WorldWideScience

Sample records for ad hoc networks

  1. Dynamic ad hoc networks

    Rashvand, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the exciting new application paradigm of using amalgamated technologies of the Internet and wireless, the next generation communication networks (also called 'ubiquitous', 'complex' and 'unstructured' networking) are changing the way we develop and apply our future systems and services at home and on local, national and global scales. Whatever the interconnection - a WiMAX enabled networked mobile vehicle, MEMS or nanotechnology enabled distributed sensor systems, Vehicular Ad hoc Networking (VANET) or Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) - all can be classified under new networking s

  2. Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Hong-Chuan Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy-efficient configuration of multihop paths with automatic repeat request (ARQ mechanism in wireless ad hoc networks. We adopt a cross-layer design approach and take both the quality of each radio hop and the battery capacity of each transmitting node into consideration. Under certain constraints on the maximum tolerable transmission delay and the required packet delivery ratio, we solve optimization problems to jointly schedule the transmitting power of each transmitting node and the retransmission limit over each hop. Numerical results demonstrate that the path configuration methods can either significantly reduce the average energy consumption per packet delivery or considerably extend the average lifetime of the multihop route.

  3. Security Threats in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Biswas, Kamanashis; Ali, Md. Liakat

    2007-01-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of communication devices or nodes that wish to communicate without any fixed infrastructure and pre-determined organization of available links. The nodes in MANET themselves are responsible for dynamically discovering other nodes to communicate. Although the ongoing trend is to adopt ad hoc networks for commercial uses due to their certain unique properties, the main challenge is the vulnerability to security attacks. A number of challenges like o...

  4. Data Confidentiality in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Aldabbas, Hamza; Janicke, Helge; Al-Bayatti, Ali; 10.5121/ijwmn.2012.4117

    2012-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are self-configuring infrastructure-less networks comprised of mobile nodes that communicate over wireless links without any central control on a peer-to-peer basis. These individual nodes act as routers to forward both their own data and also their neighbours' data by sending and receiving packets to and from other nodes in the network. The relatively easy configuration and the quick deployment make ad hoc networks suitable the emergency situations (such as human or natural disasters) and for military units in enemy territory. Securing data dissemination between these nodes in such networks, however, is a very challenging task. Exposing such information to anyone else other than the intended nodes could cause a privacy and confidentiality breach, particularly in military scenarios. In this paper we present a novel framework to enhance the privacy and data confidentiality in mobile ad hoc networks by attaching the originator policies to the messages as they are sent between nod...

  5. Ad hoc networks telecommunications and game theory

    Benslama, Malek; Batatia, Hadj

    2015-01-01

    Random SALOHA and CSMA protocols that are used to access MAC in ad hoc networks are very small compared to the multiple and spontaneous use of the transmission channel. So they have low immunity to the problems of packet collisions. Indeed, the transmission time is the critical factor in the operation of such networks. The simulations demonstrate the positive impact of erasure codes on the throughput of the transmission in ad hoc networks. However, the network still suffers from the intermittency and volatility of its efficiency throughout its operation, and it switches quickly to the satura

  6. Secure Clustering in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Zainab Nayyar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A vehicular Ad-hoc network is composed of moving cars as nodes without any infrastructure. Nodes self-organize to form a network over radio links. Security issues are commonly observed in vehicular ad hoc networks; like authentication and authorization issues. Secure Clustering plays a significant role in VANETs. In recent years, various secure clustering techniques with distinguishing feature have been newly proposed. In order to provide a comprehensive understanding of these techniques are designed for VANETs and pave the way for the further research, a survey of the secure clustering techniques is discussed in detail in this paper. Qualitatively, as a result of highlighting various techniques of secure clustering certain conclusions are drawn which will enhance the availability and security of vehicular ad hoc networks. Nodes present in the clusters will work more efficiently and the message passing within the nodes will also get more authenticated from the cluster heads.

  7. Vehicular ad hoc network security and privacy

    Lin, X

    2015-01-01

    Unlike any other book in this area, this book provides innovative solutions to security issues, making this book a must read for anyone working with or studying security measures. Vehicular Ad Hoc Network Security and Privacy mainly focuses on security and privacy issues related to vehicular communication systems. It begins with a comprehensive introduction to vehicular ad hoc network and its unique security threats and privacy concerns and then illustrates how to address those challenges in highly dynamic and large size wireless network environments from multiple perspectives. This book is richly illustrated with detailed designs and results for approaching security and privacy threats.

  8. Enhanced Wireless Network Ad Hoc Pattern

    M. Kamalakannan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Early simulation experience with wireless ad hoc networks suggests that their capacity can be surprisingly low, due to the requirement that nodes forward each others’ packets. The achievable capacity depends on network size, traffic patterns and detailed local radio interactions. This study examines these factors alone and in combination, using simulation and analysis from first principles. Our results include both specific constants and general relationship Scaling helpful in understanding the limitations of wireless ad hoc networks. We examine interactions of the 802.11 MAC and ad hoc forwarding and the effect on capacity for several simple configurations and traffic patterns. While 802.11 discovers reasonably good schedules, we nonetheless observe capacities markedly less than optimal for very simple chain and lattice networks with very regular traffic patterns. We validate some simulation results with experiments. We also show that the traffic pattern determines whether an ad hoc network’s per node capacity will scale to large networks. In particular, we show that for total capacity to scale up with network size the average distance between source and destination nodes must remain small as the network grows. Nonlocal traffic patterns in which this average distance grows with the network size result in a rapid decrease of per node capacity.

  9. Routing Security in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    Pervaiz, Mohammad O.; Cardei, Mihaela; Wu, Jie

    Wireless networks provide rapid, untethered access to information and computing, eliminating the barriers of distance, time, and location for many applications ranging from collaborative, distributed mobile computing to disaster recovery (such as fire, flood, earthquake), law enforcement (crowd control, search, and rescue), and military communications (command, control, surveillance, and reconnaissance). An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration [11

  10. Data Confidentiality in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Hamza Aldabbas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs are self-configuring infrastructure-less networks comprised of mobile nodes that communicate over wireless links without any central control on a peer-to-peer basis.These individual nodes act as routers to forward both their own data and also their neighbours’ data by sending and receiving packets to and from other nodes in the network. The relatively easy configuration and the quick deployment make ad hoc networks suitable the emergency situations (such as human or natural disasters and for military units in enemy territory. Securing data dissemination between these nodes in such networks, however, is a very challenging task. Exposing such information to anyone else other than the intended nodes could cause a privacy and confidentiality breach, particularly in military scenarios. In this paper we present a novel framework to enhance the privacy and data confidentiality in mobile ad hoc networks by attaching the originator policies to the messages as they are sent between nodes. We evaluate our framework using the Network Simulator (NS-2 to check whether the privacy and confidentiality of the originator are met. For this we implemented the Policy Enforcement Points (PEPs, as NS-2 agents that manage and enforce the policies attached to packets at every node in the MANET.

  11. Enhanced Wireless Network Ad Hoc Pattern

    M. Kamalakannan; V. Khanaa

    2012-01-01

    Early simulation experience with wireless ad hoc networks suggests that their capacity can be surprisingly low, due to the requirement that nodes forward each others’ packets. The achievable capacity depends on network size, traffic patterns and detailed local radio interactions. This study examines these factors alone and in combination, using simulation and analysis from first principles. Our results include both specific constants and general relationship Scaling helpful in understanding t...

  12. Flexible Authentication in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks

    Caballero-Gil, P; Molina-Gil, J; Hernández-Goya, C

    2010-01-01

    A Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) is a form of Mobile ad-hoc network, to provide communications among nearby vehicles and between vehicles and nearby fixed roadside equipment. The key operation in VANETs is the broadcast of messages. Consequently, the vehicles need to make sure that the information has been sent by an authentic node in the network. VANETs present unique challenges such as high node mobility, real-time constraints, scalability, gradual deployment and privacy. No existent technique addresses all these requirements. In particular, both inter-vehicle and vehicle-to-roadside wireless communications present different characteristics that should be taken into account when defining node authentication services. That is exactly what is done in this paper, where the features of inter-vehicle and vehicle-to-roadside communications are analyzed to propose differentiated services for node authentication, according to privacy and efficiency needs.

  13. Aeronautical Ad Hoc Network for Civil Aviation

    Vey, Quentin; Pirovano, Alain; Radzik, José; Garcia, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Aeronautical communication systems are constantly evolving in order to handle the always increasing flow of data generated by civil aviation. In this article we first present communication systems currently used for en-route aircraft. We then propose Aeronautical Ad hoc NETwork (AANET) as a complementary communication system and demonstrate its connectivity and assess the throughput by simulations based on real aircraft trajectories over the French sky and over the Atlantic ocean.

  14. Proximity Aware Routing in Ad Hoc Networks

    Valerie Alandzi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing routing protocols for ad hoc networks are designed to scale in networks of a few hundred nodes. They rely on state concerning all links of the network or links on the route between a source and a destination. This may result in poor scaling properties in larger mobile networks or when node mobility is high. Using location information to guide the routing process is one of the most often proposed means to achieve scalability in large mobile networks. However, location-based routing is difficult when there are holes in the network topology. We propose a novel position-based routing protocol called Proximity Aware Routing for Ad-hoc networks (PARA to address these issues. PARA selects the next hop of a packet based on 2-hops neighborhood information. We introduce the concept of “proximity discovery”. The knowledge of a node’s 2-hops neighborhood enables the protocol to anticipate concave nodes and helps reduce the risks that the routing protocol will reach a concave node in the network. Our simulation results show that PARA’s performance is better in sparse networks with little congestion. Moreover, PARA significantly outperforms GPSR for delivery ratio, transmission delay and path length. Our results also indicate that PARA delivers more packets than AODV under the same conditions.

  15. A REVIEW PAPER ON AD HOC NETWORK SECURITY

    Karan Singh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present a survey of secure ad hoc routing protocols for wireless networks. Ad hoc network is a collection of nodes that is connected through a wireless medium forming rapidly changing topologies. Attacks on ad hoc network routing protocols disrupt network performance and reliability with there solution. We briefly present the most popular protocols that follow the table-driven and the source-initiated on-demand approaches. The comparison between the proposed solutions and parameters of ad hoc network shows the performance according to secure protocols. We discuss in this paper routing protocol and challenges and also discuss authentication in ad hoc network.

  16. Multihost ad-hoc network with the clustered Security networks

    J.Manikandan,; S.Vijayaragavan.

    2010-01-01

    Security has becomes a primary concern in order to provide protected communication between mobile nodes in a host environment .Unlike the wire line network, the unique characteristics mobile ad-hoc networkpose a collection on autonomous nodes of terminals. Which ommunication with each other by forming multihost radio network and maintaining connectivity in a decentralized manner. Node in Ad-hoc network path is dynamic network topology. These challenges clearly make a case for building multif...

  17. A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) implementation on android

    Mohammed, Mohammed Khalid Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The continual changing of self-organizing nodes located in an infrastructure-less mesh network is called ad hoc network. The recent years have witnessed a rapid growth of interest in ad hoc networking. This research with the aid of Java Native Interface (JNI) and UNIX kernel tools for network, a method to build a Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) has been implemented for Android devices to provide supplementary way of communication in certain situations where network infrastructure does not exist...

  18. Worm epidemics in wireless ad hoc networks

    Nekovee, Maziar

    2007-06-01

    A dramatic increase in the number of computing devices with wireless communication capability has resulted in the emergence of a new class of computer worms which specifically target such devices. The most striking feature of these worms is that they do not require Internet connectivity for their propagation but can spread directly from device to device using a short-range radio communication technology, such as WiFi or Bluetooth. In this paper, we develop a new model for epidemic spreading of these worms and investigate their spreading in wireless ad hoc networks via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our studies show that the threshold behaviour and dynamics of worm epidemics in these networks are greatly affected by a combination of spatial and temporal correlations which characterize these networks, and are significantly different from the previously studied epidemics in the Internet.

  19. Worm epidemics in wireless ad hoc networks

    A dramatic increase in the number of computing devices with wireless communication capability has resulted in the emergence of a new class of computer worms which specifically target such devices. The most striking feature of these worms is that they do not require Internet connectivity for their propagation but can spread directly from device to device using a short-range radio communication technology, such as WiFi or Bluetooth. In this paper, we develop a new model for epidemic spreading of these worms and investigate their spreading in wireless ad hoc networks via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our studies show that the threshold behaviour and dynamics of worm epidemics in these networks are greatly affected by a combination of spatial and temporal correlations which characterize these networks, and are significantly different from the previously studied epidemics in the Internet

  20. A Survey of Vehicular Ad hoc Networks Routing Protocols

    Marwa Altayeb; Imad Mahgoub

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the aspect of vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is becoming an interesting research area; VANET is a mobile ad hoc network considered as a special case of mobile ad hoc network (MANET). Similar to MANET, VANET is characterized as autonomous and self-configured wireless network. However, VANET has very dynamic topology, large and variable network size, and constrained mobility; these characteristics led to the need for efficient routing and resource saving VANET protocols, to f...

  1. Intrusion detection in wireless ad-hoc networks

    Chaki, Nabendu

    2014-01-01

    Presenting cutting-edge research, Intrusion Detection in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks explores the security aspects of the basic categories of wireless ad-hoc networks and related application areas. Focusing on intrusion detection systems (IDSs), it explains how to establish security solutions for the range of wireless networks, including mobile ad-hoc networks, hybrid wireless networks, and sensor networks.This edited volume reviews and analyzes state-of-the-art IDSs for various wireless ad-hoc networks. It includes case studies on honesty-based intrusion detection systems, cluster oriented-based

  2. Ad hoc mobile wireless networks principles, protocols, and applications

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The military, the research community, emergency services, and industrial environments all rely on ad hoc mobile wireless networks because of their simple infrastructure and minimal central administration. Now in its second edition, Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols, and Applications explains the concepts, mechanism, design, and performance of these highly valued systems. Following an overview of wireless network fundamentals, the book explores MAC layer, routing, multicast, and transport layer protocols for ad hoc mobile wireless networks. Next, it examines quality of serv

  3. Dynamic Connectivity in ALOHA Ad Hoc Networks

    Ganti, RadhaKrishna

    2008-01-01

    We consider an ad hoc network which uses multihop routing and slotted ALOHA for its MAC contention. We show that the minimum time required for a packet to reach the destination from the origin scales linearly with the distance. We define this delay as the minimum time required for a causal path to form between the source and destination. We derive the distributional properties of the connection time using ideas from first passage percolation and epidemic processes. We show that the delay scales linearly with the distance and also provide asymptotic results (with respect to time) for the positions of the nodes which are able to receive information from a transmitter located at the origin. We also provide simulation results to support the theoretical results.

  4. Ad hoc mobile wireless networks principles, protocols and applications

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar; Puttamadappa, C

    2007-01-01

    Ad hoc mobile wireless networks have seen increased adaptation in a variety of disciplines because they can be deployed with simple infrastructures and virtually no central administration. In particular, the development of ad hoc wireless and sensor networks provides tremendous opportunities in areas including disaster recovery, defense, health care, and industrial environments. Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols and Applications explains the concepts, mechanisms, design, and performance of these systems. It presents in-depth explanations of the latest wireless technologies

  5. Mobility Models for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network Simulation

    Vaishali D. Khairnar; Pradhan, S. N.

    2013-01-01

    One of the emerging applications that belong to ambient systems is to transparently and directly interconnect vehicles on roads, making an ad hoc network that enables a variety of applications through distributed software without the need of any fixed and dedicated infrastructure. The network as well as the embedded computers and sensors in the vehicle will be invisible to the driver, who will get the required services during his journey. New type of ad hoc network is the Vehicular Ad hoc Net...

  6. Geocasting and Multicasting Routing Operation in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    R.Kruthika

    2013-01-01

    The paper considers, the different multicasting routing protocols in wireless mobile Ad hoc network (MANET).An Ad hoc network is composed of mobile nodes without the presence of a wired support infrastructure .In this environment routing/multicasting protocols are faced with the challenge of producing multihop router under host mobility and band constraints. Various approaches and routing protocol have been proposed to address Ad hoc networking problems and multiple standardization effort wit...

  7. IP ADDRESS AUTOCONFIGURATION FOR WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS

    阿姆贾德

    2002-01-01

    A novel mechanism was specified by which a node in ad hoc network may autoconfigure an IP address which is unique throughout the mobile ad hoc network. This new algorithm imposes less and constant overhead and delay in obtaining an IP address, and fully utilizes the available addresses space of an ad hoc network, and independent of the existing routing protocol, and less prone to security threats. Moreover, a new Join/Leave mechanism was proposed as an enhancement to the new IP address autoconfiguration algorithm, to support the overall operation of the existing routing protocol of wireless ad hoc networks.

  8. Opinion Impact Models and Opinion Consensus Methods in Ad Hoc Tactical Social Networks

    Demin Li; Jie Zhou; Jingjuan Zhu; Jiacun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Ad hoc social networks are special social networks, such as ad hoc tactical social networks, ad hoc firefighter social networks, and ad hoc vehicular social networks. The social networks possess both the properties of ad hoc network and social network. One of the challenge problems in ad hoc social networks is opinion impact and consensus, and the opinion impact plays a key role for information fusion and decision support in ad hoc social networks. In this paper, consider the impact of physic...

  9. A Comparison of Routing Strategies for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Füßler, Holger; Mauve, Martin; Hartenstein, Hannes; Käsemann, Michael; Vollmer, Dieter

    2002-01-01

    On this paper we investigate the use of ad-hoc routing algorithms for the exchange of data between vehicles. There are two main aspects that are of interest in this context: the specific characteristics of ad-hoc networks formed by vehicles and the applicability of existing ad-hoc routing schemes to networks that display these characteristics. In order to address both aspects we generate realistic vehicular movement patterns of highway traffic scenarios using a well validated traffic simulati...

  10. Vehicular Ad Hoc Network Mobility Model

    Budi Rahmadya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is one of developing countries with high land traffic density. This traffic density could cause traffic jam, traffic accidents and other disturbances. This research had developed a simulator that could calculate the traffic density of roads in urban areas. With the use of this simulator, the researcher could calculate the time needed if the source node transports the message to the destination node by using the ad hoc network communication facility. In this research, every vehicle utilizes multi-hop communication in a communication network. The vehicle sends the message through flooding message and passes on the received message to other vehicles. Based on the simulation done on map size 10 km x 10 km with a total of 20 vehicles on the road, it was calculated that the simulator could transmit the message to its destination on the 106th second from node 3 and with the total of 200 vehicles on the road, the simulator could transmit the message to its destination on the 22nd second from node 5. 

  11. An Intrusion Detection System Framework for Ad Hoc Networks

    Arjun Singh; Surbhi Chauhan; Kamal Kant; Reshma Doknaia

    2012-01-01

    Secure and efficient communication among a set of mobile nodes is one of the most important aspects in ad-hoc wireless networks. Wireless networks are particularly vulnerable to intrusion, as they operate in open medium, and use cooperative strategies for network communications. By efficiently merging audit data from multiple network sensors, we analyze the entire ad hoc wireless network for intrusions and try to inhibit intrusion attempts. This paper presents an intrusion detection system fo...

  12. Connectivity-driven Attachment in Mobile Cellular Ad Hoc Networks

    Boite, Julien; Leguay, Jérémie

    2014-01-01

    International audience Cellular wireless technologies (e.g. LTE) can be used to build cellular ad hoc networks. In this new class of ad hoc networks, nodes are equipped with two radio interfaces: one being a terminal, the other one being an access point. In this context, attachment decisions based on traditional criteria (e.g. signal quality) may lead to network partitions or suboptimal path lengths, thus making access point selection critical to ensure efficient network connectivity. This...

  13. Broadcast design in cognitive radio ad hoc networks

    Song, Yi

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief investigates the special challenges of broadcast design in cognitive radio (CR) ad hoc networks. It introduces two broadcast protocols in CR ad hoc networks: a quality-of-service based broadcast protocol under blind information and a fully-distributed broadcast protocol with collision avoidance. A novel unified analytical model is also presented to analyze the performance of the broadcast protocols. This is the first book dedicated to the unique broadcast design challenges in CR ad hoc networks. The authors also discuss the recent research on the performance analysis of broa

  14. A Review of Anonymity in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    KERNÁCS János; SZILÁGYI Szabolcs

    2010-01-01

    An ad hoc network is a self-organizingnetwork of wireless links connecting mobile nodes.The mobile nodes can communicate without aninfrastructure. They form an arbitrary topology, wherethe nodes play the role of routers and are free to moverandomly. Mobile ad hoc networks requireanonymous communications, in order to thwart newwireless passive attacks, and to protect new assets ofinformation such as nodes’ locations, motion patterns,network topology and traffic patterns in addition toconventio...

  15. IDHOCNET: A Novel ID Centric Architecture for Ad Hoc Networks

    Shahrukh Khalid; Athar Mahboob; Choudhry Fahad Azim; Aqeel Ur Rehman

    2016-01-01

    Ad hoc networks lack support of infrastructure and operate in a shared bandwidth wireless environment. Presently, such networks have been realized by various adaptations in Internet Protocol (IP) architecture which was developed for infrastructure oriented hierarchical networks. The IP architecture has its known problem and issues even in infrastructure settings, like IP address overloading, mobility, multihoming, and so forth. Therefore, when such architecture is implemented in ad hoc scenar...

  16. Easy Wireless: broadband ad-hoc networking for emergency services

    de Graaf,, Dirk C; Berg, van den, C.A.; Boucherie, Richard J.; Brouwer, Frank; Bruin, de, K.; Elfrink, Herman; Fernandez-Diaz, Irene; Heemstra de Groot, Sonia; Haan, de, R.J.; Jongh, de, J.; Nunez, Sindo; Ommeren, van, F.J.; Roijers, Frank; Stemerdink, Jan; Tromp, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Wireless ad-hoc networks will enable emergency services to continuously overview and act upon the actual status of the situation by retrieving and exchanging detailed up-to-date information between the rescue workers. Deployment of high-bandwidth, robust, self-organising ad-hoc networks will enable quicker response to typical what/where/when questions, than the more vulnerable low-bandwidth communication networks currently in use. This paper addresses a number of results of the Easy Wireless ...

  17. Hierarchical Approach for Key Management in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    A, Renuka; Shet, K. C.

    2009-01-01

    Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of autonomous nodes or terminals which communicate with each other by forming a multi-hop radio network and maintaining connectivity in a decentralized manner. The conventional security solutions to provide key management through accessing trusted authorities or centralized servers are infeasible for this new environment since mobile ad hoc networks are characterized by the absence of any infrastructure, frequent mobility, and wireless links. We p...

  18. Coping With Misbehavior in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    Buchegger, Sonja

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we address the question of how to enable a system to operate despite the presence of misbehavior. Specifically, in a mobile ad-hoc network, how can we keep the network functional for normal nodes when other nodes do not route and forward correctly? Node misbehavior due to selfish or malicious reasons or faulty nodes can significantly degrade the performance of mobile ad-hoc networks. Existing approaches such as economic incentives or secure routing by cryptographic means allevi...

  19. Scalable Revocation in Hybrid Ad Hoc Networks: The SHARL Scheme

    Mona Holsve Ofigsbø

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a simple, scalable and robust scheme for the distribution of revocation information in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. The scheme is intended for ad hoc networks with a planned origin, and where a common point of trust exists. Mobile ad hoc networks have limited available bandwidth. The revocation lists must therefore be specific to the network. They are established with the aid of trusted gateways reporting the identity of the nodes to a central trusted entity. To minimize overhead, the revocation lists are distributed along with the routing messages. In the articles we discuss how the scheme can be implemented in conjunction with the predominant routing protocols in ad hoc networks. The article also provides a detailed security analysis of the proposed protocols, partly based on the use of formal methods.

  20. Reliable adaptive multicast protocol in wireless Ad hoc networks

    Sun Baolin; Li Layuan

    2006-01-01

    In wireless ad hoc network environments, every link is wireless and every node is mobile. Those features make data lost easily as well as multicasting inefficient and unreliable. Moreover, Efficient and reliable multicast in wireless ad hoc network is a difficult issue. It is a major challenge to transmission delays and packet losses due to link changes of a multicast tree at the provision of high delivery ratio for each packet transmission in wireless ad hoc network environment.In this paper, we propose and evaluate Reliable Adaptive Multicast Protocol (RAMP) based on a relay node concept. Relay nodes are placed along the multicast tree. Data recovery is done between relay nodes. RAMP supports a reliable multicasting suitable for mobile ad hoc network by reducing the number of packet retransmissions. We compare RAMP with SRM (Scalable Reliable Multicast). Simulation results show that the RAMP has high delivery ratio and low end-to-end delay for packet transmission.

  1. An Optimized Signature Verification System for Vehicle Ad hoc NETwork

    Mamun, Mohammad Saiful Islam; Miyaji, Atsuko

    2012-01-01

    This paper1 presents an efficient approach to an existing batch verification system on Identity based group signature (IBGS) which can be applied to any Mobile ad hoc network device including Vehicle Ad hoc Networks (VANET). We propose an optimized way to batch signatures in order to get maximum throughput from a device in runtime environment. In addition, we minimize the number of pairing computations in batch verification proposed by B. Qin et al. for large scale VANET. We introduce a batch...

  2. Routing in Terrestrial Free Space Optical Ad-Hoc Networks

    Dong, Yao; Sadegh Aminian, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial free-space optical (FSO) communication uses visible or infrared wavelengths to broadcast high speed data wirelessly through the atmospheric channel. The performance of terrestrial FSO channel mainly depends on the local atmospheric conditions. Ad hoc networks offer cost-effective solutions for communications in areas where infrastructure is unavailable, e.g., intelligent transport system, disaster recovery and battlefield scenarios. Traditional ad hoc networks operate in the radio...

  3. Non DTN Geographic Routing Protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Ramin Karimi; Norafida Ithnin; Shukor Abd Razak; Sara Najafzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks are highly mobile wireless ad hoc networks. Routing of data in VANETs is a challenging task due to rapidly changing topology and high speed mobility of vehicles. Geographic routing protocols are becoming popular due to advancement and availability of GPS devices. In this paper, we review the existing non DTN Geographic Routing Protocols for VANETs and also provide a qualitative comparison of them.

  4. An Efficient Proactive RSA Scheme for Ad Hoc Networks

    ZHANG Rui-shan; CHEN Ke-fei

    2007-01-01

    A proactive threshold signature scheme is very important to tolerate mobile attack in mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper, we propose an efficient proactive threshold RSA signature scheme for ad hoc networks. The scheme consists of three protocols: the initial secret share distribution protocol, the signature generation protocol and the secret share refreshing protocol. Our scheme has three advantages. First, the signature generation protocol is efficient. Second, the signature generation protocol is resilient. Third, the share refreshing protocol is efficient.

  5. Robust message routing for mobile (wireless) ad hoc networks.

    Goldsby, Michael E.; Johnson, Michael M.; Kilman, Dominique Marie (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Bierbaum, Neal Robert; Chen, Helen Y.; Ammerlahn, Heidi R.; Tsang, Rose P.; Nicol, David M. (University of Illinois, Urbana, IL)

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the results of research targeting improvements in the robustness of message transport in wireless ad hoc networks. The first section of the report provides an analysis of throughput and latency in the wireless medium access control (MAC) layer and relates the analysis to the commonly used 802.11 protocol. The second section describes enhancements made to several existing models of wireless MAC and ad hoc routing protocols; the models were used in support of the work described in the following section. The third section of the report presents a lightweight transport layer protocol that is superior to TCP for use in wireless networks. In addition, it introduces techniques that improve the performance of any ad hoc source routing protocol. The fourth section presents a novel, highly scalable ad hoc routing protocol that is based on geographic principles but requires no localization hardware.

  6. Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-hoc Wireless Networks

    I. M. B. Nogales

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth is a cutting-edge technology used for implementing wireless ad hoc networks. In order to provide an overall scheme for mobile ad hoc networks, this paper deals with scatternet topology formation and routing algorithm to form larger ad hoc wireless Networks. Scatternet topology starts by forming a robust network, which is less susceptible to the problems posed by node mobility. Mobile topology relies on the presence of free nodes that create multiple connections with the network and on their subsequently rejoining the network. Our routing protocol is a proactive routing protocol, which is tailor made for the Bluetooth ad hoc network. The connection establishment connects nodes in a structure that simplifies packet routing and scheduling. The design allows nodes to arrive and leave arbitrarily, incrementally building the topology and healing partitions when they occur. We present simulation results that show that the algorithm presents low formation latency and also generates an efficient topology for forwarding packets along ad-hoc wireless networks.

  7. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV. PMID:27258013

  8. A Survey of Mobile Ad Hoc Network Attacks

    PRADIP M. JAWANDHIYA,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Security is an essential requirement in mobile ad hoc network (MANETs. Compared to wired networks, MANETs are more vulnerable to security attacks due to the lack of a trusted centralized authority and limited resources. Attacks on ad hoc networks can be classified as passive and active attacks, depending on whether the normal operation of the network is disrupted or not. In this paper, we are describing the all prominent attacks described in literature in a consistent manner to provide a concise comparison on attack types. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that studies all the existing attacks on MANETs.

  9. A survey of TCP over ad hoc networks

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad; Altman, Eitan; Nain, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) was designed to provide reliable end-to-end delivery of data over unreliable networks. In practice, most TCP deployments have been carefully designed in the context of wired networks. Ignoring the properties of wireless ad hoc networks can lead to TCP implemen

  10. Dynamic Mobile IP routers in ad hoc networks

    Kock, B.A.; Schmidt, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a concept combining mobile IP and ad hoc routing to create a robust mobile network. In this network all nodes are mobile and globally and locally reachable under the same IP address. Essential for implementing this network are the dynamic mobile IP routers. They act as gateways

  11. Reliable routing algorithm in marine ad hoc networks

    LIN Wei; YANG Yong-Tian

    2004-01-01

    A routing algorithm called DNH for increasing efficiency of mobile ad hoc network is presented, which is based on a new criterion called TSS ( Temporarily Steady State) , combining with wireless transmission theory that makes networks topology correspondingly stabilization. Also the DNH algorithm has the characteristics of giving up queuing in a node, but selecting another idle node instead of the node for forwarding data packets if the node has a full throughput. Simulation evaluation shows that selecting another node is better than queuing in a full throughout node if some conditions are satisfied, especially during a sea battle, every warship in ad hoc network wants to contest time and increase propagation reliability. The DNH algorithm can help decrease routing time, and raise efficiency of marine ad hoc networks.

  12. Survey of Routing Protocols in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network

    Karthikumar. P.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs are a promising communication scenario. Several new applications are envisioned, which will improve traffic management and safety. In comparison to other communication networks, Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs have unique requirements with respect to applications, types of communication, self-organization and other issues. VANETspecific protocol layers, a staircase approach for interaction among layers and the use of an information connector for cross-layer information exchange using the publisher/subscriber pattern. The main goal of VANET is providing safety and comfort for passengers. Each vehicle equipped with VANET device will be a node in the Ad-hoc network and can receive

  13. Hierarchical Approach for Key Management in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    A., Renuka

    2009-01-01

    Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of autonomous nodes or terminals which communicate with each other by forming a multi-hop radio network and maintaining connectivity in a decentralized manner. The conventional security solutions to provide key management through accessing trusted authorities or centralized servers are infeasible for this new environment since mobile ad hoc networks are characterized by the absence of any infrastructure, frequent mobility, and wireless links. We propose a hierarchical group key management scheme that is hierarchical and fully distributed with no central authority and uses a simple rekeying procedure which is suitable for large and high mobility mobile ad hoc networks. The rekeying procedure requires only one round in our scheme and Chinese Remainder Theorem Diffie Hellman Group Diffie Hellmann and Burmester and Desmedt it is a constant 3 whereas in other schemes such as Distributed Logical Key Hierarchy and Distributed One Way Function Trees, it depends on the num...

  14. Gossip Based Routing Protocol Design for Ad Hoc Networks

    Toqeer Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A spontaneously mannered decentralized network with no formal infrastructure and limited in temporal and spatial extent where each node communicate with each other over a wireless channel and is willing to forward data for other nodes is called as Wireless Ad Hoc network. In this research study, we proposed a routing strategy based on gossip based routing approach that follows the proactive routing with some treatment for wireless Ad Hoc network. The analytical verification of our proposed idea shows that it is a better approach based on gossip routing.

  15. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Current Status and Future Trends

    Loo, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Guiding readers through the basics of these rapidly emerging networks to more advanced concepts and future expectations, Mobile Ad hoc Networks: Current Status and Future Trends identifies and examines the most pressing research issues in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). Containing the contributions of leading researchers, industry professionals, and academics, this forward-looking reference provides an authoritative perspective of the state of the art in MANETs. The book includes surveys of recent publications that investigate key areas of interest such as limited resources and the mobility o

  16. Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Er. Rakesh Kumar,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available hoc networks are self configuring network and by a random and quickly changing network topology; thus the need for a robust dynamic routing protocol can accommodate such an environment. Different protocols govern the mobile ad hoc networks and to improve the packet delivery ratio of Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks with high mobility, a message exchange scheme for its invalid route reconstruction is being used. Three protocols AODV, DSDV and I-DSDV were simulated using NS-2 package and were compared in terms of packet delivery ratio, end to end delay routing overhead in different environment; varying number of nodes, speed and pause time. Simulation results show that IDSDVcompared with DSDV, it reduces the number of dropped data packets with little increased overhead at higher rates of node mobility but still compete with AODV in higher node speed and number of node.

  17. A WMPLS Based Multicast Mechanism in Mobile Ad hoc Network

    Li Mengyang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Merging MPLS into multicast routing protocol in Mobile Ad hoc network is an elegant method to enhance the network performance and an efficient solution for multicast scalability and control overhead problems. Based on the Wireless MPLS technology, the mechanism and evaluation of a new multicast protocol, the Label Switching Multicast Routing Protocol (LSMRP is presented in this paper.

  18. Wireless sensor and ad hoc networks under diversified network scenarios

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Due to significant advantages, including convenience, efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the implementation and use of wireless ad hoc and sensor networks have gained steep growth in recent years. This timely book presents the current state-of-the-art in these popular technologies, providing you with expert guidance for your projects in the field. You find broad-ranging coverage of important concepts and methods, definitions of key terminology, and a look at the direction of future research. Supported with nearly 150 illustrations, the book discusses a variety of critical topics, from topology

  19. A Reactive Location Service for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Käsemann, Michael; Füßler, Holger; Hartenstein, Hannes; Mauve, Martin

    2002-01-01

    We present and analyze a reactive location service RLS for mobile ad hoc networks. RLS provides a mobile node in a wireless ad-hoc network with the means to inquire the current geographical position of another node on-demand and can be used as a building block for location-based routing. We provide a comparison of RLS to an ideal omniscient location service as well as to the complex Grid Location Service (GLS). In addition, we compare the performance of greedy location-based routing in combin...

  20. Interference in wireless ad hoc networks with smart antennas

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we show that the use of directional antennas in wireless ad hoc networks can actually increase interference due to limitations of virtual carrier sensing. We derive a simple mathematical expression for interference in both physical and virtual carrier sense networks, which reveals counter-intuitively that receivers in large dense networks with directional antennas can experience larger interference than in omnidirectional networks unless the beamwidth is sufficiently small. Validity of mathematical analysis is confirmed using simulations.

  1. Routing in Ad Hoc Network Using Ant Colony Optimization

    Khanpara, Pimal; Valiveti, Sharada; Kotecha, K.

    The ad hoc networks have dynamic topology and are infrastructure less. So it is required to implement a new network protocol for providing efficient end to end communication based on TCP/IP structure. There is a need to re-define or modify the functions of each layer of TCP/IP model to provide end to end communication between nodes. The mobility of the nodes and the limited resources are the main reason for this change. The main challenge in ad hoc networks is routing. Due to the mobility of the nodes in the ad hoc networks, routing becomes very difficult. Ant based algorithms are suitable for routing in ad hoc networks due to its dynamic nature and adaptive behavior. There are number of routing algorithms based on the concept of ant colony optimizations. It is quite difficult to determine the best ant based algorithm for routing as these algorithms perform differently under various circumstances such as the traffic distribution and network topology. In this paper, the overview of such routing algorithms is given.

  2. Energy management in wireless cellular and ad-hoc networks

    Imran, Muhammad; Qaraqe, Khalid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Vasilakos, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates energy management approaches for energy efficient or energy-centric system design and architecture and presents end-to-end energy management in the recent heterogeneous-type wireless network medium. It also considers energy management in wireless sensor and mesh networks by exploiting energy efficient transmission techniques and protocols. and explores energy management in emerging applications, services and engineering to be facilitated with 5G networks such as WBANs, VANETS and Cognitive networks. A special focus of the book is on the examination of the energy management practices in emerging wireless cellular and ad hoc networks. Considering the broad scope of energy management in wireless cellular and ad hoc networks, this book is organized into six sections covering range of Energy efficient systems and architectures; Energy efficient transmission and techniques; Energy efficient applications and services. .

  3. Energy Consumption Model in Ad Hoc Mobile Network

    Maher HENI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to model the nodes battery discharge in wireless ad hoc networks. Many work focus on the energy consumption in such networks. Even, the research in the highest layers of the ISO model, takes into account the energy consumption and efficiency. Indeed, thenodes that form such network are mobiles, so no instant recharge of battery. Also with special type of ad hoc networks are wireless sensors networks using non-rechargeable batteries. All nodes with an exhausted battery are considered death and left the network. To consider the energy consumption, in this work we model using a Markov chain, the discharge of the battery considering of instant activation and deactivation distribution function of these nodes.

  4. An Intrusion Detection Architecture for Clustered Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Sen, Jaydip

    2010-01-01

    Intrusion detection in wireless ad hoc networks is a challenging task because these networks change their topologies dynamically, lack concentration points where aggregated traffic can be analyzed, utilize infrastructure protocols that are susceptible to manipulation, and rely on noisy, intermittent wireless communications. Security remains a major challenge for these networks due their features of open medium, dynamically changing topologies, reliance on co-operative algorithms, absence of c...

  5. Security Analysis of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET)

    Samara, Ghassan

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) has mostly gained the attention of today's research efforts, while current solutions to achieve secure VANET, to protect the network from adversary and attacks still not enough, trying to reach a satisfactory level, for the driver and manufacturer to achieve safety of life and infotainment. The need for a robust VANET networks is strongly dependent on their security and privacy features, which will be discussed in this paper. In this paper a various types of ...

  6. Power control algorithms for mobile ad hoc networks

    Nuraj L. Pradhan

    2011-07-01

    We will also focus on an adaptive distributed power management (DISPOW algorithm as an example of the multi-parameter optimization approach which manages the transmit power of nodes in a wireless ad hoc network to preserve network connectivity and cooperatively reduce interference. We will show that the algorithm in a distributed manner builds a unique stable network topology tailored to its surrounding node density and propagation environment over random topologies in a dynamic mobile wireless channel.

  7. Providing Location Security in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Yan, Gongjun

    2010-01-01

    Location is fundamental information in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs). Almost all VANET applications rely on location information. Therefore it is of importance to ensure location information integrity, meaning that location information is original (from the generator), correct (not bogus or fabricated) and unmodified (value not changed). We…

  8. Routing Protocol of Sparse Urban Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Li, Huxiong

    Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is an application of mobile ad hoc technology in transportation systems, it has become an important part of ITS. Since multi-hop link is hard to set up in sparse VANET, a traffic-aware routing (TAR) protocol is proposed which estimates vehicle average neighbors (VAN) of roads by exchanging beacon messages between encounter vehicles. Road with high VAN is preferred to be selected as part of forwarding path at intersection. Packets are forwarded to the next intersection in road in a greedy manner. Simulations show that TAR outperforms the compared protocols in terms of both packet delivery ratio and average end-to-end delay.

  9. Dynamic Encryption Technology in Ad-hoc Networks

    JIN Zhao-hui; WANG Shun-man; XU Kai; LIANG Qing

    2007-01-01

    A new dynamic encryption application in ad-hoc networks is proposed. The advantages of this method are its being able to use the previous ciphertext as a seed of a new encryption process, rendering the encryption process effective in all communication process by continuous dynamic key generation together with synchronization, and its capability to cut back on system bandages to a greater extent, which is valuable for the ad-hoc circumstance. In addition, the rationality and effectiveness of this novel encryption method have been verified by the test results.

  10. ON THE CAPACITY REGION OF WIRELESS AD HOC RELAY NETWORKS

    Dai Qinyun; Yao Wangsheng; Peng Jianmin; Su Gang

    2006-01-01

    Network capacity is a key characteristic to evaluate the performance of wireless networks. The goal of this paper is to study the capacity of wireless ad hoc relay network. In the model, there is at most ns source nodes transmitting signal simultaneously in the network and the arbitrarily complex network coding is allowed. The upper capacity bound of the network model are derived from the max-flow min-cut theorem and the lower capacity bound are obtained by the rate-distortion function for the Gaussian source. Finally, simulation results show that the upper network capacity will decrease as the number of source nodes is increased.

