WorldWideScience

Sample records for adaptation psychology

  1. Theory of psychological adaptive modes.

    Lehti, Juha

    2016-05-01

    When an individual is facing a stressor and normal stress-response mechanism cannot guarantee sufficient adaptation, special emotional states, adaptive modes, are activated (for example a depressive reaction). Adaptive modes are involuntary states of mind, they are of comprehensive nature, they interfere with normal functioning, and they cannot be repressed or controlled the same way as many emotions. Their transformational nature differentiates them from other emotional states. The object of the adaptive mode is to optimize the problem-solving abilities according to the situation that has provoked the mode. Cognitions and emotions during the adaptive mode are different than in a normal mental state. These altered cognitions and emotional reactions guide the individual to use the correct coping skills in order to deal with the stressor. Successful adaptation will cause the adaptive mode to fade off since the adaptive mode is no longer necessary, and the process as a whole will lead to raised well-being. However, if the adaptation process is inadequate, then the transformation period is prolonged, and the adaptive mode will turn into a dysfunctional state. Many psychiatric disorders are such maladaptive processes. The maladaptive processes can be turned into functional ones by using adaptive skills that are used in functional adaptive processes. PMID:27063089

  2. Psychological conditions of adaptation to professional stress

    Nina Tereshenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of empirical studies of the occupational stress and adaptation. The study shows that the process of adaptation to stress affect the socio-psychological characteristics. Constructive ways of behavior are: the choice of cooperation, a strong desire to be with people, taking responsibility and decision-making.

  3. PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION AND REHABILITATION OF RECIPIENTS OF DONOR ORGANS

    S. V. Gautier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the nature of psychological adaptation and rehabilitation of patients, recipients of solid organs. The results of the clinical and psychological work with patients, recipients of donor organs, carried out in theSverdlovskRegionalClinicalHospital№ 1 are shown. Special attention has been paid to the study of motivation as the main psychological factor in the process of adaptation and rehabilitation. We have also shown the infl uence of body image and self-evaluation on the emotional state of patients after the operation. Special stress is laid on the significance of psychological factors which improve the quality of the patient’s life. The main principles and the system of psychological rehabilitation are presented. 

  4. Male psychological adaptation to unsuccessful medically assisted reproduction treatments

    Martins, Mariana Veloso; Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Pedro, Juliana;

    2016-01-01

    for psychological maladjustment. Protective factors were related to the use of coping strategies that involve seeking information and attribution of a positive meaning to infertility, having the support of others and of one's spouse, and engaging in open communication about the infertility problem......BACKGROUND: Similarly to women, men suffer from engaging in fertility treatments, both physically and psychologically. Although there is a vast body of evidence on the emotional adjustment of women to infertility, there are no systematic reviews focusing on men's psychological adaptation to...... infertility and related treatments. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The main research questions addressed in this review were 'Does male psychological adaptation to unsuccessful medically assisted reproduction (MAR) treatment vary over time?' and 'Which psychosocial variables act as protective or risk factors for...

  5. Computerized adaptive testing in industrial and organizational psychology

    Makransky, G.

    2012-01-01

    The overarching goal of this dissertation is to increase the precision and efficiency of the measurement tools that are used to make selection decisions in industrial/organizational psychology, by introducing psychometric innovations in the framework of computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Chapter 1 presents a general introduction to CAT and item response theory (IRT). Chapter 2 illustrates an automatic online calibration design that can be used in adaptive testing. The method makes it more a...

  6. Psychological Adaptation of Turkish Students at U.S. Campuses

    Bektas, Yelda; Demir, Ayhan; Bowden, Randall

    2009-01-01

    The number of Turkish citizens entering the U.S. for their studies is growing more rapidly than almost any other group. The purpose of the current study was to investigate how acculturation factors affect psychological adaptation of Turkish students in the U.S. One hundred and twenty-four Turkish students participated in the study. Regression…

  7. Mothers' psychological adaptation to Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy.

    Peay, Holly L; Meiser, Bettina; Kinnett, Kathleen; Furlong, Pat; Porter, Kathryn; Tibben, Aad

    2016-05-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DBMD) cause significant emotional and care-related burden on caregivers, but no studies have evaluated predictors of positive caregiver outcomes, including disorder-specific psychological adaptation. Using a community-engaged approach focused on supporting mothers in positive aspects of caregiving, this prospective study aims to assess (i) the association between child's baseline functional status and mothers' illness perceptions, resilience, and coping self-efficacy; and (ii) predictors of mothers' psychological adaptation to caring for a child with DBMD. Biological mothers with at least one living child with DBMD completed a baseline survey (n=205) with 1-year (n=147) and 2-year (n=144) follow-up surveys. Worse child's baseline function was associated not only with increased caregiver burden and reduced maternal resilience, but also with perception of positive disease impact on the family. At two follow-ups, increased psychological adaptation to DBMD was predicted by resilience (β=0.264, P=0.001) and perceived positive impact (β=0.310, Pfamilies with DBMD should anticipate increased caregiver burden as the disorder progresses, interventions focused on caregiver burden are not expected to influence mothers' psychosocial adaptation. Efforts to improve mothers' well-being should focus on fostering mothers' resilience and enhancing perceptions of positive disease impact (benefit finding). Results suggest that psychosocial interventions can highlight strengths and well-being rather than burden and deficit. PMID:26306645

  8. Psychology and Adaptation: the Work of Jerome Bruner

    Raw Laurence

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a view as to why Jerome Bruner should become an important figure in future constructions of adaptation theory. It will be divided into three sections. In the first, I discuss in more detail his notions of transformation, paying particular attention to the ways in which we redefine ourselves to cope with different situations (as I did while visiting two specific museums in Vienna and Samos. The second will examine Bruner’s belief in the power of narrative or storytelling as ways to impose order on the uncertainties of life (as well as one’s expectations from it that renders everyone authors of their own adaptations. In the final section I suggest that the capacity for “making stories” (Bruner’s term assumes equal importance in psychological terms as it does for the screenwriter or adapter: all of us construct narratives through a process of individual distillation of experiences and information, and subsequently refine them through group interaction. Through this process we understand more about ourselves and our relationship to the world around us. I elaborate this notion through a brief case-study of Charlie Kaufman’s screenplay for the film Adaptation (2002.

  9. Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change - integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel

    Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.

    2013-03-01

    Several case studies show that "soft social factors" (e.g. institutions, perceptions, social capital) strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Many soft social factors can probably be changed faster than "hard social factors" (e.g. economic and technological development) and are therefore particularly important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of soft social factors. Gupta et al. (2010) have developed the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess six dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate. "Adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in North Western Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

  10. Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change: integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel

    Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.

    2013-12-01

    Several case studies show that social factors like institutions, perceptions and social capital strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Together with economic and technological development they are important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of social factors. After reviewing existing methodologies we identify the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) by Gupta et al. (2010), developed for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions, as the most comprehensive and operationalised framework to assess social factors. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess 6 dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate; "adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in northwestern Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

  11. Health as situational adaption: a social psychological perspective.

    Alonzo, A A

    1985-01-01

    A model to encompass the complex relationship between the individual and his social, physical and cultural environments and to provide strategies for intervention has not yet been developed. While professionals acknowledge the importance of an ecological and holistic conception of man-environment interaction, various biases and ideologies prevent them from adequately taking this interaction into account. To overcome this inadequacy this paper explores a relational conception of health, the central importance of the socially defined situation for health and adaption, the limits of medicine and holism in intervening in problems of adaption and suggests a situational approach to the study of health and adaption. By stressing the socially defined situation and the social psychological actor it may be possible to sensitize the actor to socially situated man-environment transactions, to preserve the actor's confidence in his own health, to encourage individual responsibility for maintaining health and to promote an awareness of signs and symptoms that require medical attention. Within a larger framework, however, it is not effective to intervene in the individual's social situations if we do not also attempt to alter the macro economic, political, cultural and structural elements in society which encourage, produce and support unhealthy environmental conditions. PMID:4095588

  12. PSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS OF STUDENTS ADAPTATION TO UNIVERSITY STUDIES

    Olga A. Molokova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The solution version of one of problems of psychology andpedagogical escort of students at the initial stage of their adaptation to training in higher education institution is stated in the study. Such maintenance obligatory includes diagnostics of a psychological state of pupils that in a traditional state demands considerable expenses by as teachers’ and first-year students’ forces and time. Possibility of elimination of this shortcoming is presented.Methods. The methods involve the modified Sklyayn’s technique which description is presented in K. Rogers’s works; the technique of the personal differential definition; the technique of definition of the psychological satisfaction in various vital spheres. Students’ relation to the research was found out during anonymous poll.Results. It is shown that, despite the positive relation to psychological researches from the majority of respondents, there is a problem of the obvious or latent unwillingness of some first-year students to participate in surveys and test work caused by work content and its duration. The alternative to tiresome measurements of indicators of adaptation of pupils to training in higher education institution is presented – the express diagnostics reduce time of monitoring and allow teachers to get students interested. Comparison of the results received at use of Sklyayn’s technique and a technique «Personal differential» shows that they investigate the same phenomenon at nonverbal and verbal levels: correlation of persons’ «real self» and «ideal self». However, if creation of verbal formulations of the person relation to what he/she is, and to what he/she wants to be, can cause difficulties by the examinee, the nonverbal diagnostics turned to subconsciousness, is not only simpler, but also reflects a psychological state of the person more precisely.Scientific novelty. Modification of the technique by Sklyayn is proposed; it

  13. Feedback effect of human physical and psychological adaption on time period of thermal adaption in naturally ventilated building

    liu, weiwei; Huangfu, Hao; Xiong, Jing;

    2014-01-01

    of the time period of thermal adaption were obtained on the basis of the data from a long-term field survey conducted in two typical naturally ventilated offices located in Changsha, China. The results showed that the occupants need to take 4.25 days to fully adapt to a step-change in outdoor air...... adaption indicated that the psychological adaption mode can speed up the process of thermal adaption to the variation in the outdoor climate condition. This study presented a new insight into the feedback from the thermal adaption modes to occupant thermal comfort.......This study proposed a method to determine time period of thermal adaption for occupants in naturally ventilated building, and analyzed the synergistic and separate feedback effect of the physical and psychological adaption modes on the time period of thermal adaption. Using the method, the values...

  14. Evolutionary Psychology, Adaptation, and the Evoltion of Lanaguage: Is there a Need for Comparsion?

    Krause, Mark A.

    1997-01-01

    A general assumption held by evolutionary psychologists is that a reference point for examining the origins and evolution of human psychological adaptations exists within a time range beginning roughly two million years ago. Scenarios for explaining the evolution of human psychological processes often allude to possible election pressures encountered by hominids during this time. unfortunately, comparative psychology and ethology are relatively absent from much current evolutionary psychologi...

  15. Psychological adaptation in the info-communication society: The revised version of Technology-Related Psychological Consequences Questionnaire.

    Emelin V.A.; Tkhostov A.Sh.; Rasskazova E.I.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to consider technology-related changes in psychological needs and boundaries that affect one’s personal adaptation to the info-communication society, as well as how they relate to problematic or excessive technology use. Based on the psychological model of the consequences of technology use, we’ve picked two forms of technology use (one related to mobile phones and the other related to the Internet) from a revised version of our Technology-Related Psychological Consequ...

  16. PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION IN THE INFO-COMMUNICATION SOCIETY: THE REVISED VERSION OF THE TECHNOLOGY-RELATED PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES QUESTIONNAIRE

    Emelin, Vadim; Tkhostov, Alexander; Rasskazova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to consider technology-related changes in psychological needs and boundaries that affect one’s personal adaptation to the info-communication society, as well as how they relate to problematic or excessive technology use. Based on the psychological model of the consequences of technology use, we’ve picked two forms of technology use (one related to mobile phones and the other related to the Internet) from a revised version of our Technology-Related Psychological Consequ...

  17. Psychological and Pedagogical Support for Students' Adaptation to Learning Activity in High Science School

    Zeleeva, Vera P.; Bykova, Svetlana S.; Varbanova, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study is due to the importance of psychological and pedagogical support for students in university that would prevent difficulties in learning activities and increase adaptive capacity through the development of relevant personal traits. Therefore, this article is aimed at solving the problem of arranging psychological and…

  18. The Effect of Virtual Reality Therapy on Psychological Adaptation in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Burcu METİN ÖKMEN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The motor disorders of cerebral palsy (CP are usually accompanied by sensory and perceptual problems, cognitive disorders, communication, and behavioral problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of virtual reality (VR therapy on psychological adaptation in children with CP.Methods: Forty-one patients were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomized into two groups: 21 patients in the study group and 20 patients in the control group. Age, gender, etiological factors, and type of CP were recorded for each patient. Neurophysiological and conventional treatment methods and occupational therapy was administered to all patients. In addition to the treatments mentioned above, VR therapy 3 times per week, in 1 hour segments for four weeks, for a total of 12 sessions was also administered using Sony Play Station Eye Toy System. Patient psychological adaptation levels were measured using the Hacettepe Psychological Adaptation Scale, both before and after treatment. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the groups for age, gender, etiological factors, and type of CP (p>0.05. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in Hacettepe Psychological Adaptation Scale scores before treatment (p>0.05. We found a significant increase in the scores after treatment compared to those before treatment in the study group (p<0.05. When the changes in Hacettepe Psychological Adaptation Scale scores were compared, a significant difference was found between the groups, with higher scores in the study group. Discussion: Virtual reality therapy is a very beneficial treatment method that can be used in CP rehabilitation and can improve psychological adaptation. The combination of this method with conventional rehabilitation techniques will provide a significant contribution to treatment success. (Arc­hi­ves of Neu­ropsy­chi­atry 2013; 50: 70-74

  19. Psychosocial Adaptation to Disability Within the Context of Positive Psychology: Findings from the Literature.

    Martz, Erin; Livneh, Hanoch

    2016-03-01

    Purpose This purpose of this article is to review of the trends of research that examined positive psychology constructs in the context of adapting to chronic illness and disability (CID). This article examines the empirical findings on the relationships between six selected positive psychology-associated constructs (optimism, hope, resilience, benefit-finding, meaning-making, and post-traumatic growth) and adaptation to disability. Methods Six positive psychology constructs were selected to represent the trends found in recent literature published on CID. The process of choosing these six variables included reviewing chapters on positive psychology and CID, reviewing the top rehabilitation journals that typically publish articles on psychosocial adaptation to CID, using search engines to find relevant journal articles published since the year 2000, and selecting the most important constructs based on the authors' professional judgment. Conclusion The available evidence supports the unique benefits of these six positive psychology constructs in predicting successful adaptation to a range of disabling conditions. Based on the available findings, the authors offer four suggestions for occupational rehabilitation researchers. PMID:26283187

  20. Psychological adaptation in the info-communication society: The revised version of Technology-Related Psychological Consequences Questionnaire.

    Emelin V.A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to consider technology-related changes in psychological needs and boundaries that affect one’s personal adaptation to the info-communication society, as well as how they relate to problematic or excessive technology use. Based on the psychological model of the consequences of technology use, we’ve picked two forms of technology use (one related to mobile phones and the other related to the Internet from a revised version of our Technology-Related Psychological Consequences Questionnaire. The new version includes nine questions: two assessing the excessive use of technology (the inability to resist using technology and subjective dependence, four assessing changes in psychological boundaries (boundaries extension and violation, easiness-related and opportunity-related preference for technology and the other three measuring technology-related needs (functionality, convenience and image making. In the normative sample (N=132, appropriate reliability, factor validity and convergent validity were demonstrated in comparisons to the picture measure of the technology-related boundaries change. Based on hierarchical regression and moderator analysis, it was shown that changes in psychological boundaries affect the excessive use of technology (explaining an additional 17-27% of the variance after adjusting for frequency of use and age group. The extension of boundaries and ease-of-use-related preference for mobile phones versus the Internet predicted satisfaction with life after adjusting for frequency of use, age group, inability to resist and subjective dependency respectively; however, the figures were not statistically significant. Thus, our data supports the hypothesis that there are different kinds of technology-related changes in psychological boundaries that manifest themselves in the subjective feeling of dependence on technology and the feeling that it is impossible to do without technology, which might in some cases

  1. How psychological resources facilitate adaptation to organizational change

    M. van den Heuvel; E. Demerouti; A.B. Bakker

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this 1-year follow-up study among 580 police officers is to investigate whether identity-related resources are positively related to adaptive behaviour during times of organizational change. Combining the social identity perspective with resources theories, we hypothesized that leader

  2. Psychological Contract Development during Organizational Socialization: Adaptation to Reality and the Role of Reciprocity

    Vos, A; D. BUYENS; Schalk, R.

    2003-01-01

    Based on the theoretical framework of newcomer sensemaking this study examines factors associated with changes in newcomers’ psychological contract perceptions during the socialization process. More specifically, two mechanisms are addressed that could explain changes in newcomers’ perceptions of the promises they have exchanged with their employer: (1) unilateral adaptation of perceived promises to reality and (2) adaptation of perceived promises as a function of the reciprocity norm. To tes...

  3. The psychological well-being and sociocultural adaptation of short-term international students in Ireland

    O'Reilly, Aileen; Ryan, Dermot; Hickey, Tina

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical study of the psychosocial adaptation of international students in Ireland. Using measures of social support, loneliness, stress, psychological well-being, and sociocultural adaptation, data were obtained from international students and a comparison sample of Irish students. The study found that, although international students had high levels of social support and low levels of loneliness and stress, students were experiencing high levels of sociocultural ...

  4. The prerequisite for social-psychological adaptation of turkmen students, who are studying in Ukraine

    Соколова, Ірина Михайлівна; Нікітіна, Оксана Петрівна

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to determine the characteristics of the attitude to the Other as a premise prerequisite of the social-psychological adaptation of Turkmen students that are studying in Ukrainian universities. Successful adaptation contributes, on the one hand, the rapid inclusion of students to the learning process, allows to solve the problem of retention of  contingent, and on the other - it helps to improve the quality of the training of young people in Ukrainian universities. The study s...

