WorldWideScience

Sample records for adaptive growth strategy

  1. Seedling growth dynamic of Haloxylon ammodendron and its adaptation strategy to habitat condition in hinterland of desert

    WEI Jiang; ZHANG XiMing; SHAN LiShan; YAN HaiLong; LIANG ShaoMing

    2007-01-01

    Through measuring the above/below-ground growth data of Haloxylon ammodendron seedlings at different stages in hinterland of the desert the results show that the H. ammodendron seedling growth has demonstrated different adaptation characteristics in the continued arid environment with time and space. In May, July, September and October, the growth speed of vertical root is 0.607 cm/d, 0.809 cm/d, 0.155 cm/d and 0.394 cm/d, respectively; the growth speed of height is 0.093 cm/d, 0.076 cm/d,0.408 cm/d and 136 cm/d, respectively. It is explained that seedlings root system has the growth superiority in space. The maximum growth speed of below-ground (vertical root and horizontal root) of seedling is earlier than that of above-ground (height and horizontal of shoot). In the different periods,the vertical growth speed and the horizontal growth speed of below-ground is 2-10 times and 3-5 times than the height increase speed and the shoot growth speed, respectively. In the whole season,the growth speed of above/below-ground of seedlings shows the alternation growth tendency. At the different periods, the root/shoot ratio of H. ammodendron seedlings is 0.41, 0.3, 0.39 and 0.88. All these characteristics are the comprehensive performance of seedlings' strategy selection to adapt to the continued arid environment.

  2. Expressing Adaptation Strategies Using Adaptation Patterns

    Zemirline, N.; Bourda, Y.; Reynaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a real challenge to enable personalized access to information. Several systems have been proposed to address this challenge including Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs). However, the specification of adaptation strategies remains a difficult task for creators of such systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of the definition…

  3. Adaptive strategies against drought stress of six plant species with different growth forms from karst habitats of southwestern China

    Liu, C.; Guo, K.; Liu, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Frequent temporary drought in the rain season, as well as long-term drought in the dry season, is one of the most important factors limiting the survival and growth of plants in the harsh karst habitats of southwestern China. The morphological and physiological responses to drought stress of six native woody plant species were investigated under both temporary and prolonged drought stress. The six plant species included Pyracantha fortuneana (evergreen shrub), Rosa cymosa (deciduous shrub), Cinnamomum bodinieri (evergreen tree), and other three deciduous trees, Broussonetia papyrifera, Platycarya longipes and Pteroceltis tatarinowii. Under severe drought stress, the two shrubs with low leaf area ratio (LAR) maintained higher water status, higher photosynthetic capacity and larger percent biomass increase than the most of the trees, owing to their lower specific leaf area, higher intrinsic water use efficiency and thermal dissipation, and higher capacities of osmotic adjustment and antioxidant protection. The evergreen tree, C. bodinieri, exhibited small decrease of water potential and maintained higher leaf mass ratio (LMR) and LAR than the deciduous species under moderate drought stress, due to the high proline accumulation and high activities of antioxidant enzymes. However, it showed high levels of cellular damages, very low photosynthetic capacity, and sharp decreases of water potential and biomass under severe drought stress. After rewatering, C. bodinieri showed a lower ability to recover from severe drought with the successive repeats of severe drought event. The three deciduous trees developed high root mass ratio for maximizing water uptake, and showed higher LAR and biomass than the two shrubs under well-watered condition. However, drought stress resulted in sharp decreases of biomass in the three deciduous trees, which were attributed to the large drought-induced decreases of LMR, LAR and gas exchange. Under drought conditions, the deciduous trees

  4. Adaptive versus non-adaptive strategies for quantum channel discrimination

    Harrow, Aram W.; Hassidim, Avinatan; Leung, Debbie W.; Watrous, John

    2009-01-01

    We provide a simple example that illustrates the advantage of adaptive over non-adaptive strategies for quantum channel discrimination. In particular, we give a pair of entanglement-breaking channels that can be perfectly discriminated by means of an adaptive strategy that requires just two channel evaluations, but for which no non-adaptive strategy can give a perfect discrimination using any finite number of channel evaluations.

  5. Europe adapts to climate change: Comparing National Adaptation Strategies

    Biesbroek, G. Robbert; Swart, Rob J.; Carter, Timothy R.;

    2010-01-01

    Adaptation Strategies in the wider governance of adaptation differs between countries but clearly benchmarks a new political commitment to adaptation at national policy levels. However, we also find that in most cases approaches for implementing and evaluating the strategies are yet to be defined. The paper......For the last two decades, European climate policy has focused almost exclusively on mitigation of climate change. It was only well after the turn of the century, with impacts of climate change increasingly being observed, that adaptation was added to the policy agenda and EU Member States started...... to develop National Adaptation Strategies (NASs). This paper reviews seven National Adaptation Strategies that were either formally adopted or under development by Member States at the end of 2008. The strategies are analysed under the following six themes. Firstly, the factors motivating and...

  6. An adaptive strategy for active debris removal

    White, Adam E.; Lewis, Hugh G.

    2014-04-01

    Many parameters influence the evolution of the near-Earth debris population, including launch, solar, explosion and mitigation activities, as well as other future uncertainties such as advances in space technology or changes in social and economic drivers that effect the utilisation of space activities. These factors lead to uncertainty in the long-term debris population. This uncertainty makes it difficult to identify potential remediation strategies, involving active debris removal (ADR), that will perform effectively in all possible future cases. Strategies that cannot perform effectively, because of this uncertainty, risk either not achieving their intended purpose, or becoming a hindrance to the efforts of spacecraft manufactures and operators to address the challenges posed by space debris. One method to tackle this uncertainty is to create a strategy that can adapt and respond to the space debris population. This work explores the concept of an adaptive strategy, in terms of the number of objects required to be removed by ADR, to prevent the low Earth orbit (LEO) debris population from growing in size. This was demonstrated by utilising the University of Southampton’s Debris Analysis and Monitoring Architecture to the Geosynchronous Environment (DAMAGE) tool to investigate ADR rates (number of removals per year) that change over time in response to the current space environment, with the requirement of achieving zero growth of the LEO population. DAMAGE was used to generate multiple Monte Carlo projections of the future LEO debris environment. Within each future projection, the debris removal rate was derived at five-year intervals, by a new statistical debris evolutionary model called the Computational Adaptive Strategy to Control Accurately the Debris Environment (CASCADE) model. CASCADE predicted the long-term evolution of the current DAMAGE population with a variety of different ADR rates in order to identify a removal rate that produced a zero net

  7. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    The absence of a global agreement on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions calls for adaptation to climate change. The associated paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change...... adaptation needed. Issues that must be addressed in case a strategic approach is not developed, as the building sector is continuously investing in measures to adapt to climate change as impacts emerge are described....

  8. Strategic Adaptation: A Key to Sustainable Business Growth

    Singh Satyendra Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Every organization operates in a business environment of its own. As the business environment is continually changing, the organization can grow and sustain its growth only if its strategy also changes in response to its business environment i.e. its strategy adapts to changing business environment. If the organization’s strategy remains static vis-à-vis its changing business environment, its growth is hampered, it suffers financial losses and may eventually become sick or die. This paper mak...

  9. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2014-01-01

    . This absence of an agreement calls for adaptation to climate change. Emphasis should be put on buildings, as they play a vital economic and social role in society and are vulnerable to climate change. Therefore, the building stock deserves its own policy and implementation plans as well as tools that...... enable adequate and cost-efficient adaptation to climate change. This paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change adaptation needed. The suggested and presented need of a strategic approach...... is based on three main initiatives consisting of the need to examine the potential impacts of climate change on the building stock, the need to assess and develop a roadmap of current and future adaptation measures that can withstand the effects of climate change, and the need to engage relevant...

  10. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2013-01-01

    . This absence of an agreement calls for adaptation to climate change. Emphasis should be put on buildings, as they play a vital economic and social role in society and are vulnerable to climate change. Therefore, the building stock deserves its own policy and implementation plans as well as tools that...... enable adequate and cost-efficient adaptation to climate change. This paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change adaptation needed. The suggested and presented need of a strategic approach...... is based on three main initiatives consisting of the need to examine the potential impacts of climate change on the building stock, the need to assess and develop a roadmap of current and future adaptation measures that can withstand the effects of climate change, and the need to engage relevant...

  11. The development of the Swiss Adaptation Strategy

    Hohmann, R.; Köllner-Heck, P.; Probst, T.

    2010-09-01

    In summer 2009, the Federal Council mandated the Departement of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (DETEC) to develop a Swiss adaptation strategy. This strategy aims to coordinate the efforts of all federal departments involved in adaptation, and to provide them with the necessary basic information. For the development of the Swiss adaptation strategy the following principles are fundamental. (1.) The strategy aims to achieve the overarching objectives of harnessing the opportunities that climate change presents, minimizing the risks of climate change to people and assets, and to increases the adaptive capacity of all resources. (2) The strategy is based on the most recent scientific knowledge about climate change and climate change impacts. (3.) It is based in on a sound and comprehensive analysis of climate change risks. (4.) It includes strategic goals for the sectors that are most vulnerable to climate change, i.e., water management, biodiversity management, agriculture, forestry, natural hazard prevention, health care, energy generation, tourism, land use. (5.) It thoroughly analyzes the interfaces between the sectoral strategies in order solve existing conflicts and profit form existing synergies. The Swiss Adaptation Strategy will be completed and submitted to the Federal Council by the End of 2011.

  12. Adaptive strategy for joint measurements

    Uola, Roope; Luoma, Kimmo; Moroder, Tobias; Heinosaari, Teiko

    2016-08-01

    We develop a technique to find simultaneous measurements for noisy quantum observables in finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. We use the method to derive lower bounds for the noise needed to make incompatible measurements jointly measurable. Using our strategy together with recent developments in the field of one-sided quantum information processing we show that the attained lower bounds are tight for various symmetric sets of quantum measurements. We use this characterisation to prove the existence of so called 4-Specker sets, i.e. sets of four incompatible observables with compatible subsets in the qubit case.

  13. Multigrid solution strategies for adaptive meshing problems

    Mavriplis, Dimitri J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the issues which arise when combining multigrid strategies with adaptive meshing techniques for solving steady-state problems on unstructured meshes. A basic strategy is described, and demonstrated by solving several inviscid and viscous flow cases. Potential inefficiencies in this basic strategy are exposed, and various alternate approaches are discussed, some of which are demonstrated with an example. Although each particular approach exhibits certain advantages, all methods have particular drawbacks, and the formulation of a completely optimal strategy is considered to be an open problem.

  14. Strategies for hp-adaptive Refinement

    In the hp-adaptive version of the finite element method for solving partial differential equations, the grid is adaptively refined in both h, the size of the elements, and p, the degree of the piecewise polynomial approximation over the element. The selection of which elements to refine is determined by a local a posteriori error indicator, and is well established. But the determination of whether the element should be refined by h or p is still open. In this paper, we describe several strategies that have been proposed for making this determination. A numerical example to illustrate the effectiveness of these strategies will be presented.

  15. Adaptive Parameter Selection for Strategy Adaptation in Differential Evolution for Continuous Optimization

    Wenyin Gong; Zhihua Cai

    2012-01-01

    In order to automatically select the most suitable strategy for a specific problem without any prior knowledge, in this paper, we present an adaptive parameter selection technique for strategy adaptation in differential evolution (DE). First, a simple strategy adaptation mechanism is employed to implement the adaptive strategy selection in DE. Then, the probability- matching-based adaptive parameter selection method is proposed to select the best parameter of the strategy adaptation mechanism...

  16. Adaptive metacomposites : design strategy and experimental validation

    Tateo, Flaviano; Collet, Manuel; Ouisse, Morvan; Ichchou, Mohamed Najib

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in modeling of multiphysics periodic systems allow designers to investigate new concepts for vibroacoustic absorption. In this work, we present a strategy to design adaptive metacomposites, namely host structures with periodic piezoelectric patches shunted with semi-passive electric circuits, together with experimental implementation.

  17. Instance optimality of the adaptive maximum strategy

    Diening, Lars; Kreuzer, Christian; Stevenson, Rob

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we prove that the standard adaptive finite element method with a (modified) `maximum marking strategy' is `instance optimal' for the `total error', being the sum of the energy error and the oscillation. This result will be derived in the model setting of Poisson's equation on a polygon, linear finite elements, and conforming triangulations created by newest vertex bisection.

  18. Climate change adaptation strategies and mitigation policies

    García Fernández, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    The pace of climate change and the consequent warming of the Earth's surface is increasing vulnerability and decreasing adaptive capacity. Achieving a successful adaptation depends on the development of technology, institutional organization, financing availability and the exchange of information. Populations living in arid and semi-arid zones, low-lying coastal areas, land with water shortages or at risk of overflow or small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change. Due to increasing population density in sensitive areas, some regions have become more vulnerable to events such as storms, floods and droughts, like the river basins and coastal plains. Human activities have fragmented and increased the vulnerability of ecosystems, which limit both, their natural adaptation and the effectiveness of the measures adopted. Adaptation means to carry out the necessary modifications for society to adapt to new climatic conditions in order to reduce their vulnerability to climate change. Adaptive capacity is the ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) and to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities or face the consequences. Adaptation reduces the adverse impacts of climate change and enhance beneficial impacts, but will not prevent substantial cost that are produced by all damages. The performances require adaptation actions. These are defined and implemented at national, regional or local levels since many of the impacts and vulnerabilities depend on the particular economic, geographic and social circumstances of each country or region. We will present some adaptation strategies at national and local level and revise some cases of its implementation in several vulnerable areas. However, adaptation to climate change must be closely related to mitigation policies because the degree of change planned in different climatic variables is a function of the concentration levels that are achieved

  19. Operational reliability assessment of adaptive control strategies

    Adaptive control strategies carry a promise for on-line design of control actions in automation of nuclear power plants and components. Operational reliability analysis of a typical adaptive control algorithm is performed using failure modes and effects analysis. The adaptive controller is susceptible to failure characteristic of the process of model identification involved in the on-line design of the control. Means of failure detection and enhancement of the controller fault tolerance are sought as well as means of placing the controlled process and the plant into a safe state, or termination of the process in case of encountering control failure. Those means are incorporated in a supervisory system to monitor the control system performance, mitigate some of the failure consequences and alert the operator of the state of the plant. Recommendations are given of design improvement to upgrade the adaptive control system performance in nuclear environments. (author)

  20. Placental Adaptations in Growth Restriction

    Song Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The placenta is the primary interface between the fetus and mother and plays an important role in maintaining fetal development and growth by facilitating the transfer of substrates and participating in modulating the maternal immune response to prevent immunological rejection of the conceptus. The major substrates required for fetal growth include oxygen, glucose, amino acids and fatty acids, and their transport processes depend on morphological characteristics of the placenta, such as placental size, morphology, blood flow and vascularity. Other factors including insulin-like growth factors, apoptosis, autophagy and glucocorticoid exposure also affect placental growth and substrate transport capacity. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is often a consequence of insufficiency, and is associated with a high incidence of perinatal morbidity and mortality, as well as increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life. Several different experimental methods have been used to induce placental insufficiency and IUGR in animal models and a range of factors that regulate placental growth and substrate transport capacity have been demonstrated. While no model system completely recapitulates human IUGR, these animal models allow us to carefully dissect cellular and molecular mechanisms to improve our understanding and facilitate development of therapeutic interventions.

  1. Climate adaptation strategy for natural resources released

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-04-01

    The National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy, released on 26 March by the Obama administration, calls for a series of measures to help public and private decision makers better address the effects of climate change on living natural resources. The measures include conserving habitat to support healthy fish, wildlife, and plant populations and ecosystem functions; managing species and habitats to protect ecosystem functions and provide sustainable commercial, subsistence, recreational, and cultural use; increasing knowledge and information about effects on and responses of fish, wildlife, and plants; and reducing nonclimate stressors to help fish, wildlife, plants, and ecosystems adapt.

  2. Adapting RRT growth for heterogeneous environments

    Denny, Jory

    2013-11-01

    Rapidly-exploring Random Trees (RRTs) are effective for a wide range of applications ranging from kinodynamic planning to motion planning under uncertainty. However, RRTs are not as efficient when exploring heterogeneous environments and do not adapt to the space. For example, in difficult areas an expensive RRT growth method might be appropriate, while in open areas inexpensive growth methods should be chosen. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm, Adaptive RRT, that adapts RRT growth to the current exploration area using a two level growth selection mechanism. At the first level, we select groups of expansion methods according to the visibility of the node being expanded. Second, we use a cost-sensitive learning approach to select a sampler from the group of expansion methods chosen. Also, we propose a novel definition of visibility for RRT nodes which can be computed in an online manner and used by Adaptive RRT to select an appropriate expansion method. We present the algorithm and experimental analysis on a broad range of problems showing not only its adaptability, but efficiency gains achieved by adapting exploration methods appropriately. © 2013 IEEE.

  3. Adapting MCH strategies for the nineties.

    Abel, R

    1994-01-01

    Brief overview was given for strategies in maternal and child health (MCH) in India that were used in the 1980s and adapted for the 1990s in the following areas: perinatal outcomes, empowerment of women, immunization, oral rehydration, adolescent girls, anthropometric measurement, health education, management, and coordination with nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). In order to assure a healthy baby weighing 2.5 kg, monitoring of maternal health is occurring. Iron and folic acid and tetanus toxoid vaccine are provided to pregnant mothers, and fetal growth is monitored. Training of traditional birth attendants and multipurpose health workers will contribute to clean deliveries and referral of complicated pregnancies. During the 1990s, women's health in addition to maternal health has received attention. The empowerment of women to care for themselves, to learn how to mix oral rehydration packets (ORS) at home, and to receive the knowledge and skills were deemed more important than the 1980s focus on the delivery system and inputs of MCH. An excellent cold chain for delivery of vaccines has been put in place, which provides the vehicle for the 1990s to maintain high vaccine coverage. The emphasis on oral rehydration in the 1990s will be on teaching mothers about the importance of ORS treatment of diarrhea. During the 1990s, educating the adolescent girl before she becomes married and pregnant will be the focus. Greater emphasis will be placed on stunting or height for age measurements, as a measure of long term nutritional change; age weight for height for measurement of wasting; and maternal nutritional monitoring of arm circumference. Sustained health education, more media exposure to disease conditions and treatment, and social marketing in health will be better coordinated and more cost effective. Accountability for manpower, materials, and money will be in place within management. Management will focus on motivation and training, and other, newer management

  4. Adaptive Control Strategies for Flexible Robotic Arm

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1996-01-01

    The control problem of a flexible robotic arm has been investigated. The control strategies that have been developed have a wide application in approaching the general control problem of flexible space structures. The following control strategies have been developed and evaluated: neural self-tuning control algorithm, neural-network-based fuzzy logic control algorithm, and adaptive pole assignment algorithm. All of the above algorithms have been tested through computer simulation. In addition, the hardware implementation of a computer control system that controls the tip position of a flexible arm clamped on a rigid hub mounted directly on the vertical shaft of a dc motor, has been developed. An adaptive pole assignment algorithm has been applied to suppress vibrations of the described physical model of flexible robotic arm and has been successfully tested using this testbed.

  5. Funding climate adaptation strategies with climate derivatives

    L. Richard Little

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate adaptation requires large capital investments that could be provided not only by traditional sources like governments and banks, but also by derivatives markets. Such markets would allow two parties with different tolerances and expectations about climate risks to transact for their mutual benefit and, in so doing, finance climate adaptation. Here we calculate the price of a derivative called a European put option, based on future sea surface temperature (SST in Tasmania, Australia, with an 18 °C strike threshold. This price represents a quantifiable indicator of climate risk, and forms the basis for aquaculture industries exposed to the risk of higher SST to finance adaptation strategies through the sale of derivative contracts. Such contracts provide a real incentive to parties with different climate outlooks, or risk exposure to take a market assessment of climate change.

  6. Design strategies for irregularly adapting parallel applications

    Achieving scalable performance for dynamic irregular applications is eminently challenging. Traditional message-passing approaches have been making steady progress towards this goal; however, they suffer from complex implementation requirements. The use of a global address space greatly simplifies the programming task, but can degrade the performance of dynamically adapting computations. In this work, we examine two major classes of adaptive applications, under five competing programming methodologies and four leading parallel architectures. Results indicate that it is possible to achieve message-passing performance using shared-memory programming techniques by carefully following the same high level strategies. Adaptive applications have computational work loads and communication patterns which change unpredictably at runtime, requiring dynamic load balancing to achieve scalable performance on parallel machines. Efficient parallel implementations of such adaptive applications are therefore a challenging task. This work examines the implementation of two typical adaptive applications, Dynamic Remeshing and N-Body, across various programming paradigms and architectural platforms. We compare several critical factors of the parallel code development, including performance, programmability, scalability, algorithmic development, and portability

  7. Copepods in ice-covered seas—Distribution, adaptations to seasonally limited food, metabolism, growth patterns and life cycle strategies in polar seas

    Conover, R. J.; Huntley, M.

    1991-07-01

    rhythms under or near the ice have also been observed for several species. In the Northern Hemisphere larger zooplanktonic species may take two, three, or possibly more years to reach maturity, but the grand strategy, apparently used by all, is to assure that their young have reached active feeding stages by the time of maximum primary production in the water column so that maximum growth, often, but not always, with emphasis on lipid storage, can occur during the often brief, but usually intense, summer bloom. The rate of growth of arctic or antarctic zooplankton is not so important as assuring a high level of fecundity when maturity comes. Overwintering is probably not a great hardship and diapause may not be a useful strategy because the environmental temperature is constantly near the freezing point of sea water, and basal metabolism accordingly low. Nonetheless, feeding behaviour and metabolic rates have strong seasonal signals. In the absence of other stimuli, light must be involved in the transformation from winter to summer metabolism and visa versa but the mechanisms still remain obscure.

  8. Logic reliability analysis of adaptive control strategies

    An approach is developed for the evaluation of the reliability of logic of adaptive control strategies, taking into account logic structural complexity and potential failure of programming modules. Flaws in the control system algorithm may not be discovered during debugging or initial testing and may only affect the performance under abnormal situations although the system may appear reliable in normal operations. Considering an adaptive control system designed for use in control of equipment employed in nuclear power stations, logic reliability evaluation is demonstrated. The approach given is applicable to any other designs and may be used to compare different control system logic structures from the reliability viewpoint. Evaluation of the reliability of control systems is essential to automated operation of equipment used in nuclear power plants. (author)

  9. Categorizing the Growth Strategies of Small Firms

    Mika Westerlund

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the link between a small firm’s investment in R&D and its growth strategy. A firm’s growth strategy refers to the means by which the organization plans to achieve its objective to grow in volume and turnover. We categorize firm growth strategies into eight distinctive clusters: opportunity explorers, radical innovators, business developers, business expanders, profit makers, business rebuilders, stagnators, and downsizers. We argue that understanding a firm’s growth orientation provides a way to assess the returns of its R&D investments, because an organization’s intangible growth strategies and tangible inputs are connected.

  10. Adaptive Strategies for Dynamic Pricing Agents

    Ramezani, Sara; Bosman, Peter; La Poutré, Han

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic Pricing (DyP) is a form of Revenue Management in which the price of a (usually) perishable good is changed over time to increase revenue. It is an effective method that has become even more relevant and useful with the emergence of Internet firms and the possibility of readily and frequently updating prices. In this paper a new approach to DyP is presented. We design adaptive dynamic pricing strategies and optimize their parameters with an Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) offline while the...

  11. Adaptive Strategies for Materials Design using Uncertainties

    Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Xue, Dezhen; Theiler, James; Hogden, John; Lookman, Turab

    2016-01-01

    We compare several adaptive design strategies using a data set of 223 M2AX family of compounds for which the elastic properties [bulk (B), shear (G), and Young’s (E) modulus] have been computed using density functional theory. The design strategies are decomposed into an iterative loop with two main steps: machine learning is used to train a regressor that predicts elastic properties in terms of elementary orbital radii of the individual components of the materials; and a selector uses these predictions and their uncertainties to choose the next material to investigate. The ultimate goal is to obtain a material with desired elastic properties in as few iterations as possible. We examine how the choice of data set size, regressor and selector impact the design. We find that selectors that use information about the prediction uncertainty outperform those that don’t. Our work is a step in illustrating how adaptive design tools can guide the search for new materials with desired properties.

  12. Adaptive discrete-ordinates algorithms and strategies

    We present our latest algorithms and strategies for adaptively refined discrete-ordinates quadrature sets. In our basic strategy, which we apply here in two-dimensional Cartesian geometry, the spatial domain is divided into regions. Each region has its own quadrature set, which is adapted to the region's angular flux. Our algorithms add a 'test' direction to the quadrature set if the angular flux calculated at that direction differs by more than a user-specified tolerance from the angular flux interpolated from other directions. Different algorithms have different prescriptions for the method of interpolation and/or choice of test directions and/or prescriptions for quadrature weights. We discuss three different algorithms of different interpolation orders. We demonstrate through numerical results that each algorithm is capable of generating solutions with negligible angular discretization error. This includes elimination of ray effects. We demonstrate that all of our algorithms achieve a given level of error with far fewer unknowns than does a standard quadrature set applied to an entire problem. To address a potential issue with other algorithms, we present one algorithm that retains exact integration of high-order spherical-harmonics functions, no matter how much local refinement takes place. To address another potential issue, we demonstrate that all of our methods conserve partial currents across interfaces where quadrature sets change. We conclude that our approach is extremely promising for solving the long-standing problem of angular discretization error in multidimensional transport problems. (authors)

  13. Biometeorology - a science supporting adaptation strategies

    Matzarakis, A.; Cegnar, T.