  11. Evolutionary algorithms for mobile ad hoc networks

    Dorronsoro, Bernabé; Danoy, Grégoire; Pigné, Yoann; Bouvry, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    This comprehensive guide describes how evolutionary algorithms (EA) may be used to identify, model, and optimize day-to-day problems that arise for researchers in optimization and mobile networking. It provides efficient and accurate information on dissemination algorithms, topology management, and mobility models to address challenges in the field. It is an ideal book for researchers and students in the field of mobile networks.

  12. Address allocation to mobile ad hoc networks

    Sakander, Zeeshan

    2006-01-01

    Addressing in MANETs is of significant importance, as a mobile device cannot participate in unicast communications until it is assigned a conflict-free IP address. All routing protocols assume nodes to be configured a priori with a unique IP address. Allocating addresses to mobile nodes is a fundamental and difficult problem. Unlike infrastructure based networks, MANETs support autonomous and spontaneous networking and therefore, should be capable of self-organization and self-configuration. ...

  13. WIRELESS AD-HOC NETWORK UNDER BLACK-HOLE ATTACK

    Shree Om

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Ad-hoc Network is a temporary and decentralized type of wireless network. Due to security vulnerabilities in the routing protocol currently, this type of network is unprotected to network layer attacks. Black-hole attack is such a type of attack and is a Denial-of-Service (DoS attack. Due to its nature, the attack makes the source node send all the data packets to a Black-hole node that ends up dropping all the packets. The aim of this paper is to reflect light on the severe effects of a Black-hole attack in a Wireless Ad-hoc network and the drawbacks of the security mechanisms being used for the mitigation of this attack.

  14. Secure Geographic Routing in Ad Hoc and Wireless Sensor Networks

    Zahariadis Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Security in sensor networks is one of the most relevant research topics in resource constrained wireless devices and networks. Several attacks can be suffered in ad hoc and wireless sensor networks (WSN, which are highly susceptible to attacks, due to the limited resources of the nodes. In this paper, we propose innovative and lightweight localization techniques that allow for intrusion identification and isolation schemes and provide accurate location information. This information is used by our routing protocol which additionally incorporates a distributed trust model to prevent several routing attacks to the network. We finally evaluate our algorithms for accurate localization and for secure routing which have been implemented and tested in real ad hoc and wireless sensor networks.

  15. Distributed Reinforcement Learning Approach for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Wu, Celimuge; Kumekawa, Kazuya; Kato, Toshihiko

    In Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs), general purpose ad hoc routing protocols such as AODV cannot work efficiently due to the frequent changes in network topology caused by vehicle movement. This paper proposes a VANET routing protocol QLAODV (Q-Learning AODV) which suits unicast applications in high mobility scenarios. QLAODV is a distributed reinforcement learning routing protocol, which uses a Q-Learning algorithm to infer network state information and uses unicast control packets to check the path availability in a real time manner in order to allow Q-Learning to work efficiently in a highly dynamic network environment. QLAODV is favored by its dynamic route change mechanism, which makes it capable of reacting quickly to network topology changes. We present an analysis of the performance of QLAODV by simulation using different mobility models. The simulation results show that QLAODV can efficiently handle unicast applications in VANETs.

  16. AHBP: An Efficient Broadcast Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    彭伟; 卢锡城

    2001-01-01

    Broadcast is an important operation in many network protocols. It is utilized to discover routes to unknown nodes in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and is the key factor in scaling on-demand routing protocols to large networks. This paper presents the Ad Hoc Broadcast Protocol (AHBP) and its performance is discussed. In the protocol, messages are only rebroadcast by broadcast relay gateways that constitute a connected dominating set of the network. AHBP can efficiently reduce the redundant messages which make flooding-like protocols perform badly in large dense networks. Simulations are conducted to determine the performance characteristics of the protocol. The simulation results have shown excellent reduction of broadcast redundancy with AHBP. It also contributes to a reduced level of broadcast collision and congestion.

  17. Authentication Based on Multilayer Clustering in Ad Hoc Networks

    Suh Heyi-Sook

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a secure cluster-routing protocol based on a multilayer scheme in ad hoc networks. This work provides scalable, threshold authentication scheme in ad hoc networks. We present detailed security threats against ad hoc routing protocols, specifically examining cluster-based routing. Our proposed protocol, called "authentication based on multilayer clustering for ad hoc networks" (AMCAN, designs an end-to-end authentication protocol that relies on mutual trust between nodes in other clusters. The AMCAN strategy takes advantage of a multilayer architecture that is designed for an authentication protocol in a cluster head (CH using a new concept of control cluster head (CCH scheme. We propose an authentication protocol that uses certificates containing an asymmetric key and a multilayer architecture so that the CCH is achieved using the threshold scheme, thereby reducing the computational overhead and successfully defeating all identified attacks. We also use a more extensive area, such as a CCH, using an identification protocol to build a highly secure, highly available authentication service, which forms the core of our security framework.

  18. Security Issues Pertaining to Ad-Hoc Networks - A Survey

    Rishu Bhatia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET is a self-configuring network of mobile routers (and associated hosts connected by wireless links—the union of which form an arbitrary topology. The routers are free to move randomly and organize themselves arbitrarily; thus, the network's wireless topology may change rapidly and unpredictably. MANETs are usually set up in situations of emergency for temporaryoperations or simply if there are no resources to set up elaborate networks. These types of networks operate in the absence of any fixed infrastructure, which makes them easy to deploy, at the same time however, due to the absence of any fixed infrastructure, it becomes difficult to make use of the existing routing techniques for network services, and this poses a number of challenges in ensuring the security of the communication, something that is not easily done as many of the demands of network security conflict with thedemands of mobile networks, mainly due to the nature of the mobile devices (e.g. low power consumption, low processing load. Many of the ad hoc routing protocols that address security issues rely on implicit trust relationships to route packets among participating nodes. Besides the general security objectives like authentication,confidentiality, integrity, availability and non-repudiation, the ad hoc routing protocols should also address location confidentiality, cooperation fairness and absence of traffic diversion. In this paper we attempt to analyze threats faced by the ad hoc network environment and provide a classification of the various security mechanisms. We analyzed the respective strengths and vulnerabilities of the existing routing protocols and suggest a broad and comprehensive framework that can provide a tangible solution.

  19. Realtime multiprocessor for mobile ad hoc networks

    T. Jungeblut

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a real-time Multiprocessor System-On-Chip (MPSoC for low power wireless applications. The multiprocessor is based on eight 32bit RISC processors that are connected via an Network-On-Chip (NoC. The NoC follows a novel approach with guaranteed bandwidth to the application that meets hard realtime requirements. At a clock frequency of 100 MHz the total power consumption of the MPSoC that has been fabricated in 180 nm UMC standard cell technology is 772 mW.

  20. Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Opportunistic Collaborative Communications

    Simeone O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal multihop routing in ad hoc networks requires the exchange of control messages at the MAC and network layer in order to set up the (centralized optimization problem. Distributed opportunistic space-time collaboration (OST is a valid alternative that avoids this drawback by enabling opportunistic cooperation with the source at the physical layer. In this paper, the performance of OST is investigated. It is shown analytically that opportunistic collaboration outperforms (centralized optimal multihop in case spatial reuse (i.e., the simultaneous transmission of more than one data stream is not allowed by the transmission protocol. Conversely, in case spatial reuse is possible, the relative performance between the two protocols has to be studied case by case in terms of the corresponding capacity regions, given the topology and the physical parameters of network at hand. Simulation results confirm that opportunistic collaborative communication is a promising paradigm for wireless ad hoc networks that deserves further investigation.

  1. Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Opportunistic Collaborative Communications

    O. Simeone

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimal multihop routing in ad hoc networks requires the exchange of control messages at the MAC and network layer in order to set up the (centralized optimization problem. Distributed opportunistic space-time collaboration (OST is a valid alternative that avoids this drawback by enabling opportunistic cooperation with the source at the physical layer. In this paper, the performance of OST is investigated. It is shown analytically that opportunistic collaboration outperforms (centralized optimal multihop in case spatial reuse (i.e., the simultaneous transmission of more than one data stream is not allowed by the transmission protocol. Conversely, in case spatial reuse is possible, the relative performance between the two protocols has to be studied case by case in terms of the corresponding capacity regions, given the topology and the physical parameters of network at hand. Simulation results confirm that opportunistic collaborative communication is a promising paradigm for wireless ad hoc networks that deserves further investigation.

  2. Implementing Smart Antenna System in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Supriya Kulkarni P

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As the necessity of exchanging and sharing data increases, users demand easy connectivity, and fast networks whether they are at work, at home, or on the move. Nowadays, users are interested in interconnecting all their personal electronic devices (PEDs in an ad hoc fashion on the move. This type of network is referred to as Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET. When in such network a smart antenna System (SAS is implemented then we can achieve maximum capacity and improve the quality and coverage. So we are intended to implement such a SAS in the MANET. In this paper we have shown significance of Throughput and Bit Error Rate by implementing SAS in MANET using MATLABR2010a.

  3. TRUST ORIENTED SECURITY FRAMEWORK FOR AD HOC NETWORK

    Amandeep Verma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An ad hoc network is a group of wireless mobile hosts that are connected momentarily through wireless connections in the dearth of any centralized control or some supporting services. The mobile ad hoc network is at risk by its environment because of the vulnerabilities at channel and node level. The conventional security mechanisms deals with only protecting resources from unauthorized access, but are not capable to safeguard the network from who offer resources. Adding trust to the on hand security infrastructures would improvise the security of these environments. A trust oriented security framework for adhoc network using ontological engineering approach is proposed by modeling ad hoc network, the OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing protocol and trust model as OWL (Ontology Web language ontologies, which are integrated using Jena. In this model, a trustor can calculate its trust about trustee and use the calculated trust values to make decisions depending on the context of the application or interaction about granting or rejecting it. A number of experiments with a potential implementation of suggested framework are performed to validate the characteristics of a trust oriented model suggested by the literature by this framework

  4. A new traffic allocation algorithm in Ad hoc networks

    LI Xin; MIAO Jian-song; SUN Dan-dan; ZHOU Li-gang; DING Wei

    2006-01-01

    A dynamic traffic distribution algorithm based on the minimization product of packet delay and packet energy consumption is proposed. The algorithm is based on packet delay and energy consumption in allocating traffic, which can optimize the network performance. Simulation demonstrated that the algorithm could dynamically adjust to the traffic distribution between paths, which can minimize the product of packet delay and energy consumption in mobile Ad hoc networks.

  5. A Survey on Trust Management for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    K.Seshadri Ramana; A.A. Chari; N.Kasiviswanth

    2010-01-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANETs) is a Collection of mobile nodes connected with wireless links.MANET has no fixed topology as the nodes are moving constantly form one place to another place. All the nodes must co-operate with each other in order to route the packets. Cooperating nodes must trust each other. In defining and managing trust in a military MANET, we must consider the interactions between the composite cognitive, social, information and communication networks, and take into account t...

  6. A Survey: variants of TCP in Ad-hoc networks

    Komal Zaman; Muddesar Iqbal; Muhammad Shafiq; Azeem Irshad; Saqib Rasool

    2013-01-01

    MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc network) forms a temporary network of wireless mobile nodes without any infrastructure where all nodes are allowed to move freely, configure themselves and interconnect with its neighbors to perform peer to peer communication and transmission. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) offers reliable, oriented connection and mechanism of end to end delivery. This article provides the review and comparison of existing variants of TCP for instance: The TCP Tahoe, The TCP Reno, Th...

  7. Selective Cooperative Transmission in Ad Hoc Networks with Directional Antennas

    Eui-Jik Kim; Sungkwan Youm

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a selective cooperative transmission scheme (abbreviated SCT) for ad hoc network with directional antennas that leverages the benefits of directional-only antenna approach and cooperative communication. The main feature of SCT is its adaptability to the channel condition in the network. In other words, when the node sends data, SCT determines its transmission strategy on either direct or cooperative transmission via a relay node called a forwarder, depending on the transmi...

  8. GPS Based Secure Communication Strategy For Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Riyaz Shaik, P. Prasanna MuraliKrishna, DR. M.V. Subhramanyam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Now a day, one of the most attractive research topics in the area of Intelligent Traffic Control is Inter vehicle communication. In V2V communication or we can also call VANET i.e. Vehicular ad-hoc network; a vehicle can communicate with its neighboring vehicles even in the absence of a central Base Station. The concept of this shortest communication is to send vehicle safety messages one-to-one or one too-many vehicles via wireless connection. Such messages are generally short in length and have very short lifetime in which they have to reach at the target. The Inter-vehicle communication system is an adhoc network with high mobility and changing number of nodes, where mobile nodes animatedly create temporary networks and transferring messages from one node to others by using multiple hops due to restriction of tiny range. The routing in vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET has attracted many attentions during the last few years. So in this thesis we are focusing on the routing concept for the VANET i.e. Principles for routing, disintegration of the routing function and obligation. The data delivery through Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks is challenging since it must efficiently handle rapid topology changes and a fragmented network.

  9. Secure Multicast Key Distribution for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    SuganyaDevi, D

    2010-01-01

    Many emerging applications in mobile adhoc networks involve group-oriented communication. Multicast is an efficient way of supporting group oriented applications, mainly in mobile environment with limited bandwidth and limited power. For using such applications in an adversarial environment as military, it is necessary to provide secure multicast communication. Key management is the fundamental challenge in designing secure multicast communications. In many multicast interactions, new member can join and current members can leave at any time and existing members must communicate securely using multicast key distribution within constrained energy for mobile adhoc networks. This has to overcome the challenging element of "1 affects n" problem which is due to high dynamicity of groups. Thus this paper shows the specific challenges towards multicast key management protocols for securing multicast key distribution in mobile ad hoc networks, and present relevant multicast key management protocols in mobile ad hoc n...

  10. Bandwidth Estimation For Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET

    Rabia Ali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we presents bandwidth estimation scheme for MANET, which uses some components of the two methods for the bandwidth estimation: 'Hello Bandwidth Estimation 'Listen Bandwidth Estimation. This paper also gives the advantages of the proposed method. The proposed method is based on the comparison of these two methods. Bandwidth estimation is an important issue in the Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET because bandwidth estimation in MANET is difficult, because each host has imprecise knowledge of the network status and links change dynamically. Therefore, an effective bandwidth estimation scheme for MANET is highly desirable. Ad hoc networks present unique advanced challenges, including the design of protocols for mobility management, effective routing, data transport, security, power management, and quality-of-service (QoS provisioning. Once these problems are solved, the practical use of MANETs will be realizable.

  11. Recent development in wireless sensor and ad-hoc networks

    Li, Xiaolong; Yang, Yeon-Mo

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists of numerous physically distributed autonomous devices used for sensing and monitoring the physical and/or environmental conditions. A WSN uses a gateway that provides wireless connectivity to the wired world as well as distributed networks. There are many open problems related to Ad-Hoc networks and its applications. Looking at the expansion of the cellular infrastructure, Ad-Hoc network may be acting as the basis of the 4th generation wireless technology with the new paradigm of ‘anytime, anywhere communications’. To realize this, the real challenge would be the security, authorization and management issues of the large scale WSNs. This book is an edited volume in the broad area of WSNs. The book covers various chapters like Multi-Channel Wireless Sensor Networks, its Coverage, Connectivity as well as Deployment. It covers comparison of various communication protocols and algorithms such as MANNET, ODMRP and ADMR Protocols for Ad hoc Multicasting, Location Based C...

  12. Cost management based security framework in mobile ad hoc networks

    2006-01-01

    Security issues are always difficult to deal with in mobile ad hoc networks. People seldom studied the costs of those security schemes respectively and for some security methods designed and adopted beforehand, their effects are often investigated one by one. In fact, when facing certain attacks, different methods would respond individually and result in waste of resources.Making use of the cost management idea, we analyze the costs of security measures in mobile ad hoc networks and introduce a security framework based on security mechanisms cost management. Under the framework, the network system's own tasks can be finished in time and the whole network's security costs can be decreased. We discuss the process of security costs computation at each mobile node and in certain nodes groups. To show how to use the proposed security framework in certain applications, we give examples of DoS attacks and costs computation of defense methods. The results showed that more secure environment can be achieved based on the security framework in mobile ad hoc networks.

  13. MobileMAN: Mobile Metropolitan Ad hoc Networks

    Conti, Marco

    2003-01-01

    The project aims to define and develop a metropolitan area, self-organizing and totally wireless network that we call Mobile Metropolitan Ad-hoc Network (MobileMAN). In a MobileMAN the users device are the network, no infrastructure is strictly required. A MobileMAN is finalized at providing, at a low cost and where and when is needed, the communication and interaction platform for people inside a man. It will support a kind of citizens network by which people could avoid the operators infras...

  14. Wireless ad hoc and sensor networks management, performance, and applications

    He, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Although wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been employed across a wide range of applications, there are very few books that emphasize the algorithm description, performance analysis, and applications of network management techniques in WSNs. Filling this need, Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: Management, Performance, and Applications summarizes not only traditional and classical network management techniques, but also state-of-the-art techniques in this area. The articles presented are expository, but scholarly in nature, including the appropriate history background, a review of current

  15. Safety Message Power Transmission Control for Vehicular Ad hoc Networks

    Samara, Ghassan; Al-Salihy, Wafaa A H

    2010-01-01

    Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET) is one of the most challenging research area in the field of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. In this research we proposed a dynamic power adjustment protocol that will be used for sending the periodical safety message. (Beacon)based on the analysis of the channel status depending on the channel congestion and the power used for transmission. The Beacon Power Control (BPC) protocol first sensed and examined the percentage of the channel congestion, the result obtained was used to adjust the transmission power for the safety message to reach the optimal power. This will lead to decrease the congestion in the channel and achieve good channel performance and beacon dissemination.

  16. Mobility Prediction Based Neighborhood Discovery for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Li, Xu; Mitton, Nathalie; Simplot-Ryl, David

    2010-01-01

    Hello protocol is the basic technique for neighborhood discovery in wireless ad hoc networks. It requires nodes to claim their existence/aliveness by periodic `hello' messages. Central to any hello protocol is the determination of `hello' message transmission rate. No fixed optimal rate exists in the presence of node mobility. The rate should in fact adapt to it, high for high mobility and low for low mobility. In this paper, we propose a novel mobility prediction based hello protocol, named ...

  17. Mobility Prediction Based Neighborhood Discovery in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Li, Xu; Mitton, Nathalie; Simplot-Ryl, David

    2011-01-01

    International audience Hello protocol is the basic technique for neighborhood discovery in wireless ad hoc networks. It requires nodes to claim their existence/ aliveness by periodic 'hello' messages. Central to a hello protocol is the determination of 'hello' message transmission rate. No fixed optimal rate exists in the presence of node mobility. The rate should in fact adapt to it, high for high mobility and low for low mobility. In this paper, we propose a novel mobility prediction bas...

  18. An Analysis of Collaborative Attacks on Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Vu, Cong Hoan; Soneye, Adeyinka

    2009-01-01

    A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) consists of a set of communicating wireless mobile nodes or devices that do not have any form of fixed infrastructure or centralized authority. The security in MANET has become a significant and active topic within the research community. This is because of high demand in sharing streaming video and audio in various applications, one MANET could be setup quickly to facilitate communications in a hostile environment such as battlefield or emergency situation lik...

  19. Energy Aware OLSR-Based Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Wardi

    2012-01-01

    OLSR is a well-known proactive routing protocol designed for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). OLSR adopts a concept of an MPR mechanism where only mobile nodes selected as MPR nodes can retransmit broadcast packets received from other mobile nodes. Although OLSR reduces the number of broadcast packets, MPR nodes consume more energy than other mobile nodes. Since mobile nodes in MANETs are powered by battery with limited energy, energy efficiency is a critical issue in designing a routing prot...

  20. Quality of service on ad-hoc wireless networks

    Paoliello Guimaraes, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    Over the last years, Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) have captured the attention of the research community. The flexibility and cost savings they provide, due to the fact that no infrastructure is needed to deploy a MANET, is one of the most attractive possibilities of this technology. However, along with the flexibility, lots of problems arise due to the bad quality of transmission media, the scarcity of resources, etc. Since real-time communications will be common in MANETs, there has been ...

  1. A Robust Reputation System for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    Buchegger, Sonja; Le Boudec, Jean-Yves

    2003-01-01

    Reputation systems in mobile ad-hoc networks can be tricked by the spreading of false reputation ratings, be it false accusations or false praise. Simple solutions such as exclusively relying on one`s own direct observations have drawbacks, as they do not make use of all the information available. We propose a fully distributed reputation system that can cope with false disseminated information. In our approach, everyone maintains a reputation rating and a trust rating about everyone ...

  2. Precise Positioning Systems for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    Gufran Ahmad Ansari; Samir A. Elsagheer Mohamed; A. Nasr

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) is a very promising research venue that can offers many useful and critical applications including the safety applications. Most of these applications require that each vehicle knows precisely its current position in real time. GPS is the most common positioning technique for VANET. However, it is not accurate. Moreover, the GPS signals cannot be received in the tunnels, undergrounds, or near tall buildings. Thus, no positioning service can be obtained in the...

  3. A Platform for Implementing Secure Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Farkas, Gyula; Genge, Bela; Haller, Piroska

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new platform for implementing secure wireless ad hoc networks. Our proposal is based on a modular architecture, with the software stack constructed directly on the Ethernet layer. Within our platform we use a new security protocol that we designed to ensure mutual authentication between nodes and a secure key exchange. The correctness of the proposed security protocol is ensured by Guttman's authentication tests.

  4. Rethinking Information Theory for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Andrews, Jeff; Haenggi, Martin; Berry, Randy; Jafar, Syed; Guo, Dongning; Shakkottai, Sanjay; Heath, Robert; Neely, Michael; Weber, Steven; Yener, Aylin

    2007-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the long-standing open problem of developing a general capacity theory for wireless networks, particularly a theory capable of describing the fundamental performance limits of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). A MANET is a peer-to-peer network with no pre-existing infrastructure. MANETs are the most general wireless networks, with single-hop, relay, interference, mesh, and star networks comprising special cases. The lack of a MANET capacity theory has stunted the development and commercialization of many types of wireless networks, including emergency, military, sensor, and community mesh networks. Information theory, which has been vital for links and centralized networks, has not been successfully applied to decentralized wireless networks. Even if this was accomplished, for such a theory to truly characterize the limits of deployed MANETs it must overcome three key roadblocks. First, most current capacity results rely on the allowance of unbounded delay and reliability. Second, ...

  5. An Algorithm for Localization in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    Hajar Barani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Positioning a node in Vehicular Ad-Hoc networks is one of the most interested research areas in recent years. In many Ad-Hoc networks such as Vehicular Ad-Hoc networks in which the nodes are considered as vehicles, move very fast in streets and highways. So, to have a safe and fast transport system, any vehicle should know where a traffic problem such as a broken vehicle occurs. GPS is one of the equipments which have been widely used for positioning service. Problem statement: Vehicle can use a GPS receiver to determine its position. But, all vehicles have not been equipped with GPS or they cannot receive GPS signals in some places such as inside of a tunnel. In these situations, the vehicle should use a GPS free method to find its location. Approach: In this study, a new method based on transmission range had been suggested. Results: This algorithm had been compared with a similar algorithm ODAM in same situations. The best performance for Optimized Disseminating Alarm Message (ODAM is when 40% of nodes are equipped with GPS. Conclusion: We executed our algorithm on this situation and compared it with ODAM results. At the end of this study, we can see our algorithm in compare to ODAM has better results.

  6. Mobile ad hoc networking the cutting edge directions

    Basagni, Stefano; Giordano, Silvia; Stojmenovic, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    ""An excellent book for those who are interested in learning the current status of research and development . . . [and] who want to get a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art.""-E-Streams This book provides up-to-date information on research and development in the rapidly growing area of networks based on the multihop ad hoc networking paradigm. It reviews all classes of networks that have successfully adopted this paradigm, pointing out how they penetrated the mass market and sparked breakthrough research. Covering both physical issues and applica

  7. EXTENDED DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR AD HOC NETWORK

    Puja Kumari Sharma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available MANET is a collection of self-configurable mobile nodes. Several routing protocols are proposed for ad hoc network among which DSR and AODV On demand routing protocols are mostly used. Existing Dynamic source routing protocol is not suitable for large network because packet size gets increased according to the number of nodes travelled by route discovery packet. In this paper, extended DSR routing protocol is proposed to eliminate the above limitation of existing DSR. Proposed protocol will be suitable for small and large both types of networks.

  8. Performance modeling of data dissemination in vehicular ad hoc networks

    Chaqfeh, Moumena; Lakas, Abderrahmane; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) have become a cornerstone component of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). VANET applications present a huge potential for improving road safety and travel comfort, hence the growing interest of both academia and industry. The main advantage of VANETs is its...... ad hoc nature which does not require fixed infrastructure or centralized administration. However, designing scalable information dissemination techniques for VANET applications remains a challenging task due to the inherent nature of such highly dynamic environments. Existing dissemination techniques...... often resort to simulation for performance evaluation and there are only few studies that offer mathematical modeling. In this paper we provide a comparative study of existing performance modeling approaches for data dissemination techniques designed for different VANET applications. © 2013 IEEE....

  9. Vehicular Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks; Principles and Challenges

    Piran, Mohammad Jalil; Babu, G Praveen

    2011-01-01

    The rapid increase of vehicular traffic and congestion on the highways began hampering the safe and efficient movement of traffic. Consequently, year by year, we see the ascending rate of car accidents and casualties in most of the countries. Therefore, exploiting the new technologies, e.g. wireless sensor networks, is required as a solution of reduction of these saddening and reprehensible statistics. This has motivated us to propose a novel and comprehensive system to utilize Wireless Sensor Networks for vehicular networks. We coin the vehicular network employing wireless Sensor networks as Vehicular Ad Hoc and Sensor Network, or VASNET in short. The proposed VASNET is particularly for highway traffic .VASNET is a self-organizing Ad Hoc and sensor network comprised of a large number of sensor nodes. In VASNET there are two kinds of sensor nodes, some are embedded on the vehicles-vehicular nodes- and others are deployed in predetermined distances besides the highway road, known as Road Side Sensor nodes (RSS...

  10. Scalable Overlay Multicasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (SOM

    Pariza Kamboj

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many crucial applications of MANETs like the battlefield, conference and disaster recovery defines the needs for group communications either one-to-many or many-to-many form. Multicast plays an important role in bandwidth scarce multihop mobile ad hoc networks comprise of limited battery power mobile nodes. Multicast protocols in MANETs generate many controls overhead for maintenance of multicast routingstructures due to frequent changes of network topology. Bigger multicast tables for the maintenance of network structures resultsin inefficient consumption of bandwidth of wireless links andbattery power of anemic mobile nodes, which in turn, pose thescalability problems as the network size is scaled up. However,many MANET applications demands scalability from time to time. Multicasting for MANETs, therefore, needs to reduce the state maintenance. As a remedy to these shortcomings, this paper roposes an overlay multicast protocol on application layer. In the proposed protocol titled “Scalable Overlay Multicasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (SOM” the network nodes construct overlay hierarchical framework to reduce the protocols states and constrain their distribution within limited scope. Based on zone around each node, it constructs a virtual structure at application layer mapped with the physical topology at network layer, thus formed two levels of hierarchy. The concept of two level hierarchies reduces the protocol state maintenance and hence supports the vertical scalability. Protocol depends on the location information obtained using a distributed location service, which effectively reduces the overhead for route searching and updating the source based multicast tree.

  11. Analysis of Multipath Routing in Random Ad Hoc Networks Scenario

    Indrani Das

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have proposed a multipath routing protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. Multipath routing overcomes various problems that occur in data delivery through a single path. The proposed protocol selects multiple neighbor nodes of source node to establish multiple paths towards destination. These nodes are selected based on their minimum remaining distance from destination. We have computed the length of various paths and average hops count for different node density in the network. We have considered only three paths for our evaluation. The results show that path-2 gives better results in term of hop count and path length among three paths.

  12. A Timed Calculus for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Mengying Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We develop a timed calculus for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks embodying the peculiarities of local broadcast, node mobility and communication interference. We present a Reduction Semantics and a Labelled Transition Semantics and prove the equivalence between them. We then apply our calculus to model and study some MAC-layer protocols with special emphasis on node mobility and communication interference. A main purpose of the semantics is to describe the various forms of interference while nodes change their locations in the network. Such interference only occurs when a node is simultaneously reached by more than one ongoing transmission over the same channel.

  13. The distributed parallel genetic algorithm on the ad hoc network

    Nima Afifi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, mobile computing is one of the important issues in computer and network sciences. Using the processing power of mobile devices purposefully for solving complex issues is one of the research fields for researchers. One of the important issues in the optimization which needs a high processing power for finding the best possible answer is travelling salesman problem. In this paper, by providing a method based on the distributed parallel genetic algorithm on a number of mobile nodes in the Ad Hoc network, it was attempted to increase the speed of finding the best answer for the travelling salesman algorithm.

  14. Defending Wormhole Attack in Wireless Ad-hoc Network

    Nisha S.Raote

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The ad-hoc networks are the temporarily established wireless networks which does not require fixedinfrastructure it is also called as infrastructure less network. Because of some flaws of adhoc networksuch as shared wireless medium and lack of any central coordination makes them more prone to attacksin comparison with the wired network. Among all the attacks wormhole attack is the most severe attack.In this attack an attacker capture the packets at one location in the network and send it two anotherattacker at a distant location through tunnels which is established through different ways like packetencapsulation, using high power transmission or by using direct antennas. This tunnel between twocolluding attackers is virtual and it is called as a wormhole. The wormhole attack is possible even if theattacker has not comprised any hosts, and all communication provides authenticity and confidentiality.By using the various approaches for finding the solution over wormhole attack, the dynamic informationof the packets could still be modified. So in order to give more robust protection in some special scenariolike battlefields, which requires highly secured information, there is need of developing some securedmechanism for wormhole detection and prevention. Taking into consideration this problem the proposedscheme is developed. This paper discusses proposed works on wormhole attack along with its availablecounter measures in ad-hoc wireless network.

  15. Simulation study for Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using DMAC Protocol

    Vikas Sejwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of deafness problem in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs using directional antennas. Directional antennas arebeneficial for wireless ad hoc networks consisting of a collection of wireless hosts. A suitable Medium Access Control (MAC protocol must be designed to best utilize directional antennas. Deafness is caused whentwo nodes are in ongoing transmission and a third node (Deaf Node wants to communicate with one of that node. But it get no response because transmission of two nodes are in process. Though directional antennas offer better spatial reuse, but this problem can have a serious impact on network performance. A New DMAC (Directional Medium Access Control protocol uses flags in DNAV (Directional Network Allocation Vector tables to maintain information regarding the transmissionbetween the nodes in the network and their neighbor’s location. Two performance matrices have been used to show the impact of New DMAC algorithm on Deafness problem using simulator. These are RTS Failure Ratio and RTS Retransmission due to timeout

  16. Energy Efficient Probabilistic Broadcasting for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    Kumar, Sumit; Mehfuz, Shabana

    2016-08-01

    In mobile ad-hoc network (MANETs) flooding method is used for broadcasting route request (RREQ) packet from one node to another node for route discovery. This is the simplest method of broadcasting of RREQ packets but it often results in broadcast storm problem, originating collisions and congestion of packets in the network. A probabilistic broadcasting is one of the widely used broadcasting scheme for route discovery in MANETs and provides solution for broadcasting storm problem. But it does not consider limited energy of the battery of the nodes. In this paper, a new energy efficient probabilistic broadcasting (EEPB) is proposed in which probability of broadcasting RREQs is calculated with respect to remaining energy of nodes. The analysis of simulation results clearly indicate that an EEPB route discovery scheme in ad-hoc on demand distance vector (AODV) can increase the network lifetime with a decrease in the average power consumption and RREQ packet overhead. It also decreases the number of dropped packets in the network, in comparison to other EEPB schemes like energy constraint gossip (ECG), energy aware gossip (EAG), energy based gossip (EBG) and network lifetime through energy efficient broadcast gossip (NEBG).

  17. On service differentiation in mobile Ad Hoc networks

    张顺亮; 叶澄清

    2004-01-01

    A network model is proposed to support service differentiation for mobile Ad Hoc networks by combining a fully distributed admission control approach and the DIFS based differentiation mechanism of IEEE802.11. It can provide different kinds of QoS (Quality of Service) for various applications. Admission controllers determine a committed bandwidth based on the reserved bandwidth of flows and the source utilization of networks. Packets are marked when entering into networks by markers according to the committed rate. By the mark in the packet header, intermediate nodes handle the Received packets in different manners to provide applications with the QoS corresponding to the pre-negotiated profile.Extensive simulation experiments showed that the proposed mechanism can provide QoS guarantee to assured service traffic and increase the channel utilization of networks.

  18. Identification of node behavior for Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Khyati Choure , Sanjay Sharma

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In present scenario, in ad-hoc network, the behavior of nodes are not very stable. They do not work properly and satisfactory. They are not cooperative and acting selfishly. They show their selfishness to share their resources like bandwidth to save life of battery, they are not hasitate to block thepackets sent by others for forwarding and transmit their own packets. Due to higher Mobility of the different nodes makes the situation even more complicated. Multiple routing protocols especially for these conditions have been developed during the last few years, to find optimized routes from a source to some destination.But it is still difficult to know the actual shortest path without attackers or bad nodes. Ad-hoc network suffer from the lot of issues i.e. congestion, Throughput, delay, security, network overhead. Packet delivery ratio is the issues of ongoing research. Cause of node failure may be either natural failure of node links or it may be due to act of an attacker or bad node which may degrade performance of network slowly or drastically, which also need to identify or determined. In this paper, we identify the good and bad nodes. A simulation has been performed to achieve better performance of modified AODV. Good result has been obtained in terms of Throughout, Packet Delivery Ratio.

  19. Distributed intrusion detection for mobile ad hoc networks

    Yi Ping; Jiang Xinghao; Wu Yue; Liu Ning

    2008-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networking(MANET)has become an exciting and important technology in recent years,because of the rapid proliferation of wireless devices.Mobile ad hoc networks is highly vulnerable to attacks due to the open medium,dynamically changing network topology,cooperative algorithms,and lack of centralized monitoring and management point.The traditional way of protecting networks with firewalls and encryption software is no longer sufficient and effective for those features.A distributed intrusion detection approach based on timed automata is given.A cluster-based detection scheme is presented,where periodically a node is elected as the monitor node for a cluster.These monitor nodes can not only make local intrusion detection decisions,but also cooperatively take part in global intrusion detection.And then the timed automata is constructed by the way of manually abstracting the correct behaviours of the node according to the routing protocol of dynamic source routing(DSR).The monitor nodes can verify the behaviour of every nodes by timed automata,and validly detect real-time attacks without signatures of intrusion or trained data.Compared with the architecture where each node is its own IDS agent,the approach is much more efficient while maintaining the same level of effectiveness.Finally,the intrusion detection method is evaluated through simulation experiments.

  20. LAMAN: Load Adaptable MAC for Ad Hoc Networks

    Realp Marc

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc radio networks, mechanisms on how to access the radio channel are extremely important in order to improve network efficiency. In this paper, the load adaptable medium access control for ad hoc networks (LAMAN protocol is described. LAMAN is a novel decentralized multipacket MAC protocol designed following a cross-layer approach. Basically, this protocol is a hybrid CDMA-TDMA-based protocol that aims at throughput maximization in multipacket communication environments by efficiently combining contention and conflict-free protocol components. Such combination of components is used to adapt the nodes' access priority to changes on the traffic load while, at the same time, accounting for the multipacket reception (MPR capability of the receivers. A theoretical analysis of the system is developed presenting closed expressions of network throughput and packet delay. By simulations the validity of our analysis is shown and the performances of a LAMAN-based system and an Aloha-CDMA-based one are compared.

  1. Distributed optimization of a multisubchannel Ad Hoc cognitive radio network

    Leith, Alex

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we study the distributed-duality-based optimization of a multisubchannel ad hoc cognitive radio network (CRN) that coexists with a multicell primary radio network (PRN). For radio resource allocation in multiuser orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (MU-OFDM) systems, the orthogonal-access-based exclusive subchannel assignment (ESA) technique has been a popular method, but it is suboptimal in ad hoc networks, because nonorthogonal access between multiple secondary-user links by using shared subchannel assignment (SSA) can bring a higher weighted sum rate. We utilize the Lagrangian dual composition tool and design low-complexity near-optimal SSA resource allocation methods, assuming practical discrete-rate modulation and that the CRN-to-PRN interference constraint has to strictly be satisfied. However, available SSA methods for CRNs are either suboptimal or involve high complexity and suffer from slow convergence. To address this problem, we design fast-convergence SSA duality schemes and introduce several novel methods to increase the speed of convergence and to satisfy various system constraints with low complexity. For practical implementation in ad hoc CRNs, we design distributed-duality schemes that involve only a small number of CRN local information exchanges for dual update. The effects of many system parameters are presented through simulation results, which show that the near-optimal SSA duality scheme can perform significantly better than the suboptimal ESA duality and SSA-iterative waterfilling schemes and that the performance loss of the distributed schemes is small, compared with their centralized counterparts. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. Recovery from Wormhole Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET)

    JI Xiao-jun; TIAN Chang; ZHANG Yu-sen

    2006-01-01

    Wormhole attack is a serious threat against MANET (mobile ad hoc network) and its routing protocols.A new approach-tunnel key node identification (TKNI) was proposed. Based on tunnel-key-node identification and priority-based route discovery, TKNI can rapidly rebuild the communications that have been blocked by wormhole attack. Compared to previous approaches, the proposed approach aims at both static and dynamic topology environment, involves addressing visible and invisible wormhole attack modes, requires no extra hardware, has a low overhead, and can be easily applied to MANET.

  3. Studies on urban vehicular ad-hoc networks

    Zhu, Hongzi

    2013-01-01

    With the advancement of wireless technology, vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are emerging as a promising approach to realizing 'smart cities' and addressing many important transportation problems such as road safety, efficiency, and convenience.This brief provides an introduction to the large trace data set collected from thousands of taxis and buses in Shanghai, the largest metropolis in China. It also presents the challenges, design issues, performance modeling and evaluation of a wide spectrum of VANET research topics, ranging from realistic vehicular mobility models and opportunistic ro

  4. An Intrusion Detection Architecture for Clustered Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Sen, Jaydip

    2011-01-01

    Intrusion detection in wireless ad hoc networks is a challenging task because these networks change their topologies dynamically, lack concentration points where aggregated traffic can be analyzed, utilize infrastructure protocols that are susceptible to manipulation, and rely on noisy, intermittent wireless communications. Security remains a major challenge for these networks due their features of open medium, dynamically changing topologies, reliance on co-operative algorithms, absence of centralized monitoring points, and lack of clear lines of defense. In this paper, we present a cooperative, distributed intrusion detection architecture based on clustering of the nodes that addresses the security vulnerabilities of the network and facilitates accurate detection of attacks. The architecture is organized as a dynamic hierarchy in which the intrusion data is acquired by the nodes and is incrementally aggregated, reduced in volume and analyzed as it flows upwards to the cluster-head. The cluster-heads of adja...

  5. Distributed Intrusion Detection System for Ad hoc Mobile Networks

    Muhammad Nawaz Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc network resource restrictions on bandwidth, processing capabilities, battery life and memory of mobile devices lead tradeoff between security and resources consumption. Due to some unique properties of MANETs, proactive security mechanism like authentication, confidentiality, access control and non-repudiation are hard to put into practice. While some additional security requirements are also needed, like cooperation fairness, location confidentiality, data freshness and absence of traffic diversion. Traditional security mechanism i.e. authentication and encryption, provide a security beach to MANETs. But some reactive security mechanism is required who analyze the routing packets and also check the overall network behavior of MANETs. Here we propose a local-distributed intrusion detection system for ad hoc mobile networks. In the proposed distributed-ID, each mobile node works as a smart agent. Data collect by node locally and it analyze that data for malicious activity. If any abnormal activity discover, it informs the surrounding nodes as well as the base station. It works like a Client-Server model, each node works in collaboration with server, updating its database each time by server using Markov process. The proposed local distributed- IDS shows a balance between false positive and false negative rate. Re-active security mechanism is very useful in finding abnormal activities although proactive security mechanism present there. Distributed local-IDS useful for deep level inspection and is suited with the varying nature of the MANETs.