  5. Computerized adaptive testing of population psychological distress:simulation-based evaluation of GHQ-30

    Stochl, Jan; Böhnke, Jan R.; Pickett, Kate E.; Croudace, Tim J.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) items are frequently used to assess psychological distress but no study to date has investigated the GHQ-30's potential for adaptive administration. In computerized adaptive testing (CAT) items are matched optimally to the targeted distress level of respondents instead of relying on fixed-length versions of instruments. We therefore calibrate GHQ-30 items and report a simulation study exploring the potential of this instrument for adaptiv...

  6. Psychology and Adaptation: the Work of Jerome Bruner

    Raw Laurence

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a view as to why Jerome Bruner should become an important figure in future constructions of adaptation theory. It will be divided into three sections. In the first, I discuss in more detail his notions of transformation, paying particular attention to the ways in which we redefine ourselves to cope with different situations (as I did while visiting two specific museums in Vienna and Samos). The second will examine Bruner’s belief in the power of narrative or storytelling a...

  7. Multi-type Childhood Abuse, Strategies of Coping, and Psychological Adaptations in Young Adults

    Sesar, Kristina; Šimić, Nataša; Barišić, Marijana

    2010-01-01

    Aim To retrospectively analyze the rate of multi-type abuse in childhood and the effects of childhood abuse and type of coping strategies on the psychological adaptation of young adults in a sample form the student population of the University of Mostar. Methods The study was conducted on a convenience sample of 233 students from the University of Mostar (196 female and 37 male), with a median age of 20 (interquartile range, 2). Exposure to abuse was determined using t...

  8. Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Assessment Instruments Used in Psychological Research with Children and Families

    van Widenfelt, Brigit M.; Treffers, Philip D. A.; de Beurs, Edwin; Siebelink, Bart M.; Koudijs, Els

    2005-01-01

    With the increased globalization of psychology and related fields, having reliable and valid measures that can be used in a number of languages and cultures is critical. Few guidelines or standards have been established in psychology for the translation and cultural adaptation of instruments. Usually little is reported in research publications…

  9. The relationship between coping styles and psychological adaptation in the recovery process: patients with coronary heart disease

    Besharat M.A.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The relationship between coping styles and psychological adaptation during the recovery process was investigated in a sample of coronary heart disease (CHD patients. "nMethods: One hundred and fifty patients from Shahid Rajaee Heart Center, Tehran, Iran, were included in this study at intake and forty five patients (27 men, 18 women participated in the follow-up study. All participants were asked to complete the Tehran Coping Styles Scale (TCSS and Mental Health Inventory (MHI. The Recovery Process Questionnaire (RPQ was completed using each patient's medical file and clinical examinations by cardiologists. Styles of coping with stress were categorized as problem-focused, positive emotional-focused and negative emotional-focused. Psychological adaptation included psychological well-being and psychological distress. "nResults: Objective recovery status showed no significant correlation with either coping styles or psychological adaptation. Perceived recovery revealed a significant positive association with negative emotional-focused coping (p<0.05, but no significant correlation with other coping and psychological adaptation variables. Perceived recovery revealed a significant negative association with psychological distress (p<0.05, but showed no significant correlation with psychological well-being. "nConclusions: Perceived recovery in CHD patients is positively influenced by negative emotional-focused coping styles. Results and implications are discussed specifically in terms of the possible reasons for the positive relationship between perceived recovery and negative emotional-focused coping.

  10. Cardiovascular reactivity and adaptation to recurrent psychological stress: the moderating effects of evaluative observation.

    Kelsey, R M; Blascovich, J; Leitten, C L; Schneider, T R; Tomaka, J; Wiens, S

    2000-11-01

    The impact of evaluative observation on cardiovascular reactivity and adaptation to recurrent psychological stress was evaluated in 162 undergraduate men and women. All participants performed three mental arithmetic tasks with or without evaluative observation. Impedance cardiographic, blood pressure, task performance, and stress appraisal measures were recorded for each task. Evaluative observation moderated the effects of task repetition on cardiac reactivity but not vascular reactivity. The introduction of evaluative observation disrupted cardiac adaptation, resulting in a resurgence of beta-adrenergic cardiac reactivity (p < .005), whereas the removal of evaluative observation promoted cardiac adaptation. Evaluative observation also increased stress appraisals and slowed task performance. The results support the dual process theory of habituation, rather than stimulus comparator theory, but only partially support cognitive appraisal theory. PMID:11117455

  11. Emotional intelligence and features of social and psychological adaptation in adolescents with deviant behavior

    Degtyarev A.V.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of social-psychological adaptation of adolescents with deviant behavioral today is of particular relevance in relation to the current process of restructuring of educational institutions - the merging of general and specialized schools for adolescents with behavioral problems in a unified educational complexes. In these circumstances it is necessary to find an efficient tool that will simultaneously accelerate the process of adaptation and have a positive preventive effect. In this article, the author shows that such a tool can become the emotional intelligence as a construct that includes various abilities of the emotional sphere. The main hypothesis of the study was that the socio-psychological adaptation of adolescents with deviant behavior has its own characteristics, different from the norm group, and is interconnected with the components of emotional intelligence. The study was conducted on the basis of general education school № 2077 formed by the merger of five educational institutions: the former school № 738, № 703, № 702, № 7 and № 77. The study involved 222 teenagers from 14 to 16 years (111 girls and 111 boys.

  12. First-Year Students' Psychological and Behavior Adaptation to College: The Role of Coping Strategies and Social Support

    Wang, Aiping; Chen, Lang; Zhao, Bo; Xu, Yan

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates 311 first-year students' psychological and behavior adaptation to college and the mediate role of coping strategies and social support. The investigates reveal that: (1) first-year students who are from countryside, live in poor families, speak in dialects or major in science and engineering have poorer adaptation to…

  13. INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS ACTIVITIES ON PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION LEVELS OF CHILDREN

    Erkan; Eylem; Ekrem Levent

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine whether regular application of physical education and sports activities was effective on psychological adaptation levels of children or not. The research group was constituted of 80 students in the range of 10-11 years old who take education in Ankara Keçioren Hacı Sabancı Secondary School. The research was designed as a test-module with pretest-posttest control group. Physical education and sports activities were performed with application group as 2...

  14. Impact of Atopic Dermatitis on the Psychological State and Social Adaptation of Patients

    Girnyk, G. Ye.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of investigation of the impact of atopic dermatitis (AD) on the psychological state and social adaptation of patients.  Different ways of AD treatment were discussed. Modern data on AD clinical course and its manifestations were presented. The objective of the research        was to study the impact of AD on the quality of life in patients. The dermatology life quality index, assessment of situational and personal anxiety levels and degree of stress resistance...

  15. Formal psychological assessment in evaluating depression: a new methodology to build exhaustive and irredundant adaptive questionnaires.

    Serra, Francesca; Spoto, Andrea; Ghisi, Marta; Vidotto, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Psychological Assessment can be defined as a complex procedure of information collection, analysis and processing. Formal Psychological Assessment (FPA) tries to improve this procedure by providing a formal framework to build assessment tools. In this paper, FPA is applied to depression. Seven questionnaires widely used for the self-evaluation of depression were selected. Diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder were derived from the DSM-5, literature and Seligman's and Beck's theories. A Boolean matrix was built, including 266 items from the questionnaires in the rows and 20 selected attributes, obtained through diagnostic criteria decomposition, in the columns. In the matrix, a 1 in a cell meant that the corresponding item investigated the specific attribute. It was thus possible to analyze the relationships between items and attributes and among items. While none of the considered questionnaires could alone cover all the criteria for the evaluation of depressive symptoms, we observed that a set of 30 items contained the same information that was obtained redundantly with 266 items. Another result highlighted by the matrix regards the relations among items. FPA allows in-depth analysis of currently used questionnaires based on the presence/absence of clinical elements. FPA allows for going beyond the mere score by differentiating the patients according to symptomatology. Furthermore, it allows for computerized-adaptive assessment. PMID:25875359

  16. TERMS OF EFFECTIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL MAINTENANCE OF YOUNG TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONAL ADAPTATION IN THE CONDITIONS OF NEW EDUCATIONAL STANDARDS’ INTRODUCTION

    Marina Sergeevna Sotnikova

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the main difficulties in the work of young teachers in the conditions of new educational standards’ introduction. The article clarifies the meaning of «professional adaptation», indicates the features of new educational standards, identifies causes of the difficulties in work and, as a consequence, professional disadaptation, reveals the essence of psychological and pedagogical maintenance of young teachers’ professional adaptation in the conditions of new educational st...

  17. Psychology

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  18. The relationship between coping styles and psychological adaptation in the recovery process: patients with coronary heart disease

    Besharat M.A.; Pourang P; Sadeghpour Tabaee A

    2008-01-01

    "nBackground: The relationship between coping styles and psychological adaptation during the recovery process was investigated in a sample of coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. "nMethods: One hundred and fifty patients from Shahid Rajaee Heart Center, Tehran, Iran, were included in this study at intake and forty five patients (27 men, 18 women) participated in the follow-up study. All participants were asked to complete the Tehran Coping Styles Scale (TCSS) and Mental Health Inv...

  19. PSYCHOLOGY OF INTERGROUP ADAPTATION IN ORGANIZATIONS AS THE INTEGRATION OF SOCIOPSYCHOLOGICAL AND COGNITIVE PARADIGMS: SOME RESULTS AND PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT

    Alexander, Bulgakov

    2014-01-01

    Article represents the review of empirical researches (2000-2013) based on the authoring concept of psychology of intergroup adaptation (PIA) in the organizations. Some results of study of groups with different status of 45 crews of the ships of Navy of Russia (1129 servicemen), 7 rural schools of the Moscow region (351 people), 6 trade enterprises, productions, services sectors (140 employees) are provided. The system and situational analysis (the retrospective standardized interview), quest...

  20. Peculiarities psychological and educational work on the adaptation of children the senior preschool age with serious speech defects to the conditions groups the compensating preschool of combined type

    Buchilova Irina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the features of adaptation senior preschool age children severe speech impairment to the conditions of the compensation groups preschool of combined type. The directions, methods, form of psychological and pedagogical work on its optimization

  1. Problems of regulatory diapason exposure of law enforcement authorities’ employees psychological adaptation

    Anastasia K. Deinekina; Ibrahim X. Agabegov; Dmitry N. Kirilenko; Marina V. Matienko

    2011-01-01

    The article, using theory and experiment, justifies the necessity of regulatory diapason exposure of psychological health of law enforcement authorities’ employees according to neurotization, psychotization, aggression and emotional stability signs.

  2. Formal Psychological Assessment in Evaluating Depression: A New Methodology to Build Exhaustive and Irredundant Adaptive Questionnaires

    Serra, Francesca; Spoto, Andrea; Ghisi, Marta; Vidotto, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Psychological Assessment can be defined as a complex procedure of information collection, analysis and processing. Formal Psychological Assessment (FPA) tries to improve this procedure by providing a formal framework to build assessment tools. In this paper, FPA is applied to depression. Seven questionnaires widely used for the self-evaluation of depression were selected. Diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder were derived from the DSM-5, literature and Seligman’s and Beck’s theori...

  3. Neuromuscular adaptations predict functional disability independently of clinical pain and psychological factors in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Dubois, Jean-Daniel; Abboud, Jacques; St-Pierre, Charles; Piché, Mathieu; Descarreaux, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Patients with chronic low back pain exhibit characteristics such as clinical pain, psychological symptoms and neuromuscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent contribution of clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations to disability in patients with chronic low back pain. Clinical pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety, neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain were assessed in 52 patients with chronic low back pain. Lumbar muscle electromyographic activity was assessed during a flexion-extension task (flexion relaxation phenomenon) to assess both chronic neuromuscular adaptations and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain during the task. Multiple regressions showed that independent predictors of disability included neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain (β=0.25, p=0.006, sr(2)=0.06), neuromuscular responses to experimental pain (β=-0.24, p=0.011, sr(2)=0.05), clinical pain intensity (β=0.28, p=0.002, sr(2)=0.08) and psychological factors (β=0.58, ppain intensity and psychological factors, and contribute to inter-individual differences in patients' disability. This suggests that disability, in chronic low back pain patients, is determined by a combination of factors, including clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations. PMID:24837629

  4. Revisiting the Psychology of Intelligence Analysis: From Rational Actors to Adaptive Thinkers

    Puvathingal, Bess J.; Hantula, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    Intelligence analysis is a decision-making process rife with ambiguous, conflicting, irrelevant, important, and excessive information. The U.S. Intelligence Community is primed for psychology to lend its voice to the "analytic transformation" movement aimed at improving the quality of intelligence analysis. Traditional judgment and decision making…

  5. Psychological adaptation to a rare, disfiguring disease : european study with patients suffering scleroderma

    Maia, Ângela; Leite, Catarina da Silva Correia Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Background: Scleroderma is a chronic disorder, characterized by thickening and fibrosis of the skin and disruption of internal organs that affects global functioning and quality of life. Facial skin alterations have an impact on self-esteem and interfere with social interactions, with an association to psychological symptoms, especially depression. The aim of this study, in collaboration with a Canadian team and European Associations, intended to characterize the symptoms and the psychologica...

  6. Adaption and validation of the German version of the basic psychological needs in physical education scale

    Heckmann, Philip

    2013-01-01

    It is important to understand students’ motivation regarding physical activity to investigate the global issue physical inactivity. Based on the self-determination theory (SDT: Ryan & Deci, 2002), which is one of the most important frameworks in explaining motivation, students need to be emotionally satisfied in order to put effort towards a certain goal. The Basic Psychological Needs Theory is one sub-theory of the self-determination theory, which explains that constructs of a...

  7. Adaptation of learning resources based on the MBTI theory of psychological types

    Amel Behaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the resources available on the web increases significantly. The motivation for the dissemination of knowledge and their acquisition by learners is central to learning. However, learners show differences between the ways of learning that suits them best. The objective of the work presented in this paper is to study how it is possible to integrate models from cognitive theories and ontologies for the adaptation of educational resources. The goal is to provide the system capabilities to conduct reasoning on descriptions obtained in order to automatically adapt the resources to a learner according to his preferences. We rely on the model MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator for the consideration of learning styles of learners as a criterion for adaptation.

  8. 地方院校大学生心理适应能力的特点%Research on the Characteristics of Psychological Adapt-ability of the Local College Students

    李俊茹

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the characteristics of psychologi-cal adaptability of the local college students so as to promote mental health education. Methods: 728 local college students were tested by using the inventory of psychological adaptability. Results: The local college students whose psychological adapt-ability was poor accounted for 65.385%of the total. Female stu-dents had significantly lower scores than male students in psy-chological adaptability. Undergraduate students had significantly lower scores of psychological adaptability than that of diploma students. Significant difference was found among different grade college students in psychological adaptability. Students majoring in liberal arts had significantly lower scores of psychological adaptability than that of the students majoring in science and majoring in arts. Conclusion: Local colleges should be aimed at college students' gender, educational background, grade and subject characteristics to strengthen the mental health education.%目的:分析地方:校大学生心理适应能力的特点,为心理健康教育提供依据。方法:采用大学生心理适应能力问卷,对728名地方:校大学生进行测试。结果:心理适应能力差的学生占总数的65.385%;女生的心理适应能力得分显著低于男生;本科生的心理适应能力得分显著低于专科生;不同年级大学生心理适应能力存在显著差异;文科生的心理适应能力得分均显著低于理科生和艺术生。结论:地方:校应针对大学生的性别、学历、年级和学科等特点,加强心理健康教育。

  9. Bilingual and Bicultural Adaptation. Educational and Psychological Interactions. Bulletin No. 66.

    Ekstrand, Lars Henric

    This report is a compilation of five research papers in second language acquisition and immigrant adaptability that are part of studies conducted in Sweden over the last twenty years. (1) "Language teaching and psycho-physics" discusses basic measurement problems in the assessment of second language proficiency, where testing of writing and…

  10. TV THERAPY WITHOUT PSYCHOLOGY: ADAPTING THE SELF IN POST-SOVIET MEDIA. SUMMARY

    Lerner, Julia

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the constitution of a new therapeutic emotional cultural style in post-Soviet Russia. Its manifestations are particularly evident in the media, where off-the-shelf forms of Western late capitalist popular culture are imitated, seemingly in a one-to-one fashion. Engaging with the literature on emotional capitalism, the author points to the particular conditions in which therapeutic culture is being adapted in Russia. The alternative tradition of subjectivity in the Russia...

  11. Psychological Sense of University Membership: An Adaptation Study of the PSSM Scale for Turkish University Students.

    Alkan, Neşe

    2016-05-18

    The Psychological Sense of School Membership Scale (PSSM) is a widely used instrument to assess the sense of belonging to a school among adolescents. Despite its widespread use in middle and high school students, to date no particular adaptation study has been conducted for its use among university students. For this reason, the present study conducted an adaptation of the PSSM scale for these students. Five hundred and nine students at a Turkish university voluntarily participated in the study, and the PSSM Scale's factor structure was examined by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, identifying three factors representing the students' sense of university membership with acceptable internal consistencies: acceptance by faculty members (.70), belonging (.75), and acceptance by students (.76). The internal consistency of the 18-item scale was calculated as .84. As hypothesized, the convergent and discriminant validity of the scale was also tested. The self-report sense of belonging and degree of satisfaction with the university were positively correlated with the three dimensions of the scale. Also, the scores regarding the students' intention to drop out of university along with loneliness were negatively correlated with all the dimension of the PSSM scale. PMID:26398445

  12. Temporal perspective and other psychological factors making it difficult to adapt to requirements of treatment in chronic dialysis patients

    Zawadzka, Barbara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The study analyzed the relationship between temporal perspective, selected personal resources, and unhealthy behavior, manifesting in problems with adherence to fluid intake restrictions, in chronic hemodialyzis patients. The authors tried to answer the question whether there is temporal perspective and other psychological factors increasing the risk of non-adaptive behaviors. Methods. Sixty-one patients, aged 23–81 years (M = 59; SD = 13,9 on chronic hemodialysis at the Department of Nephrology University Hospital were qualified to the study. The study group consisted of 30 patients with poorer fluid regimen adherence and 31 controls, who maintained fluid regimen. The patients were qualified on the bases of the average interdialysis weight gains measured nine times during three weeks. The following research tools were used: P. Zimbardo and J. Boyd ZTPI test; P.T. Costa and R.R. McCrae NEO-FFI Inventory; J. Strelau Temperament Inventory, R. Schwarzer GSES; M. F. Scheier; C. S. Carver and M. W. Bridges LOT-R; M. Watson and S. Greer CECS; BJ. Felton, TA. Revenson, GA. Hinrichsen AIS. Results. Difficulties in adapting to the fluid intake restrictions are significantly associated with temporal orientation towards negative aspects of the present and the past. Non-adaptive health behaviors are typical for patients with temperamental lack of balance between agitation and inhibition processes and are characterized by high agreeableness and low conscientiousness. The association between excessive anger control and the risk of non-adherence medical recommendations. Conclusions. Time perception and other personality factors form mechanisms regulating health behaviors in chronically treatment patients.

