240 GHz operational bandwidth.
Phase-Shift Control of Resonant Frequencies of Magnetostatic Wave Resonators
Koike, Takuro; Nakazawa, Hiroaki
1994-05-01
We discuss a possible technique to control the resonant frequencies of a straight-edge magnetostatic wave (MSW) resonator without changing the external applied magnetic field and the circuit parameters of a feedback load circuit. The method is to use two additional microstrip electrodes at the edges of the resonator and two varactor diodes connected in series. Upon varying the bias voltages to the varactor diodes, the input admittance at the center electrode can be changed. Theoretical investigation reveals that very large resonant frequency shifts can be obtained by changing only the bias voltage change to the varactor diodes, which may be useful in mobile telephone applications in the gigaherz frequency range.
Frequency comb transferred by surface plasmon resonance
Geng, Xiao Tao; Chun, Byung Jae; Seo, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kwanyong; Yoon, Hana; Kim, Dong-Eon; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seungchul
2016-01-01
Frequency combs, millions of narrow-linewidth optical modes referenced to an atomic clock, have shown remarkable potential in time/frequency metrology, atomic/molecular spectroscopy and precision LIDARs. Applications have extended to coherent nonlinear Raman spectroscopy of molecules and quantum metrology for entangled atomic qubits. Frequency combs will create novel possibilities in nano-photonics and plasmonics; however, its interrelation with surface plasmons is unexplored despite the important role that plasmonics plays in nonlinear spectroscopy and quantum optics through the manipulation of light on a subwavelength scale. Here, we demonstrate that a frequency comb can be transformed to a plasmonic comb in plasmonic nanostructures and reverted to the original frequency comb without noticeable degradation of quantum metrology and subwavelength photonic circuits. PMID:26898307
High-frequency and low-frequency effects on vibrational resonance in a synthetic gene network
The high-frequency and low-frequency effects on vibrational resonance (VR) in a synthetic gene network are studied. Results show that the role of the high-frequency signal in VR acts as that of noise in stochastic resonance (SR), namely a high-frequency signal can change the effective value of the control parameter such that the random state–state transitions of the switch can happen. A low-frequency signal with lower frequency and higher amplitude tends to favor the response of the system. When VR occurs, the ratio of the optimal amplitude (Bopt) to the corresponding frequency (Ω) of the high-frequency signal is a definite constant. Furthermore, if noise is introduced into the system, noise plays a suppressive role for VR, and various resonance phenomena including the bell-shaped VR and VR without tuning are exhibited in the system
Planar terahertz metamaterial with three-resonant frequencies
Chen Zhi; Zhang Ya-Xin
2013-01-01
In this paper,we study a three-resonant metamaterial with the combination of dual-resonant and single-resonant metamaterials.We present a new method to design multi-resonant metamaterial,which has a smaller dimension than general symmetric and asymmetric multi-resonant metamaterials.Theoretical and experimental results show that the structure has three distinct absorption frequencies centering around 0.29 THz,0.46 THz,and 0.92 THz,and that each of them corresponds to a different resonant mode.Due to the good separation of the different resonances,this design provides a unique and effective method to construct multiband terahertz devices.
Resonance Micro-Weighing of Sub-Picogram Mass with the Use of Adaptive Interferometer
Romashko Roman
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Mass of macroscopic object is easily measured by a suitable balance. However, this approach becomes inapplicable if mass of microscopic object is to be determined. Alternative approach for mass measurement is based on using the micromechanical resonator as an inertial balance where oscillation frequency is shifted by small quantities of adsorbed mass. In this work we present experimental results of applying an adaptive interferometry technique based on dynamic hologram recorded in photorefractive CdTe crystal for measuring picogram mass adsorbed on micromechanical resonators with dimensions 215×40×15 μm3. It is also shown that the resonance micro-weighing system based on adaptive interferometer has potential for reducing the threshold of mass detection down to 10-17 g in the case of using a resonator with sub-micron dimensions
Chemisorption-Induced Resonance Frequency Shift of a Microcantilever
The autonomy and property of atoms/molecules adsorbed on the surface of a microcantilever can be probed by measuring its resonance frequency shift due to adsorption. The resonance frequency change of a cantilever induced by chemisorption is theoretically studied. Oxygen chemisorbed on the Si(100) surface is taken as a representative example. We demonstrate that the resonant response of the cantilever is mainly determined by the chemisorption-induced bending stiffness variation, which depends on the bond configurations formed by the adsorbed atoms and substrate atoms. This study is helpful for optimal design of microcantilever-based sensors for various applications. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)
Micro--structured crystalline resonators for optical frequency comb generation
Grudinin, Ivan S
2014-01-01
Optical frequency combs have recently been demonstrated in micro--resonators through nonlinear Kerr processes. Investigations in the past few years provided better understanding of micro--combs and showed that spectral span and mode locking are governed by cavity spectrum and dispersion. While various cavities provide unique advantages, dispersion engineering has been reported only for planar waveguides. In this Letter, we report a resonator design that combines dispersion control, mode crossing free spectrum, and ultra--high quality factor. We experimentally show that as the dispersion of a MgF2 resonator is flattened, the comb span increases reaching 700 nm with as low as 60 mW pump power at 1560 nm wavelength, corresponding to nearly 2000 lines separated by 46 GHz. The new resonator design may enable efficient low repetition rate coherent octave spanning frequency combs without the need for external broadening, ideal for applications in optical frequency synthesis, metrology, spectroscopy, and communicatio...
Adaptive Radio Frequency Interference Mitigation for HF Surface Wave Radar
WAN Xian-rong; KE Heng-yu; CHENG Feng
2005-01-01
The paper analyses the characteristics of radio frequency interference (RFI) in HF surface wave radar (HFSWR) which adopts the linear frequency modulated interrupted continuous wave (FMICW). RFI will influence all the range cells including all the positive frequency and negative frequency, and the negative frequency range cells contain only the interference information. Based on the above characteristics, we introduce and analyze a new adaptive interference mitigation beamforming algorithm using the negative frequency range cells samples to estimate the interference covariance matrix. Experimental results confirm that this general and robust algorithm can achieve effective RFI suppression using the data recorded by the HFSWR, located near Zhoushan in Zhejiang China.
Radio Frequency Interference Suppression for Landmine Detection by Quadrupole Resonance
Liu Guoqing; Jiang Yi; Xiong Hong; Li Jian; Barrall Geoffrey A
2006-01-01
The quadrupole resonance (QR) technology can be used as a confirming sensor for buried plastic landmine detection by detecting the explosives within the mine. We focus herein on the detection of TNT mines via the QR sensor. Since the frequency of the QR signal is located within the AM radio frequency band, the QR signal can be corrupted by strong radio frequency interferences (RFIs). Hence to detect the very weak QR signal, RFI mitigation is essential. Reference antennas, which receive RFIs ...
Analysis of Continuous Microseismic Recordings: Resonance Frequencies and Unconventional Events
Tary, J.; van der Baan, M.
2012-12-01
Hydrofracture experiments, where fluids and proppant are injected into reservoirs to create fractures and enhance oil recovery, are often monitored using microseismic recordings. The total stimulated volume is then estimated by the size of the cloud of induced micro-earthquakes. This implies that only brittle failure should occur inside reservoirs during the fracturing. Yet, this assumption may not be correct, as the total energy injected into the system is orders of magnitude larger than the total energy associated with brittle failure. Instead of using only triggered events, it has been shown recently that the frequency content of continuous recordings may also provide information on the deformations occurring inside reservoirs. Here, we use different kinds of time-frequency transforms to track the presence of resonance frequencies. We analyze different data sets using regular, long-period and broadband geophones. The resonance frequencies observed are mainly included in the frequency band of 5-60 Hz. We systematically examine first the possible causes of resonance frequencies, dividing them into source, path and receiver effects. We then conclude that some of the observed frequency bands likely result from source effects. The resonance frequencies could be produced by either interconnected fluid-filled fractures in the order of tens of meters, or by small repetitive events occurring at a characteristic periodicity. Still, other mechanisms may occur or be predominant during reservoir fracturing, depending on the lithology as well as the pressure and temperature conditions at depth. During one experiment, both regular micro-earthquakes, long-period long-duration events (LPLD) and resonance frequencies are observed. The lower part of the frequency band of these resonance frequencies (5-30 Hz) overlaps with the anticipated frequencies of observed LPLDs in other experiments (<50 Hz). The exact origin of both resonance frequencies and LPLDs is still under debate
Numerical modeling of seismic waves using frequency-adaptive meshes
Hu, Jinyin; Jia, Xiaofeng
2016-08-01
An improved modeling algorithm using frequency-adaptive meshes is applied to meet the computational requirements of all seismic frequency components. It automatically adopts coarse meshes for low-frequency computations and fine meshes for high-frequency computations. The grid intervals are adaptively calculated based on a smooth inversely proportional function of grid size with respect to the frequency. In regular grid-based methods, the uniform mesh or non-uniform mesh is used for frequency-domain wave propagators and it is fixed for all frequencies. A too coarse mesh results in inaccurate high-frequency wavefields and unacceptable numerical dispersion; on the other hand, an overly fine mesh may cause storage and computational overburdens as well as invalid propagation angles of low-frequency wavefields. Experiments on the Padé generalized screen propagator indicate that the Adaptive mesh effectively solves these drawbacks of regular fixed-mesh methods, thus accurately computing the wavefield and its propagation angle in a wide frequency band. Several synthetic examples also demonstrate its feasibility for seismic modeling and migration.
Adaptive Fourier Decomposition Based Time-Frequency Analysis
Li-Ming Zhang
2014-01-01
The attempt to represent a signal simultaneously in time and frequency domains is full of challenges. The recently proposed adaptive Fourier decomposition (AFD) offers a practical approach to solve this problem. This paper presents the principles of the AFD based time-frequency analysis in three aspects: instantaneous frequency analysis, frequency spectrum analysis, and the spectrogram analysis. An experiment is conducted and compared with the Fourier transform in convergence rate and short-time Fourier transform in time-frequency distribution. The proposed approach performs better than both the Fourier transform and short-time Fourier transform.
A high frequency resonance gravity gradiometer
Bagaev, S. N.; Kvashnin, N. L.; Skvortsov, M. N. [Laser Physics Institute SB RAS, Novosibirsc (Russian Federation); Bezrukov, L. B.; Krysanov, V. A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Oreshkin, S. I.; Motylev, A. M.; Popov, S. M.; Samoilenko, A. A.; Yudin, I. S. [Lomonosov MSU, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Rudenko, V. N. [Institute of Nuclear Physics RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lomonosov MSU, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2014-06-15
A new setup OGRAN—the large scale opto-acoustical gravitational detector is described. As distinguished from known gravitational bar detectors it uses the optical interferometrical readout for registering weak variations of gravity gradient at the kilohetz frequency region. At room temperature, its sensitivity is limited only by the bar Brownian noise at the bandwidth close to 100 Hz. It is destined for a search for rare events—gravitational pulses coincident with signals of neutrino scintillator (BUST) in the deep underground of Baksan Neutrino Observatory of INR RAS.
Relationship between wingbeat frequency and resonant frequency of the wing in insects.
Ha, Ngoc San; Truong, Quang Tri; Goo, Nam Seo; Park, Hoon Cheol
2013-12-01
In this study, we experimentally studied the relationship between wingbeat frequency and resonant frequency of 30 individuals of eight insect species from five orders: Odonata (Sympetrum flaveolum), Lepidoptera (Pieris rapae, Plusia gamma and Ochlodes), Hymenoptera (Xylocopa pubescens and Bombus rupestric), Hemiptera (Tibicen linnei) and Coleoptera (Allomyrina dichotoma). The wingbeat frequency of free-flying insects was measured using a high-speed camera while the natural frequency was determined using a laser displacement sensor along with a Bruel and Kjaer fast Fourier transform analyzer based on the base excitation method. The results showed that the wingbeat frequency was related to body mass (m) and forewing area (Af), following the proportionality f ~ m(1/2)/Af, while the natural frequency was significantly correlated with area density (f0 ~ mw/Af, mw is the wing mass). In addition, from the comparison of wingbeat frequency to natural frequency, the ratio between wingbeat frequency and natural frequency was found to be, in general, between 0.13 and 0.67 for the insects flapping at a lower wingbeat frequency (less than 100 Hz) and higher than 1.22 for the insects flapping at a higher wingbeat frequency (higher than 100 Hz). These results suggest that wingbeat frequency does not have a strong relation with resonance frequency: in other words, insects have not been evolved sufficiently to flap at their wings' structural resonant frequency. This contradicts the general conclusion of other reports--that insects flap at their wings' resonant frequency to take advantage of passive deformation to save energy. PMID:24166827
Relationship between wingbeat frequency and resonant frequency of the wing in insects
In this study, we experimentally studied the relationship between wingbeat frequency and resonant frequency of 30 individuals of eight insect species from five orders: Odonata (Sympetrum flaveolum), Lepidoptera (Pieris rapae, Plusia gamma and Ochlodes), Hymenoptera (Xylocopa pubescens and Bombus rupestric), Hemiptera (Tibicen linnei) and Coleoptera (Allomyrina dichotoma). The wingbeat frequency of free-flying insects was measured using a high-speed camera while the natural frequency was determined using a laser displacement sensor along with a Bruel and Kjaer fast Fourier transform analyzer based on the base excitation method. The results showed that the wingbeat frequency was related to body mass (m) and forewing area (Af), following the proportionality f ∼ m1/2/Af, while the natural frequency was significantly correlated with area density (f0 ∼ mw/Af, mw is the wing mass). In addition, from the comparison of wingbeat frequency to natural frequency, the ratio between wingbeat frequency and natural frequency was found to be, in general, between 0.13 and 0.67 for the insects flapping at a lower wingbeat frequency (less than 100 Hz) and higher than 1.22 for the insects flapping at a higher wingbeat frequency (higher than 100 Hz). These results suggest that wingbeat frequency does not have a strong relation with resonance frequency: in other words, insects have not been evolved sufficiently to flap at their wings' structural resonant frequency. This contradicts the general conclusion of other reports-–that insects flap at their wings' resonant frequency to take advantage of passive deformation to save energy. (paper)
Investigation of Vertical Spiral Resonators for Low Frequency Metamaterial Design
Zhu, Jiwen; Stevens, Christopher J; Edwards, David J
2008-01-01
This paper thoroughly explores the characteristics of vertical spiral resonators (VSR). They exhibit rela-tively high Q factors and sizes around a few percent of the free space wavelength, which make them ideal candi-dates for assembling metamaterial devices. A quasistatic model of VSR is obtained from simple analytical ex-pressions, and the effects of certain geometrical parameters on the resonant frequency are investigated.
Acoustic Resonance Frequency Elimination Device for Safety Relief Valves
Industry experience has shown that Safety Relief Valves (SRVs) and Steam Dryers installed in Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) experience vibration induced degradation and failures caused by acoustic resonance vibration of the main steam lines, resulting in decreased reliability and potential safety issues. The resonance is caused by vortex shedding from the standpipe inlet and acoustic standing waves in the standpipe, occurring when the two frequencies match. (Author)
Design of tunable GHz-frequency optomechanical crystal resonators
Pfeifer, Hannes; Zang, Leyun; Painter, Oskar
2016-01-01
We present a silicon optomechanical nanobeam design with a dynamically tunable acoustic mode at 10.2 GHz. The resonance frequency can be shifted by 90 kHz/V^2 with an on-chip capacitor that was optimized to exert forces up to 1 $\\mu$N at 10 V operation voltage. Optical resonance frequencies around 190 THz with Q factors up to $2.2 \\times 10^6$ place the structure in the well-resolved sideband regime with vacuum optomechanical coupling rates up to $g_0/2\\pi = 353$ kHz. Tuning can be used, for instance, to overcome variation in the device-to-device acoustic resonance frequency due to fabrication errors, paving the way for optomechanical circuits consisting of arrays of optomechanical cavities.
Resonance at the Rabi frequency in a superconducting flux qubit
Greenberg, Ya. S. [Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Il' ichev, E.; Oelsner, G. [common Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Jena (Germany); Shevchenko, S. N. [B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, Kharkov, Ukraine and V. Karazin Kharkov National University, Kharkov (Ukraine)
2014-10-15
We analyze a system composed of a superconducting flux qubit coupled to a transmission-line resonator driven by two signals with frequencies close to the resonator's harmonics. The first strong signal is used for exciting the system to a high energetic state while a second weak signal is applied for probing effective eigenstates of the system. In the framework of doubly dressed states we showed the possibility of amplification and attenuation of the probe signal by direct transitions at the Rabi frequency. We present a brief review of theoretical and experimental works where a direct resonance at Rabi frequency have been investigated in superconducting flux qubits. The interaction of the qubit with photons of two harmonics has prospects to be used as a quantum amplifier (microwave laser) or an attenuator.
Frequency-scanning marginal oscillator for ion cyclotron resonance spectroscopy
Kemper, Paul R.; Bowers, Michael T.
1982-07-01
A number of ion cyclotron resonance applications have arisen in the past few years which require a frequency-scanned detection system. Since the traditional marginal oscillator detector has always been a fixed-frequency detector, alternative detection techniques such as bridge circuit detectors have become widely used. In this paper we present an alternative to the bridge detector, namely, a frequency-scanning marginal oscillator. Requirements and modifications necessary to convert a marginal oscillator to frequency scanning operation are discussed in detail and the necessary circuit diagrams presented. Finally, a theoretical comparison is made between bridge circuit and marginal oscillator sensitivities.
Artificial excitation of ELF waves with frequency of Schumann resonance
Streltsov, A. V.; Guido, T.; Tulegenov, B.; Labenski, J.; Chang, C.-L.
2014-11-01
We report results from the experiment aimed at the artificial excitation of extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic waves with frequencies corresponding to the frequency of Schumann resonance. Electromagnetic waves with these frequencies can form a standing pattern inside the spherical cavity formed by the surface of the Earth and the ionosphere. In the experiment the ELF waves were excited by heating the ionosphere with X-mode HF electromagnetic waves generated at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska. The experiment demonstrates that heating of the ionosphere can excite relatively large-amplitude electromagnetic waves with frequencies in the range 7.8-8.0 Hz when the ionosphere has a strong F layer, the frequency of the HF radiation is in the range 3.20-4.57 MHz, and the electric field greater than 5 mV/m is present in the ionosphere.
A software sampling frequency adaptive algorithm for reducing spectral leakage
PAN Li-dong; WANG Fei
2006-01-01
Spectral leakage caused by synchronous error in a nonsynchronous sampling system is an important cause that reduces the accuracy of spectral analysis and harmonic measurement.This paper presents a software sampling frequency adaptive algorithm that can obtain the actual signal frequency more accurately,and then adjusts sampling interval base on the frequency calculated by software algorithm and modifies sampling frequency adaptively.It can reduce synchronous error and impact of spectral leakage;thereby improving the accuracy of spectral analysis and harmonic measurement for power system signal where frequency changes slowly.This algorithm has high precision just like the simulations show,and it can be a practical method in power system harmonic analysis since it can be implemented easily.
Frequency-swept detector for ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometers
Wronka, J.; Ridge, D. P.
1982-04-01
Design, construction, performance, and use of a frequency-swept bridge detector for ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry are described. Special features include characterization and simple automatic correction of phase shift to allow broadband detection. The result is a detection system that may be used either at constant field or constant frequency. Drift-mode operation is simplified in that it may be satisfactorily used without the various signal modulation schemes used in previous detectors. In the trapped mode the detector may be pulsed to control the timing of ion detection. This detector makes it possible to do frequency-swept double resonance experiments which provide spectra of all the product ions of a given reactant ion. Circuit schematics and typical frequency- and field-swept spectra are shown.
Frequency-tunable superconducting resonators via nonlinear kinetic inductance
We have designed, fabricated, and tested a frequency-tunable high-Q superconducting resonator made from a niobium titanium nitride film. The frequency tunability is achieved by injecting a DC through a current-directing circuit into the nonlinear inductor whose kinetic inductance is current-dependent. We have demonstrated continuous tuning of the resonance frequency in a 180 MHz frequency range around 4.5 GHz while maintaining the high internal quality factor Qi > 180 000. This device may serve as a tunable filter and find applications in superconducting quantum computing and measurement. It also provides a useful tool to study the nonlinear response of a superconductor. In addition, it may be developed into techniques for measurement of the complex impedance of a superconductor at its transition temperature and for readout of transition-edge sensors
Frequency-tunable superconducting resonators via nonlinear kinetic inductance
Vissers, M. R.; Hubmayr, J.; Sandberg, M.; Gao, J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Chaudhuri, S. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Bockstiegel, C. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)
2015-08-10
We have designed, fabricated, and tested a frequency-tunable high-Q superconducting resonator made from a niobium titanium nitride film. The frequency tunability is achieved by injecting a DC through a current-directing circuit into the nonlinear inductor whose kinetic inductance is current-dependent. We have demonstrated continuous tuning of the resonance frequency in a 180 MHz frequency range around 4.5 GHz while maintaining the high internal quality factor Q{sub i} > 180 000. This device may serve as a tunable filter and find applications in superconducting quantum computing and measurement. It also provides a useful tool to study the nonlinear response of a superconductor. In addition, it may be developed into techniques for measurement of the complex impedance of a superconductor at its transition temperature and for readout of transition-edge sensors.