  6. Vehicular Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: Principles and Challenges

    Mohammad Jalil Piran

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase of vehicular traffic and congest ion on the highways began hampering the safe and efficient movement of traffic. Consequently, year b y year, we see the ascending rate of car accidents and casualties in most of the countries. Therefore, exp loiting the new technologies, e.g. wireless sensor networks, is required as a solution of reduction of these sad dening and reprehensible statistics. This has motiv ated us to propose a novel and comprehensive system to utilize Wireless Sensor Networks for vehicular networks. W e coin the vehicular network employing wireless Senso r networks as Vehicular Ad Hoc and Sensor Network, or VASNET in short. The proposed VASNET is particularl y for highway traffic .VASNET is a self-organizing Ad Hoc and sensor network comprised of a large number of sensor nodes. In VASNET there are two kinds of sensor nodes, some are embedded on the vehicles-veh icular nodes- and others are deployed in predetermi ned distances besides the highway road, known as Road S ide Sensor nodes (RSS. The vehicular nodes are use d to sense the velocity of the vehicle for instance. We can have some Base Stations (BS such as Police Tra ffic Station, Firefighting Group and Rescue Team. The ba se stations may be stationary or mobile. VASNET provides capability of wireless communication betwe en vehicular nodes and stationary nodes, to increas e safety and comfort for vehicles on the highway road s. In this paper we explain main fundamentals and challenges of VASNET

  7. Mobile Advertisement in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    Dobre, Ciprian

    2012-01-01

    Mobile Advertisement is a location-aware dissemination solution built on top of a vehicular ad-hoc network. We envision a network of WiFi access points that dynamically disseminate data to clients running on the car's smart device. The approach can be considered an alternative to the static advertisement billboards and can be useful to business companies wanting to dynamically advertise their products and offers to people driving their car. The clients can subscribe to information based on specific topics. We present design solutions that use access points as emitters for transmitting messages to wireless-enabled devices equipped on vehicles. We also present implementation details for the evaluation of the proposed solution using a simulator designed for VANET application. The results show that the application can be used for transferring a significant amount of data even under difficult conditions, such as when cars are moving at increased speeds, or the congested Wi-Fi network causes significant packet loss...

  8. Congestion Reduction Using Ad hoc Message Dissemination in Vehicular Networks

    Hewer, Thomas D

    2008-01-01

    Vehicle-to-vehicle communications can be used effectively for intelligent transport systems (ITS) and location-aware services. The ability to disseminate information in an ad-hoc fashion allows pertinent information to propagate faster through the network. In the realm of ITS, the ability to spread warning information faster and further is of great advantage to the receivers of this information. In this paper we propose and present a message-dissemination procedure that uses vehicular wireless protocols for influencing traffic flow, reducing congestion in road networks. The computational experiments presented in this paper show how an intelligent driver model (IDM) and car-following model can be adapted to 'react' to the reception of information. This model also presents the advantages of coupling together traffic modelling tools and network simulation tools.

  9. Effective Congestion Avoidance Scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Ramachandra.V.Pujeri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile nodes are organized randomly without any access point in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs. Due to the mobility of nodes, the network congestion occurs. So many congestion control mechanisms were proposed to avoid the congestion avoidance or reducing the congestion status. In this research work, we proposed to develop the Effective Congestion Avoidance Scheme (ECAS, which consists of congestion monitoring, effective routing establishment and congestionless based routing. The overall congestion status is measured in congestion monitoring. In routing establishment, we propose the contention metric in the particular channel in terms of, queue length of packet, overall congestion standard, packet loss rate and packet dropping ratio to monitor the congestion status. Based on the congestion standard, the congestionless based routing is established to reduce the packet loss, high overhead, long delay in the network. By extensive simulation, the proposed scheme achieves better throughput, packet delivery ratio, low end-to-end delay and overhead than the existing schemes.

  10. Integrating Mobile Ad Hoc Network to the Internet

    WANG Mao-ning

    2005-01-01

    A novel scheme is presented to integrate mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) with the Internet and support mobility across wireless local area networks (WLANs) and MANETs. The mobile nodes, connected as a MANET, employ the optimize d link state routing (OLSR) protocol for routing within the MANET. Mobility management across WLANs and MANETs is achieved through the hierarchical mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) protocol. The performance is evaluated on a HMIPv6 based test-bed composed of WLANs and MANETs. The efficiency gain obtained from using HMIPv6 in such a hybrid network is investigated. The investigation result shows that the use of HMIPv6 can achieve up to 27% gain on reducing the handoff latency when a mobile roams within a domain. Concerning the reduction of the signaling load on the Internet, the use of HMIPv6 can achieve at least a 54% gain and converges to 69%.

  11. Vehicular ad hoc networks standards, solutions, and research

    Molinaro, Antonella; Scopigno, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    This book presents vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) from the their onset, gradually going into technical details, providing a clear understanding of both theoretical foundations and more practical investigation. The editors gathered top-ranking authors to provide comprehensiveness and timely content; the invited authors were carefully selected from a list of who’s who in the respective field of interest: there are as many from Academia as from Standardization and Industry sectors from around the world. The covered topics are organized around five Parts starting from an historical overview of vehicular communications and standardization/harmonization activities (Part I), then progressing to the theoretical foundations of VANETs and a description of the day-one standard-compliant solutions (Part II), hence going into details of vehicular networking and security (Part III) and to the tools to study VANETs, from mobility and channel models, to network simulators and field trial methodologies (Part IV), and fi...

  12. Probabilistic Models and Process Calculi for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Song, Lei

    Due to the wide use of communicating mobile devices, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have gained in popularity in recent years. In order that the devices communicate properly, many protocols have been proposed working at different levels. Devices in an MANET are not stationary but may keep moving......, thus the network topology may undergo constant changes. Moreover the devices in an MANET are loosely connected not depending on pre-installed infrastructure or central control components, they exchange messages via wireless connections which are less reliable compared to wired connections. Therefore...... issues in MANETs e.g. mobility and unreliable connections. Specially speaking, 1. We first propose a discrete probabilistic process calculus with which we can model in an MANET that the wireless connection is not reliable, and the network topology may undergo changes. We equip each wireless connection...

  13. The Adaptive Optimized Routing Protocol for Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks

    Kunal Vikas Patil; M.R. Dhage

    2013-01-01

    The vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is a superior newtechnology. Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is a subclassof MANET that is mobile ad hoc networks. Vehicular ad hocnetwork provides wireless communication among vehicles andvehicles to roadside equipments. The communication betweenvehicles is more important for safety and more probably forentertainment as well. The performance of communicationdepends on how better the routing takes place in the network.Routing of data depends on routing pr...

  14. A Survey of Multicast Routing Protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Waqar Farooq; Khan, Muazzam A.; Saad Rehman; Nazar Abbas Saqib

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are autonomous and self-configurable wireless ad hoc networks and considered as a subset of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). MANET is composed of self-organizing mobile nodes which communicate through a wireless link without any network infrastructure. A VANET uses vehicles as mobile nodes for creating a network within a range of 100 to 1000 meters. VANET is developed for improving road safety and for providing the latest services of intelligent transport sy...

  15. Optimizing Local Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Malik, Salman

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate local capacity of wireless ad hoc networks with several medium access protocols and identify the most optimal protocol. We define local capacity as the average information rate received by a receiver randomly located in the network. We analyzed grid pattern protocols where simultaneous transmitters are positioned in a regular grid pattern, pure ALOHA protocols where simultaneous transmitters are dispatched according to a uniform Poisson distribution and exclusion protocols where simultaneous transmitters are dispatched according to an exclusion rule such as node coloring and carrier sense protocols. Our analysis allows us to conjecture that local capacity is optimal when simultaneous transmitters are positioned in a grid pattern based on equilateral triangles and our results show that this optimal local capacity is at most double the local capacity of simple ALOHA protocol. Our results also show that node coloring and carrier sense protocols approach the optimal local capacity by an ...

  16. M-BOARD IN AN AD-HOC NETWORK ENVIRONMENT

    Sharon Panth

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Notice Board is very essential part of any organization. This paper presents the design and implementation of M-Board (Mobile Notice Board for Ad-hoc Network Environment that can be established and made available for an educational or industry environment. The cost-free communication among the mobile phone clients and server takes place with the help of Bluetooth wireless technology. M-Board is particularly developed as an informative application environment to provide the basic information like daily events or timetable to the users. The design is based on the amalgamation of Java ME with other technologies like Java SE, Java EE, PHP and MySQL. The system is designed to provide simple, easy-to-use, cost-free solution in a ubiquitous environment. The system design is easily implemented and extensible allowing the number of clients in Personal Area Network (PAN for information exchange with the hotspot-server.

  17. A Survey on Trust Management for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    K.Seshadri Ramana

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANETs is a Collection of mobile nodes connected with wireless links.MANET has no fixed topology as the nodes are moving constantly form one place to another place. All the nodes must co-operate with each other in order to route the packets. Cooperating nodes must trust each other. In defining and managing trust in a military MANET, we must consider the interactions between the composite cognitive, social, information and communication networks, and take into account the severe resource constraints (e.g., computing power, energy, bandwidth, time, and dynamics (e.g., topology changes, mobility, node failure, propagation channel conditions. Therefore trust is important word which affects the performance of MANET. There are several protocols proposed based on the trust. This paper is a survey of trust based protocols and it proposes some new techniques on trust management in MANETs

  18. A Survey: variants of TCP in Ad-hoc networks

    Komal Zaman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc network forms a temporary network of wireless mobile nodes without any infrastructure where all nodes are allowed to move freely, configure themselves and interconnect with its neighbors to perform peer to peer communication and transmission. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol offers reliable, oriented connection and mechanism of end to end delivery. This article provides the review and comparison of existing variants of TCP for instance: The TCP Tahoe, The TCP Reno, The TCP New Reno, The Lite, The Sack, The TCP Vegas, Westwood and The TCP Fack. TCP’s performance depends on the type of its variants due to missing of congestion control or improper activation procedures such as Slow Start, Fast Retransmission, and Congestion Avoidance, Retransmission, Fast Recovery, Selective Acknowledgement mechanism and Congestion Control. This analysis is essential to be aware about a better TCP implementation for a specific scenario and then nominated a suitable one.

  19. Distributed Cooperative Caching Strategies in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Banoth, Rajkumar

    Wireless devices have scarcity of resources such as storage capacity and processing power. For WANETs, cooperative caching strategies are proposed in this paper to improve efficiency in information exchange in peer-to-peer fashion. The caching strategies such as small sized caches and large sized...... caches depend on the estimation of density of information being flown in the network. In the former strategy content replacement takes place when new information is received while in the latter a decision is made as to whether the information is to be cached and for how long. In either case every node is...... making expected content diversity and improve performance of information sharing in wireless ad hoc network....

  20. Malware-Propagative Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Asymptotic Behavior Analysis

    Vasileios Karyotis; Anastasios Kakalis; Symeon Papavassiliou

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the spreading of malicious software over ad hoe networks, where legitimate nodes are prone to propagate the infections they receive from either an attacker or their already infected neighbors, is analyzed. Considering the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) node infection paradigm we propose a probabilistic model, on the basis of the theory of closed queuing networks, that aims at describing the aggregated behavior of the system when attacked by malicious nodes. Because of its nature, the model is also able to deal more effectively with the stochastic behavior of attackers and the inherent probabilistic nature of the wireless environment. The proposed model is able to describe accurately the asymptotic behavior of malware-propagative large scale ad hoc networking environments. Using the Norton equivalent of the closed queuing network, we obtain analytical results for its steady state behavior, which in turn is used for identifying the critical parameters affecting the operation of the network. Finally, through modeling and simulation, some additional numerical results are obtained with respect to the behavior of the system when multiple attackers are present, and regarding the time-dependent evolution and impact of an attack.

  1. A Smart Booster Approach In Wireless Ad Hoc Network

    Anzar Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Mobile Ad-hoc network is upcoming next generation technology. The foremost reason to be the popularity of MANET is its infrastructure less nature. MANET is a group of wireless mobile nodes which are connected wirelessly. Nodes may be highly mobile because the beauty of wireless network (like MANET or cellular system lies in mobility. But due to this mobility of nodes, the topology of the node and network changed frequently. This frequent change topology affect to the communication between nodes. If nodes are within the range of each other they can communicate properly but if nodes are not in the range of each other, communication will not be possible smoothly or even ongoing communication may be disrupt or lost. So there is a need to develop and design a mechanism or system that can handle such types of situation and prevent communication failure or frequent link failure. In the present work a novel booster mechanism approach is proposed to overcome such situation or Link failure. In the proposed Approach, the level of the Power at both the Transmitter as well as Receiver is measured in order to maintain communication smooth between the nodes. If one node is moving away from the communicating node then both moving node will measure its receiving power with respect to the distance and if its current power level reaches the threshold level it switched “ON” its Booster and at the same time it send a message to source node which contains received power level of moving node due to this ,that source node also “ON” its Booster and thus both nodes connect together to protect the link failure during that mobility. The Booster Approach is a novel concept in the direction of smooth communication in dynamic or wireless environment in Mobile Ad hoc Network.

  2. TCP Issues in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Challenges and Solutions

    Wei-Qiang Xu; Tie-Jun Wu

    2006-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a kind of very complex distributed communication systems with wireless mobile nodes that can be freely and dynamically self-organized into arbitrary and temporary network topologies. MANETs inherit several limitations of wireless networks, meanwhile make new challenges arising from the specificity of MANETs, such as route failures, hidden terminals and exposed terminals. When TCP is applied in a MANET environment, a number of tough problems have to be dealt with. In this paper, a comprehensive survey on this dynamic field is given. Specifically, for the first time all factors impairing TCP performance are identified based on network protocol hierarchy, I.e., lossy wireless channel at the physical layer; excessive contention and unfair access at the MAC layer; frail routing protocol at the network layer, the MAC layer and the network layer related mobile node; unfit congestion window size at the transport layer and the transport layer related asymmetric path. How these factors degrade TCP performance is clearly explained. Then, based on how to alleviate the impact of each of these factors listed above, the existing solutions are collected as comprehensively as possible and classified into a number of categories, and their advantages and limitations are discussed. Based on the limitations of these solutions, a set of open problems for designing more robust solutions is suggested.

  3. Precise positioning systems for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    Mohamed, Samir A Elsagheer; Ansari, Gufran Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) is a very promising research venue that can offers many useful and critical applications including the safety applications. Most of these applications require that each vehicle knows precisely its current position in real time. GPS is the most common positioning technique for VANET. However, it is not accurate. Moreover, the GPS signals cannot be received in the tunnels, undergrounds, or near tall buildings. Thus, no positioning service can be obtained in these locations. Even if the Deferential GPS (DGPS) can provide high accuracy, but still no GPS converge in these locations. In this paper, we provide positioning techniques for VANET that can provide accurate positioning service in the areas where GPS signals are hindered by the obstacles. Experimental results show significant improvement in the accuracy. This allows when combined with DGPS the continuity of a precise positioning service that can be used by most of the VANET applications.

  4. Collaboration Layer for Robots in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    Borch, Ole; Madsen, Per Printz; Broberg, Jacob Honor´e; Hede, Søren Thorhauge; Mikkelsen, Simon Bjerg; Pedersen, Jesper Ellgaard; Sørensen, Christian Br¨auner

    2009-01-01

    In many applications multiple robots in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks are required to collaborate in order to solve a task. This paper shows by proof of concept that a Collaboration Layer can be modelled and designed to handle the collaborative communication, which enables robots in small to medium size...... provided to the application running on the robot. The services are generic because they can be used by many different applications, independent of the task to be solved. Likewise, specific services are requested from the underlying Virtual Machine, such as broadcast, multicast, and reliable unicast. A...... prototype of the Collaboration Layer has been developed to run in a simulated environment and tested in an evaluation scenario. In the scenario five robots solve the tasks of vacuum cleaning and entrance guarding, which involves the ability to discover potential co-workers, form groups, shift from one group...

  5. Realistic Mobility Modeling for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Akay, Hilal; Tugcu, Tuna

    2009-08-01

    Simulations used for evaluating the performance of routing protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) are mostly based on random mobility and fail to consider individual behaviors of the vehicles. Unrealistic assumptions about mobility produce misleading results about the behavior of routing protocols in real deployments. In this paper, a realistic mobility modeling tool, Mobility for Vehicles (MOVE), which considers the basic mobility behaviors of vehicles, is proposed for a more accurate evaluation. The proposed model is tested against the Random Waypoint (RWP) model using AODV and OLSR protocols. The results show that the mobility model significantly affects the number of nodes within the transmission range of a node, the volume of control traffic, and the number of collisions. It is shown that number of intersections, grid size, and node density are important parameters when dealing with VANET performance.

  6. Opportunistic Channel Scheduling for Ad Hoc Networks with Queue Stability

    Dong, Lei; Wang, Yongchao

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a distributed opportunistic channel access strategy in ad hoc network is proposed. We consider the multiple sources contend for the transmission opportunity, the winner source decides to transmit or restart contention based on the current channel condition. Owing to real data assumption at all links, the decision still needs to consider the stability of the queues. We formulate the channel opportunistic scheduling as a constrained optimization problem which maximizes the system average throughput with the constraints that the queues of all links are stable. The proposed optimization model is solved by Lyapunov stability in queueing theory. The successive channel access problem is decoupled into single optimal stopping problem at every frame and solved with Lyapunov algorithm. The threshold for every frame is different, and it is derived based on the instantaneous queue information. Finally, computer simulations are conducted to demonstrate the validity of the proposed strategy.

  7. Cluster-based Intrusion Detection in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

    Di Wu; Zhisheng Liu; Yongxin Feng; Guangxing Wang

    2004-01-01

    There are inherent vulnerabilities that are not easily preventable in the mobile Ad-Hoc networks.To build a highly secure wireless Ad-Hoc network,intrusion detection and response techniques need to be deployed;The intrusion detection and cluster-based Ad-Hoc networks has been introduced,then,an architecture for better intrusion detection based on cluster using Data Mining in wireless Ad-Hoc networks has been shown. A statistical anomaly detection approach has been used.The anomaly detection and trace analysis have been done locally in each node and possibly through cooperation with clusterhead detection in the network.

  8. Flying Ad-Hoc Networks: Routing Protocols, Mobility Models, Issues

    Muneer Bani Yassein

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Flying Ad-Hoc Networks (FANETs is a group of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs which completed their work without human intervention. There are some problems in this kind of networks: the first one is the communication between (UAVs. Various routing protocols introduced classified into three categories, static, proactive, reactive routing protocols in order to solve this problem. The second problem is the network design, which depends on the network mobility, in which is the process of cooperation and collaboration between the UAV. Mobility model of FANET is introduced in order to solve this problem. In Mobility Model, the path and speed variations of the UAV and represents their position are defined. As of today, Random Way Point Model is utilized as manufactured one for Mobility in the greater part of recreation situations. The Arbitrary Way Point model is not relevant for the UAV in light of the fact that UAV do not alter their course and versatility, speed quickly at one time because of this reason, we consider more practical models, called Semi-Random Circular Movement (SRCM Mobility Model. Also, we consider different portability models, Mission Plan-Based (MPB Mobility Model, Pheromone-Based Model. Moreover, Paparazzi Mobility Model (PPRZM. This paper presented and discussed the main routing protocols and main mobility models used to solve the communication, cooperation, and collaboration in FANET networks.

  9. Securing Mobile Ad hoc Networks:Key Management and Routing

    Chauhan, Kamal Kumar; 10.5121/ijans.2012.2207

    2012-01-01

    Secure communication between two nodes in a network depends on reliable key management systems that generate and distribute keys between communicating nodes and a secure routing protocol that establishes a route between them. But due to lack of central server and infrastructure in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), this is major problem to manage the keys in the network. Dynamically changes in network's topology causes weak trust relationship among the nodes in the network. In MANETs a mobile node operates as not only end terminal but also as an intermediate router. Therefore, a multi-hop scenario occurs for communication in MANETs; where there may be one or more malicious nodes in between source and destination. A routing protocol is said to be secure that detects the detrimental effects of malicious node(s in the path from source to destination). In this paper, we proposed a key management scheme and a secure routing protocol that secures on demand routing protocol such as DSR and AODV. We assume that MANETs ...

  10. An ad hoc wireless sensor network for tele medicine applications

    Recent advances in embedded computing systems have led to the emergence of wireless sensor networks (SNETs), consisting of small, battery-powered motes with limited computation and radio communication capabilities. SNETs permit data gathering and computation to be deeply embedded in the physical environment. Large scale ad hoc sensor networks (ASNET), when deployed among mobile patients, can provide dynamic data query architecture to allow medical specialists to monitor patients at any place via the web or cellular network. In case of an emergency, doctors and/or nurses will be contacted automatically through their handheld personal digital assistants (PDAs) or cellular phones. In specific, the proposed network consists of sensor nodes at the first layer whose responsibility is to measure, collect and communicate, via wired or wireless interface, readings to a microcontroller presenting the second layer of architecture. Deployed microcontrollers process incoming readings and report to a central system via a wireless interface. The implemented network distinguishes between periodic sensor readings and critical or event driven readings where higher priorities is given for the latter. In this paper we implement 3 special cases for tracking and monitoring patients and doctors using SNETs. In addition, the performance of a large scale of our implementation has been tested by means of mathematical analysis. (author)

  11. Cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs): Cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs): Resource allocation techniques based on Bio-inspired computing

    Singh, Santosh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Spectrum is a scarce commodity, and considering the spectrum scarcity faced by the wireless-based service providers led to high congestion levels. Technical inefficiencies from pooled spectrum (this is nothing but the "common carrier principle" adopted in oil/gas/electricity pipelines/networks.), since all ad hoc networks share a common pool of channels, exhausting the available channels will force ad hoc networks to block the services. Researchers found that cognitive radio (CR) technology m...

  12. Load-aware Flooding for Streaming over Ad Hoc Networks

    Utsu, Keisuke; Ishii, Hiroshi

    This paper discusses the streaming of high rate media such as video or audio information over ad hoc networks in disaster situations or for temporary events when it is difficult to use fixed infrastructure. The conventional simple flooding is not applicable for this application because it generates a large number of redundant rebroadcast and heavy traffic load to the network. To restrain redundant rebroadcast messages, several methods have been proposed. But since those studies do not take into account the actual load condition at each node that will affect network efficiency, they cannot achieve both ensuring the high message reachability and reducing redundant rebroadcast. In this paper, we propose two novel load-aware flooding methods using the MAC transmission queue information at each node to make the decision about whether rebroadcast messages should be sent or not. Through network simulations, we evaluate and show the effectiveness of our proposals. The result shows that our proposals achieve both ensuring high message reachability and restraint of redundant rebroadcast comparing with existing methods.

  13. Cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs): Cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs): Resource allocation techniques based on Bio-inspired computing

    Singh, Santosh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Spectrum is a scarce commodity, and considering the spectrum scarcity faced by the wireless-based service providers led to high congestion levels. Technical inefficiencies from pooled spectrum (this is nothing but the "common carrier principle" adopted in oil/gas/electricity pipelines/networks.), since all ad hoc networks share a common pool of channels, exhausting the available channels will force ad hoc networks to block the services. Researchers found that cognitive radio (CR) technology may resolve the spectrum scarcity. CR network proved to next generation wireless communication system that proposed as a way to reuse under-utilised spectrum of licensee user (primary network) in an opportunistic and non-interfering basis. A CR is a self-configuring entity in a wireless networking that senses its environment, tracks changes, and frequently exchanges information with their networks. Adding this layer of such intelligence to the ad hoc network by looking at the overall geography of the network known as cogni...

  14. A Comparision Study of Common Routing Protocols Used In Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

    Basim Alhadidi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze and compare performance of both reactive and proactive Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs routing protocols using different environments. Wireless networks are divided into two types: infrastructure and ad hoc network. In wireless ad hoc networks each node can be a sender, router and receiver, so these types of network are less structure compared to infrastructure network. Therefore wireless ad hoc networks need special routing protocols to overcome the limitations of wireless ad hoc networks. Wireless ad hoc networks routing protocols can be categorized into two types: reactive (on demand routing protocols and proactive routing protocols. In proactive routing protocols the nodes periodically send control messages across the network to build routing table. Different routing protocols have been simulated using GloMoSim (Global Mobile Information system simulation library and PARSEC compiler. Five multi-hop wireless ad hoc network routing protocols have been simulated to cover a range of design choices: Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP, Fisheye State Routing (FSR, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV and Location Aided Routing (LAR. The protocols are evaluated in different environments to investigate performance metrics. Performance metric includes the following aspects: packets deliver ratio, end-to-end delay and end-to-end throughput.

  15. A new authentication protocol for revocable anonymity in ad-hoc networks

    Wierzbicki, Adam; Zwierko, Aneta; Kotulski, Zbigniew

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a new protocol for authentication in ad-hoc networks. The protocol has been designed to meet specialized requirements of ad-hoc networks, such as lack of direct communication between nodes or requirements for revocable anonymity. At the same time, a ad-hoc authentication protocol must be resistant to spoofing, eavesdropping and playback, and man-in-the-middle attacks. The article analyzes existing authentication methods based on the Public Key Infrastructure, and finds th...

  16. The Realistic Mobility Evaluation of Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network for Indian Automotive Networks

    V.S.Dhaka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, continuous progress in wireless communication has opened a new research field in computer networks. Now a day’s wireless ad-hoc networking is an emerging research technology that needs attention of the industry people and the academicians. A vehicular ad-hoc network uses vehicles as mobile nodes to create mobility in a network. It’s a challenge to generate realistic mobility for Indian networks as no TIGER or Shapefile map is available for Indian Automotive Networks. This paper simulates the realistic mobility of the Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs. The key feature of this work is the realistic mobility generation for the Indian Automotive Intelligent Transport System (ITS and also to analyze the throughput, packet delivery fraction (PDF and packet loss for realistic scenario. The experimental analysis helps in providing effective communication for safety to the driver and passengers.

  17. Two Dimensional Connectivity for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    Farivar, Masoud; Ashtiani, Farid

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on two-dimensional connectivity in sparse vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). In this respect, we find thresholds for the arrival rates of vehicles at entrances of a block of streets such that the connectivity is guaranteed for any desired probability. To this end, we exploit a mobility model recently proposed for sparse VANETs, based on BCMP open queuing networks and solve the related traffic equations to find the traffic characteristics of each street and use the results to compute the exact probability of connectivity along these streets. Then, we use the results from percolation theory and the proposed fast algorithms for evaluation of bond percolation problem in a random graph corresponding to the block of the streets. We then find sufficiently accurate two dimensional connectivity-related parameters, such as the average number of intersections connected to each other and the size of the largest set of inter-connected intersections. We have also proposed lower bounds for the case ...

  18. Enhancement of Mobile Ad-hoc Network Models by Using Realistic Mobility and Access Control Mechanisms

    Sabah, Nasser M. A.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes forming a temporary network without the need for base stations or any other preexisting network infrastructure. Ad-hoc networking received a great interest due to its low cost, high flexibility, fast network establishment, self-reconfiguration, high speed for data services, rapid deployment and support for mobility. However, in a wireless network without a fixed infrastructure and with nodes’ mobility enabl...

  19. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WORMHOLE SECURITY APPROACHES FOR AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Ismail Hababeh; Issa Khalil; Abdallah Khreishah; Samir Bataineh

    2013-01-01

    Ad-hoc networks are talented but are exposed to the risk of wormhole attacks. However, a wormhole attack can be mounted easily and forms stern menaces in networks, particularly against various ad-hoc wireless networks. The Wormhole attack distorts the network topology and decrease the network systems performance. Therefore, identifying the possibility of wormhole attacks and recognizing techniques to defend them are central to the security of wireless networks as a whole. In this study, we wi...

  20. Cluster Based Topology Control in Dynamic Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    T. Parameswaran

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs, mobility of nodes, resource constraints and selfish behavior of nodes are important factors which may degrade the performance. Clustering is an effective scheme to improve the performance of MANETs features such as scalability, reliability, and stability. Each cluster member (CM is associated with only one cluster head (CH and can communicate with the CH by single hop communication. Mobility information is used by many existing clustering schemes such as weighted clustering algorithm (WCA Link expiration time prediction scheme and k-hop compound metric based clustering. In scheme 1 the CH election is based on a weighted sum of four different parameters such as node status, neighbor’s distribution, mobility, and remaining energy which brings flexibility but weight factor for each parameter if difficult. In scheme 2 lifetime of a wireless link between a node pair is predicted by GPS location information. In scheme 3 the predicted mobility parameter is combined with the connectivity to create a new compound metric for CH election. Despite various efforts in mobility clustering, not much work has been done specifically for high mobility nodes. Our proposed solution provides secure CH election and incentives to encourage nodes to honestly participating in election process. Mobility strategies are used to handle the various problems caused by node movements such as association losses to current CHs and CH role changes, for extending the connection lifetime and provide more stable clusters. The conducted simulation results shows that the proposed approach outperforms the existing clustering schemes.

  1. Algorithmic aspects of topology control problems for ad hoc networks

    Liu, R. (Rui); Lloyd, E. L. (Errol L.); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.); Ramanathan, R. (Ram); Ravi, S. S.

    2002-01-01

    Topology control problems are concerned with the assignment of power values to nodes of an ad hoc network so that the power assignment leads to a graph topology satisfying some specified properties. This paper considers such problems under several optimization objectives, including minimizing the maximum power and minimizing the total power. A general approach leading to a polynomial algorithm is presented for minimizing maximum power for a class of graph properties, called monotone properties. The difficulty of generalizing the approach to properties that are not monoione is pointed out. Problems involving the minimization of total power are known to be NP-complete even for simple graph properties. A general approach that leads to an approximation algorithm for minimizing the total power for some monotone properties is presented. Using this approach, a new approximation algorithm for the problem of minimizing the total power for obtaining a 2-node-connected graph is obtained. It is shown that this algorithm provides a constant performance guarantee. Experimental results from an implementation of the approximation algorithm are also presented.

  2. Intelligent Information Dissemination Scheme for Urban Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Jinsheng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs, a hotspot, such as a parking lot, is an information source and will receive inquiries from many vehicles for seeking any possible free parking space. According to the routing protocols in literature, each of the vehicles needs to flood its route discovery (RD packets to discover a route to the hotspot before sending inquiring packets to the parking lot. As a result, the VANET nearby an urban area or city center may incur the problem of broadcast storm due to so many flooding RD packets during rush hours. To avoid the broadcast storm problem, this paper presents a hotspot-enabled routing-tree based data forwarding method, called the intelligent information dissemination scheme (IID. Our method can let the hotspot automatically decide when to build the routing-tree for proactive information transmissions under the condition that the number of vehicle routing discoveries during a given period exceeds a certain threshold which is calculated through our developed analytical packet delivery model. The routing information will be dynamically maintained by vehicles located at each intersection near the hotspot if the maintaining cost is less than that of allowing vehicles to discover routes themselves. Simulation results show that this method can minimize routing delays for vehicles with lower packets delivery overheads.

  3. Performance Improvement in Geographic Routing for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Kaiwartya, Omprakash; Kumar, Sushil; Lobiyal, D. K.; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Hassan, Ahmed Nazar

    2014-01-01

    Geographic routing is one of the most investigated themes by researchers for reliable and efficient dissemination of information in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs). Recently, different Geographic Distance Routing (GEDIR) protocols have been suggested in the literature. These protocols focus on reducing the forwarding region towards destination to select the Next Hop Vehicles (NHV). Most of these protocols suffer from the problem of elevated one-hop link disconnection, high end-to-end delay and low throughput even at normal vehicle speed in high vehicle density environment. This paper proposes a Geographic Distance Routing protocol based on Segment vehicle, Link quality and Degree of connectivity (SLD-GEDIR). The protocol selects a reliable NHV using the criteria segment vehicles, one-hop link quality and degree of connectivity. The proposed protocol has been simulated in NS-2 and its performance has been compared with the state-of-the-art protocols: P-GEDIR, J-GEDIR and V-GEDIR. The empirical results clearly reveal that SLD-GEDIR has lower link disconnection and end-to-end delay, and higher throughput as compared to the state-of-the-art protocols. It should be noted that the performance of the proposed protocol is preserved irrespective of vehicle density and speed. PMID:25429415

  4. Key Establishment Protocols in Ad-Hoc Networks%Ad-Hoc网络中的密钥建立协议

    郎文华; 周明天

    2002-01-01

    In Ad-hoc networks, key establishment protocol is mainly contributory ,Diffie-Hellman based key agree ment protocol. In this paper, Several typical protocols are analysed and evaluated, and then, their suitability is discussed from the point of view of Ad-Hoc networks.

  5. Improvement Dynamic Source Routing Protocol by Localization for Ad hoc Networks

    Mehdi Khazaei

    2010-01-01

    Ad hoc networks are temporary networks with a dynamic topology which don t have any established infrastructure or centralized administration. Consequently, in recent years many researchers have focused on these networks. These networks need efficient routing protocols in terms of Quality of Services (QOS) metrics. Ad hoc networks suffer from frequent and rapid topology changes that cause many challenges in their routing. Most of the routing protocols like this proposed protocol try to find a ...

  6. Information Sharing Modalities for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    de Spindler, Alexandre; Grossniklaus, Michael; Lins, Christoph; Norrie, Moira C.

    2009-01-01

    Current mobile phone technologies have fostered the emergence of a new generation of mobile applications. Such applications allow users to interact and share information opportunistically when their mobile devices are in physical proximity or close to fixed installations. It has been shown how mobile applications such as collaborative filtering and location-based services can take advantage of ad-hoc connectivity to use physical proximity as a filter mechanism inherent to the application logi...

  7. Network virtualization through the virtual private ad hoc network concept

    Dedecker, Peter; Hoebeke, Jeroen; Moerman, Ingrid; Demeester, Piet

    2008-01-01

    The internet is evolving towards a large "network of networks", integrating a large number of different networking technologies and offering users broadband connectivity at any time and place. As such users can enjoy more interactive, multi-media driven content (Web 2.0). however, many scenarios (personal networks, collaborative working, health care networks, emergency networks...) require secure communication between a limited number of possible distributed and mobile devices and for a varie...

  8. Design and Implementation of Anycast Services in Ad Hoc Networks Connected to IPv6 Networks

    Xiaonan Wang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a communication model of implementing an Anycast service in an Ad Hoc network which is connected to IPv6 networks where IPv6 nodes can obtain the Anycast service provided by the Ad hoc network. In this model when an Anycast mobile member in an Ad hoc network moves it can keep the existing communications with its corresponding nodes to continue providing the Anycast services with good quality of service to IPv6 nodes. This model creates a new kind of IPv6 address auto-configuration scheme which does not need the address duplication detection. This paper deeply discusses and analyzes the model and the experimental data prove its validity and efficiency.

  9. Cognitive radio network in vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET): A survey

    Joanne Mun-Yee Lim; Yoong Choon Chang; Mohamad Yusoff Alias; Jonathan Loo

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive radio network and Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) are recent emerging concepts in wireless networking. Cognitive radio network obtains knowledge of its operational geographical environment to manage sharing of spectrum between primary and secondary users, while VANET shares emergency safety messages among vehicles to ensure safety of users on the road. Cognitive radio network is employed in VANET to ensure the efficient use of spectrum, as well as to support VANET’s deployment. Ran...

  10. Inter-vehicle-communications based on ad hoc networking principles. The FleetNet Project

    Franz, Walter; Hartenstein, Hannes; Mauve, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) represent an emerging topic in wireless communication and networking. VANETs are currently receiving a lot of attention due to their promise of considerably increasing safety and comfort while being on the road. High mobility, adverse channel conditions, and market introduction are some of the key challenges one has to deal with when designing these spontaneous networks. Inter-Vehicle-Communications Based on Ad Hoc Networking Principles covers results and ac...

  11. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORK

    Chirag Jain; Vikas Raghuwanshi

    2016-01-01

    A Network which is form spontaneously by the collection of wireless nodes without any centralized administration or already existing network infrastructure called Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET). Performance evaluation of different Ad-Hoc networks routing protocols viz. DSDV, AODV & DSR on the basis of four parameter such as Packet delivery ratio, throughput, packet drop and routing overhead is main objective of this paper. NS-2, which is a discrete event simulation tool, is used in which T...

  12. Improving the Congestion Control over Stateless Wireless Ad Hoc Network Systems

    Shrikant Pujar; Prof. Vasudev K Parvati

    2013-01-01

    In this Paper, We are dealing with the Current Qos Models for MANETs. We have proposed theExtension of Stateless Wireless Ad Hoc Network (SWAN) in order to improve Qos by using the schedulingModule Stateless network model which uses Rate Control Algorithm to deliver service differentiation inmobile wireless ad hoc network in a simple, scalable manner. In the Results we have shown the CongestionFree Routing between two different nodes of a Network through Router.

  13. An Optimal Path Management Strategy in Mobile Ad Hoc Network Using Fuzzy and Rough Set Theory

    P. Seethalakshmi; M. J.A. Jude; Rajendran, G

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that dynamically forms a network. Most of the existing ad-hoc routing algorithms select the shortest path using various resources. However the selected path may not consider all the network parameters and this would result in link instability in the network. The problems with existing methods are frequent route change with respect to change in topology, congestion as result of traffic and battery limitat...

  14. Simulation-Based Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols in Vehicular Ad-hoc Network

    Vaishali D. Khairnar; Kotecha, Dr. Ketan

    2013-01-01

    A Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is a collection of wireless vehicle nodes forming a temporary network without using any centralized Road Side Unit (RSU). VANET protocols have to face high challenges due to dynamically changing topologies and symmetric links of networks. A suitable and effective routing mechanism helps to extend the successful deployment of vehicular ad-hoc networks. An attempt has been made to compare the performance of two On-demand reactive routing protocols namely AODV ...

  15. Estimation of System Operating Margin for Different Modulation Schemes in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    TilotmaYadav; Partha Pratim Bhattacharya

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, system operating margin (SOM) is estimated for vehicular ad-hoc networks in absence and presence of Rayleigh fading. The Ad-hoc IEEE 802.11 model is considered for estimating the signal strength and system operating margin. Rayleigh fading was then simulated and system operating margin are estimated in Rayleigh fading environment for different standard modulation schemes.

  16. Analysis of Fuzzy Logic Based Intrusion Detection Systems in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    A. Chaudhary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the advancement in wireless technologies, many of new paradigms have opened for communications. Among these technologies, mobile ad hoc networks play a prominent role for providing communication in many areas because of its independent nature of predefined infrastructure. But in terms of security, these networks are more vulnerable than the conventional networks because firewall and gateway based security mechanisms cannot be applied on it. That’s why intrusion detection systems are used as keystone in these networks. Many number of intrusion detection systems have been discovered to handle the uncertain activity in mobile ad hoc networks. This paper emphasized on proposed fuzzy based intrusion detection systems in mobile ad hoc networks and presented their effectiveness to identify the intrusions. This paper also examines the drawbacks of fuzzy based intrusion detection systems and discussed the future directions in the field of intrusion detection for mobile ad hoc networks.

  17. Research on security and privacy in vehicular ad hoc networks

    Zhang, Lei

    2010-01-01

    Los sistemas de redes ad hoc vehiculares (VANET) tienen como objetivo proporcionar una plataforma para diversas aplicaciones que pueden mejorar la seguridad vial, la eficiencia del tráfico, la asistencia a la conducción, la regulación del transporte, etc. o que pueden proveer de una mejor información y entretenimiento a los usuarios de los vehículos. Actualmente se está llevando a cabo un gran esfuerzo industrial y de investigación para desarrollar un mercado que se estima alcance en un futur...

  18. Clustering in mobile ad hoc network based on neural network

    CHEN Ai-bin; CAI Zi-xing; HU De-wen

    2006-01-01

    An on-demand distributed clustering algorithm based on neural network was proposed. The system parameters and the combined weight for each node were computed, and cluster-heads were chosen using the weighted clustering algorithm, then a training set was created and a neural network was trained. In this algorithm, several system parameters were taken into account, such as the ideal node-degree, the transmission power, the mobility and the battery power of the nodes. The algorithm can be used directly to test whether a node is a cluster-head or not. Moreover, the clusters recreation can be speeded up.

  19. Simulation Based: Study and Analysis of Routing Protocol in Vehicular Ad-hoc Network Environment

    Vaishali D. Khairnar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET consists of vehicles which communicate with each other and exchange data via wireless communication links available between the vehicles which are in communication ranges of vehicles to improve the road safety in city. The communication between vehicles is used to provide road safety, comfort and entertainment. The performance of communication depends on how better routing takes place in the network. Routing data between the source and destination vehicle depends on the routing protocols being used in vehicular ad-hoc network. In this simulation based study we investigated about different ad hoc routing protocols for vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET. The main goal of our study was to identify which ad hoc routing protocol has better performance in highly mobile environment of vehicular ad-hoc network. We have measured the performance of routing protocols using 802.11p in vehicular ad-hoc network in which we considered the scenario of city (i.e. Route between Nerul and Vashi where we have take 1200 different types of vehicles and checked their performance. Routing protocols are selected after the literature review. The selected protocols are then evaluated through simulation under 802.11p in terms of performance metrics (i.e PDR & E2E delay

  20. Using Road IDs to Enhance Clustering in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks

    Hadded, Mohamed; Muhlethaler, Paul; Zagrouba, Rachid; Laouiti, Anis; Saidane, Leila Azouz

    2015-01-01

    —Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) where vehicles act as mobile nodes is an instance of Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs), which are essentially developed for intelligent transportation systems. A challenging problem when designing communication protocols in VANETs is coping with high vehicle mobility, which causes frequent changes in the network topology and leads to frequent breaks in communication. The clustering technique is being developed to reduce the impact of mobility between neighbor...