  13. [The possibilities of adaptation of patients with multiple sclerosis: the results of clinical and psychological study].

    Emelin, E V; Enikolopov, S N; Boĭko, A N; Gusev, E I

    2006-01-01

    A complex clinical and psychological examination of three groups of patients with stable neurological deficit (113 subjects, 77 men and 76 women, aged from 19 to 67 years) included those with multiple sclerosis (MS), chronic cerebral vascular disorders and chronic dorsopathy with illness duration 5-7 years has been carried out. Neuropsychological status and quality of life were assessed using the following tests: Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36); the method of E.B. Fantalova "Level of Ratio of "Values" to "Availability" in Different Life Spheres", Integrative Anxiety Test, Manual for the Constructive Thinking Inventory, Coping test (Lazarus), Beck depression scale. In total, 42 traits on 6 tests have been studied. The study was conducted before and after treatment (21 +/- 2 days). The results revealed that patients with chronic neurological disorders, in particular with MS, often had subclinical depression, which negatively influenced the disease course, and needed treatment. A high level of anxiety was found in MS patients that was related to situational social defensive reaction. Low ability to positive reevaluation of life situations, one of the causes of anxiety states, was observed in all the groups, especially in MS. In MS patients, their real state was not consistent with their perception of this state. They also were featured by personal superstitious thinking. Most of the patients with MS had a good constructive thinking, preserved ability to emotional and behavioral self-control that indicated favorable prognosis in future complex rehabilitation. After the course of symptomatic vascular and metabolic therapy, with the exception of antidepressants and neuroleptics, the appearances of depression and anxiety as well as expression of social defensive reactions and situational phobic component of anxiety were decreased that suggested the necessity of inclusion of individual psychotherapy as a part the complex rehabilitation therapy

  14. Cardiovascular reactivity and adaptation to recurrent psychological stress: effects of prior task exposure.

    Kelsey, R M; Blascovich, J; Tomaka, J; Leitten, C L; Schneider, T R; Wiens, S

    1999-11-01

    The effects of prior task exposure on cardiovascular reactivity to stress were examined in two experiments by randomly assigning participants to repeated exposure groups that performed mental arithmetic pretest and test tasks versus delayed exposure groups that performed only the test task after prolonged rest. Impedance cardiographic and blood pressure measures were recorded continuously from 60 undergraduate men in Experiment 1 and 112 undergraduate men and women in Experiment 2. Task repetition attenuated cardiovascular reactivity and improved task performance in repeated exposure groups (p < .001), suggesting an integrated process of behavioral adaptation. During the test task, delayed exposure groups showed greater cardiac reactivity (p < .01), but not vascular reactivity, than repeated exposure groups. Thus, cardiac reactivity varied as a specific function of prior task exposure, whereas vascular reactivity varied as a general function of time. PMID:10554594

  15. 心理干预提高独生子女士兵适应能力的研究%A Study on Psychological Intervention to Improve the Adaptability of the Only Son Recruits

    李权超; 蓝新友; 何英强; 蒋忠军; 谭终意; 李兴国

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of psychological intervention on the adaptability of the only son recruits. Methods: Mental status of the only son recruits and non-only son recruits were assessed using Symptom Checklist-90, Social Support Questionnaire and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire before and after psychological intervention. Results: The only son recruits scored significantly higher on depression, anxiety, and interpersonal sensitivity prior to psychological intervention, when compared to the non-only son recruits (P<0.05 or 0.01). The scores of negative emotion decreased and the scores of positive coping style increased significantly in the only son recruits after psychological intervention (P<0.05 or0.01).Conclusion: Psychological intervention could improve the psychological status and adaptability of the only son recruits.

  16. Space psychology

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  17. Development and qualitative evaluation of an adapted return to work guideline for the sick-listed unemployed and temporary agency workers with minor psychological problems

    Audhoe Selwin S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the working population, unemployed and temporary agency workers with psychological problems are a particularly vulnerable group, at risk for sickness absence and prolonged work disability. There is a need for the development of a new protocol for this group, because the existing return to work (RTW interventions, including practice guidelines, do not address the situation when there is no workplace to return to. The purpose of this study was to (1 describe the adaptations needed in the practice guideline for employed workers to enable its use by insurance physicians (IPs for counselling of sick-listed unemployed and temporary agency workers with minor psychological problems; and (2 evaluate the experiences of IPs when using the new guidance document for minor psychological problems (MPP guidance document. Methods The MPP guidance document for unemployed and temporary agency workers was developed through discussions with nine IPs and with the help of an expert. Semi-structured interviews with five IPs were then held to evaluate the IPs’ field experience using the MPP guidance document, in terms of (a feasibility and (b perceived usefulness of the MPP guidance document. Results The main adaptation introduced in the guideline is that interaction with the workplace, which is absent in this population, needed to be established in an alternative way, i.e., through the involvement of vocational rehabilitation agencies and labour experts. Overall, the guideline required minimal changes. In total, nineteen sick-listed workers were counselled using the MPP guidance document. The overall experience of the IPs was that the MPP guidance document was feasible and useful for the IP, while they had mixed responses on its usefulness for the sick-listed worker, in part due to the follow-up period of this study. Conclusions An existing practice guideline for employed workers was adapted for use as a guidance document for unemployed and

  18. Adapt

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  19. Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity and psychological adaptation of the nurses in a structured SARS caring unit during outbreak: a prospective and periodic assessment study in Taiwan.

    Su, Tung-Ping; Lien, Te-Cheng; Yang, Chih-Yi; Su, Yiet Ling; Wang, Jia-Horng; Tsai, Sing-Ling; Yin, Jeo-Chen

    2007-01-01

    To assess the rapidly changing psychological status of nurses during the acute phase of the 2003 SARS outbreak, we conducted a prospective and periodic evaluation of psychiatric morbidity and psychological adaptation among nurses in SARS units and non-SARS units. Nurse participants were from two SARS units (regular SARS [N=44] and SARS ICU [N=26]) and two non-SARS units (Neurology [N=15] and CCU [N=17]). Participants periodically self-evaluated their depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, sleep disturbance, attitude towards SARS and family support. Results showed that depression (38.5% vs. 3.1%) and insomnia (37% vs. 9.7%) were, respectively, greater in the SARS unit nurses than the non-SARS unit nurses. No difference between these two groups was found in the prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms (33% vs. 18.7%), yet, three unit subjects (SARS ICU, SARS regular and Neurology) had significantly higher rate than those in CCU (29.7% vs. 11.8%, respectively) (pinsomnia rate and perceived negative feelings as well as increasing knowledge and understanding of SARS at the end of the study (all pcoping attitude and strong social and family support may have protected against acute stress. In conclusion, the psychological impact on the caring staffs facing future bio-disaster will be minimized with lowered risk factors and a safer and more structured work environment. PMID:16460760

  20. Evolutionary Psychology

    Heylighen, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology (EP) is an approach to the study of the mind that is founded on Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection. It assumes that our mental abilities, emotions and preferences are adapted specifically for solving problems of survival and reproduction in humanity’s ancestral environment, and derives testable predictions from this assumption. This has important implications for our understanding of the conditions for human well-being.

  1. 留守初中生心理适应性及其与人格特征的关系%Relationship on psychological adaptability and personality traits of junior high school students left in rural

    贾文华

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究留守初中生心理适应性及其与人格特征的关系,为针对性的心理健康教育提供理论依据.方法 采用青少年心理适应性量表(APAS)和艾森克人格问卷EPQ(儿童版)对332名留守初中生进行问卷调查.结果 不同年级、安置方式在心理适应性总分以及陌生情境与学习情境适应、考试焦虑情境2个因子上得分的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).多元回归分析结果显示,神经质、内外向、掩饰性对心理适应性有预测作用.结论 安置方式、人格特征对 .心理适应性有影响.%OBJECTIVE To research relationship on psychological adaptability and personality traits .of junior high school students left in rural, so as to provide references for mental health education. METHODS Adopted the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (for children) and Adolescence Psychological Adaptability Scale to measure the 332 children left in rural areas. RESULTS Students with different grades and placement ways were statistically significant in psychological adaptability, adaptability to unfamiliar situations and learning, and test anxiety. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that neuroticism, extraver-sion and concealing may predict psychological adaptability. CONCLUSION Placement ways and personality traits impact psychological adaptability.

  2. Family environment and psychological adaptation in adolescents Ambiente familiar e adaptação psicológica em adolescentes

    Juliana Burges Sbicigo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between quality of family relationships and psychological adjustment has been understudied in the literature. This study tested the predictive relationship between family environment (measured by the dimensions of cohesion, hierarchy, support and conflict and indicators of psychological adjustment (self-esteem, general self-efficacy and low levels of self-depreciation in adolescents using structural equation modeling. Participants were 656 students aged between 12 and 18 years old from public schools. They answered the Family Climate Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and General Perceived Self-efficacy Scale. The results indicated that the family environment (cohesion, support and low conflict was a significant predictor of psychological adaptation. This study concluded that functional family relationships are important for the expression of positive psychological characteristics during adolescence.A associação entre qualidade das relações familiares e adaptação psicológica tem sido subinvestigada na literatura. Esta pesquisa testou a relação preditiva entre ambiente familiar (através das dimensões coesão, hierarquia, apoio e conflito e indicadores de adaptação psicológica (autoestima, autoeficácia geral e baixos níveis de autodepreciação em adolescentes utilizando modelagem de equações estruturais. Participaram 656 estudantes de escolas públicas entre 12 e 18 anos, que responderam ao Inventário do Clima Familiar, à Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg e à Escala de Autoeficácia Geral Percebida. Os resultados indicaram que o ambiente familiar (coesão, apoio e baixos índices de conflito foi um preditor significativo de adaptação psicológica. Conclui-se que relações familiares funcionais são importantes para a expressão de características psicológicas positivas na adolescência.

  3. A New Model of Psychological Adaptation of Southern Shaanxi Immigrants%陕南移民文化适应干预新模式

    何树勋

    2016-01-01

    Immigrants,especially the old folks and the left-behind young wives experience great cultural and psychological pains during the replacement. Chen Guoming's cross-border intercultural adaptation theory is applied as a theoretical tool, emphasizing the importance of the equality and maintaining their cultural identity, on which the collective efforts of government agencies, experts, volunteers, community workers and families are made. By employing a new model of comprehensive interference, psychiatric seminar, family-based tutoring and supporting, the U-shape route and a shortcut of cultural adaptation can be smoothly achieved.%押在陕南移民搬迁过程中,许多移民,尤其是老年人和留守妇女的文化适应困难较为突出.以陈国明的跨文化适应理论为依据,强调移民在平等和保持自身文化认同的基础上,采用社区、志愿者和移民共同协作的新模式,达到移民与当地居民、老移民与新移民相互包容的动态平衡,最终实现移民身心融入城镇,顺利完成文化适应的U形路径.

  4. 大学新生父母教养方式、应对效能和心理适应性的关系%The Relationship of University Freshmen' Parental Rearing Patterns, Coping Self-efficacy and Psychological Adaptability

    缪子梅; 闫明

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨大学新生的父母教养方式和心理适应性之间的关系,以及应对效能在其中的中介效应.方法 选取父母养育方式评价量表、心理适应性量表和应对效能量表对2632名大学新生进行问卷调查.结果 ①父母积极的教养方式与心理适应性呈显著性正相关(r=0.358,0.263;P<0.01),父母消极的教养方式与心理适应性呈显著性负相关(r=-0.164,-0.157,-0.196,-0.233,-0.156,-0.181,-0.195;P<0.01);②父母积极的教养方式对大学新生心理适应性有直接正效应(t=19.642,14.011;P<0.001),父母消极的教养方式对心理适应性有直接负效应(t=-8.451,-8.112,-9.974,-12.005,-8.012,-9.310,-10.112;P<0.001);③应对效能在父母教养方式与心理适应性之间具有中介效应:父母积极的教养方式通过应对效能对大学新生的心理适应性有间接正效应,父母消极的教养方式通过应对效能对大学新生的心理适应性有问接负效应.结论 父母的教养方式不仅可以直接对大学新生的心理适应性造成影响,还通过影响应对效能间接影响大学新生的心理适应性.%Objective To explore the relationship between parental rearing patterns and psychological adaptability of university freshmen,and the mediating effect of coping self-efficacy on them.Methods EMBU,Psychological adaptability scale,Coping efficacy questionnaire were administered to 2632 university freshmen.Results ①Positive parental rearing styles and psychological adaptation showed significantly positive correlation(r=0.358,0.263 ;P<0.01),negative parental rearing styles and psychological adaptation showed significantly negative correlation (r =-0.164,-0.157,-0.196,-0.233,-0.156,-0.181,-0.195 ; P < 0.01).②Positive parental parenting styles had directly positive effect on university freshmen' psychological adaptation (t =19.642,14.011;P<0.001),and negative parental parenting styles had directly negative effect on mental

  5. Evolutionary Psychology and Intelligence Research

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative…

  6. Psychological compatibility of women's handball team

    Shalar O.G.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of study of psychological compatibility of womanish handball commands are presented. The psychological climate of command is investigational. Certain and adapted methods of estimation of psychological compatibility in the command playing types of sport. Psychological tests allow to expose the strong and weak sides of psychology of sportsmen. These information can be used for more effective program of psychological preparation of sportsmen development. It is necessary to improve determination of separate individual qualities of personality of sportsmen.

  7. Coping style and psychological adaptation of college students%大学生的应付方式与其心理适应性

    张宏宇; 魏文风

    2007-01-01

    而作为无效问卷,其余343名学生数据进入结果分析.①因素分析显示大学生应对方式的类型主要为F1(寻求支持)、F2(积极思维)、F3(认知升华)、F4(消极自责)、F5(面对现实)、F6(转移逃避)、F7(情绪宣泄),聚类分析应对方式的类型主要为A类(主动面对型),B类(被动退避型),C类(消极宣泄型).②适应水平较高的受试者更多的运用A类方式,适应差的学生较多使用B、C类方式,C类应付在学生群体中的使用频率较低.A类方式与身心症状的检出率呈显著负相关(r=-0.258,P<0.01),与适应性水平呈显著正相关(r=0.467,P<0.01);B类方式和C类方式与身心症状检出率都呈显著正相关(r=0.338,0.364,P<0.01),B类与心理适应性有较显著的负相关(r=-0.140,P<0.05),C类只与长期的心理适应性的关系不显著.A类与C类具有各自的独立性.不同程度应激水平与3类应付方式也有显著关系,高应激与较少的使用A类方式有关,而与较多的使用B类、C类有关.结论:应付方式具有复杂性,不同应对方式的使用与心理适应性水平有显著相关,但影响的方向也因个体特点、结果变量指标、应激程度大小等因素有所不同.%BACKGROUND: At present, it is affirmed that coping style is the important mediator between stress and health both on mental and body. The coping theory is descripted as three orientations: trait view, contextual view and interaction person-environment view. The conception and classification of the coping styles still remains to be explored. OBJECTIVE: To probe into the dimensions of coping styles, the characteristics of different coping styles and the correlation between coping styles and psychological adaptation among college students.DESTGN: Questionnaire investigation.SETTING: School of Psychology, Beijing Normal University.PARTICIPANTS: Altogether 343 college students were randomly chosen from Tianjin University, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin Normal University

  8. Family environment and psychological adaptation in adolescents Ambiente familiar e adaptação psicológica em adolescentes

    Juliana Burges Sbicigo; Débora Dalbosco Dell'Aglio

    2012-01-01

    The association between quality of family relationships and psychological adjustment has been understudied in the literature. This study tested the predictive relationship between family environment (measured by the dimensions of cohesion, hierarchy, support and conflict) and indicators of psychological adjustment (self-esteem, general self-efficacy and low levels of self-depreciation) in adolescents using structural equation modeling. Participants were 656 students aged between 12 and 18 yea...

  9. Psychological Treatment

    ... needs. Psychological treatments used to treat IBS include psychotherapy (dynamic and cognitive-behavioral therapy ), relaxation therapy , hypnotherapy , and biofeedback therapy . Psychological treatments can also be combined. Review of well-designed treatment studies of IBS supports ...

  10. An Analysis Report of a Case with Psychological Problem Caused by Adaptation Stress%因适应压力引发心理问题个案分析报告

    吴满华

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an analysis report of a case with psychological problem due to adaptation stress.Student Li,after leav-ing her original familiar environment for an unfamiliar university,facing the new circle and academic pressure,has caused great inner conflict,and got the syndromes of anxiety,depression and other negative symptoms.This paper,in practice,analyzes and discusses the psychological distress of student Li through psychological counseling theory and technology,in hope to set an example for others.%本文是一例因适应压力引发心理问题的个案报告,学生李某离开原来熟悉的环境来到陌生大学,面对不熟悉的人群和学业压力,导致内心冲突,并出现了焦虑、抑郁等消极症状。本文从实际案例出发,运用有关心理辅导理论和技术,对个案的心理困扰进行分析和辅导,探讨解决高校大学生心理困扰的途径和方法。

  11. Positive psychology

    Carr, Alan.