    2010-09-01

    Biometeorology as an interdisciplinary science deals with the interactions between atmospheric processes and living organisms (plants, animals and humans). If and in what way weather and climate affect the well-being of all the living creatures? This is the most important question biometeorology is answering. The International Society of Biometeorology (ISB) has built an international forum for the promotion of interdisciplinary collaboration between meteorologists, health professionals, biologists, climatologists, ecologists and other scientists. The Society acts as a community of scientists with similar interests, and fulfills an important role in providing information, expertise and advice for international organizations requiring this assistance. The ISB represents the most comprehensive organization, which brings together people with expertise in these areas. Another specific aim of the ISB is the stimulation of research. Therefore, groups of members are working on several topics organized in commissions for specific targets. The recent five commissions are working in the several fields including climate change issues. Some of examples will be presented, which have been initiated by the members of the ISB and how they can be included as a solid scientific basis to develop efficient adaptation strategies. One such example is a project combining natural and social sciences (in the fields of cooperation processes, tourism analysis and strategy, weather and climate change analysis, information and communication and knowledge transfer) in a transdisciplinary approach that includes players from tourism policy and business and which focuses on the North Sea Coast and the Black Forest. The project "Climate trends and sustainable development of tourism in coastal and mountain range regions was divided into four phases - diagnosis, assessment, strategy/design of solutions, and evaluation - where scientific subprojects and practical partners meet regularly to discuss the

  14. Adaptive versus nonadaptive strategies for quantum channel discrimination

    We provide a simple example that illustrates the advantage of adaptive over nonadaptive strategies for quantum channel discrimination. In particular, we give a pair of entanglement-breaking channels that can be perfectly discriminated by means of an adaptive strategy that requires just two channel evaluations, but for which no nonadaptive strategy can give a perfect discrimination using any finite number of channel evaluations.

  15. Growth and innovation Strategies In Global Competition

    U. Weitzel

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops a model of firm dynamics in global competition and experimentally analyzes multinational growth strategies and optimal coordination of innovative activities. It shows that growth and innovation strategies of operatively engaged headquarters (business or corporate) with a geocentric focus dominate alternative concepts, like ethnocentric, financial or flexible headquarters. The analysis identifies two crucial strategic advantages for successful multinational companies: econo...

  16. The Trinity of International Strategy: Adaptation, Standardization and Transformation.

    Ali Yakhlef

    2009-01-01

    The significance of context has not escaped the attention of international strategy theorists. In entering foreign markets, firms are assumed to possess two choices: an adaptation to the context and/or a standardization strategy. A concern with adaptation or standardization would convey the idea that the context is given and management action is reduced to adapting or not adapting to it. Both such approaches downplay the role of management’s ability to transform the context, as argued by many...

  17. The Czech adaptation of motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ)

    Jitka Jakesova; Karla Hrbackova

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide theoretical and methodological insights into the process of self-regulated learning, and to describe the adaptation of The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), developed by Pintrich et al. (1993). This Likert-scaled instrument was designed to assess motivation orientations and use of learning strategies. The adaptation concerned only the first section, the learning strategies section was not part of the adaptation. The motivation scales o...

  18. Adaptive Landing Gear: Optimum Control Strategy and Potential for Improvement

    Grzegorz Mikułowski; Łukasz Jankowski

    2009-01-01

    An adaptive landing gear is a landing gear (LG) capable of active adaptation to particular landing conditions by means of controlled hydraulic force. The objective of the adaptive control is to mitigate the peak force transferred to the aircraft structure during touch-down, and thus to limit the structural fatigue factor. This paper investigates the ultimate limits for improvement due to various strategies of active control. Five strategies are proposed and investigated numerically using a~va...

  19. A New Adaptive Checkpointing Strategy for Mobile Computing

    MENChaoguang; ZUODecheng; YANGXiaozong

    2005-01-01

    Adaptive checkpointing strategy is an efficient recovery scheme, which is suitable for mobile computing system. However, all existing adaptive checkpointing schemes are not correct to recover system when failure occurs in some special period. In this paper, the issues that will lead to system inconsistency are first discussed and then a new adaptive strategy that can recover system to correct consistent state is proposed. Our algorithm improves system recovery performance because only failure process needs rollback through logging.

  20. Adaptive growth strategies of Leymus chinesis population in response to shading%羊草种群对遮荫的适应性生长对策

    王洪义; 王正文

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1950s,the short-waved solar radiation that the earth received has been reduced by 2.7% every decade,and this phenomenon is called “global dimming”,which may impact plants and their inhabitant ecosystems.However,no consensus concerning such impacts has been reached.In this paper,different degrees (0,30%,50% and 70%) of shading were installed to simulate the global dimming effect to study the population density,morphological features (shoot height,leaf area,and heading rate),and photosynthetic physiology (stomatal conductance,photosynthetic rate,and transpiration rate) of Leymus chinensis in response to shading.Shading decreased the shoot density somewhat,but increased the shoot height obviously,enlarged the leaf area significantly,and promoted the heading rate.Shading also significantly reduced the PAR that L.chinensis received.Under 0,30%,and 50% shading,the afternoon depression in stomatal conductance,photosynthetic rate,and transpiration rate occurred.Under 70% shading,the stomatal conductance,photosynthetic rate,and transpiration rate at 11:00-16:00 were higher than those in other shading treatments,and the afternoon depression of photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate did not occur.The absence of the afternoon depression of photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate under 70% shading could be one of the main reasons of the increased productivity of some vegetation types after being shaded or being exposed to global dimming.To more precisely predict the responses of various ecosystems to global dimming,it would be necessary to conduct more empirical studies about the responses of plants to shading in more regions,with more habitat types and more plant functional types,and at more growth stages,and do more model studies and meta-analyses to incorporate the empirical data.%自20世纪50年代以来,太阳到达整个地球的短波光能辐射量每10年减少2.7%,即“全球变暗”,这会对植物及其所在的生态系统

  1. A holistic strategy for adaptive land management

    Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Duniway, Michael C.; Pyke, David A.; Bestelmeyer, Brandon T.; Wills, Skye A.; Brown, Joel R.; Karl, Jason W.; Havstad, Kris M.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive management is widely applied to natural resources management (Holling 1973; Walters and Holling 1990). Adaptive management can be generally defined as an iterative decision-making process that incorporates formulation of management objectives, actions designed to address these objectives, monitoring of results, and repeated adaptation of management until desired results are achieved (Brown and MacLeod 1996; Savory and Butterfield 1999). However, adaptive management is often criticized because very few projects ever complete more than one cycle, resulting in little adaptation and little knowledge gain (Lee 1999; Walters 2007). One significant criticism is that adaptive management is often used as a justification for undertaking actions with uncertain outcomes or as a surrogate for the development of specific, measurable indicators and monitoring programs (Lee 1999; Ruhl 2007).

  2. Entry and Growth Strategies for Emerging Economies

    Meyer, Klaus; Tran, Yen Thi Thu

    2004-01-01

    Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are expanding their global reach, carrying their products and brands to ever more remote corners of the world. They encounter business environments that vary not only from their country of origin, but also vary greatly amongst each other. Thus foreign investors have to adapt their strategies, most notably their marketing and acquisition strategies, to the local context. In this paper, we outline why globalisation drives MNEs into emerging economies, and we pro...

  3. Strategies for growth: Central and Eastern Europe

    Švejnar, Jan

    -, č. 1 (2006), s. 1-34 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : transition * economic growth * strategies Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www. international policy.umich.edu/policy%20briefs/StrategiesforGrowth09-28-06.pdf

  4. Adaptive building envelopes, component development as well as implementation strategies

    Tillmann Klein; Ulrich Knaack

    2015-01-01

    The papers in this issue of JFDE discuss the potential of adaptive building envelopes, component development as well as implementation strategies. The applied practice paper demonstrates decision strategies behind the adaptive sun shading system of the Al-Bahr Towers. Additivity in building envelopes is not only a strategy to fulfil the growing demands for energy efficient buildings and comfort but has great architectural implications as well. In general it asks for more complex components as...

  5. When are adaptive strategies most predictive of psychopathology?

    Aldao, Amelia; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2012-02-01

    In recent work, we showed that putatively adaptive emotion regulation strategies, such as reappraisal and acceptance, have a weaker association with psychopathology than putatively maladaptive strategies, such as rumination, suppression, and avoidance (e.g., Aldao & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2010; Aldao, Nolen-Hoeksema, & Schweizer, 2010). In this investigation, we examined the interaction between adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in the prediction of psychopathology symptoms (depression, anxiety, and alcohol problems) concurrently and prospectively. We assessed trait emotion regulation and psychopathology symptoms in a sample of community residents at Time 1 (N = 1,317) and then reassessed psychopathology at Time 2 (N = 1,132). Cross-sectionally, we found that the relationship between adaptive strategies and psychopathology symptoms was moderated by levels of maladaptive strategies: adaptive strategies had a negative association with psychopathology symptoms only at high levels of maladaptive strategies. In contrast, adaptive strategies showed no prospective relationship to psychopathology symptoms either alone or in interaction with maladaptive strategies. We discuss the implications of this investigation for future work on the contextual factors surrounding the deployment of emotion regulation strategies. PMID:21553934

  6. Adaptation and optimal chemotactic strategy for E. coli

    Extending the classic works of Berg and Purcell on the biophysics of bacterial chemotaxis, we find the optimal chemotactic strategy for the peritrichous bacterium E. coli in the high and low signal to noise ratio limits. The optimal strategy depends on properties of the environment and properties of the individual bacterium, and is therefore highly adaptive. We review experiments relevant to testing both the form of the proposed strategy and its adaptability, and propose extensions of them which could test the limits of the adaptability in this simplest sensory processing system. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  7. Climate Changea Impacts and Adaptation Strategies in Kenya

    Patrick Mwendwa; Richard A. Giliba

    2012-01-01

    To determine the climate changes that are due to natural variability and those due to human activities is quite challenging, just like delineating the impacts. Moreover, it is equally difficult to ascertain the adaptive strategies for coping with the climate chang- es and in particular for developing countries like Kenya. While climate change is a global phenomenon, the impacts are more or less specific to local areas such as observed in Kenyan case. There- fore climate change impacts adaptation strategies are appropriately applicable to a given local perspective. The study investigated the main indicators of climate change and effective adaptive strategies that can be employed in Kenya. Based on online questionnaire survey, the study established unpredictable rainfall patterns as the major indicator of climate change in the country, while water harvesting and change of cropping methods are the best adaptive strategies.

  8. National strategy for climate change adaptation

    This book expresses the French State's view on the way to deal with the issue of climate change adaptation. After having recalled the ineluctability of some observed changes, the actors involved in this adaptation, and some guideline principles to implement adaptation, a first chapter describes the context: international mobilization, climate data evolution, definition of new criteria and critical thresholds, relationship between adaptation, alleviation and sustainable development, tensions between long and short terms. It discusses the objectives: public security and health, alleviation of inequalities with respect to risks, cost reduction, natural heritage preservation. Nine strategic axes are then identified: to develop knowledge, to strengthen the survey system, to inform, to educate and to make all actors aware, to promote a territory-based approach, to finance adaptation actions, to use regulatory and law instruments, to support voluntary approaches and the dialogue with private actors, to take the overseas peculiarity into account, and to contribute to international exchanges. The next chapters are respectively dealing with transverse approaches (water, risk prevention, health, and biodiversity), sector-based insights (agriculture, energy and industry, transports, building and housing, tourism, banks and insurance companies), medium-based approach (cities, littoral and seas, mountain, forest). The last part deals with the implementation issue

  9. Strategies for growth of thermal power

    The power generating industry in India is at the cross roads. Massive investments are required to achieve GDP growth of 7-8% per annum over the next 10 years. For this, appropriate strategies have to be evolved which will give the country best returns. With coal being the major fuel resource in India, thermal power generation will continue to be the mainstay in the next decade. This paper covers various key issues to be addressed covering the plan and perspectives of thermal power, environmental issues, technology strategies for growth, power policy and R and D. (author)

  10. Adaptive SAGA Based on Mutative Scale Chaos Optimization Strategy

    Haichang Gao; Boqin Feng; Yun Hou; Bin Guo; Li Zhu

    2006-01-01

    A hybrid adaptive SAGA based on mutative scale chaos optimization strategy (CASAGA) is proposed to solve the slow convergence, incident getting into local optimum characteristics of the Standard Genetic Algorithm (SGA). The algorithm combined the parallel searching structure of Genetic Algorithm (GA) with the probabilistic jumping property of Simulated Annealing (SA), also used adaptive crossover and mutation operators. The mutative scale Chaos optimization strategy was used to accelerate the...

  11. Adaptation or Manipulation? Unpacking Climate Change Response Strategies

    Timothy F. Smith

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation is a key feature of sustainable social–ecological systems. As societies traverse various temporal and spatial scales, they are exposed to differing contexts and precursors for adaptation. A cursory view of the response to these differing contexts and precursors suggests the particular ability of persistent societies to adapt to changing circumstances. Yet a closer examination into the meaning of adaptation and its relationship to concepts of resilience, vulnerability, and sustainability illustrates that, in many cases, societies actually manipulate their social–ecological contexts rather than adapt to them. It could be argued that manipulative behaviors are a subset of a broader suite of adaptive behaviors; however, this paper suggests that manipulative behaviors have fundamentally different intentions and outcomes. Specifically, adaptive behaviors are respectful of the intrinsic integrity of social–ecological systems and change is directed toward internal or self-regulating modification. By way of contrast, manipulative behaviors tend to disregard the integrity of social–ecological systems and focus on external change or manipulating the broader system with the aim of making self-regulation unnecessary. It is argued that adaptive behaviors represent long-term strategies for building resilience, whereas manipulative behaviors represent short-term strategies with uncertain consequences for resilience, vulnerability, and the sustainability of social–ecological systems. Of greatest significance; however, is that manipulative strategies have the potential to avoid authentic experiences of system dynamics, obscure valuable learning opportunities, create adverse path dependencies, and lessen the likelihood of effective adaptation in future contexts.

  12. Adaptive Strategy Selection in Differential Evolution

    Gong, Wenyin; Fialho, Álvaro; Cai, Zhihua

    2010-01-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is a simple yet powerful evolutionary algorithm for global numerical optimization. Different strategies have been proposed for the offspring generation; but the selection of which of them should be applied is critical for the DE performance, besides being problem-dependent. In this paper, the probability matching technique is employed in DE to autonomously select the most suitable strategy while solving the problem. Four credit assignment methods, that update the k...

  13. Adaptive control strategies for cooperative dual-arm manipulators

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    Three strategies for adaptive control of cooperative dual-arm robots are discussed. Implementation of these adaptive controllers does not require the use of complex mathematical models of the arm dynamics or knowledge of the arm dynamic parameters or load parameters. These strategies have simple structures, and are computationally fast for on-line implementation with high sampling rates. In all three cases, the coupling effects between the arms through the load are treated as disturbances which are rejected by the adaptive controllers while following desired commands in a common frame of reference. Simulation results demonstrate the usefulness of the controllers.

  14. Adapting to Change in Andean Ecosystems: Climate and Strategies

    Valdivia, Corinne; Fernández-Baca, Edith

    2008-01-01

    The presentation summarizes the research activities conducted by SANREM CRSP LTRA4 Adapting to Change in the Andes in the Altiplano region. The objectives were to present the project, emphasizing the research activities revolving around climate, strategies and advocacy coalitions. LTRA-4 (Practices and Strategies for Vulnerable Agro-Ecosystems)

  15. Filtering Algebraic Multigrid and Adaptive Strategies

    Nagel, A; Falgout, R D; Wittum, G

    2006-01-31

    Solving linear systems arising from systems of partial differential equations, multigrid and multilevel methods have proven optimal complexity and efficiency properties. Due to shortcomings of geometric approaches, algebraic multigrid methods have been developed. One example is the filtering algebraic multigrid method introduced by C. Wagner. This paper proposes a variant of Wagner's method with substantially improved robustness properties. The method is used in an adaptive, self-correcting framework and tested numerically.

  16. Adaptive finite element strategies for shell structures

    Stanley, G.; Levit, I.; Stehlin, B.; Hurlbut, B.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper extends existing finite element adaptive refinement (AR) techniques to shell structures, which have heretofore been neglected in the AR literature. Specific challenges in applying AR to shell structures include: (1) physical discontinuities (e.g., stiffener intersections); (2) boundary layers; (3) sensitivity to geometric imperfections; (4) the sensitivity of most shell elements to mesh distortion, constraint definition and/or thinness; and (5) intrinsic geometric nonlinearity. All of these challenges but (5) are addressed here.

  17. Exposure to stressful environments - Strategy of adaptive responses

    Farhi, Leon E.

    1991-01-01

    Stresses such as hypoxia, water lack, and heat exposure can produce strains in more than a single organ system, in turn stimulating the body to adapt in multiple ways. Nevertheless, a general strategy of the various adaptive responses emerges when the challenges are divided into three groups: (1) conditions that affect the supply of essential molecules, (2) stresses that prevent the body from regulating properly the output of waste products such as CO2 and heat, and (3) environments that disrupt body transport systems. Problems may arise when there is a conflict between two stresses requiring conflicting adaptive changes. An alternative to adaptation, creation of microenvironment, is often favored by the animal.

  18. Adapting Heuristic Mastermind Strategies to Evolutionary Algorithms

    Runarsson, Tomas Philip

    2009-01-01

    The art of solving the Mastermind puzzle was initiated by Donald Knuth and is already more than 30 years old; despite that, it still receives much attention in operational research and computer games journals, not to mention the nature-inspired stochastic algorithm literature. In this paper we try to suggest a strategy that will allow nature-inspired algorithms to obtain results as good as those based on exhaustive search strategies; in order to do that, we first review, compare and improve current approaches to solving the puzzle; then we test one of these strategies with an estimation of distribution algorithm. Finally, we try to find a strategy that falls short of being exhaustive, and is then amenable for inclusion in nature inspired algorithms (such as evolutionary or particle swarm algorithms). This paper proves that by the incorporation of local entropy into the fitness function of the evolutionary algorithm it becomes a better player than a random one, and gives a rule of thumb on how to incorporate t...

  19. Adaptive Strategies of Mosses to Desiccation

    Amos MAKINDE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive features of six selected mosses � Octoblepharum albidum, Racopilum africanum, Thuidium gratum (forest species and Archidium ohioense, Bryum coronatum and Fissidens subglaucissimus (derived savanna species were investigated with the view to evaluating water retention capabilities, high desiccation resistance and adaptations that help mosses retain their viability for a long period of time. Shoots of the six moss species collected from three locations; Biological Garden, Parks and Garden and Base of Hill II all of the Obafemi Awolowo University Campus were subjected to shoot viability tests using staining method of wetting and staining with neutral red on fresh samples and those stored for 20yrs. Samples were exposed to 1.0M � 10.00M molar concentration of KNO3 in order to show plasmolysis levels. Of all the species A. ohioense and B. coronatum were the most viable, while O. albidum was the least viable. Racopilum africanum and T. gratum had lost their viability after 20 years of desiccation. Cells of 1986 desiccation recorded high molar concentrations when plasmolysed than those of 2006 desiccation.

  20. Focus on climate projections for adaptation strategies

    Feijt, Arnout; Appenzeller, Christof; Siegmund, Peter; von Storch, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Most papers in this focus issue on ‘climate and climate impact projections for adaptation strategies’ are solicited by the guest editorial team and originate from a cluster of projects that were initiated 5 years ago. These projects aimed to provide climate change and climate change adaptation information for a wide range of societal areas for the lower parts of the deltas of the Rhine and Meuse rivers, and particularly for the Netherlands. The papers give an overview of our experiences, methods, approaches, results and surprises in the process to developing scientifically underpinned climate products and services for various clients. Although the literature on interactions between society and climate science has grown over the past decade both with respect to policy-science framing in post-normal science (Storch et al 2011 J. Environ. Law Policy 1 1-15, van der Sluijs 2012 Nature and Culture 7 174-195), user-science framing (Berkhout et al 2014 Regional Environ. Change 14 879-93) and joint knowledge production (Hegger et al 2014 Regional Environ. Change 14 1049-62), there is still a lot to gain. With this focus issue we want to contribute to best practices in this quickly moving field between science and society.

  1. Adaptation strategies for built cultural heritage

    Drdácký, Miloš

    Bari: Edipuglia, 2016 - (Lefèvre, R.; Sabbioni, C.), s. 109-117. (Scienze e materiali del patrimonio culturale. 11). ISBN 978-88-7228-801-6 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP105/12/G059 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : climate components * temperature effects * moisture effects * wind effects * weather protection strategy * climate change compatible intervention Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  2. An adaptive strategy for active debris removal

    White, Adam E.; Lewis, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Many parameters influence the evolution of the near-Earth debris population, including launch, solar, explosion and mitigation activities, as well as other future uncertainties such as advances in space technology or changes in social and economic drivers that effect the utilisation of space activities. These factors lead to uncertainty in the long-term debris population. This uncertainty makes it difficult to identify potential remediation strategies, involving active debris removal (ADR), t...

  3. Strategies for adaptation of mAb-producing CHO cells to serum-free medium

    Costa A; Rodrigues M.; Henriques Mariana; Oliveira Rosário; Azeredo Joana

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale production of biopharmaceuticals commonly requires the use of serum-free medium, for safety and cost reasons. However, serum is essential to most mammalian cells growth, and its removal implies a very time-consuming process for cell adaptation. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate different strategies for cell adaptation to serum-free medium. Three cell types were used to assess the impact of transfection on adaptation: one common CHO-K1 cell line and two CHO-K1 cells tr...

  4. Parallel Programming Strategies for Irregular Adaptive Applications

    Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Achieving scalable performance for dynamic irregular applications is eminently challenging. Traditional message-passing approaches have been making steady progress towards this goal; however, they suffer from complex implementation requirements. The use of a global address space greatly simplifies the programming task, but can degrade the performance for such computations. In this work, we examine two typical irregular adaptive applications, Dynamic Remeshing and N-Body, under competing programming methodologies and across various parallel architectures. The Dynamic Remeshing application simulates flow over an airfoil, and refines localized regions of the underlying unstructured mesh. The N-Body experiment models two neighboring Plummer galaxies that are about to undergo a merger. Both problems demonstrate dramatic changes in processor workloads and interprocessor communication with time; thus, dynamic load balancing is a required component.

  5. Growth Strategies of Multinational Companies : Jewelry Retail Industry

    Haapalainen, Valérie; Skog, Nan

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates business and growth strategies of 4 multinational companies within the jewelry retail industry. The main objective is to identify whether a company’s performance is determined by its growth strategy or not. The 4 formulated tasks for the research are (1) to understand what kind of business models and strategies global jewelry retailers pursue, (2) what growth strategies global jewelry retailers pursue and (3) if there is a link between a company’s growth strategy a...

  6. Adaptive Landing Gear: Optimum Control Strategy and Potential for Improvement

    Grzegorz Mikułowski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive landing gear is a landing gear (LG capable of active adaptation to particular landing conditions by means of controlled hydraulic force. The objective of the adaptive control is to mitigate the peak force transferred to the aircraft structure during touch-down, and thus to limit the structural fatigue factor. This paper investigates the ultimate limits for improvement due to various strategies of active control. Five strategies are proposed and investigated numerically using a~validated model of a real, passive landing gear as a reference. Potential for improvement is estimated statistically in terms of the mean and median (significant peak strut forces as well as in terms of the extended safe sinking velocity range. Three control strategies are verified experimentally using a laboratory test stand.

  7. MNC strategy and social adaptation in emerging markets

    Meng Zhao; Seung Ho Park; Nan Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Emerging markets experience institutional and social changes over time that present different stakeholder expectations for multinational corporations (MNCs). MNCs are often accused of social misdeeds and experience public crises during the changes, leaving questions on how they adapt to the local social transition to sustain operations. Conventional adaptation strategies put too much emphasis on maximizing economic returns by arbitraging national differences and catering to local market and c...

  8. Interactive spatial tools for the design of regional adaptation strategies.

    Eikelboom, T; Janssen, R

    2013-09-01

    Regional adaptation strategies are plans that consist of feasible measures to shift a region towards a system that is flexible and robust for future climate changes. They apply to regional impacts of climate change and are imbedded in broader planning. Multiple adaptation frameworks and guidelines exist that describe the development stages of regional adaptation strategies. Spatial information plays a key role in the design of adaptation measures as both the effects of climate change as well as many adaptation measures have spatial impacts. Interactive spatial support tools such as drawing, simulation and evaluation tools can assist the development process. This paper presents how to connect tasks derived from the actual development stages to spatial support tools in an interactive multi-stakeholder context. This link helps to decide what spatial tools are suited to support which stages in the development process of regional adaptation strategies. The practical implication of the link is illustrated for three case study workshops in the Netherlands. The regional planning workshops combine expertise from both scientists and stakeholders with an interactive mapping device. This approach triggered participants to share their expertise and stimulated integration of knowledge. PMID:23137917

  9. Simple adaptive strategies from regret-matching to uncoupled dynamics

    Hart, Sergiu

    2013-01-01

    This volume collects almost two decades of joint work of Sergiu Hart and Andreu Mas-Colell on game dynamics and equilibria. The starting point was the introduction of the adaptive strategy called regret-matching, which on the one hand is simple and natural, and on the other is shown to lead to correlated equilibria. This initial finding - boundedly rational behavior that yields fully rational outcomes in the long run - generated a large body of work on the dynamics of simple adaptive strategies. In particular, a natural condition on dynamics was identified: uncoupledness, whereby decision-make

  10. Adaptive mesh strategies for the spectral element method

    Mavriplis, Catherine

    1992-01-01

    An adaptive spectral method was developed for the efficient solution of time dependent partial differential equations. Adaptive mesh strategies that include resolution refinement and coarsening by three different methods are illustrated on solutions to the 1-D viscous Burger equation and the 2-D Navier-Stokes equations for driven flow in a cavity. Sharp gradients, singularities, and regions of poor resolution are resolved optimally as they develop in time using error estimators which indicate the choice of refinement to be used. The adaptive formulation presents significant increases in efficiency, flexibility, and general capabilities for high order spectral methods.