  1. Multicast Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: A Comparative Survey and Taxonomy

    Badarneh OsamahS; Kadoch Michel

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Multicasting plays a crucial role in many applications of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). It can significantly improve the performance of these networks, the channel capacity (in mobile ad hoc networks, especially single-channel ones, capacity is a more appropriate term than bandwidth, capacity is measured in bits/s and bandwidth in Hz) and battery power of which are limited. In the past couple of years, a number of multicast routing protocols have been proposed. In spite of being d...

  2. An Agent Based Intrusion Detection Model for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Reshmi, B. M.; Manvi, S. S.; Bhagyavati

    2006-01-01

    Intrusion detection has over the last few years, assumed paramount importance within the broad realm of network security, more so in case of wireless mobile ad hoc networks. The inherently vulnerable characteristics of wireless mobile ad hoc networks make them susceptible to attacks in-spite of some security measures, and it may be too late before any counter action can take effect. As such, there is a need to complement traditional security mechanisms with efficient intrusion detection and r...

  3. Protection of an intrusion detection engine with watermarking in ad hoc networks

    Mitrokotsa, A.; Komninos, N.; Douligeris, C.

    2010-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks have received great attention in recent years, mainly due to the evolution of wireless networking and mobile computing hardware. Nevertheless, many inherent vulnerabilities exist in mobile ad hoc networks and their applications that affect the security of wireless transactions. As intrusion prevention mechanisms, such as encryption and authentication, are not sufficient we need a second line of defense, Intrusion Detection. In this pa-per we present an intrusion detecti...

  4. The Study of Routing Strategies in Vehicular Ad- Hoc Network to Enhance Security

    Parveen Kumar

    2012-01-01

    In VANET, or Intelligent Vehicular Ad-HocNetworking, defines an intelligent way of usingVehicular Networking. In VANET integrates onmultiple ad-hoc networking technologies such as WIFIIEEE 802.11p, WAVE IEEE 1609, WIMAX IEEE802.16, Bluetooth, IRA, and ZIGBEE for easy,accurate, effective and simple communication betweenvehicles on dynamic mobility. Effective measuressuch as media communication between vehicles canbe enabled as well as methods to track the automotivevehicles. In VANET helps in ...

  5. Mobile Codes Localization in Ad hoc Networks: a Comparative Study of Centralized and Distributed Approaches

    Zafoune, Youcef; kanawati, Rushed; 10.5121/ijcnc.2010.2213

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach in the management of mobile ad hoc networks. Our alternative, based on mobile agent technology, allows the design of mobile centralized server in ad hoc network, where it is not obvious to think about a centralized management, due to the absence of any administration or fixed infrastructure in these networks. The aim of this centralized approach is to provide permanent availability of services in ad hoc networks which are characterized by a distributed management. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, we apply it to solve the problem of mobile code localization in ad hoc networks. A comparative study, based upon a simulation, of centralized and distributed localization protocols in terms of messages number exchanged and response time shows that the centralized approach in a distributed form is more interesting than a totally centralized approach.

  6. COMPARATIVE REVIEW FOR ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Hatem S. A. Hamatta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks is one of the attractive research field that growing exponentially in the last decade. it surrounded by much challenges that should be solved the improve establishment of such networks. Failure of wireless link is considered as one of popular challenges faced by Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs. As this type of networks does not require any pre-exist hardware. As well as, every node have the ability of roaming where it can be connected to other nodes dynamically. Therefore, the network internal structure will be unpredictably changed frequently according to continuous activities between nodes that simultaneously update network topology in the basis of active ad-hoc nature. This model puts the functionality of routing operation in crucial angle in the area of research under mobile adhoc network field due to highly dynamic nature. Adapting such kernel makes MANET indigence new routing techniques to settle these challenges. Thereafter, tremendous amount of routing protocols proposed to argue with ad-hoc nature. Thus, it is quite difficult to specify which protocols operate efficiently under different mobile ad-hoc scenarios. This paper examines some of the prominent routing protocols that are designed for mobile ad-hoc networks by describing their structures, operations, features and then comparing their various characteristics.

  7. Mobility Models for Next Generation Wireless Networks Ad Hoc, Vehicular and Mesh Networks

    Santi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Mobility Models for Next Generation Wireless Networks: Ad Hoc, Vehicular and Mesh Networks provides the reader with an overview of mobility modelling, encompassing both theoretical and practical aspects related to the challenging mobility modelling task. It also: Provides up-to-date coverage of mobility models for next generation wireless networksOffers an in-depth discussion of the most representative mobility models for major next generation wireless network application scenarios, including WLAN/mesh networks, vehicular networks, wireless sensor networks, and

  8. DESAIN ALGORITMA DAN SIMULASI ROUTING UNTUK GATEWAY AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKS

    Nixson Meok

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available   Routing protocol to the wireless ad hoc networks is very needed in the communication process between some terminals, to send the data packet through one or several node(s to the destination address where the network typology is always changing. Many previous works that discussed about routing ad hoc both for manet (mobile ad hoc networks and wireless networks, but the emphasis have more focus on comparing the performance of several routing ad hoc. While in this work, there is a bulding of routing algorithm model to gateway in land to the nodes that analogized as a boat that move on the sea. With the assumption that the communication inter terminals to radio band of Very High Frequency, thus algorithm that built in the simulation based on the range gap of the HF frequency. The result of this simulation will be developed as the platform to implement the service development of multiuser communication

  9. A Group Based Key Sharing and Management Algorithm for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Moharram, Mohammed Morsi; Azam, Farzana

    2014-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are one special type of ad hoc networks that involves vehicles on roads. Typically like ad hoc networks, broadcast approach is used for data dissemination. Blind broadcast to each and every node results in exchange of useless and irrelevant messages and hence creates an overhead. Unicasting is not preferred in ad-hoc networks due to the dynamic topology and the resource requirements as compared to broadcasting. Simple broadcasting techniques create several problems on privacy, disturbance, and resource utilization. In this paper, we propose media mixing algorithm to decide what information should be provided to each user and how to provide such information. Results obtained through simulation show that fewer number of keys are needed to share compared to simple broadcasting. Privacy is also enhanced through this approach. PMID:24587749

  10. Node Disjoint-Virtual Circuit Approach in Ad Hoc On-Demand Multipath Distance Vector Routing to offer Quality of Service in Ad Hoc Networks

    B.SREEDEVI,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Multi-path routing represents a promising routing method for wireless mobile ad hoc networks. Multipath routing achieves load balancing and is more resilient to route failures. Numerous multipath routing protocols have been proposed for wireless ad hoc networks and the most important among them is Ad hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV. By virtual circuit approach, using the property of node disjointness, its performance is evaluated. The simulation in Network Simulator (ns2 shows that it is good in its throughput with packet delivery ratio with less delay. The results conclude that AOMDV performs well than Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV in all above said aspects.

  11. Low Power 24 GHz ad hoc Networking System Based on TDOA for Indoor Localization

    Melanie Jung; Georg Fischer; Robert Weigel; Thomas Ussmueller

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the key elements of a novel low-power, high precision localization system based on Time-Difference-of-Arrival (TDOA) distance measurements. The combination of multiple localizable sensor nodes, leads to an ad hoc network. Besides the localization functionality this ad hoc network has the additional advantage of a communication interface. Due to this a flexible positioning of the master station for information collection and the detection of static and mobile nodes is pos...

  12. Context discovery using attenuated Bloom filters in ad-hoc networks

    Liu, Fei; Heijenk, Geert; Braun, Torsten; Carle, Georg; Fahmy, Sonia; Koucheryavy, Yevgeni

    2006-01-01

    A novel approach to performing context discovery in ad-hoc networks based on the use of attenuated Bloom filters is proposed in this paper. In order to investigate the performance of this approach, a model has been developed. This document describes the model and its validation. The model has been implemented in Matlab, and some results are also shown in this document. Attenuated Bloom filters appear to be a very promising approach for context discovery in ad hoc networks.

  13. A Study on the Tracking Problem in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Xing Zhang; Bang Liu; Jinchuan Tang

    2013-01-01

    Vehicles have the characteristic of high mobility which makes vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) different from other mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), it is more difficult to establish an end-to-end route in VANETs, and the source and destination nodes keep moving fast from their original locations. To guarantee a data packet will finally be received by the destination node in VANETs, and the location of the destination node must be tracked constantly. Advanced Greedy Forwarding (AGF (Naumov ...

  14. On Reliability of Dynamic Addressing Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Caleffi, Marcello; Paura, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a reliability analysis is carried out to state a performance comparison between two recently proposed proactive routing algorithms. These protocols are able to scale in ad hoc and sensor networks by resorting to dynamic addressing, to face with the topology variability, which is typical of ad hoc, and sensor networks. Numerical simulations are also carried out to corroborate the results of the analysis.

  15. Improve performance of tcp new reno over mobile ad-hoc network using abra

    Dhananjay Bisen; Sanjeev Sharma

    2011-01-01

    In a mobile ad hoc network, temporary link failures and route changes occur frequently. With the assumption that all packet losses are due to congestion, TCP performs poorly in such an environment. There are many versions of TCP which modified time to time as per need. In this paper modifications introduced on TCP New Reno over mobile ad-hoc networks using calculation of New Retransmission Time out (RTO), to improve performance in term of congestion control. To calculate New RTO, adaptive bac...

  16. DelPHI: wormhole detection mechanism for ad hoc wireless networks

    Chiu, HS; Wong Lui, KS

    2006-01-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks, data transmission is performed within an untrusted wireless environment. Various kinds of attack have been identified and corresponding solutions have been proposed. Wormhole attack is one of the serious attacks which forms a serious threat in the networks, especially against many ad hoc wireless routing protocols and location-based wireless security system. We identify two types of wormhole attacks. In the first type, malicious nodes do not take part in finding rou...

  17. Review Strategies and Analysis of Mobile Ad Hoc Network- Internet Integration Solutions

    Rakesh Kumar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The desire to be connected anytime and anywhere has led to the development of wireless networks, opening new vista of research in pervasive and ubiquitous computing. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs use portable devices such as mobile phones, laptops or personal digital assistants (PDAs for spontaneous establishment of communication. Most existing research in the area of mobile Ad Hoc Networks is limited to stand-alone isolated networks. But connectivity of a mobile Ad Hoc network to the Internet is also desirable as more and more applications and services in our society now depend on fixed infrastructure networks. It is therefore important that dynamically deployed wireless Ad Hoc networks should also gain access to these fixed networks and their services. The integration of MANETs into Internet increases the networking flexibility and coverage of existing infrastructure networks. Although researchers have proposed many solutions, but it is still unclear which one offer the best performance compared to the others. When an Ad Hoc network is connected to Internet, it is important for the mobile nodes to detect efficiently available Internet gateways providing access to the Internet. Internet gateway discovery time and handover delay have strong influence on packet delay and throughput. The key challenge in providing connectivity is to minimize the overhead of mobile IP and Ad Hoc routing protocol between Internet and Ad Hoc networks. There, this paper focuses on proposed technical solutions on Internet gateway discovery and also we briefly describe different ways to provide global Internet access for MANETs. Finally, some challenges are also mentioned which need in depth investigation.

  18. Handbook on theoretical and algorithmic aspects of sensor, ad hoc wireless, and peer-to-peer networks

    Wu, Jie

    2005-01-01

    PrefaceAD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKSA Modular Cross Layer Architecture for Ad Hoc Networks, M. Conti, J. Crowcroft, G. Maselli, and G. TuriRouting Scalability in MANETs, J. Eriksson, S. Krishnamurthy and M. FaloutsosUniformly Distributed Algorithm for Virtual Backbone Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, D.S. KimMaximum Necessary Hop Count for Packet Routing in MANET, X. Chen and J. ShenEfficient Strategyproof Multicast in Selfish Wireless Networks, X.-Yang LiGeocasting in Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, I. StojmenovicTopology Control for Ad hoc Networks: Present Solutions and Open Issues, C.-C. Shen a

  19. LINK STABILITY WITH ENERGY AWARE AD HOC ON DEMAND MULTIPATH ROUTING PROTOCOL IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Senthil Murugan Tamilarasan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Network is one of the wireless network in which mobile nodes are communicate with each other and have no infrastructure because no access point. The MANET protocols can be classified as proactive and reactive routing protocol. The proactive routing protocols, all nodes which participated in network have routing table. This table updated periodically and is used to find the path between source and destination. The reactive routing protocol, nodes are initiate route discovery procedure when on-demand routes. In order to find the better route in MANET, many routing protocols are designed in the recent years. But those protocols are not concentrating about communication links and battery energy. Communication links between nodes and energy of nodes are very important factor for improving quality of routing protocols. This study presents innovative Link Stability with Energy Aware (LSEA multipath routing protocol. The key idea of the protocol is find the link quality, maximum remaining energy and lower delay. Reflections of these factors are increasing the qualities like packet delivery ratio, throughputs and reduce end-to-end delay. The LSEAMRP was simulated on NS-2 and evaluation results also shown.

  20. Virtual closed networks: A secure approach to autonomous mobile ad hoc networks

    Darren P Smith; Wetherall, Jodie; Adekunle, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The increasing autonomy of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) has enabled a great many large-scale unguided missions, such as agricultural planning, conservation and similar surveying tasks. Commercial and military institutions have expressed great interest in such ventures; raising the question of security as the application of such systems in potentially hostile environments becomes a desired function of such networks. Preventing theft, disruption or destruction of such MANETs through cyber-at...

  1. Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Traffic Safety

    Angelica Reyes-Muñoz; Mari Carmen Domingo; Marco Antonio López-Trinidad; José Luis Delgado

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs) a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1) an exhaustive review of...

  2. A Novel approach for Implementing Security over Vehicular Ad hoc network using Signcryption through Network Grid

    Vijayan R; Sumitkumar Singh

    2011-01-01

    Security over Vehicular ad hoc network and identifying accurate vehicle location has always been a major challenge over VANET. Even though GPS system can be used to identify the location of the vehicle they too suffer from major drawbacks. A novel approach has been suggested by the author wherein the VANET is made more secured by using Signcryption technique and at the same time unique approach of using Network Grid to flawlessly identify the location of the vehicle has been proposed.

  3. Integration of body sensor networks and vehicular ad-hoc networks for traffic safety

    Reyes Muñoz, María Angélica; Domingo Aladrén, Mari Carmen; López Trinidad, Marco Antonio; Delgado, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs) a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1) an exhaustive review of...

  4. A Comparison of the TCP Variants Performance over different Routing Protocols on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    S. R. Biradar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a variant of TCP (Tahoe, Vegas, TCP is most widely used transport protocol in both wired and wireless networks. In mobile ad hoc networks, the topology changes frequently due to mobile nodes, this leads to significant packet losses and network throughput degradation. This is due to the fact that TCP fails to distinguish the path failure and network congestion. In this paper, the performances of TCP over different routing (DSR, AODV and DSDV protocols in ad hoc networks wasstudied by simulation experiments and results are reported.

  5. An implementation of traffic light system using multi-hop Ad hoc networks

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2009-08-01

    In ad hoc networks nodes cooperate with each other to form a temporary network without the aid of any centralized administration. No wired base station or infrastructure is supported, and each host communicates via radio packets. Each host must act as a router, since routes are mostly multi-hop, due to the limited power transmission set by government agencies, (e.g. the Federal Communication Commission (FCC), which is 1 Watt in Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. The natures of wireless mobile ad hoc networks depend on batteries or other fatiguing means for their energy. A limited energy capacity may be the most significant performance constraint. Therefore, radio resource and power management is an important issue of any wireless network. In this paper, a design for traffic light system employing ad hoc networks is proposed. The traffic light system runs automatically based on signals sent through a multi-hop ad hoc network of \\'n\\' number of nodes utilizing the Token Ring protocol, which is efficient for this application from the energy prospective. The experiment consists of a graphical user interface that simulates the traffic lights and laptops (which have wireless network adapters) are used to run the graphical user interface and are responsible for setting up the ad hoc network between them. The traffic light system has been implemented utilizing A Mesh Driver (which allows for more than one wireless device to be connected simultaneously) and Java-based client-server programs. © 2009 IEEE.

  6. Review of Artificial Immune System to Enhance Security in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    Tarun Dalal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-hoc Networks consist of wireless host that communicate with each other. The routes in a Mobile Ad-hoc Network may consist of many hops through other hosts between source and destination. The hosts are not fixed in a Mobile Adhoc Network; due to host mobility topology can change any time. Mobile Ad-hoc Networks are much more vulnerable to security attacks. Current research works on securing Mobile Adhoc Networks mainly focus on confidentiality, integrity,authentication, availability, and fairness. Design of routingprotocols is very much crucial in Mobile Ad-hoc Network. There are various techniques for securing Mobile Ad-hoc Network i.e. cryptography. Cryptography provides efficient mechanism to provide security, but it creates very much overhead. So, an approach is used which is analogous to Biological Immune System, known as Artificial Immune System (AIS. There is a reason of AIS to be used for security purposes because the Human Immune System (HIS protects the body against damage from an extremely large number of harmfulbacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi, termed pathogens. It doesthis largely without prior knowledge of the structure of thesepathogens. AIS provide security by determining non-trusted nodes and eliminate all non-trusted nodes from the network.

  7. Impact of network structure on the capacity of wireless multihop ad hoc communication

    Krause, Wolfram; Glauche, Ingmar; Sollacher, Rudolf; Greiner, Martin

    2004-07-01

    As a representative of a complex technological system, the so-called wireless multihop ad hoc communication networks are discussed. They represent an infrastructure-less generalization of todays wireless cellular phone networks. Lacking a central control authority, the ad hoc nodes have to coordinate themselves such that the overall network performs in an optimal way. A performance indicator is the end-to-end throughput capacity. Various models, generating differing ad hoc network structure via differing transmission power assignments, are constructed and characterized. They serve as input for a generic data traffic simulation as well as some semi-analytic estimations. The latter reveal that due to the most-critical-node effect the end-to-end throughput capacity sensitively depends on the underlying network structure, resulting in differing scaling laws with respect to network size.

  8. URSA: Ubiquitous and Robust Access Control for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Luo, Haiyun; Kong, Jiejun; Zerfos, Petros; Lu, Songwu; Zhang, Lixia

    2004-01-01

    Restricting network access of routing and packet forwarding to well-behaving nodes and denying access from misbehaving nodes are critical for the proper functioning of a mobile ad-hoc network where cooperation among all networking nodes is usually assumed. However, the lack of a network infrastructure, the dynamics of the network topology and node membership, and the potential attacks from inside the network by malicious and/or noncooperative selfish nodes make the conventional network access...

  9. An Energy-Aware On-Demand Routing Protocol for Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks

    Veerayya, Mallapur

    2008-01-01

    An ad-hoc wireless network is a collection of nodes that come together to dynamically create a network, with no fixed infrastructure or centralized administration. An ad-hoc network is characterized by energy constrained nodes, bandwidth constrained links and dynamic topology. With the growing use of wireless networks (including ad-hoc networks) for real-time applications, such as voice, video, and real-time data, the need for Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees in terms of delay, bandwidth, and packet loss is becoming increasingly important. Providing QoS in ad-hoc networks is a challenging task because of dynamic nature of network topology and imprecise state information. Hence, it is important to have a dynamic routing protocol with fast re-routing capability, which also provides stable route during the life-time of the flows. In this thesis, we have proposed a novel, energy aware, stable routing protocol named, Stability-based QoS-capable Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (SQ-AODV), which is an enhancement...

  10. Analysis of Efficient Address Allocation Schemes In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    S.Zahoor Ul Huq

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET can be implemented anywhere where there is little or no communication infrastructure, or the existing infrastructure is inconvenient to use. A number of mobile devices may connect together to form one network. Address auto-configuration is an important issue for ad hoc networks in order to provide autonomous networking and self-management. In this paper we take into account various parameters for designing an efficient address allocation scheme in MANETs and consider the best of them to build an efficient protocol for Address allocation in MANETs.

  11. Specification and Validation of an Edge Router Discovery Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Jensen, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    core network in assigning network address prefixes to gateways in mobile ad-hoc networks. This paper focuses on how CP-nets and the CPN computer tools have been applied in the development of ERDP. A CPN model has been constructed that constitutes a formal executable specification of ERDP. Simulation...

  12. A Decentralized VPN Service over Generalized Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Fujita, Sho; Shima, Keiichi; Uo, Yojiro; Esaki, Hiroshi

    We present a decentralized VPN service that can be built over generalized mobile ad-hoc networks (Generalized MANETs), in which topologies can be represented as a time-varying directed multigraph. We address wireless ad-hoc networks and overlay ad-hoc networks as instances of Generalized MANETs. We first propose an architecture to operate on various kinds of networks through a single set of operations. Then, we design and implement a decentralized VPN service on the proposed architecture. Through the development and operation of a prototype system we implemented, we found that the proposed architecture makes the VPN service applicable to each instance of Generalized MANETs, and that the VPN service makes it possible for unmodified applications to operate on the networks.

  13. A Survey of Congestion Control in Proactive Source Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Bhagyashree S kayarkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks (MANET congestion can take place between the two intermediate nodes, when the packet is transferred from the source to the destination. The congestion in MANET is mainly due to frequent change to topology and high mobility of nodes, which lead to high loss of packet. In ad hoc network the congestion control techniques with TCP becomes difficult to handle since in ad hoc network there is high density of nodes in the network and there is frequent change to topology in the network. In this paper to control the congestion in proactive source routing protocol an error message is generated by the receiver to reduce the packet sending rate. We are using a new control message i.e., Packet Error Announcing Message called (PEAM messages.

  14. The Evolution of IDS Solutions in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks To Wireless Mesh Networks

    Novarun Deb

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The domain of wireless networks is inherently vulnerable to attacks due to the unreliable wireless medium. Such networks can be secured from intrusions using either prevention or detection schemes. This paper focuses its study on intrusion detection rather than prevention of attacks. As attackers keep onimprovising too, an active prevention method alone cannot provide total security to the system. Here in lies the importance of intrusion detection systems (IDS that are solely designed to detect intrusions in real time. Wireless networks are broadly classified into Wireless Ad-hoc Networks (WAHNs, Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANETs, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs and the most recent Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs. Several IDS solutions have been proposed for these networks. This paper is an extension to a survey of IDS solutions for MANETs and WMNs published earlier in the sense that the present survey offers a comparative insight of recent IDS solutions for all the sub domains of wireless networks.

  15. Efficient Packet Forwarding Approach in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks Using EBGR Algorithm

    Prasanth, K; Jayasudha, K; Chandrasekar, C

    2010-01-01

    VANETs (Vehicular Ad hoc Networks) are highly mobile wireless ad hoc networks and will play an important role in public safety communications and commercial applications. Routing of data in VANETs is a challenging task due to rapidly changing topology and high speed mobility of vehicles. Conventional routing protocols in MANETs (Mobile Ad hoc Networks) are unable to fully address the unique characteristics in vehicular networks. In this paper, we propose EBGR (Edge Node Based Greedy Routing), a reliable greedy position based routing approach to forward packets to the node present in the edge of the transmission range of source/forwarding node as most suitable next hop, with consideration of nodes moving in the direction of the destination. We propose Revival Mobility model (RMM) to evaluate the performance of our routing technique. This paper presents a detailed description of our approach and simulation results show that packet delivery ratio is improved considerably compared to other routing techniques of V...

  16. Efficient Packet Forwarding Approach in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks Using EBGR Algorithm

    K. Jayasudha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available VANETs (Vehicular Ad hoc Networks are highly mobile wireless ad hoc networks and will play an important role in public safety communications and commercial applications. Routing of data in VANETs is a challenging task due to rapidly changing topology and high speed mobility of vehicles. Conventional routing protocols in MANETs (Mobile Ad hoc Networks are unable to fully address the unique characteristics in vehicular networks. In this paper, we propose EBGR (Edge Node Based Greedy Routing, a reliable greedy position based routing approach to forward packets to the node present in the edge of the transmission range of source/forwarding node as most suitable next hop, with consideration of nodes moving in the direction of the destination. We propose Revival Mobility model (RMM to evaluate the performance of our routing technique. This paper presents a detailed description of our approach and simulation results show that packet delivery ratio is improved considerably compared to other routing techniques of VANET.

  17. A Secure and Pragmatic Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    LIU Zhi-yuan

    2008-01-01

    An ad hoc network is a group of wireless mobile computers (or nodes), in which individual nodes cooperate by forwarding packets for each other to allow nodes to communicate beyond direct wireless transmission range. Because of node mobility and power limitations, the network topology changes frequently. Routing protocol plays an important role in the ad hoc network. A recent trend in ad hoc network routing is the reactive on-demand philosophy where routes are established only when required. As an optimization for the current Dynamic Source Routing Protocol, a secure and pragmatic routes selection scheme based on Reputation Systems was proposed. We design the Secure and Pragmatic Routing protocol and implement simulation models using GloMoSim. Simulation results show that the Secure and Pragmatic Routing protocol provides better experimental results on packet delivery ratio, power consumption and system throughput than Dynamic Source Routing Protocol.

  18. Strategies for enhancing the accuracy and security in ad hoc networks

    Behnam Rahmani Delijani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ad Hoc networks are a type of mobile wireless networks composed of mobile and stationary nodes which are moving freely and independently or they are stable. Setting up Ad Hoc networks is very simple and as these networks do not need a standard fixed infrastructure and central legal license, their setting up cost is very low. So, in specials, temporary or short-term situations such as flood, earthquake and fire as well as in military environments where all telecommunication platforms are destroyed, these networks are used as a new solution for creating communications between network elements. As Ad Hoc networks have a limited energy and nodes are continuously displacing, consequently, the accuracy of these networks is important. Nodes can be easily added to the network at any time or leave the network. It not only leads to easy creation of a network and its fast, easy and low-cost expansion, but also makes it possible for an enemy to enter the network. Therefore, the security of these networks must also be considered. In this paper, using a new method and imposing limitations on some network nodes, we created a more reliable network with higher accuracy and security.

  19. The Study of Routing Strategies in Vehicular Ad- Hoc Network to Enhance Security

    Parveen Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In VANET, or Intelligent Vehicular Ad-HocNetworking, defines an intelligent way of usingVehicular Networking. In VANET integrates onmultiple ad-hoc networking technologies such as WIFIIEEE 802.11p, WAVE IEEE 1609, WIMAX IEEE802.16, Bluetooth, IRA, and ZIGBEE for easy,accurate, effective and simple communication betweenvehicles on dynamic mobility. Effective measuressuch as media communication between vehicles canbe enabled as well as methods to track the automotivevehicles. In VANET helps in defining safety measuresin vehicles, streaming communication betweenvehicles, infotainment and TELEMATICS.

  20. Topology-Transparent Transmission Scheduling Algorithms in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    MA Xiao-lei; WANG Chun-jiang; LIU Yuan-an; MA Lei-lei

    2005-01-01

    In order to maximize the average throughput and minimize the transmission slot delay in wireless Ad Hoc networks,an optimal topology-transparent transmission scheduling algorithm-multichannel Time-Spread Multiple Access(TSMA)is proposed.Further analysis is shown that the maximum degree is very sensitive to the network performance for a wireless Ad Hoc networks with N mobile nodes.Moreover,the proposed multichannel TSMA can improve the average throughput M times and decrease the average transmission slot delay M times,as compared with singlechannel TSMA when M channels are available.

  1. Centralized cooperative spectrum sensing for ad-hoc disaster relief network clusters

    Pratas, Nuno; Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.; Rodrigues, Antonio; Prasad, Ramjee

    Disaster relief networks have to be highly adaptable and resilient. Cognitive radio enhanced ad-hoc architecture have been put forward as a candidate to enable such networks. Spectrum sensing is the cornerstone of the cognitive radio paradigm, and it has been the target of intensive research. The...... main common conclusion was that the achievable spectrum sensing accuracy can be greatly enhanced through the use of cooperative sensing schemes. When considering applying Cognitive Radio to ad-hoc disaster relief networks, spectrum sensing cooperative schemes are paramount. A centralized cluster...

  2. Decentralized cooperative spectrum sensing for ad-hoc disaster relief network clusters

    Pratas, Nuno; Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.; Rodrigues, António; Prasad, Ramjee

    Disaster relief networks need to be highly adaptable and resilient in order to encompass the emergency service demands. Cognitive Radio enhanced ad-hoc architecture have been put forward as candidate to enable such networks. Spectrum sensing, the cornerstone of the Cognitive Radio paradigm, has...... been the target of intensive research, of which the main common conclusion was that the achievable spectrum sensing accuracy can be greatly enhanced through the use of cooperative sensing schemes. When considering applying Cognitive Radio to ad-hoc disaster relief networks, the use of spectrum sensing...

  3. Mitigate DoS and DDoS attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Michalas, Antonis; Komninos, Nikos; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a technique to defeat Denial of Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks in Ad Hoc Networks. The technique is divided into two main parts and with game theory and cryptographic puzzles. Introduced first is a new client puzzle to prevent DoS attacks in such...... networks. The second part presents a multiplayer game that takes place between the nodes of an ad hoc network and based on fundamental principles of game theory. By combining computational problems with puzzles, improvement occurs in the efficiency and latency of the communicating nodes and resistance in...

  4. Novel multi-path routing scheme for UWB Ad hoc network

    XU Ping-ping; YANG Cai-yu; SONG Shu-qing; BI Guang-guo

    2005-01-01

    The routing protocols play an important role for ad hoc networks performance. As some problems with DSR,SMR, and AMR protocols were analyzed, a new routing protocol suitable for UWB Ad hoc networks was proposed in this paper. The new routing protocol utilize an act of orientation of UWB and tries to get sufficient route information and decrease the network load caused by route discovery at the same time. Simulation results show that the routing load of the new protocol is lower and throughput is higher than that of DSR. While the node's mobility increases, these advantages become more obvious.

  5. Improvement of Performance of Mobile AD HOC Network using K- Path Splittable Traffic flow Scheme

    Sushil Chandra Dimri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a set of wireless mobile computer forming a temporary network with out any wired infrastructure, due to dynamic nature of topology and other constraints transmission routing is a challenging task in MANET. k path splittable routing establish at most k paths between single source and single destination node, this scheme provides better load balancing and increase in reliability of data transmission. This paper presents a comparative study of single path routing and k path routing in mobile ad hoc network

  6. Optimized network structure and routing metric in wireless multihop ad hoc communication

    Krause, Wolfram; Scholz, Jan; Greiner, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Inspired by the Statistical Physics of complex networks, wireless multihop ad hoc communication networks are considered in abstracted form. Since such engineered networks are able to modify their structure via topology control, we search for optimized network structures, which maximize the end-to-end throughput performance. A modified version of betweenness centrality is introduced and shown to be very relevant for the respective modeling. The calculated optimized network structures lead to a...

  7. Replica Dissemination and Update Strategies in Cluster-Based Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Denko, Mieso K.; Hua Lu

    2006-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that forms a temporary network without the aid of a fixed communication infrastructure. Since every node can be mobile and network topology changes can occur frequently, node disconnection is a common mode of operation in MANETs. Providing reliable data access and message delivery is a challenge in this dynamic network environment. Caching and replica allocation within the network can improve data accessibility by storin...

  8. A Globally Accessible List (GAL Based Recovery Concept In Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    A.K.Daniel,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad-hoc network is a mobile, multi-hop wireless network which is capable of autonomous operation whose primary role is to provide a reliable end to end communication between nodes in the network.However achieving reliable transmission in mobile wireless network is crucial due to change in the network topology caused by node mobility. Modern communication network is becoming increasing & diverse. This is the consequence of an increasing array of devices & services both wired & wireless. There are various protocols to facilitate communication in ad hoc network like DSR and TORA. However these approaches end up in the inefficient utilization of resources after link failure and congestion. This paper proposes an approach to get over this problem .We have added some static nodes which only keeps information related to the current working path and also helps in quick recovery in case of link failure .

  9. Study of Impact of Mobile Ad hoc Networking and its Future Applications

    Ashema Hasti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, many people carry numerous portable devices, such as laptops, mobile phones, PDAs and mp3 players, for use in their professional and private lives. For the most part, these devices are used separately-that is, their applications do not interact. Imagine, however, if they could interact directly: participants at a meeting could share documents or presentations; all communication could automatically be routed through the wireless corporate campus network. These examples of spontaneous, ad hoc wireless communication between devices might be loosely defined as a scheme, often referred to as ad hoc networking, which allows devices to establish communication, anytime and anywhere without the aid of a central infrastructure. This paper describes the concept of mobile ad hoc networking (MANET and points out some of its applications that can be envisioned for future. Also, the paper presents two of the technical challenges MANET poses, which include Geocasting and QoS.

  10. AN EFFICIENT AUTONOMOUS KEY MANAGEMENT WITH REDUCED COMMUNICATION/COMPUTATION COSTS IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK

    M. Devi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A primary concern in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs is security. Secret sharing is an effective way to distribute a secret among n parties, where each party holds one piece of the secret. A number of key management schemes have been proposed for MANETs. However the secret sharing to control key hierarchy needs larger message transmission costs in many techniques. Existing research in key management can only handle very limited number of nodes and are inefficient, insecure, or unreliable when the nodes increases. Here this study modifies Autonomous key management scheme is proposed to address both for security and efficiency for key management in Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET. It also reduces communication and computational cost in Ad-Hoc Network and works for large number of nodes.

  11. Wireless Ad-hoc Network Model for Video Transmission in the Tunnel of Mine

    Zhao Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ad hoc networks have been widely used for its flexibility and quick development, especially in emergent conditions. Recently they are introduced to coal mines underground for rescuing after disasters such as gas explosions. Significantly, we construct a network model named Chain Model to simulate the special circumstance in the tunnel of the mine. Moreover, for studying effects of different routing protocols used in this model when transmitting video data, Dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector (DSDV, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR and Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV are compared with each other in the experiment based on our model. The result indicates that AODV performs best among the three protocols in this model in terms of packet loss ratio, end-to-end delay time and throughput, which is significant for our future research on ad hoc networks for rescuing in coal mines underground.

  12. Forming the COUNCIL Based Clusters in Securing Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Ojha, Alok; Agrawal, Dharma P; Sanyal, S

    2010-01-01

    In cluster-based routing protocol (CBRP), two-level hierarchical structure is successfully used to reduce over-flooding in wireless Ad Hoc networks. As it is vulnerable to a single point of failure, we propose a new adaptive distributed threshold scheme to replace the cluster head by a group of cluster heads within each cluster, called COUNCIL, and distribute the service of single cluster head to multiple cluster heads using (k,n) threshold secret sharing scheme. An Ad Hoc network formed by COUNCIL based clusters can work correctly when the number of compromised cluster heads is smaller than k. To implement this adaptive threshold scheme in wireless Ad Hoc Networks, membership of the clusters should be defined in an adaptive way. In this paper, we mainly discuss our algorithm for forming COUNCIL based clusters using the concept of dominating set from graph theory.

  13. Throughput Enhancement Using Multiple Antennas in OFDM-based Ad Hoc Networks under Transceiver Impairments

    Zhao, Pengkai

    2010-01-01

    Transceiver impairments, including phase noise, residual frequency offset, and imperfect channel estimation, significantly affect the performance of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) system. However, these impairments are not well addressed when analyzing the throughput performance of MIMO Ad Hoc networks. In this paper, we present an analytical framework to evaluate the throughput of MIMO OFDM system under the impairments of phase noise, residual frequency offset, and imperfect channel estimation. Using this framework, we evaluate the Maximum Sum Throughput (MST) in Ad Hoc networks by optimizing the power and modulation schemes of each user. Simulations are conducted to demonstrate not only the improvement in the MST from using multiple antennas, but also the loss in the MST due to the transceiver impairments. The proposed analytical framework is further applied for the distributed implementation of MST in Ad Hoc networks, where the loss caused by impairments is also evaluated.

  14. Energy-Aware Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks

    Mann Raminder P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ad hoc sensor networks differ from wireless ad hoc networks from the following perspectives: low energy, lightweight routing protocols, and adaptive communication patterns. This paper proposes an energy-aware routing protocol (EARP suitable for ad hoc wireless sensor networks and presents an analysis for its energy consumption in various phases of route discovery and maintenance. Based on the energy consumption associated with route request processing, EARP advocates the minimization of route requests by allocating dynamic route expiry times. This paper introduces a unique mechanism for estimation of route expiry time based on the probability of route validity, which is a function of time, number of hops, and mobility parameters. In contrast to AODV, EARP reduces the repeated flooding of route requests by maintaining valid routes for longer durations.

  15. On the Geometrical Characteristics of Three-Dimensional Wireless Ad Hoc Networks and Their Applications

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a wireless ad hoc network, messages are transmitted, received, and forwarded in a finite geometrical region and the transmission of messages is highly dependent on the locations of the nodes. Therefore the study of geometrical relationship between nodes in wireless ad hoc networks is of fundamental importance in the network architecture design and performance evaluation. However, most previous works concentrated on the networks deployed in the two-dimensional region or in the infinite three-dimensional space, while in many cases wireless ad hoc networks are deployed in the finite three-dimensional space. In this paper, we analyze the geometrical characteristics of the three-dimensional wireless ad hoc network in a finite space in the framework of random graph and deduce an expression to calculate the distance probability distribution between network nodes that are independently and uniformly distributed in a finite cuboid space. Based on the theoretical result, we present some meaningful results on the finite three-dimensional network performance, including the node degree and the max-flow capacity. Furthermore, we investigate some approximation properties of the distance probability distribution function derived in the paper.

  16. A Tandem Queueing Model for Delay Analysis in Disconnected Ad Hoc Networks

    Al Hanbali, A.M.; Haan, de R.; Boucherie, R.J.; Ommeren, van J.C.W.

    2008-01-01

    Ad hoc network routing protocols may fail to operate in the absence of an end-to-end connection from source to destination. This deficiency can be resolved by so-called delay-tolerant networking which exploits the mobility of the nodes by letting them operate as relays according to the store-carry-a

  17. A tandem queueing model for delay analysis in disconnected ad hoc networks

    Al Hanbali, A.M.; Haan, de R.; Boucherie, R.J.; Ommeren, van J.C.W.

    2007-01-01

    Ad hoc network routing protocols may fail to operate in the absence of an end-to-end connection from source to destination. This deficiency can be resolved by so-called opportunistic networking which exploits the mobility of the nodes by letting them operate as relays according to the store-carry-an

  18. A Multicast Routing Mechanism in Mobile Ad Hoc Network Through Label Switching

    Li MengYang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Merging MPLS into multicast routing protocol in Mobile Ad hoc network is an elegant method to enhance the network performance and an efficient solution for multicast scalability and control overhead problems. Based on the Wireless MPLS technology, the mechanism and evaluation of a new multicast protocol, the Label Switching Multicast Routing Protocol (LSMRP is presented in this paper.

  19. Design of a Smart Antenna for Mobile Ad Hoc Network Applications

    Marco Di Filippo; Leonardo Lucci; Dania Marabissi; Stefano Selleri

    2015-01-01

    Among the mobile ad hoc networks appealing characteristics there are network reconfigurability and flexibility. In this context a smart antenna capable of self-configuring multiple high-directivity beams provides a major advantage in terms of power saving, increased range, and spatial reuse of channels. In this paper a smart antenna made of a cylindrical array of patches suitable for MANETs is presented.

  20. Design and analysis of a network coding algorithm for ad hoc networks

    王远; 徐华; 贾培发

    2015-01-01

    Network coding is proved to have advantages in both wireline and wireless networks. Especially, appropriate network coding schemes are programmed for underlined networks. Considering the feature of strong node mobility in aviation communication networks, a hop-by-hop network coding algorithm based on ad hoc networks was proposed. Compared with COPE-like network coding algorithms, the proposed algorithm does not require overhearing from other nodes, which meets confidentiality requirements of aviation communication networks. Meanwhile, it does save resource consumption and promise less processing delay. To analyze the performance of the network coding algorithm in scalable networks with different traffic models, a typical network was built in a network simulator, through which receiving accuracy rate and receiving delay were both examined. The simulation results indicate that, by virtue of network coding, the proposed algorithm works well and improves performance significantly. More specifically, it has better performance in enhancing receiving accuracy rate and reducing receiving delay, as compared with any of the traditional networks without coding. It was applied to both symmetric and asymmetric traffic flows and, in particular, it achieves much better performance when the network scale becomes larger. Therefore, this algorithm has great potentials in large-scale multi-hop aviation communication networks.