    2005-01-01

    Clinical Psychology has traditionally focused on psychological deficits and disability. It has rarely privileged clients’ resilience and resourcefulness. The critical psychology tradition in the UK has highlighted the shortcomings of this approach (Johnstone, 2000; Newnes, Holmes, & Dunn, 1999, 2001). The new positive psychology movement aims to develop a knowledge base focusing on human strengths to complement deficit based approaches (Snyder & Lopez, 2002). This message of po...

  12. Psychological Treatments

    Barlow, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Psychology has recently identified itself as a health care profession and codified this change in the bylaws of the American Psychological Association. Although psychologists make a number of contributions to the nation's health-and mental health-the most identifiable activity focuses on treating physical or psychological pathology with…

  13. Positive Psychology

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  14. 大学生学习与适应心理问题案例分析与对策%Case Analysis and Countermeasures of College Students' Learning and Adaptation Psychological Problems

    马菲

    2014-01-01

    Based on a case study of a university student's learning and adaption to the university curriculum, and on a re-search on the way how university students deal with the learning and adaption, this thesis proposes intervening methods and strategies to cope with the correspondent problems. On the foundation of establishing sound consulting relationship with stu-dents, a consultant resorts to the cognitive therapy, reasonable emotional therapy and relaxing techniques to solve the psy-chological problems of a student visitor and to assistant him to perfect his psychological quality.%本文对一例大学生学习与适应心理问题进行案例分析,并对如何应对大学生学习与适应心理问题进行了对策探讨,提出了应对问题的干预疏导方式和策略。在建立良好咨询关系的基础上,咨询师通过认知疗法、合理情绪疗法,借助放松技术等帮助其修正了非理性观念,逐步解决了来访求助者的心理问题,并协助其完善心理品质。

  15. Adaptation to the Birth of a Child with a Congenital Anomaly: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Maternal Well-Being and Psychological Distress

    Nes, Ragnhild B.; Røysamb, Espen; Hauge, Lars J.; Kornstad, Tom; Landolt, Markus A.; Irgens, Lorentz M.; Eskedal, Leif; Kristensen, Petter; Vollrath, Margarete E.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the stability and change in maternal life satisfaction and psychological distress following the birth of a child with a congenital anomaly using 5 assessments from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study collected from Pregnancy Week 17 to 36 months postpartum. Participating mothers were divided into those having infants…

  16. The study of the psychological difficulties of first-year students in the conditions of adaptation to training in a higher educational institution

    Ludmila Pyhacheva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the difficulties of adaptation of the first-year students to study in the University, the integration of recent entrants to the student forms of collective life.

  17. [Psychological violences].

    Leray, M

    2014-12-01

    Among the various forms of violence inflicted on a child, psychological violence holds a significant place in terms of frequency, diversity and damage done, as serious and pervasive consequences can be observed on the child's development. This article highlights and assesses the psychological consequences provoked by psychological violences perpetrated by parents, teachers or other children in different situations, such as domestic violence, divorce and school bullying. It also gives some indications for intervention and prevention in those situations. PMID:25449447

  18. The Relationships Among Personalities,Coping Styles and Psychological Adaptation oof Left-Behind Children in Rural Areas%农村留守儿童人格特征、应对方式与心理适应性关系

    贾文华

    2012-01-01

    目的研究留守儿童人格特征、应对方式与心理适应性的关系。方法运用问卷测量方法,以332名农村留守儿童为研究对象。结果(1)留守儿童心理适应性总体发展具有显著的年级和安置方式差异而性别差异不显著。(2)留守儿童的人格特征可以直接影响其心理适应性,应对方式可以直接影响心理适应性中的个别因子,还可以通过人格特征间接的影响心理适应性。结论留守儿童的人格特征直接影响其心理适应性,应对方式主要通过人格特征间接的影响其心理适应性。%"Left-behind children" refer to those who still receive their compulsory education in the rural areas withonf being able to live together with their parents working in the cities. Either one or both of their parents have left them and migratd to other cities. The left-behind children are affected by those inside and outside environmental changes in terms of their formation and development of psychological adaptation.The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship among the psychological adaptation, personality’ characteristics and coping styles of left-behind children. This paper used the questionnaire method with 332 rural left-behind children as the research object. EPQ (children's Edition), SCSQ, Adolescence Psychological Adaptability Scale(APAS) were administered to the subjects selected by the stratified cluster sampling method. The statistical methods included One-Way ANOVA analysis, MANOVA analysis, correlation analysis, regression analysis, and path analysis respectively. The results were as follows: (1) no significant gender difference was found but remarkable differences in both grades (F=7.647, p.01) and resettlement ways (t=3.038, p.01) of left-behind children’s psychological adaptation. As the grade increased, psychological adaptation decreased.The childrens’ psychological adaptation was lower than that of

  19. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in cha...

  20. [Complex estimation of the state of health, quality of life, level of psychological adaptation and rates of senescence of war veterans, suffering from arterial hypertension].

    Zakharova, N O; Iakovlev, O G; Treneva, E V

    2014-01-01

    The article presents some aspects of the health status of the veterans of the Samara region. Intercommunication is marked between the level of social adaptation, quality of life and rate aging combatants. The study shows the effect of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder on the occurrence of psychosomatic pathology and development of senescence combat veterans suffering from arterial hypertension. PMID:25051769

  1. What are Higher Psychological Functions?

    Toomela, Aaro

    2016-03-01

    The concept of Higher Psychological Functions (HPFs) may seem to be well know in psychology today. Yet closer analysis reveals that HPFs are either not defined at all or if defined, then by a set of characteristics not justified theoretically. It is not possible to determine whether HPFs exist or not, unless they are defined. Most commonly the idea of HPFs is related to Vygotsky's theory. According to him, HPFs are: (1) psychological systems, (2) developing from natural processes, (3) mediated by symbols, (4) forms of psychological cooperation, which are (5) internalized in the course of development, (6) products of historical development, (7) conscious and (8) voluntary (9) active forms of adaptation to the environment, (10) dynamically changing in development, and (11) ontogeny of HPFs recapitulates cultural history. In this article these characteristics are discussed together with the relations among them. It is concluded that HPFs are real psychological phenomena. PMID:26403987

  2. The evolutionary psychology of hunger.

    Al-Shawaf, Laith

    2016-10-01

    An evolutionary psychological perspective suggests that emotions can be understood as coordinating mechanisms whose job is to regulate various psychological and physiological programs in the service of solving an adaptive problem. This paper suggests that it may also be fruitful to approach hunger from this coordinating mechanism perspective. To this end, I put forward an evolutionary task analysis of hunger, generating novel a priori hypotheses about the coordinating effects of hunger on psychological processes such as perception, attention, categorization, and memory. This approach appears empirically fruitful in that it yields a bounty of testable new hypotheses. PMID:27328100

  3. An evaluation of computerized adaptive testing for general psychological distress:combining GHQ-12 and Affectometer-2 in an item bank for public mental health research

    Stochl, Jan; Böhnke, Jan R.; Pickett, Kate E.; Croudace, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent developments in psychometric modeling and technology allow pooling well-validated items from existing instruments into larger item banks and their deployment through methods of computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Use of item response theory-based bifactor methods and integrative data analysis overcomes barriers in cross-instrument comparison. This paper presents the joint calibration of an item bank for researchers keen to investigate population variations in general psych...

  4. An evaluation of computerized adaptive testing for general psychological distress: combining GHQ-12 and Affectometer-2 in an item bank for public mental health research

    Stochl, Jan; Böhnke, Jan R.; Pickett, Kate E.; Croudace, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent developments in psychometric modeling and technology allow pooling well-validated items from existing instruments into larger item banks and their deployment through methods of computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Use of item response theory-based bifactor methods and integrative data analysis overcomes barriers in cross-instrument comparison. This paper presents the joint calibration of an item bank for researchers keen to investigate population variations in general psycho...

  5. Adaptations, exaptations, and spandrels.

    Buss, D M; Haselton, M G; Shackelford, T K; Bleske, A L; Wakefield, J C

    1998-05-01

    Adaptation and natural selection are central concepts in the emerging science of evolutionary psychology. Natural selection is the only known causal process capable of producing complex functional organic mechanisms. These adaptations, along with their incidental by-products and a residue of noise, comprise all forms of life. Recently, S. J. Gould (1991) proposed that exaptations and spandrels may be more important than adaptations for evolutionary psychology. These refer to features that did not originally arise for their current use but rather were co-opted for new purposes. He suggested that many important phenomena--such as art, language, commerce, and war--although evolutionary in origin, are incidental spandrels of the large human brain. The authors outline the conceptual and evidentiary standards that apply to adaptations, exaptations, and spandrels and discuss the relative utility of these concepts for psychological science. PMID:9612136

  6. Human Adaptations: Free divers

    Tournat, Troy Z.

    2014-01-01

    Freediving has been around for thousands of years and was only way to dive until the inventionof oxygen tanks in the 19th century. Around the world, people dove for goods such as pearls, andtoday people freedive for sport. Divers stretch the limit of their body and mind’s capabilitiesthrough psychological adaptations from thermal, respiratory, and cardiovascular responses.Findings conclude that thermal adaptations are a similar process to cold adaptive response. Withthe implementation of wets...

  7. Narrative Psychology

    Hiles, D.; Čermák, Ivo

    London: Sage Publication, 2008, s. 147-164 ISBN 978-1-4129-0780-4 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : narative analysis * interpretive approaches to naratives * transparency Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  8. Sport Psychology.

    Krotee, March L.

    1980-01-01

    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  9. Space Psychology and Psychiatry

    Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.

    2003-09-01

    This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1341-8

  10. Psychological aspects rehabilitation of patients with anophthalmia

    E. N. Verigo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the psychological rehabilitation of patients with anophthalmia having eye protesis as the main role on the problem. Stages of psychological reaction after eye lost and also the difficulties of adaptation of fellows with both eyesight lost is widely discussed. In order to help practitioners, recommendations on dealing this kind of patients has been given.

  11. Adaptive disclosure: an open trial of a novel exposure-based intervention for service members with combat-related psychological stress injuries.

    Gray, Matt J; Schorr, Yonit; Nash, William; Lebowitz, Leslie; Amidon, Amy; Lansing, Amy; Maglione, Melissa; Lang, Ariel J; Litz, Brett T

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated the preliminary effectiveness of a novel intervention that was developed to address combat stress injuries in active-duty military personnel. Adaptive disclosure (AD) is relatively brief to accommodate the busy schedules of active-duty service members while training for future deployments. Further, AD takes into account unique aspects of the phenomenology of military service in war in order to address difficulties such as moral injury and traumatic loss that may not receive adequate and explicit attention by conventional treatments that primarily address fear-inducing life-threatening experiences and sequelae. In this program development and evaluation open trial, 44 marines received AD while in garrison. It was well tolerated and, despite the brief treatment duration, promoted significant reductions in PTSD, depression, negative posttraumatic appraisals, and was also associated with increases in posttraumatic growth. PMID:22440075

  12. Psychological maltreatment.

    Hibbard, Roberta; Barlow, Jane; Macmillan, Harriet

    2012-08-01

    Psychological or emotional maltreatment of children may be the most challenging and prevalent form of child abuse and neglect. Caregiver behaviors include acts of omission (ignoring need for social interactions) or commission (spurning, terrorizing); may be verbal or nonverbal, active or passive, and with or without intent to harm; and negatively affect the child's cognitive, social, emotional, and/or physical development. Psychological maltreatment has been linked with disorders of attachment, developmental and educational problems, socialization problems, disruptive behavior, and later psychopathology. Although no evidence-based interventions that can prevent psychological maltreatment have been identified to date, it is possible that interventions shown to be effective in reducing overall types of child maltreatment, such as the Nurse Family Partnership, may have a role to play. Furthermore, prevention before occurrence will require both the use of universal interventions aimed at promoting the type of parenting that is now recognized to be necessary for optimal child development, alongside the use of targeted interventions directed at improving parental sensitivity to a child's cues during infancy and later parent-child interactions. Intervention should, first and foremost, focus on a thorough assessment and ensuring the child's safety. Potentially effective treatments include cognitive behavioral parenting programs and other psychotherapeutic interventions. The high prevalence of psychological abuse in advanced Western societies, along with the serious consequences, point to the importance of effective management. Pediatricians should be alert to the occurrence of psychological maltreatment and identify ways to support families who have risk indicators for, or evidence of, this problem. PMID:22848125

  13. BIological Psychology, Exercise, and Stress.

    Dishman, Rod K.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews theory and methods used by the field of biological psychology to study stress that have potential for understanding how behavioral and biological adaptations to the stress of exercise are integrated. The overview focuses on anxiety, depression, and physiological responsiveness to nonexercise stressors from the perspective of biological…

  14. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

    Sunil Patil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Education Psychology is one of the most rapidly advancing disciplines which is concerned with the description, explanation and control of the educational processes arising from the interaction between the teacher and learner in the context of a specified or unspecified subject. The concept of educational psycology is changing as a result of the general impact of the disciplines such as sociology, anthropology,economics, political science and so on. The subject matter of educational psychology is also reflecting a diversity of structures and emphases in its connection.

  15. Relationship between Psychological Adaptation and Coping of College Students and their Sense of Self-harmony%大学生压力应对、自我和谐感与心理适应的关系

    宋迎秋; 张韬

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究大学生压力适应中应对、自我和谐与心理适应的关系.方法 采用症状自评量表(SCL-90)、应对方式问卷、自我和谐量表(SCCS),测查551名大学生在压力适应中的不同反应.结果 ①在校大学生在应对不同程度压力时,选择的应对方式有其特点,当压力程度大时,倾向于解决问题和求助;压力程度不高,则偏向于自责、幻想、退避和合理化.②大学生压力程度越高心理症状相关性最显著的为抑郁、强迫、焦虑、人际敏感症状(r=0.377,0.347,0.324,0.325;P<0.01).③大四学生的自我刻板性因子高于其他年级(P<0.05),男生高于女生(p<0.01);城镇生源自我的灵活性高于农村生源.④回归分析显示,个体的应对方式、自我和谐可以在一定程度上预测心理症状.结论 大学生压力适应中的应对、自我和谐感与症状之间的关系和存在的问题,应引起各有关方面的关注.%[Objective] To study the relationship between coping, self-harmony and psychological adjustment in stress adaptation of college students. [ Methods ] Symptom checklist 90 ( SCL-90 ), coping style questionnaire ( CSQ ) and self consistency and congruence scale (SCCS) were adopted to investigate the different reactions in stress adoption of 551 college students. [ Results ] ①The coping style of college students choice had their own characteristics. They tended to solve problem and get help while the stress level was high, and tended to autopunition, fantasy, withdrawn and rationalization while the stress level was not high. ②Depression, anxiety,obsessive-compulsive symptom, interpersonal sensitivity symptoms were the psychological symptoms that had most significant correlation to the higher level of stress of college students ( r = 0. 377, 0. 347, 0. 324, 0.325; P < 0.01 ). ③The self-stiffness factor of senior was higher than that of other grades ( P < 0.05 ), male was higher than female ( P < 0.01 ). The self

  16. Cognitive psychology

    Anderson, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    The author considers the following areas of cognitive psychology: architectural principles of the human mind; knowledge representation; spreading activation; control of cognition; memory; learning; language; and prediction. He tries to provide pointers to the field at large learning the view of his book the architecture of cognition (Anderson 1983) for those who require a more detailed treatment. 76 references.

  17. Psychological IVF

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    During ethnographic fieldwork at a fertility clinic in Denmark, I became intrigued by emotions. In particular, I found an incidence labelled ‘psychological IVF’ theoretically provocative as it challenged my views on materializations, which I was preparing to study. This paper centres on the story...

  18. ADAPTIVE SYNTHESIS OF INTELLIGENT MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS WITH THE USE OF ASC-ANALYSIS AND "EIDOS" SYSTEM. SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION IN ECONOMETRICS, BIOMETRICS, ECOLOGY, PEDAGOGY, PSYCHOLOGY AND MEDICINE

    Lutsenko Y. V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes using the automated system-cognitive analysis (ASC-analysis and its software tool, which is the system called "Eidos" for synthesis and application of adaptive intelligent measuring systems to measure values of parameters of objects, and for system state identification of complex multivariable nonlinear dynamic systems. The article briefly describes the mathematical method of ASC-analysis, implemented in the software tool – universal cognitive analytical system named "Eidos-X++". The mathematical method of ASC-analysis is based on system theory of information (STI which was created in the conditions of implementation of program ideas of generalizations of all the concepts of mathematics, in particularly, the information theory based on the set theory, through a total replacement of the concept of “many” with the more general concept of system and detailed tracking of all the consequences of this replacement. Due to the mathematical method, which is the basis of ASC-analysis, this method is nonparametric and allows you to process comparably tens and hundreds of thousands of gradations of factors and future conditions of the control object (class in incomplete (fragmented, noisy data numeric and non-numeric nature which are measured in different units of measurement. We provide a detailed numerical example of the application of ASC-analysis and the system of "Eidos-X++" as a synthesis of systemic-cognitive model, providing a multiparameter typization of the states of complex systems, and system identification of their states, as well as for making decisions about managing the impact of changing the composition of the control object to get its quality (level of consistency maximally increased at minimum cost. For a numerical example of a complex system we have selected the team of the company, and its component – employees and applicants (staff. However, it must be noted that this example should be considered even wider

  19. A framework of psychological compensation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Merkt, Julia; Reinelt, Tilman; Petermann, Franz

    2015-01-01

    The term compensation is widely used in the context of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet, it is neither defined nor theory driven. Adapting a model of psychological compensation (Bäckman and Dixon, 1992) to fit ADHD research is the aim of this review: we will (1) introduce the existing theoretical framework of psychological compensation, (2) discuss its applicability to ADHD and adapt the model to fit ADHD research, and (3) set up requirements for research on psychological ...

