WorldWideScience

Sample records for ada regulatory locus

  1. Methyl phosphotriesters in alkylated DNA are repaired by the Ada regulatory protein of E. coli.

    McCarthy, T.V.; Lindahl, T

    1985-01-01

    The E. coli ada+ gene product that controls the adaptive response to alkylating agents has been purified to apparent homogeneity using an overproducing expression vector system. This 39 kDa protein repairs 0(6)-methylguanine and 0(4)-methylthymine residues in alkylated DNA by transfer of the methyl group from the base to a cysteine residue in the protein itself. The Ada protein also corrects one of the stereoisomers of methyl phosphotriesters in DNA by the same mechanism, while the other isom...

  2. Genomic approaches uncover increasing complexities in the regulatory landscape at the human SCL (TAL1) locus

    Dhami, P.; Bruce, A. W.; Jim, J.H.; Dillon, S. C.; Hall, A; Cooper, J. L.; Bonhoure, N.; Chiang, K.; Ellis, P D; Langford, C; Andrews, R.M.; Vetrie, D

    2010-01-01

    The SCL (TAL1) transcription factor is a critical regulator of haematopoiesis and its expression is tightly controlled by multiple cis-acting regulatory elements. To elaborate further the DNA elements which control its regulation, we used genomic tiling microarrays covering 256 kb of the human SCL locus to perform a concerted analysis of chromatin structure and binding of regulatory proteins in human haematopoietic cell lines. This approach allowed us to characterise further or redefine known...

  3. Epigenetic Regulation of Individual Modules of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus 3' Regulatory Region.

    Birshtein, Barbara K

    2014-01-01

    The Igh locus undergoes an amazing array of DNA rearrangements and modifications during B cell development. During early stages, the variable region gene is constructed from constituent variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) segments (VDJ joining). B cells that successfully express an antibody can be activated, leading to somatic hypermutation (SHM) focused on the variable region, and class switch recombination (CSR), which substitutes downstream constant region genes for the originally used Cμ constant region gene. Many investigators, ourselves included, have sought to understand how these processes specifically target the Igh locus and avoid other loci and potential deleterious consequences of malignant transformation. Our laboratory has concentrated on a complex regulatory region (RR) that is located downstream of Cα, the most 3' of the Igh constant region genes. The ~40 kb 3' RR, which is predicted to serve as a downstream major regulator of the Igh locus, contains two distinct segments: an ~28 kb region comprising four enhancers, and an adjacent ~12 kb region containing multiple CTCF and Pax5 binding sites. Analysis of targeted mutations in mice by a number of investigators has concluded that the entire 3' RR enhancer region is essential for SHM and CSR (but not for VDJ joining) and for high levels of expression of multiple isotypes. The CTCF/Pax5 binding region is a candidate for influencing VDJ joining early in B cell development and serving as a potential insulator of the Igh locus. Components of the 3' RR are subject to a variety of epigenetic changes during B cell development, i.e., DNAse I hypersensitivity, histone modifications, and DNA methylation, in association with transcription factor binding. I propose that these changes provide a foundation by which regulatory elements in modules of the 3' RR function by interacting with each other and with target sequences of the Igh locus. PMID:24795714

  4. Complementation of a pleiotropic Nif-Gln regulatory mutant of Rhodospirillum rubrum by a previously unrecognized Azotobacter vinelandii regulatory locus.

    Hu, C Z; Yoch, D C

    1990-01-01

    A spontaneous pleiotropic Nif- mutation in Rhodospirillum rubrum has been partially characterized biochemically and by complementation analysis with recombinant plasmids carrying Azotobacter vinelandii DNA in the vicinity of ORF12 [Jacobson et al. (1989) J. Bacteriol 171: 1017-1027]. In addition to being unable to grow on N2 as a nitrogen source the phenotypic characterization of this and other metronidazole enriched spontaneous mutants showed (a) no nitrogenase activity, (b) the absence of NifHDK polypeptides, (c) a slower growth rate on NH4+, (d) approximately 50% higher glutamine synthetase (GS) activity than the wild-type, which was repressible, (e) an inability to switch-off GS activity in response to an NH4+ up-shift, and (f) an inability to modify (32P-label) the GS polypeptide. The apparent relationship between the absence of nifHDK expression and the absence of GS adenylylation cannot be explained in terms of the current model for nif gene regulation. However, R. rubrum transconjugants receiving A. vinelandii DNA which originated immediately upstream from nifH, restored all aspects of the wild-type phenotype. These data suggest a here-to-fore unrecognized relationship between nif expression and GS switch-off (adenylylation) activity, and the existence of a previously unidentified regulatory locus in Azotobacter that complements this mutation. PMID:1980582

  5. Early enhancer establishment and regulatory locus complexity shape transcriptional programs in hematopoietic differentiation.

    González, Alvaro J; Setty, Manu; Leslie, Christina S

    2015-11-01

    We carried out an integrative analysis of enhancer landscape and gene expression dynamics during hematopoietic differentiation using DNase-seq, histone mark ChIP-seq and RNA sequencing to model how the early establishment of enhancers and regulatory locus complexity govern gene expression changes at cell state transitions. We found that high-complexity genes-those with a large total number of DNase-mapped enhancers across the lineage-differ architecturally and functionally from low-complexity genes, achieve larger expression changes and are enriched for both cell type-specific and transition enhancers, which are established in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and maintained in one differentiated cell fate but lost in others. We then developed a quantitative model to accurately predict gene expression changes from the DNA sequence content and lineage history of active enhancers. Our method suggests a new mechanistic role for PU.1 at transition peaks during B cell specification and can be used to correct assignments of enhancers to genes. PMID:26390058

  6. Epigenetic regulation of individual modules of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus 3’ regulatory region (3’ RR

    Barbara K Birshtein

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Igh locus undergoes an amazing array of DNA rearrangements and modifications during B cell development. During early stages, the variable region gene is constructed from constituent variable (V, diversity (D and joining (J segments (VDJ joining. B cells that successfully express an antibody can be activated, leading to somatic hypermutation (SHM focused on the variable region, and class switch recombination (CSR, which substitutes downstream constant region genes for the originally used Cμ constant region gene. Many investigators, ourselves included, have sought to understand how these processes specifically target the Igh locus and avoid other loci and potential deleterious consequences of malignant transformation. Our laboratory has concentrated on a complex regulatory region (RR that is located downstream of Cα, the most 3’ of the Igh constant region genes. The ~40 kb 3’ RR, which is predicted to serve as a downstream major regulator of the Igh locus, contains two distinct segments: an ~28 kb region of four enhancers and an adjacent ~12 kb region containing multiple CTCF and Pax5 binding sites. Analysis of targeted mutations in mice by a number of investigators has concluded that the entire 3’ RR enhancer region is essential for SHM and CSR (but not for VDJ joining and for high levels of expression of multiple isotypes. The CTCF/Pax5 binding region is a candidate for influencing VDJ joining early in B cell development and serving as a potential insulator of the Igh locus. Components of the 3’ RR are subject to a variety of epigenetic changes during B cell development, i.e., DNAse I hypersensitivity, histone modifications and DNA methylation, in association with transcription factor binding. We propose that these changes provide a foundation by which regulatory elements in modules of the 3’ RR function by interacting with each other and with target sequences of the Igh locus.

  7. The genetic and regulatory architecture of ERBB3-type 1 diabetes susceptibility locus

    Kaur, Simranjeet; Mirza, Aashiq H; Brorsson, Caroline Anna;

    2016-01-01

    -producing INS-1E cells and the genetic and regulatory architecture of the ERBB3 locus to provide insights to how rs2292239 may confer disease susceptibility. rs2292239 strongly correlated with residual β-cell function and metabolic control in children with T1D. ERBB3 locus associated lncRNA (NONHSAG011351) was......The study aimed to explore the role of ERBB3 in type 1 diabetes (T1D). We examined whether genetic variation of ERBB3 (rs2292239) affects residual β-cell function in T1D cases. Furthermore, we examined the expression of ERBB3 in human islets, the effect of ERBB3 knockdown on apoptosis in insulin...

  8. Multiple Hepatic Regulatory Variants at the GALNT2 GWAS Locus Associated with High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol.

    Roman, Tamara S; Marvelle, Amanda F; Fogarty, Marie P; Vadlamudi, Swarooparani; Gonzalez, Arlene J; Buchkovich, Martin L; Huyghe, Jeroen R; Fuchsberger, Christian; Jackson, Anne U; Wu, Ying; Civelek, Mete; Lusis, Aldons J; Gaulton, Kyle J; Sethupathy, Praveen; Kangas, Antti J; Soininen, Pasi; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kuusisto, Johanna; Collins, Francis S; Laakso, Markku; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L

    2015-12-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified more than 150 loci associated with blood lipid and cholesterol levels; however, the functional and molecular mechanisms for many associations are unknown. We examined the functional regulatory effects of candidate variants at the GALNT2 locus associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Fine-mapping and conditional analyses in the METSIM study identified a single locus harboring 25 noncoding variants (r(2) > 0.7 with the lead GWAS variants) strongly associated with total cholesterol in medium-sized HDL (e.g., rs17315646, p = 3.5 × 10(-12)). We used luciferase reporter assays in HepG2 cells to test all 25 variants for allelic differences in regulatory enhancer activity. rs2281721 showed allelic differences in transcriptional activity (75-fold [T] versus 27-fold [C] more than the empty-vector control), as did a separate 780-bp segment containing rs4846913, rs2144300, and rs6143660 (49-fold [AT(-) haplotype] versus 16-fold [CC(+) haplotype] more). Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we observed differential CEBPB binding to rs4846913, and we confirmed this binding in a native chromatin context by performing chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays in HepG2 and Huh-7 cell lines of differing genotypes. Additionally, sequence reads in HepG2 DNase-I-hypersensitivity and CEBPB ChIP-seq signals spanning rs4846913 showed significant allelic imbalance. Allelic-expression-imbalance assays performed with RNA from primary human hepatocyte samples and expression-quantitative-trait-locus (eQTL) data in human subcutaneous adipose tissue samples confirmed that alleles associated with increased HDL-C are associated with a modest increase in GALNT2 expression. Together, these data suggest that at least rs4846913 and rs2281721 play key roles in influencing GALNT2 expression at this HDL-C locus. PMID:26637976

  9. Ada & the Analytical Engine.

    Freeman, Elisabeth

    1996-01-01

    Presents a brief history of Ada Byron King, Countess of Lovelace, focusing on her primary role in the development of the Analytical Engine--the world's first computer. Describes the Ada Project (TAP), a centralized World Wide Web site that serves as a clearinghouse for information related to women in computing, and provides a Web address for…

  10. Regulatory cross-talk in the double par locus of plasmid pB171

    Ringgaard, Simon; Ebersbach, Gitte; Borch, Jonas; Gerdes, Kenn; Charbon, Gitte Ebersbach

    2007-01-01

    The double par locus of Escherichia coli virulence factor pB171 consists of two adjacent and oppositely oriented par loci of different types, called par1 and par2. par1 encodes an actin ATPase (ParM), and par2 encodes an oscillating, MinD-like ATPase (ParA). The par loci share a central cis...... partition and promoter repression complexes. Surprisingly, ParB repressed transcription of the noncognate par operon, indicating cross-talk and possibly epistasis between the two systems. The par promoters, P1 and P2, affected each other negatively. The DNA binding activities of ParR and ParB correlated...

  11. Regulatory cross-talk in the double par locus of plasmid pB171

    Ringgaard, Simon; Ebersbach, Gitte; Borch, Jonas;

    2007-01-01

    The double par locus of Escherichia coli virulence factor pB171 consists of two adjacent and oppositely oriented par loci of different types, called par1 and par2. par1 encodes an actin ATPase (ParM), and par2 encodes an oscillating, MinD-like ATPase (ParA). The par loci share a central cis-actin...... well with the observed transcriptional regulation of the par operons in vivo and in vitro. Integration host factor (IHF) was identified as a novel factor involved in par2-mediated plasmid partitioning....

  12. Evolutionarily Assembled cis-Regulatory Module at a Human Ciliopathy Locus

    Lee, Jeong Ho; Silhavy, Jennifer L.; Lee, Ji Eun; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Thomas, Sophie; Davis, Erica E.; Bielas, Stephanie L.; Hill, Kiley J.; Iannicelli, Miriam; Brancati, Francesco; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Russ, Carsten; Logan, Clare V.; Sharif, Saghira Malik; Bennett, Christopher P.; Abe, Masumi; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Diplas, Bill H.; Attié-Bitach, Tania; Katsanis, Nicholas; Rajab, Anna; Koul, Roshan; Sztriha, Laszlo; Waters, Elizabeth R.; Ferro-Novick, Susan; Woods, C. Geoffrey; Johnson, Colin A.; Valente, Enza Maria; Zaki, Maha S.; Gleeson, Joseph G.

    2013-01-01

    Neighboring genes are often coordinately expressed within cis-regulatory modules, but evidence that nonparalogous genes share functions in mammals is lacking. Here, we report that mutation of either TMEM138 or TMEM216 causes a phenotypically indistinguishable human ciliopathy, Joubert syndrome. Despite a lack of sequence homology, the genes are aligned in a head-to-tail configuration and joined by chromosomal rearrangement at the amphibian-to-reptile evolutionary transition. Expression of the two genes is mediated by a conserved regulatory element in the noncoding intergenic region. Coordinated expression is important for their interdependent cellular role in vesicular transport to primary cilia. Hence, during vertebrate evolution of genes involved in ciliogenesis, nonparalogous genes were arranged to a functional gene cluster with shared regulatory elements. PMID:22282472

  13. Software engineering capability for Ada (GRASP/Ada Tool)

    Cross, James H., II

    1995-01-01

    The GRASP/Ada project (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada) has successfully created and prototyped a new algorithmic level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD). The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and, as a result, improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis has been on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada PDL or source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional prettyprinted Ada Source code. A new Motif compliant graphical user interface has been developed for the GRASP/Ada prototype.

  14. Maternal Depression, Locus of Control, and Emotion Regulatory Strategy as Predictors of Preschoolers' Internalizing Problems

    Coyne, Lisa W.; Thompson, Alysha D.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood internalizing problems may occur as early as preschool, tend to be stable over time, and undermine social and academic functioning. Parent emotion regulatory behaviors may contribute to child internalizing problems and may be especially important during the preschool years when parents model emotion coping and regulation for their…

  15. An in vivo cis-regulatory screen at the type 2 diabetes associated TCF7L2 locus identifies multiple tissue-specific enhancers.

    Daniel Savic

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have repeatedly shown an association between non-coding variants in the TCF7L2 locus and risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D, implicating a role for cis-regulatory variation within this locus in disease etiology. Supporting this hypothesis, we previously localized complex regulatory activity to the TCF7L2 T2D-associated interval using an in vivo bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC enhancer-trapping reporter strategy. To follow-up on this broad initial survey of the TCF7L2 regulatory landscape, we performed a fine-mapping enhancer scan using in vivo mouse transgenic reporter assays. We functionally interrogated approximately 50% of the sequences within the T2D-associated interval, utilizing sequence conservation within this 92-kb interval to determine the regulatory potential of all evolutionary conserved sequences that exhibited conservation to the non-eutherian mammal opossum. Included in this study was a detailed functional interrogation of sequences spanning both protective and risk alleles of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs7903146, which has exhibited allele-specific enhancer function in pancreatic beta cells. Using these assays, we identified nine segments regulating various aspects of the TCF7L2 expression profile and that constitute nearly 70% of the sequences tested. These results highlight the regulatory complexity of this interval and support the notion that a TCF7L2 cis-regulatory disruption leads to T2D predisposition.

  16. Evidence for regulatory diversity and auto-regulation at the TAC1 locus in sensory neurones

    Ross Ruth

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The neuropeptide substance-P (SP is expressed from the TAC1 gene in sensory neurones where it acts as a key modulator of neurogenic inflammation. The promoter of TAC1 (TAC1prom plays a central role in the regulation of the TAC1 gene but requires the presence of a second regulatory element; ECR2, to support TAC1 expression in sensory neurones and to respond appropriately to signalling pathways such as MAPkinases and noxious induction by capsaicin. We examined whether the effect of capsaicin on ECR2-TAC1prom activity in larger diameter neurones was cell autonomous or non- cell autonomous. We demonstrate that TRPV1 is not expressed in all the same cells as SP following capsaicin induction suggesting the presence of a non-cell autonomous mechanism for TAC1 up-regulation following capsaicin induction. In addition, we demonstrate that induction of SP and ECR1-TAC1prom activity in these larger diameter neurones can be induced by potassium depolarisation suggesting that, in addition to capsaicin induction, transgene activity may be modulated by voltage gated calcium channels. Furthermore, we show that NK1 is expressed in all SP- expressing cells after capsaicin induction and that an agonist of NK1 can activate both SP and the transgene in larger diameter neurones. These observations suggest the presence of an autocrine loop that controls the expression of the TAC1 promoter in sensory neurones. In contrast, induction of the TAC1 promoter by LPS was not dependent on ECR2 and did not occur in large diameter neurones. These studies demonstrate the diversity of mechanisms modulating the activity of the TAC1 promoter and provide novel directions for the development of new anti-inflammatory therapies.

  17. ADAS Update and Maintainability

    Watson, Leela R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

  18. Distribution, evolution, and diversity of retrotransposons at the flamenco locus reflect the regulatory properties of piRNA clusters.

    Zanni, Vanessa; Eymery, Angéline; Coiffet, Michael; Zytnicki, Matthias; Luyten, Isabelle; Quesneville, Hadi; Vaury, Chantal; Jensen, Silke

    2013-12-01

    Most of our understanding of Drosophila heterochromatin structure and evolution has come from the annotation of heterochromatin from the isogenic y; cn bw sp strain. However, almost nothing is known about the heterochromatin's structural dynamics and evolution. Here, we focus on a 180-kb heterochromatic locus producing Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNA cluster), the flamenco (flam) locus, known to be responsible for the control of at least three transposable elements (TEs). We report its detailed structure in three different Drosophila lines chosen according to their capacity to repress or not to repress the expression of two retrotransposons named ZAM and Idefix, and we show that they display high structural diversity. Numerous rearrangements due to homologous and nonhomologous recombination, deletions and segmental duplications, and loss and gain of TEs are diverse sources of active genomic variation at this locus. Notably, we evidence a correlation between the presence of ZAM and Idefix in this piRNA cluster and their silencing. They are absent from flam in the strain where they are derepressed. We show that, unexpectedly, more than half of the flam locus results from recent TE insertions and that most of the elements concerned are prone to horizontal transfer between species of the melanogaster subgroup. We build a model showing how such high and constant dynamics of a piRNA master locus open the way to continual emergence of new patterns of piRNA biogenesis leading to changes in the level of transposition control. PMID:24248389

  19. ARE: Ada Rendering Engine

    Stefano Penge

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available E' ormai pratica diffusa, nello sviluppo di applicazioni web, l'utilizzo di template e di potenti template engine per automatizzare la generazione dei contenuti da presentare all'utente. Tuttavia a volte la potenza di tali engine è€ ottenuta mescolando logica e interfaccia, introducendo linguaggi diversi da quelli di descrizione della pagina, o addirittura inventando nuovi linguaggi dedicati.ARE (ADA Rendering Engine è€ pensato per gestire l'intero flusso di creazione del contenuto HTML/XHTML dinamico, la selezione del corretto template, CSS, JavaScript e la produzione dell'output separando completamente logica e interfaccia. I templates utilizzati sono puro HTML senza parti in altri linguaggi, e possono quindi essere gestiti e visualizzati autonomamente. Il codice HTML generato è€ uniforme e parametrizzato.E' composto da due moduli, CORE (Common Output Rendering Engine e ALE (ADA Layout Engine.Il primo (CORE viene utilizzato per la generazione OO degli elementi del DOM ed è pensato per aiutare lo sviluppatore nella produzione di codice valido rispetto al DTD utilizzato. CORE genera automaticamente gli elementi del DOM in base al DTD impostato nella configurazioneIl secondo (ALE viene utilizzato come template engine per selezionare automaticamente in base ad alcuni parametri (modulo, profilo utente, tipologia del nodo, del corso, preferenze di installazione il template HTML, i CSS e i file JavaScript appropriati. ALE permette di usare templates di default e microtemplates ricorsivi per semplificare il lavoro del grafico.I due moduli possono in ogni caso essere utilizzati indipendentemente l'uno dall'altro. E' possibile generare e renderizzare una pagina HTML utilizzando solo CORE oppure inviare gli oggetti CORE al template engine ALE che provvede a renderizzare la pagina HTML. Viceversa è possibile generare HTML senza utilizzare CORE ed inviarlo al template engine ALECORE è alla prima release ed è€ già utilizzato all

  20. Using Ada: The deeper challenges

    Feinberg, David A.

    1986-01-01

    The Ada programming language and the associated Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) and Ada Run Time Environment (ARTE) provide the potential for significant life-cycle cost reductions in computer software development and maintenance activities. The Ada programming language itself is standardized, trademarked, and controlled via formal validation procedures. Though compilers are not yet production-ready as most would desire, the technology for constructing them is sufficiently well known and understood that time and money should suffice to correct current deficiencies. The APSE and ARTE are, on the other hand, significantly newer issues within most software development and maintenance efforts. Currently, APSE and ARTE are highly dependent on differing implementer concepts, strategies, and market objectives. Complex and sophisticated mission-critical computing systems require the use of a complete Ada-based capability, not just the programming language itself; yet the range of APSE and ARTE features which must actually be utilized can vary significantly from one system to another. As a consequence, the need to understand, objectively evaluate, and select differing APSE and ARTE capabilities and features is critical to the effective use of Ada and the life-cycle efficiencies it is intended to promote. It is the selection, collection, and understanding of APSE and ARTE which provide the deeper challenges of using Ada for real-life mission-critical computing systems. Some of the current issues which must be clarified, often on a case-by-case basis, in order to successfully realize the full capabilities of Ada are discussed.

  1. Ada Structure Design Language (ASDL)

    Chedrawi, Lutfi

    1986-01-01

    An artist acquires all the necessary tools before painting a scene. In the same analogy, a software engineer needs the necessary tools to provide their design with the proper means for implementation. Ada provide these tools. Yet, as an artist's painting needs a brochure to accompany it for further explanation of the scene, an Ada design also needs a document along with it to show the design in its detailed structure and hierarchical order. Ada could be self-explanatory in small programs not exceeding fifty lines of code in length. But, in a large environment, ranging from thousands of lines and above, Ada programs need to be well documented to be preserved and maintained. The language used to specify an Ada document is called Ada Structure Design Language (ASDL). This language sets some rules to help derive a well formatted Ada detailed design document. The rules are defined to meet the needs of a project manager, a maintenance team, a programmer and a systems designer. The design document templates, the document extractor, and the rules set forth by the ASDL are explained in detail.

  2. Update of GRASP/Ada reverse engineering tools for Ada

    Cross, James H., II

    1993-01-01

    The GRASP/Ada project (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada) successfully created and prototyped a new algorithmic level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD). The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and, as a result, improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis was on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada PDL or source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional pretty printed Ada source code. In Phase 1 of the GRASP/Ada project, the CSD graphical constructs were created and applied manually to several small Ada programs. A prototype CSD generator (Version 1) was designed and implemented using FLEX and BISON running under VMS on a VAX 11-780. In Phase 2, the prototype was improved and ported to the Sun 4 platform under UNIX. A user interface was designed and partially implemented using the HP widget toolkit and the X Windows System. In Phase 3, the user interface was extensively reworked using the Athena widget toolkit and X Windows. The prototype was applied successfully to numerous Ada programs ranging in size from several hundred to several thousand lines of source code. Following Phase 3,e two update phases were completed. Update'92 focused on the initial analysis of evaluation data collected from software engineering students at Auburn University and the addition of significant enhancements to the user interface. Update'93 (the current update) focused on the statistical analysis of the data collected in the previous update and preparation of Version 3.4 of the prototype for limited distribution to facilitate further evaluation. The current prototype provides the capability for the user to generate CSD's from Ada PDL or source code in a reverse engineering as well as forward engineering mode with a level of flexibility suitable for practical

  3. Ada Linear-Algebra Program

    Klumpp, A. R.; Lawson, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    Routines provided for common scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion operations. Computer program extends Ada programming language to include linear-algebra capabilities similar to HAS/S programming language. Designed for such avionics applications as software for Space Station.

  4. GRASP/Ada 95: Reverse Engineering Tools for Ada

    Cross, James H., II

    1996-01-01

    The GRASP/Ada project (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada) has successfully created and prototyped an algorithmic level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD), and a new visualization for a fine-grained complexity metric called the Complexity Profile Graph (CPG). By synchronizing the CSD and the CPG, the CSD view of control structure, nesting, and source code is directly linked to the corresponding visualization of statement level complexity in the CPG. GRASP has been integrated with GNAT, the GNU Ada 95 Translator to provide a comprehensive graphical user interface and development environment for Ada 95. The user may view, edit, print, and compile source code as a CSD with no discernible addition to storage or computational overhead. The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and, as a result, improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis has been on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada 95 source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional prettyprinted Ada source code. The current update has focused on the design and implementation of a new Motif compliant user interface, and a new CSD generator consisting of a tagger and renderer. The Complexity Profile Graph (CPG) is based on a set of functions that describes the context, content, and the scaling for complexity on a statement by statement basis. When combined graphicafly, the result is a composite profile of complexity for the program unit. Ongoing research includes the development and refinement of the associated functions, and the development of the CPG generator prototype. The current Version 5.0 prototype provides the capability for the user to generate CSDs and CPGs from Ada 95 source code in a reverse engineering as well as forward engineering mode with a level of flexibility suitable for

  5. Multiprocessor performance modeling with ADAS

    Hayes, Paul J.; Andrews, Asa M.

    1989-01-01

    A graph managing strategy referred to as the Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM) appears useful for the time-optimized execution of application algorithm graphs in embedded multiprocessors and for the performance prediction of graph designs. This paper reports the modeling of ATAMM in the Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS) to make an independent verification of ATAMM's performance prediction capability and to provide a user framework for the evaluation of arbitrary algorithm graphs. Following an overview of ATAMM and its major functional rules are descriptions of the ADAS model of ATAMM, methods to enter an arbitrary graph into the model, and techniques to analyze the simulation results. The performance of a 7-node graph example is evaluated using the ADAS model and verifies the ATAMM concept by substantiating previously published performance results.

  6. Localization of Distant Urogenital System-, Central Nervous System-, and Endocardium-Specific Transcriptional Regulatory Elements in the GATA-3 Locus

    Lakshmanan, Ganesh; Lieuw, Ken H.; Lim, Kim-Chew; Gu, Yi; Grosveld, Frank; Engel, James Douglas; Karis, Alar

    1999-01-01

    We found previously that neither a 6-kbp promoter fragment nor even a 120-kbp yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) containing the whole GATA-3 gene was sufficient to recapitulate its full transcription pattern during embryonic development in transgenic mice. In an attempt to further identify tissue-specific regulatory elements modulating the dynamic embryonic pattern of the GATA-3 gene, we have examined the expression of two much larger (540- and 625-kbp) GATA-3 YACs in transgenic animals. A lac...

  7. Population genetic and phylogenetic evidence for positive selection on regulatory mutations at the factor VII locus in humans.

    Hahn, Matthew W; Rockman, Matthew V; Soranzo, Nicole; Goldstein, David B; Wray, Gregory A

    2004-06-01

    The abundance of cis-regulatory polymorphisms in humans suggests that many may have been important in human evolution, but evidence for their role is relatively rare. Four common polymorphisms in the 5' promoter region of factor VII (F7), a coagulation factor, have been shown to affect its transcription and protein abundance both in vitro and in vivo. Three of these polymorphisms have low-frequency alleles that decrease expression of F7 and may provide protection against myocardial infarction (heart attacks). The fourth polymorphism has a minor allele that increases the level of transcription. To look for evidence of natural selection on the cis-regulatory variants flanking F7, we genotyped three of the polymorphisms in six Old World populations for which we also have data from a group of putatively neutral SNPs. Our population genetic analysis shows evidence for selection within humans; surprisingly, the strongest evidence is due to a large increase in frequency of the high-expression variant in Singaporean Chinese. Further characterization of a Japanese population shows that at least part of the increase in frequency of the high-expression allele is found in other East Asian populations. In addition, to examine interspecific patterns of selection we sequenced the homologous 5' noncoding region in chimpanzees, bonobos, a gorilla, an orangutan, and a baboon. Analysis of these data reveals an excess of fixed differences within transcription factor binding sites along the human lineage. Our results thus further support the hypothesis that regulatory mutations have been important in human evolution. PMID:15238535

  8. Crosstalk between bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and regulatory T cells through a glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper/developmental endothelial locus-1-dependent mechanism.

    Yang, Nianlan; Baban, Babak; Isales, Carlos M; Shi, Xing-Ming

    2015-09-01

    Bone marrow is a reservoir for regulatory T (T(reg)) cells, but how T(reg) cells are regulated in that environment remains poorly understood. We show that expression of glucocorticoid (GC)-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) in bone marrow mesenchymal lineage cells or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) increases the production of T(reg) cells via a mechanism involving the up-regulation of developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1), an endogenous leukocyte-endothelial adhesion inhibitor. We found that the expression of Del-1 is increased ∼4-fold in the bone tissues of GILZ transgenic (Tg) mice, and this increase is coupled with a significant increase in the production of IL-10 (2.80 vs. 0.83) and decrease in the production of IL-6 (0.80 vs. 2.33) and IL-12 (0.25 vs. 1.67). We also show that GILZ-expressing BMSCs present antigen in a way that favors T(reg) cells. These results indicate that GILZ plays a critical role mediating the crosstalk between BMSCs and T(reg) in the bone marrow microenvironment. These data, together with our previous findings that overexpression of GILZ in BMSCs antagonizes TNF-α-elicited inflammatory responses, suggest that GILZ plays important roles in bone-immune cell communication and BMSC immune suppressive functions. PMID:26038125

  9. Parallel Programming with Declarative Ada

    Thornley, John

    1993-01-01

    Declarative programming languages (e.g., functional and logic programming languages) are semantically elegant and implicitly express parallelism at a high level. We show how a parallel declarative language can be based on a modern structured imperative language with single-assignment variables. Such a language combines the advantages of parallel declarative programming with the strengths and familiarity of the underlying imperative language. We introduce Declarative Ada, a parallel declarativ...

  10. Autoimmune dysregulation and purine metabolism in adenosine deaminase (ADA-deficiency

    Aisha Vanessa Sauer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic defects in the adenosine deaminase (ADA gene are among the most common causes for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID. ADA-SCID patients suffer from lymphopenia, severely impaired cellular and humoral immunity, failure to thrive and recurrent infections. Currently available therapeutic options for this otherwise fatal disorder include bone marrow transplantation (BMT, enzyme replacement therapy with bovine ADA (PEG-ADA or hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy (HSC-GT. Although varying degrees of immune reconstitution can be achieved by these treatments, breakdown of tolerance is a major concern in ADA-SCID. Immune dysregulation such as autoimmune hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, hemolytic anemia, and immune thrombocytopenia are frequently observed in milder forms of the disease. However, several reports document similar complications also in patients on long-term PEG-ADA and after BMT or GT treatment.A skewed repertoire and decreased immune functions have been implicated in autoimmunity observed in certain B-cell and/or T-cell immunodeficiencies, but it remains unclear to what extent specific mechanisms of tolerance are affected in ADA deficiency. Herein we provide an overview about ADA-SCID and the autoimmune manifestations reported in these patients before and after treatment. We also assess the value of the ADA-deficient mouse model as a useful tool to study both immune and metabolic disease mechanisms. With focus on regulatory T and B cells we discuss the lymphocyte subpopulations particularly prone to contribute to the loss of self-tolerance and onset of autoimmunity in ADA deficiency. Moreover we address which aspects of immune dysregulation are specifically related to alterations in purine metabolism caused by the lack of ADA and the subsequent accumulation of metabolites with immunomodulatory properties.

  11. Ada training evaluation and recommendations from the Gamma Ray Observatory Ada Development Team

    1985-01-01

    The Ada training experiences of the Gamma Ray Observatory Ada development team are related, and recommendations are made concerning future Ada training for software developers. Training methods are evaluated, deficiencies in the training program are noted, and a recommended approach, including course outline, time allocation, and reference materials, is offered.

  12. The development of a program analysis environment for Ada: Reverse engineering tools for Ada

    Cross, James H., II

    1991-01-01

    The Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada (GRASP/Ada) has successfully created and prototyped a new algorithm level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD). The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and thus improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis was on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional prettyprinted Ada source code. In Phase 1 of the GRASP/Ada project, the CSD graphical constructs were created and applied manually to several small Ada programs. A prototype (Version 1) was designed and implemented using FLEX and BISON running under the Virtual Memory System (VMS) on a VAX 11-780. In Phase 2, the prototype was improved and ported to the Sun 4 platform under UNIX. A user interface was designed and partially implemented. The prototype was applied successfully to numerous Ada programs ranging in size from several hundred to several thousand lines of source code. In Phase 3 of the project, the prototype was prepared for limited distribution (GRASP/Ada Version 3.0) to facilitate evaluation. The user interface was extensively reworked. The current prototype provides the capability for the user to generate CSD from Ada source code in a reverse engineering mode with a level of flexibility suitable for practical application.

  13. Random activation of a transgene under the control of a hybrid hCD2 locus control region/Ig enhancer regulatory element.

    Elliott, J I; Festenstein, R; Tolaini, M; Kioussis, D

    1995-01-01

    Locus control regions such as those of human CD2 and beta-globin differ from classical enhancers in that, whereas the former confer high level, copy-dependent, position-independent expression to linked genes in transgenic mice, the latter do not, expression levels being dependent on the site of integration. We report that the position independence of the CD2 locus control region is modified by coupling it to the immunoglobulin heavy chain enhancer. Whilst in the majority of transgenic lines t...

  14. Experiences with Ada in an embedded system

    Labaugh, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent experiences with using Ada in a real time environment are described. The application was the control system for an experimental robotic arm. The objectives of the effort were to experiment with developing embedded applications in Ada, evaluating the suitability of the language for the application, and determining the performance of the system. Additional objectives were to develop a control system based on the NASA/NBS Standard Reference Model for Telerobot Control System Architecture (NASREM) in Ada, and to experiment with the control laws and how to incorporate them into the NASREM architecture.

  15. Ada in Real-time Embedded System

    Elnaz Ghodsvali; Rabee Sharifi Rad; Sima Sinaei

    2013-01-01

    Ada has an important role in the real-time/embedded/safety-critical areas. It is the only ISO-standard, object-oriented, concurrent, real-time programming language. Ada is used as a usual language for application areas such as defense embedded systems that reliability and efficiency are very essential. One of the main Ada’s characteristics in compare with other programming languages is that, Ada was developed from the ground up with capabilities that provide real-time requirements. In this st...

  16. Software engineering and Ada in design

    Oneill, Don

    1986-01-01

    Modern software engineering promises significant reductions in software costs and improvements in software quality. The Ada language is the focus for these software methodology and tool improvements. The IBM FSD approach, including the software engineering practices that guide the systematic design and development of software products and the management of the software process are examined. The revised Ada design language adaptation is revealed. This four level design methodology is detailed including the purpose of each level, the management strategy that integrates the software design activity with the program milestones, and the technical strategy that maps the Ada constructs to each level of design. A complete description of each design level is provided along with specific design language recording guidelines for each level. Finally, some testimony is offered on education, tools, architecture, and metrics resulting from project use of the four level Ada design language adaptation.

  17. An Embedded Rule-Based Diagnostic Expert System in Ada

    Jones, Robert E.; Liberman, Eugene M.

    1992-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with it portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assumed a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability expertise for computer systems. The integration is discussed of expert system technology with Ada programming language, especially a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell. NASA Lewis was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-based power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert systems, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The rules were written in the ART-Ada development environment and converted to Ada source code. The graphics interface was developed with the Transportable Application Environment (TAE) Plus, which generates Ada source code to control graphics images. SMART-Ada communicates with a remote host to obtain either simulated or real data. The Ada source code generated with ART-Ada, TAE Plus, and communications code was incorporated into an Ada expert system that reads the data from a power distribution test bed, applies the rule to determine a fault, if one exists, and graphically displays it on the screen. The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  18. An Ada inference engine for expert systems

    Lavallee, David B.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose is to investigate the feasibility of using Ada for rule-based expert systems with real-time performance requirements. This includes exploring the Ada features which give improved performance to expert systems as well as optimizing the tradeoffs or workarounds that the use of Ada may require. A prototype inference engine was built using Ada, and rule firing rates in excess of 500 per second were demonstrated on a single MC68000 processor. The knowledge base uses a directed acyclic graph to represent production lines. The graph allows the use of AND, OR, and NOT logical operators. The inference engine uses a combination of both forward and backward chaining in order to reach goals as quickly as possible. Future efforts will include additional investigation of multiprocessing to improve performance and creating a user interface allowing rule input in an Ada-like syntax. Investigation of multitasking and alternate knowledge base representations will help to analyze some of the performance issues as they relate to larger problems.

  19. ADASAGE, ADA Application Development System

    1 - Description of program or function: ADASAGE is an application development system designed to facilitate rapid and professional construction of applications written in Ada on microcomputers. ADASAGE applications may vary in size from small to large multi-program systems. ADASAGE consists of a collection of re-usable libraries for database management and form and report processing utilities having the following capabilities: basic universal type and function definitions; sequential file input/output; terminal and file input/output; DOS system command execution; data movement and fill; string manipulation; math libraries; bit manipulation; a relational database utility; data validation; menu form and window procedures; report generation; sort/merge, time, and date functions; sound production; editing; and index rebuilding. Each of the capabilities is integrated to allow the development of an efficient system. As an application is designed and developed, the desired ADASAGE capabilities are chosen and included along with any requirements unique to that application. 2 - Method of solution: All ADASAGE applications which use the database, forms (windows, menus, etc.), or reporting functions require a file with a suffix of .DFL. This file contains the database schema, the various forms and windows, and report definitions. The THOR editor is used to create and maintain the .DFL file. This editor operates on a file with the suffix .SRC and creates and edits schemes, forms, and report formats and compile the .SRC file into the .DFL file used by the application. The application will have unique requirements not satisfied by the selected utilities of ADASAGE. The code for these along with the code necessary to import and use the selected ADASAGE utilities constitutes the programmed application. The completed application system will contain the .DFL file produced by the THOR editor, the required ADASAGE utilities, and the programmed application. During the course of normal

  20. Is Your Queuing System ADA-Compliant?

    Lawrence, David

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the Americans with Disabilities (ADA) and Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) regulations regarding public facilities' crowd control stanchions and queuing systems. The major elements are protruding objects and wheelchair accessibility. Describes how to maintain compliance with the regulations and offers a list of additional…

  1. New control system: ADA softwares organization

    On VAX/VMS, ADA compiler is integrated in a workshop of ACS software engineering which allows a coherent development by control of source and executable programs, by separation of applications in various levels of visibility and by management of existing links between different modules of a same application. (A.B.)

  2. AdaNET prototype library administration manual

    Hanley, Lionel

    1989-01-01

    The functions of the AdaNET Prototype Library of Reusable Software Parts is described. Adopted from the Navy Research Laboratory's Reusability Guidebook (V.5.0), this is a working document, customized for use the the AdaNET Project. Within this document, the term part is used to denote the smallest unit controlled by a library and retrievable from it. A part may have several constituents, which may not be individually tracked. Presented are the types of parts which may be stored in the library and the relationships among those parts; a concept of trust indicators which provide measures of confidence that a user of a previously developed part may reasonably apply to a part for a new application; search and retrieval, configuration management, and communications among those who interact with the AdaNET Prototype Library; and the AdaNET Prototype, described from the perspective of its three major users: the part reuser and retriever, the part submitter, and the librarian and/or administrator.

  3. Genetic relatedness of Clostridium difficile isolates from various origins determined by triple-locus sequence analysis based on toxin regulatory genes tcdC, tcdR, and cdtR.

    Bouvet, Philippe J M; Popoff, Michel R

    2008-11-01

    A triple-locus nucleotide sequence analysis based on toxin regulatory genes tcdC, tcdR and cdtR was initiated to assess the sequence variability of these genes among Clostridium difficile isolates and to study the genetic relatedness between isolates. A preliminary investigation of the variability of the tcdC gene was done with 57 clinical and veterinary isolates. Twenty-three isolates representing nine main clusters were selected for tcdC, tcdR, and cdtR analysis. The numbers of alleles found for tcdC, tcdR and cdtR were nine, six, and five, respectively. All strains possessed the cdtR gene except toxin A-negative toxin B-positive variants. All but one binary toxin CDT-positive isolate harbored a deletion (>1 bp) in the tcdC gene. The combined analyses of the three genes allowed us to distinguish five lineages correlated with the different types of deletion in tcdC, i.e., 18 bp (associated or not with a deletion at position 117), 36 bp, 39 bp, and 54 bp, and with the wild-type tcdC (no deletion). The tcdR and tcdC genes, though located within the same pathogenicity locus, were found to have evolved separately. Coevolution of the three genes was noted only with strains harboring a 39-bp or a 54-bp deletion in tcdC that formed two homogeneous, separate divergent clusters. Our study supported the existence of the known clones (PCR ribotype 027 isolates and toxin A-negative toxin B-positive C. difficile variants) and evidence for clonality of isolates with a 39-bp deletion (toxinotype V, PCR ribotype 078) that are frequently isolated worldwide from human infections and from food animals. PMID:18832125

  4. Knowledge, programming, and programming cultures: LISP, C, and Ada

    Rochowiak, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    The results of research 'Ada as an implementation language for knowledge based systems' are presented. The purpose of the research was to compare Ada to other programming languages. The report focuses on the programming languages Ada, C, and Lisp, the programming cultures that surround them, and the programming paradigms they support.

  5. Genetic Analysis of Mating Locus Linked Mutations in CHLAMYDOMONAS REINHARDII

    Galloway, R. E.; Goodenough, U. W.

    1985-01-01

    The mating-type (mt) locus of Chlamydomonas reinhardii has been analyzed using four mutant strains (imp-1, imp-10, imp-11 and imp-12). All have been shown, or are shown here, to carry mutations linked to either the plus (mt+) or the minus (mt-) locus, and their behavior in complementation tests has allowed us to define several distinct functions for each locus. Specifically, we propose that the mt+ locus contains the following genes or regulatory elements: a locus designated sfu, which is n...

  6. Comparing host and target environments for distributed Ada programs

    Paulk, Mark C.

    1986-01-01

    The Ada programming language provides a means of specifying logical concurrency by using multitasking. Extending the Ada multitasking concurrency mechanism into a physically concurrent distributed environment which imposes its own requirements can lead to incompatibilities. These problems are discussed. Using distributed Ada for a target system may be appropriate, but when using the Ada language in a host environment, a multiprocessing model may be more suitable than retargeting an Ada compiler for the distributed environment. The tradeoffs between multitasking on distributed targets and multiprocessing on distributed hosts are discussed. Comparisons of the multitasking and multiprocessing models indicate different areas of application.

  7. Ada (trademark) projects at NASA. Runtime environment issues and recommendations

    Roy, Daniel M.; Wilke, Randall W.

    1988-01-01

    Ada practitioners should use this document to discuss and establish common short term requirements for Ada runtime environments. The major current Ada runtime environment issues are identified through the analysis of some of the Ada efforts at NASA and other research centers. The runtime environment characteristics of major compilers are compared while alternate runtime implementations are reviewed. Modifications and extensions to the Ada Language Reference Manual to address some of these runtime issues are proposed. Three classes of projects focusing on the most critical runtime features of Ada are recommended, including a range of immediately feasible full scale Ada development projects. Also, a list of runtime features and procurement issues is proposed for consideration by the vendors, contractors and the government.

  8. Transcriptome and proteome analyses of adaptive responses to methyl methanesulfonate in Escherichia coli K-12 and ada mutant strains

    Lee Sang Yup

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ada-dependent adaptive response system in Escherichia coli is important for increasing resistance to alkylation damage. However, the global transcriptional and translational changes during this response have not been reported. Here we present time-dependent global gene and protein expression profiles following treatment with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS in E. coli W3110 and its ada mutant strains. Results Transcriptome profiling showed that 1138 and 2177 genes were differentially expressed in response to MMS treatment in the wild-type and mutant strains, respectively. A total of 81 protein spots representing 76 nonredundant proteins differentially expressed were identified using 2-DE and LC-MS/MS. In the wild-type strain, many genes were differentially expressed upon long-exposure to MMS, due to both adaptive responses and stationary phase responses. In the ada mutant strain, the genes involved in DNA replication, recombination, modification and repair were up-regulated 0.5 h after MMS treatment, indicating its connection to the SOS and other DNA repair systems. Interestingly, expression of the genes involved in flagellar biosynthesis, chemotaxis, and two-component regulatory systems related to drug or antibiotic resistance, was found to be controlled by Ada. Conclusion These results show in detail the regulatory components and pathways controlling adaptive response and how the related genes including the Ada regulon are expressed with this response.

  9. The OPEN-ADAS Approach to Atomic Data Provision

    Dr O'Mullane of University of Strathclyde presented an overview of the ADAS project (Atomic Data and Analysis Structure, http://www.adas.ac.uk/) and of OPEN-ADAS (http://open.adas.ac.uk/). ADAS is maintained as a self-funding consortium of fusion laboratories. The project provides an interconnected set of computer codes and data collections for modeling the radiating properties of ions and atoms in plasmas. The ADAS data fall into 3 broad classes: 1) Fundamental data such as A- values, cross-sections and effective collision strengths obtained from ADAS collaborators, the literature or data centres. 2) Derived data processed for modeling such as electron temperature and density dependent effective emission coefficients, effective ionization/recombination rates, radiated power and spectral emissivities. 3) Driver data which allow complete regeneration of all ADAS derived data in conjunction with the various ADAS codes. ADAS data uses high quality data as well as baseline data for fall-back when high quality data is not available. The data is mostly embedded in codes and the update without expert help is problematic. The ADAS data formats (adf) are precisely defined and Fortran codes are supplied to read the data sets for easy access. IDL can be used for interactive manipulation. The OPEN-ADAS project is a joint development between the ADAS Project and the IAEA to make the extensive fundamental and derived atomic data for fusion more widely available. It is designed to appeal to both plasma modelers and those interested in the detailed atomic physics. It has been searchable through the Google Scholar and appears in citations, which gives greater visibility and credits to the data producers. The OPEN-ADAS server was replaced due to a series of attacks since June 2011 and was off-line for 8 weeks. The new service removed the registration requirement and hence the user statistics is limited.

  10. Object-oriented programming with mixins in Ada

    Seidewitz, ED

    1992-01-01

    Recently, I wrote a paper discussing the lack of 'true' object-oriented programming language features in Ada 83, why one might desire them in Ada, and how they might be added in Ada 9X. The approach I took in this paper was to build the new object-oriented features of Ada 9X as much as possible on the basic constructs and philosophy of Ada 83. The object-oriented features proposed for Ada 9X, while different in detail, are based on the same kind of approach. Further consideration of this approach led me on a long reflection on the nature of object-oriented programming and its application to Ada. The results of this reflection, presented in this paper, show how a fairly natural object-oriented style can indeed be developed even in Ada 83. The exercise of developing this style is useful for at least three reasons: (1) it provides a useful style for programming object-oriented applications in Ada 83 until new features become available with Ada 9X; (2) it demystifies many of the mechanisms that seem to be 'magic' in most object-oriented programming languages by making them explicit; and (3) it points out areas that are and are not in need of change in Ada 83 to make object-oriented programming more natural in Ada 9X. In the next four sections I will address in turn the issues of object-oriented classes, mixins, self-reference and supertyping. The presentation is through a sequence of examples. This results in some overlap with that paper, but all the examples in the present paper are written entirely in Ada 83. I will return to considerations for Ada 9X in the last section of the paper.

  11. A visual language for ADA program unit specifications

    Gordon, Christopher Todd

    1990-01-01

    This thesis describes a visual programming language designed to describe and generate Ada program unit specifications. The author first describes the foundations for the work, and gives a brief introduction to some of the features of the language. Most of the thesis is dedicated to describing the visual representation for each portion of an Ada package specification. The BNF grammar of an Ada package specification is used as a basis for organization. By organizing the the...

  12. Accommodating Uncertainty in ADAS Models and Data

    The Atomic Data and Analysis Structure (ADAS) is an interconnected set of computer codes and data collections for modelling the radiating properties of ions and atoms in plasmas and for assisting in the analysis and interpretation of spectral measurements. Fundamental atomic data is mediated via collisional-radiative population models to produce the effective coefficients for practical use in impurity transport modelling, influx estimation, beam stopping efficiency and active charge exchange quantification. Away from the coronal picture, the simple connection between fundamental processes and the derived population or emissivity is lost. Instead these coefficients become dependent on many fundamental processes with unknown weightings. The challenge is threefold: to develop methods for assigning an uncertainty to the fundamental data, to propagate these through the population models and to enable techniques to utilize within plasmas models atomic data that comes with an accompanying error surface. Pure atomic properties, such as energy levels and some transition probabilities, are measurable and are known to high precision. However most of the fundamental data required for fusion work, such as excitation and state selective charge transfer cross sections, ionisation and recombination rates (for both electron and ion drivers) remain the result of theoretical calculations and this is not likely to change. The envelope of variation between different methods and calculations is the simplest approach to ascribing an error and is useful in identifying both the principal contributors to the final quantity of interest and to assess its domain of influence. A more refined approach, based on variation of the control parameters of the fundamental ab initio codes, is adopted for this smaller set of significant cross sections. The error for the derived quantities is computed via a statistical sampling methodology assuming an error distribution within the ascribed uncertainty

  13. Ada and its impact on the scientific user

    The Ada programming language is the result of a collective effort to design a common language for programming real-time systems. The design of Ada was initiated by the United States Department of Defense (DoD) in 1975. Ada combines facilities found in most classical languages like Fortran, PL/I, Pascal, and Basic together with many features formerly found only in experimental languages. It is argued that these features make Ada a very decent tool not only for writing real-time programs but also for the development of software in the scientific sector. (orig.)

  14. Tumor Progression Locus 2 (Tpl2) Activates the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Pathway, Inhibits Forkhead Box P3 (FoxP3) Expression, and Limits Regulatory T Cell (Treg) Immunosuppressive Functions.

    Li, Xin; Acuff, Nicole V; Peeks, Angela R; Kirkland, Rebecca; Wyatt, Kara D; Nagy, Tamas; Watford, Wendy T

    2016-08-01

    The serine/threonine kinase tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl2, also known as Map3k8/Cot) is a potent inflammatory mediator that drives the production of TNFα, IL-1β, and IFNγ. We previously demonstrated that Tpl2 regulates T cell receptor (TCR) signaling and modulates T helper cell differentiation. However, very little is known about how Tpl2 modulates the development of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Tregs are a specialized subset of T cells that express FoxP3 and possess immunosuppressive properties to limit excess inflammation. Because of the documented role of Tpl2 in promoting inflammation, we hypothesized that Tpl2 antagonizes Treg development and immunosuppressive function. Here we demonstrate that Tpl2 constrains the development of inducible Tregs. Tpl2(-/-) naïve CD4(+) T cells preferentially develop into FoxP3(+) inducible Tregs in vitro as well as in vivo in a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced systemic tolerance. Treg biasing of Tpl2(-/-) T cells depended on TCR signal strength and corresponded with reduced activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Importantly, Tpl2(-/-) Tregs have basally increased expression of FoxP3 and immunosuppressive molecules, IL-10 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4). Furthermore, they were more immunosuppressive in vivo in a T cell transfer model of colitis, as evidenced by reduced effector T cell accumulation, systemic production of inflammatory cytokines, and colonic inflammation. These results demonstrate that Tpl2 promotes inflammation in part by constraining FoxP3 expression and Treg immunosuppressive functions. Overall, these findings suggest that Tpl2 inhibition could be used to preferentially drive Treg induction and thereby limit inflammation in a variety of autoimmune diseases. PMID:27261457

  15. Alma Flor Ada and the Quest for Change

    Manna, Anthony, L.; Hill, Janet; Kellogg, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Alma Flor Ada, a folklorist, novelist, scholar, teacher, and children's book author has passionate dedication to education for social justice, equality, and peace. As a faculty member at the University of San Francisco, Ada has developed programs that help students and others transform their lives and has written several bilingual legends and…

  16. First International Conference on Ada (R) Programming Language Applications for the NASA Space Station, volume 1

    Bown, Rodney L. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Topics discussed include: test and verification; environment issues; distributed Ada issues; life cycle issues; Ada in Europe; management/training issues; common Ada interface set; and run time issues.