  1. Ant Colony Based Node Disjoint Hybrid Multi-path Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    B. Kalaavathi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Networks are characterized by multi-hop wireless links, without any infrastructure and frequent node mobility. A class of ant colony based routing protocols has recently gained attention because of their adaptability to the network changes. AntHocNet is ant colony based hybrid algorithm, which combines reactive path setup with proactive path probing, maintenance and improvement. Multi-path routing represents a promising routing method for mobile ad hoc network. Multi-path routing achieves load balancing and is more resilient to route failures. This research introduces node disjoint multi-path property to AntHocNet routing algorithm. A virtual class room is one that can be established by using mobile devices and whose members can be dynamically added or removed. The implementation of virtual class room for lesson handling and query discussion using mobile ad hoc network is analyzed. The data are spread among the N (here N = 3 node disjoint routes from the beginning of the data transmission session. The performance metrics, average end-to-end delay, packet delivery ratio and load balancing have been analyzed for various pause times. The average end-to-end delay and packet delivery ratio have not varied significantly. Optimal load distribution is achieved by spreading the load among different node disjoint routes.

  2. Reliable and Efficient Broadcasting in Asymmetric Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Minimized Forward Node List Algorithm

    Marimuthu Murugesan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Network wide broadcasting is a fundamental operation in ad hoc networks. In broadcasting, a source node sends a message to all the other nodes in the network. Unlike in a wired network, a packet transmitted by a node in ad hoc wireless network can reach all neighbors. Therefore, the total number of transmissions (Forwarding nodes used as the cost criterion for broadcasting. Approach: This study proposes a reliable and efficient broadcasting algorithm using minimized forward node list algorithm which uses 2-hop neighborhood information more effectively to reduce redundant transmissions in asymmetric Mobile Ad hoc networks that guarantees full delivery. Among the 1-hop neighbors of the sender, only selected forwarding nodes retransmit the broadcast message. Forwarding nodes are selected such a way that to cover the uncovered 2-hop neighbors. Results: Simulation results show that the proposed broadcasting algorithm provides high delivery ratio, low broadcast forward ratio, low overhead and minimized delay. Conclusion: In this study, reliable and efficient broadcasting algorithm in asymmetric Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using minimized forward node list algorithm has been proposed which provides low forward ratio, high delivery ratio while suppressing broadcast redundancy.

  3. A QoS Based MAC Protocol For Wireless Ad-hoc Network

    Vandana khare

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia communication over wireless Ad-hoc networks has become the drivingtechnology for many of the important applications, experiencing dramatic market growth and promisingrevolutionary experiences in personal communication, gaming, entertainment, military, security,environment monitoring, and more. The advances in wireless communications and growth of real-timeapplications have necessitated the development of wireless networks that can support high Quality ofService (QoS and power control. A node in an ad hoc network is normally battery operated which posesa huge constraint on the power consumption of such a node. Hence, designing a power efficient MACprotocol for ad hoc wireless networks is a major challenge. In this paper, we propose a CDMA basedpower controlled medium access protocol for mobile and ad hoc network (MNA. The protocol conservespower and provides QoS guarantees for multimedia traffics. In that network one of the fundamentalchallenger in MANETs is how to increase the overall network throughputs well as reading the delaywhile maintaining how energy consumption for packet processing in communication. simulation resultsshows that the performance of the protocol with increase in traffic while QoS is better in terms of Energyconsumption, throughput, & communication delay than existing protocol.

  4. An Effective Capacity Estimation Scheme in IEEE802.11-based Ad Hoc Networks

    H. Zafar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Capacity estimation is a key component of any admission control scheme required to support quality of serviceprovision in mobile ad hoc networks. A range of schemes have been previously proposed to estimate residualcapacity that is derived from window-based measurements of channel estimation. In this paper a simple and improvedmechanism to estimate residual capacity in IEEE802.11-based ad hoc networks is presented. The scheme proposesthe use of a ‘forgiveness’ factor to weight these previous measurements and is shown through simulation-basedevaluation to provide accurate utilizations estimation and improved residual capacity based admission control.

  5. Calculation and Analysis of Destination Buffer for Multimedia Service in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    ZHOU Zhong; MAO Yu-ming; JIANG Zhi-qong

    2005-01-01

    Jitter is one of the most important issues for multimedia real time services in future mobile ad hoc networks(MANET). A thorough theoretical analysis of the destination buffer for smoothing the jitter of the real time service in MANET is given. The theoretical results are applied in moderate populated ad hoc networks in our simulation, the simulation results show that by predicting and adjusting destination buffer in our way, Jitter will be alleviated in large part and this will contribute much to the quality of service (QOS) in MANET.

  6. A secure and lightweight ad-hoc routing algorithm for personal networks

    A. Jehangir; Heemstra de Groot, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few years, there has been increasing interest in utilizing Personal Area Networks (PANs) to offer users innovative and personalized services. This interest is a consequence of the widespread use of mobile devices such as laptops, mobile phones, PDAs, digital cameras, wireless headsets, etc. to carry out a variety of user-centric tasks. The PAN itself is built upon an ad-hoc network where devices trust their neighbors to route their packets. The cooperative nature of ad-hoc netwo...

  7. Performance Analysis of TORA & DSR Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    Geetha, D; T SARIKA

    2013-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links. Each node operates not only as an end system, but also as a router to forward packets. The nodes are free to move about and organize themselves into a network. These nodes change position frequently. The main classes of routing protocols are Proactive, Reactive and Hybrid. A Reactive (on-demand) routing strategy is a popular routing category for wireless ad hoc routing. It is a relatively new ro...

  8. Two-Way Transmission Capacity of Wireless Ad-hoc Networks

    Vaze, Rahul; Kien T. Truong; Weber, Steven; Heath Jr, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    The transmission capacity of an ad-hoc network is the maximum density of active transmitters per unit area, given an outage constraint at each receiver for a fixed rate of transmission. Most prior work on finding the transmission capacity of ad-hoc networks has focused only on one-way communication where a source communicates with a destination and no data is sent from the destination to the source. In practice, however, two-way or bidirectional data transmission is required to support contro...

  9. Policy-Based Quality of Service Management in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Phanse, Kaustubh Suhas

    2003-01-01

    Managing mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) presents new challenges due to the need for a distributed management mechanism that can efficiently adapt to the dynamic nature of these networks. In particular, provisioning and management of Quality of Service (QoS) in such networks remains a challenging task. Previous works in this field have focused largely on the monitoring and data collection aspects of network management; literature on the provisioning of devices and protocol support for MANET c...

  10. Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols in Ad-hoc and Sensor Networking Environments

    L. Gavrilovska

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc and sensor networks are becoming an increasingly popular wireless networking concepts lately. This paper analyzes and compares prominent routing schemes in these networking environments. The knowledge obtained can serve users to better understand short range wireless network solutions thus leading to options for implementation in various scenarios. In addition, it should aid researchers develop protocol improvements reliable for the technologies of interest.

  11. A Review of routing protocols for mobile cognitive radio ad hoc networks

    Selvakanmani, S.; Sumathi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that dynamically form a temporary network without the use of any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. A cognitive radio is a radio that can change its transmitter parameters based on interaction with the environment in which it operates. The basic idea of cognitive radio networks is that the unlicensed devices (cognitive radio users or secondary users) need to vacate the spectrum band once the licensed device (p...

  12. OVERVIEW AND LITERATURE SURVEY ON ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR MOBILE COGNITIVE RADIO AD HOC NETWORKS

    Selvakanmani, S.; Sumathi, Dr. M.

    2012-01-01

    Ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that dynamically form a temporary network without the use of any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. A cognitive radio is a radio that can change its transmitter parameters based on interaction with the environment in which it operates. The basic idea of cognitive radio networks is that the unlicensed devices (cognitive radio users or secondary users) need to vacate the spectrum band once the lic...

  13. Inter-Cluster Routing Authentication for Ad Hoc Networks by a Hierarchical Key Scheme

    Yueh-Min Huang; Hua-Yi Lin; Tzone-I Wang

    2006-01-01

    Dissimilar to traditional networks, the features of mobile wireless devices that can actively form a network without any infrastructure mean that mobile ad hoc networks frequently display partition due to node mobility or link failures. These indicate that an ad hoc network is difficult to provide on-line access to a trusted authority server. Therefore,applying traditional Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) security framework to mobile ad hoc networks will cause insecurities.This study proposes a scalable and elastic key management scheme integrated into Cluster Based Secure Routing Protocol (CBSRP) to enhance security and non-repudiation of routing authentication, and introduces an ID-Based internal routing authentication scheme to enhance the routing performance in an internal cluster. Additionally, a method of performing routing authentication between internal and external clusters, as well as inter-cluster routing authentication, is developed.The proposed cluster-based key management scheme distributes trust to an aggregation of cluster heads using a threshold scheme faculty, provides Certificate Authority (CA) with a fault tolerance mechanism to prevent a single point of compromise or failure, and saves CA large repositories from maintaining member certificates, making ad hoc networks robust to malicious behaviors and suitable for numerous mobile devices.

  14. Routing in wireless ad hoc and sensor network underground with sensor data in real-time

    Odei-Lartey, Emmanuel; Hartmann, Klaus; Ahmadian, Hamidreza

    2012-05-01

    This paper first describes the innovative topology and structure of a wireless ad hoc and sensor network in a so called line-in-the-underground formation and the feasibility of achieving a reliable wireless connection underground with regards to a borehole telemetry system. It further describes a routing algorithm/protocol implementation based on a modification of the ad hoc on-demand distance vector protocol to achieve a reliable underground communication scheme for the wireless ad hoc network deployed underground for sensor data acquisition in real time as applied in the borehole telemetry system. Simulations and experiments are conducted to investigate and verify the effectiveness of this routing technique and the performance results are shown.

  15. Cognitive radio network in vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET: A survey

    Joanne Mun-Yee Lim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio network and Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET are recent emerging concepts in wireless networking. Cognitive radio network obtains knowledge of its operational geographical environment to manage sharing of spectrum between primary and secondary users, while VANET shares emergency safety messages among vehicles to ensure safety of users on the road. Cognitive radio network is employed in VANET to ensure the efficient use of spectrum, as well as to support VANET’s deployment. Random increase and decrease of spectrum users, unpredictable nature of VANET, high mobility, varying interference, security, packet scheduling and priority assignment are the challenges encountered in a typical cognitive VANET environment. This paper provides survey and critical analysis on different challenges of cognitive radio VANET, with discussion on the open issues, challenges and performance metrics, for different cognitive radio VANET applications.

  16. Simulation of Efficiency in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using OMNeT++

    Varun Manchikalapudi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A network is a group of two or more computer systems linked together. There are many types of computer networks which are categorized based on topology, protocol and architecture. A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a self-configuring infrastructure less network of mobile devices connected by wireless. Ad hoc networks maintain an unfair behavior in flow control especially when considered in the case of IEEE 802.11 Mac layer. Introducing efficiency in 802.11 is not an easy task. It reduces the overall global throughput. The network is to be designed in such a way that it deals with the fairness and throughput by maximizing aggregate throughput. Such kind of network design can be efficiently implemented on an evolving simulation tool named OMNet++.

  17. A Multiobjective Optimization Framework for Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Jaffrès-Runser, Katia; Gorce, Jean-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Wireless ad hoc networks are seldom characterized by one single performance metric, yet the current literature lacks a flexible framework to assist in characterizing the design tradeoffs in such networks. In this work, we address this problem by proposing a new modeling framework for routing in ad hoc networks, which used in conjunction with metaheuristic multiobjective search algorithms, will result in a better understanding of network behavior and performance when multiple criteria are relevant. Our approach is to take a holistic view of network management and control that captures the cross-interactions among interference management techniques implemented at various layers of the protocol stack. We present the Pareto optimal sets for an example sensor network when delay, robustness and energy are considered as performance criteria for the network.

  18. E2AODV Protocol for Load Balancing in Ad-Hoc Networks

    R. S.D. Wahida Banu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In mobile ad hoc networks there are a number of challenges in providing quality of service routing with energy efficiency and load balancing. Most routing protocols do not consider the problem of load balance. A routing protocol called energy Efficient Ad-hoc on Demand Vector (E2AODV is proposed. It addresses the quality of service issues such as throughput, end to end delay, load distribution and energy. Approach: This study presents a scheme to balance the load with energy efficiency considering both congestion and the nodes energy usage. A threshold value was used to judge if intermediate node was overloaded, variable and changing along with nodes interface queue length around the backward path. Results: The routing protocol called energy Efficient Ad hoc on Demand Vector (E2AODV that is intended to provide a reliable transmission with low energy consumption was compared with Ad-hoc on Demand Vector (AODV in terms of the packet delivery ratio, average end to end delay, load distribution and node energy consumption. Conclusion/Recommendation: E2AODV protocol chooses an optimum path with low energy usage. It provides a better scheme to balance the load with energy efficiency and packet delivery ratio. It can be further enhanced as a secure routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks.

  19. Trustworthy Robust Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    E.Venkat Reddy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A protocol called RMP (Route Management Protocol is proposed; for making misbehavior effect eliminated on Adhoc network is proposed. It aims at detecting and isolating misbehaving nodes, thus making it unattractive to deny cooperation. Trust relationships and routing decisions are based on experienced, observed, or reported routing andforwarding behavior of other nodes. The implementation of this rotocol is made on the network layer based on the Dynamic Source Routing (DSR protocol. We present a performance analysis of DSR fortified by RMP and compare it to regular defenseless DSR. A network with RMP is observed to improve about 60% of misbehaving nodes in the network, in contrast to a defenseless network.

  20. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WORMHOLE SECURITY APPROACHES FOR AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Ismail Hababeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc networks are talented but are exposed to the risk of wormhole attacks. However, a wormhole attack can be mounted easily and forms stern menaces in networks, particularly against various ad-hoc wireless networks. The Wormhole attack distorts the network topology and decrease the network systems performance. Therefore, identifying the possibility of wormhole attacks and recognizing techniques to defend them are central to the security of wireless networks as a whole. In this study, we will summarize state of the art wormhole defense approaches, categories most of the existing typical approaches and discuss both the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. We will also point out some unfulfilled areas in the wormhole problem and provide some directions for future exploring.

  1. An Efficient Weight Based Clusterhead Selection Algorithm for Mobile ad hoc Network

    R. Gunavathi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Clustering can improve the network management and energy saving. In the clustered network organization the clusters are formed by grouping the mobile nodes with one special role node termed as clusterhead. Cluster based communication protocols have been proposed for ad hoc networks for various reasons. In the proposed algorithm all clusterheads spread across the network. In this paper the high-weight node is act as a clusterhead with minimum 3-hop count distance between each other. We also investigate to minimize the clusterhead change, increase in lifetime of clusterheads, less energy conservation. The simulation results are compared with On-Demand Weighted Clustering Algorithm (ODWCA and it shows that the Efficient Weight based Clusterhead Selection Algorithm (EWCSA that improves the network performance for Mobile ad hoc Network.

  2. SPIZ: An Effective Service Discovery Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Noh Donggeon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs require special care in the handling of service advertisement and discovery (Ad/D. In this paper, we propose a noble service Ad/D technique for MANETs. Our scheme avoids redundant flooding and reduces the system overhead by integrating Ad/D with routing layer. It also tracks changing conditions, such as traffic and service popularity levels. Based on a variable zone radius, we have combined push-based Ad/D with a pull-based Ad/D strategy.

  3. SPIZ: An Effective Service Discovery Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Donggeon Noh

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs require special care in the handling of service advertisement and discovery (Ad/D. In this paper, we propose a noble service Ad/D technique for MANETs. Our scheme avoids redundant flooding and reduces the system overhead by integrating Ad/D with routing layer. It also tracks changing conditions, such as traffic and service popularity levels. Based on a variable zone radius, we have combined push-based Ad/D with a pull-based Ad/D strategy.

  4. Control Based Mobile Ad Hoc Networking for survivable, dynamic, mobile Special Operation Force communications

    Masacioglu, Mustafa.; McBride, Marlon

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited In the next generation of wireless communication systems, there will be a need for the rapid deployment of independent mobile users. Significant examples include establishing survivable, efficient, dynamic mobile communication for tactical Special Operation Force (SOF) networks, as well as SOF units that are ad hoc networking with first responders conducting emergency/rescue and disaster relief operations. Such network scenarios cannot re...

  5. A Clustering Algorithm Based on Mobility Properties in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Young-jun Oh; Kang-whan Lee

    2015-01-01

    We propose a context-awareness routing algorithm—the DDV- (Dynamic Direction Vector-) hop algorithm—in mobile ad hoc networks. The existing algorithm in MANET has the limitations of the dynamic network topology and the absence of network expandability of the mobility of nodes. The proposed algorithm performs cluster formation for the base station using the range of direction and threshold of velocity. We calculate the exchange of the cluster head node probability using the direction and veloc...

  6. Data Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using Genetic Based Biometrics

    B. Shanthini; S. Swamynathan

    2010-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self-configuring, dynamic, multi hop radio network without any fixed infrastructure. MANETs are collections of wireless mobile devices with restricted broadcast range and resources and communication is achieved by relaying data along appropriate routes that are dynamically discovered and maintained through collaboration between the nodes. The main challenge in the design of such networks is how to prevent the a...

  7. EC-PPRA: An Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks

    Rong-sheng Dong; Yuan-chuang Hu; Jian-ming Liu

    2010-01-01

    Abstract—A promising energy conserving technique for the Ad hoc network must maintain effective packet forwarding capacity when turning off the network interface for idle nodes to reduce power consumption. This paper incorporates the energy conserving technique with the Ant Colony routing protocol and proposes a new EC-PPRA routing algorithm. We use the pheromone mechanism to make routing decision while turning off the network interface of idle nodes adaptively to save energy. Based on the em...

  8. Analysis of Fuzzy Logic Based Intrusion Detection Systems in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Chaudhary, A.; V. N. Tiwari; Kumar, A

    2014-01-01

    Due to the advancement in wireless technologies, many of new paradigms have opened for communications. Among these technologies, mobile ad hoc networks play a prominent role for providing communication in many areas because of its independent nature of predefined infrastructure. But in terms of security, these networks are more vulnerable than the conventional networks because firewall and gateway based security mechanisms cannot be applied on it. That’s why intrusion detection systems are us...

  9. Hierarchical Design Based Intrusion Detection System For Wireless Ad hoc Network

    Mamun, Mohammad Saiful Islam; Kabir, A. F. M Sultanul

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, wireless ad hoc sensor network becomes popular both in civil and military jobs. However, security is one of the significant challenges for sensor network because of their deployment in open and unprotected environment. As cryptographic mechanism is not enough to protect sensor network from external attacks, intrusion detection system needs to be introduced. Though intrusion prevention mechanism is one of the major and efficient methods against attacks, but there might be some...

  10. Efficient and secure delivery of area-persistent safety messages in vehicular ad hoc networks

    Güder, Can Berk; Guder, Can Berk

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we propose an adaptive mechanism for the delivery of safety messages in vehicular networks in an authenticated and privacy-preserving manner. The traditional approach to message delivery for driving safety applications running on vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) has been to increase redundancy, often at the sake of other applications running on the network. We argue that this approach does not accommodate the traffic conditions of crowded cities like İstanbul, and present a ...

  11. Cluster Based Node Misbehaviour Detection, Isolation and Authentication Using Threshold Cryptography in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    R. Murugan; Shanmugam, A.

    2012-01-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks, the misbehaving nodes can cause dysfunction in the network resultingin damage of other nodes. In order to establish secure communication with the group members ofa network, use of a shared group key for confidentiality and authentication is required. Distributingthe shares of secret group key to the group members securely is another challenging task inMANET. In this paper, we propose a Cluster Based Misbehavior Detection and Authenticationscheme using threshold cryp...

  12. Cluster Based Misbehaviour Detection and Authentication Using Threshold Cryptography in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    R. Murugan; Shanmugam, A.

    2012-01-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks, the misbehaving nodes can cause dysfunction in the network resulting in damage of other nodes. In order to establish secure communication with the group members of a network, use of a shared group key for confidentiality and authentication is required. Distributing the shares of secret group key to the group members securely is another challenging task in MANET. In this paper, we propose a Cluster Based Misbehavior Detection and Authentication scheme using threshold...

  13. Highly Dynamic Nature of Mobile AD-HOC Networks (MANETs): Requirement of Stringent Security Measures

    P. Balagangadhar Rao

    2011-01-01

    Wireless mobile AD-HOC networks (MANETs) can be established on demand and disappear when there is no need. Each mobile node in the network acts both as a terminal and also as a router. Thus, each mobile node is having a capability of forwarding packets of information to other peer nodes. The nodes are, basically, self-organized wireless interconnecting communication devices which can either extend or operate in concert with the wired networking infrastructure. Lot of research is going on, in ...

  14. Asymptotic Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Realistic Links under a Honey Comb Topology

    Asnani, Himanshu

    2007-01-01

    We consider the effects of Rayleigh fading and lognormal shadowing in the physical interference model for all the successful transmissions of traffic across the network. New bounds are derived for the capacity of a given random ad hoc wireless network that reflect packet drop or capture probability of the transmission links. These bounds are based on a simplified network topology termed as honey-comb topology under a given routing and scheduling scheme.

  15. A Job Market Signaling Scheme for Incentive and Trust Management in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Haddadou, Nadia; Rachedi, Abderrezak; Ghamri-Doudane, Yacine

    2015-01-01

    In collaborative wireless networks with a low infrastructure, the presence of misbehaving nodes can have a negative impact on network performance. In particular, we are interested in dealing with this nasty presence in road safety applications, based on vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). In this work, we consider as harmful the presence of malicious nodes, which spread false and forged data; and selfish nodes, which cooperate only for their own benefit. To deal with this, we propose a Distri...

  16. An investigation of self-organization in ad-hoc networks

    Akl, Ahmed; Gayraud, Thierry; Berthou, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    International audience Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an emerging special type of ad-hoc wireless networks technology. It is usually designed for special purpose applications. WSN has its own special characteristics that differentiate it from other types of wireless networks. These differences raise new challenges to be overcome; one of them is self-organization. As in any rising domain, it is essential to specifically define the meaning of new terminologies. The terms self-organizing an...

  17. Context discovery using attenuated Bloom filters in ad-hoc networks

    Liu, Fei; Heijenk, Geert

    2007-01-01

    A novel approach to performing context discovery in ad-hoc networks based on the use of attenuated Bloom filters is proposed in this paper. A Bloom filter is an efficient spacesaving data structure to represent context information. Attenuated Bloom filters are used to advertise the availability of c

  18. Probabilistic Modelling of Information Propagation in Wireless Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    Schiøler, Henrik; Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the dynamics of broadcasting wireless ad-hoc networks is studied through probabilistic modelling. A randomized transmission discipline is assumed in accordance with existing MAC definitions such as WLAN with Decentralized Coordination or IEEE-802.15.4. Message reception is assumed to...

  19. Performance evaluation of fingerprint image processing for high Security Ad-hoc network

    P.Velayutham

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of wireless technology, various mobile devices have been developed for military and civilian applications. Defense research and development has shown increasing interest in ad-hoc networks because a military has to be mobile peer-to-peer is a good architecture for mobile communication in coalition operations. In this paper, the methodology proposed is an novel robust approach on secure fingerprint authentication and matching techniques to implement in ad-hoc wireless networks. This is a difficult problem in ad-hoc network, as it involves bootstrapping trust between the devices. This journal would present a solution, which provides fingerprint authentication techniques to share their communication in ad-hoc network. In this approach, devices exchange a corresponding fingerprint with master device for mutual communication, which will then allow them to complete an authenticated key exchange protocol over the wireless link. The solution based on authenticating user fingerprint through the master device, and this master device handshakes with the corresponding slave device for authenticating the fingerprint all attacks on the wireless link, and directly captures the user's device that was proposed to talk to a particular unknown device mentioned previously in their physical proximity. The system is implemented in C# and the user node for a variety of different devices with Matlab.

  20. Preventive Aspect of Black Hole Attack in Mobile AD HOC Network

    Kumar Roshan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network is infrastructure less type of network. In this paper we present the prevention mechanism for black hole in mobile ad hoc network. The routing algorithms are analyzed and discrete properties of routing protocols are defined. The discrete properties support in distributed routing efficiently. The protocol is distributed and not dependent upon the centralized controlling node. Important features of Ad hoc on demand vector routing (AODV are inherited and new mechanism is combined with it to get the multipath routing protocol for Mobile ad hoc network (MANET to prevent the black hole attack. When the routing path is discovered and entered into the routing table, the next step is taken by combined protocol to search the new path with certain time interval. The old entered path is refreshed into the routing table. The simulation is taken on 50 moving nodes in the area of 1000 x 1000 square meter and the maximum speed of nodes are 5m/sec. The result is calculated for throughput verses number of black hole nodes with pause time of 0 sec. to 40 sec., 120 sec. and 160 sec. when the threshold value is 1.0.

  1. Sybil Attack on Lowest Id Clustering Algorithm in The Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Manu Sood

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is quite a challenging task to achieve security in a mobile ad hoc network because of its open nature,dynamically changing topology, lack of infrastructure and central management. A particular harmfulattack that takes the advantage of these characteristics is the Sybil attack, in which a malicious nodeillegitimately claims multiple identities. This attack can exceedingly disrupt various operations of themobile ad hoc networks such as data aggregation, voting, fair resource allocation scheme, misbehaviordetection and routing mechanisms etc. Two routing mechanisms known to be vulnerable to the Sybilattack in the mobile ad hoc networks are multi-path routing and geographic routing. In addition to theserouting protocols, we show in this paper that the Sybil attack can also disrupt the head selectionmechanism of the lowest ID cluster-based routing protocol. To the best of our knowledge, this is for thefirst time that a Sybil attack is shown to disrupt this cluster based routing protocol. To achieve this, weillustrate to have introduced a category of Sybil attack in which the malicious node varies itstransmission power to create a number of virtual illegitimate nodes called Sybil nodes, for the purpose ofcommunication with legitimate nodes of the Mobile Ad Hoc Network. The variation in the transmissionpower makes the Sybil attack more deadly and difficult to be detected.

  2. Improving Vehicular ad hoc Network Protocols to Support Safety Applications in Realistic Scenarios

    Martínez Domínguez, Francisco José

    2011-01-01

    La convergencia de las telecomunicaciones, la informática, la tecnología inalámbrica y los sistemas de transporte, va a facilitar que nuestras carreteras y autopistas nos sirvan tanto como plataforma de transporte, como de comunicaciones. Estos cambios van a revolucionar completamente cómo y cuándo vamos a acceder a determinados servicios, comunicarnos, viajar, entretenernos, y navegar, en un futuro muy cercano. Las redes vehiculares ad hoc (vehicular ad hoc networks VANETs) son redes de comu...

  3. Multiplayer Game for DDoS Attacks Resilience in Ad Hoc Networks

    Mikalas, Antonis; Komninos, Nikos; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a multiplayer game to prevent Distributed Denial of Service attack (DDoS) in ad hoc networks. The multiplayer game is based on game theory and cryptographic puzzles. We divide requests from nodes into separate groups which decreases the ability of malicious nodes to cooperate...... with one another in order to effectively make a DDoS attack. Finally, through our experiments we have shown that the total overhead of the multiplayer game as well as the the total time that each node needs to be served is affordable for devices that have limited resources and for environments like ad hoc...

  4. Performance Evaluation of Distributed Synchronous Greedy Graph Coloring Algorithms on Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

    Esra Ruzgar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Graph coloring is a widely used technique for allocation of time and frequency slots to nodes, for formingclusters, for constructing independent sets and dominating sets on wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. Agood coloring approach should produce low color count as possible. Besides, since the nodes of a wirelessad hoc and sensor network operate with limited bandwidth, energy and computing resources, the coloringshould be computed with few message passing and computational steps. In this paper, we provide aperformance evaluation of distributed synchronous greedy graph coloring algorithms on ad hoc and sensornetworks. We provide both theoretical and practical evaluations of distributed largest first and thedistributed version of Brelaz’s algorithm. We showed that although distributed version of Brelaz’salgorithm produces less color count, its resource consumption is worse than distributed largest firstalgorithm.

  5. Trustworthy Robust Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    E.Venkat Reddy

    2010-01-01

    A protocol called RMP (Route Management Protocol) is proposed; for making misbehavior effect eliminated on Adhoc network is proposed. It aims at detecting and isolating misbehaving nodes, thus making it unattractive to deny cooperation. Trust relationships and routing decisions are based on experienced, observed, or reported routing andforwarding behavior of other nodes. The implementation of this rotocol is made on the network layer based on the Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol. We pre...

  6. Reinforcement learning for routing in cognitive radio ad hoc networks.

    Al-Rawi, Hasan A A; Yau, Kok-Lim Alvin; Mohamad, Hafizal; Ramli, Nordin; Hashim, Wahidah

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) enables unlicensed users (or secondary users, SUs) to sense for and exploit underutilized licensed spectrum owned by the licensed users (or primary users, PUs). Reinforcement learning (RL) is an artificial intelligence approach that enables a node to observe, learn, and make appropriate decisions on action selection in order to maximize network performance. Routing enables a source node to search for a least-cost route to its destination node. While there have been increasing efforts to enhance the traditional RL approach for routing in wireless networks, this research area remains largely unexplored in the domain of routing in CR networks. This paper applies RL in routing and investigates the effects of various features of RL (i.e., reward function, exploitation, and exploration, as well as learning rate) through simulation. New approaches and recommendations are proposed to enhance the features in order to improve the network performance brought about by RL to routing. Simulation results show that the RL parameters of the reward function, exploitation, and exploration, as well as learning rate, must be well regulated, and the new approaches proposed in this paper improves SUs' network performance without significantly jeopardizing PUs' network performance, specifically SUs' interference to PUs. PMID:25140350

  7. Optimal design of cluster-based ad-hoc networks using probabilistic solution discovery

    The reliability of ad-hoc networks is gaining popularity in two areas: as a topic of academic interest and as a key performance parameter for defense systems employing this type of network. The ad-hoc network is dynamic and scalable and these descriptions are what attract its users. However, these descriptions are also synonymous for undefined and unpredictable when considering the impacts to the reliability of the system. The configuration of an ad-hoc network changes continuously and this fact implies that no single mathematical expression or graphical depiction can describe the system reliability-wise. Previous research has used mobility and stochastic models to address this challenge successfully. In this paper, the authors leverage the stochastic approach and build upon it a probabilistic solution discovery (PSD) algorithm to optimize the topology for a cluster-based mobile ad-hoc wireless network (MAWN). Specifically, the membership of nodes within the back-bone network or networks will be assigned in such as way as to maximize reliability subject to a constraint on cost. The constraint may also be considered as a non-monetary cost, such as weight, volume, power, or the like. When a cost is assigned to each component, a maximum cost threshold is assigned to the network, and the method is run; the result is an optimized allocation of the radios enabling back-bone network(s) to provide the most reliable network possible without exceeding the allowable cost. The method is intended for use directly as part of the architectural design process of a cluster-based MAWN to efficiently determine an optimal or near-optimal design solution. It is capable of optimizing the topology based upon all-terminal reliability (ATR), all-operating terminal reliability (AoTR), or two-terminal reliability (2TR)

  8. Analysis of AODV and DSR in Presence of Wormhole Attack in Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    VIVEK SHARMA,

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available An ad hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes that dynamically form a temporary network. It operates without the use of existing infrastructure. As mobile ad hoc network applications are deployed, security emerges as a central requirement. In this paper, we introduce the wormhole attack, a severe security attack in ad hocnetworks that is particularly challenging to defend against. The wormhole attack is possible even if the attacker has not compromised any hosts and even if all communication provides authenticity and confidentiality. In the wormhole attack, an attacker records packets (or bits at one location in the network, tunnels them (possiblyselectively to another location, and retransmits them there into the network. The wormhole attack can form a serious threat in wireless networks, especially against many ad hoc network routing protocols and locationbased wireless security systems. This paper analyses the performance of AODV and DSR routing protocols with and without wormhole attack. This would be a great help for the people conducting research on real world problems in MANET security.

  9. An Optimal CDS Construction Algorithm with Activity Scheduling in Ad Hoc Networks.

    Penumalli, Chakradhar; Palanichamy, Yogesh

    2015-01-01

    A new energy efficient optimal Connected Dominating Set (CDS) algorithm with activity scheduling for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is proposed. This algorithm achieves energy efficiency by minimizing the Broadcast Storm Problem [BSP] and at the same time considering the node's remaining energy. The Connected Dominating Set is widely used as a virtual backbone or spine in mobile ad hoc networks [MANETs] or Wireless Sensor Networks [WSN]. The CDS of a graph representing a network has a significant impact on an efficient design of routing protocol in wireless networks. Here the CDS is a distributed algorithm with activity scheduling based on unit disk graph [UDG]. The node's mobility and residual energy (RE) are considered as parameters in the construction of stable optimal energy efficient CDS. The performance is evaluated at various node densities, various transmission ranges, and mobility rates. The theoretical analysis and simulation results of this algorithm are also presented which yield better results. PMID:26221627

  10. A Distributed Protocol for Detection of Packet Dropping Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Sen, Jaydip; Balamuralidhar, P; G., Harihara S; Reddy, Harish

    2011-01-01

    In multi-hop mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs),mobile nodes cooperate with each other without using any infrastructure such as access points or base stations. Security remains a major challenge for these networks due to their features of open medium, dynamically changing topologies, reliance on cooperative algorithms, absence of centralized monitoring points, and lack of clear lines of defense. Among the various attacks to which MANETs are vulnerable, malicious packet dropping attack is very common where a malicious node can partially degrade or completely disrupt communication in the network by consistently dropping packets. In this paper, a mechanism for detection of packet dropping attack is presented based on cooperative participation of the nodes in a MANET. The redundancy of routing information in an ad hoc network is utilized to make the scheme robust so that it works effectively even in presence of transient network partitioning and Byzantine failure of nodes. The proposed scheme is fully cooperative an...

  11. Weighted cooperative routing for wireless mobile Ad-hoc network

    ZHAO Xian-jing; ZHENG Bao-yu; CHEN Chao

    2007-01-01

    A novel weighted cooperative routing algorithm (WCRA) is proposed in this article, which was on the basis of a weighted metric with maximal remaining energy (MRE) of the relays and the maximal received SNR (MRS) of the nodes.Moreover, a cooperative routing protocol was implemented on the basis of WCRA. Then simulation is done on network simulation (NS-2) platform to compare the performances of MRS, MRE and WCRA with that of noncooperative destination-sequenced destination-sequenced distance-vector (DSDV) protocol. The simulative results show that WCRA obtains a performance tradeoff between MRE and MRS in terms of delivery ratio and network lifetime, which can effectively improve the network lifetime at an acceptable loss of delivery ratio.

  12. A Novel Routing Technique For Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (Manet

    Kirtikumar K. Patel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Actual network size depends on the application and the protocols developed for the routing for this kind of networks should be scalable and efficient. Each routing protocol should support small as well as large scale networks very efficiently. As the number of node increase, it increases the management functionality of the network. Graph theoretic approach traditionally was applied to networks where nodes are static or fixed. In this paper, we have applied the graph theoretic routing to MANET where nodes are mobile. Here, we designed all identical nodes in the cluster except the cluster head and this criterion reduces the management burden on the network. Each cluster supports a few nodes with a cluster head. The intracluster connectivity amongst the nodes within the cluster is supported by multi-hop connectivity to ensure handling mobility in such a way that no service disruption can occur. The inter-cluster connectivity is also achieved by multi-hop connectivity. However, for inter-cluster communications, only cluster heads are connected. This paper demonstrates graph theoretic approach produces an optimum multi-hop connectivity path based on cumulative minimum degree that minimizes the contention and scheduling delay end-toend. It is applied to both intra-cluster communications as well as inter-cluster communications. The performance shows that having a multi-hop connectivity for intra-cluster communications is more power efficient compared to broadcast of information with maximum power coverage. We also showed the total number of required intermediate nodes in the transmission from source to destination. However, dynamic behavior of the nodes requires greater understanding of the node degree and mobility at each instance of time in order to maintain end-to-end QoS for multi-service provisioning. Our simulation results show that the proposed graph theoretic routing approach will reduce the overall delay and improves the physical layer data

  13. Computing Nash Equilibrium in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Bulychev, Peter E.; David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim G.;

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of computing Nash equilibrium in wireless networks modeled by Weighted Timed Automata. Such formalism comes together with a logic that can be used to describe complex features such as timed energy constraints. Our contribution is a method for solving this problem...

  14. Address autoconfiguration in wireless ad hoc networks: protocols and techniques

    Cempaka Wangi, N.I.; Prasad, R.V.; Jacobsson, M.; Niemegeers, I.

    2008-01-01

    With the advent of smaller devices having higher computational capacity and wireless communication capabilities, the world is becoming completely networked. Although, the mobile nature of these devices provides ubiquitous services, it also poses many challenges. In this article, we look in depth at

  15. An Extended Weighted Partitioning Around Cluster Head Mechanism for Ad Hoc Network

    S.Thirumurugan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The wireless network places vital role in the prese nt day communication scenario. The ad hoc nature of wireless communication adds flavour to suit various real world applications. This improves the performance of the network tremendously while the c lustering mechanism gets added to the ad hoc network. It has been found out that the existing WC A lacks in forming efficient clusters. Thus, this w ork proposes an Extended weighted partitioning around c luster head mechanism by considering W-PAC as a base to form clusters. The cluster members are conf igured with IPv6 address. This IPv6 clusters formed through W-PAC will be taken further for validation to determine the perfectness of clusters. The clust er formation and maintenance have been implemented in C++ as a programming language. The cluster validation has been carried out using OMNET++ simul ator.

  16. Wireless ad hoc networks access for aeronautical communications

    Besse, Frédéric; Garcia, Fabien; Pirovano, Alain; Radzik, José

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the current aeronautical context to offer new services for civil aircraft passengers. For example, airlines want to offer their customers the opportunity to access the Internet, to manage their mails, to watch video on demand, to access corporate VPNs.... All these services represent a new type of air-ground communications called APC (Aeronautical Passenger Communications) in the ATN (Aeronautical Telecommunication Network) context. In this paper, we will sh...

  17. Enabling content distribution in vehicular ad hoc networks

    Luan, Tom H; Bai, Fan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents key enabling technologies and state-of-the-art research on delivering efficient content distribution services to fast moving vehicles. It describes recent research developments and proposals towards the efficient, resilient and scalable content distribution to vehicles through both infrastructure-based and infrastructure-less vehicular networks. The authors focus on the rich multimedia services provided by vehicular environment content distribution including vehicular communications and media playback, giving passengers many infotainment applications. Common problem

  18. A Simplified Mobile Ad Hoc Network Structure for Helicopter Communication

    Abdelgader, Abdeldime Mohamed Salih; Wu, Lenan; Nasr, Mohammed Mohsen Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    There are a number of volunteer and statutory organizations who are capable of conducting an emergency response using helicopters. Rescue operations require a rapidly deployable high bandwidth network to coordinate necessary relief efforts between rescue teams on the ground and helicopters. Due to massive destruction and loss of services, ordinary communication infrastructures may collapse in these situations. Consequently, information exchange becomes one of the major challenges in these cir...

  19. Security Challenges in Multicast Communication for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    S. Gunasekaran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Multicasting communication network accepted a single message from an application and delivered copies of the message to multiple recipients at different locations. Recently, there has been an explosion of research literature on multicast communication environment. The objective of this study were to contribute the complexity of supporting current multicast applications, (i the lack of reliable multicast transport mechanisms at the network level and (ii the lack of network support for large scale multicast communication. The scaling problem of secure multicast key distribution compounded for the case where sender-specific keys need to be distributed to a group and required for sender-specific authentication of data traffic and minimize control overhead (iii compare RC4, AES-128,RS(2 and RS(3 computation time of both algorithms. Approach: Algorithms were collected and performed computation time. In general the multicast key distribution scheme implemented for distributing 128 bit session keys. Thus the Maximum Distance Separable Codes (MDS Codes needed for their encoding and decoding process. In rekeying scheme errors were occurred during over period of time or at a particular point of time and to eliminate all these errors in the level of encryption and decryption mechanism. The MDS codes played an important role in providing security services for multicast, such as traffic, integrity, authentication and confidentiality, is particularly problematic since it requires securely distributing a group (session key to each of a group’s receivers. Results: First we showed that internet multicasting algorithms based on reverse path forwarding were inherently unreliable and present a source-tree-based reliable multicasting scheme also. The new scheme proposed and used as an inter-gateway protocol and worked on top of the previously developed distance vector and link state internet routing schemes. Next, to support large scale

  20. Protocols for Detection and Removal of Wormholes for Secure Routing and Neighborhood Creation in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Hayajneh, Thaier Saleh

    2009-01-01

    Wireless ad hoc networks are suitable and sometimes the only solution for several applications. Many applications, particularly those in military and critical civilian domains (such as battlefield surveillance and emergency rescue) require that ad hoc networks be secure and stable. In fact, security is one of the main barriers to the extensive use…

  1. Survey: Comparison Estimation of Various Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    Priyanshu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available MANET is an autonomous system of mobile nodes attached by wireless links. It represents a complex and dynamic distributed systems that consist of mobile wireless nodes that can freely self organize into an ad-hoc network topology. The devices in the network may have limited transmission range therefore multiple hops may be needed by one node to transfer data to another node in network. This leads to the need for an effective routing protocol. In this paper we study various classifications of routing protocols and their types for wireless mobile ad-hoc networks like DSDV, GSR, AODV, DSR, ZRP, FSR, CGSR, LAR, and Geocast Protocols. In this paper we also compare different routing protocols on based on a given set of parameters Scalability, Latency, Bandwidth, Control-overhead, Mobility impact.