  20. 家庭护理干预对5~12岁单纯性肥胖儿童体重及心理适应行为的影响%The impact of family nursing intervention on body weight and psychological adap-tive behavior of children of 5 -12 years old with simple obesity

    银青梅; 骆成珠; 张雪岚

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨家庭护理干预对单纯性肥胖儿童体重及心理适应行为的影响。方法对50名单纯性肥胖儿童随机分为对照组和干预组,干预组实施家庭护理干预后,比较两组儿童肥胖度和心理适应行为差异。结果干预组儿童的肥胖度和对照组的相比明显下降;干预组儿童的心理适应行为和对照组的相比有明显改善。结论家庭护理干预能有效控制单纯性肥胖儿童体重和改善其心理适应行为。%Objective To investigate the impact of family nursing intervention on body weight and psychological adaptive behavior of children with simple obesity.Methods A total of 50 children with simple obesity were randomly divided into control group and interven-tion group, the intervention group adopted family nursing intervention, two groups were compared with children's obesity degree and psycho-logical adaptation behavior.Results The obesity degree of children with family nursing intervention decreased significantly compared to the control group children;And the psychological adaptive behavior of children with family nursing intervention was significantly improved com-pared to the control group children.Conclusions Family nursing intervention can effectively control the weight of children with simple obesi-ty and improve their psychological adaptive behavior.

  1. PSYCHOLOGY STUDENTS PERSONALITY TRAITS AND MOTIVATION TO CHOOSE STUDIES

    Upmane, Anda; Gaitniece-Putāne, Anda; Šmitiņa, Agita

    2016-01-01

    The sample consisted of 83 first course academic and professional psychology program students aged 18-43 years. Research instruments: 1) Demographic survey; 2) BFI (Big Five Inventory, Benet – Martinez & John, 1998), adapted version in Latvian (Austers, 2007); 3) The assessment of psychology studies motivation. Key findings: The most important motivating factors for psychology studies in this sample are interest in psychology and the desire to help. Personality traits are related to the choic...

  2. Educational psychology

    Sunil Patil

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on the more recent developments and the present state of research into educational psychology in German speaking countries. Particular emphasis is given to research on: parental upbringing and its effects on child development; the examination of socialization effects within and across different scbool systems; studies on teaching-leaming processes and on social interaction in the classroom; the systematic promotion of the development of cognitive abilities and motives in stud...

  3. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  4. The Influence on Language Variation from Society and Social Psychology

    陈丹丹

    2008-01-01

    Language variation, a kind of language form diverging from the language norm, is a common speech phenomenon and the focus of sociolinguistic studies. It is closely linked with society and social psychology. Not only is it controlled by complex social factors, but also influenced by various kinds of social psychology: the psychology of seeking curiosity and change, the psychology of avoiding vulgar language and seeking elegant language, the psychology of sexual differences between male and female, the psychology of worship, the psychology of adaptation and so on. People have complex social psychology and language is subject to variation. It is possible to further understand the way and the regulation of language variation only by linking society and social psychology to study language variation.

  5. A Coaching Psychology Perspective

    Palmer, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    In "Psychology in its place" (2008), John Radford considers "what is or should be the "place" of Psychology in education, more particularly Higher Education". In this article, the author looks at the possible inclusion of coaching psychology within undergraduate psychology programmes. Coaching psychology as an applied area of psychology…

  6. Clinical Psychology in Pakistan

    Riffat Moazam Zaman

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the state of psychology in Pakistan, with special reference to clinical psychology. The issues of statutory recognition, credentials required for practice, public perception of psychology, the practice of indigenous "clinical psychology", sources of payment for psychological services, and relations between psychologists and psychiatrists are reviewed.

  7. A social psychological portrait of the schoolboys - migrants from the Chernobyl zone

    Dynamics of adaptation processes at migrants of the Chernobyl zone is investigated. The programs of a social pedagogical and psychological aid to the children, parents and teachers are developed. By results of psychological diagnostics is made social and psychological portrait of a migrant. On the basis of the theoretical circuit of an adaptation-disadaptation and initial rules of a therapy process the criteria of efficiency psychological aid are formulated

  8. European initiatives in psychology education and research

    Foreman, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Psychology within the EU is likely to become more coherent as a discipline with initiatives such as the European Diploma of Psychology, and more and morecountries adopting the Bologna process as the basis of their educational provision. In addition, text books now appear which are adapted from American versions, giving a European perspective. The European Federation of Psychologists Associations (EFPA), though it does not award research grants, is keen to promote initiatives such as the new E...

  9. European initiatives in psychology education and research:

    Foreman, Nigel

    2006-01-01

    Psychology within the EU is likely to become more coherent as a discipline with initiatives such as the European Diploma of Psychology, and more and morecountries adopting the Bologna process as the basis of their educational provision. In addition, text books now appear which are adapted from American versions, giving a European perspective. The European Federation of Psychologists Associations (EFPA), though it does not award research grants, is keen to promote initiatives such as the new E...

  10. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  11. Effect of adaptive group psychological training on mental quality and emotion of soldiers%适应性团体心理训练对野战部队军人心理素质和情绪的影响

    杨国愉; 王立菲; 佗婷婷; 蒋娟; 涂静; 甘丽英; 于永菊; 杜征

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of adaptive group psychological training on mental quality and emotion of soldiers.Methods A total of 48 soldiers ( experiment group) received group psychological training and read a textbook,Mental Quality Training for soldiers,for 3 months,and the other 45 soldiers served as control group.Armyman mental quality inventory (AMQI),self-rating depression scale (SDS) and state-trait anxiety inventory(STAI) were employed to evaluate the mental quality and emotion of soldiers before and after training.All data were analyzed by paired-sample t test.Results ①As compared with pre-training,the AMQI scores of training group increased significantly in bravery ( 71.50 ± 9.59 ),self-confidence ( 68.24 ± 8.36 ),aptitude ( 74.54 ± 10.81 ),loyalty(75.29 ± 8.08 ) and general score ( 359.07 ± 20.30 ) (P < 0.05,P < 0.01 ) ; and no significant difference were found in those of control group(P > 0.05 ).②When compared with pre-training,the scores of SDS (39.00 ±8.38),SAI(40.14 ±9.92),TAI(41.16 ±7.47) and STAI(81.30 ± 12.52) of training group decreased significantly (P < 0.05,P< 0.01 ) ; and no significant difference was found in those of control group(P >0.05 ).Conclusion Group psychological training can improve mental quality of soldiers,which is helpful to relax anxiety and depression of soldiers.%目的 研究适应性团体心理训练对野战部队军人心理素质和情绪的影响.方法 以《军人心理素质训练》为训练教材,对48名野战部队军人进行为期3个月的团体心理训练,同时设置45名军人为对照组.采用军人心理素质问卷(Armyman Mental Quality Inventory,AMQI)、抑郁自评量表(Self-Rating Depression Scale,SDS)和状态-特质焦虑量表(State-trait anxiety Inventory,STAI)于训练前后对训练组和对照组进行团体心理测评.采用配对样本t检验对训练效果进行评价.结果 ①团体心理训练后,军人心理素质评定得分,训练组勇敢[(71.50±9

  12. Psychology of psychology? A theoretization of psychological science through historical and socio-anthropological analysis of Psychology as institution

    Martin Žužek-Kres

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a "new" history of psychology, which is also termed as "psychology of psychology". In some academic communities this unconventional history of psychology represents today an accepted approach to epistemological questions about psychological concepts and it enables an insight into social contextualization of Psychology as an institution. The conclusion presents a referential and institutional context where this psychology of psychology is realized.

  13. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  14. Introduction to Psychology.

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an overview of…

  15. Tinnitus and psychological comorbidities

    Zirke, Nina

    2014-01-01

    To explain pathogenetic reasons for tinnitus cochlear, acustic or neurophysiological reasons are discussed. Regardless of the origin of tinnitus, psychological factors are attributed to the chronification of tinnitus. Psychological comorbidities seem to decrease the opportunity of tinnitus habituation. Studies have demonstrated that patients with high tinnitus related distress are frequently accompanied by psychological comorbidities. We examined the prevalence of psychological disorders ...

  16. The role of 'the environment' in cognitive and evolutionary psychology

    Franks, Bradley

    2005-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology is widely understood as involving an integration of evolutionary theory and cognitive psychology, in which the former promises to revolutionise the latter. In this paper, I suggest some reasons to doubt that the assumptions of evolutionary theory and of cognitive psychology are as directly compatible as is widely assumed. These reasons relate to three different problems of specifying adaptive functions as the basis for characterising cognitive mechanisms: the disjuncti...

  17. Darwin in mind : new opportunities for evolutionary psychology

    Bolhuis, Johan J.; Brown, Gillian R.; Robert C Richardson; Laland , Kevin N.

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary Psychology (EP) views the human mind as organized into many modules, each underpinned by psychological adaptations designed to solve problems faced by our Pleistocene ancestors. We argue that the key tenets of the established EP paradigm require modification in the light of recent findings from a number of disciplines, including human genetics, evolutionary biology, cognitive neuroscience, developmental psychology, and paleoecology. For instance, many human genes have been subjec...

  18. Pregnancy and Psychological Preparation for Parenthood

    Tudiver, Fred; Tudiver, Judy

    1982-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that pregnancy is a normal developmental period requiring psychological adaptation by the new parents. This period involves upheavals in emotions, relationships, values and roles which demand considerable attention. Studies have shown that unsuccessful resolution of these upheavals has been associated with difficulties of pregnancy and delivery, postpartum depression and child abuse and neglect. The family physician is in a key position to observe adaptations to pregn...

  19. Evolutionary Developmental Psychology: Contributions from Comparative Research with Nonhuman Primates

    Maestripieri, Dario; Roney, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Evolutionary developmental psychology is a discipline that has the potential to integrate conceptual approaches to the study of behavioral development derived from psychology and biology as well as empirical data from humans and animals. Comparative research with animals, and especially with nonhuman primates, can provide evidence of adaptation in…

  20. Psychological First Aid Field Operations Guide. 2nd Edition

    Brymer, Melissa; Layne, Christopher; Jacobs, Anne; Pynoos, Robert; Ruzek, Josef; Steinberg, Alan; Vernberg, Eric; Watson, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Psychological First Aid is an evidence-informed modular approach to help children, adolescents, adults, and families in the immediate aftermath of disaster and terrorism. Psychological First Aid is designed to reduce the initial distress caused by traumatic events and to foster short- and long-term adaptive functioning and coping. Principles and…

  1. The Effect of Psychological Intervention on Personality Change, Coping, and Psychological Distress of Japanese Primary Breast Cancer Patients

    Maeda, Takako; Kurihara, Hiroko; Morishima, Isamu; Munakata, Tsunetsugu

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the effectiveness of psychological intervention on personality change, enhancing perceived emotional support, and, ultimately, assisting in the adaptive coping and psychological well-being of Japanese primary breast cancer patients. The intervention consists of 3 sessions that include providing medical and psychological information and counseling using the structured association technique. The participants were 28 primary breast cancer patients (14 for...

  2. Identity of psychology, identity and psychology

    Mirjana Nastran Ule

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesi...

  3. Psychological factors of radiation accidents

    With reference to world, internal and personal experience, an attempt is made to reveal psychological mechanisms determining the attitude of a person to ionizing radiation using for this purpose the conceptions of mental stress and psychological adaptation. On the example of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, in the light of the above conceptions, the paper describes psychic reactions of the personnel of the nuclear power plant and other groups of people to the heavy radiation accident. For improvement of the activity for liquidation of the accident after-effects it is suggested to use the system of psychophysiological support of the rescue units, including psychophysiological training and support, as well as functional rehabilitation of specialists. 11 refs

  4. Cognitive psychology and depth psychology backgrounds

    The sixth chapter gives an insight into the risk perception process which is highly determined by emotions, and, thus, deals with the psychological backgrounds of both the conscious cognitive and the subconscious intuitive realms of the human psyche. The chapter deals with the formation of opinion and the origination of an attitude towards an issue; cognitive-psychological patterns of thinking from the field of risk perception; the question of man's rationality; pertinent aspects of group behaviour; depth psychological backgrounds of the fear of technology; the collective subconscious; nuclear energy as a preferred object of projection for various psychological problems of modern man. (HSCH)

  5. PSYCHOLOGY OF FAMILY BUSINESS

    Taylyakova, Feruzahon

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the basic psychological characteristics of family businesses. The author describes the psychological properties that contribute to improve individual and family businesses. The article also discusses mental properties adversely affect the development of a family business.

  6. The psychology of Risk

    ASSAILLY, Jean Pascal

    2011-01-01

    This work aims at a comprehensive review of scientific knowledge on the psychology of risk. We shall present three theoretical approaches of this concept: 1. The psychological perspective, 2. The biological perspective, 3. The contextual perspective.

  7. The Trait Psychology Controversy.

    Morgan, William P.

    1980-01-01

    Arguments associated with trait psychology are reviewed with an application in the field of sport psychology. The role of cognition and perception in sport and physical activities is also discussed. (CJ)

  8. Personality theory, abnormal psychology, and psychological measurement. A psychological behaviorism.

    Staats, A W

    1993-01-01

    Behaviorism, because it has not had a theory of personality, has been separated from the rest of psychology, unable in large part to draw from or contribute to it. Traditional psychology has not had a theory of personality that says what personality is, how it comes about, or how it functions. An antagonism has resulted that weakens rather than complements each tradition. Psychological behaviorism presents a new type of theory of personality. Derived from experimentation, it is constructed from basic theories of emotion, language, and sensory-motor behavior. It says personality is composed of learned basic behavioral repertoires (BBRs) that affect behavior. Personality measurement instruments are analyzed in terms of the BBRs, beginning the behaviorization of this field and calling for much additional research. These multilevel developments are then basic in psychological behaviorism's theory of abnormal behavior and of clinical treatment. The approach opens many new avenues of empirical and theoretical work. PMID:8439278

  9. Psychology of Religion

    ULU, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter of book that entitled Science, Religion and Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Controversy has been given important informations about psychology of religion’s historical development as well as pioneer figures’ contributions. In this text some evaluations has been made by categorizing studies in field of psychology of religion. Finally some informations are provided about current status of the psychology of religion and position of the psychology of religion ...

  10. Alchemical crossings in Psychology

    Helton Marculino de Souza

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to discuss the contributions of Alchemy to the field of Psychology, especially for Analytical Psychology as a proposal of an Alchemical Psychology, whose representatives highlighted here are Carl Gustav Jung and James Hillman. It is understood that the knowledge of Alchemy have been applied in various areas such as metallurgy, chemistry, philosophy, and it has a possible application in the field of Psychology. In this sense, it is observed that if to Jung the ...

  11. Historiography of Czech psychology

    Hoskovcová, S.; Hoskovec, J. (Jiří); Plháková, A.; Šebek, M.; Švancara, J.; Vobořil, D. (Dalibor)

    2010-01-01

    psychology, which was strongly influenced by the political changes in Central and Eastern Europe. The authors deal with the historiography of psychology at the three universities offering an undergraduate program in psychology, located in Prague, Brno, and Olomouc, and at the Institute of Psychology of the Czech Academy of Sciences. Recent research, teaching, textbooks, and journal articles published in Czech and in foreign languages are showcased. The historiography of Czech psychother...

  12. Psychology in Mexico

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  13. Nursing and Psychological Treatments

    Kwekkeboom, Kristine L.; Ameringer, Suzanne; Harrison, Tondi; Phillips, Christopher M.; Serlin, Ronald C.; Ward, Sandra E.

    2005-01-01

    This brief article presents a comment on "Psychological Treatments" by D. H. Barlow. In his article, Barlow pointed to the need "to solidify the identification of psychology as a health care profession" by changing the terminology of practice in the health care context from psychotherapy to psychological treatments and suggested that the only…

  14. Psychology in India

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  15. Historiography of Czech psychology

    Hoskovcová, S.; Hoskovec, J.; Plháková, A.; Šebek, M.; Švancara, J.; Vobořil, Dalibor

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2010), s. 309-334. ISSN 1093-4510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Czech psychologists * Czechoslovak psychology * ideologic influences on psychology Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2010

  16. Psychology and Literature.

    Lester, David

    1987-01-01

    Psychology and literature focus on human behavior. There are several points where the interests of psychologists and literary scholars converge. This convergence is evident in the use of literature to test psychological theories and to understand human behavior in historical times, in the psychological analyses of literature, and in psychological…

  17. Recommendations for Training in Pediatric Psychology: Defining Core Competencies Across Training Levels

    Palermo, Tonya M.; Janicke, David M; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Mullins, Larry L.; Robins, Paul M.; Wu, Yelena P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective As a field, pediatric psychology has focused considerable efforts on the education and training of students and practitioners. Alongside a broader movement toward competency attainment in professional psychology and within the health professions, the Society of Pediatric Psychology commissioned a Task Force to establish core competencies in pediatric psychology and address the need for contemporary training recommendations. Methods The Task Force adapted the framework proposed by th...

  18. Sociocultural Characteristics of Psychological Education in the Context of Systemic-Anthropological Approach

    Irina Loginova; Victoria Chupina; Yulya Zhivaeva

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The problem of moving from economic efficiency of the social one in the modern society is actualized. It is pointed out that the methodological basis for the solving questions of psychological education development are considered to be an anthropological psychology as a new scientific branch, which reflects the tendencies of development of psychology now a days. It is shown that there are various points of view on psychological education: self-organization as adaptation, se...

  19. [Homelessness: psychological and behavioral issues].