Wideband transmitter for low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer
A wideband transmitter for a nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer for study of light nuclei is described. The use of a digital shaper of radio-frequency pulses and a directly coupled two-stage power amplifier makes large number of wideband transformers and power supplies unnecessary. The output power of the radio-frequency pulses is 160 W in the range of 0.1-10 MHz
Photonic measurement of microwave frequency using a silicon microdisk resonator
Liu, Li; Jiang, Fan; Yan, Siqi; Min, Shucun; He, Mengying; Gao, Dingshan; Dong, Jianji
2015-01-01
A simple photonic approach to the measurement of microwave signal frequency with adjustable measurement range and resolution is proposed and demonstrated. In this approach, the unknown microwave signal is converted to an optical signal with single sideband modulation. Subsequently, a notch microwave photonic filter (MPF) is implemented by employing a high-Q silicon microdisk resonator (MDR). The MPF is tunable by changing the frequency interval between the optical carrier and the MDR notch so as to obtain different amplitude responses. A fixed frequency-to-power mapping is established by obtaining an amplitude comparison function (ACF) of the microwave power ratio and the microwave frequency. A proof-of-concept experiment demonstrates a frequency measurement range of 10 GHz, with measurement error of ±0.1 GHz. Different frequency measurement ranges and resolutions are also discussed.
Frequency comb formation in doubly resonant second-harmonic generation
Leo, F; Ricciardi, I; De Rosa, M; Coen, S; Wabnitz, S; Erkintalo, M
2016-01-01
We theoretically study the generation of optical frequency combs and corresponding pulse trains in doubly resonant intracavity second-harmonic generation (SHG). We find that, despite the large temporal walk-off characteristic of realistic cavity systems, the nonlinear dynamics can be accurately and efficiently modelled using a pair of coupled mean-field equations. Through rigorous stability analysis of the system's steady-state continuous wave solutions, we demonstrate that walk-off can give rise to a new, previously unexplored regime of temporal modulation instability (MI). Numerical simulations performed in this regime reveal rich dynamical behaviours, including the emergence of temporal patterns that correspond to coherent optical frequency combs. We also demonstrate that the two coupled equations that govern the doubly resonant cavity behaviour can, under typical conditions, be reduced to a single mean-field equation akin to that describing the dynamics of singly resonant cavity SHG [F. Leo et al., Phys. ...
Detection of electron paramagnetic resonance absorption using frequency modulation
Hirata, Hiroshi; Kuyama, Toshifumi; Ono, Mitsuhiro; Shimoyama, Yuhei
2003-10-01
A frequency modulation (FM) method was developed to measure electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) absorption. The first-derivative spectrum of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) powder was measured with this FM method. Frequency modulation of up to 1.6 MHz (peak-to-peak) was achieved at a microwave carrier frequency of 1.1 GHz. This corresponds to a magnetic field modulation of 57 μT (peak-to-peak) at 40.3 mT. By using a tunable microwave resonator and automatic control systems, we achieved a practical continuous-wave (CW) EPR spectrometer that incorporates the FM method. In the present experiments, the EPR signal intensity was proportional to the magnitude of frequency modulation. The background signal at the modulation frequency (1 kHz) for EPR detection was also proportional to the magnitude of frequency modulation. An automatic matching control (AMC) system reduced the amplitude of noise in microwave detection and improved the baseline stability. Distortion of the spectral lineshape was seen when the spectrometer settings were not appropriate, e.g., with a lack of the open-loop gain in automatic tuning control (ATC). FM is an alternative to field modulation when the side-effect of field modulation is detrimental for EPR detection. The present spectroscopic technique based on the FM scheme is useful for measuring the first derivative with respect to the microwave frequency in investigations of electron-spin-related phenomena.
Outer hair cell piezoelectricity: Frequency response enhancement and resonance behavior
Weitzel, Erik K.; Tasker, Ron; Brownell, William E.
2003-09-01
Stretching or compressing an outer hair cell alters its membrane potential and, conversely, changing the electrical potential alters its length. This bi-directional energy conversion takes place in the cell's lateral wall and resembles the direct and converse piezoelectric effects both qualitatively and quantitatively. A piezoelectric model of the lateral wall has been developed that is based on the electrical and material parameters of the lateral wall. An equivalent circuit for the outer hair cell that includes piezoelectricity shows a greater admittance at high frequencies than one containing only membrane resistance and capacitance. The model also predicts resonance at ultrasonic frequencies that is inversely proportional to cell length. These features suggest all mammals use outer hair cell piezoelectricity to support the high-frequency receptor potentials that drive electromotility. It is also possible that members of some mammalian orders use outer hair cell piezoelectric resonance in detecting species-specific vocalizations.
Effect of metal coating and residual stress on the resonant frequency of MEMS resonators
Ashok Kumar Pandey; K P Venkatesh; Rudra Pratap
2009-08-01
MEMS resonators are designed for a ﬁxed resonant frequency. Therefore, any shift in the resonant frequency of the ﬁnal fabricated structure can be a denting factor for its suitability towards a desired application. There are numerous factors which alter the designed resonant frequency of the fabricated resonator such as the metal layer deposited on top of the beam and the residual stresses present in the fabricated structure. While the metal coating, which acts as electrode, increases the stiffness and the effective mass of the composite structure, the residual stress increases or decreases the net stiffness if it is a tensile or compressive type respectively. In this paper, we investigate both these cases by taking two different structures, namely, the micro cantilever beam with gold layer deposited on its top surface and the MEMS gyroscope with residual stresses. First, we carry out experiments to characterize both these structures to ﬁnd their resonant frequencies. Later, we analytically model those effects and compare them with the experimentally obtained values. Finally, it is found that the analytical models give an error of less than 10% with respect to the experimental results in both the cases.
Analytical investigation into the resonance frequencies of a curling probe
Arshadi, Ali; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter
2016-08-01
The term ‘active plasma resonance spectroscopy’ (APRS) denotes a class of closely related plasma diagnostic methods which utilize the natural ability of plasmas to resonate on or near the electron plasma frequency {ω\\text{pe}} ; an electrical radio frequency signal (in the GHz range) is coupled into the plasma via an antenna or a probe, the spectral response is recorded and a mathematical model is employed to determine plasma parameters such as the plasma density and the electron temperature. The curling probe, recently invented by Liang et al (2011 Appl. Phys. Express 4 066101), is a novel realization of the APRS concept which has many practical advantages. In particular, it can be miniaturized and flatly embedded into the chamber wall, thus allowing the monitoring of plasma processes without contamination nor disturbance. Physically, the curling probe can be understood as a ‘coiled’ form of the hairpin probe (Stenzel 1976 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47 603). Assuming that the spiralization of the probe has little electrical effect, this paper investigates the characteristcs of a ‘straightened’ curling probe by modeling it as an infinite slot-type resonator that is in direct contact with the plasma. The diffraction of an incident plane wave at the slot is calculated by solving the cold plasma model and Maxwell’s equations simultaneously. The resonance frequencies of the probe are derived and are found to be in good agreement with the numerical results of the probe inventors.
Black phosphorus nanoelectromechanical resonators vibrating at very high frequencies
Wang, Zenghui; Jia, Hao; Zheng, Xuqian; Yang, Rui; Wang, Zefang; Ye, G. J.; Chen, X. H.; Shan, Jie; Feng, Philip X.-L.
2014-12-01
We report on the experimental demonstration of a new type of nanoelectromechanical resonator based on black phosphorus crystals. Facilitated by a highly efficient dry transfer technique, crystalline black phosphorus flakes are harnessed to enable drumhead resonators vibrating at high and very high frequencies (HF and VHF bands, up to ~100 MHz). We investigate the resonant vibrational responses from the black phosphorus crystals by devising both electrical and optical excitation schemes, in addition to measuring the undriven thermomechanical motions in these suspended nanostructures. Flakes with thicknesses from ~200 nm down to ~20 nm clearly exhibit elastic characteristics transitioning from the plate to the membrane regime. Both frequency- and time-domain measurements of the nanomechanical resonances show that very thin black phosphorus crystals hold interesting potential for moveable and vibratory devices and for semiconductor transducers where high-speed mechanical motions could be coupled to the attractive electronic and optoelectronic properties of black phosphorus.We report on the experimental demonstration of a new type of nanoelectromechanical resonator based on black phosphorus crystals. Facilitated by a highly efficient dry transfer technique, crystalline black phosphorus flakes are harnessed to enable drumhead resonators vibrating at high and very high frequencies (HF and VHF bands, up to ~100 MHz). We investigate the resonant vibrational responses from the black phosphorus crystals by devising both electrical and optical excitation schemes, in addition to measuring the undriven thermomechanical motions in these suspended nanostructures. Flakes with thicknesses from ~200 nm down to ~20 nm clearly exhibit elastic characteristics transitioning from the plate to the membrane regime. Both frequency- and time-domain measurements of the nanomechanical resonances show that very thin black phosphorus crystals hold interesting potential for moveable and vibratory
Wavelet and adaptive filtration of the nuclear magnetic resonance signal
Bartušek, Karel
2002-01-01
Roč. 11, - (2002), s. 13 - 18. ISSN 0862-9846. [Datastat'01. Brno, 27.08.2001-30.08.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/96/1136; GA AV ČR IAA2065201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : Wavelet filtration * adaptive filtration * magnetic resonance signal Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering
Resonant-frequency discharge in a multi-cell radio frequency cavity
We are reporting experimental results on a microwave discharge operating at resonant frequency in a multi-cell radio frequency (RF) accelerator cavity. Although the discharge operated at room temperature, the setup was constructed so that it could be used for plasma generation and processing in fully assembled active superconducting radio-frequency cryo-module. This discharge offers a mechanism for removal of a variety of contaminants, organic or oxide layers, and residual particulates from the interior surface of RF cavities through the interaction of plasma-generated radicals with the cavity walls. We describe resonant RF breakdown conditions and address the issues related to resonant detuning due to sustained multi-cell cavity plasma. We have determined breakdown conditions in the cavity, which was acting as a plasma vessel with distorted cylindrical geometry. We discuss the spectroscopic data taken during plasma removal of contaminants and use them to evaluate plasma parameters, characterize the process, and estimate the volatile contaminant product removal
Increasing ferromagnetic resonance frequency using lamination and shape
El-Ghazaly, A.; White, R. M.; Wang, S. X.
2015-05-01
The magnetic permeability frequency spectrum is one of the most critical properties for the operation of high frequency magnetic devices in the gigahertz regime. Permeability is fairly constant up to the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) frequency, at which point the relative permeability drops to unity. Extending FMR to higher frequencies is thus imperative for developing GHz-range magnetic devices. The simulation and experimental investigations presented in this paper demonstrate how stacking layers to form a laminated film increases the FMR frequency by allowing flux closure between layers along the induced easy-axis direction. This flux closure reduces the demagnetization factor along the easy-axis direction by two orders of magnitude. This effect, however, is only observable in patterned films where the shape anisotropy is enough to result in variation of the FMR frequency. Experiments using patterned magnetic cores were performed to illustrate this effect. Through detailed investigation of the permeability spectra of both single layer and laminated CoTaZr magnetic films patterned into 500 μm × L films (where L ranged from 200 μm to 1000 μm), the FMR frequency was extracted and proven to increase as a result of lamination. The degree to which the frequency is boosted by lamination increases exponentially as the length of the film is decreased. Through a combination of lamination and shape demagnetization, the effective anisotropy, which directly relates to FMR frequency, was shown to increase by about 100%.
Frequency resonance effect of neurons under low-frequency weak magnetic field
We report on the frequency resonance effect observed in single neurons of mollusc Helix brain under low-frequency B=1 mT magnetic fields of frequency fM =0.1-80 Hz. The dependence of the firing frequency f with fM decreases as a Lorentzian, centered about the spontaneous, f 0 one ('window effect'). An explanation is provided based on the superdiamagnetism and Ca2+ coulomb explosion model, supplemented by the Ca2+ kinetics towards the Ca2+-dependent K+ channels, opening them. The Ca2+ ion diffusion time is obtained
On geometrical scaling of split-ring and double-bar resonators at optical frequencies
Tretyakov, Sergei
2006-01-01
In this paper we consider the resonant frequency of split-ring resonators and double-bar resonators used to create artificial magnetic response at terahertz and optical frequencies. It is known that geometrical scaling of the resonant frequency of split rings breaks down at high frequencies (in the visible) due to electromagnetic properties of metals at those frequencies. Here we will discuss this phenomenon in terms of equivalent inductance and capacitance of the ring, derive an approximate ...
Tunable frequency combs based on dual microring resonators
Miller, Steven A; Ramelow, Sven; Luke, Kevin; Dutt, Avik; Farsi, Alessandro; Gaeta, Alexander L; Lipson, Michal
2015-01-01
In order to achieve efficient parametric frequency comb generation in microresonators, external control of coupling between the cavity and the bus waveguide is necessary. However, for passive monolithically integrated structures, the coupling gap is fixed and cannot be externally controlled, making tuning the coupling inherently challenging. We design a dual-cavity coupled microresonator structure in which tuning one ring resonance frequency induces a change in the overall cavity coupling condition. We demonstrate wide extinction tunability with high efficiency by engineering the ring coupling conditions. Additionally, we note a distinct dispersion tunability resulting from coupling two cavities of slightly different path lengths, and present a new method of modal dispersion engineering. Our fabricated devices consist of two coupled high quality factor silicon nitride microresonators, where the extinction ratio of the resonances can be controlled using integrated microheaters. Using this extinction tunability...
PWM high frequency oscillator in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
In this article we propose a new architecture for pulsed oscillator, in the area of radio frequency (RF), which operates with pulses of few microseconds in spectrometers of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Pulsed. This new topology substitutes the classic amplifying systems with valves by field effect semiconductors of the type MOS-FET channel N, allowing a larger compacting and efficiency. This oscillator possibly reaching potencies of the order of 103 Watts at a low cost. (author)
The gyrokinetic resonant theory of low frequency electromagnetic perturbation
Zhang, Shuangxi; Kishimoto, Yasuaki
2016-01-01
This paper pointed out that the traditional gyrokinetic theory dealing with low frequency electromagnetic perturbation violates the near identity transformation supposed to be obeyed by Lie perturbed transformation theory, if resonance happens between $\\omega$ and $\\mathbf{k}\\cdot \\mathbf{v}$. A modification is given to overcome this problem by not requiring all components in the first order Lagrangian 1-form equaling zero. And a numerical example is given as an application of the new theory.
Experiments on resonance frequencies of synthetic jet actuators
Kordík, Jozef; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Šafařík, Pavel
Kaohsiung : National Pingtung University of Science and Technolog, 2009 - (Tai, C.), s. 32-37 ISBN N. [Pacific Symposium on Flow Visualization and Image Processing /7./ (PSFVIP-7 2009). Kaohsiung (TW), 16.11.2009-19.11.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200760801; GA ČR(CZ) GA101/09/1959 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : synthetic jet * synthetic jet actuator * resonance frequency Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics
Eveno, Pauline; Kieffer, Benoît; Gilbert, Joël; Petiot, Jean-François; Caussé, René
2012-01-01
International audience Measurements and calculations of the input impedance of wind musical instruments are now well mastered. The purpose of this work is to study experimentally how far the resonance frequencies of brass instruments, taken from their input impedance, are able to give informations about the playing frequencies. Three different trumpets, obtained by changing only the leadpipe of the same instrument, were considered for the experiment. After a measurement of the input impeda...
Device for measurement of power and shape of radio frequency pulses in nuclear magnetic resonance
A design of an instrument to measure the power and shape of radio frequency (RF) pulses operating in a broad frequency range is described. The device is capable of measuring the pulse power up to 500 W of both CW and extremely short (∼1 μs) RF pulses of arbitrary period. The pulse envelope can be observed on a logarithmic scale on a corresponding instrument output using an inexpensive storage oscilloscope. The instrument consists of a coaxial measurement head, the RF processing circuits and an AD conversion and display unit. The whole device is based on widely available integrated circuits; thus, good reproducibility and adaptability of the design is ensured. Since the construction is intended to be used in particular (but not solely) in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we found it useful to provide a demonstration of two typical usage scenarios. Other application fields may comprise magnetic resonance imaging, radar and laser technology, power amplifier testing, etc. (technical design note)
Computing resonant frequency of C-shaped compact microstrip antennas by using ANFIS
Akdagli, Ali; Kayabasi, Ahmet; Develi, Ibrahim
2015-03-01
In this work, the resonant frequency of C-shaped compact microstrip antennas (CCMAs) operating at UHF band is computed by using the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). For this purpose, 144 CCMAs with various relative dielectric constants and different physical dimensions were simulated by the XFDTD software package based on the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method. One hundred and twenty-nine CCMAs were employed for training, while the remaining 15 CCMAs were used for testing of the ANFIS model. Average percentage error (APE) values were obtained as 0.8413% and 1.259% for training and testing, respectively. In order to demonstrate its validity and accuracy, the proposed ANFIS model was also tested over the simulation data given in the literature, and APE was obtained as 0.916%. These results show that ANFIS can be successfully used to compute the resonant frequency of CCMAs.
Effect of off-frequency sampling in magnetic resonance elastography.
Johnson, Curtis L; Chen, Danchin D; Olivero, William C; Sutton, Bradley P; Georgiadis, John G
2012-02-01
In magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), shear waves at a certain frequency are encoded through bipolar gradients that switch polarity at a controlled encoding frequency and are offset in time to capture wave propagation using a controlled sampling frequency. In brain MRE, there is a possibility that the mechanical actuation frequency is different from the vibration frequency, leading to a mismatch with encoding and sampling frequencies. This mismatch can occur in brain MRE from causes both extrinsic and intrinsic to the brain, such as scanner bed vibrations or active damping in the head. The purpose of this work was to investigate how frequency mismatch can affect MRE shear stiffness measurements. Experiments were performed on a dual-medium agarose gel phantom, and the results were compared with numerical simulations to quantify these effects. It is known that off-frequency encoding alone results in a scaling of wave amplitude, and it is shown here that off-frequency sampling can result in two main effects: (1) errors in the overall shear stiffness estimate of the material on the global scale and (2) local variations appearing as stiffer and softer structures in the material. For small differences in frequency, it was found that measured global stiffness of the brain could theoretically vary by up to 12.5% relative to actual stiffness with local variations of up to 3.7% of the mean stiffness. It was demonstrated that performing MRE experiments at a frequency other than that of tissue vibration can lead to artifacts in the MRE stiffness images, and this mismatch could explain some of the large-scale scatter of stiffness data or lack of repeatability reported in the brain MRE literature. PMID:22055750
Frequency Response Adaptive Control of a Refrigeration Cycle
Jens G. Balchen
1989-01-01
Full Text Available A technique for the adaptation of controller parameters in a single control loop based upon the estimation of frequency response parameters has been presented in an earlier paper. This paper contains an extension and a generalization of the first method and results in a more versatile solution which is applicable to a wider range of process characteristics. The application of this adaptive control technique is illustrated by a laboratory refrigeration cycle in which the evaporator pressure controls the speed of the compressor.
Low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonance with a dc SQUID
Conventional pure nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is a technique well suited for the study of very large quadrupolar interactions. Numerous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques have been developed for the study of smaller quadrupolar interactions. However, there are many nuclei which have quadrupolar interactions of intermediate strength. Quadrupolar interactions in this region have traditionally been difficult or unfeasible to detect. This work describes the development and application of a SQUID NQR technique which is capable of measuring intermediate strength quadrupolar interactions, in the range of a few hundred kilohertz to several megahertz. In this technique, a dc SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) is used to monitor the longitudinal sample magnetization, as opposed to the transverse magnetization, as a rf field is swept in frequency. This allows the detection of low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonances over a very wide frequency range with high sensitivity. The theory of this NQR technique is discussed and a description of the dc SQUID system is given. In the following chapters, the spectrometer is discussed along with its application to the study of samples containing half-odd-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei, in particular boron-11 and aluminum-27. The feasibility of applying this NQR technique in the study of samples containing integer spin nuclei is discussed in the last chapter. 140 refs., 46 figs., 6 tabs
Aguirre-Ollinger, Gabriel
2015-01-01
In this article, we analyze a novel strategy for assisting the lower extremities based on adaptive frequency oscillators. Our aim is to use the control algorithm presented here as a building block for the control of powered lower-limb exoskeletons. The algorithm assists cyclic movements of the human extremities by synchronizing actuator torques with the estimated net torque exerted by the muscles. Synchronization is produced by a nonlinear dynamical system combining an adaptive frequency oscillator with a form of adaptive Fourier analysis. The system extracts, in real time, the fundamental frequency component of the net muscle torque acting on a specific joint. Said component, nearly sinusoidal in shape, is the basis for the assistive torque waveform delivered by the exoskeleton. The action of the exoskeleton can be interpreted as a virtual reduction in the mechanical impedance of the leg. We studied the ability of human subjects to adapt their muscle activation to the assistive torque. Ten subjects swung their extended leg while coupled to a stationary hip joint exoskeleton. The experiment yielded a significant decrease, with respect to unassisted movement, of the activation levels of an agonist/antagonist pair of muscles controlling the hip joint's motion, which suggests the exoskeleton control has potential for assisting human gait. A moderate increase in swing frequency was observed as well. We theorize that the increase in frequency can be explained by the impedance model of the assisted leg. Per this model, subjects adjust their swing frequency in order to control the amount of reduction in net muscle torque. PMID:25655955
Robust time and frequency domain estimation methods in adaptive control
Lamaire, Richard Orville
1987-01-01
A robust identification method was developed for use in an adaptive control system. The type of estimator is called the robust estimator, since it is robust to the effects of both unmodeled dynamics and an unmeasurable disturbance. The development of the robust estimator was motivated by a need to provide guarantees in the identification part of an adaptive controller. To enable the design of a robust control system, a nominal model as well as a frequency-domain bounding function on the modeling uncertainty associated with this nominal model must be provided. Two estimation methods are presented for finding parameter estimates, and, hence, a nominal model. One of these methods is based on the well developed field of time-domain parameter estimation. In a second method of finding parameter estimates, a type of weighted least-squares fitting to a frequency-domain estimated model is used. The frequency-domain estimator is shown to perform better, in general, than the time-domain parameter estimator. In addition, a methodology for finding a frequency-domain bounding function on the disturbance is used to compute a frequency-domain bounding function on the additive modeling error due to the effects of the disturbance and the use of finite-length data. The performance of the robust estimator in both open-loop and closed-loop situations is examined through the use of simulations.