  2. Load Balancing In Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks With Low Forwarding Index

    Reena Dadhich

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A wireless ad-hoc network comprises of a set of wireless nodes and requires no fixed infrastructure. Forefficient communication between nodes, ad-hoc networks are typically grouped in to clusters, whereeach cluster has a clusterhead (or Master. In our study, we will take a communication model that isderived from that of BlueTooth. Clusterhead nodes are responsible for the formation of clusters eachconsisting of a number of nodes (analog to cells in a cellular network and maintenance of the topologyof the network. Consequently, the clusterhead tend to become potential points of failures and naturally,there will be load imbalanced. Thus, it is important to consider load balancing in any clusteringalgorithm. In this paper, we consider the situation when each node has some load, given by theparameter forwarding Index.

  3. SD-AODV: A Protocol for Secure and Dynamic Data Dissemination in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Rajender Nath

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Security remains as a major concern in the mobile ad hoc networks. This paper presents a new protocol SD-AODV, which is an extension of the exiting protocol AODV. The proposed protocol is made secure and dynamic against three main types of routing attacks-wormhole attack, byzantine attack and blackhole attack. SD-AODV protocol was evaluated through simulation experiments done on Glomosim and performance of the network was measured in terms of packet delivery fraction, average end-to-end delay, global throughput and route errors of a mobile ad hoc network where a defined percentage of nodes behave maliciously. Experimentally it was found that the performance of the network did not degrade in the presence of the above said attacks indicating that the proposed protocol was secure against these attacks.

  4. Upper Bounding Service Capacity in Multihop Wireless SSMA-Based Ad Hoc Networks

    Du, Shirong; Daigle, John N.; Alidaee, Bahram

    Upper bounds on the service carrying capacity of a multihop, wireless, SSMA-based ad hoc network are considered herein. The network has a single radio band for transmission and reception. Each node can transmit to, or receive from, multiple nodes simultaneously. We formulate the scheduling of transmissions and control of transmit powers as a joint, mixed-integer, nonlinear optimization problem that yields maximum return at minimum power subject to SINR constraints. We present an efficient tabu search-based heuristic algorithm to solve the optimization problem and rigorously assess the quality of the results. Through analysis and simulation, we establish upper bounds on the VoIP call carrying capacity of the network as function of various parameters. We discuss the pros and cons of using SSMA as a spectrum sharing technique in wireless ad hoc networks

  5. Enhanced Secure Trusted AODV (ESTA Protocol to Mitigate Blackhole Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Dilraj Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The self-organizing nature of the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs provide a communication channel anywhere, anytime without any pre-existing network infrastructure. However, it is exposed to various vulnerabilities that may be exploited by the malicious nodes. One such malicious behavior is introduced by blackhole nodes, which can be easily introduced in the network and, in turn, such nodes try to crumble the working of the network by dropping the maximum data under transmission. In this paper, a new protocol is proposed which is based on the widely used Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV protocol, Enhanced Secure Trusted AODV (ESTA, which makes use of multiple paths along with use of trust and asymmetric cryptography to ensure data security. The results, based on NS-3 simulation, reveal that the proposed protocol is effectively able to counter the blackhole nodes in three different scenarios.

  6. MULTICAST ROUTING WITH QUALITY OF SERVICE CONSTRAINTS IN THE AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKS

    Abdellah Idrissi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent multimedia applications and services are very demanding in terms of Quality of Service (QoS. This creates new challenges in ensuring QoS when delivering those services over wireless networks. Motivated by the need of supporting high quality multicast applications in wireless ad hoc networks, we propose a network topology that can minimize the power when connecting the source node to the destination nodes in multicast sessions with the respect of the QoS provisions. We formulated the problem as integer linear programming problem with a set of energy and QoS constraints. We minimize the total power of energy used by nodes while satisfying QoS constraints (Bandwidth and maximum delay that are crucial to wireless ad hoc network performance.

  7. An Efficient and Reliable Data Delivery in Ad hoc Networks

    Ati Swarna Sindhura

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This particular papers addresses the scuffle of giving data packets with regards to highly active mobile random networks inside of a reliable and also timely fashion. Most recent random redirecting methodologies are at risk of node ability to move, especially with regards to large-scale methods. Driven by this challenge, we propose a capable Position-based Opportunistic Routing (POR method which takes gain benefit stateless property of geographic routing together with broadcast attributes of instant medium. We recommend a position-based opportunistic direction-finding mechanism that's deployed with no complex creating to order to protocol and also achieve a lot of reception with no losing the advantage of collision avoidance given by 802. 11. The very notion of in-the-air back-up significantly enhances the robustness in the routing method and minimizes the latency and also duplicate forwarding because of local route repair.

  8. Cross-Layer Service Discovery Mechanism for OLSRv2 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    M. Isabel Vara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Service discovery plays an important role in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. The lack of central infrastructure, limited resources and high mobility make service discovery a challenging issue for this kind of network. This article proposes a new service discovery mechanism for discovering and advertising services integrated into the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2 (OLSRv2. In previous studies, we demonstrated the validity of a similar service discovery mechanism integrated into the previous version of OLSR (OLSRv1. In order to advertise services, we have added a new type-length-value structure (TLV to the OLSRv2 protocol, called service discovery message (SDM, according to the Generalized MANET Packet/Message Format defined in Request For Comments (RFC 5444. Each node in the ad hoc network only advertises its own services. The advertisement frequency is a user-configurable parameter, so that it can be modified depending on the user requirements. Each node maintains two service tables, one to store information about its own services and another one to store information about the services it discovers in the network. We present simulation results, that compare our service discovery integrated into OLSRv2 with the one defined for OLSRv1 and with the integration of service discovery in Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV protocol, in terms of service discovery ratio, service latency and network overhead.

  9. Surrogate-Assisted Optimisation of Composite Applications in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Efstathiou, Dionysios; Mcburney, Peter; Zschaler, Steffen; Bourcier, Johann

    2014-01-01

    Infrastructure-less mobile ad hoc networks enable the development of collaborative pervasive applications. Within such dynamic networks, collaboration between devices can be realised through service-orientation by abstracting device resources as services. Recently, a framework for QoS-aware service composition has been introduced which takes into account a spectrum of orchestration patterns, and enables compositions of a better QoS than traditional centralised orchestration approaches. In thi...

  10. HIERARCHICAL DESIGN BASED INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM FOR WIRELESS AD HOC SENSOR NETWORK

    Mohammad Saiful Islam Mamun; A.F.M. Sultanul Kabir

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, wireless ad hoc sensor network becomes popular both in civil and military jobs.However, security is one of the significant challenges for sensor network because of their deploymentin open and unprotected environment. As cryptographic mechanism is not enough to protect sensornetwork from external attacks, intrusion detection system needs to be introduced. Though intrusionprevention mechanism is one of the major and efficient methods against attacks, but there might besome atta...

  11. Fortifying Intrusion Detection Systems in Dynamic Ad Hoc and Wireless Sensor Networks

    Abdelouahid Derhab; Abdelghani Bouras; Mustapha Reda Senouci; Muhammad Imran

    2014-01-01

    We investigate three aspects of dynamicity in ad hoc and wireless sensor networks and their impact on the efficiency of intrusion detection systems (IDSs). The first aspect is magnitude dynamicity, in which the IDS has to efficiently determine whether the changes occurring in the network are due to malicious behaviors or or due to normal changing of user requirements. The second aspect is nature dynamicity that occurs when a malicious node is continuously switching its behavior between normal...

  12. A survey of medium access control protocols for wireless ad hoc networks

    Elvio João Leonardo; Ailton Akira Shinoda

    2004-01-01

    A number of issues distinguishes Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols for wireless networks from those used in wireline systems. In addition, for ad-hoc networks, the characteristics of the radio channel, the diverse physical-layer technologies available and the range of services envisioned make it a difficult task to design an algorithm to discipline the access to the shared medium that results efficient, fair, power consumption sensitive and delay bound. This article presents the current “...

  13. Road Accident Prevention with Instant Emergency Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network

    P. Gokulakrishnan; Ganeshkumar, P.

    2015-01-01

    A Road Accident Prevention (RAP) scheme based on Vehicular Backbone Network (VBN) structure is proposed in this paper for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET). The RAP scheme attempts to prevent vehicles from highway road traffic accidents and thereby reduces death and injury rates. Once the possibility of an emergency situation (i.e. an accident) is predicted in advance, instantly RAP initiates a highway road traffic accident prevention scheme. The RAP scheme constitutes the following activities...

  14. A Mobility-Aware Link Enhancement Mechanism for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Huang Chenn-Jung; Chuang Yi-Ta; Yang Dian-Xiu; Chen I-Fan; Chen You-Jia; Hu Kai-Wen

    2008-01-01

    Abstract With the growth up of internet in mobile commerce, researchers have reproduced various mobile applications that vary from entertainment and commercial services to diagnostic and safety tools. Mobility management has widely been recognized as one of the most challenging problems for seamless access to wireless networks. In this paper, a novel link enhancement mechanism is proposed to deal with mobility management problem in vehicular ad hoc networks. Two machine learning techniques, n...

  15. RHINO: armoured plated networking with intelligent high speed wireless ad hoc capability

    Markarian, Garik; Singh, Farid

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes the concept of an intelligent high speed wireless ad-hoc network, which is currently being developed. The technology aims at, not replacing any of the existing standards, but aims to complement them in urban, military and hazardous environments. Known as Rhino, the technology is a platform independent, IP based network which will provide adequate bandwidth for real time video, audio and data traffic. The technology and specifications described in this paper are based on initial development of the technology.

  16. A Survey of TCP Reno, New Reno and Sack Over Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    Md Nazmul Islam Khan; Rashed Ahmed; Md. Tariq Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is often preferred to be implemented at the transport layer of a Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) because of its wide range of applications, which enjoys the advantage of reliable data transmission in the Internet. However, because of some unique characteristics of MANET, TCP cannot offer reliable services while using e-mail, internet search and file transmission insuch a network. The research investigates how well the different versions of TCP respond to var...

  17. VoIP Implementation and Experiments on a Mobile Wireless AdHoc Network

    Zhang, Hongqi; Yang, Oliver; Zhao, Jiying

    We have implemented a testbed to study the performance of VoIP in wireless ad hoc networks. The ASNC (Adaptive Source Network-rate Control) scheme is used to battle packet loss by feeding MOS (Mean Opinion Score) and loss information back to the sender. Our different VoIP experiments with measurements on delay, packet loss rate and MOS have validated the feasibility and efficiency of our scheme. It further verifies the simulator we used in the initial investigation.

  18. Design of a Smart Antenna for Mobile Ad Hoc Network Applications

    Marco Di Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the mobile ad hoc networks appealing characteristics there are network reconfigurability and flexibility. In this context a smart antenna capable of self-configuring multiple high-directivity beams provides a major advantage in terms of power saving, increased range, and spatial reuse of channels. In this paper a smart antenna made of a cylindrical array of patches suitable for MANETs is presented.

  19. New horizons in mobile and wireless communications, v.4 ad hoc networks and pans

    Prasad, Ramjee

    2009-01-01

    Based on cutting-edge research projects in the field, this book (part of a comprehensive 4-volume series) provides the latest details and covers the most impactful aspects of mobile, wireless, and broadband communications development. These books present key systems and enabling technologies in a clear and accessible manner, offering you a detailed roadmap the future evolution of next generation communications. Other volumes cover Networks, Services and Applications; Reconfigurability; and Ad Hoc Networks.

  20. AUTHENTICATION ARCHITECTURE USING THRESHOLD CRYPTOGRAPHY IN KERBEROS FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Hadj Gharib; Kamel Belloulata

    2014-01-01

    The use of wireless technologies is gradually increasing and risks related to the use of these technologies are considerable. Due to their dynamically changing topology and open environment without a centralized policy control of a traditional network, a mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is vulnerable to the presence of malicious nodes and attacks. The ideal solution to overcome a myriad of security concerns in MANET’s is the use of reliable authentication architecture. In this paper we propose a...

  1. FHC-NCTSR: Node Centric Trust Based secure Hybrid Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks

    Prasuna V G; Dr. S Madhusudahan Verma

    2012-01-01

    To effectively support communication in such a dynamic networking environment as the ad hoc networks, the routing mechanisms should adapt to secure and trusted route discovery and service quality in data transmission. In this context, the paper proposed a routing protocol called Node Centric Trust based Secure Hybrid Routing Protocol [FHC-NCTSR] that opted to fixed hash chaining for data transmission and node centric trust strategy for secure route discovery. The route discovery is reactive i...

  2. Simulation Based: Study and Analysis of Routing Protocol in Vehicular Ad-hoc Network Environment

    Vaishali D. Khairnar; Pradhan, Dr. S. N.

    2012-01-01

    A Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) consists of vehicles which communicate with each other and exchange data via wireless communication links available between the vehicles which are in communication ranges of vehicles to improve the road safety in city. The communication between vehicles is used to provide road safety, comfort and entertainment. The performance of communication depends on how better routing takes place in the network. Routing data between the source and destination vehicle de...

  3. Fuzzy-Based Sensor Fusion for Cognitive Radio-Based Vehicular Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

    2015-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks, sensor fusion is employed to integrate the acquired data from diverse sensors to provide a unified interpretation. The best and most salient advantage of sensor fusion is to obtain high-level information in both statistical and definitive aspects, which cannot be attained by a single sensor. In this paper, we propose a novel sensor fusion technique based on fuzzy theory for our earlier proposed Cognitive Radio-based Vehicular Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks (CR-VASNET)...

  4. Using a history-based approach to predict topology control information in mobile ad hoc networks

    Millán, Pere; Molina Clemente, Carlos Maria; Meseguer Pallarès, Roc; Ochoa, Sergio; Santos, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Several social computing participation strategies, such as crowdsensing and crowdsourcing, use mobile ad hoc or opportunistic networks to support the users activities. The unreliability and dynamism of these communication links make routing protocols a key component to achieve efficient and reliable data communication in physical environments. Often these routing capabilities come at expenses of flooding the network with a huge amount of topology control information (TCI), which can overload ...

  5. A New Strategy to Improve Proactive Route Updates in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Abolhasan Mehran; Wysocki Tadeusz; Lipman Justin

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents two new route update strategies for performing proactive route discovery in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The first strategy is referred to as minimum displacement update routing (MDUR). In this strategy, the rate at which route updates are sent into the network is controlled by how often a node changes its location by a required distance. The second strategy is called minimum topology change update (MTCU). In this strategy, the route updating rate is proportional to t...

  6. ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS – A SURVEY

    K. Sankar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing energy consumption, primarily with the goal of extending the lifetime of battery-powered devices, has emerged as a fundamental challenge in wireless communication. The performance of the medium access control (MAC scheme not only has a fairly significant end-result on the behaviour of the routing approach employed, but also on the energy consumption of the wireless network interface card (NIC. We investigate the inadequacies of the MAC schemes designed for ad hoc wireless networks in the context of power awareness herein. The topology changes due to uncontrollable factors such as node mobility, weather, interference, noise, as well as on controllable parameters such as transmission power and antenna direction results in significant amount of energy loss. Controlling rapid topology changes by minimizing the maximum transmission power used in ad hoc wireless networks, while still maintaining networks connectivity can prolong battery life and hence network lifetime considerably. In addition, we systematically explore the potential energy consumption pitfalls of non–power-based and power based routing schemes. We suggest a thorough energy-based performance survey of energy aware routing protocols for wireless mobile ad-hoc networks. We also present the statistical performance metrics measured by our simulations.

  7. Guard against cooperative black hole attack in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    Harsh Pratap Singh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad-hoc network is an autonomous network that consists of nodes which communicate with each other with wireless channel. Due to its dynamic nature and mobility of nodes, mobile ad hoc networks are more vulnerable to security attack than conventional wired and wireless networks. One of the principal routing protocols AODV used in MANETs. The security of AODV protocol is influence by the particular type of attack called Black Hole attack. In a black hole attack, a malicious node injects a faked route reply claiming to havethe shortest and freshest route to the destination. However, when the data packets arrive, the malicious node discards them. To preventing black hole attack, this paper presents RBS (Reference Broadcast Synchronization & Relative velocity distance method for clock synchronization process in Mobile ad-hoc Network for removal of cooperative black hole node. This paper evaluates the performance in NS2 network simulator and our analysis indicates that this method is very suitable to remove black hole attack.

  8. ECDSA - Performance improvements of intrusion detection in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    Vijayakumar R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available network with collection of mobile nodes without an underlying infrastructure. In this network, the occurrences of misbehavior nodes are a main problem that degrades the network performance. In previous technique watchdog is used to detect nodes misbehaviors in the mobile ad-hoc network, but it contains some of potential issues. To avoid these issues we propose a novel algorithm named as Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA particularly designed for increases the security in network.

  9. Smart border: ad-hoc wireless sensor networks for border surveillance

    He, Jun; Fallahi, Mahmoud; Norwood, Robert A.; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2011-06-01

    Wireless sensor networks have been proposed as promising candidates to provide automated monitoring, target tracking, and intrusion detection for border surveillance. In this paper, we demonstrate an ad-hoc wireless sensor network system for border surveillance. The network consists of heterogeneously autonomous sensor nodes that distributively cooperate with each other to enable a smart border in remote areas. This paper also presents energy-aware and sleeping algorithms designed to maximize the operating lifetime of the deployed sensor network. Lessons learned in building the network and important findings from field experiments are shared in the paper.

  10. Provide a method to Prediction of nodes movement to optimize Routing Algorithms in Ad Hoc Networks

    E.jahani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc networks have been of great interest among scholars of the field, due to their flexibility, quick setup,high potentiality, and also their application in the battle field, fire, earthquakes, where there is no hope to setup infrastructure networks. network dynamic, high mobility of nodes, the nature of broadcast communication ,shortdurability of mobile devices batteries, transmission errors and as a result packet loss and limited bandwidth of bands, all cause the routing in those networks to be more difficult than the other networks.

  11. Impact of Malicious Nodes under Different Route Refresh Intervals in Ad Hoc Network

    P. Suganthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Ad hoc networks are formed dynamically by group of mobile devices co operating with each other. Intermediate nodes between source and destination act as routers so that source node can communicate with the destination node even if it is out radio range and thus eliminating the necessity of infrastructure. Co operation of nodes is a very important feature for the successful deployment of Ad hoc networks. The intermediate nodes should not only be involved in the route discovery process but also should be involved in the re transmission of packets as an intermediate between source and destination. Approach: Since nodes have to be co operative for successful deployment of Ad hoc networks, the security mechanisms cannot afforded to be stringent which enables malicious nodes to successfully attack the network. The capability of optimized link state routing protocol has been studied extensively for different types of ad hoc networks and has been proved to behave somewhere in between pro active and reactive routing protocols. Results: In this study we investigate the impact of malicious nodes on the Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR protocol under different hello intervals which affects the route discovery process and subsequently investigate the degradation of Quality Of Service (QOS. Conclusion: It is observed that the throughput deteriorates when the network is attacked by malicious nodes which selectively retransmit data to some of the destinations. The performance degradation increases as the hello interval time is set beyond 4 sec. Higher hello interval decreases the control packet overheads. It is observed that even with higher hello intervals the network performance is much better than an attack by small group of malicious nodes.

  12. Exploiting Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Knowledge Generation to Achieve Ambient Intelligence

    Anna Lekova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Intelligence (AmI joins together the fields of ubiquitous computing and communications, context awareness, and intelligent user interfaces. Energy, fault-tolerance, and mobility are newly added dimensions of AmI. Within the context of AmI the concept of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs for “anytime and anywhere” is likely to play larger roles in the future in which people are surrounded and supported by small context-aware, cooperative, and nonobtrusive devices that will aid our everyday life. The connection between knowledge generation and communication ad hoc networking is symbiotic—knowledge generation utilizes ad hoc networking to perform their communication needs, and MANETs will utilize the knowledge generation to enhance their network services. The contribution of the present study is a distributed evolving fuzzy modeling framework (EFMF to observe and categorize relationships and activities in the user and application level and based on that social context to take intelligent decisions about MANETs service management. EFMF employs unsupervised online one-pass fuzzy clustering method to recognize nodes' mobility context from social scenario traces and ubiquitously learn “friends” and “strangers” indirectly and anonymously.

  13. ADHOCFTSIM: A Simulator of Fault Tolerence In the AD-HOC Networks

    Esma Insaf Djebbar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The flexibility and diversity of Wireless Mobile Networks offer many opportunities that are not alwaystaken into account by existing distributed systems. In particular, the proliferation of mobile users and theuse of mobile Ad-Hoc promote the formation of collaborative groups to share resources. We propose asolution for the management of fault tolerance in the Ad-Hoc networks, combining the functions neededto better availability of data. Our contribution takes into account the characteristics of mobile terminalsin order to reduce the consumption of resources critical that energy, and to minimize the loss ofinformation. Our solution is based on the formation of clusters, where each is managed by a node leader.This solution is mainly composed of four sub-services, namely: prediction, replication, management ofnodes in the cluster and supervision. We have shown, using several sets of simulation, that our solution istwofold: minimizing the energy consumption which increases the life of the network and better supportdeal with requests lost.

  14. Secured 7 Layer Security Architecture (S7LSA For Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Manu Srivastava

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET constitutes a group of wireless mobile nodes that transmit information without any centralized control. MANETs are infrastructure-less and are dynamic in nature that is why; they require peremptorily new set of networking approach to put through to provide efficacious and successful end-to-end communication. The wireless and distributed nature of MANET poses a great challenge to system security designers. Although security problems in MANET have attracted much attention in the last few years, most research efforts have been focused on specific security areas, such as establishing trust infrastructure, securing routing protocols, or intrusion detection and response, none of the previous work proposes security solutions from a system architectural view. In this paper, we propose seven-layer security architecture for mobile ad hoc networks. A general description of functionalities in each layer is given.

  15. Multicasting along Energy—Efficient Meshes in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    JIANGHai; CHENGShixin; HEYongming

    2003-01-01

    In consideration that current mesh-based multicast routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks don't tend to form energy-efficient multicast infrastruc-ture, we propose a new Energy-efficient multicast rout-ing protocol (E2MRP) for mobile ad hoc networks. The two main characteristics of E2MRP are: (1) using in turn the criteria for minimum energy consumed per packet and minimum maximum node cost during the course of relaying group (RG) creation and maintenance; (2)forming a graph-based multicast infrastructure instead of a tree-based one. Compared to multicast incremen-tal power (MIP) and on-demand multicast routing pro-tocol (ODMRP), as the simulation results show, E2MRP tremendously reduces the energy consumption rate of nodes and hence prolongs the lifetime of nodes and net-works, especially when the size of multicast group is small and node mobility is low.

  16. Neighbor Attack And Detection Mechanism In Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    S. Parthiban

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs, security is one of the most important concerns because a MANETs system is much more vulnerable to attacks than a wired or infrastructure-based wireless network. Designing an effective security protocol for MANET is a very challenging task. This is mainlydue to the unique characteristics of MANETs, namely shared broadcast radio channel, insecure operatingenvironment, lack of central authority, lack of association among users, limited availability of resources, and physical vulnerability. In this paper we present simulation based study of the impact of neighbor attack on mesh-based Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET. And also we study the number of attackers and position affects the performance metrics such as packet delivery ratio and throughput. The study enables us to propose a secure neighbor detection mechanism (SNDM. A generic detection mechanism against neighbor attack for On Demand Routing Protocols is simulated on GlomoSim environment.

  17. Enabling Adaptive Rate and Relay Selection for 802.11 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Mehta, Neil; Wang, Wenye

    2011-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are self-configuring wireless networks that lack permanent infrastructure and are formed among mobile nodes on demand. Rapid node mobility results in dramatic channel variation, or fading, that degrades MANET performance. Employing channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter can improve the throughput of routing and medium access control (MAC) protocols for mobile ad hoc networks. Several routing algorithms in the literature explicitly incorporate the fading signal strength into the routing metric, thus selecting the routes with strong channel conditions. While these studies show that adaptation to the time-variant channel gain is beneficial in MANETs, they do not address the effect of the outdated fading CSI at the transmitter. For realistic mobile node speeds, the channel gain is rapidly varying, and becomes quickly outdated due the feedback delay. We analyze the link throughput of joint rate adaptation and adaptive relay selection in the presence of imperfect CSI. Mor...

  18. A Encryption Based Dynamic and Secure Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Pankaj Kumar Sehgal

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been made for making mobile ad hoc networks secure and dynamic. The unique characteristics like infrastructure-free and absence of any centralized authority make these networks more vulnerable to security attacks. Due to the ever-increasing security threats, there is a need to develop algorithms and protocols for a secured ad hoc network infrastructure. This paper presents a secure routing protocol, called EDSR (Encrypted Dynamic Source Routing. EDSR prevents attackers or malicious nodes from tampering with communication process and also prevents a large number of types of Denial-of-Service attacks. In addition, EDSR is efficient, using only efficient symmetric cryptographic primitives. We have developed a new program in c++ for simulation setup.

  19. Secure, Redundant, and Fully Distributed Key Management Scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: An Analysis

    Joshi Deepti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Security poses a major challenge in ad hoc networks today due to the lack of fixed or organizational infrastructure. This paper proposes a modification to the existing "fully distributed certificate authority" scheme for ad hoc networks. In the proposed modification, redundancy is introduced by allocating more than one share to each node in order to increase the probability of creating the certificate for a node in a highly mobile network. A probabilistic analysis is carried out to analyze the trade-offs between the ease of certificate creation and the security provided by the proposed scheme. The analysis carried out from the intruder's perspective suggests that in the worst-case scenario, the intruder is just "one node" away from a legitimate node in compromising the certificate. The analysis also outlines the parameter selection criteria for a legitimate node to maintain a margin of advantage over an intruder in creating the certificate.

  20. Global Consistency Management Methods Based on Escrow Approaches in Mobile ad Hoc Networks

    Takahiro Hara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In a mobile ad hoc network, consistency management of data operations on replicas is a crucial issue for system performance. In our previous work, we classified several primitive consistency levels according to the requirements from applications and provided protocols to realize them. In this paper, we assume special types of applications in which the instances of each data item can be partitioned and propose two consistency management protocols which are combinations of an escrow method and our previously proposed protocols. We also report simulation results to investigate the characteristics of these protocols in a mobile ad hoc network. From the simulation results, we confirm that the protocols proposed in this paper drastically improve data availability and reduce the traffic for data operations while maintaining the global consistency in the entire network.

  1. Impact of Rushing attack on Multicast in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Palanisamy, V

    2009-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANETs) is a self-organizing system of mobile nodes that communicate with each other via wireless links with no fixed infrastructure or centralized administration such as base station or access points. Nodes in a MANETs operate both as host as well as routers to forward packets for each other in a multihop fashion. For many applications in wireless networks, multicasting is an important and frequent communication service. By multicasting, since a single message can be delivered to multiple receivers simultaneously. It greatly reduces the transmission cost when sending the same packet to multiple recipients. The security issue of MANETs in group communications is even more challenging because of involvement of multiple senders and multiple receivers. At that time of multicasting, mobile ad hoc network are unprotected by the attacks of malicious nodes because of vulnerabilities of routing protocols. Some of the attacks are Rushing attack, Blackhole attack, Sybil attack, Neighbor attack ...

  2. A Noise-Correlated Cancellation Transmission Scheme for Cooperative MIMO Ad Hoc Networks

    Wanni Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A new transmission scheme based on noise-correlated cancellation (NCC is proposed, which absorbs the advantages of phase-inversion symmetric method and cooperative MIMO technology and makes full use of the correlation of noise in the adjacent channels to reduce channel noise. This paper firstly presents the implementation process of NCC transmission scheme in detail. Further, through theoretical analysis, it is showed that the signal-to-noise ratio gain which the proposed NCC transmission scheme gets is at least 4 times greater than the signal-to-noise ratio gain which the traditional cooperative MIMO transmission scheme gets. Finally, simulation experiment results also verify that the proposed NCC transmission scheme can make the channel capacity per bandwidth of cooperative MIMO Ad Hoc networks improve significantly and bit error rate (BER of the network reduce greatly, which will help to expand application scopes of cooperative MIMO Ad Hoc networks.

  3. Fault Tolerant Mechanism for Multimedia Flows in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Based on Fast Switching Paths

    Juan R. Diaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia traffic can be forwarded through a wireless ad hoc network using the available resources of the nodes. Several models and protocols have been designed in order to organize and arrange the nodes to improve transmissions along the network. We use a cluster-based framework, called MWAHCA architecture, which optimizes multimedia transmissions over a wireless ad hoc network. It was proposed by us in a previous research work. This architecture is focused on decreasing quality of service (QoS parameters like latency, jitter, and packet loss, but other network features were not developed, like load balance or fault tolerance. In this paper, we propose a new fault tolerance mechanism, using as a base the MWAHCA architecture, in order to recover any multimedia flow crossing the wireless ad hoc network when there is a node failure. The algorithm can run independently for each multimedia flow. The main objective is to keep the QoS parameters as low as possible. To achieve this goal, the convergence time must be controlled and reduced. This paper provides the designed protocol, the analytical model of the algorithm, and a software application developed to test its performance in a real laboratory.

  4. An Agent Based Intrusion Detection Model for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    B. M. Reshmi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection has over the last few years, assumed paramount importance within the broad realm of network security, more so in case of wireless mobile ad hoc networks. The inherently vulnerable characteristics of wireless mobile ad hoc networks make them susceptible to attacks in-spite of some security measures, and it may be too late before any counter action can take effect. As such, there is a need to complement traditional security mechanisms with efficient intrusion detection and response systems. This paper proposes an agent-based model to address the aspect of intrusion detection in cluster based mobile wireless ad hoc network environment. The model comprises of a set of static and mobile agents, which are used to detect intrusions, respond to intrusions, and distribute selected and aggregated intrusion information to all other nodes in the network in an intelligent manner. The model is simulated to test its operation effectiveness by considering the performance parameters such as, detection rate, false positives, agent overheads, and intrusion information distribution time. Agent based approach facilitates flexible and adaptable security services. Also, it supports component based software engineering components such as maintainability, reachability, reusability, adaptability, flexibility, and customization.

  5. Real Time Semantic Interoperability in AD HOC Networks of Geospatial Data Sources: Challenges, Achievements and Perspectives

    Mostafavi, M. A.; Bakillah, M.

    2012-07-01

    Recent advances in geospatial technologies have made available large amount of geospatial data. Meanwhile, new developments in Internet and communication technologies created a shift from isolated geospatial databases to ad hoc networks of geospatial data sources, where data sources can join or leave the network, and form groups to share data and services. However, effective integration and sharing of geospatial data among these data sources and their users are hampered by semantic heterogeneities. These heterogeneities affect the spatial, temporal and thematic aspects of geospatial concepts. There have been many efforts to address semantic interoperability issues in the geospatial domain. These efforts were mainly focused on resolving heterogeneities caused by different and implicit representations of the concepts. However, many approaches have focused on the thematic aspects, leaving aside the explicit representation of spatial and temporal aspects. Also, most semantic interoperability approaches for networks have focused on automating the semantic mapping process. However, the ad hoc network structure is continuously modified by source addition or removal, formation of groups, etc. This dynamic aspect is often neglected in those approaches. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for real time semantic interoperability in ad hoc networks of geospatial data sources. The conceptual framework presents the fundamental elements of real time semantic interoperability through a hierarchy of interrelated semantic states and processes. Then, we use the conceptual framework to set the discussion on the achievements that have already been made, the challenges that remain to be addressed and perspectives with respect to these challenges.

  6. DYNAMIC K-MEANS ALGORITHM FOR OPTIMIZED ROUTING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Zahra Zandieh Shirazi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a dynamic K-means algorithm to improve the routing process in Mobile Ad-Hoc networks (MANETs is presented. Mobile ad-hoc networks are a collocation of mobile wireless nodes that can operate without using focal access points, pre-existing infrastructures, or a centralized management point. In MANETs, the quick motion of nodes modifies the topology of network. This feature of MANETS is lead to various problems in the routing process such as increase of the overhead massages and inefficient routing between nodes of network. A large variety of clustering methods have been developed for establishing an efficient routing process in MANETs. Routing is one of the crucial topics which are having significant impact on MANETs performance. The K-means algorithm is one of the effective clustering methods aimed to reduce routing difficulties related to bandwidth, throughput and power consumption. This paper proposed a new K-means clustering algorithm to find out optimal path from source node to destinations node in MANETs. The main goal of proposed approach which is called the dynamic K-means clustering methods is to solve the limitation of basic K-means method like permanent cluster head and fixed cluster members. The experimental results demonstrate that using dynamic K-means scheme enhance the performance of routing process in Mobile ad-hoc networks.

  7. An Effective Approach for Mobile ad hoc Network via I-Watchdog Protocol

    Nidhi Lal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is now days become very famous due to their fixed infrastructure-less quality and dynamic nature. They contain a large number of nodes which are connected and communicated to each other in wireless nature. Mobile ad hoc network is a wireless technology that contains high mobility of nodes and does not depend on the background administrator for central authority, because they do not contain any infrastructure. Nodes of the MANET use radio wave for communication and having limited resources and limited computational power. The Topology of this network is changing very frequently because they are distributed in nature and self-configurable. Due to its wireless nature and lack of any central authority in the background, Mobile ad hoc networks are always vulnerable to some security issues and performance issues. The security imposes a huge impact on the performance of any network. Some of the security issues are black hole attack, flooding, wormhole attack etc. In this paper, we will discuss issues regarding low performance of Watchdog protocol used in the MANET and proposed an improved Watchdog mechanism, which is called by I-Watchdog protocol that overcomes the limitations of Watchdog protocol and gives high performance in terms of throughput, delay.

  8. Maximization of Energy Efficiency in Wireless ad hoc and Sensor Networks With SERENA

    Saoucene Mahfoudh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless ad hoc and sensor networks, an analysis of the node energy consumption distribution shows that the largest part is due to the time spent in the idle state. This result is at the origin of SERENA, an algorithm to SchEdule RoutEr Nodes Activity. SERENA allows router nodes to sleep, while ensuring end-to-end communication in the wireless network. It is a localized and decentralized algorithm assigning time slots to nodes. Any node stays awake only during its slot and the slots assigned to its neighbors, it sleeps the remaining time. Simulation results show that SERENA enables us to maximize network lifetime while increasing the number of user messages delivered. SERENA is based on a two-hop coloring algorithm, whose complexity in terms of colors and rounds is evaluated. We then quantify the slot reuse. Finally, we show how SERENA improves the node energy consumption distribution and maximizes the energy efficiency of wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. We compare SERENA with classical TDMA and optimized variants such as USAP in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks.

  9. Effect of Mobility Models on Reinforcement Learning Based Routing Algorithm Applied for Scalable AD HOC Network Environment

    Shrirang.Ambaji.Kulkarn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Network faces the greatest challenge for better performances in terms of mobilitycharacterization. The mobility of nodes and their underlying mobility models have a profound effect on theperformances of routing protocols which are central to the design of ad hoc networks. Most of thetraditional routing algorithms proposed for ad hoc networks do not scale well when the traffic variationincreases drastically. To model a solution to this problem we consider a reinforcement learning basedrouting algorithm for ad hoc network known as SAMPLE. Most the scalability issues for ad hoc networkperformance investigation have not considered the group mobility of nodes. In this paper we modelrealistic group vehicular mobility model and analyze the robustness of a reinforcement learning basedrouting algorithm under scalable conditions.

  10. RESEARCH ON ANONYMOUS COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN AD HOC NETWORKS%无线 Ad hoc 网络匿名通信技术研究

    王秀芝; 石志东; 房卫东; 张小珑; 单联海

    2016-01-01

    无线 Ad hoc 网络(MANET)的多跳、自组织、无固定设施以及运算资源有限等特性,使得传统网络中复杂度高的安全算法难以应用于其中。而采用与匿名技术相结合的安全机制,可较好地解决节点隐私和通信关系保密的安全问题。针对现有的匿名技术,采用对比分析的方法,对传统网络的匿名技术进行分析,总结技术上的优缺点,研究 Ad hoc 网络的匿名技术,并对比分析各种匿名通信协议的安全性能,为后续的研究与应用提供帮助。%Due to the features of Ad hoc networks such as multi-hop,self-organisation,non-infrastructure and limited resource,the security algorithms with high complexity in traditional networks are hard to be used in it.However to use the security mechanism combining with anonymous technology can well solve the security problem in regard to nodes’privacy and communication relationship secret.In this paper,targeted at existing anonymous technologies,we analyse their use in traditional networks with the method of comparative analysis, summarise the advantages and disadvantages in terms of technology,and meanwhile study the anonymous technologies used in Ad hoc networks,as well as compare and analyse the security performances of various anonymous communication protocol,these provide the help for subsequent researches and applications.

  11. Security Challenges Related to Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) and Proposed Solutions

    J. Rajeshwar; Dr G NARSIMHA

    2012-01-01

    A freely roaming nodes forming as a group of network for effective communication is called Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET). In MANET nodes have the liberty of moving around the network with no defensive boundaries and often nodes join and leave the network as per their need due to this nature MANET’s are insecure. In this insecure environment Routing is a critical aspect which must be done properly for secure and reliable delivery of a data and communication. In order to have a secure system w...

  12. Comparison of a Cell-Based Energy Conservation Techniqueand MST Topology Control in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Blough, Douglas; Leoncini, Mauro; Resta, Giovanni; Santi, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    Cooperative strategies and topology control protocols have been recently proposed as effective techniques to reduce energy consumption in wireless ad hoc networks. Although these approaches share the same goal of extending network lifetime, they can be considered as orthogonal approaches.

  13. A New Proposal for Route Finding in Mobile AdHoc Networks

    H.Vignesh Ramamoorthy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a kind of wireless ad-hoc network, and is a self-configuring network of mobile routers (and associated hosts connected by wireless links – the union of which forms an arbitrary topology. The routers are free to move randomly and organize themselves arbitrarily, thus the network's wireless topology may change rapidly and unpredictably. Such a network may operate in a standalone fashion, or may be connected to the larger Internet. There are various routing protocols available for MANETs. The most popular ones are DSR, AODV and DSDV. This paper examines two routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks– the Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV and the Ad hoc On- Demand Distance Vector routing (AODV. Generally, the routing algorithms can be classified into Reactive and Proactive. A Hybrid algorithm combines the basic properties of reactive and proactive into one. The proposed approach is a novel routing pattern based on Ant Colony Optimization and Multi Agent System. This pattern integrates two different algorithms together and helps to get optimum routes for a particular radio range. The approaches used here are Ant Colony Optimization (ACO and Multi Agent System (MAS. The proposed integrated approach has a relatively short route establishment time while using a small number of control messages which makes it a scalable routing approach. The overhead of this routing approach will be inexpensive and also will enable to have an alternate route during route failure. This proposed route finding scheme in order to provide high connectivity of nodes, will minimize the route discovery latency and the end-to-end delay.

  14. Implementation and performance evaluation of mobile ad hoc network for Emergency Telemedicine System in disaster areas.

    Kim, J C; Kim, D Y; Jung, S M; Lee, M H; Kim, K S; Lee, C K; Nah, J Y; Lee, S H; Kim, J H; Choi, W J; Yoo, S K

    2009-01-01

    So far we have developed Emergency Telemedicine System (ETS) which is a robust system using heterogeneous networks. In disaster areas, however, ETS cannot be used if the primary network channel is disabled due to damages on the network infrastructures. Thus we designed network management software for disaster communication network by combination of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) and Wireless LAN (WLAN). This software maintains routes to a Backbone Gateway Node in dynamic network topologies. In this paper, we introduce the proposed disaster communication network with management software, and evaluate its performance using ETS between Medical Center and simulated disaster areas. We also present the results of network performance analysis which identifies the possibility of actual Telemedicine Service in disaster areas via MANET and mobile network (e.g. HSDPA, WiBro). PMID:19964544

  15. Optimal congestion control algorithm for ad hoc networks: Penalty function-based approach

    XU Wet-qiang; WU Tie-jun

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, based on the inherent characteristic of the contention relation between flows in ad hoc networks, we introduce the notion of the link's interference set, extend the utility maximization problem representing congestion control in wireline networks to ad hoc networks, apply the penalty function approach and the subgradient method to solve this problem, and propose the congestion control algorithm Penalty function-based Optical Congestion Control (POCC) which is implemented in NS2 simulator. Specifically, each link transmits periodically the information on its congestion state to its interference set; the session at each source adjusts the transmission rate based on the optimal tradeoffbetween the utility value and the congestion level which the interference set of the links that this session goes though suffers from. MATLAB-based simulation results showed that POCC can approach the globally optimal solution. The NS2-based simulation results showed that POCC outperforms default TCP and ATCP to achieve efficient and fair resource allocation in ad hoc networks.