  17. ADAS: Atomic data, modelling and analysis for fusion

    The Atomic Data and Analysis Structure, ADAS, comprises extensive fundamental and derived atomic data collections, interactive codes for the manipulation and generation of collisional-radiative data and models, off-line codes for large scale fundamental atomic data production and codes for diagnostic analysis in the fusion and astrophysical environments. ADAS data are organized according to precise specifications, tuned to application and are assigned to numbered ADAS data formats. Some of these formats contain very large quantities of data and some have achieved wide-scale adoption in the fusion community.The paper focuses on recent extensions of ADAS designed to orient ADAS to the needs of ITER. The issue of heavy atomic species, expected to be present as ITER wall and divertor materials, dopants or control species, will be addressed with a view to the economized handling of the emission and ionisation state data needed for diagnostic spectral analysis. Charge exchange and beam emission spectroscopic capabilities and developments in ADAS will be reviewed from an ITER perspective and in the context of a shared analysis between fusion laboratories. Finally an overview and summary of current large scale fundamental data production in the framework of the ADAS project will be given and its intended availability in both fusion and astrophysics noted

  18. Bahan pemutih gigi dengan sertifikat ADA/ISO (Tooth bleaching material with ADA/ISO certificate

    Asti Meizarini

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Bleaching of teeth for cosmetic reasons is a popular aspect of cosmetic dentistry because patients realize the aesthetical benefits of these products. The dentist as a clinician's practitioner must be knowledgeable of the products and their application techniques. Bleaching materials which are safe and effective are the ADA accepted or manufactured by those which have already haved ISO certificate. Dentist must have enough knowledge about in-office bleaching prescribed for home-use bleaching including their contra indication and side effects, to advise the patients and provide effective bleaching services.

  19. Latvian PR people are world class / Ada Parr

    Parr, Ada

    2004-01-01

    Suhtekorraldusfirma Porter Novelli rahvusvahelise partnerluse juht suhtekorralduse osatähtsuse kasvust ettevõtete äritegevuses, suhtekorraldusturu olukorrast ja teenuste kvaliteedi tasemest Baltimaades. Vt. samas: Ada Parr recommends

  20. A report on NASA software engineering and Ada training requirements

    Legrand, Sue; Freedman, Glenn B.; Svabek, L.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's software engineering and Ada skill base are assessed and information that may result in new models for software engineering, Ada training plans, and curricula are provided. A quantitative assessment which reflects the requirements for software engineering and Ada training across NASA is provided. A recommended implementation plan including a suggested curriculum with associated duration per course and suggested means of delivery is also provided. The distinction between education and training is made. Although it was directed to focus on NASA's need for the latter, the key relationships to software engineering education are also identified. A rationale and strategy for implementing a life cycle education and training program are detailed in support of improved software engineering practices and the transition to Ada.

  1. Las drogas diseñadas

    Eddie Alvarado Vargas

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Cada vez cobra más fuerza la clasificación de las drogas que las divide en psictrópicos y estupefacientes y en Costa Rica se ha añadido la sustancia inhalable. Se hace una ligera definición sobre lo que es una droga y la diferencia con las sustancias indispensables para el organismo como son el agua, el oxígeno y los alimentos las cuales son necesarias para el mismo. En el mundo cada vez es mayor el número de estas sustancias fiscalizadas, y que es considerada una acción delictiva en determinadas ocasiones. Convenios internacionales que deben ser ratificados por las naciones exige que se especifique previamente el objeto material del Delito. Las Drogas Diseñadas son aquellas que por algún cambio realizado en un laboratorio sobre su molécula, tienen los efectos muchas veces superiores a la droga madre, pero que por no estar en la lista de drogas fiscalizadas en el momento de aparición de la misma, va permitiendo que, mientras se agrega a la lista de las mencionadas drogas fiscalizadas, estos actos queden impunes con gran daño por la Salud Pública y del individuo durante mucho tiempo. Costa Rica no escapa de esta realidad por lo que el "narcotraficante" siempre irá adelante con nuevas drogas diseñadas causando grandes estragos, mientras las mismas poco a poco se van incluyendo en la lista de sustancias fiscalizadas. Se hace mención sobre posibles soluciones, entre ellas está incluir en las listas de los convenios internacionales, decretos y reglamentos, nueva terminología que incluya las posibles variaciones de las moléculas de las sustancias fiscalizadas.Every time takes greater force the clasification of drugs, which are divided in psichotropics and stupefacients, and in Costa Rica a new classification has been added: inhalable sustances. A light definition of what a drug is and the difference between the indispensable sustances for the organism like the water, oxigen and food which are necesary for life.Every time the number

  2. GRASP/Ada: Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada. The development of a program analysis environment for Ada: Reverse engineering tools for Ada, task 2, phase 3

    Cross, James H., II

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is the investigation, formulation, and generation of graphical representations of algorithms, structures, and processes for Ada (GRASP/Ada). The presented task, in which various graphical representations that can be extracted or generated from source code are described and categorized, is focused on reverse engineering. The following subject areas are covered: the system model; control structure diagram generator; object oriented design diagram generator; user interface; and the GRASP library.

  3. Hydraulic Capacity of an ADA Compliant Street Drain Grate

    Lottes, Steven A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bojanowski, Cezary [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Resurfacing of urban roads with concurrent repairs and replacement of sections of curb and sidewalk may require pedestrian ramps that are compliant with the American Disabilities Act (ADA), and when street drains are in close proximity to the walkway, ADA compliant street grates may also be required. The Minnesota Department of Transportation ADA Operations Unit identified a foundry with an available grate that meets ADA requirements. Argonne National Laboratory’s Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center used full scale three dimensional computational fluid dynamics to determine the performance of the ADA compliant grate and compared it to that of a standard vane grate. Analysis of a parametric set of cases was carried out, including variation in longitudinal, gutter, and cross street slopes and the water spread from the curb. The performance of the grates was characterized by the fraction of the total volume flow approaching the grate from the upstream that was captured by the grate and diverted into the catch basin. The fraction of the total flow entering over the grate from the side and the fraction of flow directly over a grate diverted into the catch basin were also quantities of interest that aid in understanding the differences in performance of the grates. The ADA compliant grate performance lagged that of the vane grate, increasingly so as upstream Reynolds number increased. The major factor leading to the performance difference between the two grates was the fraction of flow directly over the grates that is captured by the grates.

  4. Examining the reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores.

    Grochowalski, Joseph H; Liu, Ying; Siedlecki, Karen L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate and examine ways to improve the reliability of change scores on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, Cognitive Subtest (ADAS-Cog). The sample, provided by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, included individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 153) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 352). All participants were administered the ADAS-Cog at baseline and 1 year, and change scores were calculated as the difference in scores over the 1-year period. Three types of change score reliabilities were estimated using multivariate generalizability. Two methods to increase change score reliability were evaluated: reweighting the subtests of the scale and adding more subtests. Reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores over 1 year was low for both the AD sample (ranging from .53 to .64) and the MCI sample (.39 to .61). Reweighting the change scores from the AD sample improved reliability (.68 to .76), but lengthening provided no useful improvement for either sample. The MCI change scores had low reliability, even with reweighting and adding additional subtests. The ADAS-Cog scores had low reliability for measuring change. Researchers using the ADAS-Cog should estimate and report reliability for their use of the change scores. The ADAS-Cog change scores are not recommended for assessment of meaningful clinical change. PMID:26708116

  5. Recombinant Inbred Strain and Interspecific Backcross Analysis of Molecular Markers Flanking the Murine Agouti Coat Color Locus

    Siracusa, L. D.; Buchberg, A M; Copeland, N. G.; Jenkins, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    Recombinant inbred strain and interspecific backcross mice were used to create a molecular genetic linkage map of the distal portion of mouse chromosome 2. The orientation and distance of the Ada, Emv-13, Emv-15, Hck-1, Il-1a, Pck-1, Psp, Src-1 and Svp-1 loci from the β(2)-microglobulin locus and the agouti locus were established. Our mapping results have provided the identification of molecular markers both proximal and distal to the agouti locus. The recombinants obtained provide valuable r...

  6. Remolding Diversified Objects in Ada95: Toward A-Object Pattern

    2001-01-01

    Ada provides full capacities of supporting object-orientation,but the diversified objects patterned in Ada are so intricate that Ada95's aim would be demolished. In order to complement the disfigurement that Ada does lack for a pr istine notion of class, this paper presents a remolded object pattern known as A -object, an Ada-based class description language A-ObjAda aiming at support f or A-object pattern and the related approach for key algorithms and implementation . In consequent, A-ObjAda hereby promotes Ada with highlighted object-orientati on , which not only effectively exploits the capacities in Ada95, but also rational ly hides befuddling concepts from Ada95.

  7. Inhibition of adenosine deaminase (ADA)-mediated metabolism of cordycepin by natural substances

    Li, Gen; Nakagome, Izumi; Hirono, Shuichi; Itoh, Tomoo; Fujiwara, Ryoichi

    2015-01-01

    Cordycepin, which is an analogue of a nucleoside adenosine, exhibits a wide variety of pharmacological activities including anticancer effects. In this study, ADA1- and ADA2-expressing HEK293 cells were established to determine the major ADA isoform responsible for the deamination of cordycepin. While the metabolic rate of cordycepin deamination was similar between ADA2-expressing and Mock cells, extensive metabolism of cordycepin was observed in the ADA1-expressing cells with K m and V max v...

  8. ADA plaintiff must show AIDS limits major life activities.

    1998-05-15

    In a rare case, a Federal court ruled that AIDS does not automatically qualify a plaintiff for legal protection under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). [Name removed], an Illinois Wal-Mart stock clerk, was fired weeks after telling the store's general manager of his HIV status. [Name removed] alleges that the firing was due solely to his disease. Wal-Mart contends that [name removed] was fired for sexually harassing a co-worker, and says that since [name removed] was asymptomatic and asked for no accommodations, he does not qualify for ADA protection. Magistrate Morton Denlow agreed, saying that [name removed] raised no genuine issues about whether the ADA should protect him. A trial is scheduled for May. PMID:11365337

  9. An automated quality assessor for Ada object-oriented designs

    Bailin, Sidney C.

    1988-01-01

    A tool for evaluating object-oriented designs (OODs) for Ada software is described. The tool assumes a design expressed as a hierarchy of object diagrams. A design of this type identifies the objects of a system, an interface to each object, and the usage relationships between objects. When such a design is implemented in Ada, objects become packages, interfaces become package specifications, and usage relationships become Ada `with' clauses and package references. An automated quality assessor has been developed that is based on flagging undesirable design constructs. For convenience, distinctions are made among three levels of severity: questionable, undesirable, and hazardous. A questionable construct is one that may well be appropriate. An undesirable construct is one that should be changed because it is potentially harmful to the reliability, maintainability, or reusability of the software. A hazardous construct is one that is undesirable and that introduces a high level of risk.

  10. V Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia

    Villas da Rocha, J. F.; Canalle, J. B. G.; Wuesnche, C. A.; de Medeiros, J. R., Silva, A. V. R.; Lavouras, D. F.; Dottori, H. A.; Maia, M. A. G.; Vieira Martins, R.; Poppe, P. C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados da V Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia, a qual ocorreu em 11/05/2002 em todos os estabelecimentos de ensino fundamental ou médio previamente cadastrados. Participaram do evento 60.338 alunos distribuídos por 1469 escolas pertencentes a todos os Estados brasileiros. Uma equipe de 5 alunos foi escolhida para representar o Brasil na VII Olimpíada Internacional de Astronomia que ocorreu na Rússia em 2002 e dois de nossos alunos ganharam a medalha de bronze naquele evento.

  11. GRASP/Ada (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada): The development of a program analysis environment for Ada. Reverse engineering tools for Ada, task 1, phase 2

    Cross, James H., II

    1990-01-01

    The study, formulation, and generation of structures for Ada (GRASP/Ada) are discussed in this second phase report of a three phase effort. Various graphical representations that can be extracted or generated from source code are described and categorized with focus on reverse engineering. The overall goal is to provide the foundation for a CASE (computer-aided software design) environment in which reverse engineering and forward engineering (development) are tightly coupled. Emphasis is on a subset of architectural diagrams that can be generated automatically from source code with the control structure diagram (CSD) included for completeness.

  12. ADA1 and NET1 Genes of Yeast Mediate Both Chromosome Maintenance and Mitochondrial $\\rho^{-}$ Mutagenesis

    Koltovaya, N A; Tchekhouta, I A; Devin, A B

    2002-01-01

    An increase in the mitochondrial (mt) rho^- mutagenesis is a well-known respose of yeast cells to mutations in the numerous nuclear genes as well as to various kinds of stress. Notwithstanding the extensive studies during several decades the biological significance of this response is not yet fully understood. The genetic approach to solution of this subject includes the study of genes that are required for the high incidence of spontaneous rho^- mutants. Previously we found that mutations in certain nuclear genes including CDC28, the central cell-cycle regulation gene, may decrease the spontaneous rho^- mutability and simultaneously affect maintenance of the yeast chromosomes and plasmids. The present work provides data on identification of two more genes, resembling CDC28 in this respect. These genes NET1 and ADA1 mediate important regulatory protein-protein interactions in the yeast cell. The effects of net1 and ada1 mutations on the maintenance of yeast mt genome, chromosomes and plasmids as well as on ce...

  13. ADA1 and NET1 genes of yeast mediate both chromosome maintenance and mitochondrial rho- mutagenesis

    An increase in the mitochondrial (mt) rho- mutagenesis is a well-known response of yeast cells to mutations in the numerous nuclear genes as well as to various kinds of stress. Notwithstanding the extensive studies during several decades the biological significance of this response is not yet fully understood. The genetic approach to solution of this subject includes the study of genes that are required for the high incidence of spontaneous rho- mutants. Previously we found that mutations in certain nuclear genes including CDC28, the central cell-cycle regulation gene, may decrease the spontaneous rho- mutability and simultaneously affect maintenance of the yeast chromosomes and plasmids. The present work provides data on identification of two more genes, resembling CDC28 in this respect. These genes NET1 and ADA1 mediate important regulatory protein-protein interactions in the yeast cell. The effects of net1 and ada1 mutations on the maintenance of yeast mt genome, chromosomes and plasmids as well on cell sensitivity to ionizing radiation are also described. (author)

  14. Human locus coeruleus neurons express the GABAA receptor γ2 subunit gene and produce benzodiazepine binding

    Hellsten, Kati S.; Sinkkonen, Saku T.; Hyde, Thomas M.; Kleinman, Joel E.; Särkioja, Terttu; Maksimow, Anu; Uusi-Oukari, Mikko; Korpi, Esa R.

    2010-01-01

    Noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus project throughout the cerebral cortex and multiple subcortical structures. Alterations in the locus coeruleus firing are associated with vigilance states and with fear and anxiety disorders. Brain ionotropic type A receptors for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) serve as targets for anxiolytic and sedative drugs, and play an essential regulatory role in the locus coeruleus. GABAA receptors are composed of a variable array of subunits forming heteropentam...

  15. Techniques and implementation of the embedded rule-based expert system using Ada

    Liberman, Eugene M.; Jones, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with its portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assured a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability and expertise for computer systems. The integration of expert system technology with Ada programming language, specifically a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell is discussed. The NASA Lewis Research Center was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-base power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert system, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  16. Supreme Court to hear ADA suit involving arbitration clause.

    1998-03-20

    The U.S. Supreme Court agreed to review a third case under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) this year. The Supreme Court previously agreed to hear [name removed] v. [Name removed], involving a dentist who refused to treat an HIV-positive patient in his office. The second case is Pennsylvania Department of Corrections v. [Name removed], in which the State asserts that the ADA does not apply to prisons. The third involves whether an arbitration clause in a labor union's collective bargaining agreement prevents a court from hearing a union member's discrimination claim. [Name removed] longshoreman [name removed] alleges that the [name removed] and several employers violated the ADA when they refused to help him for employment referral. [Name removed] previously settled a workers' compensation disability claim with [name removed] and Terminal Co., his employer. Three years later he applied for work at the International Longshoreman's Association hiring hall and was referred to four different employers. The employers discovered he had received a worker's compensation settlement and would no longer accept [name removed] for employment referral. The case is important because union members can continue to file ADA charges with the EEOC and the outcomes will vary depending on the circuit where the union member happens to file the claim. PMID:11365192

  17. Autoimmune dysregulation and purine metabolism in adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficiency

    Aisha Vanessa Sauer; Immacolata eBrigida; Nicola eCarriglio; Alessandro eAiuti

    2012-01-01

    Genetic defects in the adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene are among the most common causes for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). ADA-SCID patients suffer from lymphopenia, severely impaired cellular and humoral immunity, failure to thrive and recurrent infections. Currently available therapeutic options for this otherwise fatal disorder include bone marrow transplantation (BMT), enzyme replacement therapy with bovine ADA (PEG-ADA) or hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy (HSC-GT). Although ...

  18. A Pre-Allocation Strategy for Implement ADA95's Distrbuted Computing

    2000-01-01

    In order to realize distributed computing of Ada95, this paper discusses Ada95's distributed system model and an implement model of Ada95's distributed computing—workstation cluster model. Under this model, we presents a pre-allocation strategy for allocating the computation quantity of distributed units evenly among workstations and also reducing the communication expense between those distributed units.

  19. Self-Advocacy Preparation of Consumers with Disabilities: A National Perspective of ADA Training Efforts.

    Wolfe, Pamela S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey of personnel representing mental health/mental retardation/developmental disabilities agencies in 50 states investigated the self-advocacy needs of clients, training in the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and impact of the ADA. Results indicated that clients needed training in advocacy-related skills and that the ADA had a minimal…

  20. Plaintiff cannot sue under ADA if he seeks disability benefits.

    1996-08-23

    [Name removed] sued a New Jersey Disney store for AIDS discrimination under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). At the same time, [name removed] applied for disability benefits. A U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that a plaintiff who applies for disability benefits is no longer a qualified individual with a disability and therefore cannot sue for employment discrimination under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Disney fired [name removed] on November 18, 1993, after he took $2 from the cash register to buy cigarettes. Confronted with the accusation, [name removed] told his supervisor he had AIDS. He was fired immediately. Although [name removed] alleged Disney used the $2 cash transaction as a pretext to fire him, a Federal judge said [name removed] was barred from suing because of the inconsistency between his statements on the disability applications and on the lawsuit. PMID:11363731

  1. AdaBoost for Improved Voice-Band Signal Classification

    2007-01-01

    A good voice-band signal classification can not only enable the safe application of speech coding techniques,the implementation of a Digital Signal Interpolation (DSI)system, but also facilitate network administration and planning by providing accurate voice-band traffic analysis.A new method is proposed to detect and classify the presence of various voice-band signals on the General Switched Telephone Network ( GSTN ). The method uses a combination of simple base classifiers through the AdaBoost algorithm. The conventional classification features for voiceband data classification are combined and optimized by the AdaBoost algorithm and spectral subtraction method.Experiments show the simpleness, effectiveness, efficiency and flexibility of the method.

  2. Olimpíadas e geopolítica

    João Fábio Bertonha

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    o artigo trata de competições esportivas,

    em especial as olimpíadas. Nelas, valorizam-se o

    nacionalismo e o poder dos países.

  3. Bernoulli Numbers: from Ada Lovelace to the Debye Functions

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Jacob Bernoulli owes his fame for the numerous contributions to calculus and for his discoveries in the field of probability. Here we will discuss one of his contributions to the theory of numbers, the Bernoulli numbers. They were proposed as a case study by Ada Lovelace in her analysis of Menabrea's report on Babbage Analytical Engine. It is probable that it was this Lovelace's work, that inspired Hans Thirring in using the Bernoulli numbers in the calculus of the Debye functions.

  4. AN ADA LINEAR ALGEBRA PACKAGE MODELED AFTER HAL/S

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    This package extends the Ada programming language to include linear algebra capabilities similar to those of the HAL/S programming language. The package is designed for avionics applications such as Space Station flight software. In addition to the HAL/S built-in functions, the package incorporates the quaternion functions used in the Shuttle and Galileo projects, and routines from LINPAK that solve systems of equations involving general square matrices. Language conventions in this package follow those of HAL/S to the maximum extent practical and minimize the effort required for writing new avionics software and translating existent software into Ada. Valid numeric types in this package include scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion declarations. (Quaternions are fourcomponent vectors used in representing motion between two coordinate frames). Single precision and double precision floating point arithmetic is available in addition to the standard double precision integer manipulation. Infix operators are used instead of function calls to define dot products, cross products, quaternion products, and mixed scalar-vector, scalar-matrix, and vector-matrix products. The package contains two generic programs: one for floating point, and one for integer. The actual component type is passed as a formal parameter to the generic linear algebra package. The procedures for solving systems of linear equations defined by general matrices include GEFA, GECO, GESL, and GIDI. The HAL/S functions include ABVAL, UNIT, TRACE, DET, INVERSE, TRANSPOSE, GET, PUT, FETCH, PLACE, and IDENTITY. This package is written in Ada (Version 1.2) for batch execution and is machine independent. The linear algebra software depends on nothing outside the Ada language except for a call to a square root function for floating point scalars (such as SQRT in the DEC VAX MATHLIB library). This program was developed in 1989, and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  5. Software tools to aid Pascal and Ada program design

    Jankowitz, H.T.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis describes a software tool which analyses the style and structure of Pascal and Ada programs by ensuring that some minimum design requirements are fulfilled. The tool is used in much the same way as a compiler is used to teach students the syntax of a language, only in this case issues related to the design and structure of the program are of paramount importance. The tool operates by analyzing the design and structure of a syntactically correct program, automatically generating a report detailing changes that need to be made in order to ensure that the program is structurally sound. The author discusses how the model gradually evolved from a plagiarism detection system which extracted several measurable characteristics in a program to a model that analyzed the style of Pascal programs. In order to incorporate more-sophistical concepts like data abstraction, information hiding and data protection, this model was then extended to analyze the composition of Ada programs. The Ada model takes full advantage of facilities offered in the language and by using this tool the standard and quality of written programs is raised whilst the fundamental principles of program design are grasped through a process of self-tuition.

  6. A Locus Example

    Gheorghe Sorta

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper I set out to exemplify the way in which GeoGebra can be used to solve a classic locus problem, namely the loci of the centers of symmetry of a rectangle with two vertices on one of the lines of a given triangle and the other two vertices on the other two lines. I will describe the way in which I created the GeoGebra file and then present two mathematical solutions: a synthetic (elementary one and one using Cartesian coordinates.

  7. A Locus Example

    Gheorghe Sorta

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper I set out to exemplify the way in which GeoGebra can be used to solve a classic locus problem, namely the loci of the centers of symmetry of a rectangle with two vertices on one of the lines of a given triangle and the other two vertices on the other two lines. I will describe the way in which I created the GeoGebra file and then present two mathematical solutions: a synthetic (elementary) one and one using Cartesian coordinates.

  8. Monogenic polyarteritis: the lesson of ADA2 deficiency.

    Caorsi, Roberta; Penco, Federica; Schena, Francesca; Gattorno, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The deficiency of Adenosine Deaminase 2 (DADA2) is a new autoinflammatory disease characterised by an early onset vasculopathy with livedoid skin rash associated with systemic manifestations, CNS involvement and mild immunodeficiency.This condition is secondary to autosomal recessive mutations of CECR1 (Cat Eye Syndrome Chromosome Region 1) gene, mapped to chromosome 22q11.1, that encodes for the enzymatic protein adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2). By now 19 different mutations in CECR1 gene have been detected.The pathogenetic mechanism of DADA2 is still unclear. ADA2 in a secreted protein mainly expressed by cells of the myeloid lineage; its enzymatic activity is higher in conditions of hypoxia, inflammation and oncogenesis. Moreover ADA2 is able to induce macrophages proliferation and differentiation; it's deficiency is in fact associated with a reduction of anti-inflammatory macrophages (M2). The deficiency of ADA2 is also associated with an up-regulation of neutrophils-expressed genes and an increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The mild immunodeficiency detected in many DADA2 patients suggests a role of this protein in the adaptive immune response; an increased mortality of B cells and a reduction in the number of memory B cells, terminally differentiated B cells and plasmacells has been described in many patients. The lack of the protein is associated with endothelium damage; however the function of this protein in the endothelial homeostasis is still unknown.From the clinical point of view, this disease is characterized by a wide spectrum of severity. Chronic or recurrent systemic inflammation with fever, elevation of acute phase reactants and skin manifestations (mainly represented by livedo reticularis) is the typical clinical picture. While in some patients the disease is mild and skin-limited, others present a severe, even lethal, disease with multi-organ involvement; the CNS involvement is rather common with ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes. In

  9. ADaPPT: Enterprise Architecture Thinking for Information Systems Development

    Hanifa Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises have architecture: whether it is visible or invisible is another matter. An enterprises' architecture determines the way in which it works to deliver its business objectives and the way in which it can change to continue to meet its evolving business objectives. Enterprise architectural thinking can facilitate effective strategic planning and information systems development. This paper reviews enterprise architecture (EA and its concepts. It briefly considers EA frameworks. It describes the ADaPPT (Aligning Data, People, Processes and Technology EA approach as a means to managing organisational complexity and change. Future research directions are discussed.

  10. Event-based Implicit Invocation Decentralized in Ada

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays more and more attraction is drawn by the event-basedimplicit invocation - one of useful architectural patterns, because of its loose couplin g between components in the architecture and reactive integration in software sys tems. Analyzing object-oriented interaction with objects, this paper, based upo n the principle of software architecture, presents an approach on event-based ob j ect model with Ada exception handler. Consequently it is possible for us to impr ove, with adding specific architectural patterns, traditional programming langua ges into architectural description languages.

  11. Towards a Mobile-based ADAS Simulation Framework

    Gonçalves, João S. V.; Jacob, João; Rossetti, Rosaldo J. F.; Coelho, António; Rodrigues, Rui

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a multi-agent-based driving simulator which integrates a test-bed that allows ADAS developers to compress testing time and carry out tests in a controlled environment while using a low-cost setup. We use the SUMO microscopic simulator and a serious-game-based driving simulator which has geodata provided from standard open sources. This simulator connects to an Android device and sends data such as the current GPS coordinates and transportation network data. One import...

  12. History of the discovery of a master locus producing piRNAs: the flamenco/COM locus in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Goriaux, Coline; Théron, Emmanuelle; Brasset, Emilie; Vaury, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of transposable elements (TEs) in the 1950s by B. McClintock implied the existence of cellular regulatory systems controlling TE activity. The discovery of flamenco (flam) an heterochromatic locus from Drosophila melanogaster and its ability to survey several TEs such as gypsy, ZAM, and Idefix contributed to peer deeply into the mechanisms of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of TEs. flam was the first cluster producing small RNAs to be discovered long before RNAi pathways were identified in 1998. As a result of the detailed genetic analyses performed by certain laboratories and of the sophisticated genetic tools they developed, this locus has played a major role in our understanding of piRNA mediated TE repression in animals. Here we review the first discovery of this locus and retrace decades of studies that led to our current understanding of the relationship between genomes and their TE targets. PMID:25136352

  13. History of the discovery of a master locus producing piRNAs: the flamenco/COM locus in Drosophila melanogaster

    Coline eGoriaux

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of transposable elements (TEs in the 1950s by B. McClintock implied the existence of cellular regulatory systems controlling TE activity. The discovery of flam an heterochromatic locus from Drosophila melanogaster and its ability to survey several TEs such as gypsy, ZAM and Idefix contributed to peer deeply into the mechanisms of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of TEs. flam was the first cluster producing small RNAs to be discovered long before RNAi pathways were identified in 1998. As a result of the detailed genetic analyses performed by certain laboratories and of the sophisticated genetic tools they developed, this locus has played a major role in our understanding of piRNA mediated TE repression in animals. Here we review the first discovery of this locus and retrace decades of studies that led to our current understanding of the relationship between genomes and their TE targets.

  14. TCP-ADaLR: TCP with adaptive delay and loss response for broadband GEO satellite networks

    Omueti, Modupe Omogbohun

    2007-01-01

    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) performance degrades in broadband geostationary satellite networks due to long propagation delays and high bit error rates. In this thesis, we propose TCP with algorithm modifications for adaptive delay and loss response (TCP-ADaLR) to improve TCP performance. TCP-ADaLR incorporates delayed acknowledgement mechanism recommended for Internet hosts. We evaluate and compare the performance of TCP-ADaLR, TCP SACK, and TCP NewReno, with and without delayed ackno...

  15. Disfungsi Keluarga dalam Novel Cinta Masih Ada Karya Embart Nugroho: Suatu Tinjauan Sosiologi Sastra

    Lestari, Aprillia

    2015-01-01

    Sastra adalah Karya sastra merupakan ungkapan ide manusia dari pengalaman pribadi. Salah satu karya sastra yang dianggap sebagai cerminan kehidupan nyata adalah novel. Penelitian ini membahas tentang penyebab dan dampak disfungsi keluarga pada novel Cinta Masih Ada. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk Mendeskripsikan penyebab disfungsi keluarga yang terdapat pada novel Cinta Masih Ada dan Mendeskripsikan dampak-dampak disfungsi keluarga yang terdapat pada novel Cinta Masih Ada karya Embart Nug...

  16. Efficient Ada multitasking on a RISC register window architecture

    Kearns, J. P.; Quammen, D.

    1987-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of reducing context switch overhead on a processor which supports a large register file - a register file much like that which is part of the Berkeley RISC processors and several other emerging architectures (which are not necessarily reduced instruction set machines in the purest sense). Such a reduction in overhead is particularly desirable in a real-time embedded application, in which task-to-task context switch overhead may result in failure to meet crucial deadlines. A storage management technique by which a context switch may be implemented as cheaply as a procedure call is presented. The essence of this technique is the avoidance of the save/restore of registers on the context switch. This is achieved through analysis of the static source text of an Ada tasking program. Information gained during that analysis directs the optimized storage management strategy for that program at run time. A formal verification of the technique in terms of an operational control model and an evaluation of the technique's performance via simulations driven by synthetic Ada program traces are presented.

  17. Rationale for the proposed standard for a generic package of primitive functions for Ada

    Dritz, K.W.

    1990-12-01

    This paper supplements the Proposed Standard for a Generic Package of Primitive Functions for Ada,'' written by the ISO- IEC/JTC1/SC22/WG9 (Ada) Numerics Rapporteur Group. Based on recommendations made jointly by the ACM SIGAda Numerics Working Group and the Ada-Europe Numerics Working Group, the proposed primitive functions standard is the second of several anticipated secondary standards to address the interrelated issues of portability, efficiency, and robustness of numerical software written in Ada. Its purpose, features, and developmental history are outlined in this commentary. 16 refs.

  18. The Impact of Ada and Object-Oriented Design in NASA Goddard's Flight Dynamics Division

    Waligora, Sharon; Bailey, John; Stark, Mike

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the highlights and key findings of 10 years of use and study of Ada and object-oriented design in NASA Goddard's Flight Dynamics Division (FDD). In 1985, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) began investigating how the Ada language might apply to FDD software development projects. Although they began cautiously using Ada on only a few pilot projects, they expected that, if the Ada pilots showed promising results, the FDD would fully transition its entire development organization from FORTRAN to Ada within 10 years. However, 10 years later, the FDD still produced 80 percent of its software in FORTRAN and had begun using C and C++, despite positive results on Ada projects. This paper presents the final results of a SEL study to quantify the impact of Ada in the FDD, to determine why Ada has not flourished, and to recommend future directions regarding Ada. Project trends in both languages are examined as are external factors and cultural issues that affected the infusion of this technology. The detailed results of this study were published in a formal study report in March of 1995. This paper supersedes the preliminary results of this study that were presented at the Eighteenth Annual Software Engineering Workshop in 1993.

  19. Surfeit locus gene homologs are widely distributed in invertebrate genomes.

    Armes, N; Fried, M

    1996-01-01

    The mouse Surfeit locus contains six sequence-unrelated genes (Surf-1 to -6) arranged in the tightest gene cluster so far described for mammals. The organization and juxtaposition of five of the Surfeit genes (Surf-1 to -5) are conserved between mammals and birds, and this may reflect a functional or regulatory requirement for the gene clustering. We have undertaken an evolutionary study to determine whether the Surfeit genes are conserved and clustered in invertebrate genomes. Drosophila mel...

  20. History of the discovery of a master locus producing piRNAs: the flamenco/COM locus in Drosophila melanogaster

    Coline, Goriaux; Théron, Emmanuelle; Brasset, Emilie; Vaury, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of transposable elements (TEs) in the 1950s by B. McClintock implied the existence of cellular regulatory systems controlling TE activity. The discovery of flamenco (flam) an heterochromatic locus from Drosophila melanogaster and its ability to survey several TEs such as gypsy, ZAM, and Idefix contributed to peer deeply into the mechanisms of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of TEs. flam was the first cluster producing small RNAs to be discovered long before RNAi pathways w...

  1. Inclusion of geriatric nutrition in ADA-approved undergraduate programs.

    Shoaf, L R; Jensen, H M

    1989-09-01

    All ADA Plan IV programs were surveyed to determine whether geriatric nutrition was included in their curriculums. Of the 268 Plan IV programs, 66% responded. Less than one-fifth of the programs offered or planned to offer a specific geriatric nutrition course. An overview of geriatric nutrition occurred most frequently in a human nutrition course. A practicum/clinical experience or a course other than nutrition most frequently provided in-depth study, if such was available. Nursing homes and congregate meal sites were the primary locations for experiences with the geriatric population. Major activities with that age group included (a) taking diet histories, (b) making nutrition assessments, and (c) providing diet instruction. In some programs, didactic and experiential training with the geriatric population may not be adequate to prepare dietetic undergraduate students to meet the health care needs of that growing segment of society. PMID:2768741

  2. Large distributed control system using Ada in fusion research

    Van Arsdall, P J; Woodruff, J P

    1998-08-11

    Construction of the National Ignition Facility laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory features a distributed control system that uses object-oriented software engineering techniques. Control of 60,000 devices is effected using a network of some 500 computers. The software is being written in Ada and communicates through CORBA. Software controls are implemented in two layers: individual device controllers and a supervisory layer. The software architecture provides services in the form of frameworks that address issues common to event-driven control systems. Those services are allocated to levels that strictly prescribe their interdependency so the levels are separately reusable. The project has completed its final design review. The delivery of the first increment takes place in October 1998. Keywords Distributed control system, object-oriented development, CORBA, application frameworks, levels of abstraction

  3. Large distributed control system using Ada in fusion research

    Construction of the National Ignition Facility laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory features a distributed control system that uses object-oriented software engineering techniques. Control of 60,000 devices is effected using a network of some 500 computers. The software is being written in Ada and communicates through CORBA. Software controls are implemented in two layers: individual device controllers and a supervisory layer. The software architecture provides services in the form of frameworks that address issues common to event-driven control systems. Those services are allocated to levels that strictly prescribe their interdependency so the levels are separately reusable. The project has completed its final design review. The delivery of the first increment takes place in October 1998. Keywords Distributed control system, object-oriented development, CORBA, application frameworks, levels of abstraction

  4. Capacitació digital avançada, setembre 2010

    Padrós Rodríguez, Joan; Gil Martínez, Jaume; Profitós Punciano, Àlex; Ros Sabaté, Jordi; Ramón, Manel

    2010-01-01

    Aquest material forma part d'un conjunt de materials didàctics multimèdia que pretén dotar els usuaris d'un conjunt d'habilitats que us permeti aplicar i utilitzar amb facilitat i autonomia les tecnologies de la informació i la comunicació en la vida personal i professional. En el nivell de Capacitació Avançada s'aprofundirà en els continguts referents als mòduls de Tractament de text, Tractament multimèdia, Tractament de dades, Tractament numèric i Presentació de la informació. El material t...

  5. 76 FR 79065 - Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements Under Title VII, the ADA and GINA

    2011-12-21

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission 29 CFR Part 1602 Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements Under Title VII..., revised as of July 1, 2011, in Part 1602, remove the words ``section 709(c) of title VII or section 107 of the ADA'' and add in their place the words ``section 709(c) of title VII, section 107 of the ADA,...

  6. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with reliability requirements

    Reynolds, P. F.; Knight, J. C.; Urquhart, J. I. A.

    1983-01-01

    The issues involved in the use of the programming language Ada on distributed systems are discussed. The effects of Ada programs on hardware failures such as loss of a processor are emphasized. It is shown that many Ada language elements are not well suited to this environment. Processor failure can easily lead to difficulties on those processors which remain. As an example, the calling task in a rendezvous may be suspended forever if the processor executing the serving task fails. A mechanism for detecting failure is proposed and changes to the Ada run time support system are suggested which avoid most of the difficulties. Ada program structures are defined which allow programs to reconfigure and continue to provide service following processor failure.

  7. Storage management in Ada. Three reports. Volume 1: Storage management in Ada as a risk to the development of reliable software. Volume 2: Relevant aspects of language. Volume 3: Requirements of the language versus manifestations of current implementations

    Auty, David

    1988-01-01

    The risk to the development of program reliability is derived from the use of a new language and from the potential use of new storage management techniques. With Ada and associated support software, there is a lack of established guidelines and procedures, drawn from experience and common usage, which assume reliable behavior. The risk is identified and clarified. In order to provide a framework for future consideration of dynamic storage management on Ada, a description of the relevant aspects of the language is presented in two sections: Program data sources, and declaration and allocation in Ada. Storage-management characteristics of the Ada language and storage-management characteristics of Ada implementations are differentiated. Terms that are used are defined in a narrow and precise sense. The storage-management implications of the Ada language are described. The storage-management options available to the Ada implementor and the implications of the implementor's choice for the Ada programmer are also described.

  8. Carrier frequency of a nonsense mutation in the adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene implies a high incidence of ADA-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in Somalia and a single, common haplotype indicates common ancestry

    Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Monaghan, Gemma; Børsting, Claus; Norbury, Gail; Morling, Niels; Gaspar, H Bobby

    , with severe ADA-SCID, were registered in the Greater London area. Patients and their parents were investigated for the nonsense mutation Q3X (ADA c7C>T), two missense mutations K80R (ADA c239A>G) and R142Q (ADA c425G>A), and a TAAA repeat located at the 3' end of an Alu element (AluVpA) positioned 1...

  9. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of constant recharge values for the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer, in east-central Oklahoma. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is an...

  10. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized aquifer boundaries for the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is an important source of water...

  11. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of constant hydraulic conductivity values for the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer...

  12. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized water-level elevation contours for the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is an important...

  13. PENGARUH PENGALAMAN PRAKTIK KERJA INDUSTRI, MOTIVASI BERORGANISASI, DAN LOCUS OF CONTROL TERHADAP SOFT SKILLS SISWA SMK

    Silfia Pendri Nuryanti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini yaitu untuk mengetahui adakah pengaruh pengalaman praktik kerja industri, motivasi berorganisassi dan locus of control terhadap soft skills siswa kelas XI di SMK PGRI 01 Semarang secara siimultan maupun parsial. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah seluruh siswa kelas XI di SMK PGRI 01 Semarang yang berjumlah 125 siswa dan sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah seluruh populasi yang berjumlah 125 siswa. Teknik analisis data menggunakan analisis deskriptif persentase dan analisis regresi berganda. Hasil dari regresi ganda penelitian ini yaitu .. Ada pengaruh secara simultan sebesar 33,7%, sedangkan pengaruh secara parsial pengalaman praktik kerja industri sebesar 12,25%, motivasi berorganisasi sebesar 4,04% dan locus of control sebesar 4,7%. Kesimpulan penelitian ini yaitu ada pengaruh antara pengalaman praktik kerja industri, motivasi beroganisasi dan locus of control secara simultan maupun parsial. Saran dalam penelitian yaitu untuk siswa sebaiknya memanfaatkan kegiatan yang diberikan oleh sekolah dalam kegiatan praktik kerja industri dan ektrakurikuler dengan semaksimal mungkin dan kepada pihak sekolah untuk dapat pengembangan soft skills pada kegiatan ektrakurikuler diharapkan adanya reward atau penghargaan berupa tambahan mengenai penilaian yang diberikan kepada siswa sehingga siswa lebih termotivasi dalam kegiatan ektrakurikuler. This research has purpose to find out the presence of effects of industrial practice work, organizational motivation and locus of control toward the soft skills of grade XI students in SMK PGRI 01 Semarang simultaneously or partially.The population of the research is grade XI in SMK PGRI 01 Semarang and Sample in this research, which is the entire population 125 students. The data collected using questionnaire and documentations. The analyzing method used percentage descriptive analysis and double regression analysis.The result of double linier regression analysis in this research are

  14. Ada compiler evaluation on the Space Station Freedom Software Support Environment project

    Badal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the work in progress to select the Ada compilers for the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) Software Support Environment (SSE) project. The purpose of the SSE Ada compiler evaluation team is to establish the criteria, test suites, and benchmarks to be used for evaluating Ada compilers for the mainframes, workstations, and the realtime target for flight- and ground-based computers. The combined efforts and cooperation of the customer, subcontractors, vendors, academia and SIGAda groups made it possible to acquire the necessary background information, benchmarks, test suites, and criteria used.

  15. Locus of Control and Interpersonal Attraction.

    Fagan, M. Michael

    1980-01-01

    The role of locus of control in interpersonal attraction was examined by administering 1) the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale and 2) a sociometric test of friendship to 200 eighth graders. (CM)

  16. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    Knight, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    Performance analysis was begin on the Ada implementations. The goal is to supply the system designer with tools that will allow a rational decision to be made about whether a particular implementation can support a given application early in the design cycle. Primary activities were: analysis of the original approach to recovery in distributed Ada programs using the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) example; review and assessment of the original approach which was found to be capable of improvement; preparation and presentation of a paper at the 1987 Washington DC Ada Symposium; development of a refined approach to recovery that is presently being applied to the ATOPS example; and design and development of a performance assessment scheme for Ada programs based on a flexible user-driven benchmarking system.

  17. JOB OPPORTUNITIES (SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION, ADA, OKLAHOMA, NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY)

    This page lists job opportunities at NRMRL's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division (SPRD) located in Ada, Oklahoma. These include both EPA Postdoctoral Positions and National Research Council Postdoctoral Positions.SPRD's research programs include basic studies to enha...

  18. The implications of the ADA Amendments Act of 2008 for residency training program administration.

    Regenbogen, Alexandra; Recupero, Patricia R

    2012-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is rarely invoked by medical residents in training. Dr. Martin Jakubowski, a family medicine resident with Asperger's disorder, was dismissed for communicating poorly with patients, peers, and supervisors and for issuing dangerous medical orders. In an attempt to become reinstated, he sued under the ADA (Jakubowski v. The Christ Hospital), arguing that the program had failed to make reasonable accommodation for his disability. The Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled in favor of the hospital, finding that although the doctor was disabled under the ADA, he had failed to demonstrate that he was otherwise qualified for the position. This article comments on the ADA Amendments Act of 2008, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) guidelines from 2011 and their application to medical residency training, and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies as essential job functions. PMID:23233478

  19. Prototyping hard real-time Ada systems in a classroom environment

    Barnes, P.; Hughes, G; Luqg; Shing, Man-Tak

    1992-01-01

    Teaching graduate students how to develop hard real-time Ada software for embedded systems is a challenging task. We successfully used Ada in a series of software engineering courses to teach graduate students the charac of hard real-time software and fundamental skills to develop and validate complex systems and timing re through software prototypes of the systems. A research tool, called CAPS (Computer Aided Prototype System), was used by the student software designers to construct software...

  20. Soil microorganisms numbers in the tailing deposition ModADA areas of Freeport Indonesia, Timika, Papua

    IRNANDA AIKO FIFI DJUUNA; MARIA MASORA; PRATITA PURADYATMIKA

    2011-01-01

    Djuuna IAF, Masora M, Puradyatmika P (2011) Soil microorganisms numbers in the tailing deposition ModADA areas of Freeport Indonesia, Timika, Papua. Biodiversitas 12: 198-203. The objective of this study was to examine the number and distribution of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes in the inactive tailing deposition areas of Freeport Indonesia Mining and Gold Company, Timika. One hundred ninety eight composite samples (0-20 cm) were taken from four location of inactive tailing ModADA (Modifi...

  1. Software fault tree analysis of an automated control system device written in Ada

    Winter, Mathias William.

    1995-01-01

    Software Fault Tree Analysis (SFTA) is a technique used to analyze software for faults that could lead to hazardous conditions in systems which contain software components. Previous thesis works have developed three Ada-based, semi-automated software analysis tools, the Automated Code Translation Tool (ACm) an Ada statement template generator, the Fault Tree Editor (Fm) a graphical fault tree editor, and the Fault Isolator (Fl) an automated software fault tree isolator. These previous works d...

  2. ADAS on COTS with OpenCL: A Case Study with Lane Detection

    Kai Huang, Biao Hu, Long Chen, Alois Knoll, Zhihua Wang

    2016-01-01

    The concept of autonomous cars is driving a boost for car electronics and the size of automotive semiconductor market is foreseen to double by 2025. How to benefit from this boost is an interesting question. This article presents a case study to test the feasibility of using OpenCL as the programming language and COTS components as the underlying platforms for ADAS development. For representative ADAS applications, a scalable lane detection is developed that can tune the trade-off be...

  3. Constructing a working taxonomy of functional Ada software components for real-time embedded system applications

    Wallace, Robert

    1986-01-01

    A major impediment to a systematic attack on Ada software reusability is the lack of an effective taxonomy for software component functions. The scope of all possible applications of Ada software is considered too great to allow the practical development of a working taxonomy. Instead, for the purposes herein, the scope of Ada software application is limited to device and subsystem control in real-time embedded systems. A functional approach is taken in constructing the taxonomy tree for identified Ada domain. The use of modular software functions as a starting point fits well with the object oriented programming philosophy of Ada. Examples of the types of functions represented within the working taxonomy are real time kernels, interrupt service routines, synchronization and message passing, data conversion, digital filtering and signal conditioning, and device control. The constructed taxonomy is proposed as a framework from which a need analysis can be performed to reveal voids in current Ada real-time embedded programming efforts for Space Station.

  4. An Ada-based preprocessor language for concurrent object oriented programming

    In this paper, implementation issues of concurrent-objected programming using Ada 95 are addressed. Ada is not a pure object-oriented language; in order to make it so, a uniform template for structuring object classes is proposed. The template constitutes a basis for an Ada-based preprocessor language that handles concurrent object-oriented programming. The preprocessor accepts Ada-like object-oriented programs (object classes, subclasses and main program) as input and produces Ada 95 concurrent object-oriented program units as output. The preprocessor language has the advantage of adding a new component to the class specification called the protocol, which specifies the order for requesting methods f an object. The preprocessor also touches on the extensibility of object classes issue. It supports defining class hierarchies by inheritance and aggregation. In addition, the preprocessor language supports the re-use of Ada packages, which are not necessarily written according to the object-oriented approach. The paper also investigates the definition of circular dependent object classes and proposes a solution for introducing a collection of classes. (author)

  5. Vector-matrix-quaternion, array and arithmetic packages: All HAL/S functions implemented in Ada

    Klumpp, Allan R.; Kwong, David D.

    1986-01-01

    The HAL/S avionics programmers have enjoyed a variety of tools built into a language tailored to their special requirements. Ada is designed for a broader group of applications. Rather than providing built-in tools, Ada provides the elements with which users can build their own. Standard avionic packages remain to be developed. These must enable programmers to code in Ada as they have coded in HAL/S. The packages under development at JPL will provide all of the vector-matrix, array, and arithmetic functions described in the HAL/S manuals. In addition, the linear algebra package will provide all of the quaternion functions used in Shuttle steering and Galileo attitude control. Furthermore, using Ada's extensibility, many quaternion functions are being implemented as infix operations; equivalent capabilities were never implemented in HAL/S because doing so would entail modifying the compiler and expanding the language. With these packages, many HAL/S expressions will compile and execute in Ada, unchanged. Others can be converted simply by replacing the implicit HAL/S multiply operator with the Ada *. Errors will be trapped and identified. Input/output will be convenient and readable.

  6. 基于Online AdaBoost的偏振图像目标跟踪%Polarization image object tracking based on Online AdaBoost

    邢晨; 薛模根; 袁广林; 王峰

    2011-01-01

    根据偏振图像的特点,文章提出一种基于在线AdaBoost的目标跟踪方法.该方法以最小二乘回归作为弱分类器,以强度、偏振度和边缘方向特征组成的向量为其输入;通过AdaBoost算法将多个弱分类器集成为强分类器,并在跟踪过程中利用AdaBoost算法对强分类器进行在线更新,以适应目标与背景的变化;利用强分类器生成当前置信图,在置信图上利用粒子滤波估计目标的状态.实验结果表明,该方法能够在复杂背景下稳定地跟踪目标.%A polarization image object tracking method is proposed based on Online Adaboost. The least square regression is used as the weak classifier, with feature vectors of intensity, polarization degree and margin direction chosen for the input. The ensemble of weak classifiers is integrated into a strong classifier by AdaBoost algorithm, and this strong classifier is updated online by AdaBoost algorithm during tracking in order to adapt to the change of the object or the background. Current confidence map is given by using the strong classifier, and based on this map the new state of the object is estimated by using particle filter. Experimental results show that the proposed method is robust and efficient in polarization image object tracking on complex background.

  7. Regulatory activities

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information

  8. Genomic characterization of the Atlantic cod sex-locus.

    Star, Bastiaan; Tørresen, Ole K; Nederbragt, Alexander J; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Pampoulie, Christophe; Jentoft, Sissel

    2016-01-01

    A variety of sex determination mechanisms can be observed in evolutionary divergent teleosts. Sex determination is genetic in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), however the genomic location or size of its sex-locus is unknown. Here, we characterize the sex-locus of Atlantic cod using whole genome sequence (WGS) data of 227 wild-caught specimens. Analyzing more than 55 million polymorphic loci, we identify 166 loci that are associated with sex. These loci are located in six distinct regions on five different linkage groups (LG) in the genome. The largest of these regions, an approximately 55 Kb region on LG11, contains the majority of genotypes that segregate closely according to a XX-XY system. Genotypes in this region can be used genetically determine sex, whereas those in the other regions are inconsistently sex-linked. The identified region on LG11 and its surrounding genes have no clear sequence homology with genes or regulatory elements associated with sex-determination or differentiation in other species. The functionality of this sex-locus therefore remains unknown. The WGS strategy used here proved adequate for detecting the small regions associated with sex in this species. Our results highlight the evolutionary flexibility in genomic architecture underlying teleost sex-determination and allow practical applications to genetically sex Atlantic cod. PMID:27499266

  9. Propagation of genetic variation in gene regulatory networks

    Plahte, Erik; Gjuvsland, Arne B; Omholt, Stig W.

    2013-01-01

    A future quantitative genetics theory should link genetic variation to phenotypic variation in a causally cohesive way based on how genes actually work and interact. We provide a theoretical framework for predicting and understanding the manifestation of genetic variation in haploid and diploid regulatory networks with arbitrary feedback structures and intra-locus and inter-locus functional dependencies. Using results from network and graph theory, we define propagation functions describing h...

  10. Locus of control and prenatal depression

    Richardson, Amber; Field, Tiffany; Newton, Rae; Bendell, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal depression is a significant predictor of postpartum depression and is detrimental to fetal development. Locus of control was examined in this study as a potential predictor of prenatal depression. 133 rural pregnant women recruited from obstetricians’ offices completed the Levenson Scale on Locus of Control and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Multiple regression analysis indicated that after controlling for previous or current mental health problems, the External Locus of C...

  11. Platelet aggregation and serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in pregnancy associated with diabetes, hypertension and HIV.