Yu, Haitao; Guo, Xinmeng; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile
2015-10-01
The phenomenon of vibrational resonance is investigated in adaptive Newman-Watts small-world neuronal networks, where the strength of synaptic connections between neurons is modulated based on spike-timing-dependent plasticity. Numerical results demonstrate that there exists appropriate amplitude of high-frequency driving which is able to optimize the neural ensemble response to the weak low-frequency periodic signal. The effect of networked vibrational resonance can be significantly affected by spike-timing-dependent plasticity. It is shown that spike-timing-dependent plasticity with dominant depression can always improve the efficiency of vibrational resonance, and a small adjusting rate can promote the transmission of weak external signal in small-world neuronal networks. In addition, the network topology plays an important role in the vibrational resonance in spike-timing-dependent plasticity-induced neural systems, where the system response to the subthreshold signal is maximized by an optimal network structure. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the introduction of inhibitory synapses can considerably weaken the phenomenon of vibrational resonance in the hybrid small-world neuronal networks with spike-timing-dependent plasticity.
Adaptive frequency estimation by MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) method
Karhunen, Juha; Nieminen, Esko; Joutsensalo, Jyrki
During the last years, the eigenvector-based method called MUSIC has become very popular in estimating the frequencies of sinusoids in additive white noise. Adaptive realizations of the MUSIC method are studied using simulated data. Several of the adaptive realizations seem to give in practice equally good results as the nonadaptive standard realization. The only exceptions are instantaneous gradient type algorithms that need considerably more samples to achieve a comparable performance. A new method is proposed for constructing initial estimates to the signal subspace. The method improves often dramatically the performance of instantaneous gradient type algorithms. The new signal subspace estimate can also be used to define a frequency estimator directly or to simplify eigenvector computation.
Frequency-selective analysis of multichannel magnetic resonance spectroscopy data.
Sandgren, Niclas; Stoica, Petre
2005-01-01
In several practical magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) applications the user is interested only in the spectral content of a specific frequency band of the spectrum. A frequency-selective (or sub-band) method estimates only the parameters of those spectroscopic components that lie in a pre-selected frequency band of the spectrum in a computationally efficient manner. Multichannel MRS is a technique that employs phased-array receive coils to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the spectra by combining several simultaneous measurements of the magnetic resonance (MR) relaxation of an excited sample. In this paper we suggest a frequency-selective multichannel parameter estimation approach that combines the appealing features (high speed and improved SNR) of the two techniques above. The presented method shows parameter estimation accuracies comparable to those of existing fullband multichannel techniques in the high SNR case, but at a considerably lower computational complexity, and significantly better parameter estimation accuracies in low SNR scenarios. PMID:17282712
Nano-resonator frequency response based on strain gradient theory
This paper aims to explore the dynamic behaviour of a nano-resonator under ac and dc excitation using strain gradient theory. To achieve this goal, the partial differential equation of nano-beam vibration is first converted to an ordinary differential equation by the Galerkin projection method and the lumped model is derived. Lumped parameters of the nano-resonator, such as linear and nonlinear springs and damper coefficients, are compared with those of classical theory and it is demonstrated that beams with smaller thickness display greater deviation from classical parameters. Stable and unstable equilibrium points based on classic and non-classical theories are also compared. The results show that, regarding the applied dc voltage, the dynamic behaviours expected by classical and non-classical theories are significantly different, such that one theory predicts the un-deformed shape as the stable condition, while the other theory predicts that the beam will experience bi-stability. To obtain the frequency response of the nano-resonator, a general equation including cubic and quadratic nonlinearities in addition to parametric electrostatic excitation terms is derived, and the analytical solution is determined using a second-order multiple scales method. Based on frequency response analysis, the softening and hardening effects given by two theories are investigated and compared, and it is observed that neglecting the size effect can lead to two completely different predictions in the dynamic behaviour of the resonators. The findings of this article can be helpful in the design and characterization of the size-dependent dynamic behaviour of resonators on small scales. (paper)
About resonance frequencies of aluminium alloy bending vibrations
Using ultrasonic method resonance frequencies of bending vibrations and elastic moduli of aluminium alloy SAV-1 samples are investigated. On the base of spectra of bending vibrations in low-frequency range data on values of a number of elastic properties are obtained as well as dispersion characteristics of main moduli for number of frequencies before and after ionizing irradiation (60Co, 5x103-1.6x107 Gy) of samples. Considerable stability of sample elastic moduli during common storage conditions and nonlinear dose dependence of these parameters within wide range of absorbed doses are pointed out. Possible causes of revealed effects of radiation modification of elastic properties of SAV-1 alloy are analyzed
Radio Frequency Interference Suppression for Landmine Detection by Quadrupole Resonance
Liu Guoqing
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The quadrupole resonance (QR technology can be used as a confirming sensor for buried plastic landmine detection by detecting the explosives within the mine. We focus herein on the detection of TNT mines via the QR sensor. Since the frequency of the QR signal is located within the AM radio frequency band, the QR signal can be corrupted by strong radio frequency interferences (RFIs. Hence to detect the very weak QR signal, RFI mitigation is essential. Reference antennas, which receive RFIs only, can be used together with the main antenna, which receives both the QR signal and the RFIs, for RFI mitigation. The RFIs are usually colored both spatially and temporally, and hence exploiting only the spatial diversity of the antenna array may not give the best performance. We exploit herein both the spatial and temporal correlations of the RFIs to improve the TNT detection performance.
Blade Crack Detection of Centrifugal Fan Using Adaptive Stochastic Resonance
Bingbing Hu; Bing Li
2015-01-01
Centrifugal fans are widely used in various industries as a kind of turbo machinery. Among the components of the centrifugal fan, the impeller is a key part because it is used to transform kinetic energy into pressure energy. Crack in impeller’s blades is one of the serious hidden dangers. It is important to detect the cracks in the blades as early as possible. Based on blade vibration signals, this research applies an adaptive stochastic resonance (ASR) method to diagnose crack fault in cent...
Wideband bioimpedance meter with the adaptive selection of frequency grid
V. S. Mosiychuk
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Introduction. For the diagnosis of functional state and structure of biological objects with weakly expressed irregularities it is important quickly and accurately to determine the amplitude- and phase-frequency characteristics. Therefore, the purpose of the article is a representation of the results of the development of biological objects high-speed impedance meter with the ability to select adaptive grid measuring frequencies in the extended band. Structure of the impedance meter. Developed instrument is designed to measure the impedance of the object on four-electrode method. The device uses a frequency synthesizer amplitude-phase detector integrally fabricated and active electrodes, by which the voltage controlled current source and the input buffer amplifiers with low input capacitance, are located in close proximity to the studied bioobject. This allowed to make measurements at frequencies up to 5 MHz. Instruments characteristics. To test the device characteristics the frequency characteristics of the test object (RC-chain impedance were measured. It is composed of 5 precision resistors and capacitors. Parameters of the elements were measured preliminarily by laboratory inductance, capacitance and resistance meter E7-12. The dependence of the measurement errors of the developed device in the frequency range from 1 kHz to 5 MHz is not more than 5% of the modulus of the impedance and not more than 2° of the phase.
Superconducting radio-frequency resonator in magnetic fields up to 6 T
Ebrahimi, M. S.; Stallkamp, N.; Quint, W.; Wiesel, M.; Vogel, M.; Martin, A.; Birkl, G.
2016-07-01
We have measured the characteristics of a superconducting radio-frequency resonator in an external magnetic field. The magnetic field strength has been varied with 10 mT resolution between zero and 6 T. The resonance frequency and the quality factor of the resonator have been found to change significantly as a function of the magnetic field strength. Both parameters show a hysteresis effect which is more pronounced for the resonance frequency. Quantitative knowledge of such behaviour is particularly important when experiments require specific values of resonance frequency and quality factor or when the magnetic field is changed while the resonator is in the superconducting state.
RF MEMS Fractal Capacitors With High Self-Resonant Frequencies
Elshurafa, Amro M.
2012-07-23
This letter demonstrates RF microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fractal capacitors possessing the highest reported self-resonant frequencies (SRFs) in PolyMUMPS to date. Explicitly, measurement results show SRFs beyond 20 GHz. Furthermore, quality factors higher than 4 throughout a band of 1-15 GHz and reaching as high as 28 were achieved. Additional benefits that are readily attainable from implementing fractal capacitors in MEMS are discussed, including suppressing residual stress warping, eliminating the need for etching holes, and reducing parasitics. The latter benefits were acquired without any fabrication intervention. © 2011 IEEE.
Optical sum-frequency generation in whispering gallery mode resonators
Strekalov, Dmitry V; Huang, Yu-Ping; Kumar, Prem
2013-01-01
We demonstrate sum-frequency generation in a nonlinear whispering gallery mode resonator between a telecom wavelength and the Rb D2 line, achieved through natural phase matching. Due to the strong optical field confinement and ultra high Q of the cavity, we achieve a 1000-fold enhancement in the conversion efficiency compared to existing waveguide-based devices. The experimental data are in agreement with the nonlinear dynamics and phase matching theory in the spherical geometry employed. The experimental and theoretical results point to a new platform to manipulate the color and quantum states of light waves toward applications such as atomic memory based quantum networking and logic operations with optical signals.
Parametric study of the resonance frequency of synthetic jet actuators
Kordík, Jozef; Šafařík, P.; Trávníček, Zdeněk
Vol. 10/2008. Bydgoszcz : Polish Society of Mechanical Engineers and Technicians, 2008 - (Peszynski, K.), s. 57-58 ISBN 978-83-87982-08-9. [International Conference on Developments in Machinery Design and Control /12./. Nowogród (PL), 09.09.2008-12.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200760504; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06031 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : synthetic jet * synthetic jet actuator * resonance frequency Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics
Low frequency noise in resonant Josephson soliton oscillators
Hansen, Jørn Bindslev; Holst, T.; Wellstood, Frederick C.;
1991-01-01
to the Nyquist voltage noise in a resistance equal to the dynamic resistance RD of the current-voltage characteristic of the bias point. In contrast, measurements of the linewidth of the microwave radiation from the same JTL showed that the spectral density of the underlying noise voltage scaled as R D2/RS where......The noise in the resonant soliton mode of long and narrow Josephson tunnel junctions (Josephson transmission lines or JTLs) have been measured in the frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 25 kHz by means of a DC SQUID. The measured white noise was found, to within a factor of two, to be equal...
Gyüre, B.; Márkus, B. G.; Bernáth, B.; Simon, F., E-mail: ferenc.simon@univie.ac.at [Department of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics and MTA-BME Lendület Spintronics Research Group (PROSPIN), P.O. Box 91, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Murányi, F. [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT’IS), Zeughausstrasse 43, 8004 Zurich (Switzerland)
2015-09-15
We present a novel method to determine the resonant frequency and quality factor of microwave resonators which is faster, more stable, and conceptually simpler than the yet existing techniques. The microwave resonator is pumped with the microwave radiation at a frequency away from its resonance. It then emits an exponentially decaying radiation at its eigen-frequency when the excitation is rapidly switched off. The emitted microwave signal is down-converted with a microwave mixer, digitized, and its Fourier transformation (FT) directly yields the resonance curve in a single shot. Being a FT based method, this technique possesses the Fellgett (multiplex) and Connes (accuracy) advantages and it conceptually mimics that of pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance. We also establish a novel benchmark to compare accuracy of the different approaches of microwave resonator measurements. This shows that the present method has similar accuracy to the existing ones, which are based on sweeping or modulating the frequency of the microwave radiation.
We present a novel method to determine the resonant frequency and quality factor of microwave resonators which is faster, more stable, and conceptually simpler than the yet existing techniques. The microwave resonator is pumped with the microwave radiation at a frequency away from its resonance. It then emits an exponentially decaying radiation at its eigen-frequency when the excitation is rapidly switched off. The emitted microwave signal is down-converted with a microwave mixer, digitized, and its Fourier transformation (FT) directly yields the resonance curve in a single shot. Being a FT based method, this technique possesses the Fellgett (multiplex) and Connes (accuracy) advantages and it conceptually mimics that of pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance. We also establish a novel benchmark to compare accuracy of the different approaches of microwave resonator measurements. This shows that the present method has similar accuracy to the existing ones, which are based on sweeping or modulating the frequency of the microwave radiation
Blade Crack Detection of Centrifugal Fan Using Adaptive Stochastic Resonance
Bingbing Hu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Centrifugal fans are widely used in various industries as a kind of turbo machinery. Among the components of the centrifugal fan, the impeller is a key part because it is used to transform kinetic energy into pressure energy. Crack in impeller’s blades is one of the serious hidden dangers. It is important to detect the cracks in the blades as early as possible. Based on blade vibration signals, this research applies an adaptive stochastic resonance (ASR method to diagnose crack fault in centrifugal fan. The ASR method, which can utilize the optimization ability of the grid search method and adaptively realize the optimal stochastic resonance system matching input signals, may weaken the noise and highlight weak characteristic and thus can diagnose the fault accurately. A centrifugal fan test rig is established and experiments with three cases of blades are conducted. In comparison with the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD analysis and the traditional Fourier transform method, the experiment verified the effectiveness of the current method in blade crack detection.
Planetary gearbox fault diagnosis using an adaptive stochastic resonance method
Lei, Yaguo; Han, Dong; Lin, Jing; He, Zhengjia
2013-07-01
Planetary gearboxes are widely used in aerospace, automotive and heavy industry applications due to their large transmission ratio, strong load-bearing capacity and high transmission efficiency. The tough operation conditions of heavy duty and intensive impact load may cause gear tooth damage such as fatigue crack and teeth missed etc. The challenging issues in fault diagnosis of planetary gearboxes include selection of sensitive measurement locations, investigation of vibration transmission paths and weak feature extraction. One of them is how to effectively discover the weak characteristics from noisy signals of faulty components in planetary gearboxes. To address the issue in fault diagnosis of planetary gearboxes, an adaptive stochastic resonance (ASR) method is proposed in this paper. The ASR method utilizes the optimization ability of ant colony algorithms and adaptively realizes the optimal stochastic resonance system matching input signals. Using the ASR method, the noise may be weakened and weak characteristics highlighted, and therefore the faults can be diagnosed accurately. A planetary gearbox test rig is established and experiments with sun gear faults including a chipped tooth and a missing tooth are conducted. And the vibration signals are collected under the loaded condition and various motor speeds. The proposed method is used to process the collected signals and the results of feature extraction and fault diagnosis demonstrate its effectiveness.
Ion cyclotron resonance bridge detector for frequency sweep
Pitsakis, M.N.; Wobschall, D.C.
1983-11-01
An electronic ion cyclotron resonance detection system was designed and constructed. The ions are excited by sweeping the frequency of the electric field (3--300 kHz) using a sweep frequency generator with a nonlinear sweep voltage in order to maintain an approximately constant mass resolution. Ion detection is accomplished by a bridge with a phase-sensitive detector as a demodulator. The required reference signal for the phase-sensitive detector is generated by a circuit with a transfer function which approximates that of the ICR signal in order to obtain an accurate phase match between the signal source and the detector. The device is capable of detecting a minimum concentration of 50 ions/cm/sup 3/ over a mass range of 15 to 1500 amu.
Ion cyclotron resonance bridge detector for frequency sweep
Pitsakis, Michael N.; Wobschall, Darold C.
1983-11-01
An electronic ion cyclotron resonance detection system was designed and constructed. The ions are excited by sweeping the frequency of the electric field (3-300 kHz) using a sweep frequency generator with a nonlinear sweep voltage in order to maintain an approximately constant mass resolution. Ion detection is accomplished by a bridge with a phase-sensitive detector as a demodulator. The required reference signal for the phase-sensitive detector is generated by a circuit with a transfer function which approximates that of the ICR signal in order to obtain an accurate phase match between the signal source and the detector. The device is capable of detecting a minimum concentration of 50 ions/cm3 over a mass range of 15 to 1500 amu.
Frequency locking in hair cells: Distinguishing between distinct resonant mechanisms
Edri, Yuval; Yochelis, Arik
2016-01-01
The auditory system displays remarkable mechanical sensitivity and frequency discrimination. These attributes have been shown to rely on an amplification process, which requires biochemical feedback loops. In some systems, the active process was shown to lead to spontaneous oscillations of hair cell bundles. In the last decade, models that display proximity to an oscillatory onset (a.k.a. Hopf bifurcation) have gained increasing support due to many advantages in explaining the hearing phenomenology. Particularly, they exhibit resonant responses to distinct frequencies of incoming sound waves. Unlike previous studies, two types of driving forces are being examined: additive, in which the external forcing term does not couple directly on the systems observable (passive coupling), and parametric, in which the forcing term directly affects the observable and thus intrinsically modifies the systems properties (active coupling). By applying universal principles near the Hopf bifurcation onset, we find several funda...
Resonant interactions between cometary ions and low frequency electromagnetic waves
We explore the conditions for resonance between cometary pick-up ions and parallel propagating electromagnetic waves. A model ring-beam distribution for the pick-up H2O+ ions is adopted which allows a direct comparison of the source of free energy for growth from either the beam or the gyrating ring in the limit near marginal stability. Under average solar wind conditions in the inner solar system the gyrating ring provides the dominant contribution to wave growth. The presence of a field-aligned beam is only important to allow resonance with R-mode waves which occur in two distinct frequency bands either well above or below the pick-up ion gyrofrequency. The most unstable mode is the low frequency R-mode or fast MHD wave, though higher frequency whistlers or low frequency L-mode waves may also be excited by the same source of free energy. The nature of the unstable waves is strongly influenced by the inclination α of the interplanetary field. In the frame of the solar wind such waves must propagate along the field in the direction upstream towards the Sun with a phase speed lower than the beaming velocity of the pick-up ions. The waves are consequently blown back away from the Sun and would thus be detected with a left-hand polarization by an observer in the cometary frame. We consider this the most likely mechanism to account for the interior MHD waves observed by satellites over an extended spatial region surrounding comets Giacobini-Zinner and Halley. (author)
Chlorine nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer with accurate recording the resonant frequency
A spectrometer with automatic frequency control (AFC) of the nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) detector has been developed for decreasing errors and automating measurement of NQR frequencies. A parametric superregenerator is used as a detector of signals in the NQR 35Cl spectrometer. A digital frequency meter and a band puncher are used for measuring and recording of the values of the synthesizer frequency; the recording of the first derivative of the NQR signal is done by a two-coordinate self-recorder. The AFC circuit consists of an audio generator, an amplidude detector, a selective low-frequency amplifier, a low-frequency phase detector, a direct-current amplifier and a voltage adder. The recording of the first derivative of the signal of NQR 35Cl in KClO3 at the modulation frequency of 250 Hz was given to illustrate the operation of the NQR spectrometer. The rems error of measurements of the NQR 35Cl in KClO3 frequency is +-1.5 Hz, which corresponds to possible sample temperature changes with an accuracy of +0.0003 K
Resonant-frequency discharge in a multi-cell radio frequency cavity
Popovic, S; Upadhyay, J; Mammosser, J; Nikolic, M; Vuskovic, L
2014-11-07
We are reporting experimental results on microwave discharge operating at resonant frequency in a multi-cell radio frequency (RF) accelerator cavity. Although the discharge operated at room temperature, the setup was constructed so that it could be used for plasma generation and processing in fully assembled active superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cryomodule (in situ operation). This discharge offers an efficient mechanism for removal of a variety of contaminants, organic or oxide layers, and residual particulates from the interior surface of RF cavities through the interaction of plasma-generated radicals with the cavity walls. We describe resonant RF breakdown conditions and address the problems related to generation and sustaining the multi-cell cavity plasma, which are breakdown and resonant detuning. We have determined breakdown conditions in the cavity, which was acting as a plasma vessel with distorted cylindrical geometry. We discuss the spectroscopic data taken during plasma removal of contaminants and use them to evaluate plasma parameters, characterize the process, and estimate the volatile contaminant product removal.
Amplitude modulation reduces loudness adaptation to high-frequency tones
Wynne, DP; George, SE; Zeng, FG
2015-01-01
© 2015 Acoustical Society of America. Long-term loudness perception of a sound has been presumed to depend on the spatial distribution of activated auditory nerve fibers as well as their temporal firing pattern. The relative contributions of those two factors were investigated by measuring loudness adaptation to sinusoidally amplitude-modulated 12-kHz tones. The tones had a total duration of 180s and were either unmodulated or 100%-modulated at one of three frequencies (4, 20, or 100Hz), and ...
Signal Adaptive System for Space/Spatial-Frequency Analysis
Veselin N. Ivanović
2009-01-01
Full Text Available This paper outlines the development of a multiple-clock-cycle implementation (MCI of a signal adaptive two-dimensional (2D system for space/spatial-frequency (S/SF signal analysis. The design is based on a method for improved S/SF representation of the analyzed 2D signals, also proposed here. The proposed MCI design optimizes critical design performances related to hardware complexity, making it a suitable system for real time implementation on an integrated chip. Additionally, the design allows the implemented system to take a variable number of clock cycles (CLKs (the only necessary ones regarding desirable—2D Wigner distribution-presentation of autoterms in different frequency-frequency points during the execution. This ability represents a major advantage of the proposed design which helps to optimize the time required for execution and produce an improved, cross-terms-free S/SF signal representation. The design has been verified by a field-programmable gate array (FPGA circuit design, capable of performing S/SF analysis of 2D signals in real time.
Clinical evaluation of osseointegration using resonance frequency analysis.