  16. Intelligent Stale-Frame Discards for Real-Time Video Streaming over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Sheu Tsang-Ling

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents intelligent early packet discards (I-EPD for real-time video streaming over a multihop wireless ad hoc network. In a multihop wireless ad hoc network, the quality of transferring real-time video streams could be seriously degraded, since every intermediate node (IN functionally like relay device does not possess large buffer and sufficient bandwidth. Even worse, a selected relay node could leave or power off unexpectedly, which breaks the route to destination. Thus, a stale video frame is useless even if it can reach destination after network traffic becomes smooth or failed route is reconfigured. In the proposed I-EPD, an IN can intelligently determine whether a buffered video packet should be early discarded. For the purpose of validation, we implement the I-EPD on Linux-based embedded systems. Via the comparisons of performance metrics (packet/frame discards ratios, PSNR, etc., we demonstrate that video quality over a wireless ad hoc network can be substantially improved and unnecessary bandwidth wastage is greatly reduced.

  17. Power Control in Reactive Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Maher HENI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to change the routing strategy of AODV protocol (Ad hoc On Demand Vector inorder to improve the energy consumption in mobile ad hoc networks (MANET. The purpose is tominimize the regular period of HELLO messages generated by the AODV protocol used for the research,development and maintenance of routes. This information is useful to have an idea about battery powerlevels of different network hosts. After storing this information, the node elect the shortest path followingthe classical model used this information to elect safest path (make a compromise in terms of energy.Transmitter node does not select another node as its battery will be exhausted soon.Any node of the network can have the same information’s about the neighborhoods as well as otherinformation about the energy level of the different terminal to avoid routing using a link that will be lostdue to an exhausted battery of a node in this link.Analytical study and simulations by Jist/SWANS have been conducted to note that no divergencerelatively to the classical AODV, a node can have this type of information that improves the energyefficiency in ad hoc networks.

  18. Reducing Packet Transmission Delay in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks using Edge Node Based Greedy Routing

    K.Prasanth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available VANETs (Vehicular Ad hoc Networks are highly mobile wireless ad hoc networks and will play an important role in public safety communications and commercial applications. Routing of data in VANETs is a challenging task due to rapidly changing topology and high speed mobility of vehicles. Conventional routing protocols in MANETs (Mobile Ad hoc Networks are unable to fully address the unique characteristics in vehicular networks. In this paper, we propose EBGR (Edge Node Based Greedy Routing, a greedy position based routing approach to forward packets to the node present in the edge of the limited transmission range of source/forwarding node as most suitable next hop, with consideration of nodes moving in the direction of the destination. We propose Revival Mobility model (RMM to evaluate the performance of our routing technique. This paper presents a detailed description of our approach and simulation results show that end to end delay in packet transmission is minimized considerably compared to current routing protocols of VANET.

  19. Intrusion Detection System for Mobile Ad - Hoc Network Using Cluster-Based Approach

    Nisha Dang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Today Mobile Ad-hoc Networks have wide spread use in normal as well as mission critical applications. Mobile ad hoc networks are more likely to be attacked due to lack of infrastructure and no central management. To secure Manets many traditional security solutions like encryption are used but not find to be promising. Intrusion detection system is one of the technologies that provide some goodsecurity solutions. IDS provide monitoring and auditing capabilities to detect any abnormality in security of the system. IDS can be used with clustering algorithms to protect entire cluster from malicious code. Existing clustering algorithms have a drawback of consuming more power and they are associated with routes. The routeestablishment and route renewal affects the clusters and asa consequence, the processing and traffic overhead increases due to instability of clusters. The ad hoc networks are battery and power constraint, and therefore IDS cannot be run on all the nodes. A trusted monitoring node can be deployed to detect and respond against intrusions in time. The proposed simplified clustering scheme has been used to detect intrusions, resulting in high detection rates and low processing and memory overhead irrespective of the routes, connections, traffic types and mobility of nodes inthe network.

  20. Power-Controlled MAC Protocols with Dynamic Neighbor Prediction for Ad hoc Networks

    LI Meng; ZHANG Lin; XIAO Yong-kang; SHAN Xiu-ming

    2004-01-01

    Energy and bandwidth are the scarce resources in ad hoc networks because most of the mobile nodes are battery-supplied and share the exclusive wireless medium. Integrating the power control into MAC protocol is a promising technique to fully exploit these precious resources of ad hoc wireless networks. In this paper, a new intelligent power-controlled Medium Access Control (MAC) (iMAC) protocol with dynamic neighbor prediction is proposed. Through the elaborate design of the distributed transmit-receive strategy of mobile nodes, iMAC greatly outperforms the prevailing IEEE 802.11 MAC protocols in not only energy conservation but also network throughput. Using the Dynamic Neighbor Prediction (DNP), iMAC performs well in mobile scenes. To the best of our knowledge, iMAC is the first protocol that considers the performance deterioration of power-controlled MAC protocols in mobile scenes and then proposes a solution. Simulation results indicate that DNP is important and necessary for power-controlled MAC protocols in mobile ad hoc networks.

  1. Adaptive and Secure Routing Protocol for Emergency Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Panaousis, Emmanouil A; Millar, Grant P; Politis, Christos; 10.5121/ijwmn.2010.2205

    2010-01-01

    The nature of Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs) makes them suitable to be utilized in the context of an extreme emergency for all involved rescue teams. We use the term emergency MANETs (eMANETs) in order to describe next generation IP-based networks, which are deployed in emergency cases such as forest fires and terrorist attacks. The main goal within the realm of eMANETs is to provide emergency workers with intelligent devices such as smart phones and PDAs. This technology allows communication "islets" to be established between the members of the same or different emergency teams (policemen, firemen, paramedics). In this article, we discuss an adaptive and secure routing protocol developed for the purposes of eMANETs. We evaluate the performance of the protocol by comparing it with other widely used routing protocols for MANETs. We finally show that the overhead introduced due to security considerations is affordable to support secure ad-hoc communications among lightweight devices.

  2. An Immuno-Inspired Approach to Misbehavior Detection in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    Drozda, Martin; Schaust, Sven; Szczerbicka, Helena

    2010-01-01

    We propose and evaluate an immuno-inspired approach to misbehavior detection in ad hoc wireless networks. Node misbehavior can be the result of an intrusion, or a software or hardware failure. Our approach is motivated by co-stimulatory signals present in the Biological immune system. The results show that co-stimulation in ad hoc wireless networks can both substantially improve energy efficiency of detection and, at the same time, help achieve low false positives rates. The energy efficiency improvement is almost two orders of magnitude, if compared to misbehavior detection based on watchdogs. We provide a characterization of the trade-offs between detection approaches executed by a single node and by several nodes in cooperation. Additionally, we investigate several feature sets for misbehavior detection. These feature sets impose different requirements on the detection system, most notably from the energy efficiency point of view.

  3. Cooperation in Carrier Sense Based Wireless Ad Hoc Networks - Part II: Proactive Schemes

    Munari, Andrea; Zorzi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This work is the second of a two-part series of papers on the effectiveness of cooperative techniques in non-centralized carrier sense-based ad hoc wireless networks. While Part I extensively discussed reactive cooperation, characterized by relayed transmissions triggered by failure events at the intended receiver, Part II investigates in depth proactive solutions, in which the source of a packet exploits channel state information to preemptively coordinate with relays in order to achieve the optimal overall rate to the destination. In particular, this work shows by means of both analysis and simulation that the performance of reactive cooperation is reduced by the intrinsic nature of the considered medium access policy, which biases the distribution of the available relays, locating them in unfavorable positions for rate optimization. Moreover, the highly dynamic nature of interference that characterizes non-infrastructured ad hoc networks is proved to hamper the efficacy and the reliability of preemptively ...

  4. Provably Secure Certificate-based Signature Scheme for Ad Hoc Networks

    Zhimin Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Certificate-based cryptography proposed by Gentry in Eurocrypt 2003 combines the advantages of traditional public key cryptography (PKI and identity-based cryptography, and removes the certificate management problem and the private key escrow security concern. Based on computational Diffie-Hellman assumption, a certificate-based signature scheme is constructed to insure the security of communication in mobile Ad hoc networks,. The security of the scheme is proved under the Random Oracle Model. The scheme is also efficient, since the signing algorithm does not need the computation of the bilinear pairing and the verification algorithm needs that computation only once. Thus it is particularly useful in Ad hoc networks.

  5. Security Scheme for Distributed DoS in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Sanyal, Sugata; Gogri, Rajat; Rathod, Punit; Dedhia, Zalak; Mody, Nirali

    2010-01-01

    In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET), various types of Denial of Service Attacks (DoS) are possible because of the inherent limitations of its routing protocols. Considering the Ad Hoc On Demand Vector (AODV) routing protocol as the base protocol it is possible to find a suitable solution to over-come the attack of initiating / forwarding fake Route Requests (RREQs) that lead to hogging of network resources and hence denial of service to genuine nodes. In this paper, a proactive scheme is proposed that could prevent a specific kind of DoS attack and identify the misbehaving node. Since the proposed scheme is distributed in nature it has the capability to prevent Distributed DoS (DDoS) as well. The performance of the proposed algorithm in a series of simulations reveal that the proposed scheme provides a better solution than existing approaches with no extra overhead.

  6. Vehicular ad hoc network for a surveillance system using multifrequency band enhancement

    Bunruangses, Montree; Sunat, Khamron; Mitatha, Somsak; Yupapin, Preecha P.

    2010-09-01

    We present a new design of a surveillance system via a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) integrated by a 3-G or 4-G cellular wireless network. We propose dense wavelength division multiplexing wavelength enhancement for increasing the channel capacity and signal security. Increase in the number of channels can be obtained by increasing the wavelength density. Signal security is introduced by a specific wavelength filter controlled by the central operator. Optical communication wavelength enhancement is reviewed. The advantage of this proposed system is that it can easily be implemented and incorporated into the existing communication link in either a cellular or ad hoc wireless system, where signal security and hence privacy can be provided.

  7. Improved Packet Forwarding Approach in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks Using RDGR Algorithm

    Prasanth, K; Jayasudha, K; Chandrasekar, Dr C; 10.5121/ijngn.2010.2106

    2010-01-01

    VANETs (Vehicular Ad hoc Networks) are highly mobile wireless ad hoc networks and will play an important role in public safety communications and commercial applications. Routing of data in VANETs is a challenging task due to rapidly changing topology and high speed mobility of vehicles. Position based routing protocols are becoming popular due to advancement and availability of GPS devices. One of the critical issues of VANETs are frequent path disruptions caused by high speed mobility of vehicle that leads to broken links which results in low throughput and high overhead . This paper argues the use of information on vehicles' movement information (e.g., position, direction, speed of vehicles) to predict a possible link-breakage event prior to its occurrence. So in this paper we propose a Reliable Directional Greedy routing (RDGR), a reliable position based routing approach which obtains position, speed and direction of its neighboring nodes from GPS. This approach incorporates potential score based strategy...

  8. Analysis and Proposal of Position-Based Routing Protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Okada, Hiraku; Takano, Akira; Mase, Kenichi

    One of the most promising applications of a mobile ad hoc network is a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET). Each vehicle is aware of its position information by GPS or other methods, so position-based routing is a useful approach in VANET. The position-based routing protocol can be classified roughly into a next-hop forwarding method and a directed flooding method. We evaluate performance of both methods by analytic approach and compare them in this paper. From the evaluation results, we conclude that it is effective for the position-based routing to choose either the next-hop forwarding method or the directed flooding method according to the environment. Then we propose the hybrid transmission method which can select one of them according to the environment, and clarify that the proposed method can keep the packet delivery ratio at a high level and reduce the delay time.

  9. Constructing Path Efficient and Energy Aware Virtual Multicast Backbones in Static Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    Tamaghna Acharya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available For stationary wireless ad hoc networks, one of the key challenging issues in routing and multicasting isto conserve as much energy as possible without compromising path efficiency measured as end-to-enddelay. In this paper, we address the problem of path efficient and energy aware multicasting in staticwireless ad hoc networks. We propose a novel distributed scalable algorithm for finding a virtualmulticast backbone (VMB. Based on this VMB, we have further developed a multicasting scheme thatjointly improves path efficiency and energy conservation. By exploiting inherent broadcast advantage ofwireless communication and employing a more realistic energy consumption model for wirelesscommunication which not only depends on radio propagation losses but also on energy losses intransceiver circuitry, our simulation results show that the proposed VMB-based multicasting schemeoutperforms existing prominent tree based energy conserving, path efficient multicasting schemes.

  10. A Group Vehicular Mobility Model for Routing Protocol Analysis in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Kulkarni, Shrirang Ambaji

    2010-01-01

    Performance of routing protocols in mobile ad-hoc networks is greatly affected by the dynamic nature of nodes, route failures, wireless channels with variable bandwidth and scalability issues. A mobility model imitates the real world movement of mobile nodes and is central component to simulation based studies. In this paper we consider mobility nodes which mimic the vehicular motion of nodes like Manhattan mobility model and City Section mobility model. We also propose a new Group Vehicular mobility model that takes the best features of group mobility models like Reference Point Group mobility model and applies it to vehicular models. We analyze the performance of our model known as Group Vehicular mobility model (GVMM) and other vehicular mobility models with various metrics. This analysis provides us with an insight about the impact of mobility models on the performance of routing protocols for ad-hoc networks. The routing protocols are simulated and measured for performance and finally we arrive at the co...

  11. Adaptive and Secure Routing Protocol for Emergency Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Emmanouil A. Panaousis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The nature of Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs makes them suitable to be utilized in the context of anextreme emergency for all involved rescue teams. We use the term emergency MANETs (eMANETs inorder to describe next generation IP-based networks, which are deployed in emergency cases such asforest fires and terrorist attacks. The main goal within the realm of eMANETs is to provide emergencyworkers with intelligent devices such as smart phones and PDAs. This technology allows communication”islets” to be established between the members of the same or different emergency teams (policemen,firemen, paramedics. In this article, we discuss an adaptive and secure routing protocol developed forthe purposes of eMANETs. We evaluate the performance of the protocol by comparing it with otherwidely used routing protocols for MANETs. We finally show that the overhead introduced due to securityconsiderations is affordable to support secure ad-hoc communications among lightweight devices.

  12. Unmanned Aerial ad Hoc Networks: Simulation-Based Evaluation of Entity Mobility Models’ Impact on Routing Performance

    Jean-Daniel Medjo Me Biomo; Thomas Kunz; Marc St-Hilaire; Yifeng Zhou

    2015-01-01

    An unmanned aerial ad hoc network (UAANET) is a special type of mobile ad hoc network (MANET). For these networks, researchers rely mostly on simulations to evaluate their proposed networking protocols. Hence, it is of great importance that the simulation environment of a UAANET replicates as much as possible the reality of UAVs. One major component of that environment is the movement pattern of the UAVs. This means that the mobility model used in simulations has to be thoroughly understood ...

  13. Context discovery using attenuated Bloom filters in ad-hoc networks

    Liu, Fei; Heijenk, Geert

    2007-01-01

    A novel approach to performing context discovery in ad-hoc networks based on the use of attenuated Bloom filters is proposed in this paper. A Bloom filter is an efficient spacesaving data structure to represent context information. Attenuated Bloom filters are used to advertise the availability of context information multiple hops away, and to guide queries to discover it. In order to investigate the performance of this approach, a model has been developed. This paper describes the model and ...

  14. An energy efficient adaptive HELLO algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks

    He, Danping; Mitton, Nathalie; Simplot-Ry, David

    2013-01-01

    International audience HELLO protocol or neighborhood discovery is essential in wireless ad hoc networks. It makes the rules for nodes to claim their existence/aliveness. In the presence of node mobility, no x optimal HELLO frequency and optimal transmission range exist to maintain accurate neighborhood tables while reducing the energy consumption and bandwidth occupation. Thus a Turnover based Frequency and transmission Power Adaptation algorithm (TFPA) is presented in this paper. The met...

  15. Detection and Control of Vampire Attacks in Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks

    Anoopa S; Sudha S K

    2014-01-01

    Ad-hoc low-power wireless networks are the most promising research direction in sensing and pervasive computing. Prior security work in this area has focused primarily on denial of service at the routing or medium access control levels. Earlier, the resource depletion attacks are considered only as a routing problem, very recently these are classified in to a new group called “vampire attacks”. This thesis work explores the identification of resource depletion attacks at the r...

  16. On the feasibility of utilizing smartphones for vehicular ad hoc networking

    Vandenberghe, Wim; Moerman, Ingrid; Demeester, Piet

    2011-01-01

    Last years, a lot of research was performed focusing on cooperative road safety applications such as nearby traffic jam warning, approaching emergency vehicle warning, road obstacle warning, wrong way driver warning, etc. The high cost of the required in-vehicle systems however seems to obstruct end-user adoption. An alternative could be to utilize smartphones for vehicular ad hoc networking. From a business point of view this seems attractive because smartphones already enjoy a successful us...

  17. Investigation on Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks: 802.11p vs LTE architecture

    Blaya Vilardebó, Pedro Luís

    2016-01-01

    Road safety is one of the biggest concerns of this century. Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) were conceived for meeting this necessity of more security, and at the same time offering a more efficient traffic management. VANETs have the peculiarity of high speed and mobility nodes which are difficult to manage by the communication protocols. Due to this context, two communication protocols are predominant in VANETs. On the one hand, 802.11p framework, a protocol designed exclusively for this...

  18. A Mobility and Traffic Generation Framework for Modeling and Simulating Ad Hoc Communication Networks

    Chris Barrett; Martin Drozda; Marathe, Madhav V; Ravi, S. S.; Smith, James P.

    2004-01-01

    We present a generic mobility and traffic generation framework that can be incorporated into a tool for modeling and simulating large scale ad~hoc networks. Three components of this framework, namely a mobility data generator (MDG), a graph structure generator (GSG) and an occlusion modification tool (OMT) allow a variety of mobility models to be incorporated into the tool. The MDG module generates positions of transceivers at specified time instants. The GSG module constructs the graph corre...

  19. A NEW CLUSTER-BASED WORMHOLE INTRUSION DETECTION ALGORITHM FOR MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Debdutta Barman Roy; Rituparna Chaki; Nabendu Chaki

    2009-01-01

    In multi-hop wireless systems, the need for cooperation among nodes to relay each other's packets exposes them to a wide range of security attacks. A particularly devastating attack is the wormhole attack, where a malicious node records control traffic at one location and tunnels it to another compromised node, possibly far away, which replays it locally. Routing security in ad hoc networks is often equated with strong and feasible node authentication and lightweight cryptography. Unfortunate...

  20. Reducing Congestion in Obstructed Highways with Traffic Data Dissemination Using Ad hoc Vehicular Networks

    Hewer, Thomas D.; Maziar Nekovee; Coveney*, Peter V

    2010-01-01

    Vehicle-to-vehicle communications can be used effectively for intelligent transport systems (ITSs) and location-aware services. The ability to disseminate information in an ad hoc fashion allows pertinent information to propagate faster through a network. In the realm of ITS, the ability to spread warning information faster and further is of great advantage to receivers. In this paper we propose and present a message-dissemination procedure that uses vehicular wireless protocols to influence...

  1. Energy-balanced multi-hop-aware cooperative geographic routing for wireless ad hoc networks

    Fan, Wentong; Zhang, Song; Ma, Linhua; Ru, Le; Tang, Hong; TIAN, YU

    2016-01-01

    Since the cooperative communication can reduce the transmitted power and extend the transmission coverage, minimum energy routing protocols are considered to reduce the total energy consumption in a multi-hop wireless Ad Hoc network. In this paper, an Energy-balanced Multi-hop-aware Cooperative Geographic Routing (EMCGR) algorithm is proposed. We firstly formulate the outage probability and construct the minimum power route in Multi-hop-aware Cooperative Transmission (MCT) mode. The MCT mode ...

  2. SVANET: A Smart Vehicular Ad Hoc Network for Efficient Data Transmission with Wireless Sensors

    Prasan Kumar Sahoo; Ming-Jer Chiang; Shih-Lin Wu

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensors can sense any event, such as accidents, as well as icy roads, and can forward the rescue/warning messages through intermediate vehicles for any necessary help. In this paper, we propose a smart vehicular ad hoc network (SVANET) architecture that uses wireless sensors to detect events and vehicles to transmit the safety and non-safety messages efficiently by using different service channels and one control channel with different priorities. We have developed a data transmissio...

  3. Power-Controlled Data Transmission in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks: Challenges and Solutions

    Bilgehan Berberoglu; Taner Cevik

    2016-01-01

    Energy scarcity and interference are two important factors determining the performance of wireless ad-hoc networks that should be considered in depth. A promising method of achieving energy conservation is the transmission power control. Transmission power control also contributes to the mitigation of interference thereby promotes throughput by means of rendering multiple hosts to communicate in the same neighborhood simultaneously without impairing each other’s transmissions. However, as ide...

  4. Building hierarchical public key infrastructures in mobile ad-hoc networks

    Satizábal Echavarría, Isabel Cristina; Forné Muñoz, Jorge; Hernández Serrano, Juan; Pegueroles Vallés, Josep R.

    2006-01-01

    Dynamism of mobile ad-hoc networks implies changing trust relationships among their nodes that can be established using peer-to-peer PKIs. Here, certification paths can be built although part of the infrastructure is temporarily unreachable because there can be multiple paths between two entities but certification path discovery is difficult since all the options do not lead to the target entity. On the contrary, in hierarchical PKIs, there is only one path between two entities and certificat...

  5. A Combined Solution for Routing and Medium Access Control Layer Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    R. Murugan; Shanmugam, A.

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: In Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET), both the routing layer and the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer are vulnerable to several attacks. There are very few techniques to detect and isolate the attacks of both these layers simultaneously. In this study, we developed a combined solution for routing and MAC layer attacks. Approach: Our approach, makes use of three techniques simultaneously which consists of a cumulative frequency based detection technique for&...

  6. RISM -- Reputation Based Intrusion Detection System for Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Trivedi, Animesh Kr; Kapoor, Rishi; Arora, Rajan; Sanyal, Sudip; Sanyal, Sugata

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a combination of an Intrusion Detection System with a routing protocol to strengthen the defense of a Mobile Ad hoc Network. Our system is Socially Inspired, since we use the new paradigm of Reputation inherited from human behavior. The proposed IDS also has a unique characteristic of being Semi-distributed, since it neither distributes its Observation results globally nor keeps them entirely locally; however, managing to communicate this vital information without accretio...

  7. Intelligent Security Auditing Based on Access Control of Devices in Ad Hoc Network

    XU Guang-wei; SHI You-qun; ZHU Ming; WU Guo-wen; CAO Qi-ying

    2006-01-01

    Security in Ad Hoc network is an important issue under the opening circumstance of application service. Some protocols and models of security auditing have been proposed to ensure rationality of contracting strategy and operating regulation and used to identify abnormal operation. Model of security auditing based on access control of devices will be advanced to register sign of devices and property of event of access control and to audit those actions. In the end, the model is analyzed and simulated.

  8. InstantSocial : social networking in mobile ad-hoc environments

    Halvorsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    This report covers the research, design and prototype implementation of a social application for mobile ad-hoc networks, InstantSocial. The main goals of this project has been to look at this exciting field and examine how the European scientific collaborative project MUSIC can be used to develop such an application. The project has been conducted using a Design Science approach. First the field of interest, existing similar applications and technology was examined to get a good view of the ...

  9. EGPS: An Efficient Privacy Preserving Scheme for Vehicular ad hoc Networks

    Zhao, Baokang; Su, Xiangyu; Su, Jinshu; Song, Ziming; Sun, Yipin; Tao, Jing; Tang, Yong; Chen, Shuhui; Zhao, Guohong; Chen, Yijiao

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we propose EGPS, an efficient privacy preserving scheme for vehicular ad hoc networks. The EGPS scheme is based on a very efficient group signature and Identity Based Cryptography(IBC) techniques. Several security properties of EGPS, including the correctness and unforgeability have been proved. Furthermore, EGPS is also proved to be more efficient than GSIS, which is currently one of the best state-of-the-art VANET privacy preserving schemes.

  10. A Novel Real Time Framework for Cluster Based Multicast Communication in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Farooq, Waqar; Ali Khan, Muazzam; Rehman, Saad

    2016-01-01

    In a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET), the vehicles communicate with each other to develop an intelligent transport system (ITS) which provides safety and convenience while driving. The major challenge of VANET is that the topology changes dynamically due to the high speed and unpredictable mobility of vehicles resulting in an inefficient real time message dissemination, especially in emergency scenarios such as in the accident event where it can cause high level of destruction. To the best o...

  11. Predicted Link Expiration Time Based Connected Dominating Sets for Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Pervis Fly; Natarajan Meghanathan

    2010-01-01

    We propose an algorithm to determine stable connecteddominating sets (CDS), based on the predicted link expiration time(LET), for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The proposed LETbasedCDS algorithm is the first such algorithm that constructs a CDSbased on edge weights represented by predicted link expiration time,rather the traditional approach of using node weights like the wellknownmaximum density-based CDS (MaxD-CDS) algorithm. Theconstruction of the LET-CDS starts with the inclusion of th...

  12. Hierarchical Location Service with Prediction in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Ebtisam Amar; Selma Boumerdassi; Éric Renault

    2010-01-01

    Position-based routing protocols take advantage of location information to perform a stateless and efficient routing. To enable position-based routing, a node must be able to discover the location of the messages' destination node. This task is typically accomplished by a location service. Recently, several location service protocols have been developed for ad hoc networks. In this paper we propose a novel location service called PHLS: Predictive Hierarchical Location Service. In PHLS, the en...

  13. A Location Service Mechanism for Position-Based Multicasting in Wireless Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Sasson, Yoav; Cavin, David; Schiper, André

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel location management scheme tailored for multicasting in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs). We furthermore propose AMDLM, a location-based multicast algorithm relying on the location management service. Such an approach avoids fragile data structures such as trees or DAGs to manage multicast groups, without reverting to more reliable, yet overhead-prone mesh-based algorithms. AMDLM additionally enables us to derive analytical bounds due to its location-base...

  14. Network Parameters Impact on Dynamic Transmission Power Control in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks

    Khan Muhammad Imran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In vehicular ad hoc networks, the dynamic change in transmission power is very effective to increase the throughput of the wireless vehicular network and decrease the delay of the message communicationbetween vehicular nodes on the highway. Whenever an event occurs on the highway, the reliability of the communication in the vehicular network becomes so vital so that event created messages shouldreach to all the moving network nodes. It becomes necessary that there should be no interference fromoutside of the network and all the neighbor nodes should lie in the transmission range of thereference vehicular node. Transmission range is directly proportional to the transmission power the moving node. If the transmission power will be high, the interference increases that can cause higherdelay in message reception at receiver end, hence the performance of the network decreased. In this paper, it is analyzed that how transmission power can be controlled by considering other differentparameter of the network such as; density, distance between moving nodes, different types of messages dissemination with their priority, selection of an antenna also affects on the transmission power. Thedynamic control of transmission power in VANET serves also for the optimization of the resources where it needs, can be decreased and increased depending on the circumstances of the network.Different applications and events of different types also cause changes in transmission power to enhance the reachability. The analysis in this paper is comprised of density, distance with single hop and multihop message broadcasting based dynamic transmission power control as well as antenna selection and applications based. Some summarized tables are produced according to the respective parameters of the vehicular network. At the end some valuable observations are made and discussed in detail. This paper concludes with a grand summary of all the protocols discussed in it.

  15. A Survey on Intrusion in Ad Hoc Networks and its Detection Measures

    Ms. Preetee K. Karmore,

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc wireless networks are defined as the category of wireless networks that utilizes multi-hop radio relaying and are capable of operating without the support of any fixed infrastructure hence, they are called infrastructure less networks. The lack of any central coordination makes them more vulnerable to attacks than wirednetworks. Due to some unique characteristics of MANETs, prevention methods alone are not sufficient to make them secure therefore, detection should be added as another defense before an attacker can breach the system. Network intrusion detection is the process of monitoring the events occurring in the network and analyzing them for signs of intrusions, defined as attempts to compromise the confidentiality. In this paper, we define and discuss varioustechniques of Intrusion Detection. We also present a description of routing protocols and types of security attacks possible in the network.

  16. Systematic lossy error protection for video transmission over wireless ad hoc networks

    Zhu, Xiaoqing; Rane, Shantanu; Girod, Bernd

    2005-07-01

    Wireless ad hoc networks present a challenge for error-resilient video transmission, since node mobility and multipath fading result in time-varying link qualities in terms of packet loss ratio and available bandwidth. In this paper, we propose to use a systematic lossy error protection (SLEP) scheme for video transmission over wireless ad hoc networks. The transmitted video signal has two parts-a systematic portion consisting of a video sequence transmitted without channel coding over an error-prone channel, and error protection information consisting of a bitstream generated by Wyner-Ziv encoding of the video sequence. Using an end-to-end video distortion model in conjunction with online estimates of packet loss ratio and available bandwidth, the optimal Wyner-Ziv description can be selected dynamically according to current channel conditions. The scheme can also be applied to choose one path for transmission from amongst multiple candidate routes with varying available bandwidths and packet loss ratios, so that the expected end-to-end video distortion is maximized. Experimental results of video transmission over a simulated ad hoc wireless network shows that the proposed SLEP scheme outperforms the conventional application layer FEC approach in that it provides graceful degradation of received video quality over a wider range of packet loss ratios and is less susceptible to inaccuracy in the packet loss ratio estimation.

  17. Hardware in Loop Simulation for Emergency Communication Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    YANG Jie; AN Jian-ping; LIU Heng

    2007-01-01

    For the research of mobile Ad hoc network (MANET), hardware in the loop simulation (HILS) is introduced to improve simulation fidelity. The architectures and frameworks of HILS system are discussed. Based on HILS and QualNet network simulator, two kinds of simulation frameworks for MANET multicast emergency communicati on network are proposed. By running simulation under this configuration and doing experiments with on-demand multicast routing protocol (ODMRP), unicast and multicast functions of this protocol are tested. Research results indicate that HILS method can effectively reduce the difficulty of system modeling and improve precision of simulation, and can further accelerate transition from design to system deployment.

  18. An Assessment of Worm Hole attack over Mobile Ad-Hoc Network as serious threats

    Vikas Kumar Upadhyay

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Now these day Mobile Ad hoc networks vulnerable from number of security threats like black hole attack, DOS attack, Byzantine attack and wormhole attack. Wormhole attack is one of most important attack and having great attention in recent year. Wormhole attack, demonstrate a illusion over the network that show two far away node to be an neighbor node and attracted all traffic by presenting an greediness of shortest path over the network. This paper presents a bird eye over different existing wormhole deduction mechanism and their problem.

  19. Link Stability and Node Energy Conscious Local Route-Repair Scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Anuradha Banerjee; Paramartha Dutta

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: A mobile ad hoc network is a self-configuring network of mobile nodes connected by wireless links. As the nodes are free to move randomly, topology of the network may change rapidly and unpredictably. As a result, intermediate nodes in the communication routes tend to lose connection with each other during the communication process. In order to repair a broken link, an end-to-end (from source to destination) route discovery is typically performed to establish a new route fo...

  20. A Fairness-Oriented Interference-Balancing Scheme for Cooperative Frequency Hopping Ad Hoc Networks

    Pujol i Molist, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Projecte final de carrera fet en col.laboració amb Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) English: It may quite frequently occur in an ad hoc network that the density of users in a given area becomes relatively high during some period of time. At the same time, network resource scheduling is not done regarding these moments with a higher load, but it is done according to average parameters of the network in order to have a trade-off solution that reaches the highest possible quality of se...

  1. An Overview of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks for the Existing Protocols and Applications

    Al-Omari, Saleh Ali K; 10.5121/jgraphhoc.2010.2107

    2010-01-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of two or more devices or nodes or terminals with wireless communications and networking capability that communicate with each other without the aid of any centralized administrator also the wireless nodes that can dynamically form a network to exchange information without using any existing fixed network infrastructure. And it's an autonomous system in which mobile hosts connected by wireless links are free to be dynamically and some time act as routers at the same time, and we discuss in this paper the distinct characteristics of traditional wired networks, including network configuration may change at any time, there is no direction or limit the movement and so on, and thus needed a new optional path Agreement (Routing Protocol) to identify nodes for these actions communicate with each other path, An ideal choice way the agreement should not only be able to find the right path, and the Ad Hoc Network must be able to adapt to changing network of this type at any...

  2. An Investigation about Performance Comparison of Multi-Hop Wireless Ad-Hoc Network Routing Protocols in MANET

    S. Karthik

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any stand-alone infrastructure or centralized administration. Mobile Ad-hoc networks are self-organizing and self-configuring multihop wireless networks where, the structure of the network changes dynamically. This is mainly due to the mobility of nodes. The Nodes in the network not only acts as hosts but also as routers that route data to or from other nodes in network. In mobile ad-hoc networks a routing procedure is always needed to find a path so as to forward the packets appropriately between the source and the destination. The main aim of any ad-hoc network routing protocol is to meet the challenges of the dynamically changing topology and establish a correct and an efficient communication path between any two nodes with minimum routing overhead and bandwidth consumption. The design problem of such a routing protocol is not simple since an ad hoc environment introduces new challenges that are not present in fixed networks. A number of routing protocols have been proposed for this purpose like Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Destination- Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV. In this paper, we study and compare the performance of the following three routing protocols AODV, DSR and DSDV.

  3. Dynamic autonomous routing technology for IP-based satellite ad hoc networks

    Wang, Xiaofei; Deng, Jing; Kostas, Theresa; Rajappan, Gowri

    2014-06-01

    IP-based routing for military LEO/MEO satellite ad hoc networks is very challenging due to network and traffic heterogeneity, network topology and traffic dynamics. In this paper, we describe a traffic priority-aware routing scheme for such networks, namely Dynamic Autonomous Routing Technology (DART) for satellite ad hoc networks. DART has a cross-layer design, and conducts routing and resource reservation concurrently for optimal performance in the fluid but predictable satellite ad hoc networks. DART ensures end-to-end data delivery with QoS assurances by only choosing routing paths that have sufficient resources, supporting different packet priority levels. In order to do so, DART incorporates several resource management and innovative routing mechanisms, which dynamically adapt to best fit the prevailing conditions. In particular, DART integrates a resource reservation mechanism to reserve network bandwidth resources; a proactive routing mechanism to set up non-overlapping spanning trees to segregate high priority traffic flows from lower priority flows so that the high priority flows do not face contention from low priority flows; a reactive routing mechanism to arbitrate resources between various traffic priorities when needed; a predictive routing mechanism to set up routes for scheduled missions and for anticipated topology changes for QoS assurance. We present simulation results showing the performance of DART. We have conducted these simulations using the Iridium constellation and trajectories as well as realistic military communications scenarios. The simulation results demonstrate DART's ability to discriminate between high-priority and low-priority traffic flows and ensure disparate QoS requirements of these traffic flows.

  4. A Light-Weight Service Discovery Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks

    Ranwa A. Mallah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In mobile ad hoc networks devices do not rely on a fixed infrastructure and thus have to be self-organizing. This gives rise to various challenges to network applications. Existing service discovery protocols fall short of accommodating the complexities of the ad-hoc environment. However, the performance of distributed service discovery architectures that rely on a virtual backbone for locating and registering available services appeared very promising in terms of average delay but in terms of message overhead, are the most heavy-weight. In this research we propose a very light-weight, robust and reliable model for service discovery in wireless and mobile networks by taking into account the limited resources to which are subjected the mobile units. Approach: Three processes are involved in service discovery protocols using virtual dynamic backbone for mobile ad hoc networks: registration, discovery and consistency maintenance. More specifically, the model analytically and realistically differentiates stable from unstable nodes in the network in order to form a subset of nodes constituting a relatively stable virtual Backbone (BB. Results: Overall, results acquired were very satisfactory and meet the performance objectives of effectiveness especially in terms of network load. A notable reduction of almost 80% of message signaling was observed in the network. This criterion distinguishes our proposal and corroborate to its light-weight characteristic. On the other hand, results showed reasonable mean time delay to the requests initiated by the clients. Conclusion: Extensive simulation results obtained confirm the efficiency and the light-weight characteristic of our approach in significantly reducing the cost of message overhead in addition to having the best delay values when compared with strategies well-known in the literature.

  5. Implementing voice over Internet protocol in mobile ad hoc network – analysing its features regarding efficiency, reliability and security

    Naveed Ahmed Sheikh; Ashfaq Ahmad Malik; Athar Mahboob; Khairun Nisa

    2014-01-01

    Providing secure and efficient real-time voice communication in mobile ad hoc network (MANET) environment is a challenging problem. Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) has originally been developed over the past two decades for infrastructure-based networks. There are strict timing constraints for acceptable quality VoIP services, in addition to registration and discovery issues in VoIP end-points. In MANETs, ad hoc nature of networks and multi-hop wireless environment with significant packet...

  6. On capacity of wireless ad hoc networks with MIMO MMSE receivers

    Ma, Jing

    2008-01-01

    Widely adopted at home, business places, and hot spots, wireless ad-hoc networks are expected to provide broadband services parallel to their wired counterparts in near future. To address this need, MIMO techniques, which are capable of offering several-fold increase in capacity, hold significant promise. Most previous work on capacity analysis of ad-hoc networks is based on an implicit assumption that each node has only one antenna. Core to the analysis therein is the characterization of a geometric area, referred to as the exclusion region, which quantizes the amount of spatial resource occupied by a link. When multiple antennas are deployed at each node, however, multiple links can transmit in the vicinity of each other simultaneously, as interference can now be suppressed by spatial signal processing. As such, a link no longer exclusively occupies a geometric area, making the concept of "exclusion region" not applicable any more. In this paper, we investigate link-layer throughput capacity of MIMO ad-hoc ...

  7. Forming an ad-hoc nearby storage, based on IKAROS and social networking services

    We present an ad-hoc 'nearby' storage, based on IKAROS and social networking services, such as Facebook. By design, IKAROS is capable to increase or decrease the number of nodes of the I/O system instance on the fly, without bringing everything down or losing data. IKAROS is capable to decide the file partition distribution schema, by taking on account requests from the user or an application, as well as a domain or a Virtual Organization policy. In this way, it is possible to form multiple instances of smaller capacity higher bandwidth storage utilities capable to respond in an ad-hoc manner. This approach, focusing on flexibility, can scale both up and down and so can provide more cost effective infrastructures for both large scale and smaller size systems. A set of experiments is performed comparing IKAROS with PVFS2 by using multiple clients requests under HPC IOR benchmark and MPICH2.

  8. Forming an ad-hoc nearby storage, based on IKAROS and social networking services

    Filippidis, Christos; Cotronis, Yiannis; Markou, Christos

    2014-06-01

    We present an ad-hoc "nearby" storage, based on IKAROS and social networking services, such as Facebook. By design, IKAROS is capable to increase or decrease the number of nodes of the I/O system instance on the fly, without bringing everything down or losing data. IKAROS is capable to decide the file partition distribution schema, by taking on account requests from the user or an application, as well as a domain or a Virtual Organization policy. In this way, it is possible to form multiple instances of smaller capacity higher bandwidth storage utilities capable to respond in an ad-hoc manner. This approach, focusing on flexibility, can scale both up and down and so can provide more cost effective infrastructures for both large scale and smaller size systems. A set of experiments is performed comparing IKAROS with PVFS2 by using multiple clients requests under HPC IOR benchmark and MPICH2.