    Leal, Claudio A M; Leal, Daniela B R; Adefegha, Stephen A; Morsch, Vera M; da Silva, José E P; Rezer, João F P; Schrekker, Clarissa M L; Abdalla, Faida H; Schetinger, Maria R C

    2016-07-01

    Platelet aggregation and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity were evaluated in pregnant women living with some disease conditions including hypertension, diabetes mellitus and human immunodeficiency virus infection. The subject population is consisted of 15 non-pregnant healthy women [control group (CG)], 15 women with normal pregnancy (NP), 7 women with hypertensive pregnancy (HP), 10 women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 12 women with human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnancy (HIP) groups. The aggregation of platelets was checked using an optical aggregometer, and serum ADA activity was determined using the colorimetric method. After the addition of 5 µM of agonist adenosine diphosphate, the percentage of platelet aggregation was significantly (p pregnancy and pregnancy-associated diseases suggest that platelet aggregation and ADA activity could serve as peripheral markers for the development of effective therapy in the maintenance of homeostasis and some inflammatory process in these pathophysiological conditions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27273565

  12. A New Method of Cloud Detection Based on Cascaded AdaBoost

    Cloud detection of remote sensing image is a critical step in the processing of the remote sensing images. How to quickly, accurately and effectively detect cloud on remote sensing images, is still a challenging issue in this area. In order to avoid disadvantages of the current algorithms, the cascaded AdaBoost classifier algorithm is successfully applied to the cloud detection. A new algorithm combined cascaded AdaBoost classifier and multi-features, is proposed in this paper. First, multi-features based on the color, texture and spectral features are extracted from the remote sensing image. Second, the automatic cloud detection model is obtained based on the cascaded AdaBoost algorithm. In this paper, the results show that the new algorithm can determine cloud detection model and threshold values adaptively for different resolution remote sensing training data. The accuracy of cloud detection is improved. So it is a new effective algorithm for the cloud detection of remote sensing images

  13. An enhanced Ada run-time system for real-time embedded processors

    Sims, J. T.

    1991-01-01

    An enhanced Ada run-time system has been developed to support real-time embedded processor applications. The primary focus of this development effort has been on the tasking system and the memory management facilities of the run-time system. The tasking system has been extended to support efficient and precise periodic task execution as required for control applications. Event-driven task execution providing a means of task-asynchronous control and communication among Ada tasks is supported in this system. Inter-task control is even provided among tasks distributed on separate physical processors. The memory management system has been enhanced to provide object allocation and protected access support for memory shared between disjoint processors, each of which is executing a distinct Ada program.

  14. Transplantation and optimization of AdaBoost face detection algorithm on DSP%AdaBoost人脸检测算法在DSP上的移植与优化

    朱明; 陆小锋; 陆亨立; 李莹娇; 张东升

    2014-01-01

    This paper transplants the AdaBoost algorithm proposed by Viola from PC platform to TMS320DM642 platform. The transplantation solves the compile problem caused by the difference between PC and DSP platform. The algorithm optimization is proceeding in CCS compiler which is provided by Texas Instruments. The paper optimizes the AdaBoost algorithm by the optimization of C code and the project settings, and a lot of experiments are done to give out the optimi-zation solution. It plays a guiding role in the implementation of real-time feature in embedded DM642 platform.%将Viola等人提出的AdaBoost人脸检测算法由PC机移植到TMS320DM642嵌入式平台,采用EMCV (Embedded Computer Vision Library)移植方案,将PC平台的OpenCV(Open Source Computer Vision Library)视觉库中有关AdaBoost算法的模块修改使之适应嵌入式DSP平台。该移植工作主要解决了OpenCV在嵌入式平台的不兼容问题以及不同体系架构的编译器环境和库文件导致的编译和链接错误。优化工作在TI的编译器CCS中进行,在编译器平台下进行C语言的项目及程序优化,并进行了大量实验数据的对比,给出了优化的方案,对实现系统的实时性有指导性作用。

  15. AdaBoost人脸检测算法在DSP上的移植与优化%Transplantation and optimization of AdaBoost face detection algorithm on DSP

    朱明; 陆小锋; 陆亨立; 李莹娇; 张东升

    2014-01-01

    将Viola等人提出的AdaBoost人脸检测算法由PC机移植到TMS320DM642嵌入式平台,采用EMCV (Embedded Computer Vision Library)移植方案,将PC平台的OpenCV(Open Source Computer Vision Library)视觉库中有关AdaBoost算法的模块修改使之适应嵌入式DSP平台。该移植工作主要解决了OpenCV在嵌入式平台的不兼容问题以及不同体系架构的编译器环境和库文件导致的编译和链接错误。优化工作在TI的编译器CCS中进行,在编译器平台下进行C语言的项目及程序优化,并进行了大量实验数据的对比,给出了优化的方案,对实现系统的实时性有指导性作用。%This paper transplants the AdaBoost algorithm proposed by Viola from PC platform to TMS320DM642 platform. The transplantation solves the compile problem caused by the difference between PC and DSP platform. The algorithm optimization is proceeding in CCS compiler which is provided by Texas Instruments. The paper optimizes the AdaBoost algorithm by the optimization of C code and the project settings, and a lot of experiments are done to give out the optimi-zation solution. It plays a guiding role in the implementation of real-time feature in embedded DM642 platform.

  16. Estimating linkage disequilibrium between a polymorphic marker locus and a trait locus in natural populations.

    Luo, Z. W.; Suhai, S.

    1999-01-01

    Positional cloning of gene(s) underlying a complex trait requires a high-resolution linkage map between the trait locus and genetic marker loci. Recent research has shown that this may be achieved through appropriately modeling and screening linkage disequilibrium between the candidate marker locus and the major trait locus. A quantitative genetics model was developed in the present study to estimate the coefficient of linkage disequilibrium between a polymorphic genetic marker locus and a lo...

  17. Effects of gene regulatory reprogramming on gene expression in human and mouse developing hearts

    Hsu, Chih-Hao; Ovcharenko, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Lineage-specific regulatory elements underlie adaptation of species and play a role in disease susceptibility. We compared functionally conserved and lineage-specific enhancers by cross-mapping 5042 human and 6564 mouse heart enhancers. Of these, 79 per cent are lineage-specific, lacking a functional orthologue. Heart enhancers tend to cluster and, commonly, there are multiple heart enhancers in a heart locus providing a regulatory stability to the locus. We observed little cross-clustering, ...

  18. ADA, the Programming Language of Choice for the UPMSat-2 Satellite

    Garrido, Jorge; Zamorano, Juan; de la Puente, Juan A.; Alonso, Alejandro; Salazar, Emilio

    2015-09-01

    The proper selection of development mechanisms and tools is essential for the final success of any engineering project. This is also true when it comes to software development. Furthermore, when the system shows very specific and hard to meet requirements, as it happens for high-integrity real-time systems, the appropriate selection is crucial. For this kind of systems, Ada has proven to be a successful companion, and satellites are not an exception. The paper presents the reasons behind the selection of Ada for the UPMSat-2 development, along with the experience and examples on its usage.

  19. The Spectrum Sensing Algorithm Based AdaBoost in Cognitive Radio

    Tian, Deyong; Wang, Xin

    To solve the low detection rate of the primary user in the cognitive radio environment, we propose a spectrum sensing method based on AdaBoost in the case of low SNR. In this paper, a set of received signal spectrum features are first calculated and extracted the discriminant feature vector as training samples and testing samples for classification. Finally, we utilize the trained AdaBoost to detect the primary user. Test result shows that the proposed algorithm is not affected by uncertainty factors of noise and has high performance to classification detection compared with ANN, SVM and maximum-minimum eigenvalue (MME).

  20. Anemia nos pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca avançada

    Juliano Cardoso

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Anemia está associada à pior evolução nos pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC. Entretanto, há poucos estudos sobre a anemia nos pacientes com IC avançada. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as características da anemia na IC em fase avançada. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos 99 pacientes hospitalizados para compensação de IC (CF IV/NYHA, com idade > 18 anos e FEVE 12 g/dl. A anemia foi marcador independente de mau prognóstico na análise multivariada (mortalidade 47% vs 24,6%, p = 0,016, risco relativo 2,54. CONCLUSÃO: Anemia acomete, aproximadamente, 1/3 dos pacientes com IC avançada, e a deficiência de ferro é uma importante etiologia. Pacientes anêmicos são mais idosos e apresentaram função renal mais deteriorada. A melhora da congestão não foi suficiente para melhorar a anemia na maioria dos casos. Nos pacientes com IC avançada, a anemia é marcador independente de mau prognóstico.

  1. 76 FR 57013 - Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements Under Title VII, the ADA, and GINA

    2011-09-15

    ... proposed modifications of its recordkeeping and reporting provisions under title VII, the ADA, and GINA. (76 FR 31892, June 2, 2011). No requests to present oral testimony at a hearing concerning the... COMMISSION 29 CFR Part 1602 RIN 3046-AA89 Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements Under Title VII, the...

  2. 76 FR 38124 - Applications for New Awards; Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Regional...

    2011-06-29

    ... and Centers Program, published in the Federal Register on April 28, 2006 (71 FR 25472). The priorities... 350. (c) The notice of final priorities published in the Federal Register on April 28, 2006 (71 FR... Applications for New Awards; Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Regional Centers and...

  3. COMPARISION OF ADENOSINE DEAMINASE [ADA] LEVELS WITH CYTO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PLEURAL FLUIDS TO DIFFERENTIATE TUBERCULAR AND NON â TUBERCULAR EFFUSIONS

    Choukimath M Sharanabasav

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to utilize biochemical parameters like ADA and protein levels in comparison with cell count and cell type in pleural fluid to differentiate tubercular and non-tubercular effusions. We have analyzed a total of 208 cases and among them 59.61% cases were ADA positive and 40.39% cases were ADA negative, and 156 cases were exudates and 52 cases were transudates. Categorized these effusions into 4 groups taking consideration of ADA, cell count, lymphocyte and protein levels as exudate with ADA positive, exudate with ADA negative, transudate with ADA positive and transudate with ADA negative. This study has shown promising results to diagnose tuberculosis with immediate and cost effectiveness that can be undertaken by any basic laboratory, in a endemic areas and developing countries like India

  4. Determining the bistability parameter ranges of artificially induced lac operon using the root locus method.

    Avcu, N; Alyürük, H; Demir, G K; Pekergin, F; Cavas, L; Güzeliş, C

    2015-06-01

    This paper employs the root locus method to conduct a detailed investigation of the parameter regions that ensure bistability in a well-studied gene regulatory network namely, lac operon of Escherichia coli (E. coli). In contrast to previous works, the parametric bistability conditions observed in this study constitute a complete set of necessary and sufficient conditions. These conditions were derived by applying the root locus method to the polynomial equilibrium equation of the lac operon model to determine the parameter values yielding the multiple real roots necessary for bistability. The lac operon model used was defined as an ordinary differential equation system in a state equation form with a rational right hand side, and it was compatible with the Hill and Michaelis-Menten approaches of enzyme kinetics used to describe biochemical reactions that govern lactose metabolism. The developed root locus method can be used to study the steady-state behavior of any type of convergent biological system model based on mass action kinetics. This method provides a solution to the problem of analyzing gene regulatory networks under parameter uncertainties because the root locus method considers the model parameters as variable, rather than fixed. The obtained bistability ranges for the lac operon model parameters have the potential to elucidate the appearance of bistability for E. coli cells in in vivo experiments, and they could also be used to design robust hysteretic switches in synthetic biology. PMID:25864166

  5. KLF1 stabilizes GATA-1 and TAL1 occupancy in the human β-globin locus.

    Kang, Yujin; Kim, Yea Woon; Yun, Jangmi; Shin, Jongo; Kim, AeRi

    2015-03-01

    KLF1 is an erythroid specific transcription factor that binds to regulatory regions of erythroid genes. Binding sites of KLF1 are often found near binding sites of GATA-1 and TAL1. In the β-globin locus, KLF1 is required for forming active chromatin structure, although its role is unclear. To explore the role of KLF1 in transcribing the human γ-globin genes, we stably reduced the expression of KLF1 in erythroid K562 cells, compromising its association in the β-globin locus. The γ-globin transcription was reduced with disappearance of active chromatin structure of the locus in the KLF1 knockdown cells. Interestingly, GATA-1 and TAL1 binding was reduced in the β-globin locus, even though their expressions were not affected by KLF1 knockdown. The KLF1-dependent GATA-1 and TAL1 binding was observed in the adult locus transcribing the β-globin gene and in several erythroid genes, where GATA-1 occupancy is independent from TAL1. These results indicate that KLF1 plays a role in facilitating and/or stabilizing GATA-1 and TAL1 occupancy in the erythroid genes, contributing to the generation of active chromatin structure such as histone acetylation and chromatin looping. PMID:25528728

  6. Regulated expression of genes inserted at the human chromosomal β-globin locus by homologous recombination

    The authors have examined the effect of the site of integration on the expression of cloned genes introduced into cultured erythroid cells. Smithies et al. reported the targeted integration of DNA into the human β-globin locus on chromosome 11 in a mouse erythroleukemia-human cell hybrid. These hybrid cells can undergo erythroid differentiation leading to greatly increased mouse and human β-globin synthesis. By transfection of these hybrid cells with a plasmid carrying a modified human β-globin gene and a foreign gene composed of the coding sequence of the bacterial neomycin-resistance gene linked to simian virus 40 transcription signals (SVneo), cells were obtained in which the two genes are integrated at the β-globin locus on human chromosome 11 or at random sites. When they examined the response of the integrated genes to cell differentation, they found that the genes inserted at the β-globin locus were induced during differentiation, whereas randomly positioned copies were not induced. Even the foreign SVneo gene was inducible when it had been integrated at the β-globin locus. The results show that genes introduced at the β-globin locus acquire some of the regulatory properties of globin genes during erythroid differentiation

  7. Translocations affecting human immunoglobulin heavy chain locus

    Sklyar I. V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Translocations involving human immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH locus are implicated in different leukaemias and lymphomas, including multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. We have analysed published data and identified eleven breakpoint cluster regions (bcr related to these cancers within the IgH locus. These ~1 kbp bcrs are specific for one or several types of blood cancer. Our findings could help devise PCR-based assays to detect cancer-related translocations, to identify the mechanisms of translocations and to help in the research of potential translocation partners of the immunoglobulin locus at different stages of B-cell differentiation.

  8. The GNAS locus and pseudohypoparathyroidism.

    Bastepe, Murat

    2008-01-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a disorder of end-organ resistance primarily affecting the actions of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Genetic defects associated with different forms of PHP involve the alpha-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsalpha), a signaling protein essential for the actions of PTH and many other hormones. Heterozygous inactivating mutations within Gsalpha-encoding GNAS exons are found in patients with PHP-Ia, who also show resistance to other hormones and a constellation ofphysical features called Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO). Patients who exhibit AHO features without evidence for hormone resistance, who are said to have pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP), also carry heterozygous inactivating Gsalpha mutations. Maternal inheritance of such a mutation leads to PHP-Ia, i.e., AHO plus hormone resistance, while paternal inheritance of the same mutation leads to PPHP, i.e., AHO only. This imprinted mode of inheritance for hormone resistance can be explained by the predominantly maternal expression of Gsalpha in certain tissues, including renal proximal tubules. Patients with PHP-Ib lack coding Gsalpha mutations but display epigenetic defects of the GNAS locus, with the most consistent defect being a loss of imprinting at the exon A/B differentially methylated region (DMR). This epigenetic defect presumably silences, in cis, Gsalpha expression in tissues where this protein is derived from the maternal allele only, leading to a marked reduction of Gsa levels. The familial form of PHP-Ib (AD-PHP-Ib) is typically associated with an isolated loss of imprinting at the exon A/B DMR. A unique 3-kb microdeletion that disrupts the neighboring STX16 1ocus has been identified in this disorder and appears to be the cause of the loss of imprinting. In addition, deletions removing the entire NESP55 DMR, located within GNAS, have been identified in some AD-PHP-Ib kindreds in whom affected individuals show loss of all the maternal GNAS imprints

  9. Primary structure and transcription of an amplified genetic locus: the CUP1 locus of yeast.

    Karin, M; Najarian, R; Haslinger, A; Valenzuela, P; Welch, J; Fogel, S

    1984-01-01

    Copper resistance in yeast is controlled by the CUP1 locus. The level of resistance is proportional to the copy number of this locus, which can be found in up to 15 tandemly iterated copies. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms controlling the amplification and expression of the CUP1, locus, we determined its full nucleotide sequence. We have also identified and mapped two transcription units within the basic amplification unit of CUP1 in laboratory yeast strains. One of those transcription ...

  10. Culture, gender and locus of control

    Ottsen, Christina Lundsgaard; Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    The current study is a cross-cultural comparison between the Middle East and Scandinavia. Two societies that offer a unique opportunity to examine gender differences in personal goals and how goals are affected by locus of control.......The current study is a cross-cultural comparison between the Middle East and Scandinavia. Two societies that offer a unique opportunity to examine gender differences in personal goals and how goals are affected by locus of control....

  11. Regulatory Anatomy

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  12. Reinforced AdaBoost Learning for Object Detection with Local Pattern Representations

    Younghyun Lee; Han, David K.; Hanseok Ko

    2013-01-01

    A reinforced AdaBoost learning algorithm is proposed for object detection with local pattern representations. In implementing Adaboost learning, the proposed algorithm employs an exponential criterion as a cost function and Newton’s method for its optimization. In particular, we introduce an optimal selection of weak classifiers minimizing the cost function and derive the reinforced predictions based on a judicial confidence estimate to determine the classification results. The weak classifie...

  13. VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica

    Garcia Canalle, João Batista; Villas da Rocha, Jaime Fernando; Wuensche de Souza, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira Ortiz, Roberto; Aguilera, Nuricel Villalonga; Padilha, Maria De Fátima Catta Preta; Pessoa Filho, José Bezerra; Soares Rodrigues, Ivette Maria

    2007-07-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos as motivações pelas quais organizamos, em conjunto, pela primeira vez, a Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia incluindo a Astronáutica, em colaboração com a Agência Espacial Brasileira. Esta ampliação contribuiu para atrair ainda mais alunos, professores, escolas e patrocinadores para participarem desta Olimpíada. Em 2005 participaram da VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica (VIII OBA) 187.726 alunos distribuídos por 3.229 escolas, pertencentes a todos os estados brasileiros, incluindo o Distrito Federal. O crescimento em número de alunos participantes foi 52,4% maior do que em 2004. Em abril de 2005 organizamos, em Itapecerica da Serra, SP, um curso para os 50 alunos previamente selecionados e participantes da VII OBA e ao final selecionamos, dentre eles, uma equipe de 5 alunos, os quais representaram o Brasil na X Olimpíada Internacional de Astronomia, na China, em outubro de 2005. Ganhamos, pela primeira vez, uma medalha de ouro naquele evento. Em Agosto de 2005, organizamos a VIII Escola de Agosto para 50 alunos e respectivos professores, em Águas de Lindóia, SP, juntamente com a XXXI reunião anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (SAB). Em novembro de 2005 realizamos a I Jornada Espacial, em São José dos Campos, com 22 alunos e 22 professores selecionados dentre os participantes que melhores resultados obtiveram nas questões de Astronáutica da VIII OBA. Neste trabalho detalhamos os resultados da VIII OBA bem como as ações subseqüentes.

  14. Model-Based Software Engineering and Ada: Synergy for the Development of Safety-Critical Systems

    Blotz, Andree; Huber, Franz; Loetzbeyer, Heiko; Pretschner, Alexander; Slotosch, Oscar; Zaengerl, Hans-Peter

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we outline a software development process for safety-critical systems that aims at combining some of the specific strengths of model-based development with those of programming language based development using safety-critical subsets of Ada. Model-based software development and model-based test case generation techniques are combined with code generation techniques and tools providing a transition from model to code both for a system itself and for its test cases. This allows de...

  15. Introducing New AdaBoost Features for Real-Time Vehicle Detection

    Stanciulescu, Bogdan; Moutarde, Fabien

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows how to improve the real-time object detection in complex robotics applications, by exploring new visual features as AdaBoost weak classifiers. These new features are symmetric Haar filters (enforcing global horizontal and vertical symmetry) and N-connexity control points. Experimental evaluation on a car database show that the latter appear to provide the best results for the vehicle-detection problem.

  16. ADA2 deficiency: case report of a new phenotype and novel mutation in two sisters

    Uettwiller, F; Sarrabay, G; Rodero, M P; Rice, G I; Lagrue, E; Marot, Y; Deiva, K; Touitou, I; Crow, Y J; Quartier, P

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to: describe the phenotype compound heterozygote for mutations in CECR1 in two children. We describe the clinical and immunological phenotype, including the assessment of ADA2 activity, cytokine expression, interferon-stimulated and neutrophil-stimulated gene signatures, and the results of CECR1 sequencing. The first patient presented with intermittent fever, cutaneous vasculitis, myalgia and muscle inflammation on MRI leading to a provisional diagnosis of periarteritis nodosa. Subsequently, two cerebral lacunar lesions were identified following a brain stroke. Clinical features improved on anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy. The first patient's sister demonstrated early-onset, long-lasting anaemia with mild biological inflammation; at the ages of 3 and 5 years, she had presented 2 acute, transient neurological events with lacunar lesions on MRI. CECR1 sequencing identified both sisters to be compound heterozygous for a p.Tyr453Cys mutation and a previously undescribed deletion of exon 7. ADA2 activity was reduced by 50%. Neutrophil-stimulated genes were not overexpressed, but interferon-stimulated genes were. The expression of a panel of other cytokine transcripts was not significantly altered. In conclusion, searching for CECR1 mutation or assessing ADA2 activity should be considered in patients with an atypical presentation of inflammatory disease. PMID:27252897

  17. Ada (R) assessment: An important issue within European Columbus Support Technology Programme

    Vielcanet, P.

    1986-01-01

    Software will be more important and more critical for Columbus than for any ESA previous project. As a simple comparison, overall software size has been in the range of 100 K source statements for EXOSAT, 500 K for Spacelab, and will probably reach several million lines of code for Columbus (all element together). Based on past experience, the total development cost of software can account for about 10 pct to 15 pct of the total space project development cost. The Ada technology may support the strong software engineering principles needed for Columbus, provided that technology is sufficiently mature and industry plans are meeting the Columbus project schedule. Over the past 3 years, Informatique Internationale has conducted a coherent program based on Ada technology assessment studies and experiments, for ESA and CNES. This specific research and development program benefits from 15 years experience in the field of space software development and is supported by the overall software engineering expertise of the company. The assessment and experiments of Ada software engineering by Informatique Internationale are detailed.

  18. An object-oriented classification method of high resolution imagery based on improved AdaTree

    With the popularity of the application using high spatial resolution remote sensing image, more and more studies paid attention to object-oriented classification on image segmentation as well as automatic classification after image segmentation. This paper proposed a fast method of object-oriented automatic classification. First, edge-based or FNEA-based segmentation was used to identify image objects and the values of most suitable attributes of image objects for classification were calculated. Then a certain number of samples from the image objects were selected as training data for improved AdaTree algorithm to get classification rules. Finally, the image objects could be classified easily using these rules. In the AdaTree, we mainly modified the final hypothesis to get classification rules. In the experiment with WorldView2 image, the result of the method based on AdaTree showed obvious accuracy and efficient improvement compared with the method based on SVM with the kappa coefficient achieving 0.9242

  19. ADA2 deficiency: case report of a new phenotype and novel mutation in two sisters.

    Uettwiller, F; Sarrabay, G; Rodero, M P; Rice, G I; Lagrue, E; Marot, Y; Deiva, K; Touitou, I; Crow, Y J; Quartier, P

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to: describe the phenotype compound heterozygote for mutations in CECR1 in two children. We describe the clinical and immunological phenotype, including the assessment of ADA2 activity, cytokine expression, interferon-stimulated and neutrophil-stimulated gene signatures, and the results of CECR1 sequencing. The first patient presented with intermittent fever, cutaneous vasculitis, myalgia and muscle inflammation on MRI leading to a provisional diagnosis of periarteritis nodosa. Subsequently, two cerebral lacunar lesions were identified following a brain stroke. Clinical features improved on anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy. The first patient's sister demonstrated early-onset, long-lasting anaemia with mild biological inflammation; at the ages of 3 and 5 years, she had presented 2 acute, transient neurological events with lacunar lesions on MRI. CECR1 sequencing identified both sisters to be compound heterozygous for a p.Tyr453Cys mutation and a previously undescribed deletion of exon 7. ADA2 activity was reduced by 50%. Neutrophil-stimulated genes were not overexpressed, but interferon-stimulated genes were. The expression of a panel of other cytokine transcripts was not significantly altered. In conclusion, searching for CECR1 mutation or assessing ADA2 activity should be considered in patients with an atypical presentation of inflammatory disease. PMID:27252897

  20. Using Ada to implement the operations management system in a community of experts

    Frank, M. S.

    1986-01-01

    An architecture is described for the Space Station Operations Management System (OMS), consisting of a distributed expert system framework implemented in Ada. The motivation for such a scheme is based on the desire to integrate the very diverse elements of the OMS while taking maximum advantage of knowledge based systems technology. Part of the foundation of an Ada based distributed expert system was accomplished in the form of a proof of concept prototype for the KNOMES project (Knowledge-based Maintenance Expert System). This prototype successfully used concurrently active experts to accomplish monitoring and diagnosis for the Remote Manipulator System. The basic concept of this software architecture is named ACTORS for Ada Cognitive Task ORganization Scheme. It is when one considers the overall problem of integrating all of the OMS elements into a cooperative system that the AI solution stands out. By utilizing a distributed knowledge based system as the framework for OMS, it is possible to integrate those components which need to share information in an intelligent manner.

  1. Rezension: Ada Lovelace. Die Pionierin der Computertechnik und ihre Nachfolgerinnen von Sybille Krämer (Hg.)

    Bettina Schabschneider

    2015-01-01

    Ein aktueller von Sybille Krämer herausgegebener Sammelband beleuchtet die Bedeutung der Computertechnik-Pionierin Ada Lovelace. Bettina Schabschneider hat den Band einer detaillierten Lektüre unterzogen und für die MEDIENIMPULSE rezensiert …

  2. Detecting purely epistatic multi-locus interactions by an omnibus permutation test on ensembles of two-locus analyses

    Limwongse Chanin; Sinsomros Saravudh; Piroonratana Theera; Assawamakin Anunchai; Wongseree Waranyu; Chaiyaratana Nachol

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Purely epistatic multi-locus interactions cannot generally be detected via single-locus analysis in case-control studies of complex diseases. Recently, many two-locus and multi-locus analysis techniques have been shown to be promising for the epistasis detection. However, exhaustive multi-locus analysis requires prohibitively large computational efforts when problems involve large-scale or genome-wide data. Furthermore, there is no explicit proof that a combination of mult...

  3. Biochemical detection of E-ADA on Neospora caninum tachyzoites and the effects of a specific enzymatic inhibitor

    Alexandre A. Tonin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to investigate the presence and activity of the ecto adenosine deaminase (E-ADA enzyme in tachyzoites of Neospora caninum (Nc-1 strain, as well as to assess the activity of a well-known E-ADA inhibitor, the deoxycoformycin. Materials and methods. The parasites were grown in cell culture, being subsequently separated in a pellet of tachyzoites, on which the E-ADA activity was tested using the concentrations 0 (control, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg mL-1. Results. The E-ADA showed high activity, progressively increasing its activity according to the enhancement of the protein concentration. The test was carried out with different concentrations of deoxycoformycin, showing that it was able to inhibit the E-ADA present on the free form of the parasite. Conclusions. Based on these results we conclude that the E-ADA is present on tachyzoites of N. caninum, and deoxycoformycin is able to inhibit this enzyme. In this sense, knowing the negative impact of N. caninum on reproductive issue in cattle (mainly abortion, might it is an alternative in order to deal with this parasitic infection.

  4. Research on Classification of Neuron Morphology Based on AdaBoost%基于AdaBoost的神经元形态分类的研究

    陆良虎; 毕硕本; 葛荐; 闫荞荞; 颜坚

    2011-01-01

    根据神经元形态的几何特征,使用AdaBoost算法对其进行分类,采用决策树、贝叶斯和关联规则分类模型作为基分类器。算法首先采用直接面向纽舍分类器分类精度提升的集成学刁算法选取基分类器,其次利用分类过程中生成样本的孱升权值来调整前K次(K〉1)被错误分类样本的权重,并提留双重阎值法对样本的最终投票表决结果进行判定。对20个测试样本进行分类,得出高可信度分类数为18个。%According to the geometric characteristics of neuron morphology, neurons were classified by AdaBoost algorithm, in which the decision tree, Bayesian and association rules classification model were used as base classifiers Firstly, the improvement of the classification precision of combined classifier directly oriented ensemble learning algorithms were adopted to select the base classifier. Secondly, cumulative weights of the sample generated during the classification were used to adjust the weights of misclassified samples in the former K (K〉 1) classification processes, and the dual threshold values for final voting results of samples were set. The 20 test samples were classified by AadBoost algorithm, and the results show that the number of highly reliable classification is 18.

  5. Enhancer scanning to locate regulatory regions in genomic loci.

    Buckley, Melissa; Gjyshi, Anxhela; Mendoza-Fandiño, Gustavo; Baskin, Rebekah; Carvalho, Renato S; Carvalho, Marcelo A; Woods, Nicholas T; Monteiro, Alvaro N A

    2016-01-01

    This protocol provides a rapid, streamlined and scalable strategy to systematically scan genomic regions for the presence of transcriptional regulatory regions that are active in a specific cell type. It creates genomic tiles spanning a region of interest that are subsequently cloned by recombination into a luciferase reporter vector containing the simian virus 40 promoter. Tiling clones are transfected into specific cell types to test for the presence of transcriptional regulatory regions. The protocol includes testing of different single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles to determine their effect on regulatory activity. This procedure provides a systematic framework for identifying candidate functional SNPs within a locus during functional analysis of genome-wide association studies. This protocol adapts and combines previous well-established molecular biology methods to provide a streamlined strategy, based on automated primer design and recombinational cloning, allowing one to rapidly go from a genomic locus to a set of candidate functional SNPs in 8 weeks. PMID:26658467

  6. Detección de fatiga en conductores mediante fusión de sistemas ADAS

    García Daza, Iván

    2011-01-01

    Se ha identificado la somnolencia como una de las causas más importante de accidentes de tráfico, ya que se encuentra implicada en el 20% de los mismos, por lo que existe un interés creciente en encontrar sistemas ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) capaces de detectar el estado de fatiga del conductor para prevenir posibles accidentes. En esta tesis se propone una técnica, basada en el procesado de imágenes monoculares consistente en la detección, seguimiento y caracterización de la ap...

  7. An Ada Linear-Algebra Software Package Modeled After HAL/S

    Klumpp, Allan R.; Lawson, Charles L.

    1990-01-01

    New avionics software written more easily. Software package extends Ada programming language to include linear-algebra capabilities similar to those of HAL/S programming language. Designed for such avionics applications as Space Station flight software. In addition to built-in functions of HAL/S, package incorporates quaternion functions used in Space Shuttle and Galileo projects and routines from LINPAK solving systems of equations involving general square matrices. Contains two generic programs: one for floating-point computations and one for integer computations. Written on IBM/AT personal computer running under PC DOS, v.3.1.

  8. Addressing the Regression Test Problem with Change Impact Analysis for Ada

    Jones, Andrew V.

    2016-01-01

    The regression test selection problem--selecting a subset of a test-suite given a change--has been studied widely over the past two decades. However, the problem has seen little attention when constrained to high-criticality developments and where a "safe" selection of tests need to be chosen. Further, no practical approaches have been presented for the programming language Ada. In this paper, we introduce an approach to solving the selection problem given a combination of both static and dyn...

  9. A razão comunicativa nas sociedades avançadas

    Martins, Moisés de Lemos

    2005-01-01

    O desenvolvimento das indústrias culturais (produtos informáticos, multimedia -televisão, telefone e computador integrados -, publicidade, moda, música, dança, turismo e férias) tomou hegemónica no nosso tempo a cultura de massas. A culminação deste processo, que inclui os media, fez confluir num mesmo sentido a comunicação, o consumo e o lazer, fechando deste modo o ciclo da estruturação da sociedade moderna. É meu intuito analisar o modo como nas sociedades avançadas a comunicação ...

  10. Novos materiais de construção com tecnologias avançadas

    Lucas, S.; Cunha, Sandra Raquel Leite; Senff, L.; Paiva, H.; Aguiar, J. L. Barroso de; J. A. Labrincha; Ferreira, V. M.

    2014-01-01

    Este artigo pretende apenas dar um contributo, assinalando alguns exemplos em que se tem vindo a trabalhar e que refletem o uso de tecnologias avançadas na formulação e funcionalidade de materiais de construção tradicionais. Um exemplo claro é o uso de aditivos que induzem novas funções e que muitos deles pertencem ao grupo denominado como nanomateriais. A sua adição coloca quase sempre problemas de incorporação e que requerem um trabalho de ajuste das formulações e comportamen...

  11. Development of Ada language control software for the NASA power management and distribution test bed

    Wright, Ted; Mackin, Michael; Gantose, Dave

    1989-01-01

    The Ada language software developed to control the NASA Lewis Research Center's Power Management and Distribution testbed is described. The testbed is a reduced-scale prototype of the electric power system to be used on space station Freedom. It is designed to develop and test hardware and software for a 20-kHz power distribution system. The distributed, multiprocessor, testbed control system has an easy-to-use operator interface with an understandable English-text format. A simple interface for algorithm writers that uses the same commands as the operator interface is provided, encouraging interactive exploration of the system.

  12. ADA Congress 2015 in Boston (USA - an overview of the main topics

    Tatiana Vasil'evna Nikonova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available From July 5 to July 9, 2015 in Convention Center in Boston (USA there took place anniversary 75th session of the annual congress of the American Diabetic Association (ADA. The congress united more than 14000 participants from 124 countries. Programs of scientific sessions of the congress included the most topical issues of diabetology: modern approaches to diagnostics, prevention and treatment of DM and its complications, the results of the international researches of anti-diabetic preparations, problems connected with diabetes 2 types and obesity and many others.

  13. CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A METAL RESPONSIVE ELEMENT-CONTAINING FRAGMENT FROM THE WILSON DISEASE GENE LOCUS BY JUNCTION TRAPPING

    谢久永; 刘国仰; 王梅; 黄尚志; 罗会元

    1998-01-01

    All mammalian metallothionaln genes studied to dare have several metal responsive elements (MRE) with consensus sequences of TGCRCNC (R, purlne) in their regulatory region. MRE-11ke sequeaees were also found in many other metal-related genes. To see whether there is also such a sequence at the genetic locus (13q14. 3) d Wilstm disease, which is a genetic disorder d copper metabolisa''n, junction-trapping method baaed on the MRE sequence was used. A fragment containing MRE and MRE-like sequences from YAC 27D8 at the WND locus was successfully cloned and mapped back to the YAC by PC, R, Presence of such a sequence in the copper transporter gene at the W''D locus might imply that it has a possible interesting role in the regulation of WD gene expression.

  14. Role of CTCF protein in regulating FMR1 locus transcription.

    Stella Lanni

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS, the leading cause of inherited intellectual disability, is caused by epigenetic silencing of the FMR1 gene, through expansion and methylation of a CGG triplet repeat (methylated full mutation. An antisense transcript (FMR1-AS1, starting from both promoter and intron 2 of the FMR1 gene, was demonstrated in transcriptionally active alleles, but not in silent FXS alleles. Moreover, a DNA methylation boundary, which is lost in FXS, was recently identified upstream of the FMR1 gene. Several nuclear proteins bind to this region, like the insulator protein CTCF. Here we demonstrate for the first time that rare unmethylated full mutation (UFM alleles present the same boundary described in wild type (WT alleles and that CTCF binds to this region, as well as to the FMR1 gene promoter, exon 1 and intron 2 binding sites. Contrariwise, DNA methylation prevents CTCF binding to FXS alleles. Drug-induced CpGs demethylation does not restore this binding. CTCF knock-down experiments clearly established that CTCF does not act as insulator at the active FMR1 locus, despite the presence of a CGG expansion. CTCF depletion induces heterochromatinic histone configuration of the FMR1 locus and results in reduction of FMR1 transcription, which however is not accompanied by spreading of DNA methylation towards the FMR1 promoter. CTCF depletion is also associated with FMR1-AS1 mRNA reduction. Antisense RNA, like sense transcript, is upregulated in UFM and absent in FXS cells and its splicing is correlated to that of the FMR1-mRNA. We conclude that CTCF has a complex role in regulating FMR1 expression, probably through the organization of chromatin loops between sense/antisense transcriptional regulatory regions, as suggested by bioinformatics analysis.

  15. The LOCUS interface to the MFE database

    The MFE database now consists of over 900 shots from TFTR, PDX, PLT, T-10, JT-60, TEXT, JET and ASDEX. A variety of discharge conditions is represented, ranging from single time slice Ohmic discharges to multiple time-slice auxiliary heated discharges. Included with most datasets is a reference that describes the experiment being performed when the data was taken. The MFE database is currently implemented under INGRES on a VAX that is on Internet. LOCUS, a database utility, developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory is now available as an interface to the database. The LOCUS front end provides a graphic interface to the database from any generic graphics terminal that supports Tektronix 4010 emulation. It provides a variety of procedures for extracting, manipulating and graphing data from the MFE database. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the LOCUS interface, the authors examine, in detail, one of the recently added JET, H-mode discharges. In this example, they address some new concepts such as monitor functions, which have been introduced in order to help users more fully understand the multiple time-slice datasets. They also describe some of the more advanced techniques available in LOCUS for data access and manipulation. Specific areas of interest that are discussed are searching for and retrieving datasets, graphics, data fitting, and linear regression analysis

  16. #614411 GLYCEROL QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS; GLYCQTL [OMIM

    Full Text Available FIELD NO 614411 FIELD TI #614411 GLYCEROL QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS; GLYCQTL ;;GLYCEROL RELEASE D ... 07) screened 178 Spanish individuals, including 37 lean ... and 90 obese (see 606641) nondiabetics and 14 lean ... significant difference in its distribution between lean ... and obese individuals or between diabetics and non ...

  17. Locus of Equity and Brand Extension

    S.M.J. van Osselaer (Stijn); J.W. Alba (Joseph)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPrevailing wisdom assumes that brand equity increases when a brand touts its desirable attributes. We report conditions under which the use of attribute information to promote a product can shift the locus of equity from brand to attribute, thereby reducing the attractiveness of extensio

  18. Regulatory Physiology

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  19. Neonatal bone marrow transplantation of ADA-deficient SCID mice results in immunologic reconstitution despite low levels of engraftment and an absence of selective donor T lymphoid expansion

    Carbonaro, Denise A.; Jin, Xiangyang; Cotoi, Daniel; Mi, Tiejuan; Yu, Xiao-Jin; Skelton, Dianne C.; Dorey, Frederick; Kellems, Rodney E.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Kohn, Donald B.

    2008-01-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA)–deficient severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) may be treated by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without prior cytoreductive conditioning, although the mechanism of immune reconstitution is unclear. We studied this process in a murine gene knockout model of ADA-deficient SCID. Newborn ADA-deficient pups received transplants of intravenous infusion of normal congenic bone marrow, without prior cytoreductive conditioning, which resulted in long-t...

  20. Generic Ada code in the NASA space station command, control and communications environment

    Mcdougall, D. P.; Vollman, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    The results of efforts to apply powerful Ada constructs to the formatted message handling process are described. The goal of these efforts was to extend the state-of-technology in message handling while at the same time producing production-quality, reusable code. The first effort was initiated in September, 1984 and delivered in April, 1985. That product, the Generic Message Handling Facility, met initial goals, was reused, and is available in the Ada Repository on ARPANET. However, it became apparent during its development that the initial approach to building a message handler template was not optimal. As a result of this initial effort, several alternate approaches were identified, and research is now on-going to identify an improved product. The ultimate goal is to be able to instantly build a message handling system for any message format given a specification of that message format. The problem lies in how to specify the message format, and one that is done, how to use that information to build the message handler. Message handling systems and message types are described. The initial efforts, its results and its shortcomings are detailed. The approach now being taken to build a system which will be significantly easier to implement, and once implemented, easier to use, is described. Finally, conclusions are offered.

  1. Integrating automated structured analysis and design with Ada programming support environments

    Hecht, Alan; Simmons, Andy

    1986-01-01

    Ada Programming Support Environments (APSE) include many powerful tools that address the implementation of Ada code. These tools do not address the entire software development process. Structured analysis is a methodology that addresses the creation of complete and accurate system specifications. Structured design takes a specification and derives a plan to decompose the system subcomponents, and provides heuristics to optimize the software design to minimize errors and maintenance. It can also produce the creation of useable modules. Studies have shown that most software errors result from poor system specifications, and that these errors also become more expensive to fix as the development process continues. Structured analysis and design help to uncover error in the early stages of development. The APSE tools help to insure that the code produced is correct, and aid in finding obscure coding errors. However, they do not have the capability to detect errors in specifications or to detect poor designs. An automated system for structured analysis and design TEAMWORK, which can be integrated with an APSE to support software systems development from specification through implementation is described. These tools completement each other to help developers improve quality and productivity, as well as to reduce development and maintenance costs. Complete system documentation and reusable code also resultss from the use of these tools. Integrating an APSE with automated tools for structured analysis and design provide capabilities and advantages beyond those realized with any of these systems used by themselves.

  2. Genetic Analysis of the Hairy Locus in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    Ingham, P W; Pinchin, S M; Howard, K.R.; Ish-Horowicz, D.

    1985-01-01

    Mutations of the hairy locus in Drosophila may affect both adult chaeta differentiation and embryonic segmentation. In an effort to understand this phenotypic complexity, we have analyzed 30 mutant alleles of the locus. We find that the alleles fall into four groups according to their complementation properties, suggesting a structurally complex locus in which two distinct functions share a common coding region.

  3. Locus of Control and Psychological Distress among the Aged.

    Hale, W. Daniel; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined relationship between locus of control and self-reported psychopathology in 139 residents of retirement complex. Correlation coefficients computed for locus of control and each of nine symptom dimensions of the Brief Symptom Inventory indicated that locus of control was correlated with self-reported psychopatholgoy for older women but not…

  4. Self-Esteem, Locus of Control, and Student Achievement.

    Sterbin, Allan; Rakow, Ernest

    The direct effects of locus of control and self-esteem on standardized test scores were studied. The relationships among the standardized test scores and measures of locus of control and self-esteem for 12,260 students from the National Education Longitudinal Study 1994 database were examined, using the same definition of locus of control and…

  5. A genetic map of chromosome 20q12-q13.1: Multiple highly polymorphic microsatellite and RFLP markers linked to the maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) locus

    Rothschild, Cynthia B.; Akots, Gita; Hayworth, Rosa; Pettenati, Mark J.; Rao, P. Nagesh; Wood, Patricia; Stolz, Frank-Michael; Hansmann, Ingo; Serino, Kristina; Keith, Tim P.; Fajans, Stefan S.; Bowden, Donald W.

    1993-01-01

    Multiple highly polymorphic markers have been used to construct a genetic map of the q12-q13.1 region of chromosome 20 and to map the location of the maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) locus. The genetic map encompasses 23 cM and includes 11 loci with PIC values >.50, seven of which have PICs >.70. New dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms associated with the D20S17, PPGB, and ADA loci have been identified and mapped. The dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms have increased the PIC of the AD...

  6. Finemapping of the arthritis QTL Pia7 reveals co-localization with Oia2 and the APLEC locus.

    Rintisch, C; Kelkka, T; Norin, U; Lorentzen, J C; Olofsson, P; Holmdahl, R

    2010-04-01

    In this study, we sought to determine the effect of the quantitative trait locus Pia7 on arthritis severity. The regulatory locus derived from the arthritis-resistant E3 rat strain was introgressed into the arthritis-susceptibility DA strain through continuous backcrossing. Congenic rats were studied for their susceptibility to experimental arthritis using pristane and adjuvant oil. In addition, cell number and function of various leukocyte populations were analyzed either under naive or stimulated conditions. We found that the minimal congenic fragment of DA.E3-Pia7 rats overlapped with the minimal fragment in DA.PVG-Oia2 congenic rats, which has been positionally cloned to the antigen-presenting lectin-like receptor complex (APLEC) genes. DA.E3-Pia7 congenic rats were protected from both PIA and OIA, but the protection was more pronounced in OIA. In adoptive transfer experiments we observed that the Pia7 locus controlled the priming of arthritogenic T cells and not the effector phase. In addition, Pia7 congenic rats had a significant higher frequency of B cells and granulocytes as well as TNFalpha production after stimulation, indicating a higher activation state of cells of the innate immune system. In conclusion, this study shows that the APLEC locus is a major locus regulating the severity of experimentally induced arthritis in rats. PMID:20200546

  7. Copy-number variations involving the IHH locus are associated with syndactyly and craniosynostosis.

    Klopocki, Eva; Lohan, Silke; Brancati, Francesco; Koll, Randi; Brehm, Anja; Seemann, Petra; Dathe, Katarina; Stricker, Sigmar; Hecht, Jochen; Bosse, Kristin; Betz, Regina C; Garaci, Francesco Giuseppe; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Jain, Mahim; Muenke, Maximilian; Ng, Vivian C W; Chan, Wilson; Chan, Danny; Mundlos, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Indian hedgehog (IHH) is a secreted signaling molecule of the hedgehog family known to play important roles in the regulation of chondrocyte differentiation, cortical bone formation, and the development of joints. Here, we describe that copy-number variations of the IHH locus involving conserved noncoding elements (CNEs) are associated with syndactyly and craniosynostosis. These CNEs are able to drive reporter gene expression in a pattern highly similar to wild-type Ihh expression. We postulate that the observed duplications lead to a misexpression and/or overexpression of IHH and by this affect the complex regulatory signaling network during digit and skull development. PMID:21167467

  8. The algebraic locus of Feynman integrals

    Kol, Barak

    2016-01-01

    In the Symmetries of Feynman Integrals (SFI) approach, a diagram's parameter space is foliated by orbits of a Lie group associated with the diagram. SFI is related to the important methods of Integrations By Parts and of Differential Equations. It is shown that sometimes there exist a locus in parameter space where the set of SFI differential equations degenerates into an algebraic equation, thereby enabling a solution in terms of integrals associated with degenerations of the diagram. This is demonstrated by the two-loop vacuum diagram, where the algebraic locus can be interpreted as a threshold phenomenon and is given by the zeros of the Baikov polynomial. In addition, the symmetry group is interpreted geometrically as linear transformations of loop currents which preserve the subspace of squared currents within the space of quadratics in loop currents.

  9. Autism, fever, epigenetics and the locus coeruleus

    Mehler, Mark F.; Purpura, Dominick P.

    2008-01-01

    Some children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibit improved behaviors and enhanced communication during febrile episodes. We hypothesize that febrigenesis and the behavioral-state changes associated with fever in autism depend upon selective normalization of key components of a functionally impaired locus coeruleus-noradrenergic (LC-NA) system. We posit that autistic behaviors result from developmental dysregulation of LC-NA system specification and neural network deployment and modul...

  10. Bipolar disorder: Evidence for a major locus

    Spence, M.A.; Flodman, P.L. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Sadovnick, A.D.; Ameli, H. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)] [and others

    1995-10-09

    Complex segregation analyses were conducted on families of bipolar I and bipolar II probands to delineate the mode of inheritance. The probands were ascertained from consecutive referrals to the Mood Disorder Service, University Hospital, University of British Columbia and diagnosed by DSM-III-R and Research Diagnostic Criteria. Data were available on over 1,500 first-degree relatives of the 186 Caucasian probands. The purpose of the analyses was to determine if, after correcting for age and birth cohort, there was evidence for a single major locus. Five models were fit to the data using the statistical package SAGE: (1) dominant, (2) recessive, (3) arbitrary mendelian inheritance, (4) environmental, and (5) no major effects. A single dominant, mendelian major locus was the best fitting of these models for the sample of bipolar I and II probands when only bipolar relatives were defined as affected (polygenic inheritance could not be tested). Adding recurrent major depression to the diagnosis {open_quotes}affected{close_quotes} for relatives reduced the evidence for a major locus effect. Our findings support the undertaking of linkage studies and are consistent with the analyses of the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative Study data by Rice et al. and Blangero and Elston. 39 refs., 4 tabs.

  11. Lessons learned applying CASE methods/tools to Ada software development projects

    Blumberg, Maurice H.; Randall, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the lessons learned from introducing CASE methods/tools into organizations and applying them to actual Ada software development projects. This paper will be useful to any organization planning to introduce a software engineering environment (SEE) or evolving an existing one. It contains management level lessons learned, as well as lessons learned in using specific SEE tools/methods. The experiences presented are from Alpha Test projects established under the STARS (Software Technology for Adaptable and Reliable Systems) project. They reflect the front end efforts by those projects to understand the tools/methods, initial experiences in their introduction and use, and later experiences in the use of specific tools/methods and the introduction of new ones.

  12. Determination of Gender and Age Based on Pattern of Human Motion Using AdaBoost Algorithms

    Handri, Santoso; Nomura, Shusaku; Nakamura, Kazuo

    Automated human identification by their walking behavior is a challenge attracting much interest among machine vision researchers. However, practical systems for such identification remain to be developed. In this study, a machine learning approach to understand human behavior based on motion imagery was proposed as the basis for developing pedestrian safety information systems. At the front end, image and video processing was performed to separate foreground from background images. Shape-width was then analyzed using 2D discrete wavelet transformation to extract human motion features. Finally, an adaptive boosting (AdaBoost) algorithm was performed to classify human gender and age into its class. The results demonstrated capability of the proposed systems to classify gender and age highly accurately.

  13. «Os Lusíadas» e o Antigo Testamento

    Carreira, José Nunes

    1981-01-01

    “Concordo que seja «mais que tempo de ler Os Lusíadas como um poema e não como um repositório devoto de verdades patrióticas, morais, políticas, ideológicas, filosóficas, religiosas, ou místicas sumptuosas versificadas. Não porque essas ‘verdades’ de algum modo não se possam encontrar lá ou pelo menos o reflexo e eco delas, mas porque estão inseridas e envolvidas por algo bem mais decisivo e radical que é o ‘eu profundo’ do poeta e sob ele o inconsciente de uma época particularmente complexa ...

  14. Face detection at a distance with AdaBoost filtering and color-shape information

    Yeom, Seokwon; Lee, Dong-Su

    2013-05-01

    Face detection at a distance is very challenging because the image quality becomes low. This paper discusses a face detection method in the long distance with AdaBoost filtering and a false alarm reduction scheme. The false alarm reduction scheme is based on skin-color testing and variable edge mask filtering. The skin-color test involves the average RGB components of the window, followed by the binary cluster image generation. The binary cluster is composed of the alternative and null pixels according to color. The size of the edge mask is determined by the ellipse covering the binary cluster. The edge mask filters out false alarms by evaluating the contour shape of the object in the window. In the experiments, the false alarm reduction scheme is shown to be effective for face detection in images captured at a distance.

  15. La tríada oscura de la personalidad: maquiavelismo, narcisismo y psicopatía. Una mirada evolutiva

    Fernando Renee González Moraga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Se aborda la denominada Tríada Oscura de la Personalidad -Tríada- (maquiavelismo, narcisismo subclínico y psicopatía subclínica desde una mirada evolutiva. El objetivo de esta investigación es revisar la evidencia que han presentado los teóricos evolucionistas sobre la Tríada, desde un acercamiento a la mirada evolutiva. Para esto, se indaga en las principales características de cada uno de estos rasgos, los instrumentos que se han utilizado para evaluarlos y las principales áreas en donde se han estudiado. La mirada evolutiva plantea que los rasgos de la Tríada son dimensionales y varían de acuerdo con las diversas estrategias que utilizan los sujetos para adaptarse a las características socioambientales en las que se desarrollan. Estos rasgos se caracterizan por presentar violencia psicológica, inhibición moral, manipulación, baja amabilidad, insensibilidad, egoísmo y dificultad para mentalizar en contextos de interacción interpersonal y social.

  16. 77 FR 45962 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Idaho; Boise-Northern Ada County Air...

    2012-08-02

    ... County Air Quality Maintenance Area Second 10-Year Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan AGENCY: Environmental... County Air Quality Maintenance Area Second 10- year Carbon Monoxide Limited Maintenance Plan submitted by... Maintenance Area. The Northern Ada County Area attained the CO national ambient air quality standards...

  17. Reliability prediction for the vehicles equipped with advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS and passive safety systems (PSS

    Balbir S. Dhillon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The human error has been reported as a major root cause in road accidents in today’s world. The human as a driver in road vehicles composed of human, mechanical and electrical components is constantly exposed to changing surroundings (e.g., road conditions, environmentwhich deteriorate the driver’s capacities leading to a potential accident. The auto industries and transportation authorities have realized that similar to other complex and safety sensitive transportation systems, the road vehicles need to rely on both advanced technologies (i.e., Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS and Passive Safety Systems (PSS (e.g.,, seatbelts, airbags in order to mitigate the risk of accidents and casualties. In this study, the advantages and disadvantages of ADAS as active safety systems as well as passive safety systems in road vehicles have been discussed. Also, this study proposes models that analyze the interactions between human as a driver and ADAS Warning and Crash Avoidance Systems and PSS in the design of vehicles. Thereafter, the mathematical models have been developed to make reliability prediction at any given time on the road transportation for vehicles equipped with ADAS and PSS. Finally, the implications of this study in the improvement of vehicle designs and prevention of casualties are discussed.