Satwalekar, Parth; Nalla, Sandeep; Reddy, Ramaswamy; Chowdary, Sheeba Glory
2015-01-01
The stability of the implant at the time of placement and during the development of the osseointegration process are the two major issues governing the implant survival. Implant stability is a mechanical phenomenon related to local factors such as bone quality, quantity, type of placement technique and type of implant used. The application of a user-friendly, clinically reliable, non-invasive method to assess implant stability and the osseointegration process is considered highly desirable. Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) is one such method which shows almost perfect reproducibility and repeatability after statistical analysis. The aim of this paper is to review the various methods used to assess implant stability and on the currently used RFA method which is being highly accepted in the recent times. PMID:26929512
High frequency nano-optomechanical disk resonators in liquids
Gil-Santos, E; Nguyen, D T; Hease, W; Lemaître, A; Ducci, S; Leo, G; Favero, I
2015-01-01
Vibrating nano- and micromechanical resonators have been the subject of research aiming at ultrasensitive mass sensors for mass spectrometry, chemical analysis and biomedical diagnosis. Unfortunately, their merits diminish dramatically in liquids due to dissipative mechanisms like viscosity and acoustic losses. A push towards faster and lighter miniaturized nanodevices would enable improved performances, provided dissipation was controlled and novel techniques were available to efficiently drive and read-out their minute displacement. Here we report on a nano-optomechanical approach to this problem using miniature semiconductor disks. These devices combine mechanical motion at high frequency above the GHz, ultra-low mass of a few picograms, and moderate dissipation in liquids. We show that high-sensitivity optical measurements allow to direct resolve their thermally driven Brownian vibrations, even in the most dissipative liquids. Thanks to this novel technique, we experimentally, numerically and analytically...
Low radio frequency biased electron cyclotron resonance plasma etching
Samukawa, Seiji; Toyosato, Tomohiko; Wani, Etsuo
1991-03-01
A radio frequency (rf) biased electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma etching technology has been developed to realize an efficient ion acceleration in high density and uniform ECR plasma for accurate Al-Si-Cu alloy film etching. In this technology, the substrate is located at the ECR position (875 G position) and the etching is carried out with a 400 kHz rf bias power. This Al-Si-Cu etching technology achieves a high etching rate (more than 5000 A/min), excellent etching uniformity (within ±5%), highly anisotropic etching, and Cu residue-free etching in only Cl2 gas plasma. These etching characteristics are accomplished by the combination of the dense and uniform ECR plasma generation at the ECR position with the efficient accelerated ion flux at the ECR position by using 400 kHz rf bias.
A wide range sigma—delta fractional-N frequency synthesizer with adaptive frequency calibration
A wide range fractional-N frequency synthesizer in 0.18 μm RF CMOS technology is implemented. A switched-capacitors bank LC-tank VCO and an adaptive frequency calibration technique are used to expand the frequency range. A 16-bit third-order sigma—delta modulator with dither is used to randomize the fractional spur. The active area is 0.6 mm2. The experimental results show the proposed frequency synthesizer consumes 4.3 mA from a single 1.8 V supply voltage except for buffers. The frequency range is 1.44–2.11 GHz and the frequency resolution is less than 0.4 kHz. The phase noise is −94 dBc/Hz - 100 kHz and −121 dBc/Hz - 1 MHz at the output of the prescaler with a loop bandwidth of approximately 120 kHz. The performance meets the requirements for the multi-band and multi-mode transceiver applications. (semiconductor integrated circuits)
Measurements of resonance frequencies of clarinet reeds and simulations
Taillard, Pierre-André; Gross, Michel; Dalmont, Jean-Pierre; Kergomard, Jean
2012-01-01
A set of 55 clarinet reeds is observed by holography, collecting 2 series of measurements made under 2 different moisture contents, from which the resonance frequencies of the 15 first modes are deduced. A statistical analysis of the results reveals good correlations, but also significant differences between both series. Within a given series, flexural modes are not strongly correlated. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) shows that the measurements of each series can be described with 3 factors capturing more than 90% of the variance: the first is linked with transverse modes, the second with flexural modes of high order and the third with the first flexural mode. A forth factor is necessary to take into account the individual sensitivity to moisture content. Numerical 3D simulations are conducted by Finite Element Method, based on a given reed shape and an orthotropic model. A sensitivity analysis revels that, besides the density, the theoretical frequencies depend mainly on 2 parameters: $E_L$ and $G_{LT}...
Damelin, S. B.; Y. Gu; Wunsch II, D. C.; Xu, R
2014-01-01
In this paper, we describe an algorithm FARDiff (Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Dif- fusion) which combines Diffusion Maps and Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory to do clustering on high dimensional data. We describe some applications of this method and some problems for future research.
A fast full-wave numerical approach was developed for simulating high-field multi-channel radio-frequency (RF) receive coil arrays in magnetic resonance imaging. To improve the efficiency, the impedance matrix was compressed by a multilevel adaptive cross approximation method. Furthermore, careful organization of multiple coil simulations was applied so that the impedance matrix associated with biological subjects is constructed and pre-conditioned only once. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach for RF coil simulations.
ZHANG Hui; ZHANG Shu-Yi; FAN Li
2009-01-01
A model of high-overtone bulk acoustic resonators is used to study the effects of thickness deviation of elastic plates on resonance frequency spectra in planar multi-layered systems. The resonance frequency shifts induced by the thickness deviations of the elastic plates periodically vary with the resonance order, which depends on the acoustic impedance ratios of the elastic plates to piezoelectric patches. Additionally, the center lines of the frequency shift oscillations Hnearly change with the orders of the resonance modes, and their slopes are sensitive to the thickness deviations of the plates, which can be used to quantitatively evaluate the thickness deviations.
Resonant frequencies of massless scalar field in rotating black-brane spacetime
Jing Ji-Liang; Pan Qi-Yuan
2008-01-01
This paper investigates the resonant frequencies of the massless scalar field in the near extremal Kerr-like black-brahe spacetime. It is shown that the different angular quantum number will present different resonant frequencies. It is also shown that the real part of the resonant frequencies increases as the compact dimensions parameter μi increases, but the magnitude of the imaginary part decreases as μi increases.
Using genetic algorithm based fuzzy adaptive resonance theory for clustering analysis
LIU Bo; WANG Yong; WANG Hong-jian
2006-01-01
In the clustering applications field, fuzzy adaptive resonance theory system has been widely applied. But, three parameters of fuzzy adaptive resonance theory need to be adjusted manually for obtaining better clustering. It needs much time to test and does not assure a best result. Genetic algorithm is an optimal mathematical search technique based on the principles of natural selection and genetic recombination. So, to make the fuzzy adaptive resonance theory parameters choosing process automation, an approach incorporating genetic algorithm and fuzzy adaptive resonance theory neural network has been applied. Then, the best clustering result can be obtained.Through experiment, it can be proved that the most appropriate parameters of fuzzy adaptive resonance theory can be gained effectively by this approach.
Stress adaptation and low-frequency impedance of rat lungs.
Peslin, R; Duvivier, C; Bekkari, H; Reichart, E; Gallina, C
1990-09-01
At transpulmonary pressures (Ptp) of 7-12 cmH2O, pressure-volume hysteresis of isolated cat lungs has been found to be 20-50% larger than predicted from their amount of stress adaptation (J. Hildebrandt, J. Appl. Physiol. 28: 365-372, 1970). This behavior is inconsistent with linear viscoelasticity and has been interpreted in terms of plastoelasticity. We have reinvestigated this phenomenon in isolated lungs from 12 Wistar rats by measuring 1) the changes in Ptp after 0.5-ml step volume changes (initial Ptp of 5 cmH2O) and 2) their response to sinusoidal pressure forcing from 0.01 to 0.67 Hz (2 cmH2O peak to peak, mean Ptp of 6 cmH2O). Stress adaptation curves were found to fit approximately Hildebrandt's logarithmic model [delta Ptp/delta V = A - B.log(t)] from 0.2 to 100 s, where delta V is the step volume change, A and B are coefficients, and t is time. A and B averaged 1.06 +/- 0.11 and 0.173 +/- 0.019 cmH2O/ml, respectively, with minor differences between stress relaxation and stress recovery curves. The response to sinusoidal forcing was characterized by the effective resistance (Re) and elastance (EL). Re decreased from 2.48 +/- 0.41 cmH2O.ml-1.s at 0.01 Hz to 0.18 +/- 0.03 cmH2O.ml-1.s at 0.5 Hz, and EL increased from 0.99 +/- 0.10 to 1.26 +/- 0.20 cmH2O/ml on the same frequency range. These data were analyzed with the frequency-domain version of the same model, complemented by a Newtonian resistance (R) to account for airway resistance: Re = R + B/ (9.2f) and EL = A + 0.25B + B . log 2 pi f, where f is the frequency.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2246156
Quantum dot admittance probed at microwave frequencies with an on-chip resonator
Frey, T.; Leek, P. J.; Beck, M.; Faist, J.; Wallraff, A.; Ensslin, K.; Ihn, T.; Büttiker, M.
2012-09-01
We present microwave frequency measurements of the dynamic admittance of a quantum dot tunnel-coupled to a two-dimensional electron gas. The measurements are made via a high-quality 6.75 GHz on-chip resonator capacitively coupled to the dot. The resonator frequency is found to shift both down and up close to conductance resonance of the dot corresponding to a change of sign of the reactance of the system from capacitive to inductive. The observations are consistent with a scattering matrix model. The sign of the reactance depends on the detuning of the dot from conductance resonance and on the magnitude of the tunnel rate to the lead with respect to the resonator frequency. Inductive response is observed on a conductance resonance when tunnel coupling and temperature are sufficiently small compared to the resonator frequency.
RF MEMS suspended band-stop resonator and filter for frequency and bandwidth continuous fine tuning
We firstly propose the concept of a frequency and bandwidth fine-tuning method using an RF MEMS-based suspended tunable band-stop resonator. We experimentally show the feasibility of the continuously tuned resonator, including a second-order filter, which consists of cascaded resonators to achieve center frequency and bandwidth fine tuning. The structure consists of a freestanding half-wavelength (λ/2) resonator connected to a large displacement comb actuator. The lateral movement of the λ/2 resonator over the main transmission line produces different electromagnetic decoupling values from the main transmission line. The decoupled energy leads to continuous center frequency and bandwidth tuning using the band-stop resonator circuit for fine-tuning applications. The freestanding λ/2 resonator plays the role of a variable capacitor as well as a decoupling resonator in the proposed structure. The fabricated tunable filter shows suitability for Ku-band wireless communication system applications with continuous reconfiguration
Lee, Jungshin; Rhim, Jaewook
2012-09-01
Differential vibrating accelerometer (DVA) is a resonant-type sensor which detects the change in the resonant frequency in the presence of acceleration input, i.e. inertial loading. However, the resonant frequency of micromachined silicon resonators is sensitive to the temperature change as well as the input acceleration. Therefore, to design a high-precision vibrating accelerometer, the temperature sensitivity of the resonant frequency has to be predicted and compensated accurately. In this study, a temperature compensation method for resonant frequency is proposed which controls the electrostatic stiffness of the dual-ended tuning fork (DETF) using the temperature-dependent dc voltage between the parallel plate electrodes. To do this, the electromechanical model is derived first to predict the change in the electrostatic stiffness and the resonant frequency resulting from the dc voltage between the resonator and the electrodes. Next, the temperature sensitivity of the resonant frequency is modeled, estimated and compared with the measured values. Then it is shown that the resonant frequency of the DETF can be kept constant in the operating temperature range by applying the temperature-dependent driving voltage to the parallel plate electrodes. The proposed method is validated through experiment.
Differential vibrating accelerometer (DVA) is a resonant-type sensor which detects the change in the resonant frequency in the presence of acceleration input, i.e. inertial loading. However, the resonant frequency of micromachined silicon resonators is sensitive to the temperature change as well as the input acceleration. Therefore, to design a high-precision vibrating accelerometer, the temperature sensitivity of the resonant frequency has to be predicted and compensated accurately. In this study, a temperature compensation method for resonant frequency is proposed which controls the electrostatic stiffness of the dual-ended tuning fork (DETF) using the temperature-dependent dc voltage between the parallel plate electrodes. To do this, the electromechanical model is derived first to predict the change in the electrostatic stiffness and the resonant frequency resulting from the dc voltage between the resonator and the electrodes. Next, the temperature sensitivity of the resonant frequency is modeled, estimated and compared with the measured values. Then it is shown that the resonant frequency of the DETF can be kept constant in the operating temperature range by applying the temperature-dependent driving voltage to the parallel plate electrodes. The proposed method is validated through experiment. (paper)
Tang, Meng; Cagliani, Alberto; Escouflaire, Marie;
2010-01-01
A bulk disk resonator working in dynamic mode is used for mass detection. In the capacitive transduction scheme, the parasitic capacitance between the electrodes produces an anti resonance in the transmission curve, which distorts the phase shift at the resonant frequency and increases the...... minimal detectable mass of the sensor....
Chembo, Yanne K.; Baumgartel, Lukas; Grudinin, Ivan; Strekalov, Dmitry; Thompson, Robert; Yu, Nan
2012-01-01
Whispering gallery mode resonators are attracting increasing interest as promising frequency reference cavities. Unlike commonly used Fabry-Perot cavities, however, they are filled with a bulk medium whose properties have a significant impact on the stability of its resonance frequencies. In this context that has to be reduced to a minimum. On the other hand, a small monolithic resonator provides opportunity for better stability against vibration and acceleration. this feature is essential when the cavity operates in a non-laboratory environment. In this paper, we report a case study for a crystalline resonator, and discuss the a pathway towards the inhibition of vibration-and acceleration-induced frequency fluctuations.
Waveguide-type optical passive ring resonator gyro using frequency modulation spectroscopy technique
Liang, Ning; Lijun, Guo; Mei, Kong; Tuoyuan, Chen
2014-12-01
This paper reports the experimental results of silica on a silicon ring resonator in a resonator micro optic gyroscope based on the frequency modulation spectroscopy technique by our research group. The ring resonator is composed of a 4 cm diameter silica waveguide. By testing at λ = 1550 nm, the FSR, FWHM and the depth of resonance are 3122 MHz, 103.07 MHz and 0.8 respectively. By using a polarization controller, the resonance curve under the TM mode can be inhibited. The depth of resonance increased from 0.8 to 0.8913, namely the finesse increase from 30.33 to 33.05. In the experiments, there is an acoustic-optical frequency shifter (AOFS) in each light loop. We lock the lasing frequency at the resonance frequency of the silica waveguide ring resonator for the counterclockwise lightwave; the frequency difference between the driving frequencies of the two AOFS is equivalent to the Sagnac frequency difference caused by gyro rotation. Thus, the gyro output is observed. The slope of the linear fit is about 0.330 mV/(°/s) based on the -900 to 900 kHz equivalent frequency and the gyro dynamic range is ±2.0 × 103 rad/s.
Zero field anti ferromagnetic resonance at optical frequencies in dilute magnetic system
Paul, Somnath; Sarkar, A.
2015-06-01
An experimental study of Antiferromagnetic resonance on Cobalt and Nickel oxide at room temperature has been undertaken. The zero field resonance frequency is detected in near infrared frequency regime. The measurement makes use of UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The overall results are found to be good and encouraging.
Waveguide-type optical passive ring resonator gyro using frequency modulation spectroscopy technique
This paper reports the experimental results of silica on a silicon ring resonator in a resonator micro optic gyroscope based on the frequency modulation spectroscopy technique by our research group. The ring resonator is composed of a 4 cm diameter silica waveguide. By testing at λ = 1550 nm, the FSR, FWHM and the depth of resonance are 3122 MHz, 103.07 MHz and 0.8 respectively. By using a polarization controller, the resonance curve under the TM mode can be inhibited. The depth of resonance increased from 0.8 to 0.8913, namely the finesse increase from 30.33 to 33.05. In the experiments, there is an acoustic-optical frequency shifter (AOFS) in each light loop. We lock the lasing frequency at the resonance frequency of the silica waveguide ring resonator for the counterclockwise lightwave; the frequency difference between the driving frequencies of the two AOFS is equivalent to the Sagnac frequency difference caused by gyro rotation. Thus, the gyro output is observed. The slope of the linear fit is about 0.330 mV/(°/s) based on the −900 to 900 kHz equivalent frequency and the gyro dynamic range is ±2.0 × 103 rad/s. (semiconductor devices)
Adaptive multimode signal reconstruction from time-frequency representations.
Meignen, Sylvain; Oberlin, Thomas; Depalle, Philippe; Flandrin, Patrick; McLaughlin, Stephen
2016-04-13
This paper discusses methods for the adaptive reconstruction of the modes of multicomponent AM-FM signals by their time-frequency (TF) representation derived from their short-time Fourier transform (STFT). The STFT of an AM-FM component or mode spreads the information relative to that mode in the TF plane around curves commonly called ridges. An alternative view is to consider a mode as a particular TF domain termed a basin of attraction. Here we discuss two new approaches to mode reconstruction. The first determines the ridge associated with a mode by considering the location where the direction of the reassignment vector sharply changes, the technique used to determine the basin of attraction being directly derived from that used for ridge extraction. A second uses the fact that the STFT of a signal is fully characterized by its zeros (and then the particular distribution of these zeros for Gaussian noise) to deduce an algorithm to compute the mode domains. For both techniques, mode reconstruction is then carried out by simply integrating the information inside these basins of attraction or domains. PMID:26953184
Frequency Characteristics of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotube Resonator with Different Length
Jun-Ha LEE; Jeong-Won KANG; Kim, Jin-Tae
2016-01-01
In this paper, we have conducted classical molecular dynamics simulations for DWCNTs of various wall lengths to investigate their use as ultrahigh frequency nano-mechanical resonators. We sought to determine the variations in the frequency of these resonators according to changes in the DWCNT wall lengths. For a double-walled carbon nanotube resonator with a shorter inner nanotube, the shorter inner nanotube can be considered to be a flexible core, and thus, the length influences the fundamen...
Siwak Nathan; Ghodssi Reza; Dechaumphai Edward; Zhang Zhao; Li Teng
2011-01-01
Abstract We report the fabrication of gold/polycarbonate (Au/PC) hybrid nano resonators on plastic substrates through a nano-transfer printing (nTP) technique, and the parametric studies of the resonant frequency of the resulting hybrid nano resonators. nTP is a nanofabrication technique that involves an assembly process by which a printable layer can be transferred from a transfer substrate to a device substrate. In this article, we applied nTP to fabricate Au/PC hybrid nano resonators on a ...
We report the development of a self-resonant flow sensor based on a resonant frequency shift due to flow-induced vibrations. The vibration of a microcantilever beam, induced by a turbulent flow, is modulated with its own natural frequency, and the resonant frequency is shifted by a surface stress on the beam due to fluid drag force. The vibration induced by air flow is measured by using a piezoelectric PZT material on a silicon cantilever beam. The theoretical resonant frequencies of two cantilever beams (lengths: 610 µm and 2000 µm) are 12416 Hz and 1155 Hz, respectively. For the air flow velocities of 2.8 m s−1 and 9.7 m s−1, the shifted resonant frequencies of the cantilever beam whose length is 610 µm are 12 810 Hz and 15 602 Hz, respectively. Sensitivities of the two self-resonant flow sensors with the 610 and 2000 µm long beams are approximately 384 ± 15 Hz/(m/s) and 20.4 ± 0.6 Hz/(m/s), respectively.
Analysis of a shielded TE011 mode composite dielectric resonator for stable frequency reference
N D Kataria; K S Daya; V G Das
2002-05-01
Analysis of a TE011 mode composite sapphire–rutile dielectric resonator has been carried out to study the temperature variation of resonance frequency, close to the Cs atomic clock hyperﬁne frequency of 9.192 GHz. The complementary behavior of dielectric permittivity with temperature of the composite has been exploited to obtain the desired turning point in the resonant frequency. The frequency of the composite structure is found to be independent of the shield diameter beyond four times the puck diameter.
Mechanically Tunable Dielectric Resonator Metasurfaces at Visible Frequencies.
Gutruf, Philipp; Zou, Chengjun; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Sriram, Sharath; Fumeaux, Christophe
2016-01-26
Devices that manipulate light represent the future of information processing. Flat optics and structures with subwavelength periodic features (metasurfaces) provide compact and efficient solutions. The key bottleneck is efficiency, and replacing metallic resonators with dielectric resonators has been shown to significantly enhance performance. To extend the functionalities of dielectric metasurfaces to real-world optical applications, the ability to tune their properties becomes important. In this article, we present a mechanically tunable all-dielectric metasurface. This is composed of an array of dielectric resonators embedded in an elastomeric matrix. The optical response of the structure under a uniaxial strain is analyzed by mechanical-electromagnetic co-simulations. It is experimentally demonstrated that the metasurface exhibits remarkable resonance shifts. Analysis using a Lagrangian model reveals that strain modulates the near-field mutual interaction between resonant dielectric elements. The ability to control and alter inter-resonator coupling will position dielectric metasurfaces as functional elements of reconfigurable optical devices. PMID:26617198
Sub-wavelength resonant structures at microwave and optical frequencies
Simić, Aleksandar
2011-01-01
Sub-wavelength scale resonant structures have been at the forefront of physics and engineering in the past decade. They offer a path for creation of new materials and great advancements in the field of photonics. This dissertation deals with design, fabrication and characterization of sub -wavelength resonant structures. In the first part, we investigate the application of passive sub-wavelength resonators in meta-materials --- materials that have electromagnetic properties otherwise unattain...
Jian Li,; Changkui Cheng; Lianwei Bao; Tianyan Jiang
2012-01-01
Ultra-high-frequency (UHF) approaches have caught increasing attention recently and have been considered as a promising technology for online monitoring partial discharge (PD) signals. This paper presents a Peano fractal antenna for UHF PD online monitoring of transformer with small size and multiband. The approximate formula for calculating the first resonant frequency of the Peano fractal antenna is presented. The results show that the first resonant frequency of the Peano fractal antenna i...