    Mercuel, Alain

    2013-02-01

    Risk factors lead to social exclusion and their accumulation can lead to homelessness. This inevitably contributes to a progressive increase in psychological distress or aggravates a pre-existing mental illness. Over the years, homeless people, who are never happy, develop various survival strategies and mental defenses that can sometimes prove effective. Other individuals who are less"adapted" to living in the street may suffer from both mental and physical collapse. Proactive programs designed to facilitate access to healthcare and welfare have been created in order to offer solutions designed to enable homeless people to leave the street, through access to medical care, accommodation and civil rights. The psychiatric sector has been slow to adapt to the needs of this population, although several teams specializing in mental illness and precariousness have been created These teams explore every possible avenue to help homeless people with mental health issues to recover a psychological balance that allows them to choose a recovery pathway and thus to regain a dignified lifestyle. PMID:24919358

  20. Adaptation and perceptual norms

    Webster, Michael A.; Yasuda, Maiko; Haber, Sara; Leonard, Deanne; Ballardini, Nicole

    2007-02-01

    We used adaptation to examine the relationship between perceptual norms--the stimuli observers describe as psychologically neutral, and response norms--the stimulus levels that leave visual sensitivity in a neutral or balanced state. Adapting to stimuli on opposite sides of a neutral point (e.g. redder or greener than white) biases appearance in opposite ways. Thus the adapting stimulus can be titrated to find the unique adapting level that does not bias appearance. We compared these response norms to subjectively defined neutral points both within the same observer (at different retinal eccentricities) and between observers. These comparisons were made for visual judgments of color, image focus, and human faces, stimuli that are very different and may depend on very different levels of processing, yet which share the property that for each there is a well defined and perceptually salient norm. In each case the adaptation aftereffects were consistent with an underlying sensitivity basis for the perceptual norm. Specifically, response norms were similar to and thus covaried with the perceptual norm, and under common adaptation differences between subjectively defined norms were reduced. These results are consistent with models of norm-based codes and suggest that these codes underlie an important link between visual coding and visual experience.

  1. Personal determinants of positive states and stress in psychology students

    G.S. Kozhukhar

    2013-01-01

    We report study results of personality characteristics as predictors of positive states (active, optimistic, emotional, subjective comfort) and stress experience in adults with one higher education and ongoing training in Psychology. The respondents were 107 people aged 23 to 52 years. Diagnostic methods we used were: "SMIL" (L. Sobchik), Optimism and Activity Scale (adapted by E. Vodopyanova), C. Izard Differential Emotions Scale (adapted by A. Leonova), Subjective Comfort Scale (adapted by ...

  2. Migrant Adaptation - A Cross-Cultural Problem. A Review of Research on Migration, Minority Groups and Cultural Differences, with Special Regard to Children. Educational and Psychological Interactions, No. 59.

    Ekstrand, L. H.

    Research pertinent to the adaptation of immigrant children is reviewed in a cross-cultural perspective. The report focuses on research that has yielded empirical data, although a number of other papers of basic importance have been included in the review. The first chapter discusses definitions and implications of various types of cross-cultural…

  3. Adaptive Lighting

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive LightingAdaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled i...

  4. Public Image of Counseling Psychology: What Introductory Psychology Textbooks Say.

    Dixon, David N.; Vrochopoulos, Sam; Burton, Jennifer

    1997-01-01

    Examines the adequacy of descriptions of counseling psychology and its professionals in introductory psychology textbooks compared to the descriptions of other applied areas of psychology. Results indicate that counseling psychology is less represented than industrial or organizational and clinical psychology and more represented than school…

  5. Positive Psychology: Considerations and Implications for Counseling Psychology

    Mollen, Debra; Ethington, Lanaya L.; Ridley, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Why has the specialty of counseling psychology been overlooked in the larger conversation about positive psychology? Is it reasonable that counseling psychology claims positive psychology as its own? What are some of the problems in defining "positive psychology," and how does the lack of consensus around operationalization thwart discourse on…

  6. Psychological Factors in Asthma

    Van Lieshout Ryan J; MacQueen Glenda

    2008-01-01

    Asthma has long been considered a condition in which psychological factors have a role. As in many illnesses, psychological variables may affect outcome in asthma via their effects on treatment adherence and symptom reporting. Emerging evidence suggests that the relation between asthma and psychological factors may be more complex than that, however. Central cognitive processes may influence not only the interpretation of asthma symptoms but also the manifestation of measurable changes in im...

  7. Culture and psychological distress

    William W. Dressler; Mauro Campos Balieiro; José Ernesto dos Santos

    2002-01-01

    Examining the influence of cultural factors on psychological distress, relative to other (e.g. social and psychological) influences, has been difficult due to the incomplete development of a theory of culture that leads to the reliable and valid measurement of cultural factors in such a way that these can be incorporated into multivariate models. In this paper we present both such a theory and such a methodology, and apply it to the study of the community distribution of psychological distres...

  8. Psychology of advertising

    Vochomůrková, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    This bachelory thesis is attending to problematics of psychology of advertising. In theoretical part, it is trying to describe advertising and beginning of psychological research in historical view. It shows advertising as the component of marketing mix and so the part of marketing strategy, it definates advertising and its elements and its communication channels. The work indroduces basic psychological findings: motivation, attention, perception and learning, which are straighly outspread...

  9. Sport and Exercise Psychology

    Andy Lane

    2008-01-01

    DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the th...

  10. Psychological violence against children

    Jurkovič, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    The topic of my thesis is a study of how parents and primary school teachers perceive and identify psychological abuse of children. Psychological abuse is an especially sensitive area because children do not perceive interpersonal relations and activities in their environment in the same way as adults. Children also do not possess the physical or psychological power required to withstand or defend themselves against different forms of violence, abuse and harassment. Children who are the victi...

  11. Psychology. 5th edition

    Martin, G. Neil; Carlson, Neil R.; Buskist, William

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive, lively and engaging introduction to the fascinating study of the subject. The fifth edition of the best-selling Psychology is a contemporary text that will captivate all psychology students. The authors describe and explore every major area of psychology and present the latest findings, along with clear evaluation of controversial theories and models, to give a rigorous and critical grounding in the subject. Over 420 new references in this thoroughly updated fifth editi...

  12. Ethnographic Fieldwork in psychology

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    It is argued in the present article that ethnographic fieldwork can serve useful methodological ends within psychology and open the discipline to the cultural landscape of psychological phenomena in everyday life in social practices. Furthermore, a positive case is made for the soundness...... of ethnographic fieldwork. That is, rather than disputing the claim that qualitative methods can serve scientific ends, it is argued that ethnographic fieldwork is suitable for studying the constitution of psychological phenomena in social practices across time....

  13. Psychological Interventions in Dermatology

    Piyanjali de Zoysa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce and emphasize the importance of psychological interventions for those with dermatological conditions. In keeping with the current literature, the author envisages a two-tier approach in the provision of such psychological interventions. Firstly, most patients with dermatology conditions may not require psychological change. Instead, they could be approached with effective doctor-patient communication skills, within a context of empathy and positive ...

  14. Nonlinear dynamics in psychology

    Guastello, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychologica...

  15. PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSONALITY POTENTIAL

    Aleksey, Al

    2014-01-01

    The publication presents the analysis of the theoretical aspects of the model of socio-psychological personality in the context of the determinants of innovation. On the basis of provisions on socio-axiological characteristics of the person that has the potential-vector nature, the constructed formal scheme psychological «charge-discharge» in the chain of life manifestations of personality. In the framework of the psychological theories of personality, consciousness, activity developed the id...

  16. Economics, psychology, and happiness

    Koyasu, Masuo

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the relationships between economics, psychology, and happiness. Economics was originally a moral philosophy which focused on some psychological processes of economic events. However, nineteenth century economists tried to change the nature of economics from that of being a moral philosophy to that of a more specialized scientific area. Some of the twentieth century psychologists have tried to reinstate economics as a moral science with the help of psychological cons...

  17. Qualitative Research in Psychology

    Fattah Hanurawan

    2013-01-01

    "The first 'Workshop Qualitative Research in Psychology' took place in Blaubeuren, Germany from October 20-22, 2000. The meeting was organized by the Center for Qualitative Psychology of the University of Tübingen, Germany. The purpose of the meeting was to begin a network of qualitative psychologists. Thirty-two participants got to know each other, presented and discussed their research, discussed potential further developments within the field of qualitative psychology, and inspired each ot...

  18. Virtue and Empirical Psychology

    Robertson, Kyle Stuart

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the relationship between empirical social psychology and the philosophical tradition of virtue ethics. It argues that social psychology is conceptually important for virtue ethics, that their relationship has been misunderstood by some prominent philosophers, and that a wide variety of evidence from social psychology is useful and inspirational for virtue ethics. First, it offers several novel criticisms of a well-known critique of virtue ethics. This critique claim...

  19. The psychology of cyberspace

    Suler, John

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this online hypertext book is to explore the psychological dimensions of environments created by computers and online networks. It is intended as an evolving conceptual framework for understanding the various psychological components of cyberspace and how people react to and behave within it. You can find the latest version of "The Psychology of Cyberspace" by clicking here: http://www.rider.edu/users/suler/psycyber/psycyber.html

  20. Center for Deployment Psychology

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Deployment Psychology was developed to promote the education of psychologists and other behavioral health specialists about issues pertaining to the...

  1. Nonlinear dynamics in psychology

    Stephen J. Guastello

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychological theory. A budding literature on the implications of NDS principles in professional practice is reported also.

  2. Psychological effects of nuclear warfare

    This report is divided into five parts. (1) Discussion of the psychological milieu before a nuclear confrontation. (2) Acute psychological reactions to nuclear warfare (some of which may reflect, in part, direct radiogenic alteration of nervous system functions). (3) Chronic psychological effects of a nuclear confrontation. (4) Issues concerning treatment of these psychological changes. (5) Prevention of adverse psychological reactions to nuclear warfare

  3. Psychological research and global climate change

    Clayton, Susan; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Stern, Paul C.; Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Carrico, Amanda; Steg, Linda; Swim, Janet; Bonnes, Mirilia

    2015-07-01

    Human behaviour is integral not only to causing global climate change but also to responding and adapting to it. Here, we argue that psychological research should inform efforts to address climate change, to avoid misunderstandings about human behaviour and motivations that can lead to ineffective or misguided policies. We review three key research areas: describing human perceptions of climate change; understanding and changing individual and household behaviour that drives climate change; and examining the human impacts of climate change and adaptation responses. Although much has been learned in these areas, we suggest important directions for further research.

  4. Social psychology and biodiversity conservation in agriculture

    Wauters, Erwin; D'Haene, Karoline; Lauwers, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    We investigate farmers’ intentions to apply biodiversity conservation practices from psychological perspective, using an adapted version of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), including group norms and putting emphasis on moral norms and self-identity. The study is based on a quantitative survey (n = 106) in Belgium, analyzed using confirmatory factor analyses and path analysis. Results show that the impact of attitudes, social norms and perceived behavioural control on intentions is almos...

  5. The Psychology of Globalization.

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2002-01-01

    Examines the influence of globalization on psychological functioning, describing globalization worldwide and its psychological consequences. Notes that most people now develop bicultural identities that combine local identity with global culture-related identity. Identity confusion is increasing among young people in non-western cultures because…

  6. Simulation and psychology

    Dieckmann, Peter; Krage, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Psychology is relevant for improving the use of simulation in anesthesiology, as it allows us to describe, explain and optimize the interactions of learners and instructors as well as the design of simulation scenarios and debriefings. Much psychological expertise is not used for simulation...

  7. Environmental Psychology: An Introduction

    Steg, L.; Berg, van den A.E.; Groot, de J.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Psychology: An Introduction offers a research-based introduction to the psychological relationship between humans and their built and natural environments and discusses how sustainable environments can be created to the benefit of both people and nature •Explores the environment's effe

  8. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  9. Alchemical crossings in Psychology

    Helton Marculino de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the contributions of Alchemy to the field of Psychology, especially for Analytical Psychology as a proposal of an Alchemical Psychology, whose representatives highlighted here are Carl Gustav Jung and James Hillman. It is understood that the knowledge of Alchemy have been applied in various areas such as metallurgy, chemistry, philosophy, and it has a possible application in the field of Psychology. In this sense, it is observed that if to Jung the concepts of Alchemy interlace connections with the knowledge proposed by Analytical Psychology, on the other hand Hillman adopts this knowledge to develop a strategy for use in the field of psychotherapy, proposing to think alchemically. Thus, for this second author in the exercise of Psychology, the meetings with the patient go beyond the application of theories, constituting as a “do-soul” in the office. This is, more than translating symbols, it is proposed to “stay with the image”, with an attention from both the patient and the psychologist for that the words expressed in this dialogue does not become “wordthings” or be reduced to a unique meaning that tends to discard the image. It is hoped, through this work, to promote knowledge of the professionals about the Analytical Psychology and Alchemy Psychology in their connections with Alchemy and its reverberations in the field of psychotherapy in these approaches.

  10. Transpersonal Psychology in Education.

    Roberts, Thomas Bradford; Clark, Frances Vaughan

    The introduction to this booklet states that transpersonal psychology focuses attention on the human capacity for self-transcendence as well as self-realization, and is concerned with the optimum development of consciousness. This booklet attempts to illustrate the value of this psychology in education, not as a complete substitute for traditional…

  11. Psychology in Japan.

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015. PMID:26892102

  12. Adaptive skills

    Staša Stropnik; Jana Kodrič

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive skills are defined as a collection of conceptual, social and practical skills that are learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives. They include an individual's ability to adapt to and manage her or his surroundings to effectively function and meet social or community expectations. Good adaptive skills promote individual's independence in different environments, whereas poorly developed adaptive skills are connected to individual's dependency and with g...

  13. The Psychological Deformity of Black Males in The Color Purple

    李佳蔚

    2012-01-01

      The Color Purple,adapted from Alice Walker’s magnum opus - a long epistolary novel,is a famous movie about the miserable experience of black females and their unremitting resistance against every kind of oppression. In addition,this movie has also exposed the psychological deformity of black male. This paper focuses on the characters of black male, sufficiently probes and analyses the causes of black male’s psychological deformity.

  14. Knowledge development in industrial/organisational psychology (South Africa)

    H. J. Pietersen

    2005-01-01

    Utilising a meta-theoretical approach, the nature of knowledge development in I/O psychology (SA) is assessed. Analysis of the contents of the South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, shows that: empirical research has very substantially increased and is methodologically sophisticated; knowledge development is still almost exclusively tied to the positivist-empiricist paradigm and relies mostly on adaptations of non-local material. More indigenous research is required. A wider perspect...

  15. Interreality in the Management of Psychological Stress: a Clinical Scenario

    Riva, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    The term “psychological stress” describes a situation in which a subject perceives that environmental demands tax or exceed his or her adaptive capacity. According to the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the best validated approach covering both stress management and stress treatment is the Cognitive Behavioral (CBT) approach. We aim to design, develop and test an advanced ICT based solution for the assessment and treatment of psychological stress that is able to improve the actual CB...

  16. Theorising context in psychology

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...

  17. Personal determinants of positive states and stress in psychology students

    G.S. Kozhukhar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We report study results of personality characteristics as predictors of positive states (active, optimistic, emotional, subjective comfort and stress experience in adults with one higher education and ongoing training in Psychology. The respondents were 107 people aged 23 to 52 years. Diagnostic methods we used were: "SMIL" (L. Sobchik, Optimism and Activity Scale (adapted by E. Vodopyanova, C. Izard Differential Emotions Scale (adapted by A. Leonova, Subjective Comfort Scale (adapted by A. Leonova, PSM-25 Scale by Lemyr-Tessier-Fillion. The regression analysis revealed that in subjects ongoing training in Psychology, basic predictor of positive emotions and stress experience is anxiety. Cluster analysis revealed three types of subjects by their positive states experiences, which differ primarily by the level of baseline anxiety and related personality characteristics. The group of risk comprised Psychology students with a tendency to depression and negative emotions and specific personality profile.

  18. Pregnancy as a psychological event

    Bjelica Artur L.; Kapor-Stanulović Petronila

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Apart from physiological and somatic changes, pregnancy is a complex phenomenon which also includes psychological and social changes. Pregnancy, especially the first one, represents a powerful psychological event. This paper deals with pregnancy as a psychological event, considering psychological changes in the course of pregnancy as a stressful event. Psychological changes during pregnancy Pregnancy is always associated with changes in psychological functioning of pregnant women...

  19. Four Social Psychological Lenses for Developmental Psychology

    Zittoun, Tania; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly

    2009-01-01

    How can the advances of social and developmental psychology be integrated? This conceptual paper proposes to examine four basic theoretical models of social situations through which learning and development have been observed in the post-piagetian tradition: the psychosocial triangle, the frame, models of transfer and transitions, and models…

  20. Machines in psychology? Spaceships in psychology!

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Šolcová, Iva; Stuchlíková, I.; Mazehóová, Y.

    2014. [PhD existence IV: česko-slovenská psychologická konference (nejen) pro doktorandy a o doktorandech. 19.05.2014 – 20.05.2014, Olomouc] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-02889P Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : spaceflight * isolation * confinement * qualitative research Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  1. Topological approach of Jungian psychology.

    Viret, Jacques

    2010-09-01

    In this work, we compare two global approaches which are usually considered as completely unconnected one with the other. The former is Thom's topology and the latter is Jung's psychology. More precisely, it seemed to us interesting to adapt some morphologies of Thom's catastrophe theory to some Jung's notions. Thus, we showed that the swallowtail, which is one of these morphologies, was able to describe geometrically the structural organisation of the psyche according to Jung, with its collective unconscious, personal unconscious and conscious. Moreover, we have correlated this morphology with Jung's evolutive processes like individualization and individuation. These comparisons incited us to think that some morphologies of Thom's catastrophe theory are the geometrical dealing of Jung's archetypes. PMID:20658172

  2. Adaptive Lighting

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... distributed differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial...