  18. Dynamic Allocation Strategy Based on Pre-allocation and Agent to Implement Ada95's Distributed Computing

    ZhuFu-xi; FuJian-ming; WuChan-le; CaoZheng

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the model of how the Agent is applied to implement distributed computing of Ada95 and presents a dynamic allocation strategy for distributed computing that based on pre-allocationand Agent. The aim of this strategy is realizing dynamic equilibrium allocation.

  19. Rezension: Ada Lovelace. Die Pionierin der Computertechnik und ihre Nachfolgerinnen von Sybille Krämer (Hg.

    Bettina Schabschneider

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ein aktueller von Sybille Krämer herausgegebener Sammelband beleuchtet die Bedeutung der Computertechnik-Pionierin Ada Lovelace. Bettina Schabschneider hat den Band einer detaillierten Lektüre unterzogen und für die MEDIENIMPULSE rezensiert …

  20. A gene locus for targeted ectopic gene integration in Zymoseptoria tritici.

    Kilaru, S; Schuster, M; Latz, M; Das Gupta, S; Steinberg, N; Fones, H; Gurr, S J; Talbot, N J; Steinberg, G

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the cellular organization and biology of fungal pathogens requires accurate methods for genomic integration of mutant alleles or fluorescent fusion-protein constructs. In Zymoseptoria tritici, this can be achieved by integrating of plasmid DNA randomly into the genome of this wheat pathogen. However, untargeted ectopic integration carries the risk of unwanted side effects, such as altered gene expression, due to targeting regulatory elements, or gene disruption following integration into protein-coding regions of the genome. Here, we establish the succinate dehydrogenase (sdi1) locus as a single "soft-landing" site for targeted ectopic integration of genetic constructs by using a carboxin-resistant sdi1(R) allele, carrying the point-mutation H267L. We use various green and red fluorescent fusion constructs and show that 97% of all transformants integrate correctly into the sdi1 locus as single copies. We also demonstrate that such integration does not affect the pathogenicity of Z. tritici, and thus the sdi1 locus is a useful tool for virulence analysis in genetically modified Z. tritici strains. Furthermore, we have developed a vector which facilitates yeast recombination cloning and thus allows assembly of multiple overlapping DNA fragments in a single cloning step for high throughput vector and strain generation. PMID:26092798

  1. A gene locus for targeted ectopic gene integration in Zymoseptoria tritici☆

    Kilaru, S.; Schuster, M.; Latz, M.; Das Gupta, S.; Steinberg, N.; Fones, H.; Gurr, S.J.; Talbot, N.J.; Steinberg, G.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the cellular organization and biology of fungal pathogens requires accurate methods for genomic integration of mutant alleles or fluorescent fusion-protein constructs. In Zymoseptoria tritici, this can be achieved by integrating of plasmid DNA randomly into the genome of this wheat pathogen. However, untargeted ectopic integration carries the risk of unwanted side effects, such as altered gene expression, due to targeting regulatory elements, or gene disruption following integration into protein-coding regions of the genome. Here, we establish the succinate dehydrogenase (sdi1) locus as a single “soft-landing” site for targeted ectopic integration of genetic constructs by using a carboxin-resistant sdi1R allele, carrying the point-mutation H267L. We use various green and red fluorescent fusion constructs and show that 97% of all transformants integrate correctly into the sdi1 locus as single copies. We also demonstrate that such integration does not affect the pathogenicity of Z. tritici, and thus the sdi1 locus is a useful tool for virulence analysis in genetically modified Z. tritici strains. Furthermore, we have developed a vector which facilitates yeast recombination cloning and thus allows assembly of multiple overlapping DNA fragments in a single cloning step for high throughput vector and strain generation. PMID:26092798

  2. Atrial natriuretic peptide in the locus coeruleus and its possible role in the regulation of arterial blood pressure, fluid and electrolyte homeostasis

    Geiger, H.; Sterzel, R.B. (Univ. of Erlangen-Nuernberg (West Germany)); Bahner, U.; Heidland, A. (Univ. of Wuerzburg (West Germany)); Palkovits, M. (Semmelweis Univ., Budapest (Hungary))

    1991-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic factor (ANP) is present in neuronal cells of the locus coeruleus and its vicinity in the pontine tegmentum and moderate amount of ANP is detectable in this area by radioimmunoassay. The ANP is known as a neuropeptide which may influence the body salt and water homeostasis and blood pressure by targeting both central and peripheral regulatory mechanisms. Whether this pontine ANP cell group is involved in any of these regulatory mechanisms, the effect of various types of hypertension and experimental alterations in the salt and water balance on ANP levels was measured by radioimmunoassay in the locus coeruleus of rats. Adrenalectomy, as well as aldosterone and dexamethasone treatments failed to alter ANP levels in the locus coeruleus. Reduced ANP levels were measured in spontaneously hypertensive rats, and in diabetes insipidus rats with vasopressin replacement. In contrast to these situations, elevated ANP levels were found in rats with DOCA-salt or 1-Kidney-1-clip hypertension. These data suggest a link between ANP levels in the locus coeruleus and fluid volume homeostasis. Whether this link is causal and connected with the major activity of locus coeruleus neurons needs further information.

  3. Evolving New Skeletal Traits by cis-Regulatory Changes in Bone Morphogenetic Proteins.

    Indjeian, Vahan B; Kingman, Garrett A; Jones, Felicity C; Guenther, Catherine A; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Myers, Richard M; Kingsley, David M

    2016-01-14

    Changes in bone size and shape are defining features of many vertebrates. Here we use genetic crosses and comparative genomics to identify specific regulatory DNA alterations controlling skeletal evolution. Armor bone-size differences in sticklebacks map to a major effect locus overlapping BMP family member GDF6. Freshwater fish express more GDF6 due in part to a transposon insertion, and transgenic overexpression of GDF6 phenocopies evolutionary changes in armor-plate size. The human GDF6 locus also has undergone distinctive regulatory evolution, including complete loss of an enhancer that is otherwise highly conserved between chimps and other mammals. Functional tests show that the ancestral enhancer drives expression in hindlimbs but not forelimbs, in locations that have been specifically modified during the human transition to bipedalism. Both gain and loss of regulatory elements can localize BMP changes to specific anatomical locations, providing a flexible regulatory basis for evolving species-specific changes in skeletal form. PMID:26774823

  4. An empirical assessment of the construct "work locus of control"

    Allan Maram

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the domain specificity of the locus of control construct within the workplace. The research investigated whether Specter's (1988 work locus of control scale, a work centred conceptualisation of Rotter's (1966 locus of control measure/ demonstrated evidence of criterion - related validity. This was done by assessing its relationship to leader-member exchange and organisational commitment. The results indicated that work locus of control correlated with both leader-member exchange and organisational commitment and that leadermember exchange acted as a mediator of the relationship between work locus of control and organisational commitment. This is consistent with results from a similar study undertaken by Kinicki & Vecchio (1994 who employed Rotter's (1966 general locus of control measure. The current research demonstrated stronger relationship than Kinicki & Vecchio's (1994 study, which suggests that Specter's (1988 domain specific scale may predict work behaviour more precisely than Rotter's (1966 more general measure.

  5. Locus of control and online learning

    Suretha Esterhuysen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The integration of online learning in university courses is considered to be both inevitable and necessary. Thus there is an increasing need to raise awareness among educators and course designers about the critical issues impacting on online learning. The aim of this study, therefore, was to assess the differences between two groups of first-year Business Sciences learners (online and conventional learners in terms of biographic and demographic characteristics and locus of control. The study population consisted of 586 first-year learners of whom 185 completed the Locus of Control Inventory (LCI. The results show that the two groups of learners do not differ statistically significantly from each other with respect to locus of control. The findings and their implications are also discussed. Opsomming Die integrasie van aanlyn-leer in universiteitskursusse word beskou as sowel onafwendbaar as noodsaaklik. Daar is dus ’n toenemende behoefte om bewustheid onder opvoedkundiges en kursusontwerpers te kweek oor die kritiese aspekte wat ’n impak op aanlyn-leer het (Morgan, 1996. Daarom was die doel van hierdie ondersoek om die verskille tussen twee groepe eerstejaarleerders in Bestuurs- en Ekonomiese Wetenskap (aanlyn en konvensionele leerders te bepaal ten opsigte van biografiese en demografiese eienskappe en lokus van beheer. Die populasie het bestaan uit 586 eerstejaarleerders waarvan 185 die Lokus van Beheer Vraelys voltooi het. Die resultate toon dat die twee groepe leerders nie statisties beduidend van mekaar verskil het met betrekking tot lokus van beheer nie. Die bevindinge en implikasies word ook bespreek.

  6. Reinforcement of genetic coherence in a two-locus model

    Steiner Wilfried; Gregorius Hans-Rolf

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background In order to maintain populations as units of reproduction and thus enable anagenetic evolution, genetic factors must exist which prevent continuing reproductive separation or enhance reproductive contact. This evolutionary principle is called genetic coherence and it marks the often ignored counterpart of cladistic evolution. Possibilities of the evolution of genetic coherence are studied with the help of a two-locus model with two alleles at each locus. The locus at which...

  7. Cut Locus Construction using Deformable Simplicial Complexes

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Anton, François;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for appproximating cut loci for a given point p on Riemannian 2D manifolds, closely related to the notion of Voronoi diagrams. Our method finds the cut locus by advecting a front of points equally distant from p along the geodesics originating at p and finding the...... lines of self-intersections of the front in the parametric space. This becomes possible by using the deformable simplicial complexes (DSC, [1]) method for deformable interface tracking. DSC provide a simple collision detection mechanism, allows for interface topology control, and does not require the...

  8. Potentially non-klt locus and its applications

    Choi, Sung Rak; Park, Jinhyung

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the notion of potentially klt pairs for normal projective varieties with pseudoeffective anticanonical divisor. The potentially non-klt locus is a subset of $X$ which is birationally transformed precisely into the non-klt locus on a $-K_X$-minimal model of $X$. We prove basic properties of potentially non-klt locus in comparison with those of classical non-klt locus. As applications, we give a new characterization of varieties of Fano type, and we also improve results on the rati...

  9. Data set for comparison of cellular dynamics between human AAVS1 locus-modified and wild-type cells

    Takeomi Mizutani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This data article describes cellular dynamics, such as migration speed and mobility of the cytoskeletal protein, of wild-type human fibroblast cells and cells with a modified adeno-associated virus integration site 1 (AAVS1 locus on human chromosome 19. Insertion of exogenous gene into the AAVS1 locus has been conducted in recent biological researches. Previously, our data showed that the AAVS1-modification changes cellular contractile force (Mizutani et al., 2015 [1]. To assess if this AAVS1-modification affects cell migration, we compared cellular migration speed and turnover of cytoskeletal protein in human fibroblasts and fibroblasts with a green fluorescent protein gene knocked-in at the AAVS1 locus in this data article. Cell nuclei were stained and changes in their position attributable to cell migration were analyzed. Fluorescence recovery was observed after photobleaching for the fluorescent protein-tagged myosin regulatory light chain. Data here are related to the research article “Transgene Integration into the Human AAVS1 Locus Enhances Myosin II-Dependent Contractile Force by Reducing Expression of Myosin Binding Subunit 85” [1].

  10. Microevolution of the chromosomal region of acute disease antigen A (adaA in the query (Q fever agent Coxiella burnetii.

    Dimitrios Frangoulidis

    Full Text Available The acute disease antigen A (adaA gene is believed to be associated with Coxiella burnetii strains causing acute Q fever. The detailed analysis of the adaA genomic region of 23 human- and 86 animal-derived C. burnetii isolates presented in this study reveals a much more polymorphic appearance and distribution of the adaA gene, resulting in a classification of C. burnetii strains of better differentiation than previously anticipated. Three different genomic variants of the adaA gene were identified which could be detected in isolates from acute and chronic patients, rendering the association of adaA positive strains with acute Q fever disease disputable. In addition, all adaA positive strains in humans and animals showed the occurrence of the QpH1 plasmid. All adaA positive isolates of acute human patients except one showed a distinct SNP variation at position 431, also predominant in sheep strains, which correlates well with the observation that sheep are a major source of human infection. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analysis of the adaA gene revealed three deletion events and supported the hypothesis that strain Dugway 5J108-111 might be the ancestor of all known C. burnetii strains. Based on our findings, we could confirm the QpDV group and we were able to define a new genotypic cluster. The adaA gene polymorphisms shown here improve molecular typing of Q fever, and give new insights into microevolutionary adaption processes in C. burnetii.

  11. Software architecture for a distributed real-time system in Ada, with application to telerobotics

    Olsen, Douglas R.; Messiora, Steve; Leake, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    The architecture structure and software design methodology presented is described in the context of telerobotic application in Ada, specifically the Engineering Test Bed (ETB), which was developed to support the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) Program at GSFC. However, the nature of the architecture is such that it has applications to any multiprocessor distributed real-time system. The ETB architecture, which is a derivation of the NASA/NBS Standard Reference Model (NASREM), defines a hierarchy for representing a telerobot system. Within this hierarchy, a module is a logical entity consisting of the software associated with a set of related hardware components in the robot system. A module is comprised of submodules, which are cyclically executing processes that each perform a specific set of functions. The submodules in a module can run on separate processors. The submodules in the system communicate via command/status (C/S) interface channels, which are used to send commands down and relay status back up the system hierarchy. Submodules also communicate via setpoint data links, which are used to transfer control data from one submodule to another. A submodule invokes submodule algorithms (SMA's) to perform algorithmic operations. Data that describe or models a physical component of the system are stored as objects in the World Model (WM). The WM is a system-wide distributed database that is accessible to submodules in all modules of the system for creating, reading, and writing objects.

  12. BASIC CRITERIA OF IRANIAN COMMERCIAL TOOTHPASTES AND AN ADA APPROVED BRAND (CREST

    N NOUR BAKHSH

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effectiveness of fluorided toothpastes in reducing dental caries is well-documented, However not all fluorided toothpastes are equally effective. The objective of this study was to compare some essential criteria of six different toothpastes manufactured in Iran with one brand of ADA approved toothpaste (Crest. Methods. Six commercial toothpastes produced in Iran named as Paveh, Puneh, Nasim, Darugar, golpasand and saviz were compared with Crest in three subjects as follows: 1. Amount of fluoride concentration 2. Amount of releasing fluoride 3. Cleaning efficiency. Two first criteria were tested using the potentiometric method with F- Ion specific electrode, and Cleaning efficiency was done by O'Leary index on 60 volunteers (10 for each toothpaste. Results: Fluoride Concentration in Paveh, Puneh, Nasim toothpastes were nearly700PPM,while in three others were much lower. The highest amount of fluoride was seen in Crest (1450 PPM. Cleaning efficiency of Darugar was better than Crest, Paveh, Puneh. Cleaning efficiency of Nasim was the same as Crest and Golpasand and Saviz were weaker than Crest. Discussion: Since at the present time, the most effective, Cost-benefit method for preventive aspects of fluoride, especially in developing countries is obtained by fluoride toothpastes. Manufactures should improve quality of fluoride toothpastes, ensure that all pates maximize Fluoride bioavailability, develop active agents to help better cleaning efficiency and label products clearly with containig fluoride in PPM.

  13. Personality and Locus of Control among School Children

    Pandya, Archana A.; Jogsan, Yogesh A.

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation is to find out the sex differences in personality traits and locus of control among school children. A total 60 children (30 boys and 30 girls) were taken as a sample. The research tool for personality, children personality questionnaire was used, which was made by Cattell and Porter. Locus of control was…

  14. 40 CFR 798.5200 - Mouse visible specific locus test.

    2010-07-01

    ... specific locus mutation is a genetic change that alters factors responsible for coat color and other... the three tests, the visible specific locus test has been most widely used in assessing genetic hazard... test species. (5) Test report. In addition to the reporting requirements as specified under 40 CFR...

  15. Genetic mapping of the Salmonella typhimurium pepB locus.

    Green, L; Miller, C G

    1980-01-01

    Transposon technology has been used to map the pepB locus of Salmonella typhimurium. This locus is cotransducible by phage P22 with glyA and strB at min 56 on the Salmonella genetic map. The gene order is strB pepB glyA.

  16. Turkish population data on the short tandem repeat locus TPOX

    Vural, B; Poda, M; Atlioglu, E;

    1998-01-01

    Allele and genotype frequencies were determined for the STR (short tandem repeat) locus TPOX in a random Turkish population sample of 200 individuals.......Allele and genotype frequencies were determined for the STR (short tandem repeat) locus TPOX in a random Turkish population sample of 200 individuals....

  17. Reevaluating the Serotype II Capsular Locus of Streptococcus agalactiae▿

    Martins, E. R.; Melo-Cristino, J.; Ramirez, M.

    2007-01-01

    We report a novel sequence of the serotype II capsular locus of group B streptococcus that resolves inconsistencies among the results of various groups and the sequence in GenBank. This locus was found in diverse lineages and presents genes consistent with the complete synthesis of the type II polysaccharide.

  18. Locus of Control and Protection of Consumer Rights

    Ivan Krastev

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the influence of locus of control on the consumer behavior. Theoretical supposition is proven by analyzing empirical data from a study of 287 students. The methods assessed the capacity for defending personal and consumer rights, as well as the type of locus of control.

  19. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  20. Aquifer Recharge Estimation through Atmospheric Chloride Mass Balance at Las Cañadas Caldera, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    Rayco Marrero-Diaz; Alcalá, Francisco J.; Nemesio M. Pérez; Dina L. López; Gladys V. Melián; Eleazar Padrón; Germán D. Padilla

    2015-01-01

    The atmospheric chloride mass balance (CMB) method was used to estimate net aquifer recharge in Las Cañadas Caldera, an endorheic summit aquifer area about 2000 m a.s.l. with negligible surface runoff, which hosts the largest freshwater reserve in Tenerife Island, Canary Islands, Spain. The wet hydrological year 2005–2006 was selected to compare yearly atmospheric chloride bulk deposition and average chloride content in recharge water just above the water table, both deduced from periodical...

  1. Locus-specific ribosomal RNA gene silencing in nucleolar dominance.

    Michelle S Lewis

    Full Text Available The silencing of one parental set of rRNA genes in a genetic hybrid is an epigenetic phenomenon known as nucleolar dominance. We showed previously that silencing is restricted to the nucleolus organizer regions (NORs, the loci where rRNA genes are tandemly arrayed, and does not spread to or from neighboring protein-coding genes. One hypothesis is that nucleolar dominance is the net result of hundreds of silencing events acting one rRNA gene at a time. A prediction of this hypothesis is that rRNA gene silencing should occur independent of chromosomal location. An alternative hypothesis is that the regulatory unit in nucleolar dominance is the NOR, rather than each individual rRNA gene, in which case NOR localization may be essential for rRNA gene silencing. To test these alternative hypotheses, we examined the fates of rRNA transgenes integrated at ectopic locations. The transgenes were accurately transcribed in all independent transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines tested, indicating that NOR localization is not required for rRNA gene expression. Upon crossing the transgenic A. thaliana lines as ovule parents with A. lyrata to form F1 hybrids, a new system for the study of nucleolar dominance, the endogenous rRNA genes located within the A. thaliana NORs are silenced. However, rRNA transgenes escaped silencing in multiple independent hybrids. Collectively, our data suggest that rRNA gene activation can occur in a gene-autonomous fashion, independent of chromosomal location, whereas rRNA gene silencing in nucleolar dominance is locus-dependent.

  2. ABI3 controls embryo degreening through Mendel's I locus.

    Delmas, Frédéric; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian; Deb, Srijani; Widdup, Ellen; Bournonville, Céline; Bollier, Norbert; Northey, Julian G B; McCourt, Peter; Samuel, Marcus A

    2013-10-01

    Chlorophyll (chl) is essential for light capture and is the starting point that provides the energy for photosynthesis and thus plant growth. Obviously, for this reason, retention of the green chlorophyll pigment is considered a desirable crop trait. However, the presence of chlorophyll in mature seeds can be an undesirable trait that can affect seed maturation, seed oil quality, and meal quality. Occurrence of mature green seeds in oil crops such as canola and soybean due to unfavorable weather conditions during seed maturity is known to cause severe losses in revenue. One recently identified candidate that controls the chlorophyll degradation machinery is the stay-green gene, SGR1 that was mapped to Mendel's I locus responsible for cotyledon color (yellow versus green) in peas. A defect in SGR1 leads to leaf stay-green phenotypes in Arabidopsis and rice, but the role of SGR1 in seed degreening and the signaling machinery that converges on SGR1 have remained elusive. To decipher the gene regulatory network that controls degreening in Arabidopsis, we have used an embryo stay-green mutant to demonstrate that embryo degreening is achieved by the SGR family and that this whole process is regulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) through ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3); a B3 domain transcription factor that has a highly conserved and essential role in seed maturation, conferring desiccation tolerance. Misexpression of ABI3 was sufficient to rescue cold-induced green seed phenotype in Arabidopsis. This finding reveals a mechanistic role for ABI3 during seed degreening and thus targeting of this pathway could provide a solution to the green seed problem in various oil-seed crops. PMID:24043799

  3. Testing Regulatory Consistency

    Robert Breunig; Flavio M. Menezes

    2008-01-01

    We undertake an analysis of regulatory consistency using a database of publicly available regulatory decisions in Australia. We propose a simple exploratory model which allows us to test for regulatory consistency across jurisdictions and industries without detailed knowledge of the regulatory process. We compare two measures using our approach--the weighted average cost of capital and the proportion of firms’ revenue requirement claims disallowed by the regulator. We advocate use of the seco...

  4. Using vertical electrical soundings for characterizing hydrogeological and tectonic settings in Deir El-Adas area, Yarmouk Basin, Syria

    Al-Fares, Walid

    2016-06-01

    The present study is aimed at characterizing the subsurface geological and tectonic structure in Deir El-Adas area, by using Vertical Electrical Sounding survey (VES) and hydrogeological investigations, in order to determine the causes of the failure for the majority of the wells drilled in the area. The survey data was treated in three different approaches including direct VES inversion, pseudo-2D method and horizontal profiling, in order to maximize the reliability of the data interpretation. The results revealed the presence of a local faulted anticline structure at the top of the Paleogene formation, underneath the basaltic outcrops where Deir El-Adas village is situated. The appearance of this subsurface anticline structure has complicated the local hydrogeological situation, and most likely led to limitation of the groundwater recharge in the area. Moreover, the performed piezometric and discharge maps indicated the presence of a notable groundwater watershed, in addition to feeble water productivity of the wells drilled adjacent to Deir El-Adas, mostly related to the subsurface geological and tectonic settings in the area.

  5. Sign Stability via Root Locus Analysis

    Gibson, Travis E

    2015-01-01

    With the rise of network science old topics in ecology and economics are resurfacing. One such topic is structural stability (often referred to as qualitative stability or sign stability). A system is deemed structurally stable if the system remains stable for all possible parameter variations so long as the parameters do not change sign. This type of stability analysis is appealing when studying real systems as the underlying stability result only requires the scientist or engineer to know the sign of the parameters in the model and not the specific values. The necessary and sufficient conditions for qualitative stability however are opaque. In order to shed light on those conditions root locus analysis is employed. This technique allows us to illustrate the necessary conditions for qualitative stability.

  6. Identifying a novel locus for psoriatic arthritis.

    Budu-Aggrey, Ashley; Bowes, John; Barton, Anne

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have identified genetic risk loci for PsA, the majority of which also confer risk for psoriasis. The stronger heritability of PsA in comparison with psoriasis suggests that there should be risk loci that are specific for PsA. Identifying such loci could potentially inform therapy development to provide more effective treatments for PsA patients, especially with a considerable proportion being non-responsive to current therapies. Evidence of a PsA-specific locus has been previously found at HLA-B27 within the MHC region. A recent study has provided evidence of non-HLA risk loci that are specific for PsA at IL23R, PTPN22 and on chromosome 5q31. Functional characterization of these loci will provide further understanding of the pathways underlying PsA, and enable us to apply genetic findings for patient benefit. PMID:26255310

  7. Locus of Control Orientation: Parents, Peers, and Place.

    Ahlin, Eileen M; Lobo Antunes, Maria João

    2015-09-01

    An internal locus of control contributes to positive youth outcomes such as a general well-being and academic success, while also serving as a protective factor against exposure to community violence and reducing negative behaviors like violence. Despite these benefits, very little is known about antecedents of an internal locus of control orientation. Without an understanding of what factors contribute to the development of an internal locus of control, it is not clear how to best encourage its formation. This study uses data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to examine whether various mesosystem variables (family management strategies, peer interactions, neighborhood context, and individual-level characteristics) are associated with an internal locus of control orientation among 1,076 youth ages 9-19 living in 78 Chicago neighborhoods. Study participants were Hispanic (46 %), African American (34 %), and White (15 %), and 50 % were female. The findings suggest that, while most levels of the mesosystem influence locus of control orientation, family management strategies are more prominent determinants of an internal locus of control than peers, neighborhood context, or individual characteristics. Parental supervision over the time a youth spends at home and family socioeconomic status are consistent predictors of an internal locus of control, while harsh discipline is associated with an external locus of control. The discussion examines the import of various parenting techniques in shaping an internal locus of control and considers future avenues for research to further unpack how antecedents of locus of control can vary across youth. PMID:25617000

  8. Escala de Locus de controle ELCO/TELEBRÁS Scale of Locus of control - ELCO

    Luiz Pasquali

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Com base na teoria de Rotter e Escala de Levenson foi elaborada uma escala de Locus de Controle Organizacional (ELCO, composta por 28 itens. A escala foi validada com uma amostra de 350 empregados do Sistema Telebrás. Verificou-se a presença dos 2 fatores previstos na teoria, a saber: internalidade e externalidade, aparecendo a escala de externalidade, com 18 itens, bem estruturada (alfa = 0.81 e a de internalidade, com 10 itens, deixando a desejar no que se refere à consistência interna (alfa = 0.66. Com os dados desta pesquisa foi feita também análise do Locus de Controle desses mesmos empregados. A constatação mais saliente foi a de que o nível de internalidade caiu com o aumento do nível escolar e o aumento da experiência profissional desses mesmos empregados. Estes resultados surpreendentes foram interpretados em termos da situação típica da empresa, que está passando por um período de transição, a saber: a passagem da condição de empresa estatal para empresa privada, o que seria motivo da perda de confiança dos empregados na própria competência, particularmente por parte daqueles com maior competência intelectual e maior experiência profissional. Fez-se igualmente reparos na qualidade psicométrica da escala e da própria teoria do Locus de controle, no sentido de que esta precisa ser melhor axiomatizada para possibilitar a elaboração de escalas mais precisas para a medida dos construtos que propõe.A scale with 28 items, the Organizational Locus of Control (ELCO, was built based on Rotter’s theory and Levenson’s scale. ELCO was validated on a sample of 350 employees of Telebrás, a governmental firm in Brazil. As foreseen from the theory, a principal-axis factoring showed the presence of the expected two factors, namely internal and external locus of control. The external locus of control factor, composed of 18 items, showed good internal consistency (alpha =.81 whereas the internal factor, with 10 items

  9. Isolation of a Second S-Locus-Related Cdna from Brassica Oleracea: Genetic Relationships between the S Locus and Two Related Loci

    Boyes, D. C.; Chen, C. H.; Tantikanjana, T.; Esch, J. J.; Nasrallah, J B

    1991-01-01

    Self-incompatibility in Brassica oleracea is controlled by the highly polymorphic S locus. Isolation and subsequent characterization of the S-locus-glycoprotein (SLG) gene, which encodes the S-locus-specific glycoprotein (SLSG), has revealed the presence of a self-incompatibility multigene family. One of these S-locus-related genes, SLR1, has been shown to be expressed. In this study we present the isolation and preliminary characterization of a second expressed S-locus-related sequence, SLR2...

  10. Adding delayed recall to the ADAS-cog improves measurement precision in mild Alzheimer's disease: Implications for predicting instrumental activities of daily living.

    Lowe, Deborah A; Balsis, Steve; Benge, Jared F; Doody, Rachelle S

    2015-12-01

    As research increasingly focuses on preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), instruments must be retooled to identify early cognitive markers of AD. A supplemental delayed recall subtest for the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive (ADAS-cog; Mohs, Rosen, & Davis, 1983; Rosen, Mohs, & Davis, 1984) is commonly implemented, but it is not known precisely where along the spectrum of cognitive dysfunction this subtest yields incremental information beyond what is gained from the standard ADAS-cog, or whether it can improve prediction of functional outcomes. An item response theory approach can analyze this in a psychometrically rigorous way. Seven hundred eighty-eight patients with AD or amnestic complaints or impairment completed a battery including the ADAS-cog and 2 activities of daily living measures. The delayed recall subtest slightly improved the ADAS-cog's measurement precision in the mild range of cognitive dysfunction and increased prediction of instrumental activities of daily living for individuals with subjective memory impairment. PMID:25938338

  11. Dynamic chromatin: the regulatory domain organization of eukaryotic gene loci.

    Bonifer, C; Hecht, A; Saueressig, H; Winter, D M; Sippel, A E

    1991-10-01

    It is hypothesized that nuclear DNA is organized in topologically constrained loop domains defining basic units of higher order chromatin structure. Our studies are performed in order to investigate the functional relevance of this structural subdivision of eukaryotic chromatin for the control of gene expression. We used the chicken lysozyme gene locus as a model to examine the relation between chromatin structure and gene function. Several structural features of the lysozyme locus are known: the extension of the region of general DNAasel sensitivity of the active gene, the location of DNA-sequences with high affinity for the nuclear matrix in vitro, and the position of DNAasel hypersensitive chromatin sites (DHSs). The pattern of DHSs changes depending on the transcriptional status of the gene. Functional studies demonstrated that DHSs mark the position of cis-acting regulatory elements. Additionally, we discovered a novel cis-activity of the border regions of the DNAasel sensitive domain (A-elements). By eliminating the position effect on gene expression usually observed when genes are randomly integrated into the genome after transfection, A-elements possibly serve as punctuation marks for a regulatory chromatin domain. Experiments using transgenic mice confirmed that the complete structurally defined lysozyme gene domain behaves as an independent regulatory unit, expressing the gene in a tissue specific and position independent manner. These expression features were lost in transgenic mice carrying a construct, in which the A-elements as well as an upstream enhancer region were deleted, indicating the lack of a locus activation function on this construct. Experiments are designed in order to uncover possible hierarchical relationships between the different cis-acting regulatory elements for stepwise gene activation during cell differentiation. We are aiming at the definition of the basic structural and functional requirements for position independent and high

  12. The Spt-Ada-Gcn5 Acetyltransferase (SAGA complex in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Paraskevi Georgakopoulos

    Full Text Available A mutation screen in Aspergillus nidulans uncovered mutations in the acdX gene that led to altered repression by acetate, but not by glucose. AcdX of A. nidulans is highly conserved with Spt8p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and since Spt8p is a component of the Spt-Ada-Gcn5 Acetyltransferase (SAGA complex, the SAGA complex may have a role in acetate repression in A. nidulans. We used a bioinformatic approach to identify genes encoding most members of the SAGA complex in A. nidulans, and a proteomic analysis to confirm that most protein components identified indeed exist as a complex in A. nidulans. No apparent compositional differences were detected in mycelia cultured in acetate compared to glucose medium. The methods used revealed apparent differences between Yeast and A. nidulans in the deubiquitination (DUB module of the complex, which in S. cerevisiae consists of Sgf11p, Sus1p, and Ubp8p. Although a convincing homologue of S. cerevisiae Ubp8p was identified in the A. nidulans genome, there were no apparent homologues for Sus1p and Sgf11p. In addition, when the SAGA complex was purified from A. nidulans, members of the DUB module were not co-purified with the complex, indicating that functional homologues of Sus1p and Sgf11p were not part of the complex. Thus, deubiquitination of H2B-Ub in stress conditions is likely to be regulated differently in A. nidulans compared to S. cerevisiae.

  13. Construction of an Escherichia coli K-12 ada deletion by gene replacement in a recD strain reveals a second methyltransferase that repairs alkylated DNA.

    Shevell, D E; Abou-Zamzam, A M; Demple, B; Walker, G C

    1988-01-01

    We constructed an ada deletion by gene replacement in a recD1014 strain of Escherichia coli. Characterization of a delta ada-25 recD+ strain revealed the presence of a second DNA methyltransferase activity in E. coli K-12 which transfers a methyl group from methylated DNA to a protein with a molecular weight of 18,000 to 20,000.

  14. Low Cost Upper Atmosphere Sounder (LOCUS)

    Gerber, Daniel; Swinyard, Bruce M.; Ellison, Brian N.; Aylward, Alan D.; Aruliah, Anasuya; Plane, John M. C.; Feng, Wuhu; Saunders, Christopher; Friend, Jonathan; Bird, Rachel; Linfield, Edmund H.; Davies, A. Giles; Parkes, Steve

    2014-05-01

    near future. We describe the current instrument configuration of LOCUS, and give a first preview of the expected science return such a mission would yield. The LOCUS instrument concept calls for four spectral bands, a first band at 4.7 THz to target atomic oxygen (O), a second band at 3.5 THz to target hydroxyl (OH), a third band at 1.1 THz to cover several diatomic species (NO, CO, O3, H2O) and finally a fourth band at 0.8 THz to retrieve pointing information from molecular oxygen (O2). LOCUS would be the first satellite instrument to measure atomic oxygen on a global scale with a precision that will allow the retrieval of the global O distribution. It would also be the first time that annual and diurnal changes in O are measured. This will be a significant step forward in understanding the chemistry and dynamics of the MLT. Current indications (derived from CRISTA measurement) lead us to believe that current models only give a poor representation of upper atmospheric O. The secondary target species can help us to address additional scientific questions related to both Climate (distribution of climate relevant gases, highly geared cooling of the MLT in response to Climate change, increased occurrence of Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMC), etc) and Space Weather (precipitation of electrically charged particles and impact on NOx chemistry, fluctuations of solar Lyman-alpha flux through shown in the the distribution of photochemically active species, etc).

  15. Simulation work on Fractional Order PI{\\lambda} Control Strategy for speed control of DC motor based on stability boundary locus method

    Praboo, N. N.; P.K. BHABA

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of Fractional Order Proportional Integral (FO-PI{\\lambda}) controller for the speed control of DC motor. A mathematical model of DC motor control system is derived and based on this model fractional order PI{\\lambda} controller is designed using stability boundary locus method to satisfy required gain margin (GM) and phase margin (PM) of the system. Servo and Regulatory tracking simulation runs are carried out for the speed control of DC motor. The performance...

  16. Fine mapping of the celiac disease-associated LPP locus reveals a potential functional variant

    Almeida, Rodrigo; Ricaño-Ponce, Isis; Kumar, Vinod; Deelen, Patrick; Szperl, Agata; Trynka, Gosia; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Kanterakis, Alexandros; Westra, Harm-Jan; Franke, Lude; Swertz, Morris A.; Platteel, Mathieu; Bilbao, Jose Ramon; Barisani, Donatella; Greco, Luigi; Mearin, Luisa; Wolters, Victorien M.; Mulder, Chris; Mazzilli, Maria Cristina; Sood, Ajit; Cukrowska, Bozena; Núñez, Concepción; Pratesi, Riccardo; Withoff, Sebo; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2014-01-01

    Using the Immunochip for genotyping, we identified 39 non-human leukocyte antigen (non-HLA) loci associated to celiac disease (CeD), an immune-mediated disease with a worldwide frequency of ∼1%. The most significant non-HLA signal mapped to the intronic region of 70 kb in the LPP gene. Our aim was to fine map and identify possible functional variants in the LPP locus. We performed a meta-analysis in a cohort of 25 169 individuals from six different populations previously genotyped using Immunochip. Imputation using data from the Genome of the Netherlands and 1000 Genomes projects, followed by meta-analysis, confirmed the strong association signal on the LPP locus (rs2030519, P = 1.79 × 10−49), without any novel associations. The conditional analysis on this top SNP-indicated association to a single common haplotype. By performing haplotype analyses in each population separately, as well as in a combined group of the four populations that reach the significant threshold after correction (P < 0.008), we narrowed down the CeD-associated region from 70 to 2.8 kb (P = 1.35 × 10−44). By intersecting regulatory data from the ENCODE project, we found a functional SNP, rs4686484 (P = 3.12 × 10−49), that maps to several B-cell enhancer elements and a highly conserved region. This SNP was also predicted to change the binding motif of the transcription factors IRF4, IRF11, Nkx2.7 and Nkx2.9, suggesting its role in transcriptional regulation. We later found significantly low levels of LPP mRNA in CeD biopsies compared with controls, thus our results suggest that rs4686484 is the functional variant in this locus, while LPP expression is decreased in CeD. PMID:24334606

  17. Potential for wind energy generation and conversion for rural application: a case study for Ada

    One major indicator of achieving the goals of Vision 2020 is an increased energy use per head, which had a 1993 value of 93 koe (kilograms of oil equivalent) as compared to 299 koe for the least developed middle income nation, and 5,563 koe for Singapore. To satisfy this energy requirement, all potential sources of energy must be harnessed and most importantly, the private sector's involvement in off-grid electric power generation must be encouraged. A cost-benefit analysis, energy payback time and energy ratios have been determined to assess the potential of wind energy generation and conversation at Ada; which has a mean monthly wind speed of 6.23 m/s at a height of 30 m and considered to be adequate to run a small to medium sized wind turbine to generate about 28 kW. The proposal is to install a prototype aero generation system for a small community isolated from the national grid line, and is aimed at demonstrating how a renewable, non-pollutant and independent power source, transformed by means of advanced technology can achieve energy self sufficiency for the community, while avoiding negative impacts on the environment and ensuring cost-effectiveness. The system will consist of an aero-generation unit, storage system and demand electric consumption. The generator will supply the power to batteries through a load rectifier/governor for storage. The demand in electric consumption can be supplied in DC by accumulators or AC by current inverter. The technical features proposed for the aero generation system is a 20 - 30 kW maximum power turbine, a 24 V capacity battery delivery 1625 Ah in 100 h, two charger inverter units connected in parallel with AC synchronized outlet for consumption. The outlet power of each inverter will be 2400 W DC and the estimated time to complete battery load power unit will be 12 h. The projected cost of electricity generated by an optimized scheme is estimated to be 9 cents/kWh, as compared with photovoltaic generation at 5 - 14

  18. Da Rio+20 a Rio-2016: caminhos da sustentabilidade nas olimpíadas

    Maureen Flores

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to analyze the way the Olympic Games have incorporated the main sustainability commitments agreed upon during the Rio 92, Rio + 10 and Rio + 20 Conferences, both in their planning and their operational processes, thus influencing host cities in the construction of the Games’ legacy. Tourism is one of the mainstays of Rio’s economy, and the link between the Games and the city’s images will be lasting. The Olympic games will influence the quantity and the quality of the touristic demand during, but especially after the event. They will showcase the city’s innovative initiatives for sustainability. The IOC can play a vital role orienting those initiatives. The Games’sustainability legacy may constitute an opportunity for the city to change its image for ever. We still have three years ahead of us to advance, but the basis need to be settled now.Este artigo busca analisar a maneira como os Jogos Olímpicos têm incorporado os principais compromissos da sustentabilidade acordados nas Conferencias Rio 92, Rio+10 e Rio+20 nos seus processos de planejamento e operação, influenciando as cidades anfitriãs na construção do legado dos Jogos. O turismo é um dos carros-chefes da economia do Rio, e a ligação entre os Jogos e a imagem da cidade que vai ficar. Os Jogos irão refletir na quantidade e qualidade da demanda turística durante, mas principalmente depois das Olimpíadas. Eles podem ser uma vitrine para iniciativas inovadoras na área de sustentabilidade que a cidade introduzir. O papel do COI pode ser fundamental para direcionar as ações de sustentabilidade na cidade. O legado de sustentabilidade pode ter nos Jogos seu “ponto de inflexão” para mudar definitivamente a imagem da cidade. Ainda temos um pouco mais de três anos para avançar, mas as bases precisam ser criadas agora.

  19. The autoimmune disease-associated IL2RA locus is involved in the clinical manifestations of systemic sclerosis

    Martin, Jose-Ezequiel; Carmona, F. David; Broen, Jasper CA; Simeon, Carmen P.; Vonk, Madelon C.; Carreira, Patricia; Ríos-Fernández, Raquel; Espinosa, Gerard; Vicente-Rabaneda, Esther; Tolosa, Carlos; Garcia-Hernandez, Francisco J.; Castellvi, Iván; Fonollosa, Vicente; González-Gay, Miguel A.; Sáez-Comet, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (T-regs) are crucial in the maintenance of the immune tolerance and seem to have an important role in systemic sclerosis (SSc). The interleukin 2 receptor alpha (IL2RA) is an important T-reg marker, and polymorphisms of IL2RA gene are associated with a number of autoimmune diseases. Therefore, we aimed to investigate for the first time the association of the IL2RA locus in SSc. For this purpose, a total of 3023 SSc patients and 2735 matched healthy controls, from six Europe...

  20. A Distal Locus Element Mediates IFN-γ Priming of Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated TNF Gene Expression

    Nancy A. Chow

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interferon γ (IFN-γ priming sensitizes monocytes and macrophages to lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation, resulting in augmented expression of a set of genes including TNF. Here, we demonstrate that IFN-γ priming of LPS-stimulated TNF transcription requires a distal TNF/LT locus element 8 kb upstream of the TNF transcription start site (hHS-8. IFN-γ stimulation leads to increased DNase I accessibility of hHS-8 and its recruitment of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1, and subsequent LPS stimulation enhances H3K27 acetylation and induces enhancer RNA synthesis at hHS-8. Ablation of IRF1 or targeting the hHS-8 IRF1 binding site in vivo with Cas9 linked to the KRAB repressive domain abolishes IFN-γ priming, but does not affect LPS induction of the gene. Thus, IFN-γ poises a distal enhancer in the TNF/LT locus by chromatin remodeling and IRF1 recruitment, which then drives enhanced TNF gene expression in response to a secondary toll-like receptor (TLR stimulus.

  1. Research and regulatory review

    To enable the regulatory review to be effectively undertaken by the regulatory body, there is a need for it to have ready access to information generated by research activities. Certain advantages have been seen to be gained by the regulatory body itself directly allocating and controlling some portion of these activities. The princial reasons for reaching this conclusion are summarised and a brief description of the Inspectorates directly sponsored programme outlined. (author)

  2. Relationship among Dimensions of Family Communication Patterns and Locus of

    Mohammad Hassan Anvari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was done to examine the relationship of self-efficacy with dimensions of family communication patterns and locus of control. Materials and Methods: The population of this study was all Isfahan University students in the 2010-2011 academic years. Two hundred seventy nine students from various faculties of the university selected by cluster sampling method. In this descriptive study were used from the revised scale of dimensions of family communication patterns, locus of control questionnaire and general self-efficacy scale. Results: Results showed that the dialogue orientation, locus of control and conformity orientation have a significant correlation with self-efficacy (p<0.01. In addition dialogue orientation, locus of control and conformity orientation predicted 13%, 7%, 2% of selfefficacy, respectively. Conclusion: Dialogue orientation in family is the most important predictor of students' self-efficacy.

  3. Phenotypic subregions within the split-hand/foot malformation 1 locus

    Rasmussen, Malene Bøgehus; Kreiborg, Sven; Jensen, Per;

    2016-01-01

    Split-hand/foot malformation 1 (SHFM1) is caused by chromosomal aberrations involving the region 7q21.3, DLX5 mutation, and dysregulation of DLX5/DLX6 expression by long-range position effects. SHFM1 can be isolated or syndromic with incomplete penetrance and a highly variable clinical expression......, possibly influenced by sex and imprinting. We report on a new family with five affected individuals with syndromic SHFM1 that includes split-hand/foot malformations, hearing loss, and craniofacial anomalies, and an inv(7)(q21.3q35) present both in the proband and her affected son. The proximal inversion...... breakpoint, identified by next generation mate-pair sequencing, truncates the SHFM1 locus within the regulatory region of DLX5/6 expression. Through genotype-phenotype correlations of 100 patients with molecularly characterized chromosomal aberrations from 32 SHFM1 families, our findings suggest three...

  4. Genetics of Serum Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: The sac-1 Genetic Locus

    Cannon, Janne G.; Lee, Terrence J.; Guymon, Lawrence F.; Sparling, P. Frederick

    1981-01-01

    A genetic locus affecting susceptibility to the bactericidal activity of normal human serum has been designated sac-1. This locus was shown to be closely linked to, but not identical with, a second locus (designated nmp-2) that affects protein 1 of the outer membrane. The sac-1 locus could be linked to known antibiotic resistance markers on the gonococcal chromosome by genetic transformation.

  5. Genetic and physical mapping of the mouse Ulnaless locus

    Peichel, C. L.; Abbott, C M; Vogt, T F

    1996-01-01

    The mouse Ulnaless locus is a semidominant mutation which displays defects in patterning along the proximal-distal and anterior-posterior axes of all four limbs. The first Ulnaless homozygotes have been generated, and they display a similar, though slightly more severe, limb phenotype than the heterozygotes. To create a refined genetic map of the Ulnaless region using molecular markers, four backcrosses segregating Ulnaless were established. A 0.4-cM interval containing the Ulnaless locus has...

  6. Characterization of the spv Locus in Salmonella enterica Serovar Arizona

    Libby, Stephen J.; Lesnick, Marc; Hasegawa, Patricia; Kurth, Michael; Belcher, Christopher; Fierer, Joshua; Guiney, Donald G.

    2002-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Arizona (S. enterica subspecies IIIa) is a common Salmonella isolate from reptiles and can cause serious systemic disease in humans. The spv virulence locus, found on large plasmids in Salmonella subspecies I serovars associated with severe infections, was confirmed to be located on the chromosome of serovar Arizona. Sequence analysis revealed that the serovar Arizona spv locus contains homologues of spvRABC but lacks the spvD gene and contains a frameshift in spvA...

  7. [Health locus of control of patients in disease management programmes].

    Schnee, M; Grikscheit, F

    2013-06-01

    Health locus of control beliefs plays a major role in improving self-management skills of the chronically ill - a main goal in disease management programmes (DMP). This study aims at characterising participants in disease management regarding their health locus of control. Data are based on 4 cross-sectional postal surveys between spring and autumn of 2006 and 2007 within the Health Care Monitor of the Bertelsmann Foundation. Among the 6 285 respondents, 1 266 are chronically ill and not enrolled in a DMP and 327 are participating in a DMP. A high internal locus of control (HLC) occurs significantly less often in DMP patients than in normal chronically ill patients (and healthy people) controlling for age, gender and social class. With increasing age, a high internal locus of control is also significantly less likely. When comparing healthy people, the chronically ill and the DMP participants a social gradient of a high internal locus of control belief can be observed. The weaker internal and higher doctor-related external locus of control of DMP participants should be carefully observed by the physician when trying to strengthen the patients' self-management skills. Evaluators of DMP should take into account the different baselines of DMP patients and relevant control groups and incorporate these differences into the evaluation. PMID:22864845

  8. Transcription is required to establish maternal imprinting at the Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome locus.

    Emily Y Smith

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS [MIM 17620] and Angelman syndrome (AS [MIM 105830] locus is controlled by a bipartite imprinting center (IC consisting of the PWS-IC and the AS-IC. The most widely accepted model of IC function proposes that the PWS-IC activates gene expression from the paternal allele, while the AS-IC acts to epigenetically inactivate the PWS-IC on the maternal allele, thus silencing the paternally expressed genes. Gene order and imprinting patterns at the PWS/AS locus are well conserved from human to mouse; however, a murine AS-IC has yet to be identified. We investigated a potential regulatory role for transcription from the Snrpn alternative upstream exons in silencing the maternal allele using a murine transgene containing Snrpn and three upstream exons. This transgene displayed appropriate imprinted expression and epigenetic marks, demonstrating the presence of a functional AS-IC. Transcription of the upstream exons from the endogenous locus correlates with imprint establishment in oocytes, and this upstream exon expression pattern was conserved on the transgene. A transgene bearing targeted deletions of each of the three upstream exons exhibited loss of imprinting upon maternal transmission. These results support a model in which transcription from the Snrpn upstream exons directs the maternal imprint at the PWS-IC.

  9. NRC regulatory agenda

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  10. NRC regulatory agenda

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  11. NRC regulatory agenda

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has proposed or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  12. Nuclear Regulatory legislation

    This compilation of statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 97th Congress, 2nd Session, has been prepared by the Office of the Executive Legal Director, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff, for use as an internal resource document

  13. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  14. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  15. An AdaBoost Using a Weak-Learner Generating Several Weak-Hypotheses for Large Training Data of Natural Language Processing

    Iwakura, Tomoya; Okamoto, Seishi; Asakawa, Kazuo

    AdaBoost is a method to create a final hypothesis by repeatedly generating a weak hypothesis in each training iteration with a given weak learner. AdaBoost-based algorithms are successfully applied to several tasks such as Natural Language Processing (NLP), OCR, and so on. However, learning on the training data consisting of large number of samples and features requires long training time. We propose a fast AdaBoost-based algorithm for learning rules represented by combination of features. Our algorithm constructs a final hypothesis by learning several weak-hypotheses at each iteration. We assign a confidence-rated value to each weak-hypothesis while ensuring a reduction in the theoretical upper bound of the training error of AdaBoost. We evaluate our methods with English POS tagging and text chunking. The experimental results show that the training speed of our algorithm are about 25 times faster than an AdaBoost-based learner, and about 50 times faster than Support Vector Machines with polynomial kernel on the average while maintaining state-of-the-art accuracy.

  16. Synthesis of an A-D-A type of molecule used as electron acceptor for improving charge transfer in organic solar cells

    Zhang, Chao-Zhi; Gu, Shu-Duo; Shen, Dan; Yuan, Yang; Zhang, Mingdao

    2016-08-01

    Electron-accepting molecules play an important role in developing organic solar cells. A new type of A-D-A molecule, 3,6-di([7-(5-bromothiophen-2-yl)-1,5,2,4,6,8-dithiotetrazocin-3-yl]thiophen-2-yl)-9-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole, was synthesized. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels are -3.55 and -5.85 eV, respectively. Therefore, the A-D-A type of compound could be used as electron acceptor for fabricating organic solar cell with a high open circuit voltage. Gibbs free energy (-49.2 kJ/mol) reveals that the process of A-D-A acceptor accepting an electron from poly(3-hexylthiophene) at excited state is spontaneous. The value of entropy (118 J/mol) in the process of an electron transferring from P3HT to the A-D-A acceptor at organic interface suggests that electrons generated from separation of electron-hole pairs at donor/acceptor interface would be delocalized efficiently. Therefore, the A-D-A molecule would be a potential acceptor for efficient organic BHJ solar cells.

  17. Altered E-NTPDase/E-ADA activities and CD39 expression in platelets of sickle cell anemia patients.

    Castilhos, Lívia G; Doleski, Pedro H; Adefegha, Stephen A; Becker, Lara V; Ruchel, Jader B; Leal, Daniela B R

    2016-04-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a hemoglobinopathy characterized by hemolysis and vaso-occlusions caused by rigidly distorted red blood cells. Sickle cell crisis is associated with extracellular release of nucleotides and platelets, which are critical mediators of hemostasis participating actively in purinergic thromboregulatory enzymes system.This study aimed to investigate the activities of purinergic system ecto-enzymes present on the platelet surface as well as CD39 and CD73 expressions on platelets of SCA treated patients. Fifteen SCA treated patients and 30 health subjects (control group) were selected. Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase), ecto-5'-nucleotidase (E-5'-NT) and ecto-adenosine deaminase (E-ADA) activities were measured in platelets isolated from these individuals. Results demonstrated an increase of 41 % in the E-NTPDase for ATP hydrolysis, 52% for ADP hydrolysis and 60 % in the E-ADA activity in SCA patients (P<0.05); however, a two folds decrease in the CD39 expression in platelets was observed in the same group (P<0.01). The increased E-NTPDase activity could be a compensatory mechanism associated with the low expression of CD39 in platelets. Besides, alteration of these enzymes activities suggests that the purinergic system could be involved in the thromboregulatory process in SCA patients. PMID:27044834

  18. Modeling and Implementing Two-Stage AdaBoost for Real-Time Vehicle License Plate Detection

    Moon Kyou Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available License plate (LP detection is the most imperative part of the automatic LP recognition system. In previous years, different methods, techniques, and algorithms have been developed for LP detection (LPD systems. This paper proposes to automatical detection of car LPs via image processing techniques based on classifier or machine learning algorithms. In this paper, we propose a real-time and robust method for LPD systems using the two-stage adaptive boosting (AdaBoost algorithm combined with different image preprocessing techniques. Haar-like features are used to compute and select features from LP images. The AdaBoost algorithm is used to classify parts of an image within a search window by a trained strong classifier as either LP or non-LP. Adaptive thresholding is used for the image preprocessing method applied to those images that are of insufficient quality for LPD. This method is of a faster speed and higher accuracy than most of the existing methods used in LPD. Experimental results demonstrate that the average LPD rate is 98.38% and the computational time is approximately 49 ms.