Resonance Analysis of High-Frequency Electrohydraulic Exciter Controlled by 2D Valve
Guojun Pan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The resonant characteristic of hydraulic system has not been described yet because it is necessarily restricted by linear assumptions in classical fluid theory. A way of the resonance analysis is presented for an electrohydraulic exciter controlled by 2D valve. The block diagram of this excitation system is established by extracting nonlinear parts from the traditional linearization analysis; as a result the resonant frequency is obtained. According to input energy from oil source which is equal to the reverse energy to oil source, load pressure and load flow are solved analytically as the working frequency reaches the natural frequency. The analytical expression of resonant peak is also derived without damping. Finally, the experimental system is built to verify the theoretical analysis. The initial research on resonant characteristic will lay theoretical foundation and make useful complement for resonance phenomena of classical fluid theory in hydraulic system.
Zhang Ling-Ying; Jin Guo-Xiang; Cao Li; Wang Zhi-Yun
2012-01-01
Considering a damped linear oscillator model subjected to a white noise with an inherent angular frequency and a periodic external driving force,we derive the analytic expression of the first moment of output response,and study the stochastic resonance phenomenon in a system.The results show that the output response of this system behaves as a simple harmonic vibration,of which the frequency is the same as the external driving frequency,and the variations of amplitude with the driving frequency and the inherent frequency present a bona fide stochastic resonance.
Considering a damped linear oscillator model subjected to a white noise with an inherent angular frequency and a periodic external driving force, we derive the analytic expression of the first moment of output response, and study the stochastic resonance phenomenon in a system. The results show that the output response of this system behaves as a simple harmonic vibration, of which the frequency is the same as the external driving frequency, and the variations of amplitude with the driving frequency and the inherent frequency present a bona fide stochastic resonance. (general)
Multi-frequency resonator based on dual-band S-shaped left-handed material.
Wang, Dongxing; Ran, Lixin; Wu, Bae-Ian; Chen, Hongsheng; Huangfu, Jiangtao; Grzegorczyk, Tomasz M; Kong, J A
2006-12-11
In this paper, we experimentally realize a one-dimensional RHM (Right-handed Material)-LHM (Left-handed Material) multi-frequency resonator that consists of a dual-negative-band LHM and air arranged in an X-band waveguide. Multi-resonant frequencies are observed within two left-handed bands of the LHM. The effects of the loss and the hyperbolic dispersion relation of LHM layer are discussed. The incorporation of such a LHM into the resonator design allows more flexibility to realize multi-resonance. PMID:19529656
Frequency Characteristics of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotube Resonator with Different Length
Jun-Ha LEE
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we have conducted classical molecular dynamics simulations for DWCNTs of various wall lengths to investigate their use as ultrahigh frequency nano-mechanical resonators. We sought to determine the variations in the frequency of these resonators according to changes in the DWCNT wall lengths. For a double-walled carbon nanotube resonator with a shorter inner nanotube, the shorter inner nanotube can be considered to be a flexible core, and thus, the length influences the fundamental frequency. In this paper, we analyze the variation in frequency of ultra-high frequency nano-mechnical resonators constructed from DWCNTs with different wall lengths.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.12951
Cavagna, Giovanni A; Legramandi, Mario A
2015-10-01
A long-lasting challenge in comparative physiology is to understand why the efficiency of the mechanical work done to maintain locomotion increases with body mass. It has been suggested that this is due to a more elastic step in larger animals. Here, we show in running, hopping and trotting animals, and in human running during growth, that the resonant frequency of the bouncing system decreases with increasing body mass and is, surprisingly, independent of species or gait. Step frequency roughly equals the resonant frequency in trotting and running, whereas it is about half the resonant frequency in hopping. The energy loss by elastic hysteresis during loading and unloading the bouncing system from its equilibrium position decreases with increasing body mass. Similarity to a symmetrical bounce increases with increasing body mass and, for a given body mass, seems to be maximal in hopping, intermediate in trotting and minimal in running. We conclude that: (1) tuning step frequency to the resonant frequency of the bouncing system coincides with a lower hysteresis loss in larger, more-compliant animals; (2) the mechanism of gait per se affects similarity with a symmetrical bounce, independent of hysteresis; and (3) the greater efficiency in larger animals may be due, at least in part, to a lower hysteresis loss. PMID:26347555
On the frequency and field linewidth conversion of ferromagnetic resonance spectra
Both frequency swept and field swept ferromagnetic resonance measurements have been carried out for a number of different samples with negligible, moderate and significant extrinsic frequency independent linewidth contribution to analyze the correlation between the experimentally measured frequency and field linewidths. Contrary to the belief commonly held by many researchers, it is found that the frequency and field linewidth conversion relation does not hold for all cases. Instead it holds only for samples with negligible frequency independent linewidth contributions. For samples with non-negligible frequency independent linewidth contribution, the field linewidth values converted from the measured frequency linewidth are larger than the experimentally measured field linewidth. A close examination of the literature reveals that previously reported results support our findings, with successful conversions related to samples with negligible frequency independent linewidth contributions and unsuccessful conversions related to samples with significant frequency independent linewidth. The findings are important in providing guidance in ferromagnetic resonance linewidth conversions. (paper)
Mechanical design of RFQ resonator cavities in the 400-MHz frequency range
Many RFQ resonator-cavity design concepts have been proposed in the 400-MHz frequency range. Los Alamos has been evaluating RFQ resonator-cavity designs that provide acceptable combinations of necessary mechanical features, easy tunability and long-term stability. Four RFQ resonator test cavities have been fabricated to test rf joints between the RFQ vanes and the resonator cavity. Two of these joints (the C-seal and the rf clamp-joint) allow vane movement for tuning. These test data, and the design of the present generation of RFQ resonator cavities, are presented
Radiation-induced frequency transients in AT, BT, and SC cut quartz resonators
Earlier studies of transient frequency changes in high-purity swept AT quartz resonators led to the conclusion that impurity-induced effects were small, while the observed changes were qualitatively and quantitatively well characterized in terms of the time changing temperature of the vibrating quartz and its effect on frequency. 5 MHz, AT cut fifth overtone, and BT and SC cut third overtone resonators were prepared from a single stone of Sawyer swept Premium-Q quartz. The resonators were operated in precision ovenized oscillators at or near their turnover temperatures. Pulsed irradiation, at dose levels of the order of 104 rads (Si) per pulse, was accomplished at Sandia. The experimental data display negative frequency transients for the AT cut resonators, positive frequency transients for the BT cut resonators, and very small transient effects for the SC cut resonators. From these experimental results, it is concluded that no measurable impurity-induced frequency changes are observed in this high-purity swept-quartz and that the frequency transients are accurately modelled in terms of transient temperature effects stemming from the thermal characteristics of the resonator structure
External Ear Resonant Amplitude and Frequency of 3-7 Year Old Children
Amir Hossein Zare
2004-06-01
Full Text Available Objective: To measure external ear resonant amplitude and frequency in children (3-7 years old and to compare with adult measures. Method and materials: The external ear resonance peak amplitude and frequency of 63 children 3-7 years old were recorded. All of the children had normal tympanogram and there was no cerumen in external auditory canal. 20 adult of 21-24 years old (10 male , 10 female were selected in order to compare with children that had normal tympanogram. The tests included : 1-otoscopy 2- tympanometry 3-microphone probe tube test. Results: The average of resonance peak frequency for children and adult is 4200 Hz and 3200 Hz , respectively. The resonance frequency of children had significantly diffrence with average of resonance frequency in adults. The average of resonance peak amplitude for children and adult is 17.70 dB and 17.17 dB , respectively. Conclusion: Resonant frequency and amplitude affect the hearing aid prescription and fitting process and calculating insertion gain; so, this measures seem should be considered in children hearing aid fitting.
Zhang Zhouqiang; Jia Shuhai; Ma Binshan; Chen Hualing
2015-01-01
We studied the effected of dimension and location of reflective film on the resonance frequency. Simulation results indicate that the location of reflective film has a greater impact on the resonance frequency of QTF. The higher the position of reflective film, the lower the resonance frequency of QTF. Furthermore, the resonance frequency can also be affected by the dimension of reflective film. However, the reflective film in the middle of the QTF arm is not sensitive to the dimension of ref...
Ultra-Narrow Bandwidth Optical Resonators for Integrated Low Frequency Noise Lasers
Spencer, Daryl T.
The development of narrowband resonators has far reaching applications in integrated optics. As a precise reference of wavelength, filters can be used in sensors, metrology, nonlinear optics, microwave photonics, and laser stabilization. In this work, we develop record high quality factor (Q) Si 3N4 waveguide resonators, and utilize them to stabilize a heterogeneously integrated Si/III V laser. To increase the Q factor of waveguide resonators, particular attention is given to loss mechanisms. Propagation loss of filtering is performed with Si resonant mirrors in the laser cavity. A 30 million Q factor Si3N4 resonator is used with electrical feedback to reduce close in noise and frequency walk off. The laser shows high frequency noise levels of 60x103 Hz2/Hz corresponding to 160 kHz linewidth, and the low frequency noise is suppressed 33 dB to 103 Hz2/Hz with the PDH system.
Adaptive synthesis method for broadband array with frequency invariant beam pattern
ZHUWeijie; SUNJincai; ZENGXiangyang
2003-01-01
Based on adaptive technique, a design method for broadband array with frequency invariant beam pattern is presented. For a given beam pattern, the all design process can be completed automatically by computer without deriving expression of weight vector. The design process is divided into three steps: (1) Evaluate the weight vector in reference frequency by numerical method. (2) Obtain the weight vectors in other frequency by adaptive technique.(3) For the design target of frequency response given by weight vector at different frequency point, design FIR filter. The proposed method can be applied to arbitrary array and have no restriction on element patterns.
Tao, Ye; Xu, Lijia; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Runfeng; Li, Huanhuan; Xu, Hui; Zheng, Chao; Huang, Wei
2016-08-01
Current static-state explorations of organic semiconductors for optimal material properties and device performance are hindered by limited insights into the dynamically changed molecular states and charge transport and energy transfer processes upon device operation. Here, we propose a simple yet successful strategy, resonance variation-based dynamic adaptation (RVDA), to realize optimized self-adaptive properties in donor-resonance-acceptor molecules by engineering the resonance variation for dynamic tuning of organic semiconductors. Organic light-emitting diodes hosted by these RVDA materials exhibit remarkably high performance, with external quantum efficiencies up to 21.7% and favorable device stability. Our approach, which supports simultaneous realization of dynamically adapted and selectively enhanced properties via resonance engineering, illustrates a feasible design map for the preparation of smart organic semiconductors capable of dynamic structure and property modulations, promoting the studies of organic electronics from static to dynamic. PMID:27403886
My, Thu-Hien; Drag, Cyril; Bretenaker, Fabien
2008-07-01
A widely tunable continuous intracavity-frequency-doubled singly resonant optical parametric oscillator based on MgO-doped periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate crystal is described. The idler radiation resonating in the cavity is frequency doubled by an intracavity BBO crystal. Pumped in the green, this system can provide up to 485 mW of single-frequency orange radiation. The system is continuously temperature tunable between 1170 and 1355 nm for the idler, 876 and 975 nm for the signal, and between 585 and 678 nm for the doubled idler. The free-running power and frequency stability of the system have been observed to be better than those for a single-mode dye laser. PMID:18594663
Tang, Yi; Yao, Wenli; Loh, Poh Chiang;
2016-01-01
This paper proposes a novel LCL filter design method and its current control for grid-connected converters. With the proposed design method, it is possible to set the resonance frequency of the LCL filter to be higher than the Nyquist frequency, i.e., half of the system sampling frequency, and this...... observation is so far not discussed in the literature. In this case, a very cost-effective LCL filter design can be achieved for the grid-connected converters, whose dominant switching harmonics may appear at double the switching frequency, e.g., in unipolar-modulated three-level full-bridge converters and 12...... examples are given, with one of them optimizing the utilization of passive filter inductors, and another one being robust against grid impedance variation. Comprehensive experimental results, showing the high-quality output current and excellent resonance attenuation, are presented in this paper, which are...
Tang, Yi; Yao, Wenli; Loh, Poh Chiang;
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a novel LCL-filter design method and its current control for grid-connected converters. With the proposed design method, it is possible to set the resonance frequency of the LCL-filter to be higher than the Nyquist frequency, i.e. half of the system sampling frequency, and this...... observation is so far not discussed in the literature. In this case, very cost-effective LCL-filter design can be achieved for grid-connected converters whose dominant switching harmonics may appear at double of the switching frequency, e.g. in unipolar modulated three-level full bridge converters and 12...... current and excellent resonance attenuation are presented in the paper, which are also in very good agreement with those simulated ones. These results successfully verify the feasibility of the proposed LCL-filter design and its current control....
Magnetic resonance imaging for adaptive cobalt tomotherapy: A proposal
Kron Tomas
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI provides excellent soft tissue contrast for oncology applications. We propose to combine a MRI scanner with a helical tomotherapy (HT system to enable daily target imaging for improved conformal radiation dose delivery to a patient. HT uses an intensity-modulated fan-beam that revolves around a patient, while the patient slowly advances through the plane of rotation, yielding a helical beam trajectory. Since the use of a linear accelerator to produce radiation may be incompatible with the pulsed radiofrequency and the high and pulsed magnetic fields required for MRI, it is proposed that a radioactive Cobalt-60 (60Co source be used instead to provide the radiation. An open low field (0.25 T MRI system is proposed where the tomotherapy ring gantry is located between two sets of Helmholtz coils that can generate a sufficiently homogenous main magnetic field. It is shown that the two major challenges with the design, namely acceptable radiation dose rate (and therefore treatment duration and moving parts in strong magnetic field, can be addressed. The high dose rate desired for helical tomotherapy delivery can be achieved using two radiation sources of 220TBq (6000Ci each on a ring gantry with a source to axis-of-rotation distance of 75 cm. In addition to this, a dual row multi-leaf collimator (MLC system with 15 mm leaf width at isocentre and relatively large fan beam widths between 15 and 30 mm per row shall be employed. In this configuration, the unit would be well-suited for most pelvic radiotherapy applications where the soft tissue contrast of MRI will be particularly beneficial. Non-magnetic MRI compatible materials must be used for the rotating gantry. Tungsten, which is non-magnetic, can be used for primary collimation of the fan-beam as well as for the MLC, which allows intensity modulated radiation delivery. We propose to employ a low magnetic Cobalt compound, sycoporite (CoS for the Cobalt source material
The characteristics of plasma-sheath resonances in a non-uniform radio-frequency plasma
Plasma-sheath resonances in the resonance-probe were first reported by Takayama et al. in 1960. At that time the resonance was thought to occur at the plasma frequency; later work, however, showed that a plasma-sheath resonance was taking place. In this paper the authors plotted the ratio of RF field in the probe sheath to the RF probe voltage versus ω/ωep, and found that the ratio passed through a maximum when the probe was at resonance. The maximum corresponded to a ratio ω/ωep less than 1, the resonance frequency was confirmed to be below the plasma frequency and the open-quotes series resonance modelclose quotes was verified. After this definitive paper on the subject the interest of resonance probe moved into more practical applications. These include: determining the collision frequency between the electrons and neutrals in a low density plasma; measuring the electron density in the ionosphere; measuring the averaged densities of the charged particles as well as their temperature in a bounded plasma with an external magnetic field; studying antenna signals in space plasmas, etc. It is apparent that the harmonics developing in the plasma may weaken the conventional open-quotes drivenclose quotes Langmuir probe technique which is widely used in plasma research. There have been many attempts to resolve this problem, for example, driving, actively, the first two RF harmonics that appear across the probe sheath to achieve more precise plasma parameters. Nevertheless, it has been recently found that the natural frequency of the plasma-sheath system can be much more influential than the contributions from the external circuitry at certain fairly low pressures. This in particular when the plasma-sheath resonance coincides with one of the harmonics of the fundamental frequency. In this contribution we present some theoretical and experimental aspects of the plasma-sheath resonance in a parallel-plate RF plasma reactor
Single-Chip Multiple-Frequency RF MEMS Resonant Platform for Wireless Communications Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel, single-chip, multiple-frequency platform for RF/IF filtering and clock reference based on contour-mode aluminum nitride (AlN) MEMS piezoelectric resonators...
Jami Rajesh
2014-02-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with a novel type soft switching utility frequency AC- high frequency AC converter using asymmetrical PWM bidirectional active switches which can be defined as high frequency resonant matrix converter.This power frequency changer can directly convert utility frequency AC power to high frequency AC power ranging more than 20kHz up to 100kHz. Only one active edge resonant capacitor-assisted soft switching high frequency load resonant cyclo-converter is based on asymmetrical duty cycle PWM strategy. This high frequency cyclo-converter uses bidirectional IGBTs composed of anti-parallel one-chip reverse blocking IGBTs. This high frequency cycloconverter has some remarkable features as electrolytic capacitorless DC busline link, unity power factor correction and sinewave line current shaping, simple configuration with minimum circuit components and low cost, high efficiency and downsizing. This series load resonant cycloconverter incorporating bidirectional active power switches is developed and implemented for high efficiency consumer induction heated food cooking appliances. Its operating principle is described by using equivalent circuits. Its operating performances as soft switching operating ranges and high frequency effective power regulation characteristics are discussed on the basis of simulation and experimental results.
Resonance frequencies of a cavity containing a compressible viscous fluid
Conca, C.; Planchard, J.; Vanninathan, M.
1993-03-01
The aim of this paper is to study the resonance spectrum of a cavity containing a compressible viscous fluid. This system admits a discrete infinite sequence of eigenvalues whose real parts are negative, which is interpreted as the damping effect introduced by viscosity. Only a finite number of them have non-zero imaginary parts and this number depends on viscosity; a simple criterion is given for their position in the complex plane. The case of a cavity containing an elastic mechanical system immersed in the fluid is also examined; from a qualitative point of view, the nature of the resonance spectrum remains unchanged.
Frequency Coded Chipless RFID Tag using Spurline Resonators
Sumi, M.; Dinesh, R.; C. M. Nijas; Mridula, S.; P. Mohanan
2014-01-01
A novel compact chipless RFID tag using spurline resonators is discussed in this paper. The detection of the tag's ID is using the spectral signature of a spurline resonator circuit. The tag has a data capacity of 8-bits in the range 2.38 to 4.04 GHz. The tag consists of a spurline multiresonating circuit and two cross polarised antennas. The prototype of the tag is fabricated on a substrate C-MET/LK4.3 of dielectric constant 4.3 and loss tangent 0.0018. The measured results show that group ...
Ohta, N; Niki, T; Kirihara, S, E-mail: n-ohta@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Smart Processing Research Center, Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0047 (Japan)
2011-05-15
Terahertz wave resonators composed of alumina photonic crystals with diamond lattice structures were designed and fabricated by using micro stereolithography. These three dimensional periodic structures can reflect perfectly electromagnetic waves through Bragg diffraction. A micro glass cell including water solutions was put between the photonic crystals as a novel resonance sensor with terahertz frequency range. The localized and amplified waves in the resonators were measured by a spectroscopy, and visualized by theoretical simulations.
Dark resonances in the field of frequency shifted feedback laser radiation
Romanenko, V. I.; Romanenko, A. V.; Yatsenko, L. P.; Kazakov, G. A.; Litvinov, A. N.; Matisov, B. G.; Rozhdestvensky, Yu. V.
2010-01-01
We present a theory of dark resonances in a fluorescence of a three-level atom gas interacting with a polychromatic field of a frequency shifted feedback (FSF) laser. We show that conditions for the resonance observation are optimal when the phase relations between the laser spectral components provide generation of a light pulses train. We study analytically the field broadening and the light shift of the resonances.
Dark resonances in the field of frequency-shifted feedback laser radiation
Romanenko, V. I.; Romanenko, A. V.; Yatsenko, L. P.; Kazakov, G. A.; Litvinov, A. N.; Matisov, B. G.; Rozhdestvensky, Yu V.
2010-11-01
We present a theory of dark resonances in fluorescence of a three-level atom gas interacting with a polychromatic field of a frequency-shifted feedback laser. We show that conditions for the resonance observation are optimal when the phase relations between the laser spectral components provide generation of a light pulse train. We study analytically the field broadening and the light shift of the resonances.
Dark resonances in the field of frequency-shifted feedback laser radiation
We present a theory of dark resonances in fluorescence of a three-level atom gas interacting with a polychromatic field of a frequency-shifted feedback laser. We show that conditions for the resonance observation are optimal when the phase relations between the laser spectral components provide generation of a light pulse train. We study analytically the field broadening and the light shift of the resonances.
Dark resonances in the field of frequency-shifted feedback laser radiation
Romanenko, V I; Romanenko, A V; Yatsenko, L P [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 46, Nauky Avenue, Kyiv 03028 (Ukraine); Kazakov, G A; Litvinov, A N; Matisov, B G [St Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 29, Polytechnicheskaya st, St. Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Rozhdestvensky, Yu V, E-mail: vr@iop.kiev.u, E-mail: andrey.litvinov@mail.r [S I Vavilov State Optical Institute 12, Birzhevaya Liniya st, St Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation)
2010-11-14
We present a theory of dark resonances in fluorescence of a three-level atom gas interacting with a polychromatic field of a frequency-shifted feedback laser. We show that conditions for the resonance observation are optimal when the phase relations between the laser spectral components provide generation of a light pulse train. We study analytically the field broadening and the light shift of the resonances.
Resonances in BSO with frequency shifted input beams
Buchhave, Preben; Vasnetsov, M.; Lyuksyutov, S.
1996-01-01
In this publication we report experiments with a frequency modulated offset frequency, which illustrate in which situations the problem may be considered linear, and in which it may not. Surprisingly we find, that even in the region of subharmonic generation, the space-charge field of the primary...