  11. The adaptation study of oral communication strategy inventory into Turkish

    Saziye Yaman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals use a variety of strategies in the course of speaking which can be identified via measurement tools. In the literature, strategy inventories are regarded as the most commonly used measurement tools. However, most of the strategy inventories lack the reliability and validity studies. Furthermore, most of them represent strategies that the learner could use throughout the language learning process and they are not directly relevant to the skill of speaking. Moreover, in the literature, most of the studies carried out on speaking strategies are based on the inventories developed for learners learning English as a second language. With respect to other measurement tools, Oral Communication Strategy Inventory (OCSI developed by Nakatani (2006 for Japanese learning English as a foreign language had a clear factor structure and it seemed less problematic. Thus, the purpose of this study was to adapt OCSI into Turkish. Our concern in the adaptation study of OCSI is to investigate whether oral communication strategies classified in OCSI developed by Nakatani (2006 would also measure Turkish EFL students’ speaking strategy use. Within the scope of adaptation study, the inventory was translated to Turkish and evaluated with the method of back translation. The equivalence between English form and Turkish form, construct validity and internal consistency were examined. The research was conducted with 808 students studying English as a foreign language at ELT departments of three different universities and Anatolian High schools. Based on the findings concerning the reliability and validity studies, it can be concluded that the classification of the original form of OCSI differs from the adapted version to some extent in that the Turkish form is made up of seven factors in contrast to the original inventory consisting of eight factors. Non verbal strategies which existed in Nakatani’s original inventory did not appear in the adaptation form

  12. Shocks and growth: adaptation, precaution and compensation.

    Collier, Paul; Goderis, Benedikt; Hoeffler, Anke

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how a wide array of types of shock arising from world prices, natural events, and political violence affect growth. Our results suggest that the impact from political shocks are far greater than from natural shocks. However, our preliminary cointegration results suggest that the cost from primary commodity exporting are very large. Potentially shocks can affect growth either due to their impact, or due to the volatility that repeated shocks generate. In our empiri...

  13. Climate Change Adaptation. Challenges and Opportunities for a Smart Urban Growth

    Adriana Galderisi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the main environmental issues challenging cities in the 21th century. At present, more than half of the world population lives in cities and the latter are responsible for 60% to 80% of global energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, which are the main causes of the change in climate conditions. In the meantime, they are seriously threatened by the heterogeneous climate-related phenomena, very often exacerbated by the features of the cities themselves. In the last decade, international and European efforts have been mainly focused on mitigation rather than on adaptation strategies. Europe is one of the world leaders in global mitigation policies, while the issue of adaptation has gained growing importance in the last years. As underlined by the EU Strategy on adaptation to climate change, even though climate change mitigation still remains a priority for the global community, large room has to be devoted to adaptation measures, in order to effectively face the unavoidable impacts and related economic, environmental and social costs of climate change (EC, 2013. Thus, measures for adaptation to climate change are receiving an increasing financial support and a growing number of European countries are implementing national and urban adaptation strategies to deal with the actual and potential climate change impacts. According to the above considerations, this paper explores strengths and weaknesses of current adaptation strategies in European cities. First the main suggestions of the European Community to improve urban adaptation to climate change are examined; then, some recent Adaptation Plans are analyzed, in order to highlight challenges and opportunities arising from the adaptation processes at urban level and to explore the potential of Adaptation Plans to promote a smart growth in the European cities.

  14. Representing adaptive eLearning strategies in IMS Learning Design

    Burgos, Daniel; Tattersall, Colin; Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Burgos, D., Tattersall, C., & Koper, E. J. R. (2006). Representing adaptive eLearning strategies in IMS Learning Design. In R. Koper & K. Stefanov (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development (pp. 54-60). March, 30-31, 2006, Sofia, Bulgar

  15. Adaptive Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm Based on Social Foraging Strategy

    Hai Shen; Yunlong Zhu

    2014-01-01

    In 2002, K. M. Passino proposed Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA) for distributed optimization and control. Biologic foraging strategies are diverse. Based on social and intelligent foraging theory, this paper proposed an adaptive bacterial foraging optimization algorithm, and introduced six foraging operators: chaos run operator, assimilation run operator, tumble operator, swimming operator, reproduction operator and elimination-dispersal operator. Among those operators, chaos...

  16. Adaptive Insecure Attachment and Resource Control Strategies during Middle Childhood

    Chen, Bin-Bin; Chang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    By integrating the life history theory of attachment with resource control theory, the current study examines the hypothesis that insecure attachment styles reorganized in middle childhood are alternative adaptive strategies used to prepare for upcoming competition with the peer group. A sample of 654 children in the second through seventh grades…

  17. Exposure to Stressful Environments: Strategy of Adaptive Responses

    Farhi, Leon E.

    1991-01-01

    Any new natural environment may generate a number of stresses (such as hypoxia, water lack, and heat exposure), each of which can produce strains in more than a single organ system. Every strain may in turn stimulate the body to adapt in multiple ways. Nevertheless, a general strategy of the various adaptive responses emerges when the challenges are divided into three groups. The first category includes conditions that affect the supply of essential molecules, while the second is made up by those stresses that prevent the body from regulating properly the output of waste products, such as CO2 and heat. In both classes, there is a small number of responses, similar in principle, regardless of the specific situation. The third unit is created by environments that disrupt body transport systems. Problems may arise when there is a conflict between two stresses requiring conflicting adaptive changes. An alternative to adaptation, creation of micro-environment, is often favored by the animal.

  18. Strategy Uniform Crossover Adaptation Evolution in a Minority Game

    杨伟松; 汪秉宏; 全宏俊; 胡进锟

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new adaptation minority game for understanding the complex dynamical behaviour characterized by agent interactions competing limited resources in many natural and social systems. Intelligent agents may modify a part of their strategies periodically, depending on the strategyperformances. In the present model, the strategies will be updated according to a uniform-crossover variation process inspired by genetic evolution algorithm in biology. The performances of the agents in our model are calculated for different parameter conditions. It has been found that the new system may evolve via the strategy uniform crossover adaptation mechanism into a frozen equilibrium state in which the performance of the system may reach the best limit, implying the strongest cooperation among agents and the most effective utilization of the social resources.

  19. An adaptable navigation strategy for Virtual Microscopy from mobile platforms.

    Corredor, Germán; Romero, Eduardo; Iregui, Marcela

    2015-04-01

    Real integration of Virtual Microscopy with the pathologist service workflow requires the design of adaptable strategies for any hospital service to interact with a set of Whole Slide Images. Nowadays, mobile devices have the actual potential of supporting an online pervasive network of specialists working together. However, such devices are still very limited. This article introduces a novel highly adaptable strategy for streaming and visualizing WSI from mobile devices. The presented approach effectively exploits and extends the granularity of the JPEG2000 standard and integrates it with different strategies to achieve a lossless, loosely-coupled, decoder and platform independent implementation, adaptable to any interaction model. The performance was evaluated by two expert pathologists interacting with a set of 20 virtual slides. The method efficiently uses the available device resources: the memory usage did not exceed a 7% of the device capacity while the decoding times were smaller than the 200 ms per Region of Interest, i.e., a window of 256×256 pixels. This model is easily adaptable to other medical imaging scenarios. PMID:25684128

  20. The Czech Adaptation of Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ

    Jitka Jakesova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide theoretical and methodological insights into the process of self-regulated learning, and to describe the adaptation of The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ, developed by Pintrich et al. (1993. This Likert-scaled instrument was designed to assess motivation orientations and use of learning strategies. The adaptation concerned only the first section, the learning strategies section was not part of the adaptation. The motivation scales originally tap into three broad areas: (1 value, (2 expectancy, and (3 affect. In exploratory factor analysis a 3-factor model was generated and good internal consistency of the adapted instrument was achieved. In this version the questionnaire has 27 items with overall reliability of ? = 0.83. The alphas for the three subscales range from 0.70 to 0.86 and explaines 35% of the total variance. The data proved a student’s academic self-efficacy (F1, task value (F2 and test anxiety (F3 to be strong predictors of students’ motivation.

  1. An unsupervised adaptive strategy for constructing probabilistic roadmaps

    Tapia, L.

    2009-05-01

    Since planning environments are complex and no single planner exists that is best for all problems, much work has been done to explore methods for selecting where and when to apply particular planners. However, these two questions have been difficult to answer, even when adaptive methods meant to facilitate a solution are applied. For example, adaptive solutions such as setting learning rates, hand-classifying spaces, and defining parameters for a library of planners have all been proposed. We demonstrate a strategy based on unsupervised learning methods that makes adaptive planning more practical. The unsupervised strategies require less user intervention, model the topology of the problem in a reasonable and efficient manner, can adapt the sampler depending on characteristics of the problem, and can easily accept new samplers as they become available. Through a series of experiments, we demonstrate that in a wide variety of environments, the regions automatically identified by our technique represent the planning space well both in number and placement.We also show that our technique has little overhead and that it out-performs two existing adaptive methods in all complex cases studied.© 2009 IEEE.

  2. National strategy for climate change adaptation; Strategie nationale d'adaptation au changement climatique

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This book expresses the French State's view on the way to deal with the issue of climate change adaptation. After having recalled the ineluctability of some observed changes, the actors involved in this adaptation, and some guideline principles to implement adaptation, a first chapter describes the context: international mobilization, climate data evolution, definition of new criteria and critical thresholds, relationship between adaptation, alleviation and sustainable development, tensions between long and short terms. It discusses the objectives: public security and health, alleviation of inequalities with respect to risks, cost reduction, natural heritage preservation. Nine strategic axes are then identified: to develop knowledge, to strengthen the survey system, to inform, to educate and to make all actors aware, to promote a territory-based approach, to finance adaptation actions, to use regulatory and law instruments, to support voluntary approaches and the dialogue with private actors, to take the overseas peculiarity into account, and to contribute to international exchanges. The next chapters are respectively dealing with transverse approaches (water, risk prevention, health, and biodiversity), sector-based insights (agriculture, energy and industry, transports, building and housing, tourism, banks and insurance companies), medium-based approach (cities, littoral and seas, mountain, forest). The last part deals with the implementation issue

  3. Adaptive local routing strategy on a scale-free network

    Due to the heterogeneity of the structure on a scale-free network, making the betweennesses of all nodes become homogeneous by reassigning the weights of nodes or edges is very difficult. In order to take advantage of the important effect of high degree nodes on the shortest path communication and preferentially deliver packets by them to increase the probability to destination, an adaptive local routing strategy on a scale-free network is proposed, in which the node adjusts the forwarding probability with the dynamical traffic load (packet queue length) and the degree distribution of neighbouring nodes. The critical queue length of a node is set to be proportional to its degree, and the node with high degree has a larger critical queue length to store and forward more packets. When the queue length of a high degree node is shorter than its critical queue length, it has a higher probability to forward packets. After higher degree nodes are saturated (whose queue lengths are longer than their critical queue lengths), more packets will be delivered by the lower degree nodes around them. The adaptive local routing strategy increases the probability of a packet finding its destination quickly, and improves the transmission capacity on the scale-free network by reducing routing hops. The simulation results show that the transmission capacity of the adaptive local routing strategy is larger than that of three previous local routing strategies. (general)

  4. Controls on Extreme Droughts and Adaptation Strategies in Semiarid Regions

    Scanlon, B. R.; Cook, C.; Fernando, D. N.; LeBlanc, M.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing vulnerability to droughts with reduced per capita water storage, particularly in semiarid regions, underscores the need for predictive understanding of drought controls and development of adaptation strategies for water resources management. In this study we evaluate causes of major droughts in southwest and southcentral US (California and Texas) and southeast Australia (Murray Darling Basin). Impacts of climate cycles (ENSO, PDO, AMO, NAO, IOD) and atmospheric circulation on drought initiation and persistence are examined. Effects of drought on surface water reservoir storage, groundwater storage, irrigation, and crop production are compared. Adaptation strategies being evaluated include water transfers among sectors, particularly from irrigated agriculture to other groups, increasing storage using managed aquifer recharge, water reuse, and development of new water sources (e.g. seawater desalination). It is critical to develop a broad portfolio of water sources to increase resilience to future droughts.

  5. Diversity of immune strategies explained by adaptation to pathogen statistics.

    Mayer, Andreas; Mora, Thierry; Rivoire, Olivier; Walczak, Aleksandra M

    2016-08-01

    Biological organisms have evolved a wide range of immune mechanisms to defend themselves against pathogens. Beyond molecular details, these mechanisms differ in how protection is acquired, processed, and passed on to subsequent generations-differences that may be essential to long-term survival. Here, we introduce a mathematical framework to compare the long-term adaptation of populations as a function of the pathogen dynamics that they experience and of the immune strategy that they adopt. We find that the two key determinants of an optimal immune strategy are the frequency and the characteristic timescale of the pathogens. Depending on these two parameters, our framework identifies distinct modes of immunity, including adaptive, innate, bet-hedging, and CRISPR-like immunities, which recapitulate the diversity of natural immune systems. PMID:27432970

  6. Adaptive strategies of the visualization of electronic map

    Wang, Hong; Ai, Tinghua

    2006-10-01

    The visualization of electronic map should be dynamic not only in the way of representation but also in the content creation in real time. In on-demand mapping, the user's favorites to map content are the key factor. It means that the design of electronic map has to consider providing several candidate visualizations according to the user's context. To settle on-demand question, the adaptive visualization has been an active topic in the field of map design in recent years. Based on practical experiments, this paper tries to present some adaptive strategies on the visualization of electronic map. Firstly, a conceptual framework of adaptive visualization is proposed, what includes the parts of the context interface, the map behaviors triggering factors, the adaptive mechanism, hierarchy control, output of result map, and the evaluation methods. We consider three main factors associated with the adaptive visualization: (1). the user's interactive map behaviors, (2). the context of the surroundings where the electronic map system stays, (3). the user category under their knowledge and experiences. The map behaviors include the ZOOM OUT, ZOOM IN, PAN, QUERY, ROTATION, and etc, which will result in changes for the contents and structures of map. These changes relate to the aspects about Map Extent, Scale, Location, Quantity, Quality, Direction, Density, and etc. The surroundings of map reading include the screen size, color display or B/W display, brightness, weather, special light scenery, speed of data loading, display sets, sound, time, event, culture, language, and etc. The map design has to provide different strategies to satisfy the periphery environment changes. According to some egocentric conditions, i.e., Location, Moving Orientation, Speed of Motion, and Self Properties, this paper gives some practical illustrations and descriptive maps. The classification of map users considers their knowledge, experience and specialty. We divide users into different levels

  7. Adaptation strategies of Mediterranean cropping systems to climate change

    Mula, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The EPIC simulation model was used to assess the impact of climate change (CC) on intensive and extensive Mediterranean forage systems to study the effects of CC and adaptation strategies. The intensive cropping system (corn silage – Italian ryegrass) is linked to dairy cattle farms. As first step the EPIC model was calibrated based on experimental data. After calibration the EPIC model was used to perform simulations with different climate scenarios (present and future climate) with diffe...

  8. Adaptive Capacity as antecedent to Climate Change Strategy

    Hillmann, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Within the last decade research on climate change strategies and adaptive capacity emerged as the debate about climate change was intensified with the publishing of the Third Assessment Report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 2001. That companies are facing risks and opportunities is not new and the awareness to address these issues is growing. However, there is still need for research in the field of corporate strategic response to climate change. Recently, research focuse...

  9. Adaptation to optimal cell growth through self-organized criticality.

    Furusawa, Chikara; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2012-05-18

    A simple cell model consisting of a catalytic reaction network is studied to show that cellular states are self-organized in a critical state for achieving optimal growth; we consider the catalytic network dynamics over a wide range of environmental conditions, through the spontaneous regulation of nutrient transport into the cell. Furthermore, we find that the adaptability of cellular growth to reach a critical state depends only on the extent of environmental changes, while all chemical species in the cell exhibit correlated partial adaptation. These results are in remarkable agreement with the recent experimental observations of the present cells. PMID:23003193

  10. Adaptive strategies to climate change in Southern Malawi

    Chidanti-Malunga, J.

    Climate change poses a big challenge to rural livelihoods in the Shire Valley area of Southern Malawi, where communities have depended almost entirely on rain-fed agriculture for generations. The Shire Valley area comprises of low-altitude dambo areas and uplands which have been the main agricultural areas. Since early to mid 1980s, the uplands have experienced prolonged droughts and poor rainfall distribution, while the dambos have experienced recurrent seasonal floods. This study assessed some of the adaptive strategies exercised by small-scale rural farmers in response to climate change in the Shire Valley. The methodology used in collecting information includes group discussions, household surveys in the area, secondary data, and field observations. The results show that small-scale rural farmers exercise a number of adaptive strategies in response to climate change. These adaptive strategies include: increased use of water resources for small-scale irrigation or wetland farming, mostly using simple delivery techniques; increased management of residual moisture; and increased alternative sources of income such as fishing and crop diversity. It was also observed that government promoted the use of portable motorized pumps for small-scale irrigation in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. However, these external interventions were not fully adopted; instead the farmers preferred local interventions which mostly had indigenous elements.

  11. Efficient community-based control strategies in adaptive networks

    Most studies on adaptive networks concentrate on the properties of steady state, but neglect transient dynamics. In this study, we pay attention to the emergence of community structure in the transient process and the effects of community-based control strategies on epidemic spreading. First, by normalizing the modularity, we investigate the evolution of community structure during the transient process, and find that a strong community structure is induced by the rewiring mechanism in the early stage of epidemic dynamics, which, remarkably, delays the outbreak of disease. We then study the effects of control strategies started at different stages on the prevalence. Both immunization and quarantine strategies indicate that it is not ‘the earlier, the better’ for the implementation of control measures. And the optimal control effect is obtained if control measures can be efficiently implemented in the period of a strong community structure. For the immunization strategy, immunizing the susceptible nodes on susceptible–infected links and immunizing susceptible nodes randomly have similar control effects. However, for the quarantine strategy, quarantining the infected nodes on susceptible–infected links can yield a far better result than quarantining infected nodes randomly. More significantly, the community-based quarantine strategy performs better than the community-based immunization strategy. This study may shed new light on the forecast and the prevention of epidemics among humans. (paper)

  12. What Is Green Growth Strategy for Government Link Company?

    Jamilah Asha’ari, Maryam; Daud, Salina; Hassan, Hasmaizan

    2016-03-01

    Disasters around the world are very extreme because of the global warming and climate change. Malaysia firms have to play their role in handling the challenging of environmental problems in order to sustain. The feature of the new strategy which is green growth strategy has been identified. The study focuses on the features of the green growth strategy which discuss on the keys to sustaining the strategy, marketing emphasis, production emphasis, product line, basis of competitive advantage and strategic target. Business had contributed to the industrialisation era positively or negatively and therefore there is a must for business people to use the best strategy in reducing the environmental risks. By 2020, Malaysia will achieve the target in becoming an advanced economy by applying the right strategy. The objective of this paper is to propose a feature for new strategy known as green growth strategy. Future study is to propose to conduct an empirical analysis to confirm the green growth strategy features.

  13. 77 FR 2996 - National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy

    2012-01-20

    ... the Strategy in a May 24, 2011, notice of intent in the Federal Register (76 FR 30193). After we... Fish and Wildlife Service National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy AGENCY: Fish..., Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy (Strategy). The purpose of the Strategy will be to...

  14. A literature review on growth models and strategies: The missing link in entrepreneurial growth

    Syed Fida Hussain Shah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the importance of growth models, growth strategies, role of knowledge management system in the formulation of effective strategy for the enterprises following growth. Choice of an appropriate growth strategy is at the heart of any successful entrepreneurial venture. Selection of a strategy may be effective for one entrepreneur while it is not for other. Choice of Growth Strategy depends on various different factors, organisational context and environment which may vary from enterprise to enterprise. Resource based view is very important consideration for the entrepreneurs on the path of growth. Evaluation of all kind of resources helps them to grow their enterprises successfully. Selection of an appropriate growth strategy allows the entrepreneurs in overcoming growth challenges and avoiding the growth reversals and setbacks.

  15. Adaptation Strategies and Resilience to Climate Change of Historic Dwellings

    Carlos Rubio-Bellido

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Historic city centres have a large amount of dwellings in Europe, which were built to provide a comfortable shelter with the absence of mechanical means. The knowledge of climate responsive design strategies can play a significant role in reducing the energy demand of extant buildings, paving the way for its sustainable development in the face of the rising threat to its occupants of climate change. The residential architecture, developed, in most cases, in dense urban centres, was built using both available materials and traditional and academic construction technologies. This paper thoroughly investigates the extant urban conglomerate in Cádiz and analyses, in a qualitative and quantitative manner, which bioclimatic design strategies were applied and the city’s adaptation for future climate scenarios. The results indicate that historic housing in Cádiz is creatively adapted to the local natural conditions by means of a combination of climate responsive strategies, and there is significant scope for improvement in the ongoing response to global warming.

  16. March dl: Adding Adaptive Heuristics and a New Branching Strategy

    Marijn J.H. Heule

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the march dl satisfiability (SAT solver, a successor of march eq. The latter was awarded state-of-the-art in two categories during the Sat 2004 competition. The focus lies on presenting those features that are new in march dl. Besides a description, each of these features is illustrated with some experimental results. By extending the pre-processor, using adaptive heuristics, and by using a new branching strategy, march dl is able to solve nearly all benchmarks faster than its predecessor. Moreover, various instances which were beyond the reach of march eq, can now be solved - relatively easily - due to these new features.

  17. Adaptive Bandits: Towards the best history-dependent strategy

    Maillard, Odalric-Ambrym; Munos, Rémi

    2011-01-01

    We consider multi-armed bandit games with possibly adaptive opponents. We introduce models Theta of constraints based on equivalence classes on the common history (information shared by the player and the opponent) which dene two learning scenarios: (1) The opponent is constrained, i.e. he provides rewards that are stochastic functions of equivalence classes dened by some model theta*\\in Theta. The regret is measured with respect to (w.r.t.) the best history-dependent strategy. (2) The oppone...

  18. March dl: Adding Adaptive Heuristics and a New Branching Strategy

    Marijn J.H. Heule; Hans van Maaren

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the march dl satisfiability (SAT) solver, a successor of march eq. The latter was awarded state-of-the-art in two categories during the Sat 2004 competition. The focus lies on presenting those features that are new in march dl. Besides a description, each of these features is illustrated with some experimental results. By extending the pre-processor, using adaptive heuristics, and by using a new branching strategy, march dl is able to solve nearly all benchmarks faster than its ...

  19. Assessment of the effectiveness of participatory developed adaptation strategies for HCMC

    R. Lasage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, especially Asian cities are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reducing measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet flood proofing of buildings. A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. the model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in Expected Annual Damage (EAD. Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea level scenarios and land use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modeling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is 0.31 million USD yr–1, increasing up to 0.78 million USD yr–1 in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5% range from USD −107 to −1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet proofing and dry proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different

  20. Adaptive evolution of synthetic cooperating communities improves growth performance.

    Xiaolin Zhang

    Full Text Available Symbiotic interactions between organisms are important for human health and biotechnological applications. Microbial mutualism is a widespread phenomenon and is important in maintaining natural microbial communities. Although cooperative interactions are prevalent in nature, little is known about the processes that allow their initial establishment, govern population dynamics and affect evolutionary processes. To investigate cooperative interactions between bacteria, we constructed, characterized, and adaptively evolved a synthetic community comprised of leucine and lysine Escherichia coli auxotrophs. The co-culture can grow in glucose minimal medium only if the two auxotrophs exchange essential metabolites - lysine and leucine (or its precursors. Our experiments showed that a viable co-culture using these two auxotrophs could be established and adaptively evolved to increase growth rates (by ∼3 fold and optical densities. While independently evolved co-cultures achieved similar improvements in growth, they took different evolutionary trajectories leading to different community compositions. Experiments with individual isolates from these evolved co-cultures showed that changes in both the leucine and lysine auxotrophs improved growth of the co-culture. Interestingly, while evolved isolates increased growth of co-cultures, they exhibited decreased growth in mono-culture (in the presence of leucine or lysine. A genome-scale metabolic model of the co-culture was also constructed and used to investigate the effects of amino acid (leucine or lysine release and uptake rates on growth and composition of the co-culture. When the metabolic model was constrained by the estimated leucine and lysine release rates, the model predictions agreed well with experimental growth rates and composition measurements. While this study and others have focused on cooperative interactions amongst community members, the adaptive evolution of communities with other

  1. Intermediate Collaborative Adaptive Management Strategies Build Stakeholder Capacity

    Martha C. Monroe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to implement collaborative adaptive management (CAM often suffer from challenges, such as an unwillingness of managers to share power, unresolved conflicts between stakeholders, and lack of capacity among stakeholders. Some aspects considered essential to CAM, e.g., trust and stakeholder capacity, may be more usefully viewed as goals for intermediate strategies rather than a set of initial conditions. From this perspective, intermediate steps that focus on social learning and building experience could overcome commonly cited barriers to CAM. An exploration of Springs Basin Working Groups, organized around major clusters of freshwater springs in north Florida, provides a case study of how these intermediate steps enable participants to become more reasonable and engaged. This strategy may be easily implemented by agencies beginning a CAM process.

  2. Climate Variability and Household Adaptation Strategies in Southern Ethiopia

    Wassie Berhanu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants and implied economic impacts of climate change adaptation strategies in the context of traditional pastoralism. It is based on econometric analysis of survey data generated from household level interviews in southern Ethiopian rangelands. Pastoralists’ perception of climate change in the region is found to be very consistent with the actually recorded trends of increased temperature and the evident secular declines in precipitation. Not only long-term declines, trends in the region’s rainfall also appear to have taken a shift towards the direction of more unpredictability. Pastoralist adaptation response strategies broadly involve adjustments in pastoral practices and shifts to non-pastoral livelihoods. Results of the estimated models confirm that pastoral mobility is still quite essential in the present context of climate-induced household vulnerabilities. Increased mobility and diversification of pastoral herd portfolios in favor of a drought-tolerant species (camel are found to be positively associated with pastoral household net income. A policy stance that ignores the detrimental impacts of the currently pervasive private rangeland enclosures or intends to hasten pastoralist sedentarization in the area is simply untenable in the present context of climate-induced risks and pastoral livelihood vulnerability.

  3. Adaptation strategies to climate variability and change and its limitations to smallholder farmers. A literature search

    Frank Phillipo; Magreth Bushesha; Zebedayo S. K. Mvena

    2015-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, knowledge on adaptation strategies to climate variability and change are scattered and fragmented due to lack of standpoints adaptation framework. This paper intends to analyse differences in adaptation strategies across agro-ecological zones, and finding out factors dictating adaptation to climate variability and change to smallholder farmers. The paper is based on documentary review methodology in which journals and books on adaptation were used as the main sources of...

  4. Adaptive hybrid optimization strategy for calibration and parameter estimation of physical models

    Vesselinov, Velimir V.; Harp, Dylan R.