  9. An Optimal Path Management Strategy in Mobile Ad Hoc Network Using Fuzzy and Rough Set Theory

    P. Seethalakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that dynamically forms a network. Most of the existing ad-hoc routing algorithms select the shortest path using various resources. However the selected path may not consider all the network parameters and this would result in link instability in the network. The problems with existing methods are frequent route change with respect to change in topology, congestion as result of traffic and battery limitations since its an infrastructure less network. Approach: To overcome these problems an optimal path management approach called path vector calculation based on fuzzy and rough set theory were addressed. The ultimate intend of this study is to select the qualified path based on power consumption in the node, number of internodes and traffic load in the network. Simple rules were generated using fuzzy and rough set techniques for calculating path vector and to remove irrelevant attributes (resources for evaluating the best routing. The set of rules were evaluated with proactive and reactive protocols namely DSDV, AODV and DSR in the NS-2 simulation environment based on metrics such as total energy consumed, throughput, packet delivery ratio and average end-to-end delay. Results: The results have shown that in MANET, decision rules with fuzzy and rough set technique has provided qualified path based best routing. Conclusion: The network life time and performance of reactive and proactive protocols in MANET has improved with fuzzy and rough set based decision rules.

  10. Intelligent Networks Data Fusion Web-based Services for Ad-hoc Integrated WSNs-RFID

    Falah Alshahrany

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of variety of data fusion tools and techniques for big data processing poses the problem of the data and information integration called data fusion having objectives which can differ from one application to another. The design of network data fusion systems aimed at meeting these objectives, need to take into account of the necessary synergy that can result from distributed data processing within the data networks and data centres, involving increased computation and communication. This papers reports on how this processing distribution is functionally structured as configurable integrated web-based support services, in the context of an ad-hoc wireless sensor network used for sensing and tracking, in the context of distributed detection based on complete observations to support real rime decision making. The interrelated functional and hardware RFID-WSN integration is an essential aspect of the data fusion framework that focuses on multi-sensor collaboration as an innovative approach to extend the heterogeneity of the devices and sensor nodes of ad-hoc networks generating a huge amount of heterogeneous soft and hard raw data. The deployment and configuration of these networks require data fusion processing that includes network and service management and enhances the performance and reliability of networks data fusion support systems providing intelligent capabilities for real-time control access and fire detection.

  11. Highway Mobility and Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks in NS-3

    Arbabi, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    The study of vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) requires efficient and accurate simulation tools. As the mobility of vehicles and driver behavior can be affected by network messages, these tools must include a vehicle mobility model integrated with a quality network simulator. We present the first implementation of a well-known vehicle mobility model to ns-3, the next generation of the popular ns-2 networking simulator. Vehicle mobility and network communication are integrated through events. User-created event handlers can send network messages or alter vehicle mobility each time a network message is received and each time vehicle mobility is updated by the model. To aid in creating simulations, we have implemented a straight highway model that manages vehicle mobility, while allowing for various user customizations. We show that the results of our implementation of the mobility model matches that of the model's author and provide an example of using our implementation in ns-3.

  12. Optimal Power Control for Concurrent Transmissions of Location-aware Mobile Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

    Song, Yi

    2011-01-01

    In a cognitive radio (CR) network, CR users intend to operate over the same spectrum band licensed to legacy networks. A tradeoff exists between protecting the communications in legacy networks and maximizing the throughput of CR transmissions, especially when CR links are unstable due to the mobility of CR users. Because of the non-zero probability of false detection and implementation complexity of spectrum sensing, in this paper, we investigate a sensing-free spectrum sharing scenario for mobile CR ad hoc networks to improve the frequency reuse by incorporating the location awareness capability in CR networks. We propose an optimal power control algorithm for the CR transmitter to maximize the concurrent transmission region of CR users especially in mobile scenarios. Under the proposed power control algorithm, the mobile CR network achieves maximized throughput without causing harmful interference to primary users in the legacy network. Simulation results show that the proposed optimal power control algori...

  13. Recognition and Elimination of Malicious Nodes in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET’s

    Prashant Sangulagi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network, or VANET, is a form of Mobile ad-hoc network, to provide communications among nearby vehicles and between vehicles and nearby fixed equipment (Base Stations via radio waves.These have similar characteristics as mobile ad hoc networks, often in the form of multi-hop networks. Due to the high mobility of nodes network topology changes occur frequently. All nodes share the same channel leading to congestion in very dense networks. One important property that characterizes VANETs is that they are self-organizing, self-creating, and self administering and decentralized systems. This paper proposes detection and elimination of misbehaving nodes in VANETs using mobile agents. Mobile agents are employed for each node, for the collection of information of neighbours and to find the route from source to the destination. To find the malicious nodes among the intermediate nodes, mobility and power ratio of the intermediate nodes are continuously monitored with the help of software agents. Some threshold value of mobility and power ratio for intermediate nodes are maintained at the source node. Based on comparing themonitored and threshold values of these factors, with probabilistic approach we are determining the nodes as malicious nodes. Once the intermediate node is determined as the malicious node, the alternate path is employed from source to the destination. To test the operative effectiveness and performance of the system some of theperformance parameters evaluated are, Number of paths available, Number of routes involving misbehaving nodes, Number of misbehaving nodes, Time taken to detect misbehaving nodes.

  14. Performance Comparison of Secure Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Ashwani Garg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A mobile Ad-Hoc network (MANET is a collection of wireless mobile nodes dynamically forming a temporary network without the use of any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. Each node operates not only as an end system but, also as a router to forward packets. The nodes are free to move about and organize themselves into a network. These nodes change position frequently. A node can get compromised during the route discovery process. Attackers from inside or outside can easily exploit the network. Several secure routing protocols are proposed for MANETs by researchers. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compare the performance of two prominent secure routing protocols for MANETs: Secure Efficient Ad-Hoc Distance Vector Protocol i.e. SEAD (a proactive or table driven protocol and Ariadne (a reactive or on demand protocol.Compared to the proactive routing protocols, less control overhead is a distinct advantage of the reactive protocols. Thus, reactive routing protocols have better scalability than proactive routing protocols. However, when using reactive routing protocols, source nodes may suffer from long delays for route searching before they can forward data packets. Hence these protocols are not suitable for real-time applications. As per our findings the difference in the protocols mechanics leads to significant performance differentials for both of these protocols. The performance differentials are analyzed using varying simulation time. These simulations are carried out using the NS-2 network simulator. The results presented in this work illustrate the importance in carefully evaluating and implementing routing protocols in an ad hoc environment.

  15. Towards an Effective Intrusion Response Engine Combined with Intrusion Detection in Ad Hoc Networks

    Mitrokotsa, Aikaterini; Douligeris, Christos

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an effective intrusion response engine combined with intrusion detection in ad hoc networks. The intrusion response engine is composed of a secure communication module, a local and a global response module. Its function is based on an innovative tree-based key agreement protocol while the intrusion detection engine is based on a class of neural networks called eSOM. The proposed intrusion response model and the tree-based protocol, it is based on, are analyzed concerning key secrecy while the intrusion detection engine is evaluated for MANET under different traffic conditions and mobility patterns. The results show a high detection rate for packet dropping attacks.

  16. An SPN analysis method for parallel scheduling in Ad Hoc networks

    盛琳阳; 徐文超; 贾世楼

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a new analytic method for modeling and evaluating mobile ad hoc networks (MANET)is proposed. Petri nets technique is introduced into MANET and a packet-flow parallel scheduling scheme is presented using Stochastic Petri Nets (SPN). The flowing of tokens is used in graphics mode to characterize dynamical features of sharing a single wireless channel. Through SPN reachability analysis and isomorphic continuous time Markov process equations, some network parameters, such as channel efficiency, one-hop transmission delay etc. , can be obtained. Compared with conventional performance evaluation methods, the above parameters are mathematical expressions instead of test results from a simulator.

  17. A Mobility-Aware Link Enhancement Mechanism for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Kai-Wen Hu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available With the growth up of internet in mobile commerce, researchers have reproduced various mobile applications that vary from entertainment and commercial services to diagnostic and safety tools. Mobility management has widely been recognized as one of the most challenging problems for seamless access to wireless networks. In this paper, a novel link enhancement mechanism is proposed to deal with mobility management problem in vehicular ad hoc networks. Two machine learning techniques, namely, particle swarm optimization and fuzzy logic systems, are incorporated into the proposed schemes to enhance the accuracy of prediction of link break and congestion occurrence. The experimental results verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed schemes.

  18. A survey of medium access control protocols for wireless ad hoc networks

    Elvio João Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues distinguishes Medium Access Control (MAC protocols for wireless networks from those used in wireline systems. In addition, for ad-hoc networks, the characteristics of the radio channel, the diverse physical-layer technologies available and the range of services envisioned make it a difficult task to design an algorithm to discipline the access to the shared medium that results efficient, fair, power consumption sensitive and delay bound. This article presents the current “state-of-art” in this area, including solutions already commercially available as well as those still in study.

  19. AN ENHANCEMENT SCHEME OF TCP PROTOCOL IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS: MME-TCP

    Kai Caihong; Yu Nenghai; Chen Yuzhong

    2007-01-01

    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) optimization in Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs) is a challenging issue because of some unique characteristics of MANETs. In this paper,a new end-to-end mechanism based on multiple metrics measurement is proposed to improve TCP performance in MANETs. Multi-metric Measurement based Enhancement of TCP (MME-TCP)designs the metrics and the identification algorithm according to the characteristics of MANETs and the experiment results. Furthermore, these metrics are measured at the sender node to reduce the overhead of control information over networks. Simulation results show that MME-TCP mechanism achieves a significant performance improvement over standard TCP in MANETs.

  20. A Mobility-Aware Link Enhancement Mechanism for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Huang Chenn-Jung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the growth up of internet in mobile commerce, researchers have reproduced various mobile applications that vary from entertainment and commercial services to diagnostic and safety tools. Mobility management has widely been recognized as one of the most challenging problems for seamless access to wireless networks. In this paper, a novel link enhancement mechanism is proposed to deal with mobility management problem in vehicular ad hoc networks. Two machine learning techniques, namely, particle swarm optimization and fuzzy logic systems, are incorporated into the proposed schemes to enhance the accuracy of prediction of link break and congestion occurrence. The experimental results verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed schemes.

  1. A Layered Zone Routing Algorithm in Ad Hoc Network Based on Matrix of Adjacency Connection

    XU Guang-wei; LI Feng; SHI Xiu-jin; HUO Jia-zhen

    2007-01-01

    The hybrid routing protocol has received more attention recently than the proactive and the reactive, especially for large-scale and highly dynamic connection, in mobile ad hoc network. A crucial reason is that zone-layered is being utilized in the complex systems. A hybrid routing algorithm which is layered zone based on adjacency connection(LZBAC) is put forward under the background of a few members in network with steady position and link. The algorithm modifies storage structure of nodes and improves routing mechanism. The theoretical analysis and simulation testing testify that the algorithm costs shorter time of route finding and less delay than others.

  2. A Novel Cross Layer Scheme for Multi-Channel Hybrid Cognitive Ad-hoc Networks

    Zhong, Yingji; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2009-01-01

    A special scenario of the topology in the hybrid Cognitive Ad-hoc networks is studied and a novel cross layer scheme is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme integrated the attributes both of the new performance evaluation machine check time metric and the topology space in special scenario. The topology and power consumption of each node can all be optimized due to the minimum link occupation with the help of this scheme. Simulation results show that the novel scheme can give schedule guarantee to the multi-channel networks in the variable node loads and transmission powers, and make the node stable to support multi-hops at the same time.

  3. Load-balanced broadcast routing in wireless Ad-hoc networks

    2007-01-01

    In wireless Ad-hoc networks, where mobile hosts are powered by batteries, the entire network may be partitioned because of the drainage of a small set of batteries.Therefore, the crucial issue is to improve the energy efficiency, with an objective of balancing energy consumption.A greedy algorithm called weighted minimum spanning tree (WMST) has been proposed, in which time complexity is O(n2).This algorithm takes into account the initial energy of each node and energy consumption of each communication.Simulation has demonstrated that the performance of the proposed algorithm improves the load balance and prolongs the lifetime.

  4. A QoS Aware Service Composition Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    HAN Song-qiao; ZHANG Shen-sheng; ZHANG Yong; CAO Jian

    2008-01-01

    A novel decentralized service composition protocol was presented based on quality of service (QoS) for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). A service composition in MANETs is considered as a service path discovery in a service network. Based on the concept of source routing, the protocol integrates route discovery, service discovery and service composition and utilizes a constrained flooding approach to discover the optimal service path. A service path maintenance mechanism was exploited to recover broken service paths. Simulation experiments demonstrate that the proposed protocol outperforms existing service composition protocols.

  5. QDSR: QoS-aware Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    SHIMinghong; YAOYinxiong; BAIYingcai

    2004-01-01

    QoS routing in wireless ad hoc networks faces many technical challenges due to time varying link and random mobility of nodes in these dynamic networks.In this paper, we design a QoS-aware dynamic source routing protocol (QDSR), based on DSR . QDSR uses minimum cost as the constraint, modifies route discovery, route reply and route maintenance mechanisms in DSR, adds the capability of path testing and initial resource reservation.The results of robustness and stability and performances imulations demonstrate that it suits the fluctuation of dynamic environment very well.

  6. Intelligent QoS routing algorithm based on improved AODV protocol for Ad Hoc networks

    Huibin, Liu; Jun, Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Networks were playing an increasingly important part in disaster reliefs, military battlefields and scientific explorations. However, networks routing difficulties are more and more outstanding due to inherent structures. This paper proposed an improved cuckoo searching-based Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing protocol (CSAODV). It elaborately designs the calculation methods of optimal routing algorithm used by protocol and transmission mechanism of communication-package. In calculation of optimal routing algorithm by CS Algorithm, by increasing QoS constraint, the found optimal routing algorithm can conform to the requirements of specified bandwidth and time delay, and a certain balance can be obtained among computation spending, bandwidth and time delay. Take advantage of NS2 simulation software to take performance test on protocol in three circumstances and validate the feasibility and validity of CSAODV protocol. In results, CSAODV routing protocol is more adapt to the change of network topological structure than AODV protocol, which improves package delivery fraction of protocol effectively, reduce the transmission time delay of network, reduce the extra burden to network brought by controlling information, and improve the routing efficiency of network.

  7. Key Management and Authentication in Ad Hoc Network based on Mobile Agent

    Yi Zhang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Key management and authentication is important to security of Mobile Ad Hoc network (MANET. Based on the (t, n threshold cryptography, this paper introduced mobile agents to exchange private key and network topological information with nodes in the network. This method avoids a centralized certification authority to distribute the public keys and the certificates, thus enhances security. Carrying private key and some state variables, mobile agents navigate in the network according to visitsbalance policy, namely, node with the least visits would be first visited by mobile agent. Any t nodes in the network can cooperate to perform an authentication upon a new node wanting to join the network. Experimental results show that the mobile agent performs very well for improving the success ratio of authentication and enhance security while reducing the communication overhead and resource consumption.

  8. A Cluster Maintenance Algorithm Based on Relative Mobility for Mobile Ad Hoc Network Management

    SHENZhong; CHANGYilin; ZHANGXin

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic topology of mobile ad hoc networks makes network management significantly more challenging than wireline networks. The traditional Client/Server (Manager/Agent) management paradigm could not work well in such a dynamic environment, while the hierarchical network management architecture based on clustering is more feasible. Although the movement of nodes makes the cluster structure changeable and introduces new challenges for network management, the mobility is a relative concept. A node with high relative mobility is more prone to unstable behavior than a node with less relative mobility, thus the relative mobility of a node can be used to predict future node behavior. This paper presents the cluster availability which provides a quantitative measurement of cluster stability. Furthermore, a cluster maintenance algorithm based on cluster availability is proposed. The simulation results show that, compared to the Minimum ID clustering algorithm, our algorithm successfully alleviates the influence caused by node mobility and make the network management more efficient.

  9. A HYBRID APPROACH FOR NODE CO-OPERATION BASED CLUSTERING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    C. Sathiyakumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is termed as a set of wireless nodes which could be built with infrastructure less environment where network services are afforded by the nodes themselves. In such a situation, if a node refuses to co-operate with other nodes, then it will lead to a considerable diminution in throughput and the network operation decreases to low optimum value. Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs rely on the collaboration of nodes for packet routing ahead. Nevertheless, much of the existing work in MANETs imagines that mobile nodes (probably possessed by selfish users will pursue prearranged protocols without variation. Therefore, implementing the co-operation between the nodes turn out to be an significant issue. The previous work described a secured key model for ad hoc network with efficient node clustering based on reputation and ranking model. But the downside is that the co-operation with the nodes is less results in a communication error. To enhance the security in MANET, in this work, we present a hybrid approach, build a node co-operation among the nodes in MANET by evaluating the weightage of cooperativeness of each node in MANET. With the estimation of normal co-operative nodes, nodes are restructured on its own (self. Then clustering is made with the reorganized nodes to form a secured communication among the nodes in the MANET environment. The Simulation of the proposed Hybrid Approach for Node Cooperation based Clustering (HANCC work is done for varying topology, node size, attack type and intensity with different pause time settings and the performance evaluations are carried over in terms of node cooperativeness, clustering efficiency, communication overhead and compared with an existing secured key model. Compared to an existing secured key model, the proposed HANCC performance is 80-90% high.

  10. Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Traffic Safety

    Reyes-Muñoz, Angelica; Domingo, Mari Carmen; López-Trinidad, Marco Antonio; Delgado, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs) a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1) an exhaustive review of the current mechanisms to detect four basic physiological behavior states (drowsy, drunk, driving under emotional state disorders and distracted driving) that may cause traffic accidents is presented; (2) A middleware architecture is proposed. This architecture can communicate with the car dashboard, emergency services, vehicles belonging to the VANET and road or street facilities. This architecture seeks on the one hand to improve the car driving experience of the driver and on the other hand to extend security mechanisms for the surrounding individuals; and (3) as a proof of concept, an Android real-time attention low level detection application that runs in a next-generation smartphone is developed. The application features mechanisms that allow one to measure the degree of attention of a driver on the base of her/his EEG signals, establish wireless communication links via various standard wireless means, GPRS, Bluetooth and WiFi and issue alarms of critical low driver attention levels. PMID:26784204

  11. Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Traffic Safety.

    Reyes-Muñoz, Angelica; Domingo, Mari Carmen; López-Trinidad, Marco Antonio; Delgado, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs) a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1) an exhaustive review of the current mechanisms to detect four basic physiological behavior states (drowsy, drunk, driving under emotional state disorders and distracted driving) that may cause traffic accidents is presented; (2) A middleware architecture is proposed. This architecture can communicate with the car dashboard, emergency services, vehicles belonging to the VANET and road or street facilities. This architecture seeks on the one hand to improve the car driving experience of the driver and on the other hand to extend security mechanisms for the surrounding individuals; and (3) as a proof of concept, an Android real-time attention low level detection application that runs in a next-generation smartphone is developed. The application features mechanisms that allow one to measure the degree of attention of a driver on the base of her/his EEG signals, establish wireless communication links via various standard wireless means, GPRS, Bluetooth and WiFi and issue alarms of critical low driver attention levels. PMID:26784204

  12. Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Traffic Safety

    Angelica Reyes-Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1 an exhaustive review of the current mechanisms to detect four basic physiological behavior states (drowsy, drunk, driving under emotional state disorders and distracted driving that may cause traffic accidents is presented; (2 A middleware architecture is proposed. This architecture can communicate with the car dashboard, emergency services, vehicles belonging to the VANET and road or street facilities. This architecture seeks on the one hand to improve the car driving experience of the driver and on the other hand to extend security mechanisms for the surrounding individuals; and (3 as a proof of concept, an Android real-time attention low level detection application that runs in a next-generation smartphone is developed. The application features mechanisms that allow one to measure the degree of attention of a driver on the base of her/his EEG signals, establish wireless communication links via various standard wireless means, GPRS, Bluetooth and WiFi and issue alarms of critical low driver attention levels.

  13. Link Stability and Node Energy Conscious Local Route-Repair Scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Anuradha Banerjee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A mobile ad hoc network is a self-configuring network of mobile nodes connected by wireless links. As the nodes are free to move randomly, topology of the network may change rapidly and unpredictably. As a result, intermediate nodes in the communication routes tend to lose connection with each other during the communication process. In order to repair a broken link, an end-to-end (from source to destination route discovery is typically performed to establish a new route for communication. The mechanism results in huge communication overhead and long delay in completion of the communication. So, it is rational to locally repair a link, as much as possible, than to discover a whole new route. Approach: In the present article, we proposed a Link Stability and Node Energy Conscious (LSNEC local route repair scheme for mobile ad hoc networks. In case of breakage of a link from node na to another node nb in between a communication session, LSNEC instructs na to broadcast a ROUTE-REPAIR message within its radio-range specifying nb or any successor of nb in the broken route, as a desirable destination. If any node residing within the radio-range of na has an already established single/multi-hop path to any one of those destinations mentioned in the ROUTE-REPAIR message, it sends a REPAIR-ACK message back to na. Attributes of REPAIR-ACK include the identification number (s of the destination (s as well as identification numbers, geographical positions (in terms of latitude and longitude, radio-ranges and residual energies of nodes present in the associated path to that destination along with the intuitively computed stability of links between the consecutive nodes. The stability is computed depending upon relative velocities of the involved nodes, distance between them and the history of survival of the link. The optimal path is chosen depending upon the residual energy of nodes, stability of links and number of hops in that path

  14. DDoS Attack and Defense Scheme in Wireless Ad hoc Networks

    Arunmozhi, S A; 10.5121/ijnsa.2011.3312

    2011-01-01

    The wireless ad hoc networks are highly vulnerable to distributed denial of service(DDoS) attacks because of its unique characteristics such as open network architecture, shared wireless medium and stringent resource constraints. These attacks throttle the tcp throughput heavily and reduce the quality of service(QoS) to end systems gradually rather than refusing the clients from the services completely. In this paper, we discussed the DDoS attacks and proposed a defense scheme to improve the performance of the ad hoc networks. Our proposed defense mechanism uses the medium access control (MAC) layer information to detect the attackers. The status values from MAC layer that can be used for detection are Frequency of receiving RTS/CTS packets, Frequency of sensing a busy channel and the number of RTS/DATA retransmissions. Once the attackers are identified, all the packets from those nodes will be blocked. The network resources are made available to the legitimate users. We perform the simulation with Network Si...

  15. Multicast Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: A Comparative Survey and Taxonomy

    Osamah S. Badarneh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicasting plays a crucial role in many applications of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. It can significantly improve the performance of these networks, the channel capacity (in mobile ad hoc networks, especially single-channel ones, capacity is a more appropriate term than bandwidth, capacity is measured in bits/s and bandwidth in Hz and battery power of which are limited. In the past couple of years, a number of multicast routing protocols have been proposed. In spite of being designed for the same networks, these protocols are based on different design principles and have different functional features when they are applied to the multicast problem. This paper presents a coherent survey of existing multicasting solutions for MANETs. It presents various classifications of the current multicast routing protocols, discusses their operational features, along with their advantages and limitations, and provides a comparison of their characteristics according to several distinct features and performance parameters. Moreover, this paper proposes classifying the existing multicast protocols into three categories according to their layer of operation, namely, the network layer, the application layer, and the MAC layer. It also extends the existing classification system and presents a comparison between them.

  16. Multicast Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: A Comparative Survey and Taxonomy

    Badarneh OsamahS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multicasting plays a crucial role in many applications of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. It can significantly improve the performance of these networks, the channel capacity (in mobile ad hoc networks, especially single-channel ones, capacity is a more appropriate term than bandwidth, capacity is measured in bits/s and bandwidth in Hz and battery power of which are limited. In the past couple of years, a number of multicast routing protocols have been proposed. In spite of being designed for the same networks, these protocols are based on different design principles and have different functional features when they are applied to the multicast problem. This paper presents a coherent survey of existing multicasting solutions for MANETs. It presents various classifications of the current multicast routing protocols, discusses their operational features, along with their advantages and limitations, and provides a comparison of their characteristics according to several distinct features and performance parameters. Moreover, this paper proposes classifying the existing multicast protocols into three categories according to their layer of operation, namely, the network layer, the application layer, and the MAC layer. It also extends the existing classification system and presents a comparison between them.

  17. A Novel Method for Intrusion Detection System to Enhance Security in Ad hoc Network

    Bathla, Himani

    2010-01-01

    The notion of an ad hoc network is a new paradigm that allows mobile hosts (nodes) to communicate without relying on a predefined infrastructure to keep the network connected. Most nodes are assumed to be mobile and communication is assumed to be wireless. The mobility of nodes in an ad-hoc network means that both the population and the topology of the network are highly dynamic. It is very difficult to design a once-for-all intrusion detection system. A secure protocol should atleast include mechanisms against known attack types. In addition, it should provide a scheme to easily add new security features in the future. The paper includes the detailed description of Proposed Intrusion Detection System based on Local Reputation Scheme. The proposed System also includes concept of Redemption and Fading these are mechanism that allow nodes previously considered malicious to become a part of the network again. The simulation of the proposed system is to be done using NS-2 simulator.

  18. A Novel Architecture for Intrusion Detection in Mobile Ad hoc Network

    Atul Patel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Today’s wireless networks are vulnerable in many ways including illegal use, unauthorized access, denial of service attacks, eavesdropping so called war chalking. These problems are one of the main issues for wider uses of wireless network. On wired network intruder can access by wire but in wireless it has possibilities to access the computer anywhere in neighborhood. However, securing MANETs is highly challenging issue due to their inherent characteristics. Intrusion detection is an important security mechanism, but little effort has been directed towards efficient and effective architectures for Intrusion Detection System in the context of MANETs. We investigate existing Intrusion Detection Architecture design Issues, challenges and proposed a novel architecture based on a conceptual model for an IDS agent that lead to a secure collaboration environment integrating mobile ad hoc network and the wired backbone. In wireless/mobile ad hoc network, the limited power, weak computation capabilities of mobile nodes, and restricted bandwidth of the open media impede the establishment of a secure collaborative environment.

  19. Opportunistic Hybrid Transport Protocol (OHTP) for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Sensor Networks.

    Bin Zikria, Yousaf; Nosheen, Summera; Ishmanov, Farruh; Kim, Sung Won

    2015-01-01

    The inefficient assignment of spectrum for different communications purposes, plus technology enhancements and ever-increasing usage of wireless technology is causing spectrum scarcity. To address this issue, one of the proposed solutions in the literature is to access the spectrum dynamically or opportunistically. Therefore, the concept of cognitive radio appeared, which opens up a new research paradigm. There is extensive research on the physical, medium access control and network layers. The impact of the transport layer on the performance of cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks is still unknown/unexplored. The Internet's de facto transport protocol is not well suited to wireless networks because of its congestion control mechanism. We propose an opportunistic hybrid transport protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks. We developed a new congestion control mechanism to differentiate true congestion from interruption loss. After such detection and differentiation, we propose methods to handle them opportunistically. There are several benefits to window- and rate-based protocols. To exploit the benefits of both in order to enhance overall system performance, we propose a hybrid transport protocol. We empirically calculate the optimal threshold value to switch between window- and rate-based mechanisms. We then compare our proposed transport protocol to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)-friendly rate control, TCP-friendly rate control for cognitive radio, and TCP-friendly window-based control. We ran an extensive set of simulations in Network Simulator 2. The results indicate that the proposed transport protocol performs better than all the others. PMID:26694396

  20. An Energy Efficient MAC Protocol for QoS Provisioning in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

    S. M. Kamruzzaman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The explosive growth in the use of real-time applications on mobile devices has resulted in new challenges to the design of medium access control (MAC protocols for ad hoc networks. In this paper, we propose an energy efficient cognitive radio (CR MAC protocol for QoS provisioning called ECRQ-MAC, which integrate the spectrum sensing at physical (PHY layer and the channel-timeslots allocation at MAC layer. We consider the problem of providing QoS guarantee to CR users as well as to maintain the most efficient use of scarce bandwidth resources. The ECRQ-MAC protocol exploits the advantage of both multiple channels and TDMA, and achieves aggressive power savings by allowing CR users that are not involved in communication to go into sleep mode. The proposed ECRQ-MAC protocol allows CR users to identify and use the unused frequency spectrum of licensed band in a way that constrains the level of interference to the primary users (PUs. Our scheme improves network throughput significantly, especially when the network is highly congested. The simulation results show that our proposed protocol successfully exploits multiple channels and significantly improves network performance by using the licensed spectrum opportunistically and protects QoS provisioning over cognitive radio ad hoc networks.

  1. Optimal Routing and Power Control for a Single Cell, Dense, Ad Hoc Wireless Network

    Ramaiyan, Venkatesh; Altman, Eitan

    2009-01-01

    We consider a dense, ad hoc wireless network, confined to a small region. The wireless network is operated as a single cell, i.e., only one successful transmission is supported at a time. Data packets are sent between sourcedestination pairs by multihop relaying. We assume that nodes self-organise into a multihop network such that all hops are of length d meters, where d is a design parameter. There is a contention based multiaccess scheme, and it is assumed that every node always has data to send, either originated from it or a transit packet (saturation assumption). In this scenario, we seek to maximize a measure of the transport capacity of the network (measured in bit-meters per second) over power controls (in a fading environment) and over the hop distance d, subject to an average power constraint. We first argue that for a dense collection of nodes confined to a small region, single cell operation is efficient for single user decoding transceivers. Then, operating the dense ad hoc wireless network (desc...

  2. Analysis of DDoS Attack Effect and Protection Scheme in Wireless Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Ramratan Ahirwal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET every node functions as transmitter, router and data sink is network without infrastructure. Detecting malicious nodes in an open ad-hoc network in whichparticipating nodes have no previous security associations presents a number of challenges not faced by traditional wired networks. Traffic monitoring in wired networks is usually performed at switches,routers and gateways, but an ad-hoc network does not have these types of network elements where the Intrusion Detection System (IDS can collect and analyse audit data for the entire network. A number ofneighbour-monitoring, trust-building, and cluster-based voting schemes have been proposed in the research to enable the detection and reporting of malicious activity in ad-hoc networks. The resourcesconsumed by ad-hoc network member nodes to monitor, detect, report, and diagnose malicious activity, however, may be greater than simply rerouting packets through a different available path. In this paperwe are trying to protect our network from distributed denial of service attack (DDOS, In this paper we present method for determining intrusion or misbehave in MANET using intrusion detection system and protect the network from distributed denial of service (DDOS and analysis the result on the bases of actual TCP flow monitoring, routing load ,packet delivery ratio and average end-to-end delay in normal , DDOS attack and IDS time .

  3. Multi-Level Secret Sharing Scheme for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    P.V. Siva Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we are concerned with security for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs using threshold cryptography. When we are applying cryptography to MANETs, key management schemes must provide the cryptographic keys in a secure manner and storing the secret information within the nodes, thwarting the activities of malicious nodes inside a network and is how to distribute the role of the trusted authority among the nodes. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs represent complex distributed systems that comprise wireless mobile nodes that can freely and dynamically self-organize into arbitrary and temporary, ad-hoc network topologies. Secret Sharing Scheme is a method which distributes shares of a secret to a set of participants in such a way that only authorized subset of participants can uniquely reconstruct the secret and an unauthorized subset can get no information about the secret. In this paper we present a new multilevel secret sharing scheme by extending the Shamir’s to the case that the global threshold is strictly greater than the sum of the compartment thresholds and we indicate how to use the threshold secret sharing schemes based on polynomial interpolation. These schemes are based on one-way functions (Discrete Logarithm which are computationally perfect. In the first scheme the number of public shares grows exponentially with the number of participants. To overcome this disadvantage we proposed two efficient schemes in which the number of public shares ate linearly proportional to the number of participants. Both these schemes are similar except that in the third scheme the identities of the participants are also hidden. In this we also addressed the problem of malicious shareholders that aim to corrupt a secret sharing scheme. To prevent such a threat, legitimate shareholders must detect any modification of shares that has not been issued by a node responsible for the sharing of secret S.

  4. A Survey on Attacks and Defense Metrics of Routing Mechanism in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    K.P.Manikandan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a dynamic wireless network that can be formed infrastructure less connections in which each node can act as a router. The nodes in MANET themselves are responsible for dynamically discovering other nodes to communicate. Although the ongoing trend is to adopt ad hoc networks for commercial uses due to their certain unique properties, the main challenge is the vulnerability to security attacks. In the presence of malicious nodes, one of the main challenges in MANET is to design the robust security solution that can protect MANET from various routing attacks. Different mechanisms have been proposed using various cryptographic techniques to countermeasure the routing attacks against MANET. As a result, attacks with malicious intent have been and will be devised to exploit these vulnerabilities and to cripple the MANET operations. Attack prevention measures, such as authentication and encryption, can be used as the first line of defense for reducing the possibilities of attacks. However, these mechanisms are not suitable for MANET resource constraints, i.e., limited bandwidth and battery power, because they introduce heavy traffic load to exchange and verifying keys. In this paper, we identify the existent security threats an ad hoc network faces, the security services required to be achieved and the countermeasures for attacks in routing protocols. To accomplish our goal, we have done literature survey in gathering information related to various types of attacks and solutions. Finally, we have identified the challenges and proposed solutions to overcome them. In our survey, we focus on the findings and related works from which to provide secure protocols for MANETs. However, in short, we can say that the complete security solution requires the prevention, detection and reaction mechanisms applied in MANET.

  5. Dynamic fair node spectrum allocation for ad hoc networks using random matrices

    Rahmes, Mark; Lemieux, George; Chester, Dave; Sonnenberg, Jerry

    2015-05-01

    Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) is widely seen as a solution to the problem of limited spectrum, because of its ability to adapt the operating frequency of a radio. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) can extend high-capacity mobile communications over large areas where fixed and tethered-mobile systems are not available. In one use case with high potential impact, cognitive radio employs spectrum sensing to facilitate the identification of allocated frequencies not currently accessed by their primary users. Primary users own the rights to radiate at a specific frequency and geographic location, while secondary users opportunistically attempt to radiate at a specific frequency when the primary user is not using it. We populate a spatial radio environment map (REM) database with known information that can be leveraged in an ad hoc network to facilitate fair path use of the DSA-discovered links. Utilization of high-resolution geospatial data layers in RF propagation analysis is directly applicable. Random matrix theory (RMT) is useful in simulating network layer usage in nodes by a Wishart adjacency matrix. We use the Dijkstra algorithm for discovering ad hoc network node connection patterns. We present a method for analysts to dynamically allocate node-node path and link resources using fair division. User allocation of limited resources as a function of time must be dynamic and based on system fairness policies. The context of fair means that first available request for an asset is not envied as long as it is not yet allocated or tasked in order to prevent cycling of the system. This solution may also save money by offering a Pareto efficient repeatable process. We use a water fill queue algorithm to include Shapley value marginal contributions for allocation.

  6. Contention Based Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks with Multiple Copies

    JebaJothi, E Jenefa; Kavitha, T

    2010-01-01

    Routing the packets efficiently in mobile ad hoc network does not have end to end paths. Multiple copies are forwarded from the source to the destination. To deal with such networks, researches introduced flooding based routing schemes which leads to high probability of delivery. But the flooding based routing schemes suffered with contention and large delays. Here the proposed protocol "Spray Select Focus", sprays a few message copies into the network, neighbors receives a copy and by that relay nodes we are choosing the shortest route and then route that copy towards the destination. Previous works assumption is that there is no contention and dead ends. But we argue that contention and dead ends must be considered for finding efficiency in routing. So we are including a network which has contention and dead ends and we applied the proposed protocol. We can say that this protocol works well for the contention based network.

  7. A Robust and Efficient Node Authentication Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Sen, Jaydip

    2011-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes that communicate with each other by forming a multi-hop radio network. Security remains a major challenge for these networks due to their features of open medium, dynamically changing topologies, reliance on cooperative algorithms, absence of centralized monitoring points, and lack of clear lines of defense. Design of an efficient and reliable node authentication protocol for such networks is a particularly challenging task since the nodes are battery-driven and resource constrained. This paper presents a robust and efficient key exchange protocol for nodes authentication in a MANET based on multi-path communication. Simulation results demonstrate that the protocol is effective even in presence of large fraction of malicious nodes in the network. Moreover, it has a minimal computation and communication overhead that makes it ideally suitable for MANETs.

  8. Performance optimisation through EPT-WBC in mobile ad hoc networks

    Agarwal, Ratish; Gupta, Roopam; Motwani, Mahesh

    2016-03-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks are self-organised, infrastructure-less networks in which each mobile host works as a router to provide connectivity within the network. Nodes out of reach to each other can communicate with the help of intermediate routers (nodes). Routing protocols are the rules which determine the way in which these routing activities are to be performed. In cluster-based architecture, some selected nodes (clusterheads) are identified to bear the extra burden of network activities like routing. Selection of clusterheads is a critical issue which significantly affects the performance of the network. This paper proposes an enhanced performance and trusted weight-based clustering approach in which a number of performance factors such as trust, load balancing, energy consumption, mobility and battery power are considered for the selection of clusterheads. Moreover, the performance of the proposed scheme is compared with other existing approaches to demonstrate the effectiveness of the work.

  9. Interference and Throughput in Aloha-based Ad Hoc Networks with Isotropic Node Distribution

    Tanbourgi, Ralph; Chaichenets, Leonid; Jondral, Friedrich K

    2012-01-01

    We study the interference and outage statistics in a slotted Aloha ad hoc network, where the spatial distribution of nodes is non-stationary and isotropic. In such a network, outage probability and local throughput depend on both the particular location in the network and the shape of the spatial distribution. We derive in closed-form certain distributional properties of the interference that are important for analyzing wireless networks as a function of the location and the spatial shape. Our results focus on path loss exponents 2 and 4, the former case not being analyzable before due to the stationarity assumption of the spatial node distribution. We propose two metrics for measuring local throughput in non-stationary networks and discuss how our findings can be applied to both analysis and optimization.

  10. Improving QoS of ad-hoc Networks by using SNR and T-AODV Routing Protocol

    S. Omkumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal of this study is to increase the performance of ad hoc network. The standard routing protocol for ad hoc network ad hoc On demand Distance Vector (AODV is enhanced by including Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR and Trust Value (TV as the routing parameter to increase the performance of the network. While making survey on the ad-hoc network, the performance of the ad hoc network mainly depends on the parameters like Routing methodology, Power management technique, QoS Schemes and security mechanism. In this study, QoS, Routing and the security parameters are mainly considered to increase the performance of ad-hoc network. In route discovery phase, in addition to the bandwidth, delay and distance the node with highest SNR and the max TV is selected as the next relay node. So the system provide high throughput while avoiding the malicious node presence in the route. Performance of the proposed routing scheme (SNR and T-AODV is evaluated by making the comparison with the Q-AODV protocol using NS2 Simulator.

  11. Detection and Control of Vampire Attacks in Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks

    Anoopa S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc low-power wireless networks are the most promising research direction in sensing and pervasive computing. Prior security work in this area has focused primarily on denial of service at the routing or medium access control levels. Earlier, the resource depletion attacks are considered only as a routing problem, very recently these are classified in to a new group called “vampire attacks”. This thesis work explores the identification of resource depletion attacks at the routing protocol layer and in the application layer, which permanently disable networks by quickly draining nodes’ battery power. These Vampire attacks are not specific to a particular protocol, but rather rely on the properties of many popular classes of routing protocols. It is clear that all examined protocols are susceptible to Vampire attacks, which are devastating, difficult to detect, and are easy to carry out using as few as one malicious insider sending only protocol compliant messages. In the worst case, a single Vampire can increase network-wide energy usage by a factor of O(N, where N in the number of network nodes. In this work a detection and control strategy is proposed for these vampire attacks, along with a secure packet forwarding mechanism, which will save Ad-hoc wireless nodes from power drainage due to vampire packets.

  12. Greedy data transportation scheme with hard packet deadlines for wireless ad hoc networks.

    Lee, HyungJune

    2014-01-01

    We present a greedy data transportation scheme with hard packet deadlines in ad hoc sensor networks of stationary nodes and multiple mobile nodes with scheduled trajectory path and arrival time. In the proposed routing strategy, each stationary ad hoc node en route decides whether to relay a shortest-path stationary node toward destination or a passing-by mobile node that will carry closer to destination. We aim to utilize mobile nodes to minimize the total routing cost as far as the selected route can satisfy the end-to-end packet deadline. We evaluate our proposed routing algorithm in terms of routing cost, packet delivery ratio, packet delivery time, and usability of mobile nodes based on network level simulations. Simulation results show that our proposed algorithm fully exploits the remaining time till packet deadline to turn into networking benefits of reducing the overall routing cost and improving packet delivery performance. Also, we demonstrate that the routing scheme guarantees packet delivery with hard deadlines, contributing to QoS improvement in various network services. PMID:25258736

  13. Performance Analysis of a Cluster-Based MAC Protocol for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Kartsakli Elli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model to evaluate the non-saturated performance of the Distributed Queuing Medium Access Control Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks (DQMANs in single-hop networks is presented in this paper. DQMAN is comprised of a spontaneous, temporary, and dynamic clustering mechanism integrated with a near-optimum distributed queuing Medium Access Control (MAC protocol. Clustering is executed in a distributed manner using a mechanism inspired by the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF of the IEEE 802.11. Once a station seizes the channel, it becomes the temporary clusterhead of a spontaneous cluster and it