Use of a radio-frequency resonance circuit in studies of alkali ionization in flames
The construction of a radio-frequency resonance system and its use in the study of alkali metal ionization in flames is described. The author re-determines the values of the alkali ionization rate constants for a CO flame with N2 as diluent gas of known temperature using the RF resonance method. (Auth.)
Resonance and cut-off surfaces in the ion cyclotron frequency range in toroidal geometry
Resonances and cut-offs of the fast Alfven and ion-cyclotron waves have been studied for a multicomponent plasma in a toroidal axisymmetric geometry. The resonance and cut-off frequencies are given by eigenvalues of ordinary differential equations on the rosonance and cut-off sufaces, respectively. These surfaces coincide with magnetic surfaces. (author)
Very High Frequency Resonant DC/DC Converters for LED Lighting
Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.
2013-01-01
This paper presents a very high frequency DC/DC converter for LED lighting. Several resonant topologies are compared and their usability discussed. At the end the resonant SEPIC converter is chosen based on the achievable power density and total bill of material. Simulations of a 51 MHz converter...
Thermal self-frequency locking of doubly-resonant optical parametric oscillator
Hansen, P.L.; Buchhave, Preben
1997-01-01
refractice index of the crystal and alters the optical path length of the cavity. This effect may lend to self-frequency locking of the OPO to a specific resonance of the signal and idler fields, and it also results in peculiarities in the transient response of the system as it is scanned through resonance...
Hong Men
2011-09-01
Full Text Available This study makes the three acryl glycerin polymers, oxidation three acryl glycerins, and low carbon number fatty acid as inferior oil feature index. Using double steady state stochastic resonance signal-to-noise ratio analysis methods make the quantitative analysis to inferior oil. This paper analyzes the stochastic resonance. Introduces the principle detection system structure based on adaptive multilayer stochastic resonance algorithm in inferior oil quantitativeanalysis; and make adaptive double stochastic resonance model and inferior oil as example, give the simulation and numerical analysis of this model of the system. The results show that the system can obtain more accurate quality the proportion of the inferior oil information. At the same time, this method can effectively solve the semiconductor gas sensors of the baseline drift problem. The method of stochastic resonance has a lot of application prospect in improving the system performance.
Resonant method for the measurement of the glass transition temperature at high frequencies
A resonant method for the accurate determination of the glass transition temperature in polymers is presented. A composite oscillator driven by a piezoelectric crystal, in longitudinal oscillations and at a frequency of the order of 50 k Hz, is employed. The changes in the storage modulus of the specimen with temperature can be obtained from the changes if the resonant frequency of the composite. Finally, some data obtained in a specimen of vulcanized rubber are discussed in detail. (author). 27 refs, 4 figs
Graphene-hexagonal boron nitride resonant tunneling diodes as high-frequency oscillators
Gaskell, J.; Eaves, L.; Novoselov, K. S.; Mishchenko, A.; Geim, A. K.; Fromhold, T. M.; Greenaway, M. T.
2015-01-01
We assess the potential of two-terminal graphene-hBN-graphene resonant tunneling diodes as high-frequency oscillators, using self-consistent quantum transport and electrostatic simulations to determine the time-dependent response of the diodes in a resonant circuit. We quantify how the frequency and power of the current oscillations depend on the diode and circuit parameters including the doping of the graphene electrodes, device geometry, alignment of the graphene lattices, and the circuit i...
Sheath-wave-related resonances in the frequency response of a cylindrical monopole in a plasma
A floating or negatively biased antenna immersed in a plasma is surrounded by an ion sheath. The antenna-sheath-plasma system may support slow surface waves at driving frequencies below the electron plasma frequency. Resonances associated with these so-called sheath waves are observed at certain frequencies in the antenna's response to an applied sinusoidal signal. A detailed experimental study of these resonances is presented here for a short cylindrical monopole in a low-pressure isotropic argon plasma. The effect on the resonance frequencies of a dc bias applied to the antenna and of plasma density and antenna length was investigated. Good agreement was obtained with the theoretical predictions derived from a known dispersion equation for sheath waves. From the experimental data, the relationship between sheath thickness and antenna potential, and the frequency dependence of the antenna admittance could be derived
Low-frequency resonance curves associated with non-linear internal friction
Computer-controlled electronic instrumentation to scan the amplitude/frequency and phase angle/frequency curves for a sample in a low-frequency pendulum is described. Examples are presented of both 'hard' and 'soft' resonant frequency curves associated with amplitude-dependent internal friction and dynamic elastic modulus changes. Using the data from much faster, simpler, free-decay experiments, it is shown that both the amplitude/frequency and phase angle/frequency curves can be calculated with good accuracy, despite the non-linearities involved
The origin of SH-wave resonance frequencies in sedimentary layers
van der Baan, Mirko
2009-09-01
Resonance frequencies are often analysed in geo-engineering studies to evaluate seismic risk and microzonation in urban areas. The Nakamura technique constitutes a popular approach that computes the spectral ratio of horizontal-to-vertical ground motion in ambient noise recordings to reveal the existence of any site resonance frequencies. Its theoretical basis remains however unclear with some authors arguing that the method de-emphasizes any Rayleigh-wave contributions and that the resonance frequencies are solely caused by vertically incident SH waves. Other authors explain the same resonance frequencies by the ellipticity of the fundamental Rayleigh wave. Recent numerical simulations reveal that the magnitude of the peak frequency is proportional to the relative portion of Love waves present. This study demonstrates that Love waves alone can be responsible for any observed resonance frequencies in sedimentary layers. Yet sharp SH-wave resonance frequencies are only excited by a source in the bedrock. These resonance frequencies are caused by inhomogeneous waves excited by the bedrock source that tunnel through the high-velocity bedrock to emerge in the low-velocity sediments with a very reduced range of slownesses. The resulting SH waves are then free to interfere constructively thereby creating the observed resonance frequencies. This general trigger mechanism leads to resonances that are almost offset independent. The resulting resonance frequencies map onto points of maximum curvature in the Love-wave phase-velocity dispersion curves at or just beyond the critical horizontal slowness. They can be analysed with the quarter-wavelength law if a large velocity contrast exists between the unconsolidated sediments and the bedrock. A minor modification of the quarter-wavelength law provides more accurate predictions, also for smaller velocity contrasts. Multisource simulations show that site amplification factors as determined by horizontal-over-vertical (H
In this paper, we compare the values of the resonant frequency f0 of free decaying oscillations computed according to the parametric OMI method (Optimization in Multiple Intervals) and nonparametric DFT-based (discrete Fourier transform) methods as a function of the sampling frequency. The analysis is carried out for free decaying signals embedded in an experimental noise recorded for metallic samples in a low-frequency resonant mechanical spectrometer. The Yoshida method (Y), the Agrez' method (A), and new interpolated discrete Fourier transform (IpDFT) methods, that is, the Yoshida-Magalas (YM) and (YMC) methods developed by the authors are carefully compared for the resonant frequency f0 = 1.12345 Hz and the logarithmic decrement, δ = 0.0005. Precise estimation of the resonant frequency (Youngs' modulus ∼ f02) for real experimental conditions, i.e., for exponentially damped harmonic signals embedded in an experimental noise, is a complex task. In this work, various computing methods are analyzed as a function of the sampling frequency used to digitize free decaying oscillations. The importance of computing techniques to obtain reliable and precise values of the resonant frequency (i.e. Young's modulus) in materials science is emphasized.
Scattering resonance of elastic wave and low-frequency equivalent slow wave
Meng, X.; Liu, H.; Hu, T.; Yang, L.
2015-12-01
Transmitted wave occurs as fast p-wave and slow p-wave in certain conditions when seismic waves travel through inhomogeneous layers. Energy of slow p-waves is strongest at some frequency band, but rather weak at both high frequency band and low frequency band, called scattering resonance. For practical seismic exploration, the frequency of slow p-wave occurs is below 10Hz, which cannot be explained by Biot's theory which predicts existence of the slow p-wave at ultrasonic band in the porous media. The slow p-wave equation have been derived, but which only adapted to explaining slow p-wave in the ultrasonic band. Experimental observations exhibit that slow p-wave also exists in nonporous media but with enormous low-velocity interbeds. When vertical incidence, elastic wave is simplified as compressing wave, the generation of slow waves is independent on shear wave. In the case of flat interbed and gas bubble, Liu (2006) has studied the transmission of acoustic waves, and found that the slow waves below the 10Hz frequency band can be explained. In the case of general elastic anisotropy medium, the tiheoretical research on the generation of slow waves is insufficient. Aiming at this problem, this paper presents an exponential mapping method based on transmitted wave (Magnus 1954), which can successfully explain the generation of the slow wave transmission in that case. Using the prediction operator (Claerbout 1985) to represent the transmission wave, this can be derived as first order partial differential equation. Using expansions in the frequency domain and the wave number domain, we find that the solutions have different expressions in the case of weak scattering and strong scattering. Besides, the method of combining the prediction operator and the exponential map is needed to extend to the elastic wave equation. Using the equation (Frazer and Fryer 1984, 1987), we derive the exponential mapping solution for the prediction operator of the general elastic medium
Point-Wise Phase Matching for Nonlinear Frequency Generation in Dielectric Resonators
Yu, Nan (Inventor); Strekalov, Dmitry V. (Inventor); Lin, Guoping (Inventor)
2016-01-01
An optical resonator fabricated from a uniaxial birefringent crystal, such as beta barium borate. The crystal is cut with the optical axis not perpendicular to a face of the cut crystal. In some cases the optical axis lies in the plane of the cut crystal face. An incident (input) electromagnetic signal (which can range from the infrared through the visible to the ultraviolet) is applied to the resonator. An output signal is recovered which has a frequency that is an integer multiple of the frequency of the input signal. In some cases a prism is used to evanescently couple the input and the output signals to the resonator.
Quantum dot admittance probed at microwave frequencies with an on-chip resonator
Frey, T; Leek, P. J.; M. Beck; Faist, J.; Wallraff, A.; Ensslin, K.; Ihn, T.; Büttiker, M.
2012-01-01
We present microwave frequency measurements of the dynamic admittance of a quantum dot tunnel coupled to a two-dimensional electron gas. The measurements are made via a high-quality 6.75 GHz on-chip resonator capacitively coupled to the dot. The resonator frequency is found to shift both down and up close to conductance resonance of the dot corresponding to a change of sign of the reactance of the system from capacitive to inductive. The observations are consistent with a scattering matrix mo...
Nanotribological surface characterization by frequency modulated torsional resonance mode AFM
Yurtsever, Ayhan
2008-01-01
The aim of this work is to develop an experimental method to measure in-plane surface properties on the nanometer scale by torsional resonance mode atomic force microscopy and to understand the underlying system dynamics. The invention of the atomic force microscope (AFM) and the advances in development of new AFM based techniques have significantly enhanced the capability to probe surface properties with nanometer resolution. However, most of these techniques are based on a flexural oscillat...
Wideband transmitter of a low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer
A wideband transmitter of a nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer for light niclei investigation is described. Use of digital radio frequency pulse shaper and two-stage power amplifier with direct coupling permitted to avoid use of a large amount of wideband transformers and power suppliers. The output power of radio frequency pulses is 160 W in the 0.1-10 MHz range
Graphene-hexagonal boron nitride resonant tunneling diodes as high-frequency oscillators
We assess the potential of two-terminal graphene-hexagonal boron nitride-graphene resonant tunneling diodes as high-frequency oscillators, using self-consistent quantum transport and electrostatic simulations to determine the time-dependent response of the diodes in a resonant circuit. We quantify how the frequency and power of the current oscillations depend on the diode and circuit parameters including the doping of the graphene electrodes, device geometry, alignment of the graphene lattices, and the circuit impedances. Our results indicate that current oscillations with frequencies of up to several hundred GHz should be achievable
Graphene-hexagonal boron nitride resonant tunneling diodes as high-frequency oscillators
Gaskell, J.; Fromhold, T. M.; Greenaway, M. T. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Eaves, L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Novoselov, K. S.; Mishchenko, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Geim, A. K. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Centre for Mesoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)
2015-09-07
We assess the potential of two-terminal graphene-hexagonal boron nitride-graphene resonant tunneling diodes as high-frequency oscillators, using self-consistent quantum transport and electrostatic simulations to determine the time-dependent response of the diodes in a resonant circuit. We quantify how the frequency and power of the current oscillations depend on the diode and circuit parameters including the doping of the graphene electrodes, device geometry, alignment of the graphene lattices, and the circuit impedances. Our results indicate that current oscillations with frequencies of up to several hundred GHz should be achievable.
Graphene-hexagonal boron nitride resonant tunneling diodes as high-frequency oscillators
Gaskell, J.; Eaves, L.; Novoselov, K. S.; Mishchenko, A.; Geim, A. K.; Fromhold, T. M.; Greenaway, M. T.
2015-09-01
We assess the potential of two-terminal graphene-hexagonal boron nitride-graphene resonant tunneling diodes as high-frequency oscillators, using self-consistent quantum transport and electrostatic simulations to determine the time-dependent response of the diodes in a resonant circuit. We quantify how the frequency and power of the current oscillations depend on the diode and circuit parameters including the doping of the graphene electrodes, device geometry, alignment of the graphene lattices, and the circuit impedances. Our results indicate that current oscillations with frequencies of up to several hundred GHz should be achievable.
Off-resonance frequency operation for power transfer in a loosely coupled air core transformer
Scudiere, Matthew B
2012-11-13
A power transmission system includes a loosely coupled air core transformer having a resonance frequency determined by a product of inductance and capacitance of a primary circuit including a primary coil. A secondary circuit is configured to have a substantially same product of inductance and capacitance. A back EMF generating device (e.g., a battery), which generates a back EMF with power transfer, is attached to the secondary circuit. Once the load power of the back EMF generating device exceeds a certain threshold level, which depends on the system parameters, the power transfer can be achieved at higher transfer efficiency if performed at an operating frequency less than the resonance frequency, which can be from 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency.
Sok, J; Lee, E H
1998-01-01
An applied dc voltage varies the dielectric constant of ferroelectric SrTiO sub 3 films. A tuning mechanism for superconducting microwave resonators was realized by using the variation in the dielectric constant of SrTiO sub 3 films. In order to estimate the values of the capacitance, C, and the loss tangent, tan delta, of SrTiO sub 3 ferroelectric capacitors, we used high-temperature superconducting microwave resonators which were composed of two ports, two poles, and dc bias circuits at the zero-field points. SrTiO sub 3 ferroelectric capacitors successfully controlled the resonant frequency of the resonator. Resonant frequencies of 3.98 GHz and 4.20 GHz were measured at bias voltages of 0 V and 50 V which correspond to capacitance values of 0.94 pF and 0.7pF, respectively. The values of the loss tangent, tan delta sub e sub f sub f , obtained in this measurements, were about 0.01.
A process-induced-frequency-drift resilient 32 kHz MEMS resonator
This paper applies a frequency-drift resilient method for a 32 768 Hz lateral capacitive microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonator design to make its resonant frequency insensitive to process-induced variation. The basic idea of the method is to synthesize the design of the supported springs and the releasing holes in the proof mass so that process-induced effective spring constant variation is approximately balanced by effective mass variation, and thus to keep their ratio and determined resonant frequency approximately unchanged. The 32 768 Hz MEMS resonator has been fabricated based on 30 µm silicon-on-insulator wafer for real-time clock application. The related testing results of more than 100 working devices from two different wafers show that the resonant frequencies are in the range of 32 102 ± 25 Hz and obey basically the normal distribution, and the drift from the designed value is less than 2.1%. The method is expected to significantly improve the reliability and fabrication yield of MEMS resonator, and can also be extended to other vibrating MEMS devices. (paper)
Complex resonance frequencies of a finite, circular radiating duct with an infinite flange
Mallaroni, Bastien; Kergomard, Jean
2009-01-01
The pressure field inside a flanged duct of finite length radiating on one side in an infinite medium can be described from the knowledge of a radiation matrix impedance, as proposed by Zorumski. In order to calculate the resonance frequencies (which are complex because of the energy loss by radiation), the formulation used in Zorumski's theory must be modified as it is not valid for complex frequencies. The analytical development of the Green's function in free space used by Zorumski depends on the integrals of Bessel functions which become divergent for complex frequencies. This paper purposes a development of the Green's function which is valid for all frequencies. The results are applied to the calculation of the complex resonance frequencies of a flanged duct of finite length, by using a formulation of the internal pressure based upon cascade impedance matrices. It presents and discusses the influence of higher order duct modes and the results for several duct radius/length ratios.
Frequency Adaptive Repetitive Control of Grid-Tied Single-Phase PV Inverters
Zhou, Keliang; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede
The internal model principle based Repetitive Control (RC) offers an accurate control strategy for grid-tied power converters to feed sinusoidal current into the grid. However, in the presence of grid frequency variations, the conventional RC fails to produce high quality feeding current. This...... paper thus explores a frequency adaptive repetitive control strategy for grid converters, which employs fractional delay filters in order to adapt to the change of the grid frequency. Case studies with experimental results of a single-phase grid-connected PV inverter system are provided to verify the...... proposed controller....
Hu, M.; Bai, Y. Z., E-mail: abai@mail.hust.edu.cn; Zhou, Z. B., E-mail: zhouzb@mail.hust.edu.cn; Li, Z. X.; Luo, J. [MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurement, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)
2014-05-15
The capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge is widely used in ultra-sensitive space accelerometers due to their simple structure and high resolution. In this paper, the front-end electronics of an inductive-capacitive resonant bridge transducer is analyzed. The analysis result shows that the performance of this transducer depends upon the case that the AC pumping frequency operates at the resonance point of the inductive-capacitive bridge. The effect of possible mismatch between the AC pumping frequency and the actual resonant frequency is discussed, and the theoretical analysis indicates that the output voltage noise of the front-end electronics will deteriorate by a factor of about 3 due to either a 5% variation of the AC pumping frequency or a 10% variation of the tuning capacitance. A pre-scanning method to determine the actual resonant frequency is proposed followed by the adjustment of the operating frequency or the change of the tuning capacitance in order to maintain expected high resolution level. An experiment to verify the mismatching effect and the adjustment method is provided.
Hu, M.; Bai, Y. Z.; Zhou, Z. B.; Li, Z. X.; Luo, J.
2014-05-01
The capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge is widely used in ultra-sensitive space accelerometers due to their simple structure and high resolution. In this paper, the front-end electronics of an inductive-capacitive resonant bridge transducer is analyzed. The analysis result shows that the performance of this transducer depends upon the case that the AC pumping frequency operates at the resonance point of the inductive-capacitive bridge. The effect of possible mismatch between the AC pumping frequency and the actual resonant frequency is discussed, and the theoretical analysis indicates that the output voltage noise of the front-end electronics will deteriorate by a factor of about 3 due to either a 5% variation of the AC pumping frequency or a 10% variation of the tuning capacitance. A pre-scanning method to determine the actual resonant frequency is proposed followed by the adjustment of the operating frequency or the change of the tuning capacitance in order to maintain expected high resolution level. An experiment to verify the mismatching effect and the adjustment method is provided.
On-line adaptive line frequency noise cancellation from a nuclear power measuring channel
Qadir Javed
2011-01-01
Full Text Available On-line software for adaptively canceling 50 Hz line frequency noise has been designed and tested at Pakistan Research Reactor 1. Line frequency noise causes much problem in weak signals acquisition. Sometimes this noise is so dominant that original signal is totally corrupted. Although notch filter can be used for eliminating this noise, but if signal of interest is in close vicinity of 50 Hz, then original signal is also attenuated and hence overall performance is degraded. Adaptive noise removal is a technique which could be employed for removing line frequency without degrading the desired signal. In this paper line frequency noise has been eliminated on-line from a nuclear power measuring channel. The adaptive LMS algorithm has been used to cancel 50 Hz noise. The algorithm has been implemented in labVIEW with NI 6024 data acquisition card. The quality of the acquired signal has been improved much as can be seen in experimental results.
Investigation of Frequency-Domain Link Adaptation for a 5-MHz OFDMA/HSDPA system
Pokhariyal, Akhilesh; Kolding, Troels E.; Frederiksen, Frank;
2005-01-01
In this paper, we investigate frequency domain link adaptation (FDLA), e.g. utilizing the frequency selectivity of the channel in an OFDMA system. To make the study specific and based on realistic parameters, we re-use the specifications from a recent 3GPP 5-MHz OFDMA study item. The link...... adaptation and the frequency domain link adaptation are developed in a way compliant with the basic HSDPA specifications. With FDLA we show up to 75% cell throughput gain over the OFDMA reference system at the cost of increased uplink channel quality signaling overhead for frequency selective channels. We...... find that optimum waterfilling power distribution only provides a marginal gain over a simpler on/off equal power distribution algorithm per sub-carrier pool when signaling imperfections are taken into account....
Selective engineering of cavity resonance for frequency matching in optical parametric processes
Lu, Xiyuan; Rogers, Steven [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Jiang, Wei C. [Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Lin, Qiang, E-mail: qiang.lin@rochester.edu [Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)
2014-10-13
We propose to selectively engineer a single cavity resonance to achieve frequency matching for optical parametric processes in high-Q microresonators. For this purpose, we demonstrate an approach, selective mode splitting (SMS), to precisely shift a targeted cavity resonance, while leaving other cavity modes intact. We apply SMS to achieve efficient parametric generation via four-wave mixing in high-Q silicon microresonators. The proposed approach is of great potential for broad applications in integrated nonlinear photonics.