  19. Regulatory guidance document

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM`s evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7.

  20. Regulatory guidance document

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM's evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7

  1. Managing Regulatory Body Competence

    In 2001, the IAEA published TECDOC 1254, which examined the way in which the recognized functions of a regulatory body for nuclear facilities results in competence needs. Using the systematic approach to training (SAT), TECDOC 1254 provided a framework for regulatory bodies for managing training and developing and their maintaining their competence. It has been successfully used by many regulators. The IAEA has also introduced a methodology and an assessment tool - Guidelines for Systematic Assessment of Regulatory Competence Needs (SARCoN) - which provides practical guidance on analysing the training and development needs of a regulatory body and, through a gap analysis, guidance on establishing competence needs and how to meet them. In 2009, the IAEA established a steering committee (supported by a bureau) with the mission to advise the IAEA on how it could best assist Member States to develop suitable competence management systems for their regulatory bodies. The committee recommended the development of a safety report on managing staff competence as an integral part of a regulatory body's management system. This Safety Report was developed in response to this request. It supersedes TECDOC 1254, broadens its application to regulatory bodies for all facilities and activities, and builds upon the experience gained through the application of TECDOC 1254 and SARCoN and the feedback received from Member States. This Safety Report applies to the management of adequate competence as needs change, and as such is equally applicable to the needs of States 'embarking' on a nuclear power programme. It also deals with the special case of building up the competence of regulatory bodies as part of the overall process of establishing an 'embarking' State's regulatory system

  2. Identification of an imprinted master trans regulator at the KLF14 locus related to multiple metabolic phenotypes.

    Small, Kerrin S; Hedman, Asa K; Grundberg, Elin; Nica, Alexandra C; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Kong, Augustine; Thorsteindottir, Unnur; Shin, So-Youn; Richards, Hannah B; Soranzo, Nicole; Ahmadi, Kourosh R; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Stefansson, Kari; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Deloukas, Panos; Spector, Timothy D; McCarthy, Mark I

    2011-06-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified many genetic variants associated with complex traits. However, at only a minority of loci have the molecular mechanisms mediating these associations been characterized. In parallel, whereas cis regulatory patterns of gene expression have been extensively explored, the identification of trans regulatory effects in humans has attracted less attention. Here we show that the type 2 diabetes and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol-associated cis-acting expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) of the maternally expressed transcription factor KLF14 acts as a master trans regulator of adipose gene expression. Expression levels of genes regulated by this trans-eQTL are highly correlated with concurrently measured metabolic traits, and a subset of the trans-regulated genes harbor variants directly associated with metabolic phenotypes. This trans-eQTL network provides a mechanistic understanding of the effect of the KLF14 locus on metabolic disease risk and offers a potential model for other complex traits. PMID:21572415

  3. Mutation at the Human D1S80 Minisatellite Locus

    Kuppareddi Balamurugan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the general biology of minisatellites. The purpose of this study is to examine repeat mutations from the D1S80 minisatellite locus by sequence analysis to elucidate the mutational process at this locus. This is a highly polymorphic minisatellite locus, located in the subtelomeric region of chromosome 1. We have analyzed 90,000 human germline transmission events and found seven (7 mutations at this locus. The D1S80 alleles of the parentage trio, the child, mother, and the alleged father were sequenced and the origin of the mutation was determined. Using American Association of Blood Banks (AABB guidelines, we found a male mutation rate of 1.04×10-4 and a female mutation rate of 5.18×10-5 with an overall mutation rate of approximately 7.77×10-5. Also, in this study, we found that the identified mutations are in close proximity to the center of the repeat array rather than at the ends of the repeat array. Several studies have examined the mutational mechanisms of the minisatellites according to infinite allele model (IAM and the one-step stepwise mutation model (SMM. In this study, we found that this locus fits into the one-step mutation model (SMM mechanism in six out of seven instances similar to STR loci.

  4. Balancing selection on a regulatory region exhibiting ancient variation that predates human-neandertal divergence.

    Omer Gokcumen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ancient population structure shaping contemporary genetic variation has been recently appreciated and has important implications regarding our understanding of the structure of modern human genomes. We identified a ∼36-kb DNA segment in the human genome that displays an ancient substructure. The variation at this locus exists primarily as two highly divergent haplogroups. One of these haplogroups (the NE1 haplogroup aligns with the Neandertal haplotype and contains a 4.6-kb deletion polymorphism in perfect linkage disequilibrium with 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs across diverse populations. The other haplogroup, which does not contain the 4.6-kb deletion, aligns with the chimpanzee haplotype and is likely ancestral. Africans have higher overall pairwise differences with the Neandertal haplotype than Eurasians do for this NE1 locus (p<10⁻¹⁵. Moreover, the nucleotide diversity at this locus is higher in Eurasians than in Africans. These results mimic signatures of recent Neandertal admixture contributing to this locus. However, an in-depth assessment of the variation in this region across multiple populations reveals that African NE1 haplotypes, albeit rare, harbor more sequence variation than NE1 haplotypes found in Europeans, indicating an ancient African origin of this haplogroup and refuting recent Neandertal admixture. Population genetic analyses of the SNPs within each of these haplogroups, along with genome-wide comparisons revealed significant FST (p = 0.00003 and positive Tajima's D (p = 0.00285 statistics, pointing to non-neutral evolution of this locus. The NE1 locus harbors no protein-coding genes, but contains transcribed sequences as well as sequences with putative regulatory function based on bioinformatic predictions and in vitro experiments. We postulate that the variation observed at this locus predates Human-Neandertal divergence and is evolving under balancing selection, especially among European

  5. DNA-protein interaction at erythroid important regulatory elements of MEL cells by in vivo footprinting

    2000-01-01

    Using ligation-mediated PCR method to study the status of DNA-protein interaction at hypersensitive site 2 of locus control Region and β maj promoter of MEL cell line before and after induction, MEL cell has been cultured and induced to differentiation by Hemin and DMSO, then the live cells have been treated with dimethyl sulfate. Ligation mediated PCR has been carried out following the chemical cleavage. The results demonstrate that before and after induction, the status of DNA-protein interaction at both hypersensitive site 2 and β maj promoter change significantly, indicating that distal regulatory elements (locus control region, hypersensitive sites) as well as proximal regulatory elements (promoter, enhancer) of β -globin gene cluster participate in the regulation of developmental specificity.

  6. Zeytinli Ada İskelet Topluluğunun Diş ve Çene Patolojisi Açısından İncelenmesi

    BIÇAK, Saadet; SUATA ALPASLAN, Fadime

    2015-01-01

    Zeytinli ada, being far away almost 250 meters from the Coast of Erdekli in Balıkesir, takes in the area of 7900 sqm. Zeytinli Ada has a rich history in the view of archeological finds and also has a mosaic structure including the periods of Hellen-Rome- Byzantine and Ottoman. The study materials consist of jaws and teeth belonging to total 126 people ; 18 women, 38 men, 11 infants and children, 60 unknown sex having been come into existence in the result of excavations between 2007-2011 year...

  7. NRC regulatory agenda

    The Regulatory Agenda is a quarterly compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and of all petitions for rulemaking that the NRC has received that are pending disposition

  8. 基于双肤色模型和AdaBoost的人脸检测系统设计%Design of Face Detection System Based on Dual Skin Models and AdaBoost Algorithm

    侯顺艳; 郄建敏; 许静

    2014-01-01

    本文在Windows平台下,基于VS2010和Intel开源计算机视觉库OpenCV设计了一个实用的人脸检测系统,实现复杂背景图像中可能存在的人脸区域检测。人脸检测功能的实现主要融合双肤色模型和AdaBoost算法。首先基于YCbCr颜色空间的简单边界模型和高斯模型对图像实现分割并分析处理,实现人脸区域的粗定位。然后对人脸候选区域采用 AdaBoost算法进行精检测。该系统使用简单,检测效果较好。%A practical face detection system which is based on VS2010 and Intel open source computer vision library (OpenCV) under the platfrom of windows.was designed. It shoud bring out the face region detection in the complex backgroud image which may consist of face regions. The realization of face detection function is mainly fusion of dual skin models and Adaboost algorithm. The image segemention of skin region was firstly got based on a smiple boundary skin model and Gaussian skin color model in the YCbCr color space. The face coarse region location was determined by using the results of skin color segmentaion. Combining Adaboost algorithm, the accurate candidate face region was acquired secondly. This system is easy to use and has better detection.

  9. Design of Face Detection System Based on Dual Skin Models and AdaBoost Algorithm%基于双肤色模型和AdaBoost的人脸检测系统设计

    侯顺艳; 郄建敏; 许静

    2014-01-01

    本文在Windows平台下,基于VS2010和Intel开源计算机视觉库OpenCV设计了一个实用的人脸检测系统,实现复杂背景图像中可能存在的人脸区域检测。人脸检测功能的实现主要融合双肤色模型和AdaBoost算法。首先基于YCbCr颜色空间的简单边界模型和高斯模型对图像实现分割并分析处理,实现人脸区域的粗定位。然后对人脸候选区域采用 AdaBoost算法进行精检测。该系统使用简单,检测效果较好。%A practical face detection system which is based on VS2010 and Intel open source computer vision library (OpenCV) under the platfrom of windows.was designed. It shoud bring out the face region detection in the complex backgroud image which may consist of face regions. The realization of face detection function is mainly fusion of dual skin models and Adaboost algorithm. The image segemention of skin region was firstly got based on a smiple boundary skin model and Gaussian skin color model in the YCbCr color space. The face coarse region location was determined by using the results of skin color segmentaion. Combining Adaboost algorithm, the accurate candidate face region was acquired secondly. This system is easy to use and has better detection.

  10. 基于核稀疏表示和AdaBoost算法的自然场景识别%Natural scene recognition based on kernel sparse representation and AdaBoost algorithm

    陆迎曙; 贾林虎

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of natural scene recognition, this paper combining with the model of bag-of-visual words proposes the method for image recognition based on the kernel sparse representation. The section of image description in the method mainly uses the kernel sparse representation to match the features of the images in the high-dimensionality feature space, and for the recognition section, AdaBoost classifier is adopted in which the categories are encoded for the ability of multi-categories recognition. Finally, the experimental results show the increasing effectiveness of the image description and the improvement of the recognition accuracy.%为了提升自然场景图像的识别精度,结合bag-of-visual word模型,提出了一种基于核稀疏表示的图像识别方法。该方法的图像描述部分主要利用核稀疏表示在高维度空间进行图像特征的匹配表示,识别部分采用AdaBoost分类器,对各个类别编码并在对应的核矩阵上进行划分,从而实现多类场景图像的识别能力。实验结果表明,该方法有效的提升了图像描述的准确度与对自然场景图像识别的精度。

  11. Regulatory unbundling in telecommunications

    Knieps, Günter

    2011-01-01

    Due to its dynamic nature, and the increasing importance of competitive sub-parts, the telecommunications sector provides particularly interesting insights for studying regulatory unbundling. Based on the theory of monopolistic bottle-necks the fallacies of overregulation by undue unbundling obligations are indicated. Neither the promotion of infrastructure competition by mandatory un-bundling of competitive subparts of telecommunications infrastructure, nor regulatory induced network fragmen...

  12. NRC regulatory initiatives

    Johnson, T.C. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is addressing several low-level waste disposal issues that will be important to waste generators and to States and Compacts developing new disposal capacity. These issues include Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) waste, mixed waste, below regulatory concern (BRC) waste, and the low-level waste data base. This paper discusses these issues and their current status.

  13. Analysis of the ABCA4 genomic locus in Stargardt disease

    Zernant, Jana; Xie, Yajing Angela; Ayuso, Carmen;

    2014-01-01

    was designed to find the missing disease-causing ABCA4 variation by a combination of next-generation sequencing (NGS), array-Comparative Genome Hybridization (aCGH) screening, familial segregation and in silico analyses. The entire 140 kb ABCA4 genomic locus was sequenced in 114 STGD patients with one...... once. Multimodal analysis suggested 12 new likely pathogenic intronic ABCA4 variants, some of which were specific to (isolated) ethnic groups. No copy number variation (large deletions and insertions) was detected in any patient suggesting that it is a very rare event in the ABCA4 locus. Many variants...... were excluded since they were not conserved in non-human primates, were frequent in African populations and, therefore, represented ancestral, and not disease-associated, variants. The sequence variability in the ABCA4 locus is extensive and the non-coding sequences do not harbor frequent mutations in...

  14. Demographic Profiling of the Locus of Control of Employees

    Keith C. D’souza; Agarwal, Upasna A.; Usha Chavali

    2013-01-01

    This study examines variations in employees’ locus of control (LOC) across the demographic variables of gender, educational background and respondents’ age. The study is based on data collected from 565 employees, using an adapted version of the Rotter Internal–External Locus of Control Scale. Based on a survey of literature, three hypotheses were formulated relating the demographic variables of gender, educational background and age with LOC. The results of this study yielded evidence ...

  15. Restrição como técnica avançada de controlo de comportamento em odontopediatria

    Martins, Augusta Maria Pereira

    2015-01-01

    É comum, na prática clínica de odontopediatria, manifestações de medo e ansiedade por parte do paciente infantil, e quando estas não são controladas pelo médico dentista poderão comprometer a qualidade dos serviços de saúde oral prestados. Perante estas situações o profissional de saúde deverá recorrer a estratégias básicas de comunicação para conseguir estabelecer uma relação de confiança com o seu paciente. No entanto, perante casos mais severos, este poderá optar por técnicas avançadas de ...

  16. AdaBoost classification for model-based segmentation of the outer wall of the common carotid artery in CTA

    Vukadinovic, D.; van Walsum, T.; Manniesing, R.; van der Lugt, A.; de Weert, T. T.; Niessen, W. J.

    2008-03-01

    A novel 2D slice based fully automatic method for model based segmentation of the outer vessel wall of the common carotid artery in CTA data set is introduced. The method utilizes a lumen segmentation and AdaBoost, a fast and robust machine learning algorithm, to initially classify (mark) regions outside and inside the vessel wall using the distance from the lumen and intensity profiles sampled radially from the gravity center of the lumen. A similar method using the distance from the lumen and the image intensity as features is used to classify calcium regions. Subsequently, an ellipse shaped deformable model is fitted to the classification result. The method achieves smaller detection error than the inter observer variability, and the method is robust against variation of the training data sets.

  17. Os Lusíadas de Camões como modelo literario de las Soledades de Góngora

    Cidália Alves dos Santos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan las relaciones intertextuales entre Os Lusíadas de Camões y las Soledades de Góngora. El poeta cordobés, que participó con su primer poema impreso en los preliminares de una de las primeras traducciones de la obra al castellano, tomó al portugués como modelo en la construcción de muchos de sus poemas. En el texto de las Soledades, verificamos que, más allá de la influencia que el poeta portugués pudo ejercer sobre el cordobés, existe  un caso de imitación de procedimientos textuales, temáticos y lingüísticos.

  18. Heterotic trait locus (HTL mapping identifies intra-locus interactions that underlie reproductive hybrid vigor in Sorghum bicolor.

    Imri Ben-Israel

    Full Text Available Identifying intra-locus interactions underlying heterotic variation among whole-genome hybrids is a key to understanding mechanisms of heterosis and exploiting it for crop and livestock improvement. In this study, we present the development and first use of the heterotic trait locus (HTL mapping approach to associate specific intra-locus interactions with an overdominant heterotic mode of inheritance in a diallel population using Sorghum bicolor as the model. This method combines the advantages of ample genetic diversity and the possibility of studying non-additive inheritance. Furthermore, this design enables dissecting the latter to identify specific intra-locus interactions. We identified three HTLs (3.5% of loci tested with synergistic intra-locus effects on overdominant grain yield heterosis in 2 years of field trials. These loci account for 19.0% of the heterotic variation, including a significant interaction found between two of them. Moreover, analysis of one of these loci (hDPW4.1 in a consecutive F2 population confirmed a significant 21% increase in grain yield of heterozygous vs. homozygous plants in this locus. Notably, two of the three HTLs for grain yield are in synteny with previously reported overdominant quantitative trait loci for grain yield in maize. A mechanism for the reproductive heterosis found in this study is suggested, in which grain yield increase is achieved by releasing the compensatory tradeoffs between biomass and reproductive output, and between seed number and weight. These results highlight the power of analyzing a diverse set of inbreds and their hybrids for unraveling hitherto unknown allelic interactions mediating heterosis.

  19. Genome-wide association study identifies a single major locus contributing to survival into old age; the APOE locus revisited

    Deelen, Joris; Beekman, Marian; Uh, Hae-Won;

    2011-01-01

    By studying the loci which contribute to human longevity, we aim to identify mechanisms that contribute to healthy aging. To identify such loci, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) comparing 403 unrelated nonagenarians from long-living families included in the Leiden Longevity Study...... nonagenarian cases from the LLS and their partners. In addition, we observed a novel association between this locus and serum levels of IGF-1 in females (P = 0.005). In conclusion, the major locus determining familial longevity up to high age as detected by GWAS was marked by rs2075650, which tags the...

  20. Identification of a shared genetic susceptibility locus for coronary heart disease and periodontitis.

    Arne S Schaefer

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate a mutual epidemiological relationship between coronary heart disease (CHD and periodontitis. Both diseases are associated with similar risk factors and are characterized by a chronic inflammatory process. In a candidate-gene association study, we identify an association of a genetic susceptibility locus shared by both diseases. We confirm the known association of two neighboring linkage disequilibrium regions on human chromosome 9p21.3 with CHD and show the additional strong association of these loci with the risk of aggressive periodontitis. For the lead SNP of the main associated linkage disequilibrium region, rs1333048, the odds ratio of the autosomal-recessive mode of inheritance is 1.99 (95% confidence interval 1.33-2.94; P = 6.9 x 10(-4 for generalized aggressive periodontitis, and 1.72 (1.06-2.76; P = 2.6 x 10(-2 for localized aggressive periodontitis. The two associated linkage disequilibrium regions map to the sequence of the large antisense noncoding RNA ANRIL, which partly overlaps regulatory and coding sequences of CDKN2A/CDKN2B. A closely located diabetes-associated variant was independent of the CHD and periodontitis risk haplotypes. Our study demonstrates that CHD and periodontitis are genetically related by at least one susceptibility locus, which is possibly involved in ANRIL activity and independent of diabetes associated risk variants within this region. Elucidation of the interplay of ANRIL transcript variants and their involvement in increased susceptibility to the interactive diseases CHD and periodontitis promises new insight into the underlying shared pathogenic mechanisms of these complex common diseases.

  1. Control estructural en el emplazamiento del volcanismo y mineralizaciones neógenas, distrito Cañada Honda, San Luis Structural control on Neogene volcanism and related ore deposits at Cañada Honda district, San Luis province

    María Silvia Japas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Emplazada en la zona de transición sur del segmento de flat-slab pampeano y directamente vinculada a la horizontalización de la placa de Nazca, la faja volcánica terciaria de San Luis delata la migración que experimentó el arco magmático andino a la latitud de los 33º S en tiempos mio-pliocenos. Esta faja volcánica comprende una serie de distritos metalogenéticos de gran importancia en las Sierras Pampeanas de San Luis. Las rocas volcánicas y mineralizaciones de la faja volcánica terciaria se encuentran representadas en los campos volcánicos La Carolina, Cañada Honda - Cerros Largos, Cerros del Rosario y El Morro, dispuestos saltuariamente según una dirección ONO-NO. Las edades K-Ar disponibles indican que el volcanismo se habría iniciado más tempranamente en el sector occidental de esta faja, y que habría finalizado ~ 10 Ma más tarde en la región oriental. El distrito Cañada Honda, el más antiguo y longevo de esta faja volcánica, registra eventos volcánicos e hidrotermales cuyas edades varían entre 12-13 Ma y 7,3 Ma, abarcando facies lávico-hipabisales y volcaniclásticas. Los resultados del análisis estructural demuestran el importante control que, directa o indirectamente, habrían ejercido las estructuras previas en el emplazamiento de las rocas volcánicas y mineralizaciones. Análisis de fábrica deformacional y cinemático han permitido reconocer dos asociaciones volcano-tectónicas diferentes. una de estas asociaciones se vincularía a la reactivación dextral de estructuras paralelas a la foliación del basamento. La asociación principal estaría vinculada con el desarrollo de dos depresiones volcano-tectónicas alineadas en dirección ONO-NO. Sus estructuras principales, de orientación ONO-NO, revelan componentes de desplazamiento senestral y normal tanto a escala del distrito Cañada Honda como de la faja volcánica terciaria.Located at the transitional southern end (33° S of the Pampean flat-slab, the

  2. Inferring relationships between pairs of individuals from locus heterozygosities

    Spinetti Isabella

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The traditional exact method for inferring relationships between individuals from genetic data is not easily applicable in all situations that may be encountered in several fields of applied genetics. This study describes an approach that gives affordable results and is easily applicable; it is based on the probabilities that two individuals share 0, 1 or both alleles at a locus identical by state. Results We show that these probabilities (zi depend on locus heterozygosity (H, and are scarcely affected by variation of the distribution of allele frequencies. This allows us to obtain empirical curves relating zi's to H for a series of common relationships, so that the likelihood ratio of a pair of relationships between any two individuals, given their genotypes at a locus, is a function of a single parameter, H. Application to large samples of mother-child and full-sib pairs shows that the statistical power of this method to infer the correct relationship is not much lower than the exact method. Analysis of a large database of STR data proves that locus heterozygosity does not vary significantly among Caucasian populations, apart from special cases, so that the likelihood ratio of the more common relationships between pairs of individuals may be obtained by looking at tabulated zi values. Conclusions A simple method is provided, which may be used by any scientist with the help of a calculator or a spreadsheet to compute the likelihood ratios of common alternative relationships between pairs of individuals.

  3. Should Farmers' Locus of Control Be Used in Extension?

    Nuthall, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    To explore whether Farmers' Locus of Control (LOC) could be useful in agricultural extension programmes to improve managerial ability. This test records a farmer's belief in her/his control over production outcomes. A mail survey of 2300 New Zealand farmers was used to obtain a range of variables, and to measure their LOC using a question set…

  4. Job Satisfaction and Locus of Control in an Academic Setting

    Stachowiak, Bonni J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored any relationships that existed between faculty members' locus of control and job satisfaction at a small, private, faith-based university. Two demographic variables were also analyzed in the findings: number of years teaching in higher education and tenure status. The job satisfaction instrument used was the Job in General…

  5. Significance Thresholds for Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping Under Selective Genotyping

    Manichaikul, Ani; Palmer, Abraham A.; Sen, Śaunak; Broman, Karl W.

    2007-01-01

    In the case of selective genotyping, the usual permutation test to establish statistical significance for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping can give inappropriate significance thresholds, especially when the phenotype distribution is skewed. A stratified permutation test should be used, with phenotypes shuffled separately within the genotyped and ungenotyped individuals.

  6. Social support, locus of control, and psychological well-being

    van der Zee, KI; Buunk, BP; Sanderman, R

    1997-01-01

    Social support seems to be positively related to psychological well-being. Studies have shown that individual differences exist in the ability to mobilize and use sources of support. The current study focused on locus of control as a personality factor that might be related to this ability, In 2 sam

  7. Locus of Control and Helplessness: Gender Differences among Bereaved Parents

    Rubinstein, Gidi

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated locus of control (LC) and hopelessness (H) among 25 pairs of bereaved parents, who lost their children in the Arab--Israeli conflict, and 25 pairs of demographically matched non-bereaved parents (mean age 53). Four of the 5 hypotheses were supported by results. LC was significantly more external and H was significantly…

  8. Alexandrov's Isodiametric Conjecture and the Cut Locus of a Surface

    Freitas, P.; Krejčiřík, David

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 3 (2015), s. 405-417. ISSN 0040-8735 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/11/0701 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Alexantrov's conjecture * convex surfaces * ellipsoids * cut locus * symmetrization Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.323, year: 2014

  9. Exploring Learner Autonomy: Language Learning Locus of Control in Multilinguals

    Peek, Ron

    2016-01-01

    By using data from an online language learning beliefs survey (n?=?841), defining language learning experience in terms of participants' multilingualism, and using a domain-specific language learning locus of control (LLLOC) instrument, this article examines whether more experienced language learners can also be seen as more autonomous language…

  10. Effects of "Status Sets" on Rotter's Locus of Control Scale

    Bailey, Kent G.; Davidson, Kay M.

    1978-01-01

    Subjects were given sets based on varying levels of social class to determine susceptibility of Internal-External Locus of Control Scale (I-E) scores to situationally induced frames of reference. College students (N=90) took the I-E scale twice. Present results are that the I-E scale may be subject to faking. (Author)

  11. Locus of Control of Reinforcement and Responsiveness to Social Influence.

    Doctor, Ronald M.; Marziani, A. William

    Rotter's (1966) "control of reinforcement" construct is a dimension of belief or expectancy about the locus of reinforcing consequences for behavior. A generalized disposition is represented which ascribes reinforcement contingencies to either "external" (and, hence, uncontrollable) factors or to "internal" sources in which case the individual…

  12. The Influence of Locus of Control on Student Financial Behavior

    Britt, Sonya; Cumbie, Julie A.; Bell, Mary M.

    2013-01-01

    Data on psychological influences of financial behaviors has not been well addressed in student populations, which is concerning given the high levels of general and financial stress experienced by college students. The findings of this study indicate that college students with an external locus of control exhibit the worst financial behaviors.…

  13. A New Locus Shaping Method of Quadric Aspheric Parts

    WANG Yuan-sheng; WANG He-yan; LU Gui-ying; CAI Li; PIAO Cheng-gao

    2005-01-01

    The original idea and shaping principle of locus shaping method for processing the aspheric optical parts are introduced, and the partial structure of the machine tool designed is described. The method has the advantage of high efficiency and low cost compared to the numerical control method. And it is proven that the method is feasible.

  14. Stable Base Locus Decompositions of Kontsevich Moduli Spaces

    Chen, Dawei; Coskun, Izzet

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we determine the stable base locus decomposition of the Kontsevich moduli spaces of degree two and three stable maps to Grassmannians. This gives new examples of the decomposition for varieties with Picard rank three. We also discuss the birational models that correspond to the chambers in the decomposition.

  15. The N-terminus region of the putative C2H2 transcription factor Ada1 harbors a species-specific activation motif that regulates asexual reproduction in Fusarium verticillioides.

    Malapi-Wight, Martha; Kim, Jung-Eun; Shim, Won-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is an important plant pathogenic fungus causing maize ear and stalk rots. In addition, the fungus is directly associated with fumonisin contamination of food and feeds. Here, we report the functional characterization of Ada1, a putative Cys2-His2 zinc finger transcription factor with a high level of similarity to Aspergillus nidulans FlbC, which is required for the activation of the key regulator of conidiation brlA. ADA1 is predicted to encode a protein with two DNA binding motifs at the C terminus and a putative activator domain at the N terminus region. Deletion of the flbC gene in A. nidulans results in "fluffy" cotton-like colonies, with a defect in transition from vegetative growth to asexual development. In this study we show that Ada1 plays a key role in asexual development in F. verticillioides. Conidia production was significantly reduced in the knockout mutant (Δada1), in which aberrant conidia and conidiophores were also observed. We identified genes that are predicted to be downstream of ADA1, based on A. nidulans conidiation signaling pathway. Among them, the deletion of stuA homologue, FvSTUA, resulted in near absence of conidia production. To further investigate the functional conservation of this transcription factor, we complemented the Δada1 strain with A. nidulans flbC, F. verticillioides ADA1, and chimeric constructs. A. nidulans flbC failed to restore conidia production similar to the wild-type level. However, the Ada1N-terminal domain, which contains a putative activator, fused to A. nidulans FlbC C-terminal motif successfully complemented the Δada1 mutant. Taken together, Ada1 is an important transcriptional regulator of asexual development in F. verticillioides and that the N-terminus domain is critical for proper function of this transcription factor. PMID:24161731

  16. Nuclear Regulatory Legislation

    This compilation of statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 100th Congress, 2nd Session, has been prepared by the Office of the General Counsel, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff, for use as an internal resource document. Persons using this document are placed on notice that it may not be used as an authoritative citation in lieu of the primary legislative sources. Furthermore, while every effort has been made to ensure the completeness and accuracy of this material, neither the United States Government, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, nor any of their employees makes any expressed or implied warranty or assumes liability for the accuracy or completeness of the material presented in this compilation

  17. Balanced Integrated Regulatory Oversight

    Reactor safety, protecting the public health and safety, and protecting the environment must always be the nuclear regulator's top priorities. Enabling the use of nuclear power for the benefit of society, while protecting the public and the environment requires the regulator to balance many factors. In addition, the regulator is only one part of the overall government that must consider many factors as it carries out its societal responsibilities. Some of the factors that must be balanced and the practical impacts on how the regulator carries out its responsibilities will be addressed. The first International Conference on Effective Regulatory Systems, held in Moscow, Russian Federation, in 2006, focused on safety and security challenges with a goal of improving regulatory effectiveness through cooperation and sharing of information and best practices. The challenge of meeting both safety and security objectives is one example of potentially competing programmes that must be balanced. Other balances that must be evaluated include the benefits of safety improvements compared to the cost of implementation, the use of deterministic and probabilistic approaches, communication openness balanced with the protection of information that could be used for detrimental purposes, and timeliness of regulatory decision making balanced with the need to perform quality work in support of oversight responsibilities. A balanced and integrated approach to regulatory oversight is vital to ensuring that the regulatory body remains effective in its mission to enable the use of nuclear power while protecting the public and the environment. This concept is applicable to nations beginning a nuclear programme as well as established and experienced regulatory bodies. (author)

  18. Rationales for regulatory activity

    Perhac, R.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The author provides an outline which touches on the types of concerns about risk evaluation which are addressed in the process of establishing regulatory guides. Broadly he says regulatory activity serves three broad constituents: (1) Paternalism (private risk); (2) Promotion of social welfare (public risks); (3) Protection of individual rights (public risks). He then discusses some of the major issues encountered in reaching a decision on what is an acceptable level of risk within each of these areas, and how one establishes such a level.

  19. Evolutionary process of a tetranucleotide microsatellite locus in Acipenseriformes

    Zhao Jun Shao; Eric Rivals; Na Zhao; Sovan Lek; Jianbo Chang; Patrick Berrebi

    2011-08-01

    The evolutionary dynamics of the tetra-nucleotide microsatellite locus Spl-106 were investigated at the repeat and flanking sequences in 137 individuals of 15 Acipenseriform species, giving 93 homologous sequences, which were detected in 11 out of 15 species. Twenty-three haplotypes of flanking sequences and three distinct types of repeats, type I, type II and type III, were found within these 93 sequences. The MS-Align phylogenetic method, newly applied to microsatellite sequences, permitted us to understand the repeat and flanking sequence evolution of Spl-106 locus. The flanking region of locus Spl-106 was highly conserved among the species of genera Acipenser, Huso and Scaphirhynchus, which diverged about 150 million years ago (Mya). The rate of flanking sequence divergence at the microsatellite locus Spl-106 in sturgeons is between 0.011% and 0.079% with an average at 0.028% per million years. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic trees produced by MS-Align showed that both the flanking and repeat regions can cluster the alleles of different species into Pacific and Atlantic lineages. Our results show a synchronous evolutionary pattern between the flanking and repeat regions. Moreover, the coexistence of different repeat types in the same species, even in the same individual, is probably due to two duplication events encompassing the locus Spl-106 that occurred during the divergence of Pacific lineage. The first occured before the diversification of Pacific species (121–96 Mya) and led to repeat types I and II. The second occurred more recently, just before the speciation of A. sinensis and A. dabryanus (69–10 Mya), and led to repeat type III. Sequences in the same species with different repeat types probably corresponds to paralogous loci. This study sheds a new light on the evolutionary mechanisms that shape the complex microsatellite loci involving different repeat types.

  20. Genetic Characterization of the Capsulation Locus of Haemophilus influenzae Serotype e▿

    Giufrè, Maria; Cardines, Rita; Mastrantonio, Paola; Cerquetti, Marina

    2010-01-01

    The capsulation (cap) locus of Haemophilus influenzae type e (Hie) was characterized and sequenced. No IS1016 element was found to flank the locus. The 18.2-kb locus included 14 open reading frames (ORFs), which were grouped into three functional regions. Eight new ORFs (named ecs1 to ecs8) were identified in the Hie capsule-specific region II.

  1. Development and Validation of the Health Locus of Control (HLC) Scale

    Wallston, Barbara Strudler; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The Health Locus of Control (HLC) Scale is an area-specific measure of expectancies regarding locus of control developed for prediction of health-related behavior. Two experiments show discriminant validity of the HLC in contrast with Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale. Normative data on the HLC are provided. (Author)

  2. Locus of Control, Television Viewing, and Eating Disorder Symptomatology in Young Females.

    Fouts, Gregory; Vaughan, Kimberley

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the effects of locus of control and television watching on eating disorder symptomatology in girls between the ages 10-17 years. Girls with an external locus of control had significantly greater eating disorder symptomatology. Girls who watched higher amounts of television and had an external locus of control had significantly greater…

  3. A gene locus for targeted ectopic gene integration in Zymoseptoria tritici ☆

    Kilaru, S.; Schuster, M; Latz, M.; S. Das Gupta; Steinberg, N.; Fones, H.; Gurr, S.J.; Talbot, N.J.; Steinberg, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights • We establish the sdi1 of Z. tritici locus for targeted integration of constructs as single copies. • Integration of constructs conveys carboxin resistance. • We provide a vector for integration of eGFP-expressing construct into the sdi1 locus. • Integration into sdi1 locus is not affecting virulence of Z. tritici.

  4. Locus of Control and Attitude toward Eating in a Female College Population.

    Groth-Marnat, Gary; Scumaker, Jack F.

    1988-01-01

    Investigated relationship between locus of control and attitude to food intake in 101 female college students. Results indicated that locus of control was unable to predict attitudes toward eating and fear of becoming overweight. Thesis that locus of control would be related to attitude toward food intake was not supported. (Author/NB)

  5. A STUDY OF LOCUS OF CONTROL AND SELF ESTEEM AMONG BOYS AND GIRLS COLLEGE STUDENTS

    Thale Arti Subhashrao

    2014-01-01

    Objective of the study was to search locus of control and self esteem among boys and girls college students. Hypothesis: Boys college students will be high Locus of Control (External Locus of Control) than girls' college's students. Second hypothesis: there will be significant difference between boys and girls college students on dimension self esteem.

  6. Reframing Student Affairs Leadership: An Analysis of Organizational Frames of Reference and Locus of Control

    Tull, Ashley; Freeman, Jerrid P.

    2011-01-01

    Examined in this study were the identified frames of reference and locus of control used by 478 student affairs administrators. Administrator responses were examined to identify frames of reference most commonly used and their preference order. Locus of control most commonly used and the relationship between frames of reference and locus of…

  7. Arabidopsis RRP6L1 and RRP6L2 function in FLOWERING LOCUS C silencing via regulation of antisense RNA synthesis.

    Jun-Hye Shin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The exosome complex functions in RNA metabolism and transcriptional gene silencing. Here, we report that mutations of two Arabidopsis genes encoding nuclear exosome components AtRRP6L1 and AtRRP6L2, cause de-repression of the main flowering repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC and thus delay flowering in early-flowering Arabidopsis ecotypes. AtRRP6L mutations affect the expression of known FLC regulatory antisense (AS RNAs AS I and II, and cause an increase in Histone3 K4 trimethylation (H3K4me3 at FLC. AtRRP6L1 and AtRRP6L2 function redundantly in regulation of FLC and also act independently of the exosome core complex. Moreover, we discovered a novel, long non-coding, non-polyadenylated antisense transcript (ASL, for Antisense Long originating from the FLC locus in wild type plants. The AtRRP6L proteins function as the main regulators of ASL synthesis, as these mutants show little or no ASL transcript. Unlike ASI/II, ASL associates with H3K27me3 regions of FLC, suggesting that it could function in the maintenance of H3K27 trimethylation during vegetative growth. AtRRP6L mutations also affect H3K27me3 levels and nucleosome density at the FLC locus. Furthermore, AtRRP6L1 physically associates with the ASL transcript and directly interacts with the FLC locus. We propose that AtRRP6L proteins participate in the maintenance of H3K27me3 at FLC via regulating ASL. Furthermore, AtRRP6Ls might participate in multiple FLC silencing pathways by regulating diverse antisense RNAs derived from the FLC locus.

  8. X-rays induce more mutations at the tk locus than at the hgprt locus in human lymphoblastoid cells

    In rodent cell systems, it has previously been noted that higher levels of gene-locus mutations are induced at autosomal loci than at X-linked loci. Generally, this has been attributed to the likelihood that the presence of alleles of essential genes on the homologous autosome permits large-scale alterations (deletion, recombination, gene conversion, etc.) in the chromosome which contains the + allele of the selectable marker, without deleterious effects to the cell. The authors found a similar result in human lymphoblastoid cells. X-rays induced two classes of mutants at the autosomal tk locus. These were differentiated by their growth rates. Both classes were induced by x-rays with linear kinetics as a function of dose; however, about 4-5 times as many slow-growing mutants appeared. Only mutants with normal growth rates were observed at the X-linked hgprt locus; the level of induced mutation was equal to the fraction of normally-growing tk mutants. They interestingly, found that ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) also induced both classes of mutants at the tk locus, although only about 1/3 of the total were of the slow-growing variety. Molecular characterizations of a large number of these mutants have been performed and the data are presented in the paper

  9. Allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR at the p16INK4a locus

    Fujita, Toshitsugu; Yuno, Miyuki; Fujii, Hodaka

    2016-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system has been adopted for a wide range of biological applications including genome editing. In some cases, dissection of genome functions requires allele-specific genome editing, but the use of CRISPR for this purpose has not been studied in detail. In this study, using the p16INK4a gene in HCT116 as a model locus, we investigated whether chromatin states, such as CpG methylation, or a single-nucleotide gap form in a target site can be exploited for allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR in vivo. First, we showed that allele-specific locus binding and genome editing could be achieved by targeting allele-specific CpG-methylated regions, which was successful for one, but not all guide RNAs. In this regard, molecular basis underlying the success remains elusive at this stage. Next, we demonstrated that an allele-specific single-nucleotide gap form could be employed for allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR, although it was important to avoid CRISPR tolerance of a single nucleotide mismatch brought about by mismatched base skipping. Our results provide information that might be useful for applications of CRISPR in studies of allele-specific functions in the genomes. PMID:27465215

  10. A Common Missense Variant in the Glucokinase Regulatory Protein Gene (GCKR) Is Associated with Increased Plasma Triglyceride and C-Reactive Protein but Lower Fasting Glucose Concentrations

    OBJECTIVE-Using the genome-wide-association approach, we recently identified the glucokinase regulatory protein gene (GCKR, rs780094) region as a novel quantitative trait locus for plasma triglyceride concentration in Europeans. Here, we sought to study the association of GCKR variants with metaboli...

  11. Functional conservation between rodents and chicken of regulatory sequences driving skeletal muscle gene expression in transgenic chickens

    Taylor Lorna

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulatory elements that control expression of specific genes during development have been shown in many cases to contain functionally-conserved modules that can be transferred between species and direct gene expression in a comparable developmental pattern. An example of such a module has been identified at the rat myosin light chain (MLC 1/3 locus, which has been well characterised in transgenic mouse studies. This locus contains two promoters encoding two alternatively spliced isoforms of alkali myosin light chain. These promoters are differentially regulated during development through the activity of two enhancer elements. The MLC3 promoter alone has been shown to confer expression of a reporter gene in skeletal and cardiac muscle in transgenic mice and the addition of the downstream MLC enhancer increased expression levels in skeletal muscle. We asked whether this regulatory module, sufficient for striated muscle gene expression in the mouse, would drive expression in similar domains in the chicken. Results We have observed that a conserved downstream MLC enhancer is present in the chicken MLC locus. We found that the rat MLC1/3 regulatory elements were transcriptionally active in chick skeletal muscle primary cultures. We observed that a single copy lentiviral insert containing this regulatory cassette was able to drive expression of a lacZ reporter gene in the fast-fibres of skeletal muscle in chicken in three independent transgenic chicken lines in a pattern similar to the endogenous MLC locus. Reporter gene expression in cardiac muscle tissues was not observed for any of these lines. Conclusions From these results we conclude that skeletal expression from this regulatory module is conserved in a genomic context between rodents and chickens. This transgenic module will be useful in future investigations of muscle development in avian species.

  12. Toxicogenomics in Regulatory Ecotoxicology

    The potential utility of toxicogenomics in toxicological research and regulatory activities has been the subject of scientific discussions, and as with any new technology, there is a wide range of opinion. The purpose of this feature article is to consider roles of toxicogenomic...

  13. Comments on regulatory reform

    Nuclear regulatory reform is divided into two parts. The first part contains all those matters for which new legislation is required. The second part concerns all those matters that are within the power of the Commission under existing statutes. Recommendations are presented

  14. NRC regulatory agenda

    This document is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considered action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  15. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    This document compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rule making which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  16. NRC regulatory agenda

    This document provides a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  17. Prediction of regulatory elements

    Sandelin, Albin

    2008-01-01

    -lab methods are time consuming and expensive, it is not realistic to identify TFBS for all uncharacterized genes in the genome by purely experimental means. Computational methods aimed at predicting potential regulatory regions can increase the efficiency of wet-lab experiments significantly. Here, methods...

  18. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    This document is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has proposed or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  19. GestAqua.AdaPT - Mediterranean river basin modeling and reservoir operation strategies for climate change adaptation

    Alexandre Diogo, Paulo; Nunes, João Pedro; Marco, Machado; Aal, Carlo; Carmona Rodrigues, António; Beça, Pedro; Casanova Lino, Rafael; Rocha, João; Carvalho Santos, Cláudia

    2016-04-01

    Climate change (CC) scenarios for the Mediterranean region include an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as drought periods. higher average temperatures and evapotranspiration, combined with the decrease of annual precipitation may strongly affect the sustainability of water resources. In face of these risks, improving water management actions? by anticipating necessary operational measures is required to insure water quantity and quality according to the needs of the populations and irrigation in agriculture. This is clearly the case of the Alentejo region, southern Portugal, where present climatic conditions already pose significant challenges to water resources stakeholders, mainly from the agricultural and the urban supply sectors. With this in mind, the GestAqua.AdaPT project is underway during 2015 and 2016, aiming at analyzing CC impacts until 2100 and develop operational procedures to ensure water needs are adequately satisfied in the Monte Novo and Vigia reservoirs, which supply water for the city of Évora and nearby irrigation systems. Specific project objectives include: a) defining management and operational adaptation strategies aiming to ensure resource sustainability, both quantitatively and qualitatively; b) evaluate future potential costs and available alternatives to the regional water transfer infrastructure linked with the large Alqueva reservoir implemented in 2011; c) defining CC adaptation strategies to reduce irrigation water needs and d) identification of CC adaptation strategies which can be suitable also to other similar water supply systems. The methodology is centered on the implementation of a cascade of modeling tools, allowing the integrated simulation of the multiple variables under analysis. The project is based on CC scenarios resulting from the CORDEX project for 10 combinations of Global and regional climate models (GCMs and RCMs). The study follows by using two of these combinations

  20. Regulatory and operating experience

    Regulatory and operating experience in the disposal of radioactive waste can be divided into three time periods, World War II and its aftermath, Post World War II till the end of the cold war, and crystal ball gazing into the future. In the first period, there was little regulatory guidance and operating practices, all conducted under wartime secrecy conditions, sometimes were not even up to the norms of the times. Environmental releases resulted in some seriously contaminated sites and high dosages to some offsite populations. Failure to consider even the storage of wastes in a systems context resulted in some stocks that were difficult to recover, treat and dispose of in a final manner. In the second period, increasing civilian uses of nuclear power and isotopes for medical, research, and industrial purposes and military pressure for increased production of Pu-239 resulted in large and more dispersed disposal of radioactive wastes. Regulatory regimes, following growing environmental consciousness, came into existence that minimized exposure to environmental contamination. Practices, in most instances, increasingly conformed to these regulatory demands. The future is unknowable. However, for high level wastes, except for thermodynamically stable forms, no technology can guarantee safety and present methodologies are calculated to produce doses orders of magnitude lower than regulatory limits. Therefore, it is possible that research will be limited to no higher technology than is reasonably achievable. Whereas for low level waste, where proof is practicably possible, as high technology as is reasonably achievable will be best in the long run. (author). 24 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  1. A meta-analytic examination of work and general locus of control.

    Wang, Qiang; Bowling, Nathan A; Eschleman, Kevin J

    2010-07-01

    The current meta-analysis examined the hypothesized consequences of work and general locus of control. As expected, work locus of control generally yielded stronger relationships with work-related criteria (e.g., job satisfaction, affective commitment, and burnout) than general locus of control. We also found some evidence that general locus of control yielded relatively stronger relationships with general criteria (e.g., life satisfaction, affective commitment, and burnout). Regression analysis found several unique effects for both work and general locus of control. PMID:20604595

  2. Fine-mapping of an Arabidopsis cell death mutation locus

    2000-01-01

    An Arabidopsis cell death mutation locus was mapped to chromosome 2 between IGS1 and mi421. The YAC clone ends, CIC9A3R, CIC11C7L, CIC2G5R and RFLP marker CDs3 within this interval, were used to probe TAMU BAC library and 31 BAC clones were obtained. A BAC contig encompassing the mutation locus, which consists of T6P5, T7M23, T12A21, T8L6 and T18A18, was identified by Southern hybridization with the BAC ends as probes. 11 CAPS and 12 STS markers were developed in this region. These results will facilitate map-based cloning of the genes and sequencing of the genomic DNA in this region.

  3. The locus of microRNA-10b

    Biagioni, Francesca; Bossel Ben-Moshe, Noa; Fontemaggi, Giulia; Yarden, Yosef; Domany, Eytan; Blandino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary microRNA research has led to significant advances in our understanding of the process of tumorigenesis. MicroRNAs participate in different events of a cancer cell’s life, through their ability to target hundreds of putative transcripts involved in almost every cellular function, including cell cycle, apoptosis, and differentiation. The relevance of these small molecules is even more evident in light of the emerging linkage between their expression and both prognosis and clinical outcome of many types of human cancers. This identifies microRNAs as potential therapeutic modifiers of cancer phenotypes. From this perspective, we overview here the miR-10b locus and its involvement in cancer, focusing on its role in the establishment (miR-10b*) and spreading (miR-10b) of breast cancer. We conclude that targeting the locus of microRNA 10b holds great potential for cancer treatment. PMID:23839045

  4. Cross-species identification of Mendel's I locus.

    Armstead, Ian; Donnison, Iain; Aubry, Sylvain; Harper, John; Hörtensteiner, Stefan; James, Caron; Mani, Jan; Moffet, Matt; Ougham, Helen; Roberts, Luned; Thomas, Ann; Weeden, Norman; Thomas, Howard; King, Ian

    2007-01-01

    A key gene involved in plant senescence, mutations of which partially disable chlorophyll catabolism and confer stay-green leaf and cotyledon phenotypes, has been identified in Pisum sativum, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Festuca pratensis by using classical and molecular genetics and comparative genomics. A stay-green locus in F. pratensis is syntenically equivalent to a similar stay-green locus on rice chromosome 9. Functional testing in Arabidopsis of a homolog of the rice candidate gene revealed (i) senescence-associated gene expression and (ii) a stay-green phenotype after RNA interference silencing. Genetic mapping in pea demonstrated cosegregation with the yellow/green cotyledon polymorphism (I/i) first reported by Gregor Mendel in 1866. PMID:17204643

  5. Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the commission. This is an annual publication for the general use of the NRC Staff and is available to the public. The digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide

  6. Quantitative Trait Locus and Genetical Genomics Analysis Identifies Putatively Causal Genes for Fecundity and Brooding in the Chicken.

    Johnsson, Martin; Jonsson, Kenneth B; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per; Wright, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Life history traits such as fecundity are important to evolution because they make up components of lifetime fitness. Due to their polygenic architectures, such traits are difficult to investigate with genetic mapping. Therefore, little is known about their molecular basis. One possible way toward finding the underlying genes is to map intermediary molecular phenotypes, such as gene expression traits. We set out to map candidate quantitative trait genes for egg fecundity in the chicken by combining quantitative trait locus mapping in an advanced intercross of wild by domestic chickens with expression quantitative trait locus mapping in the same birds. We measured individual egg fecundity in 232 intercross chickens in two consecutive trials, the second one aimed at measuring brooding. We found 12 loci for different aspects of egg fecundity. We then combined the genomic confidence intervals of these loci with expression quantitative trait loci from bone and hypothalamus in the same intercross. Overlaps between egg loci and expression loci, and trait-gene expression correlations identify 29 candidates from bone and five from hypothalamus. The candidate quantitative trait genes include fibroblast growth factor 1, and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins L42 and L32. In summary, we found putative quantitative trait genes for egg traits in the chicken that may have been affected by regulatory variants under chicken domestication. These represent, to the best of our knowledge, some of the first candidate genes identified by genome-wide mapping for life history traits in an avian species. PMID:26637433

  7. Quantitative Trait Locus and Genetical Genomics Analysis Identifies Putatively Causal Genes for Fecundity and Brooding in the Chicken

    Martin Johnsson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Life history traits such as fecundity are important to evolution because they make up components of lifetime fitness. Due to their polygenic architectures, such traits are difficult to investigate with genetic mapping. Therefore, little is known about their molecular basis. One possible way toward finding the underlying genes is to map intermediary molecular phenotypes, such as gene expression traits. We set out to map candidate quantitative trait genes for egg fecundity in the chicken by combining quantitative trait locus mapping in an advanced intercross of wild by domestic chickens with expression quantitative trait locus mapping in the same birds. We measured individual egg fecundity in 232 intercross chickens in two consecutive trials, the second one aimed at measuring brooding. We found 12 loci for different aspects of egg fecundity. We then combined the genomic confidence intervals of these loci with expression quantitative trait loci from bone and hypothalamus in the same intercross. Overlaps between egg loci and expression loci, and trait–gene expression correlations identify 29 candidates from bone and five from hypothalamus. The candidate quantitative trait genes include fibroblast growth factor 1, and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins L42 and L32. In summary, we found putative quantitative trait genes for egg traits in the chicken that may have been affected by regulatory variants under chicken domestication. These represent, to the best of our knowledge, some of the first candidate genes identified by genome-wide mapping for life history traits in an avian species.

  8. Aquifer Recharge Estimation through Atmospheric Chloride Mass Balance at Las Cañadas Caldera, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    Rayco Marrero-Diaz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric chloride mass balance (CMB method was used to estimate net aquifer recharge in Las Cañadas Caldera, an endorheic summit aquifer area about 2000 m a.s.l. with negligible surface runoff, which hosts the largest freshwater reserve in Tenerife Island, Canary Islands, Spain. The wet hydrological year 2005–2006 was selected to compare yearly atmospheric chloride bulk deposition and average chloride content in recharge water just above the water table, both deduced from periodical sampling. The potential contribution of chloride to groundwater from endogenous HCl gas may invalidate the CMB method. The chloride-to-bromide molar ratio was an efficient tracer used to select recharge water samples having atmospheric origin of chloride. Yearly net aquifer recharge was 631 mm year−1, i.e., 69% of yearly precipitation. This result is in agreement with potential aquifer recharge estimated through an independent lumped-parameter rainfall-runoff model operated by the Insular Water Council of Tenerife. This paper illustrates basic procedures and routines to use the CMB method for aquifer recharge in active volcanic oceanic islands having sparse-data coverage and groundwater receiving contribution of endogenous halides.