  3. Discursive social psychology now.

    Parker, Ian

    2012-09-01

    This paper reviews the progress of discourse-analytic approaches in social psychology from the late 1980s to the present day, with a particular focus on the way conceptual and methodological contributions from within the Discourse and Rhetoric Group at Loughborough University have negotiated a positive role for innovative studies of language in the discipline of psychology. Social psychology has become a key site for the accumulation of a series of empirical studies that have seen the flourishing of a distinctive form of 'discursive social psychology' that has succeeded in moving from the margins of the discipline to a more accepted position. The paper traces this trajectory of discourse analysis from the limits to the centre of social psychology attending to five features that now characterise its contribution to psychology; an emphasis on everyday conversation, a concern with interpersonal interaction, explication of formal sequences; an insistence on empirical claims; and fidelity to the ethos of its host discipline. The paper concludes with some comments on the wider context of this new approach inside psychology today. PMID:21790666

  4. Psychological response of accident

    The psychological status of rescuers of consequences of Chernobyl[s accidents, having planned stationary examination and treatment of common somatic diseases, has been examined. THe age of men represented the study group was 35-54 years old. The results of medical-psychological examination showed the development in rescuers of common dysadaptation and stress state, characterized by depressive-hypochondriac state with high anxiety. The course of psychotherapeutic activities made possible to improve essentionally the psychological status of the patients. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  5. SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

    Andy Lane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport

  6. Adaptive Lighting

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and...

  7. Culture and psychological distress

    William W. Dressler

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Examining the influence of cultural factors on psychological distress, relative to other (e.g. social and psychological influences, has been difficult due to the incomplete development of a theory of culture that leads to the reliable and valid measurement of cultural factors in such a way that these can be incorporated into multivariate models. In this paper we present both such a theory and such a methodology, and apply it to the study of the community distribution of psychological distress in an urban area in Brazil. In this theory and method, culture is conceptualized as consisting of shared cultural models that are imperfectly realized in mundane behaviors. The link of cultural model and individual behavior is referred to as "cultural consonance". Here we show that cultural consonance in two different domains is associated with psychological stress, independently from covariates and possible confounding variables. Implications of the results for future research are also discussed.

  8. [Psychological consequences of obesity].

    Müller, Roland

    2013-02-01

    Overweight and obesity is associated with a broad variety of stigmatization and discrimination in every day live. Obese people have more difficulties in finding a job, have a lower income, and are less often seen in leadership positions. In society, responsibility for the weight situation in seen as lying by the individuals affected altogether, leading to chronic stress, problems with self esteem and perception of loss of control. As a consequence, there is an increased risk for developing serious psychological problems such as affective and anxiety disorders. As a reaction, coping strategies to deal with the psychological pressure such as dysfunctional eating behavior, binge eating and physical inactivity are used. Females, people belonging to another ethnic or social minority, adolescents and people with eating disorders are considered at increased risk of psychological distress. Psychological vulnerabilities and the consequences of stigmatization need to be considered. Moreover, perceived behavioral control and self esteem are key aspects of to be addressed on the treatment. PMID:23385186

  9. Psychological interventions in dermatology

    Piyanjali de Zoysa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to introduce and emphasize the importance of psychological interventions for those with dermatological conditions. In keeping with the current literature, the author envisages a two-tier approach in the provision of such psychological interventions. Firstly, most patients with dermatology conditions may not require psychological change. Instead, they could be approached with effective doctor-patient communication skills, within a context of empathy and positive regard. At the second tier, however, based on the clinical interview, some patients may require varying degrees of psychological change in order to better manage their illness. In such a context, a dermatologist with training in psychotherapy would be required. In the absence of such a person, the patient may be referred to a psychologist or another mental health professional trained in psychotherapy.

  10. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...

  11. Diet and psychological health.

    Miller, M

    1996-09-01

    This article reviews research that suggests a relationship between diet and psychological symptoms. Mind-body dualism (as it relates to clinical practice) and the limited role of nutrition in mainstream biomedical training and treatment are discussed as background issues. Two areas of inquiry that have generated relevant research findings in this area are reviewed: (1) orthomolecular theory and vitamin deficiencies, and (2) clinical ecology/environmental medicine theory and the impact of "food allergies." Although clinical case reports and promising research findings have been reported, the impact of diet on psychological health is neither widely accepted nor integrated into mental health treatment methods. Ongoing research findings in brain biochemistry and psychoneuroimmunology point to communication pathways that can provide a clearer understanding of the links between nutritional intake, central nervous system and immune function, and psychological health status. These findings may lead to greater acceptance of dietary treatment approaches among health practitioners addressing psychological disorders. PMID:8795935

  12. Operational Psychology Perspective

    Holland, Al

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history of long duration spaceflight, and the changes in the International Space Station crew and the effect that this has had on the psychology of astronaut selection and training.

  13. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory of...... endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal......-induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition is...

  14. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...... processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what are...

  15. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT

    Blanca Giorgiana GRAMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychological contract became known as a research paradigm within corporate research, providing a broad framework which explains the employee-company relations. Despite all this, there are still many debates on the concept and a series of criticism were expressed that led to the necessity of some more rigorous theoretical and empirical analysis. The psychological contract refers to the unwritten, implicit expectations that employees have from the company and vice versa; it is that which defines the things the employee expects from the employer. Consequently, each of the parties involved in the contract may have different perceptions on these commitments and obligations. Thus the psychological contract may be regarded as an exchange relation between the employer and the employee. Breaking the psychological contract affects the performance, the morale, and the motivation of the staff in a negative manner. The information presented in this paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical and methodological development of the concept.

  16. Integrative Psychology: the Return to the Subject of Psychology

    Vladimir V. Kozlov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the basic paradigms of psychology and put forward the thesis of the expansion of the subject area of psychology in the course of historical development, and describes the main features of integrative psychology. Highlighted in the article the new paradigm of psychology (transpersonal, communicative, integrative, make it possible to trace a vector of development of modern psychology as a multidimensional communicative environment that has intention to make a perusal of psychic reality.

  17. INTEGRATIVE PSYCHOLOGY: THE RETURN TO THE SUBJECT OF PSYCHOLOGY

    Vladimir V. Kozlov

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes the basic paradigms of psychology and put forward the thesis of the expansion of the subject area of psychology in the course of historical development, and describes the main features of integrative psychology. Highlighted in the article the new paradigm of psychology (transpersonal, communicative, integrative), make it possible to trace a vector of development of modern psychology as a multidimensional communicative environment that has intention to make a perusal of ps...

  18. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology (SNP)

    Mouras, Harold; Faucherre, Adèle

    2011-01-01

    It is an exciting challenge for us to launch a new interdisciplinary journal, Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology. We believe the journal will appeal to a wide audience across several scientific specialties. In recent decades, considerable technical and theoretical advances have shed new light on psychological and neural processes. For example, in the area of neuroimaging techniques, it is now possible to explore the role of the brain in a wide variety of behaviours and paradigms (mo...

  19. Perspectives on counselling psychology

    Cross, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    Two hundred and eighty participants (113 Chartered Counselling Psychologists, 167 trainees in Counselling Psychology) took part in the project, conducted over 4 years, which aimed at explicating perspectives on what constitutes the discipline of Counselling Psychology. A range of studies employing diverse methodologies are reported which contribute to the overall aim of the project. Research was conceptualised and executed within the constructivist framework and drew heavily upon the Kellian ...

  20. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    Koch, Alexander K.; Nafziger, Julia

    2011-01-01

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating...

  1. Psychology for Economists

    Keizer, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Orthodox economics focuses on the analysis of the way the economic force or motivation operates, thereby abstracting from the functioning of other primary forces or motivations, such as the social and the psychic motivation. By assuming perfect rationality psychic problems are ignored. This text discusses six approaches in psychology – cognitive, behaviourist, biological, psychodynamic, humanistic and social psychology - to find out what orthodox economics needs in order to extend its analysi...

  2. PSYCHOLOGY: FOR WHOM?

    SERGIO TRUJILLO*

    2003-01-01

    This essay invites to rethink the place of psychology as a science looking to clarify its reaches and itslimits thorough the light of complexity of human being. Starting from biological, psychological andsocial interactive constitution of people, some questions are drawn related to the Western scientificparadigm and its determination of the possibilities of complex thought. From there, some suggestivealternatives are the presented and the five reflexion nuclei are the formulated from which th...

  3. Information Technologies in Psychology

    Hauserová, Markéta

    2010-01-01

    This work is concerned with kreitler's psychological method. The goal of this work is toautomatize this method by using computer. This work deals with part of this method calledMeaning dimensions. You will find short description of technologies, which were used.The result of this work is vocabulary and rules that are needed for correct classification ofMeaning dimensions. The work was made simultaneously with thesis written by Bc. Jozef Ličko Information technologies in psychology.

  4. The psychology of advertising

    Novotná, Jitka

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the use of knowledge in the field of psychology of advertising. Given the breadth of the issue, the author devotes only a selected area of psychology of advertising. All work is designed according to a logical sequence. The theoretical part proceeds from the explanation concepts of marketing, marketing communication, and then communication mix, from which it gets to the advertising and its specific definitions. This work describes the difficulties with making a...

  5. Evolutionary health psychology

    Dickins, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    For the last decade and a half the discipline of Evolutionary Psychology (EP) has been developing with great success. The first collection of significant papers was published in 1992 (Barkow et al.) and recently a landmark handbook has been produced summing the progress so far, as well as setting an agenda for future study (Buss, 2005). Unlike other areas within Psychology, EP extends its interest to all behaviours, rightly seeing them as part of an evolved phenotype, and health has not escap...

  6. Psychology in Advertising

    Jedličková, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The thesis summarizes general knowledge of psychology action in the advertising area and mass communication of companies with consumers. It outlines historical development of advertisement as a tool for communication and information of cummunity and its interprenetration and stimulation of the target group. It defines general psychological terms as a preception, an attention, a motivation or associations, which have the fundamental importance to consumer's behavior. It describes the process o...

  7. Societal psychology in Norway

    Phelps, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    This special issue is comprised of a diverse collection of theoretical and empirical papers from Norway. The choice of societal psychology as a means of organizing these contributions will be discussed in this introduction. Although the term is infrequently used internationally, it has been adopted as the closest translation for the Norwegian disciplinary boundary samfunnspsykologi, which has structured each main contributor’s experience of psychology as graduate ...

  8. Psychology and psychoanalysis

    Pérez S., Juan Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Based upon thesis by Heidegger and Lacan, the author differentiates psychology from psychoanalysis, taking as a starting point the impropriety of including the latter within the fundamental project of the epoch of science. Such a project is characterized by the decision of constructing scientific knowledge about everything the epoch of science defines under the status of existent. On the contrary, psychology is thought within the project of the epoch, having and object of knowledge substantia...

  9. HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY IN COLOMBIA

    LUIS FLÓREZ-ALARCÓN

    2006-01-01

    An historical analysis about the evolution of health psychology in Colombia is made, taking as starting point someinvestigations carried out in the field of the behavioral medicine in the decade of the 70’s, and concluding with thedescription of 25 investigation groups that right now exist in many universities of the country, which carry out researchactivities in psychology and health. It is underlined that the development of this investigation field and practice inpsychology have been bound ...

  10. Virtual Reality in Psychology

    Nigel Foreman

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs) in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space. The research benefits of using VEs, in areas of psychology such as spatial learning and cognition, include interface flexibility, the reproducibility of virtual experience, and the opportunity for on-line monitoring of performance. Applications of VEs are many an...

  11. Avian psychology and communication.

    Rowe, Candy; Skelhorn, John

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of animal communication is a complex issue and one that attracts much research and debate. 'Receiver psychology' has been highlighted as a potential selective force, and we review how avian psychological processes and biases can influence the evolution and design of signals as well as the progress that has been made in testing these ideas in behavioural studies. Interestingly, although birds are a focal group for experimental psychologists and behavioural ecologists alike, the i...

  12. Psychology In Argentina

    Modesto M. Alonso

    2016-01-01

    A summary on Psychology as science and profession in Argentina is presented. The report includes a historical review on places, criteria and results of psychologists'education, aspects of their professional practices; quantitative data on universities, graduates and students related to sociodemographic variables; characteristics of research activities, publications, legal frameworks and types of institutions where psychologists work. Some distinctive features of Argentine psychology are menti...

  13. Ecological psychology and social psychology: continuing discussion.

    Charles, Eric P

    2012-06-01

    What form would an ideal merger of ecological and social psychology take? Is that ideal attainable? Many researchers and theorists are working to answer these questions. Charles (2009, 2011a) offered insights from E. B. Holt, one of James J. Gibson's mentors, who argued that minds-mental kinds, processes, states, etc.-are observable aspects of the environment. Phrasing that in Ecological terms, the minds of other organisms are specified in the structure of ambient energy extended over time and space; they are directly perceivable by a properly attuned organism. Ecological Psychology enhances Holt's story, by brining to the table a sophisticated theory of direct perception; Holt enhances the Ecological story by brining to the table a sophisticated theory about the nature of minds. The two combine to form the long-sought ideal merger. Thus, I claimed, Ecological Psychology will either rediscover its roots, or go through the trouble of re-creating them. This paper further develops those ideas, by presenting a simpler version of the argument, suggesting easy ways of dismissing that argument, and addressing the concerns expressed by Castro and Lafuente (2011). PMID:21809179

  14. An Empirical Investigation of the Adaptive Nature of Shame

    Dansie, Elizabeth Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the empirical psychological literature on emotion, the general consensus is that shame is maladaptive, while guilt is the adaptive moral emotion. Conversely, evolutionary psychology concludes that all emotions serve adaptive functions. Specifically, shame serves an appeasement function in social relationships. In order to investigate the true nature of shame, the current study used an experimental design. Specifically, a 2 (high shame, no shame) X 2 (high guilt, no guilt) design w...

  15. Adaptive skills

    Staša Stropnik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive skills are defined as a collection of conceptual, social and practical skills that are learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives. They include an individual's ability to adapt to and manage her or his surroundings to effectively function and meet social or community expectations. Good adaptive skills promote individual's independence in different environments, whereas poorly developed adaptive skills are connected to individual's dependency and with greater need for control and help with everyday tasks. Assessment of adaptive skills is often connected to assessment of intellectual disability, due to the reason that the diagnosis of intellectual disability includes lower levels of achievements on standardized tests of intellectual abilities as well as important deficits in adaptive skills. Assessment of adaptive behavior is a part of standard assessment battery with children and adults with different problems, disorders or disabilities that affect their everyday functioning. This contribution also presents psychometric tools most regularly used for assessment of adaptive skills and characteristics of adaptive skills with individual clinical groups.

  16. ADAPT Dataset

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) Project Lead: Scott Poll Subject Fault diagnosis in electrical power systems Description The Advanced...

  17. [Techniques of preservation and promotion of psychological health in personnel of training center].

    Syrkin, L D; Lomako, L L; Stepanychev, A P

    2011-02-01

    The article is concerned with description of techniques of preservation and promotion of psychological health in cadets of the centre of operational use of antitank artillery in conditions of steady increase of intensity and tension of educational-and-professional activity. This technique provides the preservation of psychological health and personal adaptive potential in military personnel. It conduces to reduction of morbidity rate of psychological and personality disorders and to combat readiness of units packed with graduates of training centre. PMID:21770344

  18. The interplay between psychological well-being, university adjustment and previous experience of traumatic events

    L.V. Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It was shown that traumatic event that happened long ago does not have univocal connection with the current condition (intensity of post traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression, adjustment (as personality trait in general and university adaptation. Psychological well-being is not only a result of good adjustment, but at first contributes to socio-psychological adaptation of a person being connected with the way of perception and appraisal of life events. Psychological well-being is a part of adjustment potential and also reflects the level of adaptation. The most stressful events are death and/or serious illness of close others, or abuse. Special characteristics of students are described in the paper depending on the intensity of their suicidal thoughts. It is shown that the intensity of suicidal thoughts is connected with characteristics of psychological well-being showing itself in current condition, adjustment (as personality trait, university adaptation and choice of defense strategies

  19. The Lack of Representation of Educational Psychology and School Psychology in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Lucas, Jennifer L.; Blazek, Melissa A.; Raley, Amber B.; Washington, Christi

    2005-01-01

    The first goal of this study was to look at the representation of educational and school psychology in introductory psychology textbooks. Research into the representation of other sub-fields of psychology has been conducted but no research has looked specifically at educational or school psychology. The second goal was to compare the…

  20. Using New Interactive Media to Enhance the Teaching of Psychology (and Other Disciplines) in Developing Countries.

    Myers, David G

    2009-01-01

    My idea for improving psychology responds to the challenge of teaching psychology in lower income, developing countries. With new Web-based e-books on the horizon, I suggest harnessing the Internet to deliver state-of-the-art, interactive, low-cost, locally adapted content to students who cannot afford books. PMID:26158841

  1. Multicultural Grand Rounds: Competency-Based Training Model for Clinical Psychology Graduate Students

    Stites, Shana D.; Warholic, Christina L.

    2014-01-01

    Preparing students to enter the field of psychology as competent professionals requires that multicultural practices be infused into all areas of training. This article describes how the Grand Rounds model was adapted to a graduate clinical psychology training program to foster applied learning in multicultural competence. This extension of Grand…

  2. Psychological Contracts and Their Implications for Commitment: A Feature-Based Approach

    McInnis, Kate J.; Meyer, John P.; Feldman, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the link between employee perceptions of the psychological contract and their affective and normative commitments to the organization. The authors adapt a new approach to the study of psychological contracts by developing a generalizable measure of "contract features" (e.g., scope; time frame). In Study 1…

  3. Assessing Psychological Functioning in Metabolic Disorders: Validation of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS-II), and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) for Identification of Individuals at Risk.