Selective engineering of cavity resonance for frequency matching in optical parametric processes
Lu, Xiyuan; Jiang, Wei C; Lin, Qiang
2014-01-01
We propose to selectively engineer a single cavity resonance to achieve frequency matching for optical parametric processes in high-Q microresonators. For this purpose, we demonstrate an approach, selective mode splitting (SMS), to precisely shift a targeted cavity resonance, while leaving other cavity modes intact. We apply SMS to achieve efficient parametric generation via four-wave mixing in high-Q silicon microresonators. The proposed approach is of great potential for broad applications in integrated nonlinear photonics.
DEVELOPMENT OF ACOUSTIC MODELS FOR HIGH FREQUENCY RESONATORS FOR TURBOCHARGED IC-ENGINES
Wang, Zheng
2012-01-01
Automotive turbo compressors generate high frequency noise in the air intake system. This sound generation is of importance for the perceived sound quality of luxury cars and may need to be controlled by the use of silencers. The silencers usually contain resonators with slits, perforates and cavities. The purpose of the work reported is to develop acoustic models for these resonators where relevant effects such as the effect of realistic mean flow on losses and possibly 3D effects are consid...
High-frequency and resonance properties of niobium-based superconducting planar structures
We have investigated the Josephson and resonance properties of niobium--oxide--lead planar superconducting structures, constituting a film tunnel transition with many bridges through the oxide layer. The current--voltage characteristics and the nonlinear properties of such structures practically do not differ from the characteristics and properties of niobium superconducting point contacts. The capacitance of the structures does not limit their use at frequencies of 1011--1012 Hz since the frequency limit is determined by the properties of the bridges, their critical current, and the resistance of the normal state. The resonance frequency and the Q-factor of a planar structure as a strip resonator are determined by the size of the structure and the temperature. The velocity of propagation of an electromagnetic wave in such structures is 0.04--0.06 of the wave velocity in vacuo
A robust adaptive load frequency control for micro-grids
Khooban, Mohammad-Hassan; Niknam, Taher; Blaabjerg, Frede;
2016-01-01
The goal of this study is to introduce a novel robust load frequency control (LFC) strategy for micro-grid(s) (MG(s)) in islanded mode operation. Admittedly, power generators in MG(s) cannot supply steady electric power output and sometimes cause unbalance between supply and demand. Battery energy...... storage system (BESS) is one of the effective solutions to these problems. Due to the high cost of the BESS, a new idea of Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) is that a battery of Electric-Vehicle (EV) can be applied as a tantamount large-scale BESS in MG(s). As a result, a new robust control strategy for an islanded...
Resonance interaction between cold Rb atoms and a frequency comb
Full text: A long life time of atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) makes it a powerful tool to study interactions with optical fields processing small cross sections. Since the life time in MOT can reach a few seconds, even processes with characteristic rates of 1 -s1 can be easily analyzed if they result in losses of trapped atoms. We have investigated the interaction of laser-cooled 87Rb atoms in a MOT with a femtosecond (fs) laser radiation in the spectral region 760-820 nm. We show that in a wide range of average intensities of the fs laser field (2) the dominating process is the cascade ionization. In this case the femtosecond radiation interacts with the atomic ensemble both as spectrally-narrow components (a frequency comb) and as a powerful ionizing laser field. Atoms excited by a single mode of a frequency comb from the 5P3/2(F = 3) to the 5D5/2(F = 2, 3, 4) hyperfine sublevels are consequently ionized by a full power of the fs laser from the 5D level to the continuum. By tuning the repetition rate frep of the fs laser we observe the periodic spectrum in the MOT luminescence at 780 nm (the cooling transition) reproducing the hyperfine structure of the 5D level. We have quantitatively analyzed the ionization of the 5D5/2 level by monitoring the loading rate of the MOT at different powers of the fs laser radiation using an auxiliary cw laser locked to the 5P3/2(F = 3) → 5D5/2(F = 4) at 776 nm. A sensitive method allowing accurate determination of the 5/2 5D level population is developed. (author)
Adaptive Feed-Forward Control of Low Frequency Interior Noise
Kletschkowski, Thomas
2012-01-01
This book presents a mechatronic approach to Active Noise Control (ANC). It describes the required elements of system theory, engineering acoustics, electroacoustics and adaptive signal processing in a comprehensive, consistent and systematic manner using a unified notation. Furthermore, it includes a design methodology for ANC-systems, explains its application and describes tools to be used for ANC-system design. From the research point of view, the book presents new approaches to sound source localization in weakly damped interiors. One is based on the inverse finite element method, the other is based on a sound intensity probe with an active free field. Furthermore, a prototype of an ANC-system able to reach the physical limits of local (feed-forward) ANC is described. This is one example for applied research in ANC-system design. Other examples are given for (i) local ANC in a semi-enclosed subspace of an aircraft cargo hold and (ii) for the combination of audio entertainment with ANC.
Dependence of excitation frequency of resonant circuit on RF irradiation position of MRI equipment
Hyperthermia using implants is a cancer treatment in which cancer tissue is heated to over 42.5 deg C to selectively kill the cancer cells. In this study, a resonant circuit was used as an implant, and a weak magnetic field of radiofrequency (RF) pulses from a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) device was used as an excitation source. We report here how the temperature of the resonant circuit was controlled by changing the excitation frequency of the MRI. As a result, the temperature rise of the resonant circuit was successfully found to depend on its position in the MRI device. This significant result indicates that the temperature of the resonant circuit can be controlled only by adjusting the excitation position. Accurate temperature control is therefore expected to be possible by combining this control technique with the temperature measurement function of MRI equipment. (author)
Measurement of the 14N nuclear quadrupole resonance frequencies by the solid effect
Seliger, J.; Žagar, V.
2008-07-01
1H- 14N nuclear quadrupole double resonance using magnetic field cycling between high and low magnetic field and solid effect in the low magnetic field is analyzed in details. The transition probabilities per unit time for the solid-effect transitions are calculated. The double resonance spectra are calculated in the limiting cases of fast and slow nitrogen spin-lattice relaxation. The double resonance spectra are measured in histamine and quinolinic acid. The experimental spectra are analyzed and the 14N NQR frequencies are determined.
Abdallah, Zeina; Boucher, Yann G.; Fernandez, Arnaud; Balac, Stéphane; Llopis, Olivier
2016-06-01
A microwave domain characterization approach is proposed to determine the properties of high quality factor optical resonators. This approach features a very high precision in frequency and aims to acquire a full knowledge of the complex transfer function (amplitude and phase) characterizing an optical resonator using a microwave vector network analyzer. It is able to discriminate between the different coupling regimes, from the under-coupling to the selective amplification, and it is used together with a model from which the main resonator parameters are extracted, i.e. coupling factor, intrinsic losses, phase slope, intrinsic and external quality factor.
Resonance of Gaussian Electromagnetic Field to the High Frequency Gravitational Waves
Li, Jin; Zhang, Lu; Lin, Kai; Wen, Hao
2016-04-01
We consider a Gaussian Beam (GB) resonant system for high frequency gravitational waves (HFGWs) detection. At present, we find the optimal signal strength in theory through setting the magnetic component of GB in a standard gaussian form. Under the synchro-resonance condition, we study the signal strength (i.e., transverse perturbative photon fluxes) from the relic HFGWs (predicted by ordinary inflationary model) and the braneworld HFGWs (from braneworld scenarios). Both of them would generate potentially detectable transverse perturbative photon fluxes (PPFs). Furthermore we find optimal system parameters and the relationship between frequency and effective width of energy fluxes accumulation.
Wang, Wanjun; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Jun; Feng, Junbo; Guo, Jin
2015-10-01
In this paper, a compact silicon photonics circuit is proposed. It consists of add-drop filter, input/output grating coupler. The resonance peak of add-drop filter can be tuned with the assist of p-i-n diode. The unknown frequency of microwave is loaded at the optical wave and coupled into the chip. The optical power ratio of through port and drop port is monotonous, which is corresponding to the unknown frequency. Meanwhile, the resonance peak of the ring can shift with the assist of p-i-n diode.
Resonance of Gaussian Electromagnetic Field to the High Frequency Gravitational Waves
Li, Jin; Zhang, Lu; Lin, Kai; Wen, Hao
2016-08-01
We consider a Gaussian Beam (GB) resonant system for high frequency gravitational waves (HFGWs) detection. At present, we find the optimal signal strength in theory through setting the magnetic component of GB in a standard gaussian form. Under the synchro-resonance condition, we study the signal strength (i.e., transverse perturbative photon fluxes) from the relic HFGWs (predicted by ordinary inflationary model) and the braneworld HFGWs (from braneworld scenarios). Both of them would generate potentially detectable transverse perturbative photon fluxes (PPFs). Furthermore we find optimal system parameters and the relationship between frequency and effective width of energy fluxes accumulation.
Optical fiber strain sensor using fiber resonator based on frequency comb Vernier spectroscopy
Zhang, Liang; Lu, Ping; Chen, Li;
2012-01-01
A novel (to our best knowledge) optical fiber strain sensor using a fiber ring resonator based on frequency comb Vernier spectroscopy is proposed and demonstrated. A passively mode-locked optical fiber laser is employed to generate a phased-locked frequency comb. Strain applied to the optical fiber...... of the fiber ring resonator can be measured with the transmission spectrum. A good linearity is obtained between displacement and the inverse of wavelength spacing with an R2 of 0.9989, and high sensitivities better than 40 pm/με within the range of 0 to 10 με are achieved. The sensitivity can be...
Outphasing control of gallium nitride based very high frequency resonant converters
Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.;
2015-01-01
In this paper an outphasing modulation control method suitable for line regulation of very high frequency resonant converters is described. The pros and cons of several control methods suitable for very high frequency resonant converters are described and compared to outphasing modulation. Then the...... modulation technique is described and the design equations given. Finally a design example is given for a converter consisting of two class E inverters with a lossless combiner and a common half bridge rectifier. It is shown how outphasing modulation can be used for line regulation while insuring equal and...
Outphasing Control of Gallium Nitride based Very High Frequency Resonant Converter
Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Perreault, David J.; Knott, Arnold;
2015-01-01
— In this paper an outphasing modulation control method suitable for line regulation of very high frequency resonant converters is described. The pros and cons of several control methods suitable for very high frequency resonant converters are described and compared to outphasing modulation. Then...... the modulation technique is described and the design equations given. Finally a design example is given for a converter consisting of two class E inverters with a lossless combiner and a common half bridge rectifier. It is shown how outphasing modulation can be used for line regulation while insuring...
Pulse width modulation based pneumatic frequency tuner of the superconducting resonators at IUAC
The existing phase locking scheme of the quarter wave resonators (QWR) used in superconducting linear accelerator (LINAC) of IUAC consists of a fast time (electronic) and a slow time (pneumatic) control. Presently, piezo based mechanical tuners are being used to phase lock the resonators installed in the second and third accelerating modules of LINAC. However, due to space constraint, the piezo tuner can't be implemented on the resonators of the first accelerating module. Therefore, helium gas operated mechanical tuners are being used to phase lock the resonators against the master oscillator (MO) frequency. The present pneumatic frequency tuner has limitations of non-linearity, hysteresis and slow response time. To overcome these problems and to improve the dynamics of the existing tuner, a new pulse width modulation (PWM) based pneumatic frequency tuning system was adopted and successfully tested. After successful test, the PWM based pneumatic frequency tuner was installed in four QWR of the first accelerating module of LINAC. During beam run the PWM based frequency tuner performed well and the cavities could be phase locked at comparatively higher accelerating fields. A comparison of the existing tuning mechanism and the PWM based tuning system along with the test results will be presented in the paper. (author)
Exact thickness-shear resonance frequency of electroded piezoelectric crystal plates
WANG Ji; SHEN Li-jun
2005-01-01
The determination of the precise thickness-shear frequency of electroded crystal plates has practical importance in quartz crystal resonator design and fabrication, especially when the high fundamental thickness-shear frequency has reduced the crystal plate thickness to such a degree that proper consideration of the effect of electrodes is very important. The electrodes effect as mass loading in the estimation of the resonance frequency has to be modified to consider the stiffness of electrodes, as the relative strength is increasingly noticeable. By following a known procedure in the determination of the thickness-shear frequency of an infinite AT-cut crystal plate, frequency equations of crystal plate without and with piezoelectric effect are obtained in terms of elastic constants and the electrode material density. After solving these equations for the usual design parameters of crystal resonators, the design process can be optimized to pinpoint the precise configuration to avoid time-consuming trial and reduction steps. Since these equations and solutions are presented for widely used materials and parameters, they can be easily integrated into the existing crystal resonator design and manufacturing processes.
Cho, Franklin H; Takahashi, Susumu
2014-01-01
We describe instrumentation for a high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) spectroscopy. The instrumentation is operated in the frequency range of 107$-$120 GHz and 215$-$240 GHz and in the magnetic field range of 0$-$12.1 Tesla. The spectrometer consisting of a high-frequency high-power solid-state source, a quasioptical system, a phase-sensitive detection system, a cryogenic-free superconducting magnet and a $^4$He cryostat enables multi-frequency continuous-wave EPR spectroscopy as well as pulsed EPR measurements with a few hundred nanosecond pulses. Here we discuss the details of the design and the pulsed EPR sensitivity of the instrumentation. We also present performance of the instrumentation in unique experiments including PELDOR spectroscopy to probe correlations in an insulating electronic spin system and application of dynamical decoupling techniques to extend spin coherence of electron spins in an insulating solid-state system.
Microwave and RF Applications for Micro-resonator based Frequency Combs
Nguyen, Thach G; Ferrera, Marcello; Pasquazi, Alessia; Peccianti, Marco; Chu, Sai T; Little, Brent E; Morandotti, Roberto; Mitchell, Arnan; Moss, David J
2015-01-01
Photonic integrated circuits that exploit nonlinear optics in order to generate and process signals all-optically have achieved performance far superior to that possible electronically - particularly with respect to speed. We review the recent achievements based in new CMOS-compatible platforms that are better suited than SOI for nonlinear optics, focusing on radio frequency (RF) and microwave based applications that exploit micro-resonator based frequency combs. We highlight their potential as well as the challenges to achieving practical solutions for many key applications. These material systems have opened up many new capabilities such as on-chip optical frequency comb generation and ultrafast optical pulse generation and measurement. We review recent work on a photonic RF Hilbert transformer for broadband microwave in-phase and quadrature-phase generation based on an integrated frequency optical comb. The comb is generated using a nonlinear microring resonator based on a CMOS compatible, high-index contr...
High-frequency QPOs as a problem in physics: non-linear resonance
Kluzniak, W; Lee, W H; Abramowicz, Marek A.; Kluzniak, Wlodek; Lee, William H.
2004-01-01
The presence of a kHz frequency in LMXBs has been expected from scaling laws, by analogy with the QPO phenomenon in HMXB X-ray pulsars. Interpretation of the two kHz frequencies, observed in accreting neutron stars, in terms of non-linear resonance in strong-field gravity led to the prediction of twin QPOs in black hole systems, in a definite frequency ratio (such as 2/3). The imprint of a subharmonic of the 401 Hz rotation rate in the frequencies of the QPOs detected in the accreting millisecond pulsar is at once a signature of non-linear resonance and of coupling between accretion disk modes and the neutron star spin.
Optical frequency comb generation from aluminum nitride micro-ring resonator
Jung, Hojoong; Xiong, Chi; Fong, King Y.; Zhang, Xufeng; Hong X. Tang
2013-01-01
Aluminum nitride is an appealing nonlinear optical material for on-chip wavelength conversion. Here we report optical frequency comb generation from high quality factor aluminum nitride micro-ring resonators integrated on silicon substrates. By engineering the waveguide structure to achieve near-zero dispersion at telecommunication wavelengths and optimizing the phase matching for four-wave mixing, frequency combs are generated with a single wavelength continuous-wave pump laser. The Kerr coe...
High Frequency Soft Switching Of PWM Boost Converter Using Auxiliary Resonant Circuit
C. P. Sai Kiran; M. Vishnu Vardhan
2014-01-01
This thesis presents High frequency Soft Switching DC-DC boost Converter. The circuit consists of a general Boost Converter with an additional resonant circuit which has a switch, inductor, capacitor and a diode.In general Boost Converter circuits have snubber circuits where switching losses are dissipated in external passive resistors; which is known as hard switching. As the switching frequency of PWM converters is increased its switching losses and conduction losses also in...
Quilted Gabor frames - a new concept for adaptive time-frequency representation
Doerfler, Monika
2009-01-01
Certain signal classes such as audio signals call for signal representations with the ability to adapt to the signal's properties. In this article we introduce the new concept of quilted frames, which aim at adaptivity in time-frequency representations. As opposed to Gabor or wavelet frames, this new class of frames allows for the adaptation of the signal analysis to the local requirements of signals under consideration. Quilted frames are constructed directly in the time-frequency domain in a signal-adaptive manner. Validity of the frame property guarantees the possibility to reconstruct the original signal. The frame property is shown for specific situations and the Bessel property is proved for the general setting. Strategies for reconstruction from coefficients obtained with quilted Gabor frames and numerical simulations are provided as well.
Songer, Jocelyn E.; Eatock, Ruth Anne
2011-11-01
The mammalian saccule detects head tilt and low-frequency head accelerations as well as higher-frequency bone vibrations and sounds. It has two different hair cell types, I and II, dispersed throughout two morphologically distinct regions, the striola and extrastriola. Afferents from the two zones have distinct response dynamics which may arise partly from zonal differences in hair cell properties. We find that type II hair cells in the rat saccular epithelium adapt with a time course appropriate for influencing afferent responses to head motions. Moreover, striolar type II hair cells adapted by a greater extent than extrastriolar type II hair cells and had greater phase leads in the mid-frequency range (5-50 Hz). These differences suggest that hair cell transduction may contribute to zonal differences in the adaptation of vestibular afferents to head motions.
Maimone, F; Tinschert, K; Celona, L; Lang, R; Mäder, J; Rossbach, J; Spädtke, P
2012-02-01
The properties of the electromagnetic waves heating the electrons of the ECR ion sources (ECRIS) plasma affect the features of the extracted ion beams such as the emittance, the shape, and the current, in particular for higher charge states. The electron heating methods such as the frequency tuning effect and the double frequency heating are widely used for enhancing the performances of ECRIS or even for the routine operation during the beam production. In order to better investigate these effects the CAPRICE ECRIS has been operated using these techniques. The ion beam properties for highly charged ions have been measured with beam diagnostic tools. The reason of the observed variations of this performance can be related to the different electromagnetic field patterns, which are changing inside the plasma chamber when the frequency is varying. PMID:22380151
Ma, Fuyin; Wu, Jiu Hui; Huang, Meng
2015-09-01
In order to overcome the influence of the structural resonance on the continuous structures and obtain a lightweight thin-layer structure which can effectively isolate the low-frequency noises, an elastic membrane structure was proposed. In the low-frequency range below 500 Hz, the sound transmission loss (STL) of this membrane type structure is greatly higher than that of the current sound insulation material EVA (ethylene-vinyl acetate copo) of vehicle, so it is possible to replace the EVA by the membrane-type metamaterial structure in practice engineering. Based on the band structure, modal shapes, as well as the sound transmission simulation, the sound insulation mechanism of the designed membrane-type acoustic metamaterials was analyzed from a new perspective, which had been validated experimentally. It is suggested that in the frequency range above 200 Hz for this membrane-mass type structure, the sound insulation effect was principally not due to the low-level locally resonant mode of the mass block, but the continuous vertical resonant modes of the localized membrane. So based on such a physical property, a resonant modal group theory is initially proposed in this paper. In addition, the sound insulation mechanism of the membrane-type structure and thin plate structure were combined by the membrane/plate resonant theory.
Frequency Dependence of Resonance Field of One-Dimensional Heisenberg Antiferromagnet KCuF3
SHI Qing-Fan; L(U) Zhen; MA Mu-Yan; MA Chao; LI Liang-Sheng
2006-01-01
@@ The frequency dependence of the in-plane angular change of the antiferromagnetic resonance (AFMR) field of KCuF3 is systematically measured at frequencies ranging from 3.8 to 10.6 GHz at 4.2K. The effect of inequivalent g-tensors is found to gradually diminish with decreasing the frequency, and completely vanish when the frequency is decreased to the lower-frequency branch of C-band, while the effect of the effective anisotropy field is significantly enhanced with decreasing the frequency. The calculated AFMR field Hres based on the eight-sublattice model proposed by Yamada and Kato [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 63 (1994)289] is in good agreement with the experimental data.
De Poorter, J; De Wagter, C; De Deene, Y;
1995-01-01
The noninvasive thermometry method is based on the temperature dependence of the proton resonance frequency (PRF). High-quality temperature images can be obtained from phase information of standard gradient-echo sequences with an accuracy of 0.2 degrees C in phantoms. This work was focused on the...
Berg, Anne T.; Mathern, Gary W.; Bronen, Richard A.; Fulbright, Robert K.; DiMario, Francis; Testa, Francine M.; Levy, Susan R.
2009-01-01
The epidemiology of lesions identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), along with the use of pre-surgical evaluations and surgery in childhood-onset epilepsy patients has not previously been described. In a prospectively identified community-based cohort of children enrolled from 1993 to 1997, we examined (i) the frequency of lesions…
Marqués, R.; Baena, J. D.; Beruete, M.; Falcone, F.; Lopetegi, T.; Sorolla, M.; Martín, F.; Garcia, J.
2005-02-01
Frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) made up of periodic arrays of split ring resonators (SRRs) are analysed. This analysis includes complementary screens, or complementary SRR-FSSs (CSRR-FSSs). It is shown that these FSSs show a dual behaviour, with a stop/pass band behaviour at the frequency of resonance of the SRRs/CSRRs. Cross-polarization effects in the SRR and the CSRR are considered, and it is shown that they permit resonance to occur for normally incident plane wave excitation. This latter property of SRRs and CSRRs also implies that the FSSs considered may act as polarizers and polarization converters as well. An analytical theory, valid for perfectly conducting and infinitely thin screens, is proposed for the SRR-FSSs and CSRR-FSSs. These approximations are valid in the microwave and millimetre-wave range, and up to the terahertz range.
Mode conversion and electron heating near the upper hybrid resonance frequency
Mode conversion near the upper hybrid resonance frequency and electron heating are studied using a one-dimensional electromagnetic relativistic particle code. It is found that for a sufficiently small pump field E0, E02/4πnT/sub e/ less than or equal to 0.01, electron heating is localized in a region near the electron cyclotron layer where the pump frequency is equal to the local electron gyrofrequency. For stronger pump fields, electron heating takes place more or less uniformly across a region between the upper hybrid resonance layer and the cyclotron layer. In addition, a significant fraction of electromagnetic energy associated with the pump is found to be reflected back into the vacuum from a region in the plasma near the upper hybrid resonance layer for both strong (E02/4πnT/sub e/ approx. = 1) and weak pumps (E02/4πnT/sub e/ << 1)
Shaforost, E. N.; Klein, N.; Vitusevich, S. A.; Offenhäusser, A.; Barannik, A. A.
2008-10-01
We present an approach for identification and concentration determination of liquids of pico to nanoliter volumes at a frequency of 35 GHz based on a whispering-gallery mode (WGM) dielectric resonator technique. A quasioptical coupling scheme based on dielectric image waveguides was employed to excite high-Q running wave WGMs with uniform azimuthal field distribution in cylindrical sapphire disks with quality factors up to 4×105 at room temperature. Measurement of the liquid induced changes in the resonator quality factor and resonance frequency has been performed for droplets down to 90 pl volume spotted at different positions on the surface of the sapphire disk. We have employed our method for concentration determination of ethanol, glucose, and albumin dissolved in water. Solutions with concentration values well below 10% could be clearly separated from pure water. Our method is promising for the characterization of biological liquids.
Yin, Hanjun; Zhao, Jianguo; Tang, Genyang; Ma, Xiaoyi; Wang, Shangxu
2016-06-01
Differential acoustic resonance spectroscopy (DARS) has been developed to determine the elastic properties of saturated rocks within the kHz frequency range. This laboratory technique is based on considerations from perturbation theory, wherein the resonance frequencies of the resonant cavity with and without a perturbation sample are used to estimate the acoustic properties of the test sample. In order to better understand the operating mechanism of DARS and therefore optimize the procedure, it is important to develop an accurate and efficient numerical model. Accordingly, this study presents a new multiphysics model by coupling together considerations from acoustics, solid mechanics, and electrostatics. The numerical results reveal that the newly developed model can successfully simulate the acoustic pressure field at different resonance modes, and that it can accurately reflect the measurement process. Based on the understanding of the DARS system afforded by the numerical simulation, we refine the system configuration by utilizing cavities of different lengths and appropriate radii to broaden the frequency bandwidth and ensure testing accuracy. Four synthetic samples are measured to test the performance of the optimized DARS system, in conjunction with ultrasonic and static measurements. For nonporous samples, the estimated bulk moduli are shown to be independent of the different measurement methods (i.e. DARS or ultrasonic techniques). In contrast, for sealed porous samples, the differences in bulk moduli between the low- and high-frequency techniques can be clearly observed; this discrepancy is attributed to frequency dispersion. In summary, the optimized DARS system with an extended frequency range of 500–2000 Hz demonstrates considerable utility in investigating the frequency dependence of the acoustic properties of reservoir rocks.
肖立民; 许希斌; 姚彦
2001-01-01
Diversity combining technologies are analyzed for fastfrequency-hopping spread spectrum systems during partial-band noise jamming to develop a novel combining receiver called an Adaptive Threshold Clipper Combining Receiver (ATCCR). The optimal clipping level for an ATCCR is analyzed, computed, and compared with several other diversity combining technologies. Since the ATCCR can estimate the power of the jamming and the number of jammed frequency cells to adaptively adjust the clipper's threshold, the system performance using the adaptive threshold clipper combining technique can be greatly improved.
Adaptive frequency-separation-based energy management system for electric vehicles
Florescu, Adrian; Bacha, Seddik; Munteanu, Iulian; Bratcu, Antoneta Iuliana; Rumeau, Axel
2015-04-01
This paper deals with an adaptive frequency-based power sharing method between batteries and ultracapacitors (UC) as power sources within an electric vehicle. An adaptive frequency splitter is used for routing the low-frequency content of power demand into the battery and its high-frequency content into the UC system, taking profit from the UC as a peak power unit. Autonomy may thus be increased while preserving battery state of health and ensuring that UC voltage variations remain confined within certain desired range. Results obtained by real-time experiments on a dedicated test rig validate the proposed energy management approach and recommend it to be applied as power source coordination method to microgrids in general.
Chang, H.-C.; Kopaska-Merkel, D. C.; Chen, H.-C.; Rocky, Durrans S.
2000-01-01
Lithofacies identification supplies qualitative information about rocks. Lithofacies represent rock textures and are important components of hydrocarbon reservoir description. Traditional techniques of lithofacies identification from core data are costly and different geologists may provide different interpretations. In this paper, we present a low-cost intelligent system consisting of three adaptive resonance theory neural networks and a rule-based expert system to consistently and objectively identify lithofacies from well-log data. The input data are altered into different forms representing different perspectives of observation of lithofacies. Each form of input is processed by a different adaptive resonance theory neural network. Among these three adaptive resonance theory neural networks, one neural network processes the raw continuous data, another processes categorial data, and the third processes fuzzy-set data. Outputs from these three networks are then combined by the expert system using fuzzy inference to determine to which facies the input data should be assigned. Rules are prioritized to emphasize the importance of firing order. This new approach combines the learning ability of neural networks, the adaptability of fuzzy logic, and the expertise of geologists to infer facies of the rocks. This approach is applied to the Appleton Field, an oil field located in Escambia County, Alabama. The hybrid intelligence system predicts lithofacies identity from log data with 87.6% accuracy. This prediction is more accurate than those of single adaptive resonance theory networks, 79.3%, 68.0% and 66.0%, using raw, fuzzy-set, and categorical data, respectively, and by an error-backpropagation neural network, 57.3%. (C) 2000 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang Zhouqiang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We studied the effected of dimension and location of reflective film on the resonance frequency. Simulation results indicate that the location of reflective film has a greater impact on the resonance frequency of QTF. The higher the position of reflective film, the lower the resonance frequency of QTF. Furthermore, the resonance frequency can also be affected by the dimension of reflective film. However, the reflective film in the middle of the QTF arm is not sensitive to the dimension of reflective film. The frequency is close to the resonance frequency of the QTF model without reflective film, it is about 30259Hz. We can increase the length and width of reflective film to improve the laser reflection on the QTF surface. Therefore, this position is suitable for the detection of photo-acoustic spectroscopy. The analysis results provide a theoretical basis for researching new photo-acoustic spectrum remote sensing device.
Spectral and angular characteristics of dielectric resonator metasurface at optical frequencies
Zou, Longfang [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TH (United Kingdom); López-García, Martin; Oulton, Ruth; Klemm, Maciej [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TH (United Kingdom); Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Fumeaux, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.fumeaux@adelaide.edu.au [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Shah, Charan M.; Mitchell, Arnan; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Sriram, Sharath [Functional Materials and Microsystems Research Group, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne VIC 3001 (Australia)
2014-11-10
The capability of manipulating light at subwavelength scale has fostered the applications of flat metasurfaces in various fields. Compared to metallic structure, metasurfaces made of high permittivity low-loss dielectric resonators hold the promise of high efficiency by avoiding high conductive losses of metals at optical frequencies. This letter investigates the spectral and angular characteristics of a dielectric resonator metasurface composed of periodic sub-arrays of resonators with a linearly varying phase response. The far-field response of the metasurface can be decomposed into the response of a single grating element (sub-array) and the grating arrangement response. The analysis also reveals that coupling between resonators has a non-negligible impact on the angular response. Over a wide wavelength range, the simulated and measured angular characteristics of the metasurface provide a definite illustration of how different grating diffraction orders can be selectively suppressed or enhanced through antenna sub-array design.
Spectral and angular characteristics of dielectric resonator metasurface at optical frequencies
The capability of manipulating light at subwavelength scale has fostered the applications of flat metasurfaces in various fields. Compared to metallic structure, metasurfaces made of high permittivity low-loss dielectric resonators hold the promise of high efficiency by avoiding high conductive losses of metals at optical frequencies. This letter investigates the spectral and angular characteristics of a dielectric resonator metasurface composed of periodic sub-arrays of resonators with a linearly varying phase response. The far-field response of the metasurface can be decomposed into the response of a single grating element (sub-array) and the grating arrangement response. The analysis also reveals that coupling between resonators has a non-negligible impact on the angular response. Over a wide wavelength range, the simulated and measured angular characteristics of the metasurface provide a definite illustration of how different grating diffraction orders can be selectively suppressed or enhanced through antenna sub-array design
Arnol'd tongues for a resonant injection-locked frequency divider: analytical and numerical results
Bartuccelli, Michele; Deane, Jonathan H.B.; Gentile, Guido;
2010-01-01
In this paper we consider a resonant injection-locked frequency divider which is of interest in electronics, and we investigate the frequency locking phenomenon when varying the amplitude and frequency of the injected signal. We study both analytically and numerically the structure of the Arnol......’d tongues in the frequency–amplitude plane. In particular, we provide exact analytical formulae for the widths of the tongues, which correspond to the plateaux of the devil’s staircase picture. The results account for numerical and experimental findings presented in the literature for special driving terms...... and, additionally, extend the analysis to a more general setting....
CFAVC scheme for high frequency series resonant inverter-fed domestic induction heating system
Nagarajan, Booma; Reddy Sathi, Rama
2016-01-01
This article presents the investigations on the constant frequency asymmetric voltage cancellation control in the AC-AC resonant converter-fed domestic induction heating system. Conventional fixed frequency control techniques used in the high frequency converters lead to non-zero voltage switching operation and reduced output power. The proposed control technique produces higher output power than the conventional fixed-frequency control strategies. In this control technique, zero-voltage-switching operation is maintained during different duty cycle operation for reduction in the switching losses. Complete analysis of the induction heating power supply system with asymmetric voltage cancellation control is discussed in this article. Simulation and experimental study on constant frequency asymmetric voltage cancellation (CFAVC)-controlled full bridge series resonant inverter is performed. Time domain simulation results for the open and closed loop of the system are obtained using MATLAB simulation tool. The simulation results prove the control of voltage and power in a wide range. PID controller-based closed loop control system achieves the voltage regulation of the proposed system for the step change in load. Hardware implementation of the system under CFAVC control is done using the embedded controller. The simulation and experimental results validate the performance of the CFAVC control technique for series resonant-based induction cooking system.
Four-channel magnetic resonance imaging receiver using frequency domain multiplexing
He, Wang; Qin, Xu; Jiejing, Ren; Gengying, Li
2007-01-01
An alternative technique that uses frequency domain multiplexing to acquire phased array magnetic resonance images is discussed in detail. The proposed method has advantages over traditional independent receiver chains in that it utilizes an analog-to-digital converter and a single-chip multicarrier receiver with high performance to reduce the size and cost of the phased array receiver system. A practical four-channel digital receiver using frequency domain multiplexing was implemented and verified on a home-built 0.3T magnetic resonance imaging system. The experimental results confirmed that the cross talk between each channel was below -60dB, the phase fluctuations were about 1°, and there was no obvious signal-to-noise ratio degradation. It is demonstrated that the frequency domain multiplexing is a valuable and economical technique, particularly for array coil systems where the multichannel receiver is indispensable and dynamic range is not a critical problem.
High-frequency current oscillations in graphene-boron nitride resonant tunnel diodes
Greenaway, Mark; Gaskell, Jenn; Eaves, Laurence; Novoselov, Kostya; Mishchenko, Artem; Geim, Andre; Fromhold, Mark
The successful realisation of multilayer graphene-hBN-graphene resonant tunnelling diodes (graphene- RTDs) with negative differential conductance (NDC) and MHz current oscillations offers the exciting possibility of exploiting them as high-frequency oscillators and mixers. In this paper, we examine their potential for generating higher frequencies by simulating the oscillations in the tunnel current and charge that arise when the device is biased in the NDC region and placed in a resonant circuit. Using the Bardeen transfer Hamiltonian method, we examine the effect on the device characteristics of the twist angle, θ, between the two graphene electrodes, the hBN barrier thickness and of the carrier density in the graphene electrodes, which can be adjusted by chemical doping or by an applied bias voltage. The simulations accurately reproduce our recently-reported measurements on these RTDs (Fig. 4,). The results of simulations show that frequencies of tens of GHz are achievable by optimising the device parameters. Leverhulme Trust, UK.
Signal detection for frequency-shift keying via short-time stochastic resonance
A series of short-time stochastic resonance (SR) phenomena, realized in a bistable receiver, can be utilized to detect a train of information represented by signals that adopt frequency-shift keying (FSK). It is demonstrated that the values of noise intensity at resonance regions are close for adjacent periodic signals with an appropriate frequency separation. This establishes the possibility of decoding subthreshold or slightly suprathreshold M-ary FSK signals in bistable receivers. Furthermore, the mechanism of FSK signal detection via short-time SR effects is elucidated in terms of the receiver response speed. This phenomenon provides a possible mechanism for information processing in a bistable device operating in nonstationary noisy environments, where even the inputs appear over a short timescale or have a frequency shift
Controlled degradation stochastic resonance in adaptive averaging cell-based architectures
Aymerich Capdevila, Nivard; Cotofana, Sorin; Rubio Sola, Jose Antonio
2013-01-01
In this paper, we first analyze the degradation stochastic resonance (DSR) effect in the context of adaptive averaging (AD-AVG) architectures. The AD-AVG is the adaptive version of the well-known AVG architecture . It is an optimized fault-tolerant design for future technologies with very high rates of failures and defects. With system degradation the AD-AVG reliability is diminishing, as expected, but at a certain moment in time it increases due to the DSR occurrence, which is counterintuiti...
Hanham, S. M.; Watts, C.; Otter, W. J.; Lucyszyn, S.; Klein, N.
2015-07-01
We present a highly sensitive technique for determining the complex permittivity of nanoliter liquid samples in the terahertz band based on a photonic crystal resonator and microcapillary. Liquids are characterized by using a capillary tube to introduce a ˜4 nl liquid sample into the electromagnetic field of a resonant mode confined by an L3 resonant cavity in a high-resistivity silicon photonic crystal slab. Monitoring the perturbation of the resonant frequency and unloaded Q-factor of the resonant mode at 100 GHz and ˜5800, respectively, allows a sample's permittivity to be calculated. An analytical model describing the system response based on perturbation theory and quasi-static analysis of the electric field within the capillary is also presented and found to agree well with FEM simulations and experimental measurements of ethanol-water mixtures of various concentrations for low to moderate loss tangents of the liquid samples. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by measuring the complex permittivity of several bioliquids, including suspensions of red and white blood cells. These results represent a step towards a lab-on-a-chip device for the analysis of extremely small quantities of biological, toxic, explosive, and other liquid types at terahertz frequencies.
We present a highly sensitive technique for determining the complex permittivity of nanoliter liquid samples in the terahertz band based on a photonic crystal resonator and microcapillary. Liquids are characterized by using a capillary tube to introduce a ∼4 nl liquid sample into the electromagnetic field of a resonant mode confined by an L3 resonant cavity in a high-resistivity silicon photonic crystal slab. Monitoring the perturbation of the resonant frequency and unloaded Q-factor of the resonant mode at 100 GHz and ∼5800, respectively, allows a sample's permittivity to be calculated. An analytical model describing the system response based on perturbation theory and quasi-static analysis of the electric field within the capillary is also presented and found to agree well with FEM simulations and experimental measurements of ethanol-water mixtures of various concentrations for low to moderate loss tangents of the liquid samples. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by measuring the complex permittivity of several bioliquids, including suspensions of red and white blood cells. These results represent a step towards a lab-on-a-chip device for the analysis of extremely small quantities of biological, toxic, explosive, and other liquid types at terahertz frequencies
Flexible structured high-frequency film bulk acoustic resonator for flexible wireless electronics
Flexible electronics have inspired many novel and very important applications in recent years and various flexible electronic devices such as diodes, transistors, circuits, sensors, and radiofrequency (RF) passive devices including antennas and inductors have been reported. However, the lack of a high-performance RF resonator is one of the key bottlenecks to implement flexible wireless electronics. In this study, for the first time, a novel ultra-flexible structured film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) is proposed. The flexible FBAR is fabricated on a flexible polyimide substrate using piezoelectric thin film aluminum nitride (AlN) for acoustic wave excitation. Both the shear wave and longitudinal wave can be excited under the surface interdigital electrodes configuration we proposed. In the case of the thickness extension mode, a flexible resonator with a working frequency as high as of 5.2325 GHz has been realized. The resonators stay fully functional under bending status and after repeated bending and re-flattening operations. This flexible high-frequency resonator will serve as a key building block for the future flexible wireless electronics, greatly expanding the application scope of flexible electronics. (paper)
A frequency controlled LCL - T resonant converter for H- ion source
An H- ion source is being developed at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore. An LCL-T resonant power converter with variable frequency control is proposed which is utilized to develop a -20 kV/100 mA high voltage (HV) power supply for extraction of H- ions. The LCL-T resonant topology offers many advantages like gainful utilization of the transformer parasitics as a part of resonant network and low circulating current. The power converter is operated with variable frequency control and above resonance to get well known zero-voltage switching (ZVS) advantages for full bridge semiconductor switches in full load range. The converter energizes the symmetrical Cockcroft-Walton (CW) based HV generator to achieve required high voltage. The CW circuit is an attractive solution for HV generation since it has features like low stored energy and low output ripple. The HV power supply is operated in constant current (CC) mode with closed loop control and soft start of the power supply is achieved by sweeping the switching frequency from 40 kHz to defined operating point. Design parameters, simulation results and experimental results of the power converter are presented in this paper. (author)
Frequency-comb formation in doubly resonant second-harmonic generation
Leo, F.; Hansson, T.; Ricciardi, I.; De Rosa, M.; Coen, S.; Wabnitz, S.; Erkintalo, M.
2016-04-01
We theoretically study the generation of optical frequency combs and corresponding pulse trains in doubly resonant intracavity second-harmonic generation (SHG). We find that, despite the large temporal walk-off characteristic of realistic cavity systems, the nonlinear dynamics can be accurately and efficiently modeled using a pair of coupled mean-field equations. Through rigorous stability analysis of the system's steady-state continuous-wave solutions, we demonstrate that walk-off can give rise to an unexplored regime of temporal modulation instability. Numerical simulations performed in this regime reveal rich dynamical behaviors, including the emergence of temporal patterns that correspond to coherent optical frequency combs. We also demonstrate that the two coupled equations that govern the doubly resonant cavity behavior can, under typical conditions, be reduced to a single mean-field equation akin to that describing the dynamics of singly-resonant-cavity SHG [F. Leo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 033901 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.033901]. This reduced approach allows us to derive a simple expression for the modulation instability gain, thus permitting us to acquire significant insight into the underlying physics. We anticipate that our work will have a wide impact on the study of frequency combs in emerging doubly resonant cavity SHG platforms, including quadratically nonlinear microresonators.
Optimizing the Adaptive Stochastic Resonance and Its Application in Fault Diagnosis
Liu, Xiaole; Yang, Jianhua; Liu, Houguang; Cheng, Gang; Chen, Xihui; Xu, Dan
2015-10-01
This paper presents an adaptive stochastic resonance method based on the improved artificial fish swarm algorithm. By this method, we can enhance the weak characteristic signal which is submerged in a heavy noise. We can also adaptively lead the stochastic resonance to be optimized to the greatest extent. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by both numerical simulation and lab experimental vibration signals including normal, a chipped tooth and a missing tooth of planetary gearboxes under the loaded condition. Both theoretical and experimental results show that this method can effectively extract weak characteristics in a heavy noise. In the experiment, each weak fault feature is extracted successfully from the fault planetary gear. When compared with the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) method, the method proposed in this paper has been found to give remarkable performance.
Damping of Inter-Area Low Frequency Oscillation Using an Adaptive Wide-Area Damping Controller
Yao, Wei; Jiang, L.; Fang, Jiakun; Wen, Jinyu; Wang, Shaorong
2013-01-01
This paper presents an adaptive wide-area damping controller (WADC) based on generalized predictive control (GPC) and model identification for damping the inter-area low frequency oscillations in large-scale inter-connected power system. A recursive least-squares algorithm (RLSA) with a varying f...
Decentralized & Adaptive Load-Frequency Control Scheme of Variable Speed Wind Turbines
Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth
2014-01-01
In power systems with high penetration of Wind Power (WP), transferring a part of Load Frequency Control (LFC) burden to variable speed Wind Turbines (WTs) is inevitable. The conventional LFC schemes merely rely on frequency information and since frequency is a common variable throughout...... and therefore determining the contribution factor of each individual WT to gain an adaptive LFC approach. The Electrical Distance (ED) concept confirms that the locally measured voltage decay is a proper criterion of closeness to the disturbance place. Numerical simulations carried out in DigSilent Power...
A novel radio frequency coil for veterinary magnetic resonance imaging system
Meng, Bin; Huang, Kai-Wen; Wang, Wei-Min
2010-07-01
In this article, a novel designed radio frequency (RF) coil is designed and built for the imaging of puppies in a V-shape permanent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. Two sets of Helmholtz coil pairs with a V-shape structure are used to improve the holding of an animal in the coil. The homogeneity and the sensitivity of the RF field in the coil are analysed by theoretical calculation. The size and the shape of the new coil are optimized and validated by simulation through using the finite element method (FEM). Good magnetic resonance (MR) images are achieved on a shepherd dog.