  9. RESPONS LINGKUNGAN BERBELANJA SEBAGAI STIMULUS PEMBELIAN TIDAK TERENCANA PADA TOKO SERBA ADA (TOSERBA (Studi Kasus Carrefour Surabaya

    Hatane Semuel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This research discuss about the Shopping Environment Responses as Impulsive Buying stimuli in a study case on 200 consummers of Carrefour Surabaya. The shopping environment responses variables consist of are pleasure, arousal, and dominance (PAD. This study used shopping experience, that consists of hedonic shoping value, resources expenditure, and utilitarian shopping value, as the mediation variables. This study revealed that dominance variable had a positive effect on impulsive buying, and this study also revealed that resources expenditure as a shopping experience could be mediation variable between the shopping environment responses and the other shopping experience variables, and had a negative effect on impulsive buying. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penelitian pembelian tidak terencana pada toko serba ada (TOSERBA dilihat dari respons pelanggan terhadap lingkungan berbelanja sebagai stimulus, suatu studi kasus pada 200 pelanggan Carrefour Surabaya. Variabel respons lingkungan belanja, yang terdiri dari pleasure, arousal, dan dominance (PAD. Penelitian ini menggunakan variabel pengalaman belanja hedonic shopping value, resources expenditure, dan utilitarian shopping value sebagai mediator respons lingkungan belanja terhadap pembelian tidak terencana. Hasil penelitian mengungkapkan bahwa; variabel respons lingkungan belanja dominance berpengaruh positip terhadap pembelian tidak terencana. Terungkap juga bahwa variabel pengalaman belanja resources expenditure merupakan variabel mediator antara respons lingkungan belanja dan variabel pengalaman belanja lainnya, serta berpengaruh negatip terhadap pembelian tidak terencana. Kata kunci: respons, lingkungan, belanja, pembelian.

  10. The covariant description of electric and magnetic field lines of null fields: application to Hopf-Rañada solutions

    van Enk, S. J.

    2013-05-01

    The concept of electric and magnetic field lines is intrinsically non-relativistic. Nonetheless, for certain types of fields satisfying certain geometric properties, field lines can be defined covariantly. More precisely, two Lorentz-invariant 2D surfaces in spacetime can be defined such that magnetic and electric field lines are determined, for any observer, by the intersection of those surfaces with spacelike hyperplanes. An instance of this type of field is constituted by the so-called Hopf-Rañada solutions of the source-free Maxwell equations, which have been studied because of their interesting topological properties, namely, linkage of their field lines. In order to describe both geometric and topological properties in a succinct manner, we employ the tools of geometric algebra (aka Clifford algebra) and use the Clebsch representation for the vector potential as well as the Euler representation for both magnetic and electric fields. This description is easily made covariant, thus allowing us to define electric and magnetic field lines covariantly in a compact geometric language. The definitions of field lines can be phrased in terms of 2D surfaces in space. We display those surfaces in different reference frames, showing how those surfaces change under Lorentz transformations while keeping their topological properties. As a byproduct we also obtain relations between optical helicity, optical chirality and generalizations thereof, and their conservation laws.

  11. Depth and Intensity Gabor Features Based 3D Face Recognition Using Symbolic LDA and AdaBoost

    P. S. Hiremath

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the objective is to investigate what contributions depth and intensity information make to the solution of face recognition problem when expression and pose variations are taken into account, and a novel system is proposed for combining depth and intensity information in order to improve face recognition performance. In the proposed approach, local features based on Gabor wavelets are extracted from depth and intensity images, which are obtained from 3D data after fine alignment. Then a novel hierarchical selecting scheme embedded in symbolic linear discriminant analysis (Symbolic LDA with AdaBoost learning is proposed to select the most effective and robust features and to construct a strong classifier. Experiments are performed on the three datasets, namely, Texas 3D face database, Bhosphorus 3D face database and CASIA 3D face database, which contain face images with complex variations, including expressions, poses and longtime lapses between two scans. The experimental results demonstrate the enhanced effectiveness in the performance of the proposed method. Since most of the design processes are performed automatically, the proposed approach leads to a potential prototype design of an automatic face recognition system based on the combination of the depth and intensity information in face images.

  12. High-resolution mapping of the x-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) locus

    Zonana, J.; Jones, M.; Litt, M.; Kramer, P.; Browne, D.; Becker, H.W. (Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)); Brockdorff, N.; Rastan, S. (Medical Council Clinical Research Centre, Harrow (United Kingdom)); Davies, K.P.; Clarke, A. (Univ. of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff (United Kingdom)) (and others)

    1992-11-01

    The X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) locus has been previously localized to the subchromosomal region Xq11-q21.1. The authors have extended previous linkage studies and analyzed linkage between the EDA locus and 10 marker loci, including five new loci, in 41 families. Four of the marker loci showed no recombination with the EDA locus, and six other loci were also linked to the EDA locus with recombination fractions of .009-.075. Multipoint analysis gave support to the placement of the PGK1P1 locus proximal to the EDA locus and the DXS453 and PGK1 loci distal to EDA. Further ordering of the loci could be inferred from a human-rodent somatic cell hybrid derived from an affected female with EDA and an X;9 translocation and from studies of an affected male with EDA and a submicroscopic deletion. Three of the proximal marker loci, which showed no recombination with the EDA locus, when used in combination, were informative in 92% of females. The closely linked flanking polymorphic loci DXS339 and DXS453 had heterozygosites of 72% and 76%, respectively, and when used jointly, they were doubly informative in 52% of females. The human DXS732 locus was defined by a conserved mouse probe pcos169E/4 (DXCrc169 locus) that consegregates with the mouse tabby (Ta) locus, a potential homologue to the EDA locus. The absence of recombination between EDA and the DXSA732 locus lends support to the hypothesis that the DXCrc169 locus in the mouse and the DXS732 locus in humans may contain candidate sequences for the Ta and EDA genes, respectively. 36 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  13. Geographic distribution of haplotype diversity at the bovine casein locus

    Jann, Oliver; Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline; Özbeyaz, Ceyhan; Zaragoza, Pilar; Williams, John; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Lenstra, Johannes; Moazami-Goudarzi, Katy; Erhardt, Georg

    2004-01-01

    The genetic diversity of the casein locus in cattle was studied on the basis of haplotype analysis. Consideration of recently described genetic variants of the casein genes which to date have not been the subject of diversity studies, allowed the identification of new haplotypes. Genotyping of 30 cattle breeds from four continents revealed a geographically associated distribution of haplotypes, mainly defined by frequencies of alleles at CSN1S1 and CSN3. The genetic diversity within taurine b...

  14. Effect of tapentadol on neurons in the locus coeruleus

    Torres-Sanchez, Sonia; Alba-Delgado, Cristina; Llorca-Torralba, Meritxell; Mico, Juan A.; Berrocoso, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Tapentadol is a novel centrally acting drug that combines mu-opioid receptor (MOR) agonism and noradrenaline reuptake inhibition (NRI), producing analgesic effects in various painful conditions. We investigated the acute effects of tapentadol in the locus coeruleus (LC), a central nucleus regulated by the noradrenergic and opioid systems that is critical in pain modulation. In single-unit extracellular recordings of LC neurons from anaesthetized male SpragueeDawley rats, tapentado...

  15. Geography of reputation: the city as locus of business opportunity

    Glückler, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This paper discusses the limits of current cluster theory and theorizes trans-local network externalities as an important cause for the urban agglomeration of knowledge services. A survey on management consulting firms in the metropolitan region of Frankfurt demonstrates that the benefit of co-location in the city lies in the access to reputation networks rather than in the exploitation of local value chain linkages. The city is a locus of opportunity because firms in the ...

  16. Identifying multiple causative genes at a single GWAS locus

    Flister, Michael J.; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; O'Meara, Caitlin C.; Endres, Bradley; Hoffman, Matthew J.; Geurts, Aron M.; Dwinell, Melinda R.; Lazar, Jozef; Jacob, Howard J.; Moreno, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are useful for nominating candidate genes, but typically are unable to establish disease causality or differentiate between the effects of variants in linkage disequilibrium (LD). Additionally, some GWAS loci might contain multiple causative variants or genes that contribute to the overall disease susceptibility at a single locus. However, the majority of current GWAS lack the statistical power to test whether multiple causative genes underlie the same l...

  17. Teacher Psychological Needs, Locus of Control and Engagement

    Doménech Betoret, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationships among psychological needs, locus of control and engagement in a sample of 282 Spanish secondary school teachers. Nine teacher needs were identified based on the study of Bess (1977) and on the Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000, 2002). Self-report questionnaires were used to measure the construct selected for this study and their interrelationships were examined by conducting hierarchical regression analyses. An analysis of teacher respons...

  18. The discovery of the microphthalmia locus and its gene, Mitf

    Arnheiter, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    The history of the discovery of the microphthalmia locus and its gene, now called Mitf, is a testament to the triumph of serendipity. Although the first microphthalmia mutation was discovered among the descendants of a mouse that was irradiated for the purpose of mutagenesis, the mutation most likely was not radiation-induced but occurred spontaneously in one of the parents of a later breeding. Although Mitf might eventually have been identified by other molecular genetic techniques, it was f...

  19. The immunoglobulin heavy chain locus in the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus).

    Gambón-Deza, F; Sánchez-Espinel, C; Magadán-Mompó, S

    2009-08-01

    Immunoglobulins loci in mammals are well known to be organized within a translocon, however their origin remains unresolved. Four of the five classes of immunoglobulins described in humans and rodents (immunoglobulins M, G, E and A-IgM, IgG, IgE and IgA) were found in marsupials and monotremes (immunoglobulin D-IgD was not found) thus showing that the genomic structure of antibodies in mammals has remained constant since its origin. We have recently described the genomic organization of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus in reptiles (IGHM, IGHD and IGHY). These data and the characterization of the IGH locus in platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), allow us to elucidate the changes that took place in this genomic region during evolution from reptile to mammal. Thus, by using available genome data, we were able to detect that platypus IGH locus contains reptilian and mammalian genes. Besides having an IGHD that is very similar to the one in reptiles and an IGHY, they also present the mammal specific antibody genes IGHG and IGHE, in addition to IGHA. We also detected a pseudogene that originated by recombination between the IGHD and the IGHM (similar to the IGHD2 found in Eublepharis macularius). The analysis of the IGH locus in platypus shows that IGHY was duplicated, firstly by evolving into IGHE and then into IGHG. The IGHA of the platypus has a complex origin, and probably arose by a process of recombination between the IGHM and the IGHY. We detected about 44 VH genes (25 were already described), most of which comprise a single group. When we compared these VH genes with those described in Anolis carolinensis, we find that there is an evolutionary relationship between the VH genes of platypus and the reptilian Group III genes. These results suggest that a fast VH turnover took place in platypus and this gave rise to a family with a high VH gene number and the disappearance of the earlier VH families. PMID:19505725

  20. Geographic distribution of haplotype diversity at the bovine casein locus.

    Moazami-Goudarzi Katy; Lenstra Johannes A; Ajmone-Marsan Paolo; Williams John L; Zaragoza Pilar; Özbeyaz Ceyhan; Ibeagha-Awemu Eveline M; Jann Oliver C; Erhardt Georg

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The genetic diversity of the casein locus in cattle was studied on the basis of haplotype analysis. Consideration of recently described genetic variants of the casein genes which to date have not been the subject of diversity studies, allowed the identification of new haplotypes. Genotyping of 30 cattle breeds from four continents revealed a geographically associated distribution of haplotypes, mainly defined by frequencies of alleles at CSN1S1 and CSN3. The genetic diversity within ...

  1. The Relationship Between Locus of Control, Metacognition, and Academic Success

    Hrbáčková, Karla; Hladík, Jakub; Vávrová, Soňa

    2012-01-01

    The previous research on locus of control or metacognition suggested that they are closely related to academic performance and can be taught to students to improve their academic and non-academic success. These variables were often examined separately in order to explain and predict performance and rarely in a university setting. The integration of these variables into a common framework could provide a deeper understanding of university students' learning process. This study examined the rel...

  2. Male-pattern baldness susceptibility locus at 20p11.

    Richards, J.B.; Yuan, X.; Geller, F.; Waterworth, D.; Bataille, V.; Glass, D.; Song, K.; Waeber, G.; Vollenweider, P.; Aben, K.K.H.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Walters, B.; Soranzo, N.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Kong, A.; Rafnar, T.; Deloukas, P.; Sulem, P.; Stefansson, H.; Stefansson, K.; Spector, T.D.; Mooser, V.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a genome-wide association study for androgenic alopecia in 1,125 men and identified a newly associated locus at chromosome 20p11.22, confirmed in three independent cohorts (n = 1,650; OR = 1.60, P = 1.1 x 10(-14) for rs1160312). The one man in seven who harbors risk alleles at both 20p1

  3. Network-based multiple locus linkage analysis of expression traits

    Pan, Wei

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: We consider the problem of multiple locus linkage analysis for expression traits of genes in a pathway or a network. To capitalize on co-expression of functionally related genes, we propose a penalized regression method that maps multiple expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) for all related genes simultaneously while accounting for their shared functions as specified a priori by a gene pathway or network.

  4. Locus-specific view of flax domestication history

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Diederichsen, Axel; Allaby, Robin G.

    2012-01-01

    Crop domestication has been inferred genetically from neutral markers and increasingly from specific domestication-associated loci. However, some crops are utilized for multiple purposes that may or may not be reflected in a single domestication-associated locus. One such example is cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), the earliest oil and fiber crop, for which domestication history remains poorly understood. Oil composition of cultivated flax and pale flax (L. bienne Mill.) indicates th...

  5. BUDGETARY PARTICIPATION, LOCUS OF CONTROL AND JOB SATISFACTION IN TUNISIA

    Dakhli, Anissa

    2009-01-01

    The relation between budgetary participation and job satisfaction has been examined in several accounting studies with conflicting results. The conflicting evidence may reflect the influence of contingency variables. The purpose of the present study is to examine the relationship between budgetary participation and job satisfaction, moderated by the personality variable, locus of control. In this study, Tunisian managers were selected because Tunisia provides an interesting cultural contrast ...

  6. Validación del instrumento “alzheimer`s disease assesment scale” (adas) para poblaciones con enfermedad de alzheimer y deterioro cognoscitivo leve en Colombia 2012-1013

    Romero Vanegas, Sara Julieta

    2014-01-01

    ADAS-COG es el estándar de oro en el estudio clínico de pacientes con Enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA). Las herramientas cognoscitivas deben validarse al usarse en otro idioma o cultura diferente al que fue creado. Validar ADAS en Colombia, permite contar con una herramienta de aplicación universal, comparar diversas poblaciones y obtener resultados equiparables. Objetivo: Adaptar y validar ADAS-COG en Colombia para obtener una versión en español con equivalencia trans-lingüística en pacientes co...

  7. NRC regulatory agenda

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter. The rules on which final action has been taken since March 31, 1993 are: Repeal of NRC standards of conduct; Fitness-for-duty requirements for licensees who possess, use, or transport Category I material; Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel; Monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants; Licensing requirements for land disposal of radioactive wastes; and Licensees' announcements of safeguards inspections

  8. Viral Interferon Regulatory Factors

    Lee, Hye-Ra; Kim, Myung Hee; Lee, Jong-Soo; Liang, Chengyu; Jung, Jae U.

    2009-01-01

    Upon viral infection, the major defensive strategy employed by the host immune system is the activation of the interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral pathway, which is overseen by IFN regulatory factors (IRFs). In order to complete their life cycles, viruses must find a way to modulate the host IFN-mediated immune response. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), a human tumor-inducing herpesvirus, has developed a unique mechanism for antagonizing cellular IFN-mediated antiviral activity...

  9. A flexible regulatory framework

    Regulatory reform of the Finnish electricity market meant opening up potentially competitive parts of the electricity sector to competition and eliminating all unnecessary forms of regulation covering generation, wholesale supply, retail supply, and foreign trade in electricity. New types of control and regulatory mechanisms and institutions were set up for those parts of the electricity industry that were excluded from competition, such as network operations. Network activities now have to be licensed, whereas no licence is needed for generation or supply. A new sector-specific regulatory authority was established in 1995 to coincide with the implementation of the Electricity Market Act, known as the Electricity Market Authority. This is responsible for regulating network activities and retail supply to captive customers. The core function of the authority, which employs some 14 people, is to promote the smooth operation of the Finnish electricity market and to oversee the implementation of the Electricity Market Act and its provisions. Its most important duties are linked to overseeing the process by which network companies price their electricity. As price regulation no longer exists, all the companies in the electricity sector set their tariffs independently, even network companies. The job of controlling the pricing of network services is handed by the Electricity Market Authority, following the principles of competition control. Pricing control takes place ex post - after a pricing system has been adopted by a company and concentrates on individual cases and companies. There is no ex ante system of setting or approving prices and tariffs by the regulator. The tariffs and pricing of network services can be evaluated, however, by both the Electricity Market Authority and the Finnish Competition Authority, which have overlapping powers as regards the pricing of network activities. The Finnish regulatory framework can be described as a system of light

  10. Rethinking Regulatory Democracy

    Cuellar, Mariano-Florentino

    2004-01-01

    This Article presents a critique of democratic participation in the modern administrative state, and provides an affirmative proposal for reforming public participation in shaping regulatory policy. According to several different strands of thinking about law and democracy, the legitimacy of the administrative state depends on the claim that it provides opportunities for public engagement as well as a mechanism for expert decisionmaking. A typical rulemaking proceeding lets experts make tec...

  11. The pgm locus and pigmentation phenotype in Yersinia pestis

    Tereza Cristina Leal-Balbino

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The pigmentation (pgm locus is a large unstable area of the Yersinia pestis chromosome composed of a segment of iron acquisition (HPI linked to a pigmentation segment. In this work we examined the mobility of HPI and the pigmentation segment in three Y. pestis isolates using successive subcultures on Congo red agar (CRA plates. Strain P. CE 882 was shown to be highly stable while strains P. Exu 340 and P. Peru 375 dissociated into several phenotypes, PCR analysis showing evidence of changes in the pgm locus of the derived cultures. Strains P. Exu 340 and P. Peru 375 produced previously unreported cultures positive for the pesticin/yersiniabactin outer membrane receptor (psn+ but negative for the iron-regulated protein (irp2-, suggesting the occurrence of rearrangements in this chromosomal region and either a sequential loss or the loss of separated segments. These results provide evidence that besides deletion en bloc, specific rearrangements are also involved in the deletion events for that locus.

  12. Characterizing the Retinoblastoma 1 Locus: a plethora of putative elements for Rb1 regulation by in silico analysis

    Mohammadreza eHajjari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited understanding of the Rb1 locus hinders genetic and epigenetic analyses of Retinoblastoma, a childhood cancer of the nervous systems. In this study, we used in silico tools to investigate and review putative genetic and epigenetic elements of the Rb1 gene. We report transcription start sites, CpG islands, and regulatory moieties that are likely to influence transcriptional states of this gene. These might contribute genetic and epigenetic information modulating tissue-specific transcripts and expression levels of the Rb1 gene. The elements we identified include tandem repeats that reside within or next to some identified putative CpG islands near Rb1’s transcriptional start site, and that are likely to be polymorphic among individuals. Our analyses highlight the complexity of this gene and suggest opportunities and limitations for future studies of retinoblastoma, genetic counseling, and the accurate identification of patients at greater risk of developing the malignancy.

  13. Allelic Imbalance in Regulation of ANRIL through Chromatin Interaction at 9p21 Endometriosis Risk Locus.

    Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Gurumurthy, Aishwarya; Hayano, Takahide; Ahmadloo, Somayeh; Omer, Waleed H; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Akihito; Kurose, Keisuke; Enomoto, Takayuki; Akira, Shigeo; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Inoue, Ituro

    2016-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have discovered numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with human complex disorders. However, functional characterization of the disease-associated SNPs remains a formidable challenge. Here we explored regulatory mechanism of a SNP on chromosome 9p21 associated with endometriosis by leveraging "allele-specific" functional genomic approaches. By re-sequencing 1.29 Mb of 9p21 region and scrutinizing DNase-seq data from the ENCODE project, we prioritized rs17761446 as a candidate functional variant that was in perfect linkage disequilibrium with the original GWAS SNP (rs10965235) and located on DNase I hypersensitive site. Chromosome conformation capture followed by high-throughput sequencing revealed that the protective G allele of rs17761446 exerted stronger chromatin interaction with ANRIL promoter. We demonstrated that the protective allele exhibited preferential binding affinities to TCF7L2 and EP300 by bioinformatics and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses. ChIP assays for histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation and RNA polymerase II reinforced the enhancer activity of the SNP site. The allele specific expression analysis for eutopic endometrial tissues and endometrial carcinoma cell lines showed that rs17761446 was a cis-regulatory variant where G allele was associated with increased ANRIL expression. Our work illuminates the allelic imbalances in a series of transcriptional regulation from factor binding to gene expression mediated by chromatin interaction underlie the molecular mechanism of 9p21 endometriosis risk locus. Functional genomics on common disease will unlock functional aspect of genotype-phenotype correlations in the post-GWAS stage. PMID:27055116

  14. Allelic Imbalance in Regulation of ANRIL through Chromatin Interaction at 9p21 Endometriosis Risk Locus

    Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Gurumurthy, Aishwarya; Hayano, Takahide; Ahmadloo, Somayeh; Omer, Waleed H; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Akihito; Kurose, Keisuke; Enomoto, Takayuki; Akira, Shigeo; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Inoue, Ituro

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have discovered numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with human complex disorders. However, functional characterization of the disease-associated SNPs remains a formidable challenge. Here we explored regulatory mechanism of a SNP on chromosome 9p21 associated with endometriosis by leveraging “allele-specific” functional genomic approaches. By re-sequencing 1.29 Mb of 9p21 region and scrutinizing DNase-seq data from the ENCODE project, we prioritized rs17761446 as a candidate functional variant that was in perfect linkage disequilibrium with the original GWAS SNP (rs10965235) and located on DNase I hypersensitive site. Chromosome conformation capture followed by high-throughput sequencing revealed that the protective G allele of rs17761446 exerted stronger chromatin interaction with ANRIL promoter. We demonstrated that the protective allele exhibited preferential binding affinities to TCF7L2 and EP300 by bioinformatics and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses. ChIP assays for histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation and RNA polymerase II reinforced the enhancer activity of the SNP site. The allele specific expression analysis for eutopic endometrial tissues and endometrial carcinoma cell lines showed that rs17761446 was a cis-regulatory variant where G allele was associated with increased ANRIL expression. Our work illuminates the allelic imbalances in a series of transcriptional regulation from factor binding to gene expression mediated by chromatin interaction underlie the molecular mechanism of 9p21 endometriosis risk locus. Functional genomics on common disease will unlock functional aspect of genotype-phenotype correlations in the post-GWAS stage. PMID:27055116

  15. The changing regulatory environment

    The role and value of regulation in the energy sector was discussed, demonstrating how, despite common perception, regulation is an essential part of Canada's strategy to find and develop new opportunities. The future vision of regulation for industry participants was presented with particular focus on issues related to streamlining the regulatory process. As far as pipelines are concerned, regulatory actions are necessary to facilitate capacity increases and to ensure the line's integrity, safety and environmental record. Furthermore, regulation provides economic solutions where market forces cannot provide them, as for example where business has elements of monopoly. It arbitrates interests of landowners, business, consumers, and environmental groups. It looks for ways to ensure conditions under which competition can flourish. It acts as the guardian of citizens' rights in a democratic society by providing citizens with an opportunity to be heard on the building or expansion of pipelines and associated facilities. As citizens become more and more concerned about their property and the land that surrounds them, citizen involvement in decision making about how industry activity affects their quality of life will become correspondingly more important. Regulatory agencies are committed to facilitate this engagement by flexible hearing procedures and by making use of evolving communication and information technology

  16. Regulatory aspects on nanomedicines.

    Sainz, Vanessa; Conniot, João; Matos, Ana I; Peres, Carina; Zupancic, Eva; Moura, Liane; Silva, Liana C; Florindo, Helena F; Gaspar, Rogério S

    2015-12-18

    Nanomedicines have been in the forefront of pharmaceutical research in the last decades, creating new challenges for research community, industry, and regulators. There is a strong demand for the fast development of scientific and technological tools to address unmet medical needs, thus improving human health care and life quality. Tremendous advances in the biomaterials and nanotechnology fields have prompted their use as promising tools to overcome important drawbacks, mostly associated to the non-specific effects of conventional therapeutic approaches. However, the wide range of application of nanomedicines demands a profound knowledge and characterization of these complex products. Their properties need to be extensively understood to avoid unpredicted effects on patients, such as potential immune reactivity. Research policy and alliances have been bringing together scientists, regulators, industry, and, more frequently in recent years, patient representatives and patient advocacy institutions. In order to successfully enhance the development of new technologies, improved strategies for research-based corporate organizations, more integrated research tools dealing with appropriate translational requirements aiming at clinical development, and proactive regulatory policies are essential in the near future. This review focuses on the most important aspects currently recognized as key factors for the regulation of nanomedicines, discussing the efforts under development by industry and regulatory agencies to promote their translation into the market. Regulatory Science aspects driving a faster and safer development of nanomedicines will be a central issue for the next years. PMID:26260323

  17. Hastening the regulatory process

    The state of the Canadian oil industry was discussed during this power point presentation with particular emphasis on its production, exports, drilling, industry revenues and capital investment levels. The proposed projects in each of northern Alberta's oil sands deposits, the Athabasca, Peace River and Cold Lake were were announced, along with the inventory of major Alberta projects and the projection of oil sands capital investment. Since 1998, $9 billion has been invested and a further $33 billion has been announced for new or expanded oil sands projects. The year 2000 estimates for Canadian crude oil and natural gas production are 2.3 million barrels per day and 6.3 trillion cubic feet per year respectively. This represented a record year for production of both crude oil and natural gas. In 2000, more than 15,500 wells were drilled in Canada. A graph depicting Canadian crude oil supply forecasted a steady increase in supply from year 2000 to 2010. The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) completed a review of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board regulatory and enforcement processes. Both industry and government efforts are focusing on eliminating regulatory overlap and duplication. Some of the main areas of interest for exploration, drilling, production and pipeline facilities include the examination of regulatory processes for environmentally sensitive areas, rural municipalities with planning bylaws, aboriginal lands and additional fees. 8 figs

  18. Deslinde de la vía pecuaria "Cañada Real Segoviana" en todo el término municipal de Camarena (Toledo)

    Parrilla Colomina, Carmen Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó en primer lugar un levantamiento topográfico en planimetría de los márgenes actuales de la Cañada Real Segoviana en todo el término municipal de Camarena, desde el límite norte con el término municipal de Las Ventas de Retamosa hasta el límite sur con el término municipal de Fuensalida. El levantamiento topográfico incluye tanto los márgenes de la Cañada como las lindes entre las parcelas colindantes. Para ello, se implantaron unas bases de replanteo y se procedió...

  19. Bistability and hysteresis of the 'Secteur' differentiation are controlled by a two-gene locus in Nectria haematococca

    Daboussi Marie-Josée

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bistability and hysteresis are increasingly recognized as major properties of regulatory networks governing numerous biological phenomena, such as differentiation and cell cycle progression. The full scope of the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to bistability and hysteresis remains elusive. Nectria haemaotcocca, a saprophytic or pathogenic fungus with sexual reproduction, exhibits a bistable morphological modification characterized by a reduced growth rate and an intense pigmentation. Bistability is triggered by the presence or absence of σ, a cytoplasmic determinant. This determinant spreads in an infectious manner in the hyphae of the growing margin, insuring hysteresis of the differentiation. Results Seven mutants specifically affected in the generation of σ were selected through two different screening strategies. The s1 and s2 mutations completely abolish the generation of σ and of its morphological expression, the Secteur. The remaining five mutations promote its constitutive generation, which determines an intense pigmentation but not growth alteration. The seven mutations map at the same locus, Ses (for 'Secteur-specific'. The s2 mutant was obtained by an insertional mutagenesis strategy, which permitted the cloning of the Ses locus. Sequence and transcription analysis reveals that Ses is composed of two closely linked genes, SesA, mutated in the s1 and s2 mutant strains, and SesB, mutated in the s* mutant strains. SesB shares sequence similarity with animal and fungal putative proteins, with potential esterase/lipase/thioesterase activity, whereas SesA is similar to proteins of unknown function present only in the filamentous fungi Fusarium graminearum and Podospora anserina. Conclusions The cloning of Ses provides evidence that a system encoded by two linked genes directs a bistable and hysteretic switch in a eukaryote. Atypical regulatory relations between the two proteins may account for the hysteresis

  20. Locus de Controle e escolha do método anticoncepcional Locus de Control y método anticonceptivo elegido Locus of Control and choice of contraceptive method

    Aline Salheb Alves

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a relação entre o Locus de Controle e o tipo de método contraceptivo escolhido. Foi utilizada a Escala Multidimensional de Locus de Controle de Levenson e entrevistadas 191 mulheres. As usuárias de preservativo masculino apresentaram maior Internalidade do que as usuárias de injetável mensal. Quanto ao locus Externalidade Outros Poderosos, as usuárias de implante apresentavam menor externalidade do que as usuárias de preservativo masculino, laqueadura, injetável trimestral e DIU. Considerando-se o locus Externalidade Acaso, as usuárias de implante apresentaram menores escores do que as mulheres que optaram pela laqueadura, injetável trimestral e DIU. Observou-se ainda, menor Externalidade Acaso entre as usuárias de injetável mensal em relação às mulheres que fizeram opção pelo injetável trimestral.El objetivo es validar la relación entre el Locus de Control y el tipo de método anticonceptivo elegido. Fue usada la Escala Multidimensional de Locus de Control de Levenson. Fueron entrevistadas 191 mujeres. Las usuarias de condón masculino presentaron Internalidad más grande que las usuarias de inyectable mensual. Considerado el Locus Externalidad - Otro poderoso, las usuarias de implante presentaron menor externalidad de que las usuarias de condón masculino, laqueadura, inyectable trimestral y DIU. Considerado el Locus Externalidad - Quizá, las usuarias del implante presentaron menores resultados que las mujeres que eligieron por la laqueadura, inyectable trimestral y DIU. Se observo que las mujeres usuarias de inyectable mensual presentaron menor Externalidad - Quizá que las mujeres usuarias de inyectable trimestral.The purpose was to assess the relationship between locus of control and the contraceptive method chosen. It was used the Levenson's Multidimensional Locus of Control Scale and 191 women was interviewed. Users of male condoms presented greater Internality than the monthly contraceptive

  1. Adaptación del Inventario de la Tríada Cognitiva Infantil en población española

    Luis M. Lozano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La depresión es uno de los trastornos mentales que más preocupan a nivel mundial. Una de las teorías que más investigación ha suscitado es la teoría cognitiva de la depresión de Beck. El Inventario de Tríada Cognitiva (CTI se ha elaborado para evaluar los diferentes componentes de la tríada cognitiva, si bien la mayoría de sus estudios se han desarrollado en población adulta y adolescente. El objetivo de este trabajo es mostrar evidencias de validez factorial de la versión reducida del CTI, así como el estudio de las propiedades psicométricas del cuestionario en población infantil. En una muestra de 3292 niños de edades entre los 8 y los 13 años (M=9.8;DT=1.24, los resultados mostraron que el mejor ajuste factorial se obtiene con una estructura bifactorial (tríada positiva y tríada negativa. La fiabilidad de las diferentes dimensiones es buena (α=.88 y .92, respectivamente y las evidencias de validez convergente adecuadas. El cuestionario fue evaluado también desde la perspectiva de la Teoría de la Respuesta a los ítems mostrando unas propiedades correctas. Finalmente se realizó la baremación del cuestionario atendiendo a las diferencias por género encontradas previamente.

  2. A novel Multi-Agent Ada-Boost algorithm for predicting protein structural class with the information of protein secondary structure.

    Fan, Ming; Zheng, Bin; Li, Lihua

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge of the structural class of a given protein is important for understanding its folding patterns. Although a lot of efforts have been made, it still remains a challenging problem for prediction of protein structural class solely from protein sequences. The feature extraction and classification of proteins are the main problems in prediction. In this research, we extended our earlier work regarding these two aspects. In protein feature extraction, we proposed a scheme by calculating the word frequency and word position from sequences of amino acid, reduced amino acid, and secondary structure. For an accurate classification of the structural class of protein, we developed a novel Multi-Agent Ada-Boost (MA-Ada) method by integrating the features of Multi-Agent system into Ada-Boost algorithm. Extensive experiments were taken to test and compare the proposed method using four benchmark datasets in low homology. The results showed classification accuracies of 88.5%, 96.0%, 88.4%, and 85.5%, respectively, which are much better compared with the existing methods. The source code and dataset are available on request. PMID:26350693

  3. Geometric Feature-Based Facial Expression Recognition in Image Sequences Using Multi-Class AdaBoost and Support Vector Machines

    Joonwhoan Lee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions are widely used in the behavioral interpretation of emotions, cognitive science, and social interactions. In this paper, we present a novel method for fully automatic facial expression recognition in facial image sequences. As the facial expression evolves over time facial landmarks are automatically tracked in consecutive video frames, using displacements based on elastic bunch graph matching displacement estimation. Feature vectors from individual landmarks, as well as pairs of landmarks tracking results are extracted, and normalized, with respect to the first frame in the sequence. The prototypical expression sequence for each class of facial expression is formed, by taking the median of the landmark tracking results from the training facial expression sequences. Multi-class AdaBoost with dynamic time warping similarity distance between the feature vector of input facial expression and prototypical facial expression, is used as a weak classifier to select the subset of discriminative feature vectors. Finally, two methods for facial expression recognition are presented, either by using multi-class AdaBoost with dynamic time warping, or by using support vector machine on the boosted feature vectors. The results on the Cohn-Kanade (CK+ facial expression database show a recognition accuracy of 95.17% and 97.35% using multi-class AdaBoost and support vector machines, respectively.

  4. Zebragryllus Desutter-Grandcolas & Cadena-Casteñada, n.gen. a new Gryllinae genus from Eastern and Western Amazonia, South America (Orthoptera, Grylloidea, Gryllidae).

    Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure; Cadena-Castañeda, Oscar J; Jaiswara, Ranjana; Anso, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new genus of grylline cricket, Zebragryllus Desutter-Grandcolas & Cadena-Casteñada n. gen., from the Neotropical Region, using characters of morphology and male genitalia; genitalic characters clearly show that Zebragryllus n. gen. is closely related to Anurogryllus Saussure, 1878. Six species are described as new to science, originating from western (Peru, Colombia) and eastern (French Guiana) Amazonia: Zebragryllus fuscus Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Z. guianensis Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Z. intermedius Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Zebragryllus nauta Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Zebragryllus nouragui Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., and Zebragryllus wittoto Desutter-Grandcolas and Cadena-Casteñada, n. sp., type species of the genus. They are characterized by their size, coloration (shining black, most often with white patterns of coloration, hence the genus name), and male and female genitalia. The calling songs of Z. guianensis Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Z. intermedius Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Z. nouragui Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., and Z. wittoto Desutter-Grandcolas and Cadena-Casteñada, n. sp. are described. An identification key is proposed for both males and females. PMID:24871163

  5. HEALTH LOCUS OF CONTROL PERCEPTION OF ADOLESCENTS, AND ITS EFFECTS ON THEIR HEALTH BEHAVIOURS

    Ruhi Selcuk TABAK

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of this study is to investigate the relationships between health locus of control perceptions and health behaviours of adolescents as well as the effectiveness of lectures on health locus of control to them. The subjects of our study are 192 students in 6 groups of the 9. Grade students of a high school. Three groups of 108 students were randomly selected as the experiment group who were subjected to 4 class-hours specific lectures on health locus of control. The rest 84 students constituted the control group. A 34-item questionnaire for health behaviours and the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLOC, were filled by the students before and after the lectures. The lectures on health locus of control increased the perception of internal health locus of control of adolescents while decreasing chance health locus of control. The differences between experiment and control groups in this aspect were found to be statistically significant. Internal health locus of control is the main source for the increase of responsibility and management of individuals on their health. The relations that were detected between students’ health behaviours and information solicitation and their perceptions of health locus of control showed that the students with higher internal health locus of control are more eager to be responsible and active for their health, especially, for the health behaviours such as physical exercise, smoking, tooth-brushing, medical check-ups so on. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(2.000: 118-130

  6. Selective constraints in experimentally defined primate regulatory regions.

    Daniel J Gaffney

    Full Text Available Changes in gene regulation may be important in evolution. However, the evolutionary properties of regulatory mutations are currently poorly understood. This is partly the result of an incomplete annotation of functional regulatory DNA in many species. For example, transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs, a major component of eukaryotic regulatory architecture, are typically short, degenerate, and therefore difficult to differentiate from randomly occurring, nonfunctional sequences. Furthermore, although sites such as TFBSs can be computationally predicted using evolutionary conservation as a criterion, estimates of the true level of selective constraint (defined as the fraction of strongly deleterious mutations occurring at a locus in regulatory regions will, by definition, be upwardly biased in datasets that are a priori evolutionarily conserved. Here we investigate the fitness effects of regulatory mutations using two complementary datasets of human TFBSs that are likely to be relatively free of ascertainment bias with respect to evolutionary conservation but, importantly, are supported by experimental data. The first is a collection of almost >2,100 human TFBSs drawn from the literature in the TRANSFAC database, and the second is derived from several recent high-throughput chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with genomic microarray (ChIP-chip analyses. We also define a set of putative cis-regulatory modules (pCRMs by spatially clustering multiple TFBSs that regulate the same gene. We find that a relatively high proportion ( approximately 37% of mutations at TFBSs are strongly deleterious, similar to that at a 2-fold degenerate protein-coding site. However, constraint is significantly reduced in human and chimpanzee pCRMS and ChIP-chip sequences, relative to macaques. We estimate that the fraction of regulatory mutations that have been driven to fixation by positive selection in humans is not significantly different from zero. We also find

  7. Sequence and organization of coelacanth neurohypophysial hormone genes: Evolutionary history of the vertebrate neurohypophysial hormone gene locus

    Brenner Sydney

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian neurohypophysial hormones, vasopressin and oxytocin are involved in osmoregulation and uterine smooth muscle contraction respectively. All jawed vertebrates contain at least one homolog each of vasopressin and oxytocin whereas jawless vertebrates contain a single neurohypophysial hormone called vasotocin. The vasopressin homolog in non-mammalian vertebrates is vasotocin; and the oxytocin homolog is mesotocin in non-eutherian tetrapods, mesotocin and [Phe2]mesotocin in lungfishes, and isotocin in ray-finned fishes. The genes encoding vasopressin and oxytocin genes are closely linked in the human and rodent genomes in a tail-to-tail orientation. In contrast, their pufferfish homologs (vasotocin and isotocin are located on the same strand of DNA with isotocin gene located upstream of vasotocin gene separated by five genes, suggesting that this locus has experienced rearrangements in either mammalian or ray-finned fish lineage, or in both lineages. The coelacanths occupy a unique phylogenetic position close to the divergence of the mammalian and ray-finned fish lineages. Results We have sequenced a coelacanth (Latimeria menadoensis BAC clone encompassing the neurohypophysial hormone genes and investigated the evolutionary history of the vertebrate neurohypophysial hormone gene locus within a comparative genomics framework. The coelacanth contains vasotocin and mesotocin genes like non-mammalian tetrapods. The coelacanth genes are present on the same strand of DNA with no intervening genes, with the vasotocin gene located upstream of the mesotocin gene. Nucleotide sequences of the second exons of the two genes are under purifying selection implying a regulatory function. We have also analyzed the neurohypophysial hormone gene locus in the genomes of opossum, chicken and Xenopus tropicalis. The opossum contains two tandem copies of vasopressin and mesotocin genes. The vasotocin and mesotocin genes in chicken and

  8. A homeodomain protein binds to. gamma. -globin gene regulatory sequences

    Lavelle, D.; Ducksworth, J.; Eves, E.; Gomes, G.; Keller, M.; Heller, P.; DeSimone, J. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago (United States) Veterans Administration Westside Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States))

    1991-08-15

    Developmental regulation of {gamma}-globin gene expression probably occurs through developmental-stage-specific trans-acting factors able to promote the interaction of enhancer elements located in the far upstream locus control region with regulatory elements in the {gamma} gene promoters and 3{prime}{sup A}{gamma} enhancer located in close proximity to the genes. The authors have detected a nuclear protein in K562 and baboon fetal bone marrow nuclear extracts capable of binding to A+T-rich sequences in the locus control region, {gamma} gene promoter, and 3{prime} {sup A}{gamma} enhancer. SDS/polyacrylamide gel analysis of the purified K562 binding activity revealed a single protein of 87 kDa. A K562 cDNA clone was isolated encoding a {beta}-galactosidase fusion protein with a DNA binding specificity identical to that of the K562/fetal bone marrow nuclear protein. The cDNA clone encodes a homeodomain homologous to the Drosophila antennapedia protein.

  9. Schedules for Regulatory Regimes

    The idea of regulating transporters' terms of operations is that if the market itself does not produce optimal outcomes, then it can be mimicked to do so through regulatory and other public instruments. The first-best solution could be a subsidized (publicly owned) enterprise that sets tariffs according to marginal costs. This has been the tradition in many European countries in the aftermath of WW2. Due to lack of innovative pressure on and x-inefficiency in these companies, this solution is today viewed as inferior to the system of regulating independent (privately owned) firms. When the European gas market becomes liberalized, part of the process in many countries is to (partially) privatise the transport utilities. Privatised or not, in a liberalized market, the transport utilities should face an independent authority that overviews their operations not only in technical, but also in economic terms. Under regulation, a ''visible hand'' is introduced to correct the imperfect market's ''invisible hand''. By regulating the framework and conditions for how firms may operate, public authorities seek to achieve what is considered optimal for the society. The incentives and disincentives given for pricing and production should create mechanisms leading to an efficient allocation of resources and ''acceptable'' distribution of income. As part of intervening into firms' behavior, regulation may be introduced to direct the firm to behave in certain ways. The framework and regulatory mechanisms for the market must then be constructed in a way that companies voluntarily produce an amount at a price that gives maximal profits and simultaneously satisfies social goals. The regulations should lead to consistency between the company's desire to maximize profits and the society's desire for maximizing welfare, as in a perfectly competitive market. This is the core of regulatory economics

  10. International regulatory activities

    Different international regulatory activities are presented: recommendation on the protection of the public against exposure to radon in drinking water supplies, amendment to the legislation implementing the regulation on imports of agricultural products originating in third countries following the Chernobyl accident, resolution on the commission green paper towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply, declaration of mandatory nature of the international code for the safe carriage of packaged irradiated nuclear fuel, plutonium and high level radioactive wastes on board ships, adoption of action plan against nuclear terrorism. (N.C.)

  11. Spt-Ada-Gcn5-Acetyltransferase (SAGA Complex in Plants: Genome Wide Identification, Evolutionary Conservation and Functional Determination.

    Rakesh Srivastava

    Full Text Available The recruitment of RNA polymerase II on a promoter is assisted by the assembly of basal transcriptional machinery in eukaryotes. The Spt-Ada-Gcn5-Acetyltransferase (SAGA complex plays an important role in transcription regulation in eukaryotes. However, even in the advent of genome sequencing of various plants, SAGA complex has been poorly defined for their components and roles in plant development and physiological functions. Computational analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa genomes for SAGA complex resulted in the identification of 17 to 18 potential candidates for SAGA subunits. We have further classified the SAGA complex based on the conserved domains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the SAGA complex proteins are evolutionary conserved between plants, yeast and mammals. Functional annotation showed that they participate not only in chromatin remodeling and gene regulation, but also in different biological processes, which could be indirect and possibly mediated via the regulation of gene expression. The in silico expression analysis of the SAGA components in Arabidopsis and O. sativa clearly indicates that its components have a distinct expression profile at different developmental stages. The co-expression analysis of the SAGA components suggests that many of these subunits co-express at different developmental stages, during hormonal interaction and in response to stress conditions. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of SAGA component genes further confirmed their expression in different plant tissues and stresses. The expression of representative salt, heat and light inducible genes were affected in mutant lines of SAGA subunits in Arabidopsis. Altogether, the present study reveals expedient evidences of involvement of the SAGA complex in plant gene regulation and stress responses.

  12. ADaCGH: A parallelized web-based application and R package for the analysis of aCGH data.

    Ramón Díaz-Uriarte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Copy number alterations (CNAs in genomic DNA have been associated with complex human diseases, including cancer. One of the most common techniques to detect CNAs is array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH. The availability of aCGH platforms and the need for identification of CNAs has resulted in a wealth of methodological studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ADaCGH is an R package and a web-based application for the analysis of aCGH data. It implements eight methods for detection of CNAs, gains and losses of genomic DNA, including all of the best performing ones from two recent reviews (CBS, GLAD, CGHseg, HMM. For improved speed, we use parallel computing (via MPI. Additional information (GO terms, PubMed citations, KEGG and Reactome pathways is available for individual genes, and for sets of genes with altered copy numbers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ADACGH represents a qualitative increase in the standards of these types of applications: a all of the best performing algorithms are included, not just one or two; b we do not limit ourselves to providing a thin layer of CGI on top of existing BioConductor packages, but instead carefully use parallelization, examining different schemes, and are able to achieve significant decreases in user waiting time (factors up to 45x; c we have added functionality not currently available in some methods, to adapt to recent recommendations (e.g., merging of segmentation results in wavelet-based and CGHseg algorithms; d we incorporate redundancy, fault-tolerance and checkpointing, which are unique among web-based, parallelized applications; e all of the code is available under open source licenses, allowing to build upon, copy, and adapt our code for other software projects.

  13. The core to regulatory reform

    Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Orders 436, 500, and 636, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Public Utility Holding Company Act reform, and the 1992 Energy Policy Act all can have significant effects on an LDC's operations. Such changes in an LDC's environments must be balanced by changes within the utility, its marketplace, and its state regulatory environment. The question is where to start. For Columbia Gas Distribution Cos., based in Columbus, OH, the new operating foundation begins with each employee. Internal strength is critical in designing initiatives that meet the needs of the marketplace and are well-received by regulators. Employees must understand not only the regulatory environment in which the LDC operates, but also how their work contributes to a positive regulatory relationship. To achieve this, Columbia initiated the COntinuing Regulatory Education program, or CORE, in 1991. CORE is a regulatory-focused, information-initiative program coordinated by Columbia's Regulatory Policy, Planning, and Government Affairs Department. The CORE programs can take many forms, such as emerging issue discussions, dialogues with regulators and key parties, updates on regulatory fillings, regulatory policy meetings, and formal training classes. The speakers and discussion facilitators can range from human resource department trainers to senior officers, from regulatory department staff members to external experts, or from state commissioners to executives from other LDCs. The goals of CORE initiatives are to: Support a professional level of regulatory expertise through employee participation in well-developed regulatory programs presented by credible experts. Encourage a constructive state regulatory environment founded on communication and cooperation. CORE achieves these goals via five program levels: introductory basics, advanced learning, professional expertise, crossfunctional dialogues, and external idea exchanges

  14. A Complete Enumeration and Classification of Two-Locus Disease Models

    Li, W; Li, Wentian; Reich, Jens

    1999-01-01

    There are 512 two-locus, two-allele, two-phenotype, fully-penetrant disease models. Using the permutation between two alleles, between two loci, and between being affected and unaffected, one model can be considered to be equivalent to another model under the corresponding permutation. These permutations greatly reduce the number of two-locus models in the analysis of complex diseases. This paper determines the number of non-redundant two-locus models (which can be 102, 100, 96, 51, 50, or 48, depending on which permutations are used, and depending on whether zero-locus and single-locus models are excluded). Whenever possible, these non-redundant two-locus models are classified by their property. Besides the familiar features of multiplicative models (logical AND), heterogeneity models (logical OR), and threshold models, new classifications are added or expanded: modifying-effect models, logical XOR models, interference and negative interference models (neither dominant nor recessive), conditionally dominant/...

  15. The regulatory dynamic

    An outline of the activities and efforts expanded by the National Energy Board to adjust to the changing natural gas market was provided in this presentation. The author began by defining the role of the National Energy Board in energy markets. It must ensure the adoption of rules and procedures that result in a more competitive and efficient market. Light-handed regulatory techniques are the norm, and the National Energy Board is now committed to facilitating the availability and flow of information so that all parties know where opportunities exist, the terms offered to buy or sell goods and services, their quality and costs. It will specialize in providing new participants with information on the workings of the market, who the players are, the regulatory processes in place, and how, when and where the market can be accessed. The manner in which the Board deals with information was reviewed, providing examples along the way to clarify some points. Some of the documents produced by the National Energy Board are being reviewed with the intent of making them easier to read and understand. Audio streaming over the Internet is another avenue being pursued to ensure individuals can listen in real time to hearings without having to be present in the room. The National Energy Board is also exploring alternative dispute resolution techniques. Consultation with energy market participants represents another facet of these efforts to be more accessible and responsive

  16. Visions of regulatory renewal

    The economic contribution of the CEPA (Canadian Energy Pipeline Association) member companies to Canada's trade balance was discussed. CEPA member companies transport 95 per cent of the crude oil and natural gas produced in Canada to domestic and export markets. This represents a total of 5.6 Tcf of gas annually. Half of Canada's natural gas and oil production is exported to U.S. markets. All of these exports are transported by pipeline. CEPA member companies operate 90,000 km of pipeline from British Columbia to Quebec. Expansions are needed as a result of a significant increase in demand for natural gas and crude oil since 1990. Several issues exist for regulatory renewal. They include the need to create a level playing field, the overseeing of tolls and contract renewal terms, changing risk/reward trade-offs, the right to confidentiality of information and price discovery mechanism. The drivers for regulatory reform at Westcoast Energy are the need for pricing flexibility, customers desire for toll certainty, decontracting and opposition to rolled-in expansions for gathering and processing. An overview of Westcoast Energy's negotiated toll settlement, its implications, and the components of Westcoast Energy's 'light handed regulation' (LHR) was presented

  17. Assessment of regulatory effectiveness. Peer discussions on regulatory practices

    This report arises from the seventh series of peer discussions on regulatory practices entitled 'Assessment of Regulatory Effectiveness'. The term 'regulatory effectiveness' covers the quality of the work and level of performance of a regulatory body. In this sense, regulatory effectiveness applies to regulatory body activities aimed at preventing safety degradation and ensuring that an acceptable level of safety is being maintained by the regulated operating organizations. In addition, regulatory effectiveness encompasses the promotion of safety improvements, the timely and cost effective performance of regulatory functions in a manner which ensures the confidence of the operating organizations, the general public and the government, and striving for continuous improvements to performance. Senior regulators from 22 Member States participated in two peer group discussions during March and May 1999. The discussions were focused on the elements of an effective regulatory body, possible indicators of regulatory effectiveness and its assessment. This report presents the outcome of these meetings and recommendations of good practices identified by senior regulators, which do not necessarily reflect those of the governments of the nominating Member States, the organizations they belong to, or the International Atomic Energy Agency. In order to protect people and the environment from hazards associated with nuclear facilities, the main objective of a nuclear regulatory body is to ensure that a high level of safety in the nuclear activities under its jurisdiction is achieved, maintained and within the control of operating organizations. Even if it is possible to directly judge objective safety levels at nuclear facilities, such safety levels would not provide an exclusive indicator of regulatory effectiveness. The way the regulatory body ensures the safety of workers and the public and the way it discharges its responsibilities also determine its effectiveness. Hence the

  18. The immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus hs3b and hs4 3' enhancers are dispensable for VDJ assembly and somatic hypermutation.

    Morvan, Caroline Le; Pinaud, Eric; Decourt, Catherine; Cuvillier, Armelle; Cogné, Michel

    2003-08-15

    The more distal enhancers of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain 3' regulatory region, hs3b and hs4, were recently demonstrated as master control elements of germline transcription and class switch recombination to most immunoglobulin constant genes. In addition, they were shown to enhance the accumulation of somatic mutations on linked transgenes. Since somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination are tightly linked processes, their common dependency on the endogenous locus 3' enhancers could be an attractive hypothesis. VDJ structure and somatic hypermutation were analyzed in B cells from mice carrying either a heterozygous or a homozygous deletion of these enhancers. We find that hs3b and hs4 are dispensable both for VDJ assembly and for the occurrence of mutations at a physiologic frequency in the endogenous locus. In addition, we show that cells functionally expressing the immunoglobulin M (IgM) class B-cell receptor encoded by an hs3b/hs4-deficient locus were fully able to enter germinal centers, undergo affinity maturation, and yield specific antibody responses in homozygous mutant mice, where IgG1 antibodies compensated for the defect in other IgG isotypes. By contrast, analysis of Peyer patches from heterozygous animals showed that peanut agglutinin (PNAhigh) B cells functionally expressing the hs3b/hs4-deficient allele were dramatically outclassed by B cells expressing the wild-type locus and normally switching to IgA. This study thus also highlights the role of germinal centers in the competition between B cells for affinity maturation and suggests that membrane IgA may promote recruitment in an activated B-cell compartment, or proliferation of activated B cells, more efficiently than IgM in Peyer patches. PMID:12714490

  19. Intra-locus sexual conflict and sexually antagonistic genetic variation in hermaphroditic animals

    Abbott, Jessica K.