    Waisbren, Susan E; He, Jianping; McCarter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Long-term follow-up of neuropsychological functioning in metabolic disorders remains difficult due to limited opportunities for comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations. This study examined the validity of using the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS-II), and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) for assessing developmental status in metabolic disorders and for identifying individuals at risk for cognitive deficits. Results from individuals with urea cycle disorders, phenylketonuria, galactosemia, and fatty acid oxidation disorders were obtained on the ABAS-II and BRIEF and were compared to results obtained from neuropsychological testing performed on the same day. Correlations between scores on the ABAS-II and developmental or IQ tests for individuals with urea cycle disorders ranged from 0.48 to 0.72 and concordance rates for scores greater than a standard deviation below the normative mean ranged from 69 to 89%. Correlations ranged from 0.20 to 0.68 with concordance ranging from 73 to 90% in the other metabolic disorders. For the BRIEF, correlations with other tests of executive functioning were significant for urea cycle disorders, with concordance ranging from 52 to 80%. For the other metabolic disorders, correlations ranged from -0.09 to -0.55. Concordance rates for at-risk status on the BRIEF and executive functioning tests ranged from 55% in adults to 80% in children with other metabolic disorders. These results indicate that the ABAS-II and BRIEF together can confidently be used as an adjunct or supplementary method for clinical follow-up and for research on functional status involving infants, children, and adults with metabolic disorders. PMID:25712381

  4. Application of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Psychological Theory to Scale Development of Social Adaptation Degrees of Special Service Personnel%应用中医和心理学理论编制特勤人员社会适应度量表的初步探讨

    单守勤; 薛蓓蕾; 周锡芳; 张文广; 郑曙峰; 董效信; 赵晓晶

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop a scale of social adaptation degrees of special service personnel (referred to as scale) applying Traditional Chinese Medicine and psychological theory and to assess its reliability and validity. Methods By literature review, job analysis, inventory survey, topics interview, this scale was determined in dimensions, items and items pool based on theoretical model. Results After specialist important analysis and combining the different results of statistical analysis, including Cronbach's a coefficient, resolution factor, correlation analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, 6 dimensions, 14 factors and 40 items were finally kept in the scale. The dimensions were psychological characteristics, physical condition, intelligence level, interpersonal relationships, environmental factors and moral character. The factors were self-control, self-esteem character bias, self-confidence, physiological function, learning intelligence, creating intelligence, leadership intelligence, gregariousness, cooperative, confidence feeling, natural environment, social environment and moral character. Conclusion This scale was made on the basis of general international principle, it had good reliability and validity meeting measurement standard of traditional Chinese medicine and psychological theory, and it is an effective and practical evaluation tool of social adaptation degrees of special service personnel.%目的 运用中医和心理学理论编制特勤人员的社会适应度量表并对其进行信、效度检验.方法 通过文献研究、工作分析、问卷调查和专题访谈法构建量表的理论模型,依据理论模型确立量表的理论维度,编制条目形成条目池.结果 通过专家重要分析和对调查资料运用Cronbaeh α系数内部一致性分析、分辨率系数、相关性分析、验证性因子分析等对条目进行分析和筛选.最后形成6个维度14个因子40个条目的量表,各维度分别为心理特征、体

  5. Physical culture as a powerful factor facilitating adaptation of foreign students at the university

    Grutsyak N.B; Grutsyak V.І.

    2010-01-01

    The problems of adaptation are considered foreign student in the institutes of higher. Directions of decision of problems of social and individual psychological adaptation of student are rotined. The methods of adaptive physical activity are used. The ways of realization of the adaptation health programs are set for a foreign student. It is suggested to enter preparations of student basic methods of adaptive physical culture in practice. It is recommended to enter an adaptive physical culture...

  6. Psychological emergency attendance as a psychological service in educational psychology: limits and possibilities

    Edson do Nascimento Bezerra

    2014-01-01

    The School Psychology Emergency Practices differs from others School Psychology practices, is more than type of psychology service and should have more institutional visibility. This paper reflects on these references from both the practice of the author and the currently literature in school psychology. To this purpose, we use as reference the concept of Extended Clinic and its relation with Psychology Emergency Service area. We discuss the opportunity of the school psychologist has, among o...

  7. INTERNATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY AND SCIENTIFIC PSYCHOLOGY: AT THE CROSSROADS FOR THE FUTURE OF PSYCHOLOGY

    Robert, J.

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of psychology as a science and the newly emerging field of international psychology are at a crossroads in terms of a conflict that has developed in their views. By means of comparative analysis, this article examines how the proponents of international psychology describe their area, how that description conflicts with the concept of psychology as a science, and what that conflict means for the development of psychology as an overall discipline. The analysis reveals weaknesses...

  8. [Ibn Sina--psychology and psychological disorders].

    Cerić, I; Mehić-Basara, N

    1997-01-01

    Ebu Ali Husein Ibn Ali Ibn Sina (or Avicenna) was primarily a philosopher with amusing knowledge, who dealt in all aspects of art of medicine, astronomer, poet, musician and psychologist. This giant with an encyclopedic knowledge has dealt in almost all scientific branches or praxis with the great success. Numerous statements of his have been cornerstone of many sciences for centuries; and some of them are (in the era of computers and Internet) still current. The best known treatise on medicine of his is El-Kanun, consisting of five volumes, wherein all medical achievements (including psychology, psychiatry and neurology) of that period were described clearly. In his psychology, Ibn Sina (Avicenna) analyses the essence of human soul, mind, psychical streams, intellectum, dreams and prophecy, man's desires etc. in details. It is unnecessary to point out how much these items are actual in the contemporary psychology. Ibn al-Nefis has described systematically the symptoms and recovery of "head sick" (including headaches, cerebral sick like cranitis, letargy, coma, demency, melancholy, insomnia, nightmares, epilepsy, appoplexy, paralysis, spasm and many others) in his Mujez al-Kanun, that is synopsis of Ibn Sina Kanun. We need much time to see magnificance of this philosopher, that is best known as the great one among the physicians. His writings could be found in whole Bosnia, but there were many few that would study him and his works. It is out task to enable the future generations not only to know those works exist, but, also, to realize the essence of this marvelous genius; because there are very few people that can be compared to him. PMID:9324566

  9. Lest we forget that industrial and organisational psychology is psychology

    DJW Strümpfer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The tie between industrial/organisational psychology (IOP and general psychology should be taken seriously. The origin of the split into separate academic departments is discussed. Four IOP topics are presented which are rooted in psychology or where the psychological quality is strong, making the tie-in clear: motivation, leadership, assessment, and appreciative inquiry; by way of illustration, proponents are referred to. Specialisation and professionalisation often bring undue emphasis on technology. IOP cannot be human resource management. Suggestions are made about bringing IOP and psychology closer within teaching programmes and internships. Appreciative images of what IOP, hand-in-hand with psychology, could be like, are put forward.

  10. Adaptation of educational tasks for children with autism spectrum disorders

    Khaustov A.V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes different methods of adaptation of educational materials for children with ASD who are receiving education in elementary school adapted basic educational programs. It contains examples of varied levels of adapted educational tasks for children with ASD who are studying four subjects in the first grade: mathematics, the Russian language, literary reading, environmental science. The article underlines key prin­ciples for the usage of adapted educational tasks. The materials were developed and tested on the base of the Center for Psychological, Medical and Social Support for Children and Adolescents of the Moscow State Uni­versity of Psychology and Education. The presented adapted materials allow to realise adapted educational programs in accordance with the Federal State Educational Standards of Elementary General Education for students with disabilities. Adaptation of an educational task for a child with ASD is illustrated here with a concrete example.

  11. Emotional Capital Development, Positive Psychology and Mindful Teaching: Which Links?

    Gendron, Bénédicte; Kouremenou, Eleni-Sofia; Rusu, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The start of university life requires a period of adaptation, which can sometimes have an impact on the mental health of students. The latest results from the Observatoire National de la Vie Etudiante (OVE, 2013) show that more that 40% of university students report symptoms of psychological fragility (sleep problems, fatigue, depression, stress…

  12. Custodial Grandmothers' Psychological Distress, Dysfunctional Parenting, and Grandchildren's Adjustment

    Smith, Gregory C.; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Hancock, Gregory R.; Richardson, Rhonda A.

    2008-01-01

    An adaptation of the Family Stress Model (FSM) with hypothesized linkages between family contextual factors, custodial grandmothers' psychological distress, parenting practices, and grandchildren's adjustment was tested with structural equation modeling. Interview data from 733 custodial grandmothers of grandchildren between ages 4-17 revealed…

  13. Evolutionary Psychology: A Natural Selection for Music Education?

    Graham, Rodger

    2006-01-01

    In this viewpoint it is suggested that recent research and authorship in the evolutionary psychology (EP) of music can provide musicians and educators with an enriched understanding of the adaptive role of music in human life. Within a climate of continual educational reform in which music is often marginalised from other mainstream curricular…

  14. Toward a conceptual understanding of acute cultural adaptation: A preliminary examination of ACA in female swimming

    Ryba, Tatiana; Haapanen, Saara; Mosek, Shwiko; Ng, Kwok

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers a novel approach to researching adaptation in transnational athletes. The first part introduces a conceptualisation of acute cultural adaptation (ACA), which extends the current literature in sport psychology by offering original insights into mechanisms underpinning adaptive...... psychological needs. The second part of the paper engages the conceptualisation of ACA to make sense of the adaptive processes as experienced by female swimmers from Finland during their training camp in Australia. The study’s findings highlight relatedness as a discursive cultural space, offering a starting...... point for examining the role of culture in psychological functions during short-term relocation....

  15. Qualitative experiments in psychology

    Wagoner, Brady

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I explore the meaning of experiments in early twentieth century psychology, focusing on the qualitative experimental methodology of psychologist Frederic BARTLETT. I begin by contextualizing BARTLETT's experiments within the continental research tradition of his time, which...... was in a state of transition from a focus on elements (the concern of psychophysics) to a focus on wholes (the concern of Gestalt psychology). The defining feature of BARTLETT's early experiments is his holistic treatment of human responses, in which the basic unit of analysis is the active person relating...... to some material within the constraints of a social and material context. This manifests itself in a number of methodological principles that contrast with contemporary understandings of experimentation in psychology. The contrast is further explored by reviewing the history of "replications...

  16. Embodiment in social psychology.

    Meier, Brian P; Schnall, Simone; Schwarz, Norbert; Bargh, John A

    2012-10-01

    Psychologists are increasingly interested in embodiment based on the assumption that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are grounded in bodily interaction with the environment. We examine how embodiment is used in social psychology, and we explore the ways in which embodied approaches enrich traditional theories. Although research in this area is burgeoning, much of it has been more descriptive than explanatory. We provide a critical discussion of the trajectory of embodiment research in social psychology. We contend that future researchers should engage in a phenomenon-based approach, highlight the theoretical boundary conditions and mediators involved, explore novel action-relevant outcome measures, and address the role of individual differences broadly defined. Such research will likely provide a more explanatory account of the role of embodiment in general terms as well as how it expands the knowledge base in social psychology. PMID:22777820

  17. A Social Psychological Perspective:

    Singla, Rashmi; Westerling, Allan

    2008-01-01

    interplay between institutionalised individualism and interconnectedness. The focus is on the vertical and horizontal relationships within the socio-cultural psychological framework combining positioning theory with the  life course perspectives. Moreover there is focus on the diaspora processes for the...... South Asian young adults. The paper analyses the discourses of intergenerational care as they intersect with everyday life practices and psychological realities of persons. The results indicate changes in the care pattern and deals with the dilemmas of solidarity, which are in contrast to dominant....... Furthermore interplay of agency with the changing societal structures and the diaspora context is confirmed. Key words: intergenerational care, individualisation, social network analysis, socio-cultural psychology, modernisation...

  18. Discursive psychology and feminism.

    Weatherall, Ann

    2012-09-01

    This appraisal highlights the productive engagement between feminism and discursive psychology (DP). It discusses some of the confluence and tensions between DP and feminism. The two share critical perspectives on science and psychology, a concern with prejudice, and have ideas in common about the constructed nature of social categories, such as gender. One difficulty arises from the relativism associated with the post-structural theoretical underpinnings of DP, which can be understood as politically paralyzing. Another problem comes from an endorsement of a conversation analytic mentality, where identity categories such as gender can only be legitimately used in an analysis when participants' orient to their relevance. The high-profile debates and literature in DP shows it has made a notable contribution to social psychology and its influence can also be found in other areas. A particular influence of DP highlighted in the present appraisal is on gender and language research. PMID:21992501

  19. Psychology, replication & beyond.

    Laws, Keith R

    2016-01-01

    Modern psychology is apparently in crisis and the prevailing view is that this partly reflects an inability to replicate past findings. If a crisis does exists, then it is some kind of 'chronic' crisis, as psychologists have been censuring themselves over replicability for decades. While the debate in psychology is not new, the lack of progress across the decades is disappointing. Recently though, we have seen a veritable surfeit of debate alongside multiple orchestrated and well-publicised replication initiatives. The spotlight is being shone on certain areas and although not everyone agrees on how we should interpret the outcomes, the debate is happening and impassioned. The issue of reproducibility occupies a central place in our whig history of psychology. PMID:27251381

  20. Psychology of programming

    Hoc, J-M

    1991-01-01

    Psychology provides a backdrop for most of the study of human*b1computer interaction. In this volume the psychological issues that pertain to programming, rather than systems design, are examined in four sections: Theoretical and Methodological Issues; Language Design and Skill Acquisition; Expert Programming; and the Future.****The book was inspired by working groups in France and the United Kingdom but also includes work by major North American figures (such as Curtis and Soloway). It is the first comprehensive work on this topic since the early 1980s.

  1. The psychology of creativity

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    The psychology of creativity is nowadays a thriving field of investigation, but also a discipline in crisis. This is the premise for the critical reading of past and present work within this area proposed here. The presentation follows the typical headings of a research article, beginning...... in order to help us develop a stronger psychology of creativity in the decades to come. In the end, six main points are placed on a hypothetical agenda for future (creative) creativity re-search. In this sense, a critical reading is actually the first step in the process of being constructive and calling...

  2. Neuroeconomics and business psychology

    Larsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    To determine parameters of the frontal power of executive integration for application in business, this paper reviewed neuroeconomic neuroimaging research and discussion in relation to business psychology. The results are that limbic system (L) is a centre of primary consciousness based on a meso......To determine parameters of the frontal power of executive integration for application in business, this paper reviewed neuroeconomic neuroimaging research and discussion in relation to business psychology. The results are that limbic system (L) is a centre of primary consciousness based...

  3. Role of engineering psychology

    Savayan, A.

    1984-09-18

    Engineers in all fields encounter one of the chief paradoxes of the scientific and technical revolution: machines and robots, having freed man from heavy physical labor have placed psychological burdens on him that sometimes exceed the capabilities of a specific individual. This is especially true in highly complex facilities that strain individual coping powers. Occupational selection is a necessity in the modern era of social development. The young science of engineering psychology is showing the way in operator safety in complex situations, although its recommendations are not always given the consideration they merit.

  4. [Transpersonal psychology -- psychology of consciousness: chances and problems].

    Walach, Harald; Kohls, Niko; Belschner, Wilfried

    2005-01-01

    Transpersonal psychology represents a perspective which has gained importance in psychological research and clinical practice over the last years. This paper offers an overview on the history and the sources of transpersonal psychology. Additionally, important themes and topics of transpersonal psychology will be discussed such as a) the importance of spirituality in psychotherapy and counselling, b) spirituality as a resource for maintaining and regaining health, c) spiritual experiences as an avenue to consciousness, d) the delimination of extraordinary states of consciousness and "spiritual crises". In the next paragraph specific problems and critical points of transpersonal psychology are presented. Among them are the discussion of the question whether experience free of language is at all possible as well as the question how notions coming from eastern traditions can be translated into western psychology. Finally, some positive aspects of transpersonal psychology will be presented, and we submit that transpersonal psychology should be taken seriously in a scientific way. PMID:16136444

  5. Health psychology in primary care: recent research and future directions

    Thielke S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Thielke1, Alexander Thompson2, Richard Stuart31Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Puget Sound VA Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Over the last decade, research about health psychology in primary care has reiterated its contributions to mental and physical health promotion, and its role in addressing gaps in mental health service delivery. Recent meta-analyses have generated mixed results about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health psychology interventions. There have been few studies of health psychology interventions in real-world treatment settings. Several key challenges exist: determining the degree of penetration of health psychology into primary care settings; clarifying the specific roles of health psychologists in integrated care; resolving reimbursement issues; and adapting to the increased prescription of psychotropic medications. Identifying and exploring these issues can help health psychologists and primary care providers to develop the most effective ways of applying psychological principles in primary care settings. In a changing health care landscape, health psychologists must continue to articulate the theories and techniques of health psychology and integrated care, to put their beliefs into practice, and to measure the outcomes of their work.Keywords: health psychology, primary care, integrated care, collaborative care, referral, colocation

  6. Ambiguous Adaptation

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    We investigate why some exchange relationships terminate prematurely. We argue that investments in informal governance structures induce premature termination in relationships already governed by formal contracts. The formalized adaptive behavior of formal governance structures and the flexible and...... reciprocal adaptation of informal governance structure create ambiguity in situations of contingencies, which, subsequently, increases the likelihood of premature relationship termination. Using a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service provider industry, we find support for a hypothesis...

  7. Strategic Adaptation

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related...... concepts of strategic renewal, dynamic managerial capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and strategic response capabilities are discussed and contextualized against strategic responsiveness. The insights derived from this article are used to outline the contours of a dynamic process of strategic adaptation...

  8. Positive Psychology and old age Psychology. Theoretical Intersections

    Enrique Lombardo

    2015-01-01

    This article is a theoretical review of developments and research of the posi- tive psychology and of the psychology of aging. Some concepts that are in that intersection are: psychic capital, strengths, psychological wellbeing and emo- tional regulation. In all the cases they are positive psychic factors associated to the successful aging. Since the end of the 20th century, within the psychology of aging has been developing and achieved fundamental transformations in term of theoretical base...

  9. Lest we forget that industrial and organisational psychology is psychology

    DJW Strümpfer

    2007-01-01

    The tie between industrial/organisational psychology (IOP) and general psychology should be taken seriously. The origin of the split into separate academic departments is discussed. Four IOP topics are presented which are rooted in psychology or where the psychological quality is strong, making the tie-in clear: motivation, leadership, assessment, and appreciative inquiry; by way of illustration, proponents are referred to. Specialisation and professionalisation often bring undue emphasis on ...

  10. Sport Psychology: An Emerging Domain in the Counseling Psychology Profession?

    Petrie, Trent A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Surveyed counseling psychologists on their involvement in sport psychology research, training, and practice; their affiliation with sport psychology professional organizations; and their attitudes toward current professional sport psychology issues. Found that counseling psychologists were minimally involved, and had received little formal…