    2011-01-01

    A new adaptive hybrid optimization strategy, entitled squads, is proposed for complex inverse analysis of computationally intensive physical models. The new strategy is designed to be computationally efficient and robust in identification of the global optimum (e.g. maximum or minimum value of an objective function). It integrates a global Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APSO) strategy with a local Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) optimization strategy using adaptive rules based on runtime perf...

  5. Unconventional MBE Strategies from Computer Simulations for Optimized Growth Conditions

    Schinzer, S.; Sokolowski, M.; Biehl, M.; Kinzel, W.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the influence of step edge diffusion (SED) and desorption on Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) using kinetic Monte-Carlo simulations of the solid-on-solid (SOS) model. Based on these investigations we propose two strategies to optimize MBE growth. The strategies are applicable in different growth regimes: During layer-by-layer growth one can exploit the presence of desorption in order to achieve smooth surfaces. By additional short high flux pulses of particles one can increase the ...

  6. C-Strategy: A Dynamic Adaptive Strategy for the CLONALG Algorithm

    Riff, Maria Cristina; Montero, Elizabeth; Neveu, Bertrand

    2010-01-01

    The control of parameters during the execution of bioinspired algorithms is an open research area. In this paper, we propose a new parameter control strategy for the immune algorithm CLONALG. Our approach is based on reinforcement learning ideas. We focus our attention on controlling the number of clones. Our approach provides an efficient and low cost adaptive technique for parameter control. We use instances of the Travelling Salesman Problem. The results obtained are very encouraging.

  7. Survival and growth patterns of white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) rangewide provenances and their implications for climate change adaptation

    Lu, Pengxin; Parker, William H.; Cherry, Marilyn; Colombo, Steve; Parker, William C.; Man, Rongzhou; Roubal, Ngaire

    2014-01-01

    Intraspecific assisted migration (ISAM) through seed transfer during artificial forest regeneration has been suggested as an adaptation strategy to enhance forest resilience and productivity under future climate. In this study, we assessed the risks and benefits of ISAM in white spruce based on long-term and multilocation, rangewide provenance test data. Our results indicate that the adaptive capacity and growth potential of white spruce varied considerably among 245 range-wide provenances sa...

  8. Invasion strategies in clonal aquatic plants: are phenotypic differences caused by phenotypic plasticity or local adaptation?

    Riis, Tenna; Lambertini, Carla; Olesen, Birgit; Clayton, John S.; Brix, Hans; Sorrell, Brian K.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The successful spread of invasive plants in new environments is often linked to multiple introductions and a diverse gene pool that facilitates local adaptation to variable environmental conditions. For clonal plants, however, phenotypic plasticity may be equally important. Here the primary adaptive strategy in three non-native, clonally reproducing macrophytes (Egeria densa, Elodea canadensis and Lagarosiphon major) in New Zealand freshwaters were examined and an attempt was made to link observed differences in plant morphology to local variation in habitat conditions. Methods Field populations with a large phenotypic variety were sampled in a range of lakes and streams with different chemical and physical properties. The phenotypic plasticity of the species before and after cultivation was studied in a common garden growth experiment, and the genetic diversity of these same populations was also quantified. Key Results For all three species, greater variation in plant characteristics was found before they were grown in standardized conditions. Moreover, field populations displayed remarkably little genetic variation and there was little interaction between habitat conditions and plant morphological characteristics. Conclusions The results indicate that at the current stage of spread into New Zealand, the primary adaptive strategy of these three invasive macrophytes is phenotypic plasticity. However, while limited, the possibility that genetic diversity between populations may facilitate ecotypic differentiation in the future cannot be excluded. These results thus indicate that invasive clonal aquatic plants adapt to new introduced areas by phenotypic plasticity. Inorganic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous were important in controlling plant size of E. canadensis and L. major, but no other relationships between plant characteristics and habitat conditions were apparent. This implies that within-species differences in plant size can be explained

  9. Adaptive building envelopes, component development as well as implementation strategies

    Tillmann Klein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The papers in this issue of JFDE discuss the potential of adaptive building envelopes, component development as well as implementation strategies. The applied practice paper demonstrates decision strategies behind the adaptive sun shading system of the Al-Bahr Towers. Additivity in building envelopes is not only a strategy to fulfil the growing demands for energy efficient buildings and comfort but has great architectural implications as well. In general it asks for more complex components as well as control strategies. But complexity also means costs and risks, and we need to discuss the means and effects. This discussion in particular is very interesting because here science and practice meet. The Journal of Facade Design and Engineering JFDE will actively follow and stimulate by providing high quality contributions. Four of the paper contributions have their origins in the Conference ‘Facades 2014’, held in November 2014 in Lucerne. The contributions have been carefully selected and have been subjected to the regular double blind review process of the journal. We want to thank Prof. Dr. Andres Luible for the help in making this issue happen. We are proud that JFDE is the scientific partner for a number of conferences such as ‘The Future Envelope’ Conference on Building Envelopes held yearly in Delft (NL or Bath (UK, the ICAE International Congress on Architectural Envelopes in San Sebastian (ES and the above mentioned conference ‘Facades’ in Lucerne (CH and Detmold (D. Our latest partner is the ICBEST 2017 - International Conference on Building Envelope Systems and Technologies in Istanbul. The growing number of partners indicates the relevance of JFDE for our growing discipline and will assure the continuity of the journal. Facade Design and Engineering is a peer reviewed, open access journal, funded by The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research NWO (www.nwo.nl. We see ‘open access’ as the future publishing model

  10. An adaptive ES with a ranking based constraint handling strategy

    Kusakci Ali Osman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve a constrained optimization problem, equality constraints can be used to eliminate a problem variable. If it is not feasible, the relations imposed implicitly by the constraints can still be exploited. Most conventional constraint handling methods in Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs do not consider the correlations between problem variables imposed by the constraints. This paper relies on the idea that a proper search operator, which captures mentioned implicit correlations, can improve performance of evolutionary constrained optimization algorithms. To realize this, an Evolution Strategy (ES along with a simplified Covariance Matrix Adaptation (CMA based mutation operator is used with a ranking based constraint-handling method. The proposed algorithm is tested on 13 benchmark problems as well as on a real life design problem. The outperformance of the algorithm is significant when compared with conventional ES-based methods.

  11. Climate change adaptation strategy for the Folk Communities

    Abdul-Al-Pavel, Muha.; Khan, Mohammed Abu Sayed Arfin; Rahman, Syed Ajijur;

    2013-01-01

    In Bangladesh, impacts on agriculture from extreme climate are increasingly vulnerable. On the other hand, folk communities are intensely depending on agriculture for their livelihoods. Climate change has already negatively affected the vegetable production by annual recurrent flood in Bangladesh....... This study is an assessment of the new vegetable production system that could adopt in a changing climatic condition. With the popular eight vegetable species, the field experiment consisted of four treatments which were conducted in the bags. However, treatment (TD) which consisted of Coriander (Coriander...... of this study might be helpful for the flood affected folk communities produce vegetables for their own consumption and income. Likewise, new experiments with altered technique and vegetable species are recommended to conclusively develop climate change adaptation strategies for flood prone areas....

  12. Developing an adaptive radiation therapy strategy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Adaptive radiotherapy (ART) has recently been introduced to restore the planned dose distribution by accounting for the anatomic changes during treatment. By quantifying the anatomic changes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients, this study aimed to establish an ART strategy for NPC cases. A total of 30 NPC patients treated with helical tomotherapy were recruited. In the pretreatment megavoltage CT images, the anatomic changes of the posterolateral wall of nasopharynx (P-NP), neck region and parotid glands were measured and assessed. One-way repeated measure ANOVA was employed to define threshold(s) at any time-point. The presence of a threshold(s) would indicate significant anatomical change(s) such that replanning should be suggested. A pragmatic schedule for ART was established by evaluating the threshold for each parameter. Results showed the P-NP, parotid gland and neck volumes demonstrated significant regressions over time. Respectively, the mean loss rates were 0.99, 1.35, and 0.39 %/day, and the mean volume losses were 35.70, 47.54 and 11.91% (all P < 0.001). The parotid gland shifted medially and superiorly over time by a mean of 0.34 and 0.24 cm, respectively (all P < 0.001). The neck region showed non-rigid posterior displacement, which increased from upper to lower neck. According to the threshold occurrences, three replans at 9th, 19th and 29th fractions were proposed. This ART strategy was able to accommodate the dosimetric consequences due to anatomic deviation over the treatment course. It is clinically feasible and would be recommended for centers where an adaptive planning system was not yet available. (author)

  13. Stress Response and Perinatal Reprogramming: Unraveling (Mal)adaptive Strategies.

    Musazzi, Laura; Marrocco, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stressors induce coping strategies in the majority of individuals. The stress response, involving the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and the consequent release of corticosteroid hormones, is indeed aimed at promoting metabolic, functional, and behavioral adaptations. However, behavioral stress is also associated with fast and long-lasting neurochemical, structural, and behavioral changes, leading to long-term remodeling of glutamate transmission, and increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders. Of note, early-life events, both in utero and during the early postnatal life, trigger reprogramming of the stress response, which is often associated with loss of stress resilience and ensuing neurobehavioral (mal)adaptations. Indeed, adverse experiences in early life are known to induce long-term stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders in vulnerable individuals. Here, we discuss recent findings about stress remodeling of excitatory neurotransmission and brain morphology in animal models of behavioral stress. These changes are likely driven by epigenetic factors that lie at the core of the stress-response reprogramming in individuals with a history of perinatal stress. We propose that reprogramming mechanisms may underlie the reorganization of excitatory neurotransmission in the short- and long-term response to stressful stimuli. PMID:27057367

  14. Major Strategies on Building Production Innovation Influencing Competitive and Growth Strategies in Construction Companies

    ERCAN, Tugce

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to identify the impact of two factors –growth and competitive strategies- on a set of strategies for building production innovation. A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data from construction professionals, who were asked to rate the importance level of predicted innovation strategies on some corporate strategy combinations. Multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) was employed to see the main and interaction effects of corporate strategies on building innovati...

  15. Sensor Web Dynamic Measurement Techniques and Adaptive Observing Strategies

    Talabac, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    Sensor Web observing systems may have the potential to significantly improve our ability to monitor, understand, and predict the evolution of rapidly evolving, transient, or variable environmental features and events. This improvement will come about by integrating novel data collection techniques, new or improved instruments, emerging communications technologies and protocols, sensor mark-up languages, and interoperable planning and scheduling systems. In contrast to today's observing systems, "event-driven" sensor webs will synthesize real- or near-real time measurements and information from other platforms and then react by reconfiguring the platforms and instruments to invoke new measurement modes and adaptive observation strategies. Similarly, "model-driven" sensor webs will utilize environmental prediction models to initiate targeted sensor measurements or to use a new observing strategy. The sensor web concept contrasts with today's data collection techniques and observing system operations concepts where independent measurements are made by remote sensing and in situ platforms that do not share, and therefore cannot act upon, potentially useful complementary sensor measurement data and platform state information. This presentation describes NASA's view of event-driven and model-driven Sensor Webs and highlights several research and development activities at the Goddard Space Flight Center.

  16. Benefits of Organic Agriculture as a Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Strategy in Developing Countries

    Muller, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Organic Agriculture (OA) as an adaptation strategy (AS) to Climate Change (CC) is a concrete and promising option for adaptation in rural communities. OA has additional potential as a mitigation strategy (MS). This text is a short review note on this topic. Adaptation and mitigation based on OA can build on well-established practice as OA is a sustainable livelihood strategy with decades of experience in several climate zones and under a wide range of specific local conditions. Given the larg...

  17. Plant growth strategies are remodeled by spaceflight

    Paul Anna-Lisa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arabidopsis plants were grown on the International Space Station within specialized hardware that combined a plant growth habitat with a camera system that can capture images at regular intervals of growth. The Imaging hardware delivers telemetric data from the ISS, specifically images received in real-time from experiments on orbit, providing science without sample return. Comparable Ground Controls were grown in a sister unit that is maintained in the Orbital Environment Simulator at Kennedy Space Center. One of many types of biological data that can be analyzed in this fashion is root morphology. Arabidopsis seeds were geminated on orbit on nutrient gel Petri plates in a configuration that encouraged growth along the surface of the gel. Photos were taken every six hours for the 15 days of the experiment. Results In the absence of gravity, but the presence of directional light, spaceflight roots remained strongly negatively phototropic and grew in the opposite direction of the shoot growth; however, cultivars WS and Col-0 displayed two distinct, marked differences in their growth patterns. First, cultivar WS skewed strongly to the right on orbit, while cultivar Col-0 grew with little deviation away from the light source. Second, the Spaceflight environment also impacted the rate of growth in Arabidopsis. The size of the Flight plants (as measured by primary root and hypocotyl length was uniformly smaller than comparably aged Ground Control plants in both cultivars. Conclusions Skewing and waving, thought to be gravity dependent phenomena, occur in spaceflight plants. In the presence of an orienting light source, phenotypic trends in skewing are gravity independent, and the general patterns of directional root growth typified by a given genotype in unit gravity are recapitulated on orbit, although overall growth patterns on orbit are less uniform. Skewing appears independent of axial orientation on the ISS – suggesting

  18. Time-adaptive versus history-adaptive strategies for multicriterion routing in stochastic time-dependent networks

    Pretolani, Daniele; Nielsen, Lars Relund; Andersen, Kim Allan; Ehrgott, Matthias

    We compare two different models for multicriterion routing in stochastic time-dependent networks: the  classic "time-adaptive'' route choice and the more flexible "history-adaptive'' route choice. We point out some interesting properties of the sets of efficient solutions ("strategies'') found un...... under the two models. We also suggest possible directions for improving computational techniques....

  19. Climate adaptation in NVE's areas of responsibility - Strategy 2010 - 2014; Klimatilpasning innen NVEs ansvarsomraader - Strategi 2010 - 2014

    Hamarsland, Arne T. (ed.)

    2010-09-15

    NVE has developed a comprehensive climate change strategies within their areas of responsibility. There is a systematic review of how a future climate change will affect NVE management areas; how to meet challenges, vulnerabilities, opportunities and proposals for adaptation measures. Climate adaptation is a dynamic process. It is therefore necessary to follow up the work continuously and correct direction at regular intervals. Climate change adaptation strategy of adaptation measures is a foundation and a direction sensor in NVE's business planning. (AG)

  20. Strategies for growth of hydro electric power

    Hydro power on account of its several inherent advantages has a key role to play in the development of long term energy strategies based on diversified and balance use of natural national resources. Our country is fortunate to be endowed with large hydro-electric potential. It is estimated that the hydro potential while fully developed may yield to an installed capacity of 1,50,000 MW. An attempt has been made in this paper to examine and analyse the status and trend of hydro power development, need for accelerated development of hydro power, myths about hydro electric projects, principal causes responsible for scaling down of hydro share in the total installed capacity and strategies which could restore optimum hydro thermal mix. (author)

  1. Entry and Growth Strategies for Emerging Economies

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Tran, Yen Thi Thu

    2004-01-01

    Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are expanding their global reach, carrying their products and brands to ever more remote corners of the world. They encounter business environments that vary not only from their country of origin, but also vary greatly amongst each other. Thus foreign investors have...... have to develop a portfolio of local and/or global brands that matches their competences with local needs. If they aim for market leadership they may pursue a multi-tier strategy, but this needs to be supported by an appropriate foundation of global and local resources. This strategy in particular...... requires the acquisition of complementary local resources controlled by local firms. However, acquisitions in emerging economies are inhibited by institutional obstacles and weak local firms. Thus, foreign investors may pursue staged, multiple, indirect, or Brownfield acquisitions to build their projected...

  2. Ecological adaptation strategies of annual plants in artificial vegetation-stabilized sand dune in Shapotou Region

    ZHANG; Jingguang; LI; Xinrong; WANG; Xinping

    2004-01-01

    Taking annual plant Eragrostis poaeides in the artificial vegetation-stabilized sand dune in the Shapotou Experimental Research Station as example, study has been done on the adaptation strategies of annual plants to random environment through fixed quadrat observations of population changes and fixed plant determinations of individual growth, seed germination,population dynamics, spatial distribution pattern of population, competition and regulation. During the growing season, the survival rate of annual plants depends on the precipitation intensity and precipitation duration which activate the germination of seeds. The optimal germination strategy of annual plants in this habitat during the growing season appears as continuous germination under suitable conditions. Such continuous germination is an adaptive characteristic of annual plants to random environment. In addition, the variation processes of population size and regulation mechanism of E. poaeoides are studied. Statistical results of natural population in four consecutive years show that water condition in the habitat is the leading factor affecting the population dynamics of E. poaeoides. During the establishment period E. poaeoides had a higher death rate, but in the middle to later period they could survive stably. Due to the limitation of soil moisture, the competition among individuals for water inevitably led to self-thinning phenomena. Under very arid condition, the survival curve of annual herbs entirely appears as Deevey Ⅲ type (C type), but under relatively adequate precipitation condition, the survival curve appears as intermediate type. The strategy of life history obviously appears as r-strategy. Plant species of r-strategy often occurs in the early succession stage of the communities. In the relatively adequate and evenly-distributed rainfall years, E. poaeoides population exhibited a density-dependent, i. e., survival rate increased with decrease in population density. The main pattern to

  3. Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies in Northwest China

    ZHAO Hong-Yan; LIU Cai-Hong; LI Yan-Chun; FANG Jian-Gang; LI Lin; LI Hong-Mei; ZHENG Guang-Fen; DENG Zhen-Yong; DONG An-Xiang; GUO Jun-Qin; ZHANG Cun-Jie; SUN Lan-Dong; ZHANG Xu-Dong; LIN Jing-Jing; WANG You-Heng; FANG Feng; MA Peng-Li

    2014-01-01

    Climate change resulted in changes in crop growth duration and planting structure, northward movement of planting region, and more severe plant diseases and insect pests in Northwest China. It caused earlier seeding for spring crop, later seeding for autumn crop, accelerated crop growth, and reduced mortality for winter crop. To adapt to climate change, measures such as optimization of agricultural arrangement, adjustment of planting structure, expansion of thermophilic crops, and development of water-saving agriculture have been taken. Damaging consequences of imbalance between grassland and livestock were enhanced. The deterioration trend of grassland was intensified; both grass quantity and quality declined. With overgrazing, proportions of inferior grass, weeds and poisonous weeds increased in plateau pastoral areas. Returning farmland to grazing, returning grazing to grassland, fence enclosure and artificial grassland construction have been implemented to restore the grassland vegetation, to increase the grassland coverage, to reasonably control the livestock carrying capacity, to prevent overgrazing, to keep balance between grassland and livestock, and to develop the ecological animal husbandry. In Northwest China, because the amount of regional water resources had an overall decreasing trend, there was a continuous expansion in the regional land desertification, and soil erosion was very serious. A series of measures, such as development of artificial precipitation (snow), water resources control, regional water diversion, water storage project and so on, were used effectively to respond to water deficit. It had played a certain role in controlling soil erosion by natural forest protection and returning farmland to forest and grassland. In the early 21st century, noticeable achievements had been made in prevention and control of desertification in Northwest China. The regional ecological environment has been improved obviously, and the desertification trend

  4. An Adaptive De-Aliasing Strategy for Discontinuous Galerkin methods

    Beck, Andrea; Flad, David; Frank, Hannes; Munz, Claus-Dieter

    2015-11-01

    Discontinuous Galerkin methods combine the accuracy of a local polynomial representation with the geometrical flexibility of an element-based discretization. In combination with their excellent parallel scalability, these methods are currently of great interest for DNS and LES. For high order schemes, the dissipation error approaches a cut-off behavior, which allows an efficient wave resolution per degree of freedom, but also reduces robustness against numerical errors. One important source of numerical error is the inconsistent discretization of the non-linear convective terms, which results in aliasing of kinetic energy and solver instability. Consistent evaluation of the inner products prevents this form of error, but is computationally very expensive. In this talk, we discuss the need for a consistent de-aliasing to achieve a neutrally stable scheme, and present a novel strategy for recovering a part of the incurred computational costs. By implementing the de-aliasing operation through a cell-local projection filter, we can perform adaptive de-aliasing in space and time, based on physically motivated indicators. We will present results for a homogeneous isotropic turbulence and the Taylor-Green vortex flow, and discuss implementation details, accuracy and efficiency.

  5. Roles of State Strategy of Adaptation to Climate Change in China

    Jiang Dongmei; Wang Can; Huang Shanfeng; Zhang Mengheng

    2007-01-01

    For the adverse impacts of climate change,China government should place the problem of adaptation to climate change on the agenda.It is time to institute and implement a State adaptive strategy to reduce the adverse impacts on economy,community and people's health and life by international cooperation and our own endeavor.A state strategyofadaptationto cfimate change should be closely linked with other current interrelated national strategies,and they should be supplemented and improved by each other.This paper discusses the roles of the state strategy of adaptation to climate change in the State climate change integrative strategy,the environmental protection strategy,and the sustainable development strategy in China.Furthermore,it proposes the main aims of the State adaptive strategy of China.

  6. Adaptive hybrid optimization strategy for calibration and parameter estimation of physical models

    Vesselinov, Velimir V

    2011-01-01

    A new adaptive hybrid optimization strategy, entitled squads, is proposed for complex inverse analysis of computationally intensive physical models. The new strategy is designed to be computationally efficient and robust in identification of the global optimum (e.g. maximum or minimum value of an objective function). It integrates a global Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APSO) strategy with a local Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) optimization strategy using adaptive rules based on runtime performance. The global strategy optimizes the location of a set of solutions (particles) in the parameter space. The LM strategy is applied only to a subset of the particles at different stages of the optimization based on the adaptive rules. After the LM adjustment of the subset of particle positions, the updated particles are returned to the APSO strategy. The advantages of coupling APSO and LM in the manner implemented in squads is demonstrated by comparisons of squads performance against Levenberg-Marquardt (LM), Particl...

  7. Adaptation Strategies, Well-Being, and Activities of Daily Living among People with Low Vision.

    Lindo, Gunnel; Nordholm, Lena

    1999-01-01

    A study compared positive and negative adaptation strategies used by people with low vision (25 working-age and 23 elderly people) who had participated in a rehabilitation program with 335 persons with neurological disabilities and 112 controls. Results indicate that the participants used a variety of positive and negative adaptation strategies.…

  8. Adaptive Strategies, Gender Ideology, and Work-Family Balance among Dutch Dual Earners

    Wierda-Boer, Hilde H.; Gerris, Jan R. M.; Vermulst, Ad A.

    2008-01-01

    Using questionnaire data on 149 Dutch dual-earner couples with young children participating in the European Famwork study, we examine how adaptive strategies and gender ideology relate to parents' perceived success in balancing work and family. Path analysis indicates that some adaptive strategies may harm individuals' work-family balance,…

  9. Analyzing the effect of slowly variable parameters on the adaptive active control strategy

    This paper reveals that the adaptive active control strategy used to completely synchronize two chaotic systems with unknown parameters is not suitable to those systems with slowly variable parameters, such as electronic neuron systems. Simulation results show that two electronic neuron systems can be phase synchronized only by using adaptive active control strategy

  10. Growth strategy of Norway spruce under air elevated [CO2

    Pokorny, R.; Urban, O.; Holisova, P.; Sprtova, M.; Sigut, L.; Slipkova, R.

    2012-04-01

    Plants will respond to globally increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) by acclimation or adaptation at physiological and morphological levels. Considering the temporal onset, physiological responses may be categorized as short-term and morphological ones as long-term responses. The degree of plant growth responses, including cell division and cell expansion, is highly variable. It depends mainly on the specie's genetic predisposition, environment, mineral nutrition status, duration of CO2 enrichment, and/or synergetic effects of other stresses. Elevated [CO2] causes changes in tissue anatomy, quantity, size, shape and spatial orientation and can result in altered sink strength. Since, there are many experimental facilities for the investigation of elevated [CO2] effects on trees: i) closed systems or open top chambers (OTCs), ii) semi-open systems (for example glass domes with adjustable lamella windows - DAWs), and iii) free-air [CO2] enrichments (FACE); the results are still unsatisfactory due to: i) relatively short-term duration of experiments, ii) cultivation of young plants with different growth strategy comparing to old ones, iii) plant cultivation under artificial soil and weather conditions, and iv) in non-representative stand structure. In this contribution we are discussing the physiological and morphological responses of Norway spruce trees cultivated in DAWs during eight consecutive growing seasons in the context with other results from Norway spruce cultivation under air-elevated [CO2] conditions. On the level of physiological responses, we discuss the changes in the rate of CO2 assimilation, assimilation capacity, photorespiration, dark respiration, stomatal conductance, water potential and transpiration, and the sensitivity of these physiological processes to temperature. On the level of morphological responses, we discuss the changes in bud and growth phenology, needle and shoot morphology, architecture of crown and root system, wood

  11. Adaptive strategies in populations of Chirocephalus diaphanus (Crustacea, Anostraca) from temporary waters in the Reatine Apennines (Central Italy)

    Secondina DI GIUSEPPE; Giovanni FANCELLO; Graziella MURA

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the adaptive strategies of Chirocephalus diaphanus (Crustacea, Anostraca) and the environmental characteristics of its habitat, we studied two populations living in high-altitude biotopes with very different characteristics, i.e. a semipermanent pool (Tilia Lake) and a temporary one (Illica Plain Pool), and we examined the essential features of their biological cycles (growth rate, reproductive biology, sex ratio and life cycle). The results show that t...

  12. Determinants of climate change adaptation strategies used by rice farmers in Southwestern, Nigeria

    Kayode Arimi

    2014-01-01

    Poor adaptation to climate change is a major threat to sustainable rice production in Nigeria. Determinants of appropriate climate-change adaptation strategies used by rice farmers in Southwestern Nigeria have not been fully investigated. In this study, the determinants of climate change adaptation strategies used by rice farmers in Southwestern Nigeria were investigated. Data were obtained through Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and field survey conducted in the study areas. Data obtained wer...

  13. Key Parameters Estimation and Adaptive Warning Strategy for Rear-End Collision of Vehicle

    Xiang Song; Xu Li; Weigong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The rear-end collision warning system requires reliable warning decision mechanism to adapt the actual driving situation. To overcome the shortcomings of existing warning methods, an adaptive strategy is proposed to address the practical aspects of the collision warning problem. The proposed strategy is based on the parameter-adaptive and variable-threshold approaches. First, several key parameter estimation algorithms are developed to provide more accurate and reliable information for subseq...

  14. Potential strategies for adapting to greenhouse warming: Perspectives from the developing world

    The following subject areas are covered: (1) the developing world and its high-risk sector; and (2) abatement and adaptation strategies (prevention of further warming, adaptation options, and impediments to adaptation). Adaptation options in the developing countries are discussed in the framework of the following components: (1) uncertainties with respect to the impact of the greenhouse warming; (2) indifference of public policies and programs to greenhouse warming issues; and (3) potential agroclimatic changes following greenhouse warming

  15. Assessment of governance strategies for climate adaptation in Flanders/Belgium

    Verhofstede, Björn; Leinfelder, Hans; Allaert, Georges

    2010-01-01

    Climate discourse in recent decades has mainly focused on the issue of mitigation. Through a better understanding and assessment of climate challenges, adaptation arises as a complementary strategy to mitigation. Vulnerability in relation to climate change is seen as a function of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Adaptation can influence sensitivity while mitigating impacts on the exposure to climate change. (IPCC, 2007). Adaptation requires space for climate on a local scale and ...

  16. A hybrid adaptive control strategy for a smart prosthetic hand

    Chen, Cheng-Hung; Naidu, D. Subbaram; Perez-Gracia, Alba; Schoen, Marco P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid of a soft computing technique of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and a hard computing technique of adaptive control for a two- dimensional movement of a prosthetic hand with a thumb and index finger. In particular, ANFIS is used for inverse kinematics, and the adaptive control is used for linearized dynamics to minimize tracking error. The simulations of this hybrid controller, when compared with the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller s...

  17. Dual-thread parallel control strategy for ophthalmic adaptive optics

    Yu, Yongxin; Zhang, Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    To improve ophthalmic adaptive optics speed and compensate for ocular wavefront aberration of high temporal frequency, the adaptive optics wavefront correction has been implemented with a control scheme including 2 parallel threads; one is dedicated to wavefront detection and the other conducts wavefront reconstruction and compensation. With a custom Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor that measures the ocular wave aberration with 193 subapertures across the pupil, adaptive optics has achieved a ...

  18. The impact of climate change on grain maize production over Europe - adaptation with different irrigation strategies

    Ceglar, A.; Srivastava, A. K.; Chukaliev, O.; Duveiller, G.; Niemeyer, S.

    2013-12-01

    The spatial distribution of water deficit and maize yield deficit across Europe has been compared between current and expected climatic conditions in the near future (time window 2030). Maize yields and water requirements were simulated using the WOFOST (World Food Studies) crop growth model. In our study, the priority has been given to future projections of the A1B emission scenario produced within the ENSEMBLE project: HadRM3 RCM nested within the HADCM3 GCM (HADLEY) and HIRHAM5 RCM nested within ECHAM5 GCM (ECHAM). The two realizations can be considered as warm (HADLEY) and cold (ECHAM5) according to simulated temperature in the near future and therefore represent the extremes in air temperature change within those analyzed in ENSEMBLES project, allowing us to evaluate the largest range of uncertainty in weather inputs to the impact model. In addition, we also explored the advantages of different irrigation strategies for the target crop to offset climate change impacts. In wake of limited amount of water availability for agriculture purposes, we explored effectiveness of three different irrigation strategies on maize yield over Europe, namely full, deficit and supplemental irrigation. The results of our study indicate that the maize yield under rainfed conditions is expected to decrease over the Southern Europe as well as regions around the Black Sea during the 2030s under both climate model realizations. Water deficit is expected to increase especially in the Mediterranean, whereas slightly less in parts of Central and Western Europe. However, adaptation strategies followed in this study negate the detrimental effect of climate change and result in an increased maize yield. Three irrigation strategies have been simulated differing in timing of water application and in the total volume of water supplied during the growing season. The results show that yields, achieved using deficit and full irrigation strategies, are not significantly different. Hence, at least

  19. Heterocyst placement strategies to maximize growth of cyanobacterial filaments

    Brown, Aidan I

    2012-01-01

    Under conditions of limited fixed-nitrogen, some filamentous cyanobacteria develop a regular pattern of heterocyst cells that fix nitrogen for the remaining vegetative cells. We examine three different heterocyst placement strategies by quantitatively modelling filament growth while varying both external fixed-nitrogen and leakage from the filament. We find that there is an optimum heterocyst frequency which maximizes the growth rate of the filament; the optimum frequency decreases as the external fixed-nitrogen concentration increases but increases as the leakage increases. In the presence of leakage, filaments implementing a local heterocyst placement strategy grow significantly faster than filaments implementing random heterocyst placement strategies. With no extracellular fixed-nitrogen, consistent with recent experimental studies of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the modelled heterocyst spacing distribution using our local heterocyst placement strategy is qualitatively similar to experimentally observed patterns...

  20. Management Strategies for Complex Adaptive Systems: Sensemaking, Learning, and Improvisation

    McDaniel, Reuben R., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Misspecification of the nature of organizations may be a major reason for difficulty in achieving performance improvement. Organizations are often viewed as machine-like, but complexity science suggests that organizations should be viewed as complex adaptive systems. I identify the characteristics of complex adaptive systems and give examples of…

  1. Ten Adaptive Strategies for Family and Work Balance: Advice from Successful Families.

    Haddock, Shelley A.; Zimmerman, Toni Schindler; Ziemba, Scott J.; Current, Lisa R.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated adaptive strategies of middle class, dual earner couples (N=47) with children that are successfully managing family and work. Guided by grounded-theory methodology, analysis of interview data revealed these successful couples structured their lives around 10 major strategies. Each strategy is defined and illustrated through the…

  2. The influence of context on the implementation of adaptive emotion regulation strategies.

    Aldao, Amelia; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2012-08-01

    Putatively adaptive emotion regulation strategies (e.g., acceptance, problem solving, reappraisal) show weaker associations with psychopathology than putatively maladaptive strategies (e.g., avoidance, self-criticism, hiding expression, suppression of experience, worry, rumination). This is puzzling, given the central role that adaptive strategies play in a wide range of psychotherapeutic approaches. We explored this asymmetry by examining the effects of context (i.e., emotion intensity, type of emotion, social vs. academic circumstances) on the implementation of adaptive and maladaptive strategies. We asked 111 participants to describe 8 emotion-eliciting situations and identify which strategies they used in order to regulate their affect. We found support for a contextual model of emotion regulation, in which adaptive strategies were implemented with more cross-situational variability than maladaptive strategies. In addition, the variability in implementation of two adaptive strategies (acceptance, problem solving) predicted lower levels of psychopathology, suggesting that flexible implementation of such strategies in line with contextual demands is associated with better mental health. We discuss these findings by underscoring the importance of adopting a functional approach to the delineation of contextual factors that influence the implementation of emotion regulation strategies. PMID:22659159

  3. Sleep strategies of night shift nurses on days off: which ones are most adaptive?

    Megan E Petrov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the off-shift sleep strategies of bi-ethnic night shift nurses, the relationship between these sleep strategies and adaptation to shift work, and identify the participant-level characteristics associated with a given sleep strategy.Methods: African American and non-Hispanic White female, night shift nurses from an academic hospital were recruited to complete a survey on sleep-wake patterns (n = 213. Participants completed the Standard Shiftwork Index and the Biological Clocks Questionnaire to determine sleep strategies and adaptation to night shift work. In addition, chronotype was determined quantitatively with a modified version of the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire.Most participants worked approximately three consecutive 12-hour night shifts followed by several days off.Results: Five sleep strategies used on days off were identified: a Night Stay, b Nap Proxy, c Switch Sleeper, d No Sleep, and e Incomplete Switcher. Nap Proxy and No Sleep types were associated with poorer adaptation to night shift work. The Switch Sleeper and Incomplete Switcher types were identified as more adaptive strategies that were associated with less sleep disturbance, a later chronotype, and less cardiovascular problems.Conclusions: Behavioral sleep strategies are related to adaptation to a typical night-shift schedule among hospital nurses. Nurses are crucial to the safety and well-being of their patients. Therefore, adoption of more adaptive sleep strategies may reduce sleep/wake dysregulation in this population, and improve cardiovascular outcomes.

  4. Flood risk and adaptation strategies in Indonesia: a probabilistic analysis using globally available data

    Muis, Sanne; Güneralp, Burak; Jongman, Brenden; Aerts, Jeroen; Ward, Philip

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, global flood losses are increasing due to socio-economic development and climate change, with the largest risk increases in developing countries such as Indonesia. For countries to undertake effective risk-management, an accurate understanding of both current and future risk is required. However, detailed information is rarely available, particularly for developing countries. We present a first of its kind country-scale analysis of flood risk using globally available data that combines a global inundation model with a land use change model and more local data on flood damages. To assess the contribution and uncertainty of different drivers of future risk, we integrate thousands of socio-economic and climate projections in a probabilistic way and include multiple adaptation strategies. Indonesia is used as a case-study as it a country that already faces high flood risk, and is undergoing rapid urbanization. We developed probabilistic and spatially-explicit urban expansion projections from 2000 to 2030 that show that the increase in urban extent ranges from 215% to 357% (5th and 95th percentile). We project rapidly rising flood risk, both for coastal and river floods. This increase is largely driven by economic growth and urban expansion (i.e. increasing exposure). Whilst sea level rise will amply this trend, the response of river floods to climate change is uncertain with the impact of the mean ensemble of 20 climate projections (5 GCMs and 4 RCPs) being close to zero. However, as urban expansion is the main driving force of future risk, we argue that the implementation of adaptation measures is increasingly pressing, regardless of the wide uncertainty in climate projections. Hence, we evaluated the effectiveness of two adaptation measures: spatial planning in flood prone areas and enhanced flood protection. Both strategies have a large potential to effectively offset the increasing risk trend. The risk reduction is in the range of 22-85% and 53

  5. Evaluation of delivered dose for a clinical daily adaptive plan selection strategy for bladder cancer radiotherapy

    Purpose: To account for variable bladder size during bladder cancer radiotherapy, a daily plan selection strategy was implemented. The aim of this study was to calculate the actually delivered dose using an adaptive strategy, compared to a non-adaptive approach. Material and methods: Ten patients were treated to the bladder and lymph nodes with an adaptive full bladder strategy. Interpolated delineations of bladder and tumor on a full and empty bladder CT scan resulted in five PTVs for which VMAT plans were created. Daily cone beam CT (CBCT) scans were used for plan selection. Bowel, rectum and target volumes were delineated on these CBCTs, and delivered dose for these was calculated using both the adaptive plan, and a non-adaptive plan. Results: Target coverage for lymph nodes improved using an adaptive strategy. The full bladder strategy spared the healthy part of the bladder from a high dose. Average bowel cavity V30Gy and V40Gy significantly reduced with 60 and 69 ml, respectively (p < 0.01). Other parameters for bowel and rectum remained unchanged. Conclusions: Daily plan selection compared to a non-adaptive strategy yielded similar bladder coverage and improved coverage for lymph nodes, with a significant reduction in bowel cavity V30Gy and V40Gy only, while other sparing was limited

  6. The QoE implications of ultra-high definition video adaptation strategies

    Nightingale, James; Awobuluyi, Olatunde; Wang, Qi; Alcaraz-Calero, Jose M.; Grecos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    As the capabilities of high-end consumer devices increase, streaming and playback of Ultra-High Definition (UHD) is set to become commonplace. The move to these new, higher resolution, video services is one of the main factors contributing to the predicted continuation of growth in video related traffic in the Internet. This massive increases in bandwidth requirement, even when mitigated by the use of new video compression standards such as H.265, will place an ever-increasing burden on network service providers. This will be especially true in mobile environments where users have come to expect ubiquitous access to content. Consequently, delivering UHD and Full UHD (FUHD) video content is one of the key drivers for future Fifth Generation (5G) mobile networks. One often voiced, but as yet unanswered question, is whether users of mobile devices with modest screen sizes (e.g. smartphones or smaller tablet) will actually benefit from consuming the much higher bandwidth required to watch online UHD video, in terms of an improved user experience. In this paper, we use scalable H.265 encoded video streams to conduct a subjective evaluation of the impact on a user's perception of video quality across a comprehensive range of adaptation strategies, covering each of the three adaptation domains, for UHD and FUHD video. The results of our subjective study provide insightful and useful indications of which methods of adapting UHD and FUHD streams have the least impact on user's perceived QoE. In particular, it was observed that, in over 70% of cases, users were unable to distinguish between full HD (1080p) and UHD (4K) videos when they were unaware of which version was being shown to them. Our results from this evaluation can be used to provide adaptation rule sets that will facilitate fast, QoE aware in-network adaptation of video streams in support of realtime adaptation objectives. Undoubtedly they will also promote discussion around how network service providers manage

  7. Social Networks-Based Adaptive Pairing Strategy for Cooperative Learning

    Chuang, Po-Jen; Chiang, Ming-Chao; Yang, Chu-Sing; Tsai, Chun-Wei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a grouping strategy to enhance the learning and testing results of students, called Pairing Strategy (PS). The proposed method stems from the need of interactivity and the desire of cooperation in cooperative learning. Based on the social networks of students, PS provides members of the groups to learn from or mimic…

  8. When Easy Comes Hard: The Development of Adaptive Strategy Selection

    Mata, Rui; von Helversen, Bettina; Rieskamp, Jorg

    2011-01-01

    Can children learn to select the right strategy for a given problem? In one experiment, 9- to 10-year-olds (N = 50), 11- to 12-year-olds (N = 50), and adults (N = 50) made probabilistic inferences. Participants encountered environments favoring either an information-intensive strategy that integrates all available information or an…

  9. Control Reallocation Strategies for Damage Adaptation in Transport Class Aircraft

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Krishnakumar, K.; Limes, Greg; Bryant, Don

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the feasibility, potential benefits and implementation issues associated with retrofitting a neural-adaptive flight control system (NFCS) to existing transport aircraft, including both cable/hydraulic and fly-by-wire configurations. NFCS uses a neural network based direct adaptive control approach for applying alternate sources of control authority in the presence of damage or failures in order to achieve desired flight control performance. Neural networks are used to provide consistent handling qualities across flight conditions, adapt to changes in aircraft dynamics and to make the controller easy to apply when implemented on different aircraft. Full-motion piloted simulation studies were performed on two different transport models: the Boeing 747-400 and the Boeing C-17. Subjects included NASA, Air Force and commercial airline pilots. Results demonstrate the potential for improving handing qualities and significantly increased survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

  10. Climate change, vulnerability and the local adaptation strategies of food enterprises in Finland

    Puupponen, Antti

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses vulnerability and the adaptation strategies of Finnish food supply chains in the context of climate change. A case study was conducted in 2012 within three Finnish regions. The people interviewed were food entrepreneurs, the managers of food enterprises and relevant stakeholders. According to the study, food enterprises seem to trust local and decentralised food supply chains as an adaptation strategy for combating climate change. Hence, the case study di...

  11. Climate change adaptation strategies of maize producers of the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    Ahmed, Musa Hasen

    2016-01-01

    The impacts of climate change are considered to be strong in countries located in tropical Africa that depend on agriculture for their food, income and livelihood. Therefore, a better understanding of the local dimensions of adaptation strategies is essential to develop appropriate measures that will mitigate adverse consequences. Hence, this study was conducted to identify the most commonly used adaptation strategies that farm households practice among a set of options to withstand the effec...

  12. COMBINATION ADAPTIVE TRUST REGION METHOD BY NON-MONOTONE STRATEGY FOR UNCONSTRAINED NONLINEAR PROGRAMMING

    KEYVAN AMINI; MASOUD AHOOKHOSH

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new trust region method for unconstrained nonlinear programming in which we blend adaptive trust region algorithm by non-monotone strategy to propose a new non-monotone trust region algorithm with automatically adjusted radius. Both non-monotone strategy and adaptive technique can help us introduce a new algorithm that reduces the number of iterations and function evaluations. The new algorithm preserves the global convergence and has local superlinear and quadrati...

  13. Adaptive control strategies for a class of nonlinear propagation bioprocesses

    This paper presents the control problem of a class of propagation bio-processes that are carried out in fixed bed reactors. Since the dynamics of these processes are described by partial differential equations, in order to obtain useful models for control purposes, a possible method consists of approximation of their infinitely order associated models by finite order models. A class of nonlinear adaptive controllers are then designed based on these finite order models, which consist of a set of ordinary differential equations obtained here by orthogonal collocation method. Computer simulations conducted in the case of a fixed bed reactor are included to illustrate the performances of the proposed adaptive controllers. (authors)

  14. Online adaptation strategies for statistical machine translation in post-editing scenarios

    MARTÍNEZ GÓMEZ, PASCUAL; Sanchis Trilles, Germán; Casacuberta Nolla, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    One of the most promising approaches to machine translation consists in formulating the problem by means of a pattern recognition approach. By doing so, there are some tasks in which online adapta- tion is needed in order to adapt the system to changing scenarios. In the present work, we perform an exhaustive comparison of four online learning algorithms when combined with two adaptation strategies for the task of online adaptation in statistical machine translation. Two of these ...

  15. Simple adaptive measurement strategies for estimation of d-dimensional quantum states

    Adaptive methods improve the quality of state reconstruction when estimating unknown pure d-level-states (qudits), of which only a limited amount of copies is available. Using information from previous measurements, the adaption steps construct measurement bases for further measurements, which improve the estimation quality more than further measurements with fixed or random measurement bases. We present adaptive strategies for arbitrary finite dimensions d and discuss Monte-Carlo simulation results for complete reconstruction of the quantum state.

  16. Heterocyst placement strategies to maximize the growth of cyanobacterial filaments

    Under conditions of limited fixed-nitrogen, some filamentous cyanobacteria develop a regular pattern of heterocyst cells that fix nitrogen for the remaining vegetative cells. We examine three different heterocyst placement strategies by quantitatively modelling filament growth while varying both external fixed-nitrogen and leakage from the filament. We find that there is an optimum heterocyst frequency which maximizes the growth rate of the filament; the optimum frequency decreases as the external fixed-nitrogen concentration increases but increases as the leakage increases. In the presence of leakage, filaments implementing a local heterocyst placement strategy grow significantly faster than filaments implementing random heterocyst placement strategies. With no extracellular fixed-nitrogen, consistent with recent experimental studies of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the modelled heterocyst spacing distribution using our local heterocyst placement strategy is qualitatively similar to experimentally observed patterns. As external fixed-nitrogen is increased, the spacing distribution for our local placement strategy retains the same shape, while the average spacing between heterocysts continuously increases. (paper)

  17. Adaptation strategies to climate variability and change and its limitations to smallholder farmers. A literature search

    Frank Phillipo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, knowledge on adaptation strategies to climate variability and change are scattered and fragmented due to lack of standpoints adaptation framework. This paper intends to analyse differences in adaptation strategies across agro-ecological zones, and finding out factors dictating adaptation to climate variability and change to smallholder farmers. The paper is based on documentary review methodology in which journals and books on adaptation were used as the main sources of information. The collected information were analysed by using content analysis. This paper found that smallholder farmers use a variety of practices to adapt to climate variability and change. These practices include: crop management, livestock management, diversification of livelihood strategies and land use management. Availability of extension services, climate change information and membership to social networks were among the factors identified dictating smallholder farmers adaptation to climate variability and change. The paper recommends to the Government of sub-Saharan Africa and development partners to come up with adaptation framework that takes into consideration differences in geographical location. They are needed also to provide enabling conditions to smallholder farmers through strengthening farmers’ supportive services to enhance their adaptive capacities.

  18. Evaluating adaptive cruise control strategies in worst-case scenarios

    Willigen, W.H. van; Schut, M.C.; Kester, L.J.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with safety in (cooperative) adaptive cruise control systems. In these systems, the speed of the cars is maintained automatically, based on the preferred speed of the driver and the speed of the preceding car. Technologies that are used in these systems, such as radar and rad

  19. An adaptive finite element strategy for complex flow problems

    Oden, J. T.; Strouboulis, T.; Devloo, PH.; Spradley, L. W.; Price, J.

    1987-01-01

    Adaptive finite element methods for steady and unsteady flow problems in two-dimensional domains are described. Details of a data management scheme are given that provide for the rapid implementation of various CFD algorithms on changing unstructured meshes. The results of several numerical experiments on subsonic and supersonic flow problems are discussed.

  20. On Adaptive Extended Compatibility Changing Type of Product Design Strategy

    Wenwen, Jiang; Zhibin, Xie

    The article uses research ways of Enterprise localization and enterprise's development course to research strategy of company's product design and development. It announces at different stages for development, different kinds of enterprises will adopt product design and development policies of different modes. It also announces close causality between development course of company and central technology and product. The result indicated enterprises in leading position in market, technology and brand adopt pioneer strategy type of product research and development. These enterprise relying on the large-scale leading enterprise offering a complete set service adopts the passively duplicating type tactic of product research and development. Some enterprise in part of advantage in technology, market, management or brand adopt following up strategy of product research and development. The enterprises with relative advantage position adopt the strategy of technology applied taking optimizing services as centre in product research and development in fields of brand culture and market service.

  1. Adapting manufacturing strategy to industrial after-sales service operations

    Johansson, Pontus

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation is initiated from an increased awareness within industry of the importance of services in general and of after-sales services in particular. The scope of this research is to analyse how the specific characteristics of after-sales services affect a company’s manufacturing strategy, which in effect should become an operations strategy not only considering the manufacturing of goods. Considering the after-sales service as a product, consisting of both good and service character...

  2. How climate compatible are livelihood adaptation strategies and development programs in rural Indonesia?

    R.M. Wise

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Achieving climate compatible development (CCD is a necessity in developing countries, but there are few examples of requisite planning processes, or manifestations of CCD. This paper presents a multi-stakeholder, participatory planning process designed to screen and prioritise rural livelihood adaptation strategies against nine CCD criteria. The process also integrated three principles of adaptation pathways: interventions should be (1 ‘no regrets’ and maintain reversibility to avoid mal-adaptation; (2 address both proximate and underlying systemic drivers of community vulnerability; and (3 linked across spatial scales and jurisdictional levels to promote coordination. Using examples of two rural sub-districts in Indonesia, we demonstrate the process and resulting CCD strategies. Priority strategies varied between the sub-districts but all reflected standard development interventions: water management, intensification or diversification of agriculture and aquaculture, education, health, food security and skills-building for communities. Strategies delivered co-benefits for human development and ecosystem services and hence adaptive capacity, but greenhouse mitigation co-benefits were less significant. Actions to deliver the strategies’ objectives were screened for reversibility, and a minority were potentially mal-adaptive (i.e. path dependent, disproportionately burdening the most vulnerable, reducing incentives to adapt, or increasing greenhouse gas emissions yet highly feasible. These related to infrastructure, which paradoxically is necessary to deliver ‘soft’ adaptation benefits (i.e. road access to health services. Only a small minority of transformative strategies addressed the systemic (i.e. institutional and political drivers of vulnerability. Strategies were well-matched by development programs, suggesting that current interventions mirror CCD. However, development programs tackled fewer systemic drivers, were poorly

  3. FRANCHISING AS A GROWTH STRATEGY. EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIA

    TRIPA Simona; CUC Sunhilde

    2014-01-01

    There are many ways in which businesses can growth. Aim of this article is to make the business owner aware of the scope of the franchise and business opportunity law and how they may affect growth strategy tried to be employed by the business owner. For this purpose we present a list of advantages and disadvantages of franchising for the franchisee and for the franchisor and examined the status and trends of the Romanian market franchise, especially in clothing, which are available for prosp...

  4. Acculturation Strategies, Social Support, and Cross-Cultural Adaptation: A Mediation Analysis

    Ng, Ting Kin; Tsang, Kwok Kuen; Lian, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Previous acculturation research has established the influences of acculturation strategies and social support on cross-cultural adaptation. The present study attempted to elaborate these direct associations by proposing that social support and the use of the integration and marginalization strategies might affect psychological adaptation…

  5. Adaptive governance and institutional strategies for climate-induced community relocations in Alaska

    Bronen, Robin; Chapin, F Stuart

    2013-01-01

    This article presents governance and institutional strategies for climate-induced community relocations. In Alaska, repeated extreme weather events coupled with climate change-induced coastal erosion impact the habitability of entire communities. Community residents and government agencies concur that relocation is the only adaptation strategy that can protect lives and infrastructure. Community relocation stretches the financial and institutional capacity of existing governance institutions....

  6. Climate change, markets and livelihood strategies for adaptation in vulnerable Altiplano Ecosystems

    Valdivia, Corinne; Jiménez, Elizabeth; Seth, Anji

    2009-01-01

    This presentation discusses a framework of scales and interactions, Altiplano climate trends and change, markets, livelihood strategies and perceptions of risks across the Altiplano ecosystem, uncertainty, and participatory research in adaptive capacities. LTRA-4 (Practices and Strategies for Vulnerable Agro-Ecosystems)

  7. Strategies in edge plasma simulation using adaptive dynamic nodalization techniques

    A wide span of steady-state and transient edge plasma processes simulation problems require accurate discretization techniques and can then be treated with Finite Element (FE) and Finite Volume (FV) methods. The software used here to meet these meshing requirements is a 2D finite element grid generator. It allows to produce adaptive unstructured grids taking into consideration the flux surface characteristics. To comply with the common mesh handling features of FE/FV packages, some options have been added to the basic generation tool. These enhancements include quadrilateral meshes without non-regular transition elements obtained by substituting them by transition constructions consisting of regular quadrilateral elements. Furthermore triangular grids can be created with one edge parallel to the magnetic field and modified by the basic adaptation/realignment techniques. Enhanced code operation properties and processing capabilities are expected. (author)

  8. Developing Growth Strategies in SMEs - the Case of Better Languages

    Warburton, David John

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary This project was commissioned by Nottingham based translation agency Better Languages and lasted from July-September 2009. The main aim of the project was to help the client firm to develop sound strategy and structure to maintain the growth and profitability they had been experiencing. The project begins with an introductory section, outlining the client firm, its corporate culture and background. The wider translation industry is then framed using Porter (1980)’s f...

  9. Adaptation of Online Information Searching Strategy Inventory into Turkish

    Aşkar, Petek; TED Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi; Mazman, Sacide Güzin; Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Bilgisayar ve Öğretim Teknolojileri Eğitimi Bölümü

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to adapt “Online Information Seeking Inventory”, developed by Tsai (2009), to Turkish and provide validity and reliability of the Turkish form. The Study group is consisted of 788 people who responded the online survey either pencil-paper based or web based. After translating studies to provide language equivalency, first and second order confirmatory factor analyses were conducted for validity and cronbach alpha coefficient and McDonald’s omega were calculated fo...

  10. Knowledge extraction in large databases using adaptive strategies

    Hasperué, Waldo

    2013-01-01

    The general objective of this thesis is the development of an adaptive technique for extracting knowledge in large databases. Nowadays, technology allows storing huge volumes of information. For this reason, the availability of techniques that allow, as a first stage, analyzing that information and obtaining knowledge that can be expressed as classification rules, is of interest. However, the information available is expected to change and/or increase with time, and therefore, as a second sta...

  11. Adaptive Energy-Aware Gathering Strategy for Wireless Sensor Networks

    E M Saad; Awadalla, M. H.; R. R. Darwish

    2009-01-01

    Energy hole problem is considered one of the most severe threats in wireless sensor networks. In this paper the idea of exploiting sink mobility for the purpose of culling the energy hole problem in hierarchical large-scale wireless sensor networks based on bees algorithm is presented. In the proposed scheme, a mobile sink equipped with a powerful transceiver and battery, traverses the entire field, and periodically gathers data from network cluster heads. The mobile sink follows an adaptive ...

  12. Adaptive Through-Thickness Integration Strategy for Shell Elements

    Burchitz, I.A.; Meinders, T.; Huetink, J.

    2007-01-01

    Reliable numerical prediction of springback in sheet metal forming is essential for the automotive industry. There are numerous factors that influence the accuracy of springback prediction by using the finite element method. One of the reasons is the through-thickness numerical integration of shell elements. It is known that even for simple problems the traditional integration schemes may require up to 50 integration points to achieve a high accuracy of springback analysis. An adaptive throug...

  13. Key Parameters Estimation and Adaptive Warning Strategy for Rear-End Collision of Vehicle

    Xiang Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rear-end collision warning system requires reliable warning decision mechanism to adapt the actual driving situation. To overcome the shortcomings of existing warning methods, an adaptive strategy is proposed to address the practical aspects of the collision warning problem. The proposed strategy is based on the parameter-adaptive and variable-threshold approaches. First, several key parameter estimation algorithms are developed to provide more accurate and reliable information for subsequent warning method. They include a two-stage algorithm which contains a Kalman filter and a Luenberger observer for relative acceleration estimation, a Bayesian theory-based algorithm of estimating the road friction coefficient, and an artificial neural network for estimating the driver’s reaction time. Further, the variable-threshold warning method is designed to achieve the global warning decision. In the method, the safety distance is employed to judge the dangerous state. The calculation method of the safety distance in this paper can be adaptively adjusted according to the different driving conditions of the leading vehicle. Due to the real-time estimation of the key parameters and the adaptive calculation of the warning threshold, the strategy can adapt to various road and driving conditions. Finally, the proposed strategy is evaluated through simulation and field tests. The experimental results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  14. Control of growth and adaptation to nutritional shifts for bacteria exposed to amino acid-limiting environments

    Mateescu, Eduard M.; Hwa, Terence

    2007-03-01

    In order to grow at the highest rate sustainable by the environment, bacteria turn on different metabolic pathways and utilize a myriad of adaptive strategies. The macromolecular composition (RNA, DNA, protein) and overall cell size (mass) can be very different in different environments. Surprisingly however, these differences appear to depend only on the growth rate and not on the growth medium itself. As the nutritional environment changes in time, the cells quickly adapt their composition to the one corresponding to the new conditions. Here, we propose a phenomenological model of growth and adaptation control for the bacterial cell, based on a simplified formulation of the central dogma and a simplified implementation of the stringent response. The core model contains no free parameters and provides a simple intuitive understanding of cell growth control. The results generated by the model, physiological state of the cell as well as the characteristics of the transition between optimized states of growth, are in qualitative and semi-quantitative agreement (i.e. within a factor of 2) with the experimental observations.

  15. How will the EU climate adaptation strategy affect EU agricultural policies?

    Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Karali, Eleni; Castellari, Sergio;

    A key objective in the EU Strategy on adaptation to climate change (COM (2013) 216 final) is to ensure mainstreaming, i.e. integration, of adaptation measures into European sectoral policies. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is one such sectoral policy which is prioritised in the strategy as an...... area to be climate proofed. The CAP is under revision and will be reformed for the 2014-2020 period with the explicit objectives of strengthening the competitiveness and the sustainability of agriculture (EC). Climate change adaptation objectives are included in the proposal for a greening of the...... environmental objectives as well as fostering innovation and ensuring viable rural areas. This raises the question as to the strength of the mainstreaming mandate laid out in the Climate change adaptation strategy, particularly when policy objectives conflict or when they simply compete for attention. Thus, the...

  16. Analysis of the mitigation and adaptation strategies of the transport industry in the city of Mexicali

    Argelia Melero Hernández

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop an analysis of mitigation and adaptation strategies in the transport sector in the city of Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. Based on the methodology of the Programs of Action on Climate Change (PACC, we analyzed the Mexicali emissions inventory and generated a diagnosis. Once we analyzed the current situation, we studied mitigation strategies such as Bus Rapid Transit (BRT, the smog check, new importation legislation for used cars, biofuel production, the promotion of lower–emission vehicles and urban planning. On adaptation strategies vehicle recycling and the use of non–motorized transport were studied as an alternative of sustainable mobility.

  17. Overcoming Drought : Adaptation Strategies for Andhra Pradesh, India

    World Bank, (WB)

    2006-01-01

    Using recent advances in modeling climate-related risks and adjusting state of the art catastrophic risk modeling techniques to drought, the study conducts an innovative long-term assessment of drought risks in Andhra Pradesh, India, and suggests strategies to reduce their impact, under several economic, drought management and climate change scenarios. The analysis deepens an understanding...

  18. Climate Change and Poverty : An Integrated Strategy for Adaptation

    Cord, Louise; Hull, Catherine; Hennet, Christel; Van der Vink, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Developing countries are most exposed to the impact of climate change and within these countries, the poor face the brunt of the burden. Climate change is not a discrete problem that can be dealt with through isolated reforms: impacting economic growth, health, and institutional capacity, it represents a full-frontal challenge to development. This note traces the multi-dimensional impacts ...

  19. Urban Planning and Climate Change: Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies

    Fulvia Pinto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a current phenomenon: the temperatures rise, rainfall patterns are changing, glaciers melt and the average global sea level is rising. It is expected that these changes will continue and that the extreme weather events, such as floods and droughts, will become more frequent and intense. The impact and vulnerability factors for nature, for the economy and for our health are different, depending on the territorial, social and economic aspects. The current scientific debate is focused on the need to formulate effective policies for adaptation and mitigation to climate change. The city plays an important role in this issue: it emits the most greenhouse gas emissions (more than 60% of the world population currently lives in urban areas and the city is more exposed and vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Urban planning and territorial governance play a crucial role in this context: the international debate on the sustainability of urban areas is increasing. It’s necessary to adapt the tools of building regulations to increase the quality of energy - environment of the cities.

  20. Growth or reproduction: emergence of an evolutionary optimal strategy

    Grilli, J.; Suweis, S.; Maritan, A.

    2013-10-01

    Modern ecology has re-emphasized the need for a quantitative understanding of the original ‘survival of the fittest theme’ based on analysis of the intricate trade-offs between competing evolutionary strategies that characterize the evolution of life. This is key to the understanding of species coexistence and ecosystem diversity under the omnipresent constraint of limited resources. In this work we propose an agent-based model replicating a community of interacting individuals, e.g. plants in a forest, where all are competing for the same finite amount of resources and each competitor is characterized by a specific growth-reproduction strategy. We show that such an evolution dynamics drives the system towards a stationary state characterized by an emergent optimal strategy, which in turn depends on the amount of available resources the ecosystem can rely on. We find that the share of resources used by individuals is power-law distributed with an exponent directly related to the optimal strategy. The model can be further generalized to devise optimal strategies in social and economical interacting systems dynamics.

  1. An adaptive strategy to control the space debris population

    White, Adam Edward

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the last 60 years of satellite launches, a significant amount of space debris has been generated in Earth orbit. Growing consensus amongst experts over the last decade, has suggested that removing existing debris, alongside mitigation efforts, can assist in controlling the size of the low Earth orbit (LEO) population. However, no objective or long-term strategy exist to ensure the most effective use of active debris removal (ADR). The way we utilise near-Earth space, and th...

  2. Adaptation Strategies and Resilience to Climate Change of Historic Dwellings

    Carlos Rubio-Bellido; Jesus A. Pulido-Arcas; Jose M. Cabeza-Lainez

    2015-01-01

    Historic city centres have a large amount of dwellings in Europe, which were built to provide a comfortable shelter with the absence of mechanical means. The knowledge of climate responsive design strategies can play a significant role in reducing the energy demand of extant buildings, paving the way for its sustainable development in the face of the rising threat to its occupants of climate change. The residential architecture, developed, in most cases, in dense urban centres, was built usin...

  3. [Germination strategy and ecological adaptability of Eragrostis pilosa].

    Li, Xuehua; Li, Xiaola; Jiang, Deming; Liu, Zhimin

    2006-04-01

    The study on the germination strategy of Eragrostis pilosa under different storage and environmental conditions showed that freshly collected E. pilosa seeds had a stronger innate dormancy. Chilling and dry storage for 4 months had no obvious effect on releasing from dormancy, while longer time storage could facilitate seed maturation. The seeds could germinate either in light or in darkness, and stronger light was in favor of germination. The optimal temperature for germination was 28 degrees C, while higher or lower temperature could result in the decrease of germination. The germination percentage of seeds under changed temperature (16 to 28 degrees C) was higher than that under constant temperature (28 degrees C), but with no significant difference. The critical amount of rain for seed germination was about 10 mm, and the germination percentage and duration all increased with increasing rainfall. E. pilosa had two germination strategies, i. e., quick germination and dormancy for more than one year. Based on the seed morphological characters and germination strategies, it could be concluded that E. pilosa had a persistent soil seed bank. PMID:16836087

  4. Using a Social Justice and Health Framework to Assess European Climate Change Adaptation Strategies

    Melanie Boeckmann

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents.

  5. Using a social justice and health framework to assess European climate change adaptation strategies.

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-12-01

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents. PMID:25464133

  6. Simultaneous Presence of Growth and Remodeling in the Bone Adaptation Theory

    Seyyed A.H. Ahmedi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical forces acting on bone during growth affect their final shape and strength. Mechanoregulation of bone growth is maybe recognized in embryogenesis, and also in the adaptation of the adult skeleton to changes in mechanical loading. By combining equations describing bone remodeling and growth with an iterative finite element analysis, a computational model to simulate the simultaneous effects of bone remodeling and bone growth was proposed in this study. Strain-energy density was assumed as mechanical stimulus of bone adaptation process. Negative exponential decay function over time was considered as metabolic growth rate. Based upon numeric results, the model shows an acceptable behavior under various modes of loading, e.g. altering in trabeculas orientation or its thickness. This model also shows that by neglecting growth part in the adaptation model, a considerable error would result in both final density distribution and microstructural pattern of spongy bone.

  7. The lag-phase during diauxic growth is a trade-off between fast adaptation and high growth rate

    Chu, Dominique; Barnes, David J.

    2016-04-01

    Bi-phasic or diauxic growth is often observed when microbes are grown in a chemically defined medium containing two sugars (for example glucose and lactose). Typically, the two growth stages are separated by an often lengthy phase of arrested growth, the so-called lag-phase. Diauxic growth is usually interpreted as an adaptation to maximise population growth in multi-nutrient environments. However, the lag-phase implies a substantial loss of growth during the switch-over. It therefore remains unexplained why the lag-phase is adaptive. Here we show by means of a stochastic simulation model based on the bacterial PTS system that it is not possible to shorten the lag-phase without incurring a permanent growth-penalty. Mechanistically, this is due to the inherent and well established limitations of biological sensors to operate efficiently at a given resource cost. Hence, there is a trade-off between lost growth during the diauxic switch and the long-term growth potential of the cell. Using simulated evolution we predict that the lag-phase will evolve depending on the distribution of conditions experienced during adaptation. In environments where switching is less frequently required, the lag-phase will evolve to be longer whereas, in frequently changing environments, the lag-phase will evolve to be shorter.

  8. Energy strategy would slow coal's growth, says DOE

    The National Energy Strategy (NES) recently announced by the Bush Administration would slow the growth in use of coal by hundreds of millions of tons of coal by hundreds of millions of tons after 2000, according to the Department of Energy's (DOE) own figures. If today's policies are continued, coal consumption will nearly triple by 2030. Current annual consumption of more than 900 million tons (19 quadrillion Btus) would rise to 1,550 million tons in 2010 and to nearly 2,600 million tons by 2030. Coal's share of electricity generation, now about 55%, would grow to 75% by 2030 under the current policy base assumptions of the DOE. The NES, however, projects that surge of nuclear power plant construction will stem the growth of coal use. The strategy would still increase coal use, from 19 quadrillion Btus today to about 28 quads in 2010, but to only 32 quads by 2030. By 2030, coal would account for less than 50% of electricity generation under the NES. Total clean coal technologies capacity is substantially lower under the NES scenario case than under the clean coal actions alone. The strategy also contains good news for the coal industry in the short run. It holds out two main goals for coal policy: maintaining coal's competitiveness while meeting environmental, health and safety requirements; and creating a favorable export climate for US coal and coal technology

  9. An adaptive regularization parameter choice strategy for multispectral bioluminescence tomography

    Feng Jinchao; Qin Chenghu; Jia Kebin; Han Dong; Liu Kai; Zhu Shouping; Yang Xin; Tian Jie [Medical Image Processing Group, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2728, Beijing 100190 (China); College of Electronic Information and Control Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Medical Image Processing Group, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2728, Beijing 100190 (China); Medical Image Processing Group, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2728, Beijing 100190 (China) and School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) provides an effective tool for monitoring physiological and pathological activities in vivo. However, the measured data in bioluminescence imaging are corrupted by noise. Therefore, regularization methods are commonly used to find a regularized solution. Nevertheless, for the quality of the reconstructed bioluminescent source obtained by regularization methods, the choice of the regularization parameters is crucial. To date, the selection of regularization parameters remains challenging. With regards to the above problems, the authors proposed a BLT reconstruction algorithm with an adaptive parameter choice rule. Methods: The proposed reconstruction algorithm uses a diffusion equation for modeling the bioluminescent photon transport. The diffusion equation is solved with a finite element method. Computed tomography (CT) images provide anatomical information regarding the geometry of the small animal and its internal organs. To reduce the ill-posedness of BLT, spectral information and the optimal permissible source region are employed. Then, the relationship between the unknown source distribution and multiview and multispectral boundary measurements is established based on the finite element method and the optimal permissible source region. Since the measured data are noisy, the BLT reconstruction is formulated as l{sub 2} data fidelity and a general regularization term. When choosing the regularization parameters for BLT, an efficient model function approach is proposed, which does not require knowledge of the noise level. This approach only requests the computation of the residual and regularized solution norm. With this knowledge, we construct the model function to approximate the objective function, and the regularization parameter is updated iteratively. Results: First, the micro-CT based mouse phantom was used for simulation verification. Simulation experiments were used to illustrate why multispectral data were used

  10. An adaptive regularization parameter choice strategy for multispectral bioluminescence tomography

    Purpose: Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) provides an effective tool for monitoring physiological and pathological activities in vivo. However, the measured data in bioluminescence imaging are corrupted by noise. Therefore, regularization methods are commonly used to find a regularized solution. Nevertheless, for the quality of the reconstructed bioluminescent source obtained by regularization methods, the choice of the regularization parameters is crucial. To date, the selection of regularization parameters remains challenging. With regards to the above problems, the authors proposed a BLT reconstruction algorithm with an adaptive parameter choice rule. Methods: The proposed reconstruction algorithm uses a diffusion equation for modeling the bioluminescent photon transport. The diffusion equation is solved with a finite element method. Computed tomography (CT) images provide anatomical information regarding the geometry of the small animal and its internal organs. To reduce the ill-posedness of BLT, spectral information and the optimal permissible source region are employed. Then, the relationship between the unknown source distribution and multiview and multispectral boundary measurements is established based on the finite element method and the optimal permissible source region. Since the measured data are noisy, the BLT reconstruction is formulated as l2 data fidelity and a general regularization term. When choosing the regularization parameters for BLT, an efficient model function approach is proposed, which does not require knowledge of the noise level. This approach only requests the computation of the residual and regularized solution norm. With this knowledge, we construct the model function to approximate the objective function, and the regularization parameter is updated iteratively. Results: First, the micro-CT based mouse phantom was used for simulation verification. Simulation experiments were used to illustrate why multispectral data were used rather

  11. Resilience, human agency and climate change adaptation strategies in the Arctic

    Sejersen, Frank

    2009-01-01

      In the Arctic, indigenous peoples, researchers and governments are working to develop climate change adaptation strategies due to the rapid changes in sea ice extent, weather conditions and in the ecosystem as such. These strategies are often based on specific perceptions of vulnerability and w...... scales and the implications for resilience....... work with a number of barriers for resilience. The objective of the article is first to address the position of institutional barriers in the studies and strategies. Second the article analyses the role human agency is ascribed in proposed strategies and projects in Nunavut and Greenland. With a focus...

  12. Growth Strategies of Mobile Virtual Network Operators in Oman

    Dr N.P. Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Oman telecom market consists of five Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNOs and two Mobile Network Operators (MNOs. MVNOs have also sealed their deals with MNOs, technology providers, advertising and marketing agencies, SIM and re-charge coupon distribution channels. All the five MVNOs in Oman have already launched their operations and are providing services. The article is an attempt to understand many facets of MVNO business in Oman. The article discusses the present status of operations of MVNOs, their growth in Oman and w orld, their tariff plans, SIM card distribution channels and marketing strategies to survive in a highly competitive Omani telecom market. A set of propositions are also identified related to success of MVNOs which are proved either true or false using secondary data collected from various sources. The article concluded in the form of synthesis of data and possible new future strategies for MVNOs in Oman.

  13. On the Development of Urban Adaptation Strategies using Ecosystem-based Approaches to Adaptation

    Derbek, P.; Blümelová, J.; Resler, Jaroslav; Juruš, Pavel; Krč, Pavel; Vlček, O.; Benešová, N.; Bauerová, N.; Srbová, D.; Eben, Kryštof; Hrubeš, P.

    Piscataway: IEEE, 2015 - (Jeřábek, M.), s. 1-5 ISBN 978-1-4673-6727-1. [SCSP 2015. Smart Cities Symposium Prague. Prague (CZ), 24.06.2015-25.06.2015] Grant ostatní: UrbanAdapt(XE) EHP-CZ02-OV-1-036-2015 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : anthropogenic heat * heat island * model * PALM * PET * RayMan Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  14. Life Strategies and Adaptations in Bryophytes from the Near and Middle East

    KÜRSCHNER, Harald

    2004-01-01

    A review article on life strategies and ecomorphological adaptations (xerothalloid and xeropottioid life syndromes) of bryophytes is given, based on the hitherto known and analysed terrestrial, saxicolous and epiphytic communities of the Near and Middle East. The examples given impressively demonstrate common adaptive trends that arise convergently but independently in unrelated taxa when they evolve under similar habitat conditions. These functional types are important for the establishment,...

  15. Using a Social Justice and Health Framework to Assess European Climate Change Adaptation Strategies

    Melanie Boeckmann; Hajo Zeeb

    2014-01-01

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strate...

  16. Economic analysis of climate change adaptation strategies in selected coastal areas in Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam

    Perez, M.L.; Sajise, A.J.U.; Ramirez, P.J.B.; Arias, J.K.B.; A. H. Purnomo; Dipasupil, S.R.; Regoniel, P.A.; Nguyen, K.A.T.; Zamora, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change with its attendant geophysical hazards is well studied. A great deal of attention has gone into analyzing climate change impacts as well as searching out possible mitigating adaptive strategies. These matters are very real concerns, especially for coastal communities. Such communities are often the most vulnerable to climate change, since their citizens frequently live in abject poverty and have limited capacity to adapt to geophysical hazards. Their situation is further compli...

  17. Adaptive Reuse as a Strategy towards Conservation of Cultural Heritage: a Literature Review

    PLEVOETS, Bie; Van Cleempoel, Koenraad

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a survey of scholarly literature on the subject of adaptive reuse within the discipline of heritage conservation and architecture. The different theories are compared and classified according to their approach towards adaptive reuse. Three main approaches can be distinguished: typological, technical and architectural strategies. Each approach is discussed separately and an overview of relevant literature is presented in a schematic way. To conclude, we indicate ...

  18. Adaptive Work Strategy for Evaluating a Conceptual Site Model

    Dietrich, P.; Utom, A. U.; Werban, U.

    2015-12-01

    A comprehensive, diagnostic, procedural and adaptive scheme involving a combination of geophysical and direct push methods was developed and applied in the Wurmlingen study site situated within the region of Baden-Württemberg (southwest Germany). The goal of the study was to test the applicability of electrical resistivity method in imaging resistivity contrasts, and mapping the depth to and lateral extent of field-scale subsurface structures and existence of flow paths that may control concentration gradients of groundwater solution contents. Based on a relatively fast and cost-effective areal mapping with vertical electrical sounding technique, a northwest-southeast trending stream-channel-like depression (low apparent resistivity feature) through a Pleistocene aquifer was detected. For a more detailed characterization, we implemented electrical resistivity tomography method followed by direct push (DP) technologies. Beside the use of DP for verification of structures identified by geophysical tools, we used it for multi-level groundwater sampling. Results from groundwater chemistry indicate zones of steep nitrate concentration gradients associated with the feature.

  19. [Strategies of age-adapted pharmacotherapy in renal failure].

    Lenssen, R; Liekweg, A

    2016-08-01

    Many geriatric patients with multimorbidities have an increased risk for impaired renal function due to age and often the presence of comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension and heart failure. This impairment in kidney function in turn necessitates adjustments in drug therapy. A successful strategy for treating these patients includes treatment of the underlying diseases, a comprehensive review of the indications, selection of appropriate pharmacotherapeutic alternatives and for some drugs dose adjustment to the renal function. To achieve therapeutic success many patient individual factors, such as potentially complex medication regimens, polypharmacy, cognitive function and functional disabilities need to be considered when prescribing medications. This article describes the problems associated with drug therapy that is not adjusted to renal function and provides guidelines for assessment of the benefits and risks in patients with kidney failure. The characteristic features of geriatric patients in particular are considered and discussed. PMID:27447457

  20. Bay State announces growth strategies to cope with changes

    A top executive for New England's biggest independent gas distributor says deregulation of the utility industry offers unprecedented opportunities for growth, but getting there will radically change the way it does business. To achieve dramatic growth, Bay State Gas Co. needs to base their strategies on anticipating the changes in the industry and aggressively positioning themselves to capture the new opportunities that the new business environment is creating. This includes: accelerating the unbundling of transportation service all the way to the residential customer level; forging strategic relationships with retail energy product and service companies as a means of increasing throughput on Bay State's system; implementing performance-based rates that provide financial incentives for lowering costs and improving customer service; accelerating the implementation of sophisticated information systems to streamline key business processes; and aggressively expanding Bay State's nonregulated Energy Products and Services business. These steps are discussed

  1. Adaptation to low pH and lignocellulosic inhibitors resulting in ethanolic fermentation and growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Narayanan, Venkatachalam; Sànchez I Nogué, Violeta; van Niel, Ed W J; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie F

    2016-12-01

    Lignocellulosic bioethanol from renewable feedstocks using Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a promising alternative to fossil fuels owing to environmental challenges. S. cerevisiae is frequently challenged by bacterial contamination and a combination of lignocellulosic inhibitors formed during the pre-treatment, in terms of growth, ethanol yield and productivity. We investigated the phenotypic robustness of a brewing yeast strain TMB3500 and its ability to adapt to low pH thereby preventing bacterial contamination along with lignocellulosic inhibitors by short-term adaptation and adaptive lab evolution (ALE). The short-term adaptation strategy was used to investigate the inherent ability of strain TMB3500 to activate a robust phenotype involving pre-culturing yeast cells in defined medium with lignocellulosic inhibitors at pH 5.0 until late exponential phase prior to inoculating them in defined media with the same inhibitor cocktail at pH 3.7. Adapted cells were able to grow aerobically, ferment anaerobically (glucose exhaustion by 19 ± 5 h to yield 0.45 ± 0.01 g ethanol g glucose(-1)) and portray significant detoxification of inhibitors at pH 3.7, when compared to non-adapted cells. ALE was performed to investigate whether a stable strain could be developed to grow and ferment at low pH with lignocellulosic inhibitors in a continuous suspension culture. Though a robust population was obtained after 3600 h with an ability to grow and ferment at pH 3.7 with inhibitors, inhibitor robustness was not stable as indicated by the characterisation of the evolved culture possibly due to phenotypic plasticity. With further research, this short-term adaptation and low pH strategy could be successfully applied in lignocellulosic ethanol plants to prevent bacterial contamination. PMID:27566648

  2. Adapting to climate change in forest based land use systems: A guide to strategy

    Secrett, C.M.

    1996-12-31

    The prospect of climate change and sea level rise as a result of greenhouse gas emissions presents a serious challenge to decision-makers concerned with ensuring sustainable development. This report provides a guide to means of reducing the potential impact of the global warming problem on the forest sector whilst ensuring that more immediate development priorities are met. The most effective response strategy will be one that simultaneously brings both immediate development and longer-term adaptive benefits. This report outlines ways of constructing an adaptive response strategy that can help achieve these ends. The approach is referred to as sustainable adaptation. A prototype methodological framework of the sustainable adaptation approach has been provided with the summary. The first priority of sustainable adaption is to base climate change responses on actions that meet basic ecological and social needs now and in the future. Solutions should necessarily include relieving current development pressures in the tropical forest sector. The key is to couple adaptive responses to climate change with sustainable development solutions to present-day forest use problems. Implementing adaptive land-use policies and management practices which are likely to minimise the adverse impacts of anticipated climate change should meet current sustainable management goals. Implementing sustainable land-use and forestry management practices should meet adaptation goals. This report presents a discussion of the fundamental issues underlying the development of a sustainable adaptation strategy and a prototype methodological framework. The findings are based on case studies conducted in Central America (Costa Rica and Nicaragua); SADCC countries in Africa (Zimbabwe, Botswana, Tanzania); and Asia (Vietnam). 450 refs

  3. An adaptive differencing strategy and a simplified multigrid acceleration method with TPMC in PENTRAN

    An adaptive strategy that uses increasingly accurate discrete ordinates differencing schemes based on particle transport physics is implemented in the 3-D PENTRAN parallel discrete ordinates code. This adaptive strategy is compatible with a new simplified multigrid acceleration method that uses a Taylor Projection Mesh Coupling (TPMC) operator to couple discontinuous grids together during the transport sweep through the space-angle domain for each energy group. Each of these new methods complement one another to augment computation of accurate transport solutions available for a given discretization. (author)

  4. The environment matters: Comparing individuals and dyads in their adaptive use of decision strategies

    Juliane E. Kaemmer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals have been shown to adaptively select decision strategies depending on the environment structure. Two experiments extended this research to the group level. Subjects (N = 240 worked either individually or in two-person groups, or dyads, on a multi-attribute paired-comparison task. They were randomly assigned to two different environments that favored one of two prototypical decision strategies---weighted additive or take-the-best (between-subjects design in Experiment 1 and within-subject design in Experiment 2. Performance measures revealed that both individuals and dyads learned to adapt over time. A higher starting and overall performance rate in the environment in which weighted additive performed best led to the conclusion that weighted additive served as a default strategy. When this default strategy had to be replaced, because the environmental structure favored take-the-best, the superior adaptive capacity of dyads became observable in the form of a steeper learning rate. Analyses of nominal dyads indicate that real dyads performed at the level of the best individuals. Fine-grained analyses of information-search data are presented. Results thus point to the strong moderating role of the environment structure when comparing individual with group performance and are discussed within the framework of adaptive strategy selection.

  5. Sustainable development and low carbon growth strategy for India

    For India, sustainable strategy means one that is economically, environmentally and socially sustainable. This calls for rapid economic growth to deal with poverty and human development. However, the relatively meagre energy resources of the country pose a huge challenge. At the same time concern for climate change has raised the bar on the use of the one energy resource that India has in some abundance, namely coal. India's strategy for sustainable development has to explore all options of reducing energy needs, enhancing efficiency of use of conventional energy resources and develop new and renewable sources. The paper identifies various technical options, their potential roles and alternative policy measures to realize them in a cost effective manner. Even for the same objectives different policy instruments are available and how one chooses a particular instrument is often critical for the success. Self-implementing incentive compatible policy that does not create vested interests that would get entrenched should be preferred. -- Highlights: ► Energy efficiency is critical for sustainable development. ► India can reduce its emission intensity by 25 % by 2020 as proposed by India at Copenhagen. ► With a more aggressive effort even 35% reduction is attainable even with 8% or 9% growth. ► Energy efficient appliances, vehicles, buildings and industrial processes are needed. ► Policies that incentivize adoption of these pose critical challenges.

  6. Biomass markets. Growth strategy and challenges for French actors

    This study comprises three reports. The first one is an executive summary which focuses on the main aspects of the evolution of the activity in the biomass sector, and highlights factors of change and their strategic consequences. The second one proposes an overview of the situation of biomass French markets, analyses growth strategies adopted by actors of the biomass sector (development of new production capacities, international growth, development of strategies based on several energies, diversification of prospects, innovation and improvement of installation efficiency), and discusses the main strategic challenges on the medium term. The third report proposes a presentation of the context of French biomass markets (political, regulatory and energetic framework, energetic assessment and assessment of the waste-based sector, economic context, housing stock, and other contextual factors), a presentation of the biomass French market (data for 2005-2013, dynamics of three specific segments: solid biomass, renewable urban wastes, and biogas), and a description of the competitive landscape (economic structure, actors) and of the 15 main actors

  7. Adaptive Gearshift Strategy Based on Generalized Load Recognition for Automatic Transmission Vehicles

    Yulong Lei; Ke Liu; Yuanxia Zhang; Yao Fu; Hongbo Liu; Ge Lin; Hui Tang

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing various driving conditions in real time and adjusting control strategy accordingly in automatic transmission vehicles are important to improve their adaptability to the external environment. This study defines a generalized load concept which can comprehensively reflect driving condition information. The principle of a gearshift strategy based on generalized load is deduced theoretically, adopting linear interpolation between the shift lines on flat and on the largest gradient roa...

  8. A Particle Swarm Optimization with Adaptive Multi-Swarm Strategy for Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

    Kui-Ting CHEN; Yijun Dai; Ke Fan; Takaaki Baba

    2015-01-01

    Capacitated vehicle routing problem with pickups and deliveries (CVRPPD) is one of the most challenging combinatorial optimization problems which include goods delivery/pickup optimization, vehicle number optimization, routing path optimization and transportation cost minimization. The conventional particle swarm optimization (PSO) is difficult to find an optimal solution of the CVRPPD due to its simple search strategy. A PSO with adaptive multi-swarm strategy (AMSPSO) is proposed to solve th...

  9. TRENDS OF TAKING INTO ACCOUNT OF INTERNATIONAL FACTORS IN MARKETING ADAPTATIONAL STRATEGIES OF REGIONAL CENTRES

    Iryna BUDNIKEVYCH; Tetyana TATARCHUK

    2014-01-01

    The article investigates the impact of international factors to formation of marketing adaptation strategies of regional centres development; regards influence of “regional revolution” to strategic trends of cities of Chernivtsi and Suceava; forms a list of factors that can either open additional opportunities for a city or, on the contrary, become potential bearers of threats for implementation of sustainable development strategy; attention is paid to threats and advantages for regional econ...

  10. Adaptive optimisation-based strategy of a battery/supercapacitor system for EV

    CASTAINGS, Ali; Lhomme, Walter; TRIGUI, Rochdi; BOUSCAYROL, Alain; REDONDO IGLESIAS, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Optimisation-based Energy Management Strategies for hybrid and electric vehicles have to face some issues for realtime applications. In this study, an online adaptive optimisationbased strategy is used for an electric vehicle with a Hybrid Energy Storage System including supercapacitors and batteries. The SCs voltage limitations are taken into account by using a feedback control. Indeed the voltage limitation is a key point for safe operations in the vehicle. A comparison with a more classica...

  11. Stakeholder perspectives on land-use strategies for adapting to climate-change-enhanced coastal hazards: Sarasota, Florida

    Frazier, Tim G.; Wood, Nathan; Yarnal, Brent

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable land-use planning requires decision makers to balance community growth with resilience to natural hazards. This balance is especially difficult in many coastal communities where planners must grapple with significant growth projections, the persistent threat of extreme events (e.g., hurricanes), and climate-change-driven sea level rise that not only presents a chronic hazard but also alters the spatial extent of sudden-onset hazards such as hurricanes. We examine these stressors on coastal, long-term land-use planning by reporting the results of a one-day community workshop held in Sarasota County, Florida that included focus groups and participatory mapping exercises. Workshop participants reflected various political agendas and socioeconomic interests of five local knowledge domains: business, environment, emergency management and infrastructure, government, and planning. Through a series of alternating domain-specific focus groups and interactive plenary sessions, participants compared the county 2050 comprehensive land-use plan to maps of contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazard zones and projected storm-surge hazard zones enlarged by sea level rise scenarios. This interactive, collaborative approach provided each group of domain experts the opportunity to combine geographically-specific, scientific knowledge on natural hazards and climate change with local viewpoints and concerns. Despite different agendas, interests, and proposed adaptation strategies, there was common agreement among participants for the need to increase community resilience to contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazards and to explore adaptation strategies to combat the projected, enlarged storm-surge hazard zones.

  12. Heat shock proteins and hypometabolism: adaptive strategy for proteome preservation

    Storey KB

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Kenneth B Storey, Janet M StoreyDepartments of Biology and Chemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, CanadaAbstract: To survive under harsh environmental conditions many organisms retreat into hypometabolic states where metabolic rate may be reduced by 80% or more and energy use is reprioritized to emphasize key functions that sustain viability and provide cytoprotection. ATP-expensive activities, such as gene expression, protein turnover (synthesis and degradation, and the cell cycle, are largely shut down. As a consequence, mechanisms that stabilize the existing cellular proteome can become critical for long-term survival. Heat shock proteins (HSPs are well-known for their actions as chaperones that act to fold new proteins or refold proteins that are damaged. Indeed, they are part of the “minimal stress proteome” that appears to be a ubiquitous response by all cells as they attempt, successfully or unsuccessfully, to deal with stress. The present review summarizes evidence that HSPs are also a conserved feature of natural animal hypometabolism including the phenomena of estivation, hibernation, diapause, cold-hardiness, anaerobiosis, and anhydrobiosis. That is, organisms that retreat into dormant or torpid states in anticipation that environmental conditions may become too difficult for normal life also integrate the use of HSPs to protect their proteome while hypometabolic. Multiple studies show a common upregulation of expression of hsp genes and/or HSP proteins prior to or during hypometabolism in organisms as diverse as ground squirrels, turtles, land snails, insects, and brine shrimp and in situations of both preprogrammed dormancies (eg, seasonal or life stage specific and opportunistic hypometabolism (eg, triggered by desiccation or lack of oxygen. Hence, HSPs are not just a “shock” response that attempts to rescue cells from damaging stress but are a key protective strategy that is an integral component of natural states of

  13. MarketBusting: strategies for exceptional business growth.

    McGrath, Rita Gunther; MacMillan, Ian C

    2005-03-01

    If company leaders were granted a single wish, it would surely be for a reliable way to create new growth businesses. Business practitioners'overwhelming interest in this subject prompted the authors to conduct a three-year study of organizational growth--specifically, to find out which growth strategies were most successful. They discovered, somewhat to their surprise, that even companies in mature industries found rich new sources of growth when they reconfigured their unit of business (what they bill customers for) or their key metrics (how they measure success). In this article, the authors outline these and other moves companies can make to redefine their profit drivers and realize low-risk growth. They offer plenty of real-world examples. For instance: CHANGING YOUR UNIT OF BUSINESS: Once a conventional printing house, Madden Communications not only prints promotional materials for customers but also manages the distribution and installation of those materials on-site. Its revenues grew from dollars 1o million in 1990 to dollars 133 million in 2004, in an industry that many had come to regard as hopelessly mature. IMPROVING YOUR KEY METRICS-PARTICULARLY PRODUCTIVITY: Lamons Gasket, with dollars 80 million in revenues, built a Web site that radically improved its customers' ability to find, order, and pay for goods. The firm's market share rose along with its customer retention rate. The authors also suggest ways to identify your unit of business and associated key metrics and recognize the obstacles to changing them; review the key customer segments you serve; assess the need for new capabilities and the potential for internal resistance to change; and communicate to internal and external constituencies the changes you wish to make in your unit of business or key metrics. PMID:15768678

  14. Impact of climate change and adaptation strategies on crop production in Nigeria

    Mereu, V.; Gallo, A.; Carboni, G.; Spano, D.

    2012-04-01

    The vulnerability of agricultural to climate change is of particular interest to policy makers because the high social and economical importance of agriculture sector in Nigeria, which contributes approximately 40 percent to total GDP and support 70 percent of the population. It is necessary to investigate the potential climate change impacts in order to identify specific agricultural sectors and Agro-Ecological Zones that will be more vulnerable to changes in climatic conditions and implement and develop the most appropriate policies to cope with these changes. In this framework, this study aimed to assess the climate change impacts on Nigerian agricultural sector and to explore some of potential adaptation strategies for the most important crops in the food basket of the Country. The analysis was made using the DSSAT-CSM (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer - Cropping System Model) software, version 4.5. Crop simulation models included in DSSAT are tools that allows to simulate physiological process of crop growth, development and production, by combining genetic crop characteristics and environmental (soil and weather) conditions. In this analysis, for each selected crop, the models included into DSSAT-CSM software were ran, after a calibration phase, to evaluate climate change impacts on crop production. The climate data used for the analysis are derived by the Regional Circulation Model COSMO-CLM, from 1971 to 2065, at 8 km of spatial resolution. The RCM model output were "perturbed" with 10 Global Climate Models in order to have a wide variety of possible climate projections for impact analysis. Multiple combinations of soils and climate conditions, crop management and varieties were considered for each Agro-Ecological Zone of Nigeria. The climate impact assessment was made by comparing the yield obtained with the climate data for the present period and the yield obtainable under future changed climate conditions. The models ran by keeping

  15. Strategies of Mesenchymal Invasion of Patient-derived Brain Tumors: Microenvironmental Adaptation.

    Cha, Junghwa; Kang, Seok-Gu; Kim, Pilnam

    2016-01-01

    The high mortality in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients is primarily caused by extensive infiltration into adjacent tissue and subsequent rapid recurrence. There are no clear therapeutic strategies that target the infiltrative subpopulation of GBM mass. Using mesenchymal mode of invasion, the GBM is known to widely infiltrate by interacting with various unique components within brain microenvironment such as hyaluronic acid (HA)-rich matrix and white matter tracts. However, it is unclear how these GBM microenvironments influence the strategies of mesenchymal invasion. We hypothesize that GBM has different strategies to facilitate such invasion through adaptation to their local microenvironment. Using our in vitro biomimetic microenvironment platform for three-dimensional GBM tumorspheres (TSs), we found that the strategies of GBM invasion were predominantly regulated by the HA-rich ECM microenvironment, showing marked phenotypic changes in the presence of HA, which were mainly mediated by HA synthase (HAS). Interestingly, after inhibition of the HAS gene, GBM switched their invasion strategies to a focal adhesion (FA)-mediated invasion. These results demonstrate that the microenvironmental adaptation allowed a flexible invasion strategy for GBM. Using our model, we suggest a new inhibitory pathway for targeting infiltrative GBM and propose an importance of multi-target therapy for GBM, which underwent microenvironmental adaptation. PMID:27108713

  16. Community development strategies codification (physical - spatial using smart growth approaches

    Hamid Majedi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban management structure in recent decades, associated with features and constraints such as nonparticipatory, focus, system of scheduling, planning top-down, bureaucratic and politicization of the urban development process lacks practical commitment to the principles and applications urban development programs. Hence, it has paused the management strategies developed to resolve these issues and problems at the micro level and neighborhoods. However, despite years of planning, today's cities are growing sporadically. In the past decades, a large amount of agricultural land, gardens and green spaces around the city in order to grow the city is dedicated to building and the day following cities and have been moving more and more toward scattering phenomena and the increasing use of private cars fueled by the fragmentation and is involved on environment quality degradation. Urban Village, new-urbanism, sustainable development, smart growth and the increasing development of all new concepts and approaches that the today's urban problems and uncontrolled expansion of urban areas and put up a new way of development in open areas of the old, the potential uses, increased density and….and each one is complement each loan different from the experiences and achievements of former approaches. the methodology is descriptive-analytical.in this research we try that new approaches are presented in the discussion of urban development and smart growth theory as the main approach to explain the research is and concepts developed and compression is needed to analyze and eventually the criticisms and pudding on smart growth and enumerate the benefits of local sustainable development strategies will be described.

  17. ADAPTIVE CAPACITIES OF FARMERS TO CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION STRATEGIES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON RICE PRODUCTION IN THE NORTHERN REGION OF GHANA

    Franklin Nantui Mabe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the adaptive capacities of farmers to climate change adaptation strategies and their effects on rice production in the Northern Region of Ghana. The adaptive capacities of rice farmers were estimated quantitatively and categorized into high, moderate and low adaptive capacities. Double logarithmic regression model of Cobb-Douglas production function was used to quantity the effects of adaptive capacities of farmers on rice production. On the average, the farmers interviewed are moderately adaptive to climate change. Also, high adaptive farmers obtain nine more bags of 50 kg bag of paddy rice than farmers with low adaptive capacities. Therefore, the more a farmer has the ability to adjust to climate change, the more the number of bags of rice he or she obtains. Rice farmers should be empowered through better extension services in order to attain high adaptive capacity status so as to help them obtain more rice output.

  18. Self-Adaptive Surrogate-Assisted Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy

    Loshchilov, Ilya; Sebag, Michèle

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel mechanism to adapt surrogate-assisted population-based algorithms. This mechanism is applied to ACM-ES, a recently proposed surrogate-assisted variant of CMA-ES. The resulting algorithm, saACM-ES, adjusts online the lifelength of the current surrogate model (the number of CMA-ES generations before learning a new surrogate) and the surrogate hyper-parameters. Both heuristics significantly improve the quality of the surrogate model, yielding a significant speed-up of saACM-ES compared to the ACM-ES and CMA-ES baselines. The empirical validation of saACM-ES on the BBOB-2012 noiseless testbed demonstrates the efficiency and the scalability w.r.t the problem dimension and the population size of the proposed approach, that reaches new best results on some of the benchmark problems.

  19. Experimental Investigation of Human Adaptation to Change in Agent's Strategy through a Competitive Two-Player Game

    Terada, Kazunori; Yamada, Seiji; Ito, Akira

    We conducted an experimental investigation on human adaptation to change in an agent's strategy through a competitive two-player game. Modeling the process of human adaptation to agents is important for designing intelligent interface agents and adaptive user interfaces that learn a user's preferences and behavior strategy. However, few studies on human adaptation to such an agent have been done. We propose a human adaptation model for a two-player game. We prepared an on-line experimental system in which a participant and an agent play a repeated penny-matching game with a bonus round. We then conducted experiments in which different opponent agents (human or robot) change their strategy during the game. The experimental results indicated that, as expected, there is an adaptation phase when a human is confronted with a change in the opponent agent's strategy, and adaptation is faster when a human is competing with robot than with another human.

  20. Identity Formation as a Contemporary Adaptation Strategy: Chinese Immigrants in Italy

    Mleczko, Agata

    2011-01-01

    This article uses the theory of bright vs. blurred boundaries of Alba (2005) and the adaptation strategies of Berry (2005) to explore the national context of the process of identity formation. Issues of citizenship, language, religion, and race are discussed within the national context of Italy. The study is based on field research among the…

  1. The Effect of Adaptive Confidence Strategies in Computer-Assisted Instruction on Learning and Learner Confidence

    Warren, Richard Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of including adaptive confidence strategies in instructionally sound computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on learning and learner confidence. Seventy-one general educational development (GED) learners recruited from various GED learning centers at community colleges in the southeast United…

  2. ARQ strategies for MIMO eigenmode transmission with adaptive modulation and coding

    De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Popovski, Petar

    Packet retransmission strategies are presented for MIMO eigenmode transmission where adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) is implemented. The retransmission design is based on weighted linear MMSE. It includes the transmit and receiver filter, the power and eigenmode allocation and AMC level when...

  3. Adaptation strategies for high order discontinuous Galerkin methods based on Tau-estimation

    Kompenhans, Moritz; Rubio, Gonzalo; Ferrer, Esteban; Valero, Eusebio

    2016-02-01

    In this paper three p-adaptation strategies based on the minimization of the truncation error are presented for high order discontinuous Galerkin methods. The truncation error is approximated by means of a τ-estimation procedure and enables the identification of mesh regions that require adaptation. Three adaptation strategies are developed and termed a posteriori, quasi-a priori and quasi-a priori corrected. All strategies require fine solutions, which are obtained by enriching the polynomial order, but while the former needs time converged solutions, the last two rely on non-converged solutions, which lead to faster computations. In addition, the high order method permits the spatial decoupling for the estimated errors and enables anisotropic p-adaptation. These strategies are verified and compared in terms of accuracy and computational cost for the Euler and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. It is shown that the two quasi-a priori methods achieve a significant reduction in computational cost when compared to a uniform polynomial enrichment. Namely, for a viscous boundary layer flow, we obtain a speedup of 6.6 and 7.6 for the quasi-a priori and quasi-a priori corrected approaches, respectively.

  4. Climate factors play a limited role for past adaptation strategies in West Africa

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Nielsen, Jonas Østergaard;

    2010-01-01

    pasture areas. Increases in pasture are also observed and caused by improved tenure in the driest zone. Adaptation strategies to declining crop production include 'prayer' and migration in the 400-500 mm zone; reforestation, migration, and government support in the 500-700 mm zone; and soil improvement in...

  5. Adaption strategy of regional department of international pharmaceutical company in a new foreign market

    Uvarov V.V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In a new foreign market strategy of adaptation of the regional department of an international pharmaceutical company has its own peculiarities that arise from the specifics of the pharmaceutical market. In article the strategy to adapt to the new market has been discussed, as conceived plan for use of any of options available to the regional office. This range of options for adaptation will vary depending on the level of competition in different segments of the new market. In his article the author, based on the specifics of the pharmaceutical market, examines the impact of factors such as «competition» to choose a set of possibilities to adapt the regional office. The article is classified in the new market segments based on consumer awareness and choice in the way of treatment. In his article, the author discusses the different feature sets for adaptation the regional branch of pharmaceutical company in the new market. Conclusion: To achieve the desired level of adaptation to the new market under the current conditions (when the balance of power in favor of an informed buyer and seller competition, the regional office has to acquire and use every opportunity not only to meet but to exceed customer expectations

  6. Dosimetric evaluation of three adaptive strategies for prostate cancer treatment including pelvic lymph nodes irradiation

    Purpose: The movements of the prostate relative to the pelvic lymph nodes during intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment can limit margin reduction and affect the protection of the organs at risk (OAR). In this study, the authors performed an analysis of three adaptive treatment strategies that combine information from both bony and gold marker registrations. The robustness of those treatments against the interfraction prostate movements was evaluated. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on five prostate cancer patients with 7–13 daily cone-beam CTs (CBCTs). The clinical target volumes (CTVs) consisting of pelvic lymph nodes, prostate, and seminal vesicles as well as the OARs were delineated on each CBCT and the initial CT. Three adaptive strategies were analyzed. Two of these methods relied on a two-step patient positioning at each fraction. First step: a bony registration was used to deliver the nodal CTV prescription. Second step: a gold marker registration was then used either to (1) complete the dose delivered to the prostate (complement); (2) or give almost the entire prescription to the prostate with a weak dose gradient between the targets to compensate for possible motions (gradient). The third method (COR) used a pool of precalculated plans based on images acquired at previous treatment fractions. At each new fraction, a plan is selected from that pool based on the daily position of prostate center-of-mass. The dosimetric comparison was conducted and results are presented with and without the systematic shift in the prostate position on the CT planning. The adaptive strategies were compared to the current clinical standard where all fractions are treated with the initial nonadaptive plan. Results: The minimum daily prostate D95% is improved by 2%, 9%, and 6% for the complement, the gradient, and the COR approaches, respectively, compared to the nonadaptive method. The average nodal CTV D95% remains constant across the strategies, except

  7. Dosimetric evaluation of three adaptive strategies for prostate cancer treatment including pelvic lymph nodes irradiation

    Cantin, Audrey; Gingras, Luc; Archambault, Louis, E-mail: louis.archambault@phy.ulaval.ca [Département de Physique, de génie Physique et d’optique et Centre de Recherche sur le Cancer, Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1V 0A6, Canada and Département de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, CHU de Québec—Université Laval, 11 côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Lachance, Bernard; Foster, William [Département de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, CHU de Québec—Université Laval, 11 côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Goudreault, Julie [Département de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, CHU de Québec—Université Laval, 11 côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6, Canada and Département de Radio-Oncologie, CSSS de Gatineau–Hôpital de Gatineau, 909 Boulevard La Vérendrye, Gatineau, Québec J8P 7H2 (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: The movements of the prostate relative to the pelvic lymph nodes during intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment can limit margin reduction and affect the protection of the organs at risk (OAR). In this study, the authors performed an analysis of three adaptive treatment strategies that combine information from both bony and gold marker registrations. The robustness of those treatments against the interfraction prostate movements was evaluated. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on five prostate cancer patients with 7–13 daily cone-beam CTs (CBCTs). The clinical target volumes (CTVs) consisting of pelvic lymph nodes, prostate, and seminal vesicles as well as the OARs were delineated on each CBCT and the initial CT. Three adaptive strategies were analyzed. Two of these methods relied on a two-step patient positioning at each fraction. First step: a bony registration was used to deliver the nodal CTV prescription. Second step: a gold marker registration was then used either to (1) complete the dose delivered to the prostate (complement); (2) or give almost the entire prescription to the prostate with a weak dose gradient between the targets to compensate for possible motions (gradient). The third method (COR) used a pool of precalculated plans based on images acquired at previous treatment fractions. At each new fraction, a plan is selected from that pool based on the daily position of prostate center-of-mass. The dosimetric comparison was conducted and results are presented with and without the systematic shift in the prostate position on the CT planning. The adaptive strategies were compared to the current clinical standard where all fractions are treated with the initial nonadaptive plan. Results: The minimum daily prostate D{sub 95%} is improved by 2%, 9%, and 6% for the complement, the gradient, and the COR approaches, respectively, compared to the nonadaptive method. The average nodal CTV D{sub 95%} remains constant across the

  8. A multi-attribute approach to choosing adaptation strategies: Application to sea-level rise

    Selecting good adaptation strategies in anticipation of climate change is gaining increasing attention as it becomes increasingly clear that much of the likely change is already committed, and could not be avoided even with aggressive and immediate emissions reductions. Adaptation decision making will place special requirements on regional and local planners in the US and other countries, especially developing countries. Approaches, tools, and guidance will be useful to assist in an effective response to the challenge. This paper describes the value of using a multi-attribute approach for evaluating adaptation strategies and its implementation as a decision-support software tool to help planners understand and execute this approach. The multi-attribute approach described here explicitly addresses the fact that many aspects of the decision cannot be easily quantified, that future conditions are highly uncertain, and that there are issues of equity, flexibility, and coordination that may be as important to the decision as costs and benefits. The approach suggested also avoids trying to collapse information on all of the attributes to a single metric. Such metrics can obliterate insights about the nature of the trade-offs that must be made in choosing among very dissimilar types of responses to the anticipated threat of climate change. Implementation of such an approach requires management of much information, and an ability to easily manipulate its presentation while seeking acceptable trade-offs. The Adaptation Strategy Evaluator (ASE) was developed under funding from the US Environmental Protection Agency to provide user-friendly, PC-based guidance through the major steps of a multi-attribute evaluation. The initial application of ASE, and the focus of this paper, is adaptation to sea level rise. However, the approach can be easily adapted to any multi-attribute choice problem, including the range of other adaptation planning needs

  9. Metabolic adaptation and trophic strategies of soil bacteria - C1- metabolism and sulfur chemolithotrophy in Starkeya novella

    UlrikeKappler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The highly diverse and metabolically versatile microbial communities found in soil environments are major contributors to the global carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycles. We have used a combination of genome –based pathway analysis with proteomics and gene expression studies to investigate metabolic adaptation in a representative of these bacteria, Starkeya novella, which was originally isolated from agricultural soil. This bacterium was the first facultative sulfur chemolithoautotroph that was isolated and it is also able to grow with methanol and on over 39 substrates as a heterotroph. However, using glucose, fructose, methanol, thiosulfate as well as combinations of the carbon compounds with thiosulfate as growth substrates we have demonstrated here that contrary to the previous classification, S. novella is not a facultative sulfur chemolitho- and methylotroph, as the enzyme systems required for these two growth modes as always expressed at high levels. This is typical for key metabolic pathways. In addition enzymes for various pathways of carbon dioxide fixation were always expressed at high levels, even during heterotrophic growth on glucose or fructose, which suggests a role for these pathways beyond the generation of reduced carbon units for cell growth, possibly in redox balancing of metabolism. Our results then indicate that S. novella, a representative of the Xanthobacteraceae family of methylotrophic soil and freshwater dwelling bacteria, employs a mixotrophic growth strategy under all conditions tested here. As a result the contribution of this bacterium to either carbon sequestration or the release of climate active substances could vary very quickly, which has direct implications for the modelling of such processes if mixotrophy proves to be the main growth strategy for large populations of soil bacteria.

  10. Adaptive vaccination strategies to mitigate pandemic influenza: Mexico as a case study.

    Gerardo Chowell

    Full Text Available We explore vaccination strategies against pandemic influenza in Mexico using an age-structured transmission model calibrated against local epidemiological data from the Spring 2009 A(H1N1 pandemic.In the context of limited vaccine supplies, we evaluate age-targeted allocation strategies that either prioritize youngest children and persons over 65 years of age, as for seasonal influenza, or adaptively prioritize age groups based on the age patterns of hospitalization and death monitored in real-time during the early stages of the pandemic. Overall the adaptive vaccination strategy outperformed the seasonal influenza vaccination allocation strategy for a wide range of disease and vaccine coverage parameters.This modeling approach could inform policies for Mexico and other countries with similar demographic features and vaccine resources issues, with regard to the mitigation of the S-OIV pandemic. We also discuss logistical issues associated with the implementation of adaptive vaccination strategies in the context of past and future influenza pandemics.

  11. Different biomechanical design and ecophysiological strategies in juveniles of two liana species with contrasting growth habit.

    Chen, Ya-Jun; Bongers, Frans; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Liu, Jin-Yu; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Lianas constitute a major functional type in tropical zones. While some liana species start climbing immediately after germination (shade-avoidance), others have a long self-supporting phase (shade-tolerance). The morphophysiological characteristics of these two growth habits are unknown.• Methods: We quantified growth traits, biomass allocation, mechanics, anatomy, and hydraulics for saplings of Ventilago calyculata (an immediate obligate climber) and Ziziphus attopensis (having a long self-supporting phase), both in the family Rhamnaceae. The mechanics, anatomy, and hydraulics for the mature individuals of the two species were also evaluated.• Key results: In the juvenile stage, V. calyculata had a higher slenderness ratio, height growth rate, and photosynthetic rate but similar biomass growth rate compared with Z. attopensis. In contrast, Z. attopensis had a higher leaf area growth rate, specific leaf area, and leaf mass fraction. Ziziphus attopensis had stiffer, but less conductive stems than V. calyculata. Stem rigidity of saplings decreased from base to apex in Z. attopensis, but increased in V. calyculata. Both species had similar resistance to xylem embolism. However, the leaves of V. calyculata were able to resist greater water deficits. At the mature stage, wider and longer vessels emerged in the xylem, and both species increased stem specific conductivity and drought resistance in stems and leaves. Ventilago calyculata had significantly higher specific conductivity and was more drought tolerant than Z. attopensis.• Conclusions: The two lianas differed significantly in growth, biomass allocation, anatomy, mechanics, ecophysiology, and hydraulic properties in line with their growth habits and shade adaptation strategies. PMID:24907257

  12. Adapting to Adaptations: Behavioural Strategies that are Robust to Mutations and Other Organisational-Transformations.

    Egbert, Matthew D; Pérez-Mercader, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Genetic mutations, infection by parasites or symbionts, and other events can transform the way that an organism's internal state changes in response to a given environment. We use a minimalistic computational model to support an argument that by behaving "interoceptively," i.e. responding to internal state rather than to the environment, organisms can be robust to these organisational-transformations. We suggest that the robustness of interoceptive behaviour is due, in part, to the asymmetrical relationship between an organism and its environment, where the latter more substantially influences the former than vice versa. This relationship means that interoceptive behaviour can respond to the environment, the internal state and the interaction between the two, while exteroceptive behaviour can only respond to the environment. We discuss the possibilities that (i) interoceptive behaviour may play an important role of facilitating adaptive evolution (especially in the early evolution of primitive life) and (ii) interoceptive mechanisms could prove useful in efforts to create more robust synthetic life-forms. PMID:26743579

  13. A novel adaptive modulation and coding strategy based on partial feedback for enhanced MBMS network

    SHENG Yu; PENG Mu-gen; WANG Wen-bo

    2008-01-01

    The difference in link condition of broadcast/multicast users and the limitation of uplink resource, make itdifficult to utilize adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) in theenhanced multimedia broadcast and multicast service (E-MBMS)network. To obtain the improvement of system throughput, thisstudy proposes an adaptive modulation and coding schemebased on partial feedback, by which only partial users whosechannel qualities are lower than the system threshold need tomake a response to the modulation coding scheme (MCS)adaptation procedure. By this investigation, an adaptive schemecan be introduced in the E-MBMS network. Both the theoreticalanalysis and simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of theproposed strategy, in which the performance is close to the idealone and has a significant throughput improvement whencompared with that of the fixed MCS transmission scheme.

  14. An adaptive synchronization strategy based on active control for demodulating message hidden in chaotic signals

    In the field of secure communication, it is very important to demodulate the message hidden in chaotic signals. In this paper, an adaptive synchronization strategy based on active control is proposed, which is used to design an active controller and an appropriate adaptive demodulator at the receiver to recover the transmitted message hidden in chaotic signals of a drive system. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, it is shown that the transmitted message can be theoretically recovered by using the proposed strategy. Numerical simulations based on the Chua's circuit are also presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. In addition, it is shown via simulations that, by increasing the gain of the active controller the message error caused by the external noise and the discontinuous property of the message can be reduced

  15. Epidemic propagation on adaptive coevolutionary networks with preferential local-world reconnecting strategy

    In the propagation of an epidemic in a population, individuals adaptively adjust their behavior to avoid the risk of an epidemic. Differently from existing studies where new links are established randomly, a local link is established preferentially in this paper. We propose a new preferentially reconnecting edge strategy depending on spatial distance (PR-SD). For the PR-SD strategy, the new link is established at random with probability p and in a shortest distance with the probability 1 − p. We establish the epidemic model on an adaptive network using Cellular Automata, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model by numerical simulations. The results show that the smaller the value of parameter p, the more difficult the epidemic spread is. The PR-SD strategy breaks long-range links and establishes as many short-range links as possible, which causes the network efficiency to decrease quickly and the propagation of the epidemic is restrained effectively. (general)

  16. Assessing the potential of in-field rainwater harvesting as an adaptation strategy to climate change for African agriculture

    Lebel, S.; Fleskens, L.; Forster, P.M.; Jackson, L.S.; Lorenz, S.

    2015-01-01

    Stabilizing smallholder crop yields under changing climatic conditions in sub-Saharan Africa will require adaptation strategies focused on soil and water management. Impact studies of climate change on crop yields often ignore the potential of adaptation strategies such as rainwater harvesting (RWH)

  17. Socio-economic vulnerability of coastal communities in southern Thailand: the development of adaptation strategies

    Willroth, P.; Massmann, F.; Wehrhahn, R.; Revilla Diez, J.

    2012-08-01

    The tsunami of December 2004 impacted large areas of Thailand's coastline and caused severe human and economic losses. The recovery period revealed differences in the vulnerabilities of communities affected. An understanding of the causal factors of vulnerability is crucial for minimising the negative effects of future threats and developing adaptive capacities. This paper analyses the vulnerabilities and the development of adaptation strategies in the booming tourist area of Khao Lak and in the predominantly fishing and agricultural area of Ban Nam Khem through a comprehensive vulnerability framework. The results show that social networks played a crucial role in coping with the disaster. Social cohesion is important for strengthening the community and developing successful adaptation strategies. The development of tourism and the turning away from traditional activities have a significant positive influence on the income situation, but create a dependency on a single business sector. It could be shown that households generating their income in the tourism sector were vulnerable unless they had diversified their income previously. Income diversification decreased the vulnerability in the study areas. Adaptation strategies and processes developed in the aftermath clearly address these issues.

  18. Socio-economic vulnerability of coastal communities in southern Thailand: the development of adaptation strategies

    P. Willroth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The tsunami of December 2004 impacted large areas of Thailand's coastline and caused severe human and economic losses. The recovery period revealed differences in the vulnerabilities of communities affected. An understanding of the causal factors of vulnerability is crucial for minimising the negative effects of future threats and developing adaptive capacities. This paper analyses the vulnerabilities and the development of adaptation strategies in the booming tourist area of Khao Lak and in the predominantly fishing and agricultural area of Ban Nam Khem through a comprehensive vulnerability framework. The results show that social networks played a crucial role in coping with the disaster. Social cohesion is important for strengthening the community and developing successful adaptation strategies. The development of tourism and the turning away from traditional activities have a significant positive influence on the income situation, but create a dependency on a single business sector. It could be shown that households generating their income in the tourism sector were vulnerable unless they had diversified their income previously. Income diversification decreased the vulnerability in the study areas. Adaptation strategies and processes developed in the aftermath clearly address these issues.

  19. Methodology to determine the vulnerability of deltas to climate change and to identify adaptation strategies

    Haasnoot, M.; Offermans, A. G. E.; Middelkoop, H.

    2009-04-01

    Development of sustainable water management strategies involves analysing current and future vulnerability, identification of adaptation possibilities, effect analysis and evaluation of the strategies under different possible futures. Recent studies on water management often followed the pressure-effect chain and compared the state of social, economic and ecological functions of water systems in one or two future situations. The future is, however, more complex and dynamic. Our approach starts at the end of the cause-effect chain by describing optimal conditions and critical thresholds for each water-related function in terms of their physical boundary conditions. This gives an indication of the current and future vulnerability. By comparing the optimal conditions with the physical conditions under the current and future climate and sea level we can identify mismatches. Where these occur are the vulnerable ‘hotspots' for which adaptation strategies should be defined. We developed a rapid assessment model to analyse the effectiveness of strategies for a large set of transient scenarios, in order to evaluate the strategies on robustness. This model describes the Pressure-State-Impact-Response chain of a delta system and exists of simple cause-effect relations based on outcomes of vulnerability analyses, complex hydrological models and studies on social responses. With the model transient scenarios are considered. These scenarios comprise time series that include trends, unexpected events, floods and droughts and the interaction between water system and society. We present the concept methodology for sustainable water management strategies by means of an imaginary case.

  20. An adaptive p-refinement strategy applied to nodal expansion method in 3D Cartesian geometry

    Highlights: • An adaptive p-refinement approach is developed and implemented successfully in ACNEM. • The proposed strategy enhances the accuracy with regard to the uniform zeroth order solution. • Improvement of results is gained by less computation time relative to uniform high order solution. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to develop a coarse mesh treatment strategy using adaptive polynomial, p, refinement approach for average current nodal expansion method in order to solve the neutron diffusion equation. For performing the adaptive solution process, a posteriori error estimation scheme, i.e. flux gradient has been utilized for finding the probable numerical errors. The high net leakage in a node represents flux gradient existence between neighbor nodes and it may indicate the source of errors for the coarse mesh calculation. Therefore, the relative Cartesian directional net leakage of nodes is considered as an assessment criterion for mesh refinement in a sub-domain. In our proposed approach, the zeroth order nodal expansion solution is used along coarse meshes as large as fuel assemblies to treat neutron populations. Coarse nodes with high directional net leakage may be chosen for implementing higher order polynomial expansion in the corresponding direction, i.e. X and/or Y and/or Z Cartesian directions. Using this strategy, the computational cost and time are reduced relative to uniform high order polynomial solution. In order to demonstrate the efficiency of this approach, a computer program, APNEC, Adaptive P-refinement Nodal Expansion Code, has been developed for solving the neutron diffusion equation using various orders of average current nodal expansion method in 3D rectangular geometry. Some well-known benchmarks are investigated to compare the uniform and adaptive solutions. Results demonstrate the superiority of our proposed strategy in enhancing the accuracy of solution without using uniform high order solution throughout the domain and

  1. Adaptive Agent Model with Hybrid Routing Selection Strategy for Improving the Road-Network Congestion Problem

    Bin Jiang; Chao Yang; Takao Terano

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive agent model with a hybrid routing selection strategy for studying the road⁃network congestion problem. We focus on improving those severely congested links. Firstly, a multi⁃agent system is built, where each agent stands for a vehicle, and it makes its routing selection by considering the shortest path and the minimum congested degree of the target link simultaneously. The agent⁃based model captures the nonlinear feedback between vehicle routing behaviors and road⁃network congestion status. Secondly, a hybrid routing selection strategy is provided, which guides the vehicle routes adapting to the real⁃time road⁃network congestion status. On this basis, we execute simulation experiments and compare the simulation results of network congestion distribution, by Floyd agent with shortest path strategy and our proposed adaptive agent with hybrid strategy. The simulation results show that our proposed model has reduced the congestion degree of those seriously congested links of road⁃network. Finally, we execute our model on a real road map. The results finds that those seriously congested roads have some common features such as located at the road junction or near the unique road connecting two areas. And, the results also show an effectiveness of our model on reduction of those seriously congested links in this actual road network. Such a bottom⁃up congestion control approach with a hybrid congestion optimization perspective will have its significance for actual traffic congestion control.

  2. Adaptive Treatment Strategies in Youth Mental Health: A Commentary on Advantages, Challenges, and Potential Directions.

    Sherrill, Joel T

    2016-01-01

    This commentary underscores the importance and potential of the research approaches and intervention strategies described in the JCCAP special issue on the Science of Adaptive Treatment Strategies in Child and Adolescent Mental Health for addressing the widely observed heterogeneity in response to even our most promising research-informed interventions. First, the commentary briefly summarizes the advantages of these approaches and highlights how these programs of research are responsive to widely agreed-upon calls for more personalized, prescriptive interventions. Next, the commentary briefly discusses key common challenges and gaps in our knowledge that might be addressed to advance the development, testing, and implementation of adaptive intervention strategies. For example, research to identify robust moderators that might serve as potential tailoring variables for initial assignment and sequencing of interventions, efforts to operationalize surrogate endpoints for early identification of individuals who are unlikely to respond to first-line interventions, and research that helps define what constitutes an adequate exposure (i.e., dose) or response threshold (e.g., response that suggests the need to intensify, switch, or augment interventions) would inform decision rules for adaptive algorithms. The commentary concludes with a discussion of potential strategies and current initiatives that might ultimately help facilitate research on more targeted, prescriptive approaches to intervening, including efforts to encourage investigators to use common data elements, to share and integrate data across trials, and to employ a more mechanism-based approach to intervention development and testing. PMID:27347782

  3. An adaptive radiotherapy planning strategy for bladder cancer using deformation vector fields

    Purpose: Adaptive radiotherapy (ART) has considerable potential in treatment of bladder cancer due to large inter-fractional changes in shape and size of the target. The aim of this study was to compare our clinically applied method for plan library creation that involves manual bladder delineations (Clin-ART) with a method using the deformation vector fields (DVFs) resulting from intensity-based deformable image registrations (DVF-based ART). Materials and methods: The study included thirteen patients with urinary bladder cancer who had daily cone beam CTs (CBCTs) acquired for set-up. In both ART strategies investigated, three plan selection volumes were generated using the CBCTs from the first four fractions; in Clin-ART boolean combinations of delineated bladders were used, while the DVF-based strategy applied combinations of the mean and standard deviation of patient-specific DVFs. The volume ratios (VRs) of the course-averaged PTV for the two ART strategies relative the non-adaptive PTV were calculated. Results: Both Clin-ART and DVF-based ART considerably reduced the course-averaged PTV, compared to non-adaptive RT. The VR for DVF-based ART was lower than for Clin-ART (0.65 vs. 0.73; p < 0.01). Conclusions: DVF-based ART for bladder irradiation has a considerable normal tissue sparing potential surpassing our already highly conformal clinically applied ART strategy

  4. Strategies for adding adaptive learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems

    Stclair, D. C.; Sabharwal, C. L.; Bond, W. E.; Hacke, Keith

    1988-01-01

    Rule-based diagnostic expert systems can be used to perform many of the diagnostic chores necessary in today's complex space systems. These expert systems typically take a set of symptoms as input and produce diagnostic advice as output. The primary objective of such expert systems is to provide accurate and comprehensive advice which can be used to help return the space system in question to nominal operation. The development and maintenance of diagnostic expert systems is time and labor intensive since the services of both knowledge engineer(s) and domain expert(s) are required. The use of adaptive learning mechanisms to increment evaluate and refine rules promises to reduce both time and labor costs associated with such systems. This paper describes the basic adaptive learning mechanisms of strengthening, weakening, generalization, discrimination, and discovery. Next basic strategies are discussed for adding these learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems. These strategies support the incremental evaluation and refinement of rules in the knowledge base by comparing the set of advice given by the expert system (A) with the correct diagnosis (C). Techniques are described for selecting those rules in the in the knowledge base which should participate in adaptive learning. The strategies presented may be used with a wide variety of learning algorithms. Further, these strategies are applicable to a large number of rule-based diagnostic expert systems. They may be used to provide either immediate or deferred updating of the knowledge base.

  5. An Adaptive Mesh Refinement Strategy for Immersed Boundary/Interface Methods

    Li, Zhilin; Song, Peng

    2012-01-01

    An adaptive mesh refinement strategy is proposed in this paper for the Immersed Boundary and Immersed Interface methods for two-dimensional elliptic interface problems involving singular sources. The interface is represented by the zero level set of a Lipschitz function φ(x,y). Our adaptive mesh refinement is done within a small tube of |φ(x,y)|≤ δ with finer Cartesian meshes. The discrete linear system of equations is solved by a multigrid solver. The AMR methods could obtain solutions with ...

  6. A comparison of three different adaptive strategies in image-guided radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    The urinary bladder shows considerable individual variation in shape and position during a course of radiotherapy (RT). In this study we have developed and compared three different adaptive RT (ART) strategies for bladder cancer involving daily cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging and plan selection. Material and methods. Ten patients treated for bladder cancer had daily CBCTs acquired that were registered online using bony anatomy registration. Seven patients received intensity modulated RT (IMRT) with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique to the bladder and pelvic lymph nodes. Three patients received treatment to the bladder only. Retrospectively, we compared three ART strategies that were all based on daily selection of the most suitable plan from a library consisting of three IMRT-plans corresponding to a small, medium and large target volume. ART method A utilised population-based margins while methods B and C used the bladder as seen on CBCT-scans from the first week of treatment; method B without delineation of the bladder on CBCT and method C with delineation of the bladder. Total dose distributions were calculated using the planning CT. For each patient, we calculated ratios of the dose volume histograms (DVHs) for the three ART strategies relative to non-adaptive therapy. Results. The inter-patient variation was large for all three ART strategies. The mean ratios of the volumes receiving 57 Gy or more (corresponding to 95% of prescribed dose) for methods A, B and C were 0.66 (SD: 0.11), 0.67 (SD: 0.13) and 0.67 (SD: 0.16) respectively when compared to the non-adaptive plan. Conclusion. When using any of the ART strategies, it is possible to reduce significantly the volumes receiving high doses compared to the use of a standard non-adaptive plan. The differences in dose volume parameters between the three methods were small compared with the differences from the standard plan.

  7. A new strategy for online adaptive prostate radiotherapy based on cone-beam CT

    Interfractional organ motion and patient positioning errors during prostate radiotherapy can have deleterious clinical consequences. It has become clinical practice to re-position the patient with image-guided translational position correction before each treatment to compensate for those errors. However, tilt errors can only be corrected with table corrections in six degrees of freedom or ''full'' adaptive treatment planning strategies. Organ shape deformations can only be corrected by ''full'' plan adaptation. This study evaluates the potential of instant treatment plan adaptation (fast isodose line adaptation with real-time dose manipulating tools) based on cone-beam CT (CBCT) to further improve treatment quality. Using in-house software, CBCTs were modified to approximate a correct density calibration. To evaluate the dosimetric accuracy, dose distributions based on CBCTs were compared with dose distributions calculated on conventional planning CTs (PCT) for four datasets (one inhomogeneous phantom, three patient datasets). To determine the potential dosimetric benefit of a ''full'' plan adaptation over translational position correction, dose distributions were re-optimized using graphical ''online'' dose modification tools for three additional patients' CT-datasets with a substantially distended rectum while the original plans have been created with an empty rectum (single treatment fraction estimates). Absolute dose deviations of up to 51% in comparison to the PCT were observed when uncorrected CBCTs were used for replanning. After density calibration of the CBCTs, 97% of the dose deviations were ≤3% (gamma index: 3%/3 mm). Translational position correction restored the PTV dose (D95) to 73% of the corresponding dose of the reference plan. After plan adaptation, larger improvements of dose restoration to 95% were observed. Additionally, the rectal dose (D30) was further decreased by 42 percentage points (mean of three patient datasets). An accurate dose

  8. Adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies: interactive effects during CBT for social anxiety disorder.

    Aldao, Amelia; Jazaieri, Hooria; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2014-05-01

    There has been a increasing interest in understanding emotion regulation deficits in social anxiety disorder (SAD; e.g., Hofmann, Sawyer, Fang, & Asnaani, 2012). However, much remains to be understood about the patterns of associations among regulation strategies in the repertoire. Doing so is important in light of the growing recognition that people's ability to flexibly implement strategies is associated with better mental health (e.g., Kashdan et al., 2014). Based on previous work (Aldao & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2012), we examined whether putatively adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies interacted with each other in the prediction of social anxiety symptoms in a sample of 71 participants undergoing CBT for SAD. We found that strategies interacted with each other and that this interaction was qualified by a three-way interaction with a contextual factor, namely treatment study phase. Consequently, these findings underscore the importance of modeling contextual factors when seeking to understand emotion regulation deficits in SAD. PMID:24742755

  9. Adaptation to hot climate and strategies to alleviate heat stress in livestock production.

    Renaudeau, D; Collin, A; Yahav, S; de Basilio, V; Gourdine, J L; Collier, R J

    2012-05-01

    Despite many challenges faced by animal producers, including environmental problems, diseases, economic pressure, and feed availability, it is still predicted that animal production in developing countries will continue to sustain the future growth of the world's meat production. In these areas, livestock performance is generally lower than those obtained in Western Europe and North America. Although many factors can be involved, climatic factors are among the first and crucial limiting factors of the development of animal production in warm regions. In addition, global warming will further accentuate heat stress-related problems. The objective of this paper was to review the effective strategies to alleviate heat stress in the context of tropical livestock production systems. These strategies can be classified into three groups: those increasing feed intake or decreasing metabolic heat production, those enhancing heat-loss capacities, and those involving genetic selection for heat tolerance. Under heat stress, improved production should be possible through modifications of diet composition that either promotes a higher intake or compensates the low feed consumption. In addition, altering feeding management such as a change in feeding time and/or frequency, are efficient tools to avoid excessive heat load and improve survival rate, especially in poultry. Methods to enhance heat exchange between the environment and the animal and those changing the environment to prevent or limit heat stress can be used to improve performance under hot climatic conditions. Although differences in thermal tolerance exist between livestock species (ruminants > monogastrics), there are also large differences between breeds of a species and within each breed. Consequently, the opportunity may exist to improve thermal tolerance of the animals using genetic tools. However, further research is required to quantify the genetic antagonism between adaptation and production traits to evaluate

  10. Establishment of an indicator concept for the German strategy on adaptation to climate change

    Schoenthaler, Konstanze; Andrian-Werburg, Stefan von; Wulfert, Katrin [Bosch und Partner GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Luthardt, Vera; Kreinsen, Beatrice; Schultz-Sternberg, R.; Hommel, Robert [Hochschule fuer Nachhaltige Entwicklung Eberswalde (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Even if we succeed in achieving the EU target of reducing global warming to 2 C, it will be absolutely essential to adapt to changing climatic conditions. The greenhouse gases currently present in the atmosphere will influence the climate in coming decades. The day on which it is quite clear which climatic scenario prevails, so that it is possible to model all relevant processes down to regional level, will be the day on which it is too late to adapt to the actual scenario. Our endeavours to adapt to climate change do not mean, however, that we can neglect to take measures in order to reduce the output of greenhouse gases. It is important to remember that on their own, neither adaptation nor mitigation can prevent the grave impacts resulting from climate change. In fact, they complement each other meaningfully thus helping to alleviate the risks of climate change. On 17th December 2008 the German Federal Cabinet adopted the DAS (German Strategy for the Adaptation to Climate Change), (Bundesregierung 2008). The DAS has created the framework for adapting to the consequences of climate change in Germany. First and fore-most, the DAS contributes its guidelines at Federal level, to provide a guideline for agents at other levels. The Strategy lays the foundation for a medium-term process. In conjunction with the individual Federal States and other groups representing various sectors of society, the Strategy provides a step-by-step assessment of the risks of climate change. Furthermore, it states the potential requirements for action, and defines the appropriate goals and potential adaptation measures to be developed and implemented in this process. In due course, the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) will design a comprehensive set of tools to support and advance the DAS. An integral part of this will be the Special Information System 'Adaptation' (FISKA) and an Indicator System to aid adaptation. The latter is one of the key tasks identified for the DAS. As far