    2010-01-01

    Intra-locus sexual conflict results when sex-specific selection pressures for a given trait act against the intra-sexual genetic correlation for that trait. It has been found in a wide variety of taxa in both laboratory and natural populations, but the importance of intra-locus sexual conflict and sexually antagonistic genetic variation in hermaphroditic organisms has rarely been considered. This is not so surprising given the conceptual and theoretical association of intra-locus sexual confl...

  20. Self Esteem, Locus of Control and Multidimensional Perfectionism as the Predictors of Subjective Well Being

    Zeynep Karatas; Ozlem Tagay

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between self-esteem, locus of control and multidimensional perfectionism, and the extent to which the variables of self-esteem, locus of control and multidimensional perfectionism contribute to the prediction of subjective well-being. The study was carried out with 318 final year (fourth grade) university students. Subjective Well-Being Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Rotter Internal External Locus of Control Scale ...

  1. Locus of Control and Career Interest of Sophomore Accountancy Students: Basis for Employment Path

    Jovielyn Mañibo; Elna Lopez

    2014-01-01

    This academic undertaking sought to determine the relationship between the locus of control and career interest of the respondents towards their future employment. The objectives of the study were to determine the respondents’ locus of control and career interest; to find if there is a significant relationship between the respondents’ locus of control and career interest and to develop an action plan that will gauge the students’ employment success as to their chosen field. In ...

  2. Healthy habits: The connection between diet, exercise, and locus of control

    Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Kassenböhmer, Sonja C.; Schurer, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between individuals' locus of control and their decisions to exercise regularly, eat well, drink moderately, and avoid tobacco. Our primary goal is to assess the relative importance of the alternative pathways that potentially link locus of control to healthy habits. We find that individuals with an internal locus of control are more likely to eat well and exercise regularly. This link cannot be explained by the extent to which they are future-orientated a...

  3. Predictors of Parental Locus of Control in Mothers of Pre- and Early-Adolescents

    Freed, Rachel D.; Tompson, Martha C.

    2011-01-01

    Parental locus of control refers to parents’ perceived power and efficacy in child-rearing situations. This study explored parental locus of control and its correlates in 160 mothers of children ages 8–14 cross-sectionally and 1 year later. Maternal depression, maternal expressed emotion, and child internalizing and externalizing behavior were examined, along with a number of sociodemographic factors. Cross-sectional analyses indicated that external parental locus of control was associated wi...

  4. Conditional probabilities of identity of genes at a locus linked to a marker

    Chevalet, Claude; GILLOIS, M.; Vu Tien Khang Bourgoin, Jacqueline

    1984-01-01

    A method is given for determining the probabilities that genes are identical by descent, at a locus linked to a marker where phenotypic data are available. For tight linkage, such conditional probabilities of identity may differ very much from unconditional ones ; they depend on the dominance relationships between alleles at the marker locus, and on the allelic frequencies. Applications discussed refer to the calculation of general two-locus descent measures, to the validation of pedigre...

  5. Prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis Four rag Locus Genotypes in Patients of Orthodontic Gingivitis and Periodontitis

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Yujie; Wang, Lili; GUO, YANG; Xiao, Shuiqing

    2013-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered as a major etiological agent in periodontal diseases and implied to result in gingival inflammation under orthodontic appliance. rag locus is a pathogenicity island found in Porphyromonas gingivalis. Four rag locus variants are different in pathogenicity of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Moreover, there are different racial and geographic differences in distribution of rag locus genotypes. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis ...

  6. Locus of Control and Peer Relationships Among Caucasian, Hispanic, Asian, and African American Adolescents

    KANG, HS; Chang, KE; Chen, C.; Greenberger, E

    2015-01-01

    © 2013, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Past research has shown that locus of control plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors, such as academic achievement and positive social behaviors. However, little is known about whether locus of control plays the same role in minority adolescents’ peer relationships. The current study examined ethnic differences in the associations between locus of control and peer relationships in early adolescence using samples from the Early Ch...

  7. Oakleaf: an S locus-linked mutation of Primula vulgaris that affects leaf and flower development

    Cocker, Jonathan; Webster, Margaret; Li, Jinhong; Wright, Jonathan; Kaithakottil, Gemy; Swarbreck, David; Gilmartin, Philip

    2015-01-01

    •In Primula vulgaris outcrossing is promoted through reciprocal herkogamy with insect-mediated cross-pollination between pin and thrum form flowers. Development of heteromorphic flowers is coordinated by genes at the S locus. To underpin construction of a genetic map facilitating isolation of these S locus genes, we have characterised Oakleaf, a novel S locus-linked mutant phenotype. •We combine phenotypic observation of flower and leaf development, with classical genetic analysis and next-ge...

  8. A novel stroke locus identified in a northern Sweden pedigree

    Janunger, T.; Nilsson-Ardnor, S.; Wiklund, P.-G.;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The population of northern Sweden is characterized by reduced genetic diversity and a high incidence of stroke. We sought to reduce genetic variation further, using genealogic analysis in a set of nuclear families affected by stroke, and we subsequently performed a genome-wide scan to...... of 4.81 on chromosome 9q31-q33 was detected. Haplotype analysis identified a common 2.2-megabase interval in the chromosomal region in 4 of the nuclear families, where an overrepresentation of intracerebral hemorrhage was observed. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a novel susceptibility locus for...... stroke. Haplotype analysis suggests that a shared genetic factor is of particular importance for intracerebral hemorrhage....

  9. Burnout, locus de control y deportistas de alto rendimiento

    Medina Mojena, Greisy; García Ucha, Francisco Enrique

    2002-01-01

    Los estudios sobre burnout comenzaron en los 70 por Freudenberg (1974) y en los 80 en el deporte. En Cuba este es de los primeros sobre el tema. Se estudiaron 40 deportistas de alto rendimiento de pesas, balonmano, baloncesto y tackewondo. Con una edad entre los 18 y 28 años y experiencia deportiva entre 5 y 16 años. Las técnicas utilizadas son una adaptación, de Garcés de Los Fayos (1999) del Maslach Burnout Inventory (1981) y un test de Locus de control. Los principales resultados c...

  10. Male-pattern baldness susceptibility locus at 20p11

    Richards, J. Brent; Yuan, Xin; Geller, Frank; Waterworth, Dawn; Bataille, Veronique; Glass, Daniel; Song, Kijoung; Waeber, Gerard; Vollenweider, Peter; Aben, Katja K. H; Lambertus A Kiemeney; Walters, Bragi; Soranzo, Nicole; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Kong, Augustine

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a genome-wide association study for androgenic alopecia in 1,125 men and identified a newly associated locus at chromosome 20p11.22, confirmed in three independent cohorts (n = 1,650; OR = 1.60, P = 1.1 × 10−14 for rs1160312). The one man in seven who harbors risk alleles at both 20p11.22 and AR (encoding the androgen receptor) has a sevenfold-increased odds of androgenic alopecia (OR = 7.12, P = 3.7 × 10−15).

  11. Experimentation of Fish Swimming Based on Tracking Locomotion Locus

    Hui Yan; Yu-min Su; Liang Yang

    2008-01-01

    There are many kinds of swimming mode in the fish world, and we investigated two of them, used by cyprinids and bulltrout. In this paper we track the locomotion locus by marks in different flow velocity from 0.2 m.s-1 to 0.8 m's-1. By fit the data above we could find out the locomotion mechanism of the two kinds of fish and generate a mathematical model of fish kinematics. The cyprinid fish has a greater oscillation period and amplitude compared with the bulltrout, and the bulltrout changes velocity mainly by controlling frequency of oscillation.

  12. Homological projective duality for linear systems with base locus

    Carocci, Francesca; Turcinovic, Zak

    2015-01-01

    We show how blowing up varieties in base loci of linear systems gives a procedure for creating new homological projective duals from old. Starting with a HP dual pair $X,Y$ and smooth orthogonal linear sections $X_L,Y_L$, we prove that the blowup of $X$ in $X_L$ is naturally HP dual to $Y_L$. The result does not need $Y$ to exist as a variety, i.e. it may be "noncommutative". We extend the result to the case where the base locus $X_L$ is a multiple of a smooth variety and the universal hyperp...

  13. Locus of Control Effect on Creative Thinking in Secondary School Children

    AYDIN, Betül; CANEL, A.Nilgün

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explain the effects of locus of control on creative thinking at the level of high school adolescents. This research has been done among the 135 students. The Torrance Test of Creative Thinking has been used to measure the creativity. The Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale has been used to measure the locus of control. Finally, the effects of verbal flexibility, figural fluency and figural eleboration on locus of control have been examined. Key Words : Cre...

  14. Thorough investigation of a canine autoinflammatory disease (AID confirms one main risk locus and suggests a modifier locus for amyloidosis.

    Mia Olsson

    Full Text Available Autoinflammatory disease (AID manifests from the dysregulation of the innate immune system and is characterised by systemic and persistent inflammation. Clinical heterogeneity leads to patients presenting with one or a spectrum of phenotypic signs, leading to difficult diagnoses in the absence of a clear genetic cause. We used separate genome-wide SNP analyses to investigate five signs of AID (recurrent fever, arthritis, breed specific secondary dermatitis, otitis and systemic reactive amyloidosis in a canine comparative model, the pure bred Chinese Shar-Pei. Analysis of 255 DNA samples revealed a shared locus on chromosome 13 spanning two peaks of association. A three-marker haplotype based on the most significant SNP (p<2.6×10(-8 from each analysis showed that one haplotypic pair (H13-11 was present in the majority of AID individuals, implicating this as a shared risk factor for all phenotypes. We also noted that a genetic signature (F ST distinguishing the phenotypic extremes of the breed specific Chinese Shar-Pei thick and wrinkled skin, flanked the chromosome 13 AID locus; suggesting that breed development and differentiation has played a parallel role in the genetics of breed fitness. Intriguingly, a potential modifier locus for amyloidosis was revealed on chromosome 14, and an investigation of candidate genes from both this and the chromosome 13 regions revealed significant (p<0.05 renal differential expression in four genes previously implicated in kidney or immune health (AOAH, ELMO1, HAS2 and IL6. These results illustrate that phenotypic heterogeneity need not be a reflection of genetic heterogeneity, and that genetic modifiers of disease could be masked if syndromes were not first considered as individual clinical signs and then as a sum of their component parts.

  15. Regulatory mark; Marco regulatorio

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter is based on a work performed in distinct phases. The first phase consisted in of the analysis regulatory legislation existent in Brazil for the sugar-alcohol sector since the beginning of the X X century. This analysis allowed the identification of non existent points and legal devices related to the studied aspects, and that were considered as problematic for the sector expansion. In the second phase, related treaties and international agreements was studied and possible obstacles for the brazilian bio ethanol exportation for the international market. Initiatives were examined at European Union, United States of America, Caribbean and countries of the sub-Saharan Africa. In this phase, policies were identified related to the incentives and adoption of use of bio fuels added to the gasoline in countries or group of countries considered as key for the consolidation of bio ethanol as a world commodity.

  16. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances

    This is the thirty-sixth volume of issuances (1-396) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and its Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards, Administrative Law Judges, and Office Directors. It covers the period from July 1, 1992-December 31, 1992. Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards are authorized by Section 191 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. These Boards, comprised of three members conduct adjudicatory hearings on applications to construct and operate nuclear power plants and related facilities and issue initial decisions which, subject to internal review and appellate procedures, become the final Commission action with respect to those applications. Boards are drawn from the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, comprised of lawyers, nuclear physicists and engineers, environmentalists, chemists, and economists. The Atomic Energy Commission first established Licensing Boards in 1962 and the Panel in 1967

  17. Regulatory actions post - Fukushima

    The paper presents the results of the safety reviews performed in Romania after the Fukushima accident and the resulting actions for improving the safety. The actions taken by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) to improve the regulatory framework include the development of new regulations and the enhancement of inspection practices, taking account of the lessons learned from the Fukushima accident. A regulation on the response to transients, accidents and emergency situations at nuclear power plants has been developed, which includes requirements on transient and accident scenarios that have to be covered by the Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs), accident scenarios to be covered by the Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMGs), emergency situations to be covered by the on-site emergency response plan and emergency response procedures. (authors)

  18. International regulatory activities

    Concerning International regulatory activities, we find for the european atomic energy community an entry into force of the lisbon treaty (2009), it amends the treaty on European union and replaces the treaty establishing the European Community by the new treaty on the functioning of the European Union; more, an amendment to council regulation on the conditions governing imports of agricultural products originating in third countries following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station (2009). About International atomic energy agency is reported an open-ended meeting of technical and legal experts for sharing of information on states implementation of the code of conduct on the safety and security of radioactive sources and its supplementary guidance on the import and export of radioactive sources (2010). (N.C.)

  19. Fine mapping of the Schnyder's crystalline corneal dystrophy locus.

    Theendakara, Veena; Tromp, Gerard; Kuivaniemi, Helena; White, Peter S; Panchal, Seema; Cox, Jennifer; Winters, R Scott; Riebeling, Petra; Tost, Frank; Hoeltzenbein, Maria; Tervo, Timo M; Henn, Wolfram; Denniger, Elke; Krause, Matthias; Koksal, Murat; Kargi, Sebnem; Ugurbas, Suat H; Latvala, Terho; Shearman, Amanda M; Weiss, Jayne S

    2004-05-01

    Schnyder's crystalline corneal dystrophy (SCCD) is a rare autosomal dominant eye disease with a spectrum of clinical manifestations that may include bilateral corneal clouding, arcus lipoides, and anterior corneal crystalline cholesterol deposition. We have previously performed a genome-wide linkage analysis on two large Swede-Finn families and mapped the SCCD locus to a 16-cM interval between markers D1S2633 and D1S228 on chromosome 1p36. We have collected 11 additional families from Finland, Germany, Turkey, and USA to narrow the critical region for SCCD. Here, we have used haplotype analysis with densely spaced microsatellite markers in a total of 13 families to refine the candidate interval. A common disease haplotype was observed among the four Swede-Finn families indicating the presence of a founder effect. Recombination results from all 13 families refined the SCCD locus to 2.32 Mbp between markers D1S1160 and D1S1635. Within this interval, identity-by-state was present in all 13 families for two markers D1S244 and D1S3153, further refining the candidate region to 1.58 Mbp. PMID:15034782

  20. Allelism of Genes in the Ml-a locus

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Jensen, Hans Peter; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1980-01-01

    Seven barley lines or varieties, each with a different gene at the Ml-a locus for resistance to Erysiphe graminis were intercrossed. Progeny testing of the F2s using two different fungal isolates per cross provided evidence that there are two or more loci in the Ml-a region. Apparent recombinants...... were also screened for recombination between the Hor1 and Hor2 loci which are situated either side of the Ml-a locus. The cross between Ricardo and Iso42R (Rupee) yielded one possible recombinant, with Ml-a3 and Ml-a(Rul) in the coupling phase; other recombinants had wild-type genes in the coupling...... phase. Iso20R, derived from Hordeum spontaneum 'H204', carrying Ml-a6, had an additional gene, in close coupling with Ml-a6, tentatively named Ml-aSp2 or Reglv, causing an intermediate infection type with isolate EmA30. It is suggested that Ml-a(Ar) in Emir and Ml-a(Rul), shown to differ from other Ml...

  1. Geographic distribution of haplotype diversity at the bovine casein locus

    Moazami-Goudarzi Katy

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic diversity of the casein locus in cattle was studied on the basis of haplotype analysis. Consideration of recently described genetic variants of the casein genes which to date have not been the subject of diversity studies, allowed the identification of new haplotypes. Genotyping of 30 cattle breeds from four continents revealed a geographically associated distribution of haplotypes, mainly defined by frequencies of alleles at CSN1S1 and CSN3. The genetic diversity within taurine breeds in Europe was found to decrease significantly from the south to the north and from the east to the west. Such geographic patterns of cattle genetic variation at the casein locus may be a result of the domestication process of modern cattle as well as geographically differentiated natural or artificial selection. The comparison of African Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds allowed the identification of several Bos indicus specific haplotypes (CSN1S1*C-CSN2*A2-CSN3*AI/CSN3*H that are not found in pure taurine breeds. The occurrence of such haplotypes in southern European breeds also suggests that an introgression of indicine genes into taurine breeds could have contributed to the distribution of the genetic variation observed.

  2. Cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) immunoglobulin heavy chain locus description.

    Yu, Guo-Yun; Mate, Suzanne; Garcia, Karla; Ward, Michael D; Brueggemann, Ernst; Hall, Matthew; Kenny, Tara; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Palacios, Gustavo

    2016-07-01

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) have become an important animal model for biomedical research. In particular, it is the animal model of choice for the development of vaccine candidates associated with emerging dangerous pathogens. Despite their increasing importance as animal models, the cynomolgus macaque genome is not fully characterized, hindering molecular studies for this model. More importantly, the lack of knowledge about the immunoglobulin (IG) locus organization directly impacts the analysis of the humoral response in cynomolgus macaques. Recent advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to analyze IG repertoires open the opportunity to deeply characterize the humoral immune response. However, the IG locus organization for the animal is required to completely dissect IG repertoires. Here, we describe the localization and organization of the rearranging IG heavy (IGH) genes on chromosome 7 of the cynomolgus macaque draft genome. Our annotation comprises 108 functional genes which include 63 variable (IGHV), 38 diversity (IGHD), and 7 joining (IGHJ) genes. For validation, we provide RNA transcript data for most of the IGHV genes and all of the annotated IGHJ genes, as well as proteomic data to validate IGH constant genes. The description and annotation of the rearranging IGH genes for the cynomolgus macaques will significantly facilitate scientific research. This is particularly relevant to dissect the immune response during vaccination or infection with dangerous pathogens such as Ebola, Marburg and other emerging pathogens where non-human primate models play a significant role for countermeasure development. PMID:27233955

  3. The Locus analytical framework for indoor localization and tracking applications

    Segou, Olga E.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2015-05-01

    Obtaining location information can be of paramount importance in the context of pervasive and context-aware computing applications. Many systems have been proposed to date, e.g. GPS that has been proven to offer satisfying results in outdoor areas. The increased effect of large and small scale fading in indoor environments, however, makes localization a challenge. This is particularly reflected in the multitude of different systems that have been proposed in the context of indoor localization (e.g. RADAR, Cricket etc). The performance of such systems is often validated on vastly different test beds and conditions, making performance comparisons difficult and often irrelevant. The Locus analytical framework incorporates algorithms from multiple disciplines such as channel modeling, non-uniform random number generation, computational geometry, localization, tracking and probabilistic modeling etc. in order to provide: (a) fast and accurate signal propagation simulation, (b) fast experimentation with localization and tracking algorithms and (c) an in-depth analysis methodology for estimating the performance limits of any Received Signal Strength localization system. Simulation results for the well-known Fingerprinting and Trilateration algorithms are herein presented and validated with experimental data collected in real conditions using IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee modules. The analysis shows that the Locus framework accurately predicts the underlying distribution of the localization error and produces further estimates of the system's performance limitations (in a best-case/worst-case scenario basis).

  4. Cognitive functioning correlates of self-esteem and health locus of control in schizophrenia

    Wang CS

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chien-Shu Wang,1 Jo Yung-Wei Wu,2 Wei-Chung Chang,3 Shu-Ping Chuang1 1Department of Psychiatry, Zuoying Branch of Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2Institute of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; 3Hsin-Jia Psychotherapy Clinic, Taitung County, Taiwan Aim: The study aimed to investigate the relationship among sociodemographic factors, neurocognitive factors, self-esteem, and health locus of control in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. We examined the self-esteem, internal health locus of control, and external health locus of control through sociodemographic and neurocognitive factors. Methods: Forty-six schizophrenic patients and 31 healthy residents from the community or hospital were recruited as the control group. All subjects participated in the self-esteem questionnaire, health locus of control questionnaire, and a series of neuropychological measures. Results: Multiple regression analysis revealed that inhibition of attention and external health locus of control were predictors for self-esteem (r=−0.30, P<0.05; r=0.41, P<0.01; inhibition of attention and external health locus of control were contributors for internal health locus of control (r=−0.43, P<0.01; r=0.61, P<0.001; and education was related to external health locus of control (r=−0.31, P<0.05. Conclusion: The current study integrated background characteristics and cognitive function to better understand the impact of self-esteem and health locus of control in schizophrenia. The findings indicated that inhibition of attention, external health locus of control, and education contributed to self-esteem, internal health locus of control and external health locus of control. However, the overall predicted variance accounted for by these predictors was small; thus, further research is necessary to examine imperative variables related with self-esteem and health locus of control in

  5. Secondary evolution of a self-incompatibility locus in the Brassicaceae genus Leavenworthia.

    Sier-Ching Chantha

    Full Text Available Self-incompatibility (SI is the flowering plant reproductive system in which self pollen tube growth is inhibited, thereby preventing self-fertilization. SI has evolved independently in several different flowering plant lineages. In all Brassicaceae species in which the molecular basis of SI has been investigated in detail, the product of the S-locus receptor kinase (SRK gene functions as receptor in the initial step of the self pollen-rejection pathway, while that of the S-locus cysteine-rich (SCR gene functions as ligand. Here we examine the hypothesis that the S locus in the Brassicaceae genus Leavenworthia is paralogous with the S locus previously characterized in other members of the family. We also test the hypothesis that self-compatibility in this group is based on disruption of the pollen ligand-producing gene. Sequence analysis of the S-locus genes in Leavenworthia, phylogeny of S alleles, gene expression patterns, and comparative genomics analyses provide support for both hypotheses. Of special interest are two genes located in a non-S locus genomic region of Arabidopsis lyrata that exhibit domain structures, sequences, and phylogenetic histories similar to those of the S-locus genes in Leavenworthia, and that also share synteny with these genes. These A. lyrata genes resemble those comprising the A. lyrata S locus, but they do not function in self-recognition. Moreover, they appear to belong to a lineage that diverged from the ancestral Brassicaceae S-locus genes before allelic diversification at the S locus. We hypothesize that there has been neo-functionalization of these S-locus-like genes in the Leavenworthia lineage, resulting in evolution of a separate ligand-receptor system of SI. Our results also provide support for theoretical models that predict that the least constrained pathway to the evolution of self-compatibility is one involving loss of pollen gene function.

  6. Asymmetrical distribution of non-conserved regulatory sequences at PHOX2B is reflected at the ENCODE loci and illuminates a possible genome-wide trend

    McCallion Andrew S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcriptional regulatory elements are central to development and interspecific phenotypic variation. Current regulatory element prediction tools rely heavily upon conservation for prediction of putative elements. Recent in vitro observations from the ENCODE project combined with in vivo analyses at the zebrafish phox2b locus suggests that a significant fraction of regulatory elements may fall below commonly applied metrics of conservation. We propose to explore these observations in vivo at the human PHOX2B locus, and also evaluate the potential evidence for genome-wide applicability of these observations through a novel analysis of extant data. Results Transposon-based transgenic analysis utilizing a tiling path proximal to human PHOX2B in zebrafish recapitulates the observations at the zebrafish phox2b locus of both conserved and non-conserved regulatory elements. Analysis of human sequences conserved with previously identified zebrafish phox2b regulatory elements demonstrates that the orthologous sequences exhibit overlapping regulatory control. Additionally, analysis of non-conserved sequences scattered over 135 kb 5' to PHOX2B, provides evidence of non-conserved regulatory elements positively biased with close proximity to the gene. Furthermore, we provide a novel analysis of data from the ENCODE project, finding a non-uniform distribution of regulatory elements consistent with our in vivo observations at PHOX2B. These observations remain largely unchanged when one accounts for the sequence repeat content of the assayed intervals, when the intervals are sub-classified by biological role (developmental versus non-developmental, or by gene density (gene desert versus non-gene desert. Conclusion While regulatory elements frequently display evidence of evolutionary conservation, a fraction appears to be undetected by current metrics of conservation. In vivo observations at the PHOX2B locus, supported by our analyses of in

  7. Citizen participation on regulatory boards.

    Chesney, J D

    1984-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between regulatory board function and citizen participation. The research indicates that public members generally prefer advisory boards, while provider members prefer quasi-judicial bodies. Implications of these findings for structuring citizen participation in the regulatory process are examined. PMID:6736596

  8. Regulatory Foci and Organizational Commitment

    Markovits, Yannis; Ullrich, Johannes; van Dick, Rolf; Davis, Ann J.

    2008-01-01

    We use regulatory focus theory to derive specific predictions regarding the differential relationships between regulatory focus and commitment. We estimated a structural equation model using a sample of 520 private and public sector employees and found in line with our hypotheses that (a) promotion focus related more strongly to affective…

  9. National legislative and regulatory activities

    OECD

    2012-01-01

    Armenia Nuclear safety and radiological protection Brazil General legislation Canada Environmental protection France Radioactive waste management Georgia Nuclear safety and radiological protection Greece Nuclear safety Emergency preparedness and response India Licensing and regulatory infrastructure Liability and compensation Ireland Nuclear safety and radiological protection Japan Nuclear Regulation Authority Act Lithuania General legislation Licensing and regulatory infrastructure Nuclear s...

  10. Association of Five SNPs at the PARK16 locus as a Susceptibility Locus with Parkinson's Disease for Forensic Application

    CUI Hong-gang; TIAN Xiao-fei; LUO Xiao-guang; LI Feng-rui; ZHU Lan-hui; ZHOU Yi-shu; REN Yan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the association of five SNPs (rs823083,rs708723,rs4951261,rs823076 and rs16856110) at the PARK16 locus with Parkinson's disease (PD),and to potentiate its forensic application.The genomic DNAs of 215 PD patients and 212 matched controls from the northern Han Chinese population were amplified in two independent PCR systems and subsequently genotyped by digestion with the three endonucleases (Hinf Ⅰ,Nco Ⅰ and Msp Ⅰ).The genetic parameters and association studies were carried out with SPSS 13.0,Haploview version 4.2 and PLINK 1.07 sofiwares.We detected accurately all genotypes in the five SNPs with multiplex PCR-RFLP and mismatched multiplex PCR-RFLP techniques.The genotypes of four SNPs,except for rs823083,were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.The four SNPs,rs16856110,rs4951261,rs708723 and rs823076,which were in linkage equilibrium,should not be associated with PD (P-values ranging from 0.077 to 0.544).The SNPs investigated at the PARK16 locus were not found to be involved in PD-associated blocks in the northern Han Chinese population.The allele distributions of rs708723,rs4951261,rs823076 and rs16856110 in the northern Han Chinese population can be highly polymorphic,which can be applied to genetic analvsis and forensic practices.

  11. Three-locus and four-locus QTL interactions influence mouse insulin-like growth factor-I.

    Hanlon, Philip; Lorenz, William Andrew; Shao, Zhihong; Harper, James M; Galecki, Andrzej T; Miller, Richard A; Burke, David T

    2006-06-16

    A previous analysis of serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels in a mouse population (n = 961) derived from a cross of (BALB/cJ x C57BL/6J) F1 females and (C3H/HeJ x DBA/2J) F1 males documented quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosomes 1, 10, and 17. We employed a newly developed, random walk-based method to search for three- and four-way allelic combinations that might influence IGF-I levels through nonadditive (conditional or epistatic) interactions among 185 genotyped biallelic loci and with significance defined by experiment-wide permutation (P genetic interactions. In two cases, the four-allele combinations were associated with animals having high levels of IGF-I, and, in the third case, a four-allele combination was associated with animals having low IGF-I levels. The multiple-locus genome scan algorithm revealed new IGF-I QTL on chromosomes 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, and 12 that had not been detected in the single-locus genome search and showed that levels of this hormone can be regulated by complex, nonadditive interactions among multiple loci. The analysis method can detect multilocus interactions in a genome scan experiment and may provide new ways to explore the genetic architecture of complex physiological phenotypes. PMID:16782841

  12. Virginia Power's regulatory reduction program

    Virginia Power has two nuclear plants, North Anna and Surry Power Stations, which have two units each for a total of four nuclear units. In 1992, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission solicited comments from the nuclear industry to obtain their ideas for reducing the regulatory burden on nuclear facilities. Pursuant to the new regulatory climate, Virginia Power developed an internal program to evaluate and assess the regulatory and self-imposed requirements to which they were committed, and to pursue regulatory relief or internal changes where possible and appropriate. The criteria were that public safety must be maintained, and savings must be significant. Up to the date of the conference, over US$22 million of one-time saving had been effected, and US$2.75 million in annual savings

  13. Salida de campo a la Cañada Real y la Cuesta de la Maruquesa, en Valladolid capital, el 19 de septiembre de 1952

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a la Cañada Real y la Cuesta de la Maruquesa, en Valladolid capital, la mañana del 19 de septiembre de 1952, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre las siguientes aves: Acrocephalus sp. (Carricero), Burhinus oedicnemus (Alcaraván común), Calandrella sp. (Terrera), Carduelis cannabina (Pardillo común, llamada Colorín y Acanthis cannabina por el autor), Chlidonias niger (Fumarel común), Columba palumbus (Paloma torcaz), Coturnix coturnix (Codorniz común), Delichon urbica (Avi...

  14. Advanced ceramics: evaluation of the ground surface Cerâmicas avançadas: avaliação da superfície polida

    E. C. Bianchi

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to evaluate the influence of grinding and cutting conditions on surfaces of advanced ceramics ground with diamond grinding wheels containing a binding resin bond. The quality surface was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM.O objetivo desta pesquisa é a avaliação da influência das condições de usinagem na superfície gerada de cerâmicas avançadas retificadas com rebolo diamantado com ligante resinóide. A qualidade superficial foi analisada utilizando-se a Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (MEV

  15. Historiografía, didáctica y enseñanza de la historia : (La concepción de la historia enseñada)

    Maestro Gonzalez, Pilar

    1997-01-01

    La investigación psicopedagógica y didáctica, y la investigación historiográfica no han caminado todo lo juntas que hubiera sido de desear. Incluso podemos decir que, basta tiempos bien recientes, se han ignorado mutuamente. Lo cual no ha impedido que en la práctica concepciones historiográficas y concepciones psicológicas y didácticas hayan estado y estén presentes en la configuración de la Historia enseñada. Pero esa presencia se ha realizado sin establecer una conexión adecuada entre ellas...

  16. Restauración en el Inmunoblotting de proteínas de Neisseria meningitidis dañadas por calor y agentes reductores

    Rolando Ochoa; Xenia Ferriol; Ana García; Juan Carlos Martínez; Franklin Sotolongo

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo se utilizaron cinco detergentes para restaurar las proteínas de membrana externas (PME) del meningococo dañadas por el efecto del calor y de agentes reductores utilizados en el Inmunoblotting. La acción de los detergentes fue evaluada en la solución de lavado, en el diluente de la muestra y del conjugado. Las bandas de proteínas, reconocidas por la IgG del suero, fueron identificadas usando un conjugado anti IgG humana peroxidasa. Los antígenos reconocidos por el control posit...

  17. Comportamento estrutural de vigas de concreto reforçadas com ripas de bambu cravejadas de pinos Structural behavior of concrete beams reinforced with pinned bamboo-splints

    Antonio C. Braga Filho; Humberto C. Lima Júnior; Normando P. Barbosa; Fabio L. Willrich

    2010-01-01

    Uma das deficiências do bambu reforçando vigas de concreto armado está relacionada com deslocamentos relativos entre os dois materiais. A investigação aqui reportada teve como objetivo avaliar experimentalmente a possibilidade de se melhorar o trabalho conjunto bambu-concreto, através do cravejamento de pinos nas ripas de bambu usadas como reforço. Para tanto, oito vigas de concreto foram ensaiadas, das quais seis foram reforçadas com ripas de bambu Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro cravejadas de...

  18. O Impacto da Idade Materna Avançada sobre os Resultados da Gravidez Impact of Advanced Maternal Age on the Outcome of Pregnancy

    José G. Cecatti

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: identificar o efeito da idade sobre os resultados maternos e perinatais das gestações ocorridas em mulheres com 40 anos ou mais. Métodos: comparamos 494 gestantes com mais de 40 anos, com 988 gestantes com idade entre 20 e 29 anos, pareando-as por paridade. Após controlar possíveis variáveis confundidoras pela análise multivariada, a idade materna avançada manteve associação com a maior prevalência de hipertensão arterial, apresentação anômala, parto por cesária, hemorragia puerperal, índice de Apgar baixo, morte perinatal, natimortalidade e sofrimento fetal intraparto. Resultados: a idade materna avançada esteve isoladamente associada à hipertensão arterial, apresentação anômala, diagnóstico de sofrimento fetal intraparto, parto por cesária e hemorragia puerperal. Com relação aos resultados neonatais, a idade materna avançada estava associada independentemente apenas ao baixo índice de Apgar, morte perinatal e óbito fetal. Conclusões: esses achados mostram a necessidade de assistência obstétrica adequada com atenção especial a esses fatores para procurar melhorar os resultados maternos e perinatais das gestantes com idade avançada.Most authors agree on the negative impact of pregnancy in women with advanced maternal age on maternal and perinatal outcome. However, it is not usual to evaluate if some considered risk factors are only confounders because they are present in women over forty years. In order to identify the isolated effect of age on maternal and perinatal outcome of pregnancies in women over forty, 494 pregnancies from this age group were compared to 988 pregnancies among women aged 20 to 29 years, matched by parity. After controlling possible confounding variables through multivariate analysis, advanced maternal age maintained its association with a higher prevalence of hypertension, malpresentation, cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, low Apgar score, perinatal death, late fetal

  19. Regulatory Streamlining and Improvement

    Mark A. Carl

    2006-07-11

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) engaged in numerous projects outlined under the scope of work discussed in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) grant number DE-FC26-04NT15456 awarded to the IOGCC. Numerous projects were completed that were extremely valuable to state oil and gas agencies as a result of work performed utilizing resources provided by the grant. There are numerous areas in which state agencies still need assistance. This additional assistance will need to be addressed under future scopes of work submitted annually to DOE's Project Officer for this grant. This report discusses the progress of the projects outlined under the grant scope of work for the 2005-2006 areas of interest, which are as follows: Area of Interest No. 1--Regulatory Streamlining and Improvement: This area of interest continues to support IOGCC's regulatory streamlining efforts that include the identification and elimination of unnecessary duplications of efforts between and among state and federal programs dealing with exploration and production on public lands. Area of Interest No. 2--Technology: This area of interest seeks to improve efficiency in states through the identification of technologies that can reduce costs. Area of Interest No. 3--Training and Education: This area of interest is vital to upgrading the skills of regulators and industry alike. Within the National Energy Policy, there are many appropriate training and education opportunities. Education was strongly endorsed by the President's National Energy Policy Development group. Acting through the governors offices, states are very effective conduits for the dissemination of energy education information. While the IOGCC favors the development of a comprehensive, long-term energy education plan, states are also supportive of immediate action on important concerns, such as energy prices, availability and conservation. Area of Interest No. 4--Resource Assessment and

  20. An investigation of the HUMVWA31A locus in British Caucasians

    Drozd, M A; Archard, L; Lincoln, P J;

    1994-01-01

    A number of short tandem repeat (STR) loci are currently being examined for their usefulness as markers of identity; HUMVWA31A is one such locus. We used a high-sieving agarose technique to type 200 British Caucasians for this locus. Comparison of the resultant allele frequencies with other...

  1. The Relationship between Religious Attitudes, Locus of Control and Tendency to Substace Abuse in University Students

    Farhad Asghari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was the study of relationship between religious attitudes, locus of control and tendency to substance abuse among students of Guilan University. Method: The research design was correlational design. For this purpose, 340 university students of Guilan University selected through Morgan table by cluster randome sampling. Allport religious orientation, Ratter locus of control and addiction potential scale administered among selected sample. Results: The results showed significant relationship between religious attitude, locus of control and tendency to substance abuse. That is religious attitude, locus of control entered in regression model as significant predictors. Also there was significant relationship between religious attitude, and locus of control. Altogheder, results showed that people with internal religious attitude have internal locus of control and lower tendency to substance abuse. Also, people with external religious attitude have external locus of control and higher tendency to substance abuse. Conclusion: According to the results, we can conclude that religious attitude and locus of control play important role on tendency to substance abuse.

  2. Locus of Control, Attributional Style and Discipline Problems in Secondary Schools

    Tony, Tam Shui Kee

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a study hypothesizing that school discipline problems are a maladaptive response to the demand of the school environment as a result of deficits in the area of locus of control and attributional style. The findings indicate that an external orientation of locus of control and a passive pattern of attribution…

  3. Authoritarian Child Rearing, Parental Locus of Control, and the Child's Behavior Style.

    Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationships among childrearing, parental locus of control about childrearing, and child's behavior style. Found that parents who perceived their child's behavior as either externalizing or internalizing had a weak internal locus of control and were more authoritarian. Perceived externalizing child behavior was positively related to…

  4. An Examination of Locus of Control, Epistemological Beliefs and Metacognitive Awareness in Preservice Early Childhood Teachers

    Bedel, Emine Ferda

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to explore the locus of control, epistemological beliefs and metacognitive awareness levels of preservice early childhood education teachers and to determine the interrelations among these variables. 206 teacher candidates have been asked to fill out Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, Central Epistemological Beliefs…

  5. DMPD: The Lps locus: genetic regulation of host responses to bacteriallipopolysaccharide. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 10669111 The Lps locus: genetic regulation of host responses to bacteriallipopolysa...ccharide. Qureshi ST, Gros P, Malo D. Inflamm Res. 1999 Dec;48(12):613-20. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show The... Lps locus: genetic regulation of host responses to bacteriallipopolysaccharide. PubmedID 10669111 Title The

  6. Locus of control as a moderator of the relationship between influence and procedural justice

    Flinder, Sharon W.

    1991-01-01

    The present field experiment investigated the interaction between influence and locus of control in determining procedural justice and satisfaction, in a classroom situation. Perceptions of influence accounted for unique variance in procedural justice and satisfaction. The proposed moderating effects of locus of control on the influence-procedural justice and influence-satisfaction relationships were not supported. Unfortunately, the manipulation of influence was unsuc...

  7. Predictors of Parental Locus of Control in Mothers of Pre- and Early Adolescents

    Freed, Rachel D.; Tompson, Martha C.

    2011-01-01

    Parental locus of control refers to parents' perceived power and efficacy in child-rearing situations. This study explored parental locus of control and its correlates in 160 mothers of children ages 8 to 14 cross-sectionally and 1 year later. Maternal depression, maternal expressed emotion, and child internalizing and externalizing behavior were…

  8. Locus of Control and Self-Esteem in Indian and White Students.

    Martin, James C.

    1976-01-01

    The development and relationship of two dimensions of personality, self esteem and locus of control, were examined in a study of 763 fourth, eighth, and twelfth grade Indian and white children selected from 22 Oklahoma public schools. The students were given the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and Nowicky-Strickland Locus of Control Scale during…

  9. Social Self-Efficacy, Academic Locus of Control, and Internet Addiction

    Iskender, Murat; Akin, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship of internet addiction, social self-efficacy, and academic locus of control. Participants were 311 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Online Cognition Scale, the Academic Locus of Control Scale, and the Perceived Social Self-efficacy Scale. The…

  10. Metacognition: As a Predictor of One's Academic Locus of Control

    Arslan, Serhat; Akin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of metacognition on one's academic locus of control. The study's sample group consists of 451 university students enrolled in various programs at Sakarya University, Turkey. In this study, the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory and the Academic Locus of Control Scale were used. The…

  11. Adult Children of Workaholics: Self-Concept, Anxiety, Depression, and Locus of Control.

    Robinson, Bryan E.; Kelley, Lisa

    1998-01-01

    Adult children of workaholics were compared with adult children of nonworkaholics on self-concept, anxiety, depression, and external locus of control. Results indicate greater depression and external locus of control among the offspring of workaholics. Children of workaholic fathers also experienced higher anxiety. Self-concept was not related to…

  12. Locus of Semantic Interference in Picture Naming: Evidence from Dual-Task Performance

    Piai, Vitória; Roelofs, Ardi; Schriefers, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Disagreement exists regarding the functional locus of semantic interference of distractor words in picture naming. This effect is a cornerstone of modern psycholinguistic models of word production, which assume that it arises in lexical response-selection. However, recent evidence from studies of dual-task performance suggests a locus in…

  13. Identification of a sporulation locus in cloned Bacillus subtilis deoxyribonucleic acid.

    Moran, C P; Losick, R; Sonenshein, A L

    1980-01-01

    A cloned deoxyribonucleic acid from the purA-cysA region of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome was shown to contain the spoVC locus, a gene whose product is required for sporulation. This is the first demonstration of a spo locus in cloned B. subtilis deoxyribonucleic acid.

  14. Health Locus of Control and Preventive Behaviour among Students of Music

    Spahn, Claudia; Burger, Thorsten; Hildebrandt, Horst; Seidenglanz, Karin

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated health locus of control, preventive behaviour and previous playing-related health problems of music students; 326 students of music (58% female, mean age 22 years) filled in the Locus of Control Inventory for Illness and Health (Lohaus and Schmitt, 1989) and the Epidemiological Questionnaire for Musicians (Spahn,…

  15. Fine-Scale Mapping of the FGFR2 Breast Cancer Risk Locus

    Meyer, Kerstin B; O'Reilly, Martin; Michailidou, Kyriaki;

    2013-01-01

    The 10q26 locus in the second intron of FGFR2 is the locus most strongly associated with estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer in genome-wide association studies. We conducted fine-scale mapping in case-control studies genotyped with a custom chip (iCOGS), comprising 41 studies (n = 89,050) of...

  16. A Study to Investigate the Relationship between Locus of Control and Academic Achievement of Students

    Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Aijaz, Rukhma

    2014-01-01

    Motivation is regarded as the alpha and omega of learning. It is the heart of teaching learning process. Motivation is defined as an internal state that arouses, directs, and maintains the behavior over time. Thus motivation is the pivotal component of learning and locus of control which is one of the important factors it stems from. Locus of…

  17. The fester locus in Botryllus schlosseri experiences selection

    Nydam Marie L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allorecognition, the ability of an organism to distinguish self from non-self, occurs throughout the entire tree of life. Despite the prevalence and importance of allorecognition systems, the genetic basis of allorecognition has rarely been characterized outside the well-known MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex in vertebrates and SI (Self-Incompatibility in plants. Where loci have been identified, their evolutionary history is an open question. We have previously identified the genes involved in self/non-self recognition in the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri, and we can now begin to investigate their evolution. In B. schlosseri, colonies sharing 1 or more alleles of a gene called FuHC (Fusion Histocompatibility will fuse. Protein products of a locus called fester, located ~300 kb from FuHC, have been shown to play multiple roles in the histocompatibility reaction, as activating and/or inhibitory receptors. We test whether the proteins encoded by this locus are evolving neutrally or are experiencing balancing, directional, or purifying selection. Results Nearly all of the variation in the fester locus resides within populations. The 13 housekeeping genes (12 nuclear genes and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I have substantially more structure among populations within groups and among groups than fester. All polymorphism statistics (Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D* and F* are significantly negative for the East Coast A-type alleles, and Fu and Li's F* statistic is significantly negative for the West Coast A-type alleles. These results are likely due to selection rather than demography, given that 10 of the housekeeping loci have no populations with significant values for any of the polymorphism statistics. The majority of codons in the fester proteins have ω values 95% posterior probability of ω values > 1. Conclusion Fester proteins are evolving non-neutrally. The polymorphism statistics are consistent with either

  18. Lower frequency of the low activity adenosine deaminase allelic variant (ADA1*2) in schizophrenic patients Diminuição da frequência da variante alélica de baixa atividade da adenosina desaminase (ADA1*2) em pacientes esquizofrênicos

    Gustavo Pimentel Dutra; Gustavo L. Ottoni; Lara, Diogo R; Maurício Reis Bogo

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Adenosine may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, since it modulates the release of several neurotransmitters such as glutamate, dopamine, serotonin and acetylcholine, decreases neuronal activity by pos-synaptic hyperpolarization and inhibits dopaminergic activity. Adenosine deaminase participates in purine metabolism by converting adenosine into inosine. The most frequent functional polymorphism of adenosine deaminase (22G→A) (ADA1*2) exhibits 20-30% lower e...

  19. Targeted resequencing and analysis of the Diamond-Blackfan anemia disease locus RPS19.

    Alvaro Martinez Barrio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Ribosomal protein S19 gene locus (RPS19 has been linked to two kinds of red cell aplasia, Diamond-Blackfan Anemia (DBA and Transient Erythroblastopenia in Childhood (TEC. Mutations in RPS19 coding sequences have been found in 25% of DBA patients, but not in TEC patients. It has been suggested that non-coding RPS19 sequence variants contribute to the considerable clinical variability in red cell aplasia. We therefore aimed at identifying non-coding variations associated with DBA or TEC phenotypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We targeted a region of 19'980 bp encompassing the RPS19 gene in a cohort of 89 DBA and TEC patients for resequencing. We provide here a catalog of the considerable, previously unrecognized degree of variation in this region. We identified 73 variations (65 SNPs, 8 indels that all are located outside of the RPS19 open reading frame, and of which 67.1% are classified as novel. We hypothesize that specific alleles in non-coding regions of RPS19 could alter the binding of regulatory proteins or transcription factors. Therefore, we carried out an extensive analysis to identify transcription factor binding sites (TFBS. A series of putative interaction sites coincide with detected variants. Sixteen of the corresponding transcription factors are of particular interest, as they are housekeeping genes or show a direct link to hematopoiesis, tumorigenesis or leukemia (e.g. GATA-1/2, PU.1, MZF-1. CONCLUSIONS: Specific alleles at predicted TFBSs may alter the expression of RPS19, modify an important interaction between transcription factors with overlapping TFBS or remove an important stimulus for hematopoiesis. We suggest that the detected interactions are of importance for hematopoiesis and could provide new insights into individual response to treatment.

  20. Locus Coeruleus and Tuberomammillary Nuclei Ablations Attenuate Hypocretin/Orexin Antagonist-Mediated REM Sleep.

    Schwartz, Michael D; Nguyen, Alexander T; Warrier, Deepti R; Palmerston, Jeremiah B; Thomas, Alexia M; Morairty, Stephen R; Neylan, Thomas C; Kilduff, Thomas S

    2016-01-01

    Hypocretin 1 and 2 (Hcrts; also known as orexin A and B), excitatory neuropeptides synthesized in cells located in the tuberal hypothalamus, play a central role in the control of arousal. Hcrt inputs to the locus coeruleus norepinephrine (LC NE) system and the posterior hypothalamic histaminergic tuberomammillary nuclei (TMN HA) are important efferent pathways for Hcrt-induced wakefulness. The LC expresses Hcrt receptor 1 (HcrtR1), whereas HcrtR2 is found in the TMN. Although the dual Hcrt/orexin receptor antagonist almorexant (ALM) decreases wakefulness and increases NREM and REM sleep time, the neural circuitry that mediates these effects is currently unknown. To test the hypothesis that ALM induces sleep by selectively disfacilitating subcortical wake-promoting populations, we ablated LC NE neurons (LCx) or TMN HA neurons (TMNx) in rats using cell-type-specific saporin conjugates and evaluated sleep/wake following treatment with ALM and the GABAA receptor modulator zolpidem (ZOL). Both LCx and TMNx attenuated the promotion of REM sleep by ALM without affecting ALM-mediated increases in NREM sleep. Thus, eliminating either HcrtR1 signaling in the LC or HcrtR2 signaling in the TMN yields similar effects on ALM-induced REM sleep without affecting NREM sleep time. In contrast, neither lesion altered ZOL efficacy on any measure of sleep-wake regulation. These results contrast with those of a previous study in which ablation of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons attenuated ALM-induced increases in NREM sleep time without affecting REM sleep, indicating that Hcrt neurotransmission influences distinct aspects of NREM and REM sleep at different locations in the sleep-wake regulatory network. PMID:27022631

  1. Locus Coeruleus and Tuberomammillary Nuclei Ablations Attenuate Hypocretin/Orexin Antagonist-Mediated REM Sleep123

    Nguyen, Alexander T.; Warrier, Deepti R.; Palmerston, Jeremiah B.; Thomas, Alexia M.; Morairty, Stephen R.; Neylan, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hypocretin 1 and 2 (Hcrts; also known as orexin A and B), excitatory neuropeptides synthesized in cells located in the tuberal hypothalamus, play a central role in the control of arousal. Hcrt inputs to the locus coeruleus norepinephrine (LC NE) system and the posterior hypothalamic histaminergic tuberomammillary nuclei (TMN HA) are important efferent pathways for Hcrt-induced wakefulness. The LC expresses Hcrt receptor 1 (HcrtR1), whereas HcrtR2 is found in the TMN. Although the dual Hcrt/orexin receptor antagonist almorexant (ALM) decreases wakefulness and increases NREM and REM sleep time, the neural circuitry that mediates these effects is currently unknown. To test the hypothesis that ALM induces sleep by selectively disfacilitating subcortical wake-promoting populations, we ablated LC NE neurons (LCx) or TMN HA neurons (TMNx) in rats using cell-type-specific saporin conjugates and evaluated sleep/wake following treatment with ALM and the GABAA receptor modulator zolpidem (ZOL). Both LCx and TMNx attenuated the promotion of REM sleep by ALM without affecting ALM-mediated increases in NREM sleep. Thus, eliminating either HcrtR1 signaling in the LC or HcrtR2 signaling in the TMN yields similar effects on ALM-induced REM sleep without affecting NREM sleep time. In contrast, neither lesion altered ZOL efficacy on any measure of sleep–wake regulation. These results contrast with those of a previous study in which ablation of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons attenuated ALM-induced increases in NREM sleep time without affecting REM sleep, indicating that Hcrt neurotransmission influences distinct aspects of NREM and REM sleep at different locations in the sleep–wake regulatory network. PMID:27022631

  2. Generation of New Hairless Alleles by Genomic Engineering at the Hairless Locus in Drosophila melanogaster

    Praxenthaler, Heiko; Smylla, Thomas K.; Nagel, Anja C.; Preiss, Anette; Maier, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Hairless (H) is the major antagonist within the Notch signalling pathway of Drosophila melanogaster. By binding to Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] and two co-repressors, H induces silencing of Notch target genes in the absence of Notch signals. We have applied genomic engineering to create several new H alleles. To this end the endogenous H locus was replaced with an attP site by homologous recombination, serving as a landing platform for subsequent site directed integration of different H constructs. This way we generated a complete H knock out allele HattP, reintroduced a wild type H genomic and a cDNA-construct (Hgwt, Hcwt) as well as two constructs encoding H proteins defective of Su(H) binding (HLD, HiD). Phenotypes regarding viability, bristle and wing development were recorded, and the expression of Notch target genes wingless and cut was analysed in mutant wing discs or in mutant cell clones. Moreover, genetic interactions with Notch (N5419) and Delta (DlB2) mutants were addressed. Overall, phenotypes were largely as expected: both HLD and HiD were similar to the HattP null allele, indicating that most of H activity requires the binding of Su(H). Both rescue constructs Hgwt and Hcwt were homozygous viable without phenotype. Unexpectedly, the hemizygous condition uncovered that they were not identical to the wild type allele: notably Hcwt showed a markedly reduced activity, suggesting the presence of as yet unidentified regulatory or stabilizing elements in untranslated regions of the H gene. Interestingly, Hgwt homozygous cells expressed higher levels of H protein, perhaps unravelling gene-by-environment interactions. PMID:26448463

  3. T follicular regulatory cells.

    Sage, Peter T; Sharpe, Arlene H

    2016-05-01

    Pathogen exposure elicits production of high-affinity antibodies stimulated by T follicular helper (Tfh) cells in the germinal center reaction. Tfh cells provide both costimulation and stimulatory cytokines to B cells to facilitate affinity maturation, class switch recombination, and plasma cell differentiation within the germinal center. Under normal circumstances, the germinal center reaction results in antibodies that precisely target foreign pathogens while limiting autoimmunity and excessive inflammation. In order to have this degree of control, the immune system ensures Tfh-mediated B-cell help is regulated locally in the germinal center. The recently identified T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cell subset can migrate to the germinal center and inhibit Tfh-mediated B-cell activation and antibody production. Although many aspects of Tfr cell biology are still unclear, recent data have begun to delineate the specialized roles of Tfr cells in controlling the germinal center reaction. Here we discuss the current understanding of Tfr-cell differentiation and function and how this knowledge is providing new insights into the dynamic regulation of germinal centers, and suggesting more efficacious vaccine strategies and ways to treat antibody-mediated diseases. PMID:27088919

  4. Two-stage two-locus models in genome-wide association.

    David M Evans

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies in model organisms suggest that epistasis may play an important role in the etiology of complex diseases and traits in humans. With the era of large-scale genome-wide association studies fast approaching, it is important to quantify whether it will be possible to detect interacting loci using realistic sample sizes in humans and to what extent undetected epistasis will adversely affect power to detect association when single-locus approaches are employed. We therefore investigated the power to detect association for an extensive range of two-locus quantitative trait models that incorporated varying degrees of epistasis. We compared the power to detect association using a single-locus model that ignored interaction effects, a full two-locus model that allowed for interactions, and, most important, two two-stage strategies whereby a subset of loci initially identified using single-locus tests were analyzed using the full two-locus model. Despite the penalty introduced by multiple testing, fitting the full two-locus model performed better than single-locus tests for many of the situations considered, particularly when compared with attempts to detect both individual loci. Using a two-stage strategy reduced the computational burden associated with performing an exhaustive two-locus search across the genome but was not as powerful as the exhaustive search when loci interacted. Two-stage approaches also increased the risk of missing interacting loci that contributed little effect at the margins. Based on our extensive simulations, our results suggest that an exhaustive search involving all pairwise combinations of markers across the genome might provide a useful complement to single-locus scans in identifying interacting loci that contribute to moderate proportions of the phenotypic variance.

  5. International Collaboration on Regulatory Supervision

    This paper describes the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority's experience in regulatory cooperation projects in Russia, with special focus on legacy issues. These legacies include large waste sources, such as those used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators, and remediation of former military sites used for storage of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. The objectives of the cooperation programme are to promote effective and efficient regulatory supervision, taking into account international recommendations and good practice in other countries. Specific projects in the program address specific challenges which require practical local interpretation of ICRP recommendations, the IAEA Basic Safety Standards and other IAEA requirements and guidance documents. In some cases, new regulatory documentation has been required, as well as new regulatory procedures. In the long term, the program is intended to lead to an enhanced and enduring safety culture. The positive experience in Russia has encouraged the Norwegian government in 2008 to extend the regulatory collaboration programme to countries in central Asia, using experience gained with Russian regulatory authorities as well as support from Russian Technical Support Organisations. The programmes are evolving into a regional regulatory support group. Noting this experience, the paper includes suggestions and ideas for how such regional groups can be effective in addressing common radiation safety objectives while addressing local differences in technical, geographical, economic and cultural matters in each country. (Author)

  6. Structure and genotypic plasticity of the Campylobacter fetus sap locus.

    Tu, Zheng-Chao; Wassenaar, Trudy M; Thompson, Stuart A; Blaser, Martin J

    2003-05-01

    The Campylobacter fetus surface layer proteins (SLPs), encoded by five to nine sapA homologues, are major virulence factors. To characterize the sapA homologues further, a 65.9 kb C. fetus genomic region encompassing the sap locus from wild-type strain 23D was completely sequenced and analysed; 44 predicted open reading frames (ORFs) were recognized. The 53.8 kb sap locus contained eight complete and one partial sapA homologues, varying from 2769 to 3879 bp, sharing conserved 553-2622 bp 5' regions, with partial sharing of 5' and 3' non-coding regions. All eight sapA homologues were expressed in Escherichia coli as antigenic proteins and reattached to the surface of SLP- strain 23B, indicating their conserved function. Analysis of the sap homologues indicated three phylogenetic groups. Promoter-specific polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) and sapA homologue-specific reverse transcription (RT)-PCRs showed that the unique sapA promoter can potentially express all eight sapA homologues. Reciprocal DNA recombination based on the 5' conserved regions can involve each of the eight sapA homologues, with frequencies from 10(-1) to 10(-3). Intragenic recombination between sapA7 and sapAp8, mediated by their conserved regions with a 10(-1)-10(-2) frequency, allows the formation of new sap homologues. As divergent SLP C-termini possess multiple antigenic sites, their reciprocal recombination behind the unique sap promoter leads to continuing antigenic variation. PMID:12694614

  7. Somatic cell genotoxicity at the glycophorin A locus in humans

    We have developed an assay for detecting variant erythrocytes that occur as a result of in vivo allele loss at the glycophorin A (GPA) locus on chromosome 4 in humans. This gene codes for an erythroid- specific cell surface glycoprotein, and with our assay we are able to detect rare variant erythrocytes that have lost expression of one of the two GPA alleles. Two distinctly different variant cell types are detected with this assay. One variant cell type (called N OE) is hemizygous. Our assay also detects homozygous variant erythrocytes that have lost expression of the GPA(M) allele and express the GPA(N) allele at twice the heterozygous level. The results of this assay are an enumeration of the frequency of N OE and NN variant cell types for each individual analyzed. These variant cell frequencies provide a measure of the amount of somatic cell genotoxicity that has occurred at the GPA locus. Such genotoxicity could be the result of (1) reactions of toxic chemicals to which the individual has been exposed, or (2) high energy radiation effects on erythroid precursor cells, or (3) errors in DNA replication or repair in these cells of the bone marrow. Thus, the GPA-based variant cell frequency can serve as a biodosimeter that indicates the amount of genotoxic exposure each individual has received. Because two very different kinds of variant cells are enumerated, different kinds of genotoxicity should be distinguishable. Results of the GPA somatic genotoxicity assay may also provide valuable information for cancer-risk estimation on each individual. 16 refs

  8. 12 CFR 562.2 - Regulatory reports.

    2010-01-01

    ... not limited to the minimum requirements under generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) because... condition and operation of savings associations. The Report of Examination and the Thrift Financial Report (TFR) are examples of regulatory reports. Regulatory reports are regulatory documents, not...

  9. Evidence for a purifying selection acting on the β-lactamase locus in epidemic clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    de Lencastre Hermínia

    2011-04-01

    of the bla regulatory genes, these findings also suggest that the apparently redundant function of blaZ gene for the MRSA resistant phenotype is still important for these strains. In addition, the data shows that the sensor-inducer blaR1 is the primary target for the accumulation of mutations in the bla locus, presumably to modulate the response to the presence of β-lactam antibiotic.

  10. Identification of a new virulence locus in Agrobacterium tumefaciens that affects polysaccharide composition and plant cell attachment.

    Thomashow, M F; Karlinsey, J E; Marks, J R; Hurlbert, R. E.

    1987-01-01

    We have identified a new virulence locus in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Strains carrying Tn5 inserts at this locus could not incite tumors on Kalanchoe daigremontiana, Nicotiana rustica, tobacco, or sunflower and had severely attenuated virulence on carrot disks. We termed the locus pscA, because the mutants that defined the locus were initially isolated as having an altered polysaccharide composition; they were nonfluorescent on media containing Leucophor or Calcofluor, indicating a defect in...

  11. 78 FR 40776 - Issuance of Regulatory Guide 1.124 and Regulatory Guide 1.130

    2013-07-08

    ... to ] the subject matters covered in each regulatory guide). The earlier revisions of both guides... COMMISSION Issuance of Regulatory Guide 1.124 and Regulatory Guide 1.130 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory Guide; Issuance. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)...

  12. Human interleukin 2 receptor β-chain gene: Chromosomal localization and identification of 5' regulatory sequences

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) binds to and stimulates activated T cells through high-affinity IL-2 receptors (IL-2Rs). Such receptors represent a complex consisting of at least two proteins, the 55-kDa IL-2Rα chain and the 70-kDa IL-2Rβ chain. The low-affinity, IL-2Rα chain cannot by itself transduce a mitogenic signal, whereas IL-2 stimulates resting lymphocytes through the intermediate-affinity, IL-2Rβ receptor. The authors report here identification of the genomic locus for IL-2Rβ. The exons are contained on four EcoRI fragments of 1.1, 9.2, 7.2, and 13.7 kilobases. The 1.1-kilobase EcoRI fragment lies at the 5'-most end of the genomic locus and contains promoter sequences. The promoter contains no TATA box-like elements but does contain the d(GT)n class of middle repetitive elements, which may play an interesting regulatory role. The IL-2Rβ gene is localized to chromosome 22q11.2-q12, a region that is the locus for several lymphoid neoplasias

  13. 75 FR 16525 - Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide

    2010-04-01

    ... Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory..., Regulatory Guide Development Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research....

  14. mutM, a second mutator locus in Escherichia coli that generates G.C----T.A transversions.

    Cabrera, M.; Nghiem, Y; Miller, J H

    1988-01-01

    We used strains carrying specific lacZ alleles to identify a new mutator locus in Escherichia coli which generates only G.C----T.A transversions among base substitutions. The locus, mutM, mapped near the cysE locus, which is at 81 min on the genetic map.

  15. 75 FR 61531 - Issuance of Regulatory Guide

    2010-10-05

    ... E. Norris, Component Integrity Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory.... Harriet Karagiannis, Acting Chief, Regulatory Guide Development Branch, Division of Engineering, Office...

  16. Lower frequency of the low activity adenosine deaminase allelic variant (ADA1*2 in schizophrenic patients Diminuição da frequência da variante alélica de baixa atividade da adenosina desaminase (ADA1*2 em pacientes esquizofrênicos

    Gustavo Pimentel Dutra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Adenosine may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, since it modulates the release of several neurotransmitters such as glutamate, dopamine, serotonin and acetylcholine, decreases neuronal activity by pos-synaptic hyperpolarization and inhibits dopaminergic activity. Adenosine deaminase participates in purine metabolism by converting adenosine into inosine. The most frequent functional polymorphism of adenosine deaminase (22G→A (ADA1*2 exhibits 20-30% lower enzymatic activity in individuals with the G/A genotype than individuals with the G/G genotype. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ADA polymorphism 22G→A (ADA1*2 in schizophrenic patients and healthy controls. METHOD: The genotypes of the ADA 22G→A were identified with allele-specific PCR strategy in 152 schizophrenic patients and 111 healthy individuals. RESULTS: A significant decrease in the frequency of the G/A genotype was seen in schizophrenic patients (7/152 - 4.6% relative to controls (13/111 - 11.7%, p = 0.032, OR = 2.6. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the G/A genotype associated with low adenosine deaminase activity and, supposingly, with higher adenosine levels is less frequent among schizophrenic patients.OBJETIVO: A adenosina pode ter um papel importante na fisiopatologia da esquizofrenia, uma vez que modula a liberação de vários neurotransmissores, tais como glutamato, dopamina, serotonina e acetilcolina, diminui a atividade neuronal por hiperpolarização pós-sináptica e inibe a atividade dopaminérgica. A adenosina desaminase participa do metabolismo das purinas pela conversão de adenosina em inosina. O mais frequente polimorfismo funcional da adenosina desaminase (22G →A (ADA1*2 exibe uma diminuição de 20-30% da atividade funcional em indivíduos com genótipo G/A quando comparados com indivíduos com o genótipo G/G. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o polimorfismo 22G→A (ADA1*2 em pacientes esquizofrênicos e em

  17. Regulatory Snapshots: integrative mining of regulatory modules from expression time series and regulatory networks.

    Joana P Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Explaining regulatory mechanisms is crucial to understand complex cellular responses leading to system perturbations. Some strategies reverse engineer regulatory interactions from experimental data, while others identify functional regulatory units (modules under the assumption that biological systems yield a modular organization. Most modular studies focus on network structure and static properties, ignoring that gene regulation is largely driven by stimulus-response behavior. Expression time series are key to gain insight into dynamics, but have been insufficiently explored by current methods, which often (1 apply generic algorithms unsuited for expression analysis over time, due to inability to maintain the chronology of events or incorporate time dependency; (2 ignore local patterns, abundant in most interesting cases of transcriptional activity; (3 neglect physical binding or lack automatic association of regulators, focusing mainly on expression patterns; or (4 limit the discovery to a predefined number of modules. We propose Regulatory Snapshots, an integrative mining approach to identify regulatory modules over time by combining transcriptional control with response, while overcoming the above challenges. Temporal biclustering is first used to reveal transcriptional modules composed of genes showing coherent expression profiles over time. Personalized ranking is then applied to prioritize prominent regulators targeting the modules at each time point using a network of documented regulatory associations and the expression data. Custom graphics are finally depicted to expose the regulatory activity in a module at consecutive time points (snapshots. Regulatory Snapshots successfully unraveled modules underlying yeast response to heat shock and human epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, based on regulations documented in the YEASTRACT and JASPAR databases, respectively, and available expression data. Regulatory players involved in

  18. Regulatory Snapshots: integrative mining of regulatory modules from expression time series and regulatory networks.

    Gonçalves, Joana P; Aires, Ricardo S; Francisco, Alexandre P; Madeira, Sara C

    2012-01-01

    Explaining regulatory mechanisms is crucial to understand complex cellular responses leading to system perturbations. Some strategies reverse engineer regulatory interactions from experimental data, while others identify functional regulatory units (modules) under the assumption that biological systems yield a modular organization. Most modular studies focus on network structure and static properties, ignoring that gene regulation is largely driven by stimulus-response behavior. Expression time series are key to gain insight into dynamics, but have been insufficiently explored by current methods, which often (1) apply generic algorithms unsuited for expression analysis over time, due to inability to maintain the chronology of events or incorporate time dependency; (2) ignore local patterns, abundant in most interesting cases of transcriptional activity; (3) neglect physical binding or lack automatic association of regulators, focusing mainly on expression patterns; or (4) limit the discovery to a predefined number of modules. We propose Regulatory Snapshots, an integrative mining approach to identify regulatory modules over time by combining transcriptional control with response, while overcoming the above challenges. Temporal biclustering is first used to reveal transcriptional modules composed of genes showing coherent expression profiles over time. Personalized ranking is then applied to prioritize prominent regulators targeting the modules at each time point using a network of documented regulatory associations and the expression data. Custom graphics are finally depicted to expose the regulatory activity in a module at consecutive time points (snapshots). Regulatory Snapshots successfully unraveled modules underlying yeast response to heat shock and human epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, based on regulations documented in the YEASTRACT and JASPAR databases, respectively, and available expression data. Regulatory players involved in functionally enriched

  19. National legislative and regulatory activities

    OECD

    2006-01-01

    This article describes national nuclear legislative and regulatory activities in Australia, Brazil, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Ireland, Romania, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Sweden, and the Ukraine in 2005 and 2006.

  20. National legislative and regulatory activities

    OECD

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the national nuclear legislative and regulatory activities of Belgium, Brazil, Canada, France, Latvia, Moldova, Morocco, Norway, Romania, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain and Switzerland in 2006.

  1. Recent regulatory issues in Finland

    This paper presents general regulatory issues from Finland since the last WWER Regulators Forum meeting in Odessa 11-13 October 2000. More specific issues concerning Loviisa NPP are described in the Annex of this paper. (author)

  2. Quality assurance within regulatory bodies

    The IAEA directed extensive efforts during the years 1991 to 1995 to the integral revision of all NUSS quality assurance publications, which were approved and issued as Safety Series No.50-C/SG-Q, Quality Assurance for Safety in Nuclear Power Plants and other Nuclear Installations (1996). When these quality assurance publications were developed, their prime focus was on requirements against which work performed by the licensees could be measured and assessed by the regulatory bodies. In this way, they only helped to facilitate the functions of regulators. No requirements or recommendations were provided on how the regulators should ensure the effective implementation of their own activities. The present publication is a first attempt to collect, integrate and offer available experience to directly support performance of regulatory activities. It presents a comprehensive compilation on the application of quality assurance principles and methods by regulatory bodies to their activities. The aim is consistent good performance of regulatory activities through a systematic approach

  3. National legislative and regulatory activities

    This paper presents different national legislative and regulatory activities of many countries, concerning the radiation protection, general legislation, transport and management of radioactive materials, regulations on nuclear trade. (A.L.B.)

  4. Regulatory strategies. Topical issue 6

    The regulatory programmes established by Member States that use radioactive materials, handle radioactive waste or have nuclear installations vary depending on the size and scope of the regulated activities, historical evolution, government and industry structures. The main changes in external factors which will further affect the regulatory programmes include stagnation in the development of nuclear power, the increased economic competition of energy suppliers, ageing plants, continued growth in the industrial and medical uses of radioactive materials, delays in high level waste facilities and the reduced availability of trained personnel. Eight areas are discussed with the objective of identifying ways in which the IAEA can assist Member States to anticipate and respond to changing external factors and facilitate beneficial harmonization of regulatory practices. (1) Regulatory approaches are continuing to evolve among Member States with a general tendency towards less prescriptive practices. (2) Key elements in enhancing safety culture are an open regulator-regulated dialogue and the use of peer reviews by external or international organizations. (3) The efficiency and effectiveness of regulatory bodies is intimately related to the implementation of modem business practices and the hiring and retention of highly qualified staff that keep abreast of developing technology. (4) While nuclear power plant safety performance has improved worldwide, political, economic and social factors combine to make regulatory decisions increasingly difficult. (5) Harmonization of national safety criteria and decisions has largely occurred through the efforts of the IAEA in developing standards, promulgating conventions and hosting peer discussions in a number of forums. (6) Regulatory bodies generally acknowledge the value of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology as a complementary tool to deterministic safety analysis methods. (7) Significant progress has been made

  5. Regulatory Auditing and Ramsey Pricing

    Devon Garvie

    1991-01-01

    Truthful revelation mechanisms with auditing have the undesirable property that audits are not actually performed in equilibrium because all inference problems have been solved. A model is proposed in which the inference problem is preserved by separating the regulatory and auditing functions and transfers are costly. The auditor designs a Bayesian audit procedure and the regulator credibly commits to using this procedure in the regulatory mechanism. The auditor is conservative, that is, he d...

  6. Regulatory facility guide for Ohio

    Anderson, S.S.; Bock, R.E.; Francis, M.W.; Gove, R.M.; Johnson, P.E.; Kovac, F.M.; Mynatt, J.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rymer, A.C. [Transportation Consulting Services, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-02-28

    The Regulatory Facility Guide (RFG) has been developed for the DOE and contractor facilities located in the state of Ohio. It provides detailed compilations of international, federal, and state transportation-related regulations applicable to shipments originating at destined to Ohio facilities. This RFG was developed as an additional resource tool for use both by traffic managers who must ensure that transportation operations are in full compliance with all applicable regulatory requirements and by oversight personnel who must verify compliance activities.

  7. Terapia de Interacción Guiada en díadas madre-bebé con sintomatología depresiva materna en el embarazo: un estudio piloto

    Marcia Paola Olhaberry Huber; Catalina Sieverson; Constanza Mena; Johana Zapata; Ángela Miranda; Macarena Romero

    2015-01-01

    La depresión perinatal constituye un trastorno del ánimo de alta frecuencia, que afecta negativamente a la madre y al bebé, y requiere una intervención dirigida a ambos miembros de esta díada. Esta investigación evalúa la aplicabilidad y resultados de una intervención piloto dirigida a fortalecer el vínculo y a reducir la depresión en díadas con esta problemática. Se estudian tres díadas madre-hijo/a, con sintomatología depresiva materna y se desarrolla una intervención psicoterapéutica breve...

  8. The X-linked F cell production locus: Genetic mapping and role in fetal hemoglobin production

    Chang, Y.C.; Smith, K.D.; Moore, R.D. [John Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Postnatal fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) production is confined to a subset of erythocytes termed F-cells. There is a 10-20 fold variation in F-cell production in sickle cell disease (SCD) and normal individuals. Most of the variation in F-cell production has been attributed to a diallelic (High, Low) X-linked gene, the F-cell production (FCP) locus that we recently mapped to Xp22.2-22.3 (LOD=4.56, theta=0.04). Using multiple regression analysis in 262 Jamaican SCD patients we determined the relative contribution of the FCP locus and other variables previously associated with variation in Hb F level (gender, age, beta-globin haplotypes, number of alpha-globin genes and the FCP locus phenotypes). When the FCP locus is in the regression model, the FCP locus alone accounts for approximately 40% of the variation in Hb F level while the contribution of age, alpha-globin gene number, and beta-globin haplotypes was insignificant. When individuals with High FCP allele are removed from the analysis, the beta globin haplotype now contribute to >10% of the Hb F variation. We conclude that the X-linked FCP locus is the major determinant of all known variables in Hb F production. Using 4 highly polymorphic dinucleotide repeat markers that we identified from cosmids in Xp22.2-22.3, have localized the FCP locus to a 1 Mb minimal candidate region between DXS143 and DXS410.

  9. Prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis four rag locus genotypes in patients of orthodontic gingivitis and periodontitis.

    Yi Liu

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered as a major etiological agent in periodontal diseases and implied to result in gingival inflammation under orthodontic appliance. rag locus is a pathogenicity island found in Porphyromonas gingivalis. Four rag locus variants are different in pathogenicity of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Moreover, there are different racial and geographic differences in distribution of rag locus genotypes. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and rag locus genotypes in 102 gingival crevicular fluid samples from 57 cases of gingivitis patients with orthodontic appliances, 25 cases of periodontitis patients and 20 cases of periodontally healthy people through a 16S rRNA-based PCR and a multiplex PCR. The correlations between Porphyromona.gingivalis/rag locus and clinical indices were analyzed. The prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and rag locus genes in periodontitis group was the highest among three groups and higher in orthodontic gingivitis than healthy people (p<0.01. An obviously positive correlation was observed between the prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis/rag locus and gingival index. rag-3 and rag-4 were the predominant genotypes in the patients of orthodontic gingivitis and mild-to-moderate periodontitis in Shandong. Porphyromonas.gingivalis carrying rag-1 has the strong virulence and could be associated with severe periodontitis.

  10. Prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis four rag locus genotypes in patients of orthodontic gingivitis and periodontitis.

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Yujie; Wang, Lili; Guo, Yang; Xiao, Shuiqing

    2013-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered as a major etiological agent in periodontal diseases and implied to result in gingival inflammation under orthodontic appliance. rag locus is a pathogenicity island found in Porphyromonas gingivalis. Four rag locus variants are different in pathogenicity of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Moreover, there are different racial and geographic differences in distribution of rag locus genotypes. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and rag locus genotypes in 102 gingival crevicular fluid samples from 57 cases of gingivitis patients with orthodontic appliances, 25 cases of periodontitis patients and 20 cases of periodontally healthy people through a 16S rRNA-based PCR and a multiplex PCR. The correlations between Porphyromona.gingivalis/rag locus and clinical indices were analyzed. The prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and rag locus genes in periodontitis group was the highest among three groups and higher in orthodontic gingivitis than healthy people (pPorphyromonas gingivalis/rag locus and gingival index. rag-3 and rag-4 were the predominant genotypes in the patients of orthodontic gingivitis and mild-to-moderate periodontitis in Shandong. Porphyromonas.gingivalis carrying rag-1 has the strong virulence and could be associated with severe periodontitis. PMID:23593379

  11. Molecular Characterization Of The Vernalization Locus VRN1 In Perennial Ryegrass

    Asp, Torben; Byrne, Stephen; Andersen, Jeppe R;

    Vernalization, the requirement of a period of low temperature to induce transition from vegetative to reproductive state, is an important trait in grasses. The objective of this study was to identify the causative polymorphism(s) for the variation in vernalization requirement at the VRN1 locus in...... perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Two allelic BAC clones of the VRN1 locus from the two genotypes Veyo and Falster with contrasting vernalization requirements were identified, sequenced, and characterized. The region surrounding the VRN1 locus in perennial ryegrass showed micro-colinearity to the...

  12. Capsulation and Gene Copy Number at the cap Locus of Haemophilus influenzae Type b

    1988-01-01

    Although more than 98% of natural isolates of Haemophilus influenzae type b carry a duplication of 17 kilobases (kb) of DNA at the chromosomal capsulation locus, only one copy is required for capsulation. In one laboratory-derived and two clinical type b strains, the capsulation locus had a single copy of this 17-kb segment, together with 1.3 kb of DNA identified as lying between the repeats of the duplicated locus. This 1.3 kb appears to be crucial for capsule production, since strains lacki...

  13. Mapping and disruption of the chpB locus in Escherichia coli.

    Masuda, Y; Ohtsubo, E

    1994-01-01

    The chpB locus is a chromosomal homolog of the pem locus, which is responsible for stable maintenance of plasmid R100 within the host cells. Like pem, chpB codes for two genes, chpBK and chpBI, encoding a growth inhibitor and a suppressor for the killing action of the ChpBK protein, respectively. Here, we determined the precise location of the chpB locus, which is linked to ileR and ppa in the order ileR-chpB-ppa, at 95.7 min on the map of Escherichia coli. We then constructed mutants with an...

  14. Locus Of Control - Predictor Of Health And Subjective Well – Being

    Svetlana Popova

    2012-01-01

    The article presents results of a study of the relationship 'locus of control - health and subjective well-being. In a heterogeneous sample (N = 239) in the stage of youth (19-30 years) shall be established: locus of control determines 11.56% of the changes in the assessment of health, changes in health contribute to 12.82% of the variation in assessment of happiness and 6.10% in the measurement of life satisfaction. Young people with an internal locus of control are healthier, happier and mo...

  15. [Illness concepts of children. Validation of a modified locus of control test in illness and health].

    Schmidt, A; Altmann-Herz, U

    1992-12-01

    We investigated the health and illness concepts of 53 healthy children aged 8 to 14 years using a modified illness and health locus of control scale (KKG, Lohaus and Schmitt, 1989) with the scales internal, external-p (powerful others) and external-c (chance). A comparison of the results with those on self-esteem (FSK 4-6), anxiety (CMAS-R) and hopelessness (HSC) scales showed a decrease in externality, but not an increase in internality, with increasing age and a correlation between self-confidence and a more internal locus of control. The influence of children's health locus of control on treatment compliance is discussed. PMID:1288033

  16. Reorganisation of Hoxd regulatory landscapes during the evolution of a snake-like body plan

    Guerreiro, Isabel; Gitto, Sandra; Novoa, Ana; Codourey, Julien; Nguyen Huynh, Thi Hanh; Gonzalez, Federico; Milinkovitch, Michel C; Mallo, Moises; Duboule, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Within land vertebrate species, snakes display extreme variations in their body plan, characterized by the absence of limbs and an elongated morphology. Such a particular interpretation of the basic vertebrate body architecture has often been associated with changes in the function or regulation of Hox genes. Here, we use an interspecies comparative approach to investigate different regulatory aspects at the snake HoxD locus. We report that, unlike in other vertebrates, snake mesoderm-specific enhancers are mostly located within the HoxD cluster itself rather than outside. In addition, despite both the absence of limbs and an altered Hoxd gene regulation in external genitalia, the limb-associated bimodal HoxD chromatin structure is maintained at the snake locus. Finally, we show that snake and mouse orthologous enhancer sequences can display distinct expression specificities. These results show that vertebrate morphological evolution likely involved extensive reorganisation at Hox loci, yet within a generally conserved regulatory framework. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16087.001 PMID:27476854

  17. Integration of genetic and physical maps of the Primula vulgaris S locus and localization by chromosome in situ hybridization

    Li, Jinhong; Webster, Margaret; Wright, Jonathan; Cocker, Jonathan; Smith, Matthew; Badakshi, Farah; Heslop-Harrison, Pat; Gilmartin, Philip

    2015-01-01

    •Heteromorphic flower development in Primula is controlled by the S locus. The S locus genes, which control anther position, pistil length and pollen size in pin and thrum flowers, have not yet been characterized. We have integrated S-linked genes, marker sequences and mutant phenotypes to create a map of the P. vulgaris S locus region that will facilitate the identification of key S locus genes. We have generated, sequenced and annotated BAC sequences spanning the S locus, and identified its...

  18. Estudio de restos humanos procedentes del Dolmen de Cañada Real depositados en el Departamento de Anatomía y Embriología Humanas de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Sevilla

    Cabrero García, Rosario; Ambrosiani Fernández, Jesús; Guijo Mauri, Juan Manuel; Gómez Murga, Ezequiel

    2005-01-01

    Don Juan de Mata Carriazo entregó dos lotes de huesos humanos procedentes de su excavación del Dolmen de Cañada Real: uno fue depositado en el Museo Arqueológico de Sevilla, mientras que el otro fue llevado a la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad. Una vez publicados los resultados de los restos óseos del museo, nos detenemos aquí en la descripción de este segundo depósito. Mr. Juan de Mata Carriazo handed over two sets of human bones from his excavation of the ‘Dolmen de Cañada Real’: ...

  19. Validación y confiabilidad de una escala de Actitudes hacia las Matemáticas y hacia las Matemáticas Enseñadas con Computadora

    Sonia Ursini; Gabriel Sánchez; Mónica Orendain

    2004-01-01

    Con el propósito de contar con un instrumento que permita obtener información acerca de las actitudes de los estudiantes hacia las matemáticas y las matemáticas enseñadas con computadora, se elaboró la escala AMMEC (Actitudes hacia las Matemáticas y las Matemáticas Enseñadas con Computadora). En este artículo se presentan los pasos seguidos para su validación y se proporcionan datos que demuestran su confiabilidad y validez. En estos momentos, en los que el uso de la tecnología para apoyar la...

  20. The human PINK1 locus is regulated in vivo by a non-coding natural antisense RNA during modulation of mitochondrial function

    Wahlestedt Claes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the PTEN induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1 are implicated in early-onset Parkinson's disease. PINK1 is expressed abundantly in mitochondria rich tissues, such as skeletal muscle, where it plays a critical role determining mitochondrial structural integrity in Drosophila. Results Herein we characterize a novel splice variant of PINK1 (svPINK1 that is homologous to the C-terminus regulatory domain of the protein kinase. Naturally occurring non-coding antisense provides sophisticated mechanisms for diversifying genomes and we describe a human specific non-coding antisense expressed at the PINK1 locus (naPINK1. We further demonstrate that PINK1 varies in vivo when human skeletal muscle mitochondrial content is enhanced, supporting the idea that PINK1 has a physiological role in mitochondrion. The observation of concordant regulation of svPINK1 and naPINK1 during in vivo mitochondrial biogenesis was confirmed using RNAi, where selective targeting of naPINK1 results in loss of the PINK1 splice variant in neuronal cell lines. Conclusion Our data presents the first direct observation that a mammalian non-coding antisense molecule can positively influence the abundance of a cis-transcribed mRNA under physiological abundance conditions. While our analysis implies a possible human specific and dsRNA-mediated mechanism for stabilizing the expression of svPINK1, it also points to a broader genomic strategy for regulating a human disease locus and increases the complexity through which alterations in the regulation of the PINK1 locus could occur.

  1. Genomic pathology of SLE-associated copy-number variation at the FCGR2C/FCGR3B/FCGR2B locus.

    Mueller, Michael; Barros, Paula; Witherden, Abigail S; Roberts, Amy L; Zhang, Zhou; Schaschl, Helmut; Yu, Chack-Yung; Hurles, Matthew E; Schaffner, Catherine; Floto, R Andres; Game, Laurence; Steinberg, Karyn Meltz; Wilson, Richard K; Graves, Tina A; Eichler, Evan E; Cook, H Terence; Vyse, Timothy J; Aitman, Timothy J

    2013-01-10

    Reduced FCGR3B copy number is associated with increased risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The five FCGR2/FCGR3 genes are arranged across two highly paralogous genomic segments on chromosome 1q23. Previous studies have suggested mechanisms for structural rearrangements at the FCGR2/FCGR3 locus and have proposed mechanisms whereby altered FCGR3B copy number predisposes to autoimmunity, but the high degree of sequence similarity between paralogous segments has prevented precise definition of the molecular events and their functional consequences. To pursue the genomic pathology associated with FCGR3B copy-number variation, we integrated sequencing data from fosmid and bacterial artificial chromosome clones and sequence-captured DNA from FCGR3B-deleted genomes to establish a detailed map of allelic and paralogous sequence variation across the FCGR2/FCGR3 locus. This analysis identified two highly paralogous 24.5 kb blocks within the FCGR2C/FCGR3B/FCGR2B locus that are devoid of nonpolymorphic paralogous sequence variations and that define the limits of the genomic regions in which nonallelic homologous recombination leads to FCGR2C/FCGR3B copy-number variation. Further, the data showed evidence of swapping of haplotype blocks between these highly paralogous blocks that most likely arose from sequential ancestral recombination events across the region. Functionally, we found by flow cytometry, immunoblotting and cDNA sequencing that individuals with FCGR3B-deleted alleles show ectopic presence of FcγRIIb on natural killer (NK) cells. We conclude that FCGR3B deletion juxtaposes the 5'-regulatory sequences of FCGR2C with the coding sequence of FCGR2B, creating a chimeric gene that results in an ectopic accumulation of FcγRIIb on NK cells and provides an explanation for SLE risk associated with reduced FCGR3B gene copy number. PMID:23261299

  2. Control estructural en el emplazamiento del volcanismo y mineralizaciones neógenas, distrito Cañada Honda, San Luis

    María Silvia Japas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Emplazada en la zona de transición sur del segmento de flat-slab pampeano y directamente vinculada a la horizontalización de la placa de Nazca, la faja volcánica terciaria de San Luis delata la migración que experimentó el arco magmático andino a la latitud de los 33º S en tiempos mio-pliocenos. Esta faja volcánica comprende una serie de distritos metalogenéticos de gran importancia en las Sierras Pampeanas de San Luis. Las rocas volcánicas y mineralizaciones de la faja volcánica terciaria se encuentran representadas en los campos volcánicos La Carolina, Cañada Honda - Cerros Largos, Cerros del Rosario y El Morro, dispuestos saltuariamente según una dirección ONO-NO. Las edades K-Ar disponibles indican que el volcanismo se habría iniciado más tempranamente en el sector occidental de esta faja, y que habría finalizado ~ 10 Ma más tarde en la región oriental. El distrito Cañada Honda, el más antiguo y longevo de esta faja volcánica, registra eventos volcánicos e hidrotermales cuyas edades varían entre 12-13 Ma y 7,3 Ma, abarcando facies lávico-hipabisales y volcaniclásticas. Los resultados del análisis estructural demuestran el importante control que, directa o indirectamente, habrían ejercido las estructuras previas en el emplazamiento de las rocas volcánicas y mineralizaciones. Análisis de fábrica deformacional y cinemático han permitido reconocer dos asociaciones volcano-tectónicas diferentes. una de estas asociaciones se vincularía a la reactivación dextral de estructuras paralelas a la foliación del basamento. La asociación principal estaría vinculada con el desarrollo de dos depresiones volcano-tectónicas alineadas en dirección ONO-NO. Sus estructuras principales, de orientación ONO-NO, revelan componentes de desplazamiento senestral y normal tanto a escala del distrito Cañada Honda como de la faja volcánica terciaria.

  3. Papel dos níveis de BNP no prognóstico da insuficiência cardíaca avançada descompensada

    Antônio Carlos Pereira-Barretto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A insuficiência cardíaca (IC é doença que cursa com má evolução, especialmente naqueles com IC avançada. A dosagem de peptídeo natriurético tipo B(BNP, ao lado da utilidade no diagnóstico da descompensação cardíaca, vem se mostrando útil na avaliação prognóstica. OBJETIVOS: Verificar se os níveis de BNP identificam quais pacientes evoluiriam pior e se o BNP seria fator independente de mortalidade considerando-se idade, sexo, funções cardíaca e renal e etiologia da cardiopatia. MÉTODOS: 189 pacientes com IC avançada em classe funcional III/IV foram estudados. Todos tinham disfunção sistólica e dosaram-se os níveis de BNP na hospitalização. Analisaram-se as variáveis relacionadas com a mortalidade através de análises univariada e multivariada. RESULTADOS: Os níveis de BNP foram mais elevados nos pacientes que morreram no primeiro ano de seguimento (1.861,9 versus 1.408,1 pg/dL; p = 0,044 e nos chagásicos (1.985 versus 1.452 pg/mL; p = 0,001, e esses pacientes chagásicos tiveram maior mortalidade no primeiro ano de seguimento (56% versus 35%; p = 0,010. Pela curva ROC, o valor de BNP de 1.400 pg/mL foi o melhor preditor de eventos, estando os valores elevados associados a FEVE mais baixa (0,23 versus 0,28; p = 0,002 e maior grau de disfunção renal (ureia média 92 versus 74,5 mg/dL; p = 0,002. CONCLUSÃO: Na IC avançada, os níveis elevados de BNP identificam pacientes com maior potencial de pior evolução. Os pacientes chagásicos apresentam níveis mais elevados de BNP do que as outras etiologias e têm pior evolução.

  4. Estudo exaustivo e sistemático de erros nas provas da olimpíada brasileira de astronomia - resultados preliminares

    Oliveira, F. S.; Canalle, J. B. G.; Villas da Rocha, J. F.

    2003-08-01

    A Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia (OBA) contou, em sua quinta edição, com a participação de mais de 60 mil alunos dos ensinos fundamental e médio de praticamente todo o território nacional. Uma das formas de controle que a sua coordenação nacional possui sobre a correção, levada a cabo pelos professores que as aplicaram, é a do envio, por parte destes professores, das 10 melhores provas de cada um dos três níveis nos quais a Olimpíada é realizada. Assim, e dado ao caráter discursivo das provas da Olimpíada, a sua coordenação nacional dispõe de um vasto acervo sobre as concepções, certas ou erradas, dos alunos que dela participaram. Este conjunto de dados jamais fora explorado até o presente trabalho que pretende ser, neste sentido, inaugural. Nas provas dos níveis I e II da V OBA, que abrangem todo o conjunto do ensino fundamental, uma das questões versava sobre a noção que os alunos tinham sobre como os habitantes da Terra situam-se sobre sua superfície. Fizemos um estudo sistemático das respostas a esta questão. Primeiramente, todas as modalidades de erros foram levantadas; em seguida, realizamos uma distribuição por idade tanto do índice de acerto como da ocorrência e da distribuição de cada erro. Como resultado, obtivemos que, em ambos os níveis: 1) as concepções errôneas não se apresentam distribuídas aleatoriamente; 2) há uma concentração no tipo de erro apresentado; 3) há uma tendência de progressivo acerto com relação à idade quando os dados são considerados em termos nacionais; 4) esta tendência nacional é fraca ou mesmo não é verificada em alguns dos estados com maior patamar de acerto.

  5. 7 CFR 1773.40 - Regulatory assets.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulatory assets. 1773.40 Section 1773.40... § 1773.40 Regulatory assets. The CPA's workpapers must document whether all regulatory assets comply with... whether all regulatory assets have received RUS approval....

  6. Molecular analysis of mutants of the Neurospora adenylosuccinate synthetase locus

    A. Wiest; A. J. McCarthy; R. Schnittker; K. McCluskey

    2012-08-01

    The ad-8 gene of Neurospora crassa, in addition to being used for the study of purine biology, has been extensively studied as a model for gene structure, mutagenesis and intralocus recombination. Because of this there is an extensive collection of well-characterized N. crassa ad-8 mutants in the Fungal Genetics Stock Center collection. Among these are spontaneous mutants and mutants induced with X-ray, UV or chemical mutagens. The specific lesions in these mutants have been genetically mapped at high resolution. We have sequenced the ad-8 locus from 13 of these mutants and identified the molecular nature of the mutation in each strain. We compare the historical fine-structure map to the DNA and amino acid sequence of each allele. The placement of the individual lesions in the fine-structure map was more accurate at the 5′ end of the gene and no mutants were identified in the 3′ untranslated region of this gene. We additionally analysed ad-8+ alleles in 18 N. crassa strains subjected to whole-genome sequence analysis and describe the variability among Neurospora strains and among fungi and other organisms.

  7. Quantitative trait locus mapping can benefit from segregation distortion.

    Xu, Shizhong

    2008-12-01

    Segregation distortion is a phenomenon that has been observed in many experimental systems. How segregation distortion among markers arises and its impact on mapping studies are the focus of this work. Segregation distortion of markers can be considered to arise from segregation distortion loci (SDL). I develop a theory of segregation distortion and show that the presence of only a few SDL can cause the entire chromosome to distort from Mendelian segregation. Segregation distortion is detrimental to the power of detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) with dominance effects, but it is not always a detriment to QTL mapping for additive effects. When segregation distortion of a locus is a random event, the SDL is beneficial to QTL mapping approximately 44% of the time. If SDL are present and ignored, power loss can be substantial. A dense marker map can be used to ameliorate the situation, and if dense marker information is incorporated, power loss is minimal. However, other situations are less benign. A method that can simultaneously map QTL and SDL is discussed, maximizing both use of mapping resources and use by agricultural and evolutionary biologists. PMID:18957707

  8. Rapid multi-locus sequence typing using microfluidic biochips.

    Timothy D Read

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple locus sequence typing (MLST has become a central genotyping strategy for analysis of bacterial populations. The scheme involves de novo sequencing of 6-8 housekeeping loci to assign unique sequence types. In this work we adapted MLST to a rapid microfluidics platform in order to enhance speed and reduce laboratory labor time. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using two integrated microfluidic devices, DNA was purified from 100 Bacillus cereus soil isolates, used as a template for multiplex amplification of 7 loci and sequenced on forward and reverse strands. The time on instrument from loading genomic DNA to generation of electropherograms was only 1.5 hours. We obtained full-length sequence of all seven MLST alleles from 84 representing 46 different Sequence Types. At least one allele could be sequenced from a further 15 strains. The nucleotide diversity of B. cereus isolated in this study from one location in Rockville, Maryland (0.04 substitutions per site was found to be as great as the global collection of isolates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Biogeographical investigation of pathogens is only one of a panoply of possible applications of microfluidics based MLST; others include microbiologic forensics, biothreat identification, and rapid characterization of human clinical samples.

  9. The PKU locus in man is on chromosome 12.

    Lidksy, A S; Robson, K J; Thirumalachary, C; Barker, P E; Ruddle, F H; Woo, S L

    1984-01-01

    Classical phenylketonuria (PKU) is a typical example of inborn errors in metabolism and is characterized by a complete lack of the hepatic enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, which normally converts phenylalanine to tyrosine. The genetic disorder causes impairment of postnatal brain development, resulting in severe mental retardation in untreated children. The disease is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait and has a collective prevalence of about one in 10,000 among Caucasians, so that 2% of the population are carriers of the PKU trait. We have recently reported the cloning of human phenylalanine hydroxylase cDNA and that the human chromosomal phenylalanine hydroxylase gene is encoded by a unique DNA sequence. Using the human phenylalanine hydroxylase cDNA clone to analyze a clonal human/mouse hybrid cell panel by Southern hybridization, the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene has been assigned to human chromosome 12. Since the hypothesis that classical PKU is caused by structural mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene itself rather than through some transregulatory mechanisms has recently been confirmed by gene mapping, the PKU locus in man is determined to be on chromosome 12. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6547271

  10. Analysis of the pathogenicity locus in Clostridium difficile strains.

    Cohen, S H; Tang, Y J; Silva, J

    2000-02-01

    The genes for Clostridium difficile toxins A and B (tcdA and tcdB) are part of a 19.6-kb pathogenicity locus (PaLoc) that includes the genes tcdD, tcdE, and tcdC. To determine whether the C. difficile PaLoc is a stable and conserved genetic unit in toxigenic strains, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze 50 toxigenic, 39 nontoxigenic, and 2 toxin-defective isolates. The respective amplicons were identified for tcdA-E in the toxigenic isolates; these were absent in the nontoxigenic isolates. C. difficile P-829 lacked at least a fragment of tcdD, tcdB, tcdE, and tcdC, but tcdA was present. C. difficile 8864 had deletions in the tcdA and tcdC genes. These data suggest that the PaLoc is highly stable in toxigenic C. difficile, nontoxigenic isolates lack the unit, and isolates with a defective PaLoc can still cause clinical disease. Further studies are needed to define the role of individual genes in the pathogenesis of C. difficile-associated diarrhea. PMID:10669352

  11. Peripheral and central locus of a nonspeech phonetic context effect

    Sullivan, Sarah C.; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2002-05-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that nonspeech sounds with the appropriate spectral characteristics can affect the identification of speech sounds [Lotto and Kluender, Percept. Psychophys. 60, 602-619 (1998)]. It has been proposed that these spectral context effects are due to interactions in the peripheral auditory system. For example, they could be the result of masking at the auditory nerve or of auditory enhancement effects that have been demonstrated to be monaural [Summerfield and Assmann, Percept. Psychophys. 45, 529-536 (1989)]. To examine the locus of the context effect, synthesized syllables varying from /da/ to /ga/ were preceded by single-formant stimuli that mimicked the third formant of the syllables /al/ and /ar/. The nonspeech stimulus was presented either to the same or opposite ear as the target speech stimulus. Subjects speech identifications were shifted as a function of context in predicted directions for both presentation conditions. However, the size of the shift was smaller when the context was in the ear contralateral to the target syllable. These results agree well with similar results for speech contexts. The data suggest that the context effects occur at multiple levels of the auditory system and are not simply examples of masking or auditory enhancement.

  12. The Icsbp locus is a common proviral insertion site in mature B-cell lymphomas/plasmacytomas induced by exogenous murine leukemia virus

    ICSBP (interferon consensus sequence binding protein)/IRF8 (interferon regulatory factor 8) is an interferon gamma-inducible transcription factor expressed predominantly in hematopoietic cells, and down-regulation of this factor has been observed in chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia in man. By screening about 1200 murine leukemia virus (MLV)-induced lymphomas, we found proviral insertions at the Icsbp locus in 14 tumors, 13 of which were mature B-cell lymphomas or plasmacytomas. Only one was a T-cell lymphoma, although such tumors constituted about half of the samples screened. This indicates that the Icsbp locus can play a specific role in the development of mature B-lineage malignancies. Two proviral insertions in the last Icsbp exon were found to act by a poly(A)-insertion mechanism. The remaining insertions were found within or outside Icsbp. Since our results showed expression of Icsbp RNA and protein in all end-stage tumor samples, a simple tumor suppressor function of ICSBP is not likely. Interestingly, proviral insertions at Icsbp have not been reported from previous extensive screenings of mature B-cell lymphomas induced by endogenous MLVs. We propose that ICSBP might be involved in an early modulation of an immune response to exogenous MLVs that might also play a role in proliferation of the mature B-cell lymphomas

  13. Environmental and genetic interactions reveal FLOWERING LOCUS C as a modulator of the natural variation for the plasticity of flowering in Arabidopsis.

    Méndez-Vigo, Belén; Savic, Marija; Ausín, Israel; Ramiro, Mercedes; Martín, Beatriz; Picó, F Xavier; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    The timing of flowering initiation depends strongly on the environment, a property termed as the plasticity of flowering. Such plasticity determines the adaptive potential of plants because it provides phenotypic buffer against environmental changes, and its natural variation contributes to evolutionary adaptation. We addressed the genetic mechanisms of the natural variation for this plasticity in Arabidopsis thaliana by analysing a population of recombinant inbred lines derived from Don-0 and Ler accessions collected from distinct climates. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in four environmental conditions differing in photoperiod, vernalization treatment and ambient temperature detected the folllowing: (i) FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) as a large effect QTL affecting flowering time differentially in all environments; (ii) numerous QTL displaying smaller effects specifically in some conditions; and (iii) significant genetic interactions between FLC and other loci. Hence, the variation for the plasticity of flowering is determined by a combination of environmentally sensitive and specific QTL, and epistasis. Analysis of FLC from Don identified a new and more active allele likely caused by a cis-regulatory deletion covering the non-coding RNA COLDAIR. Further characterization of four FLC natural alleles showed different environmental and genetic interactions. Thus, FLC appears as a major modulator of the natural variation for the plasticity of flowering to multiple environmental factors. PMID:26173848

  14. Regulatory Expectations for Safety Culture

    The oversight of licensee's safety culture becomes an important issue that attracts great public and political concerns recently in Korea. Beginning from the intended violation of rules, a series of corruptions, documents forgery and disclosure of wrong-doings made the public think that the whole mindset of nuclear workers has been inadequate. Thus, they are demanding that safety culture shall be improved and that regulatory body shall play more roles and responsibilities for the improvements and oversight for them. This paper introduces, as an effort of regulatory side, recent changes in the role of regulators in safety culture, regulatory expectations on the desired status of licensee's safety culture, the pilot inspection program for safety culture and research activity for the development of oversight system. After the Fukushima accident in Japan 2011, many critics has searched for cultural factors that caused the unacceptable negligence pervaded in Japan nuclear society and the renewed emphasis has been placed on rebuilding safety culture by operators, regulators, and relevant institutions globally. Significant progress has been made in how to approach safety culture and led to a new perspective different from the existing normative assessment method both in operators and regulatory side. Regulatory expectations and oversight of them are based on such a new holistic concept for human, organizational and cultural elements to maintain and strengthen the integrity of defense in depth and consequently nuclear safety

  15. Regulatory physiology discipline science plan

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the Regulatory Physiology discipline of the Space Physiology and Countermeasures Program is twofold. First, to determine and study how microgravity and associated factors of space flight affect the regulatory mechanisms by which humans adapt and achieve homeostasis and thereby regulate their ability to respond to internal and external signals; and, second, to study selected physiological systems that have been demonstrated to be influenced by gravity. The Regulatory Physiology discipline, as defined here, is composed of seven subdisciplines: (1) Circadian Rhythms, (2) Endocrinology, (3) Fluid and Electrolyte Regulation, (4) Hematology, (5) Immunology, (6) Metabolism and Nutrition, and (7) Temperature Regulation. The purpose of this Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the area of regulatory physiology. It covers the research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in regulatory physiology. It contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational intramural and extramural research and development activities in this area.

  16. Regulatory Expectations for Safety Culture

    Jung, Su Jin; Oh, Jang Jin; Choi, Young Sung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The oversight of licensee's safety culture becomes an important issue that attracts great public and political concerns recently in Korea. Beginning from the intended violation of rules, a series of corruptions, documents forgery and disclosure of wrong-doings made the public think that the whole mindset of nuclear workers has been inadequate. Thus, they are demanding that safety culture shall be improved and that regulatory body shall play more roles and responsibilities for the improvements and oversight for them. This paper introduces, as an effort of regulatory side, recent changes in the role of regulators in safety culture, regulatory expectations on the desired status of licensee's safety culture, the pilot inspection program for safety culture and research activity for the development of oversight system. After the Fukushima accident in Japan 2011, many critics has searched for cultural factors that caused the unacceptable negligence pervaded in Japan nuclear society and the renewed emphasis has been placed on rebuilding safety culture by operators, regulators, and relevant institutions globally. Significant progress has been made in how to approach safety culture and led to a new perspective different from the existing normative assessment method both in operators and regulatory side. Regulatory expectations and oversight of them are based on such a new holistic concept for human, organizational and cultural elements to maintain and strengthen the integrity of defense in depth and consequently nuclear safety.

  17. The Relationship between Adjustment and Perceived Locus of Control for Female Psychiatric Inpatients.

    Youkilis, Hildreth D.; Bootzin, Richard R.

    1979-01-01

    Examines the longitudinal relationship between internal-external locus of control and adjustment using independent measures within two dissimilar treatment environments: a traditional ward and a token economy ward. Subjects were 65 female psychiatric inpatients. (CM)

  18. Internal-External Locus of Control and Labor Market Performance: Empirical Evidence Using Longitudinal Survey Data.

    Frantz, Roger S.

    1980-01-01

    Internal-external control affects hourly wages independent of other factors such as educational attainment, labor market experience, race, and collective bargaining affiliation. Internal-external locus of control is affected by labor market success, race, and city size. (Author)

  19. Vocational interests of adolescents: relationships between self-esteem and locus of control.

    Mullis, A K; Mullis, R L

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among scores on vocational interests, self-esteem, and locus of control for high school students. Grade and sex differences were also examined. 1364 high school students ranging in age from 14 to 19 years of age were administered the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory, Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale for Children, and the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory. High school students with higher scores on self-esteem and showing an orientation toward internal locus of control expressed more interests in a variety of vocational themes than adolescents with lower scores on self-esteem and scores for external locus of control. Sex and grade differences in vocational interests of adolescents were also noted. The findings were discussed in light of theoretical and practical considerations. PMID:9461772

  20. Lexical Access and Dual-Task Performance: Determining the Locus of the Bottleneck

    Allen, Phil

    2004-01-01

    During the two years of funding for NASA Grant "NCC21325, Lexical access and dual-task performance: Determining the locus of the bottleneck," we completed three experiments involving the psychological refractory period (PRP) and word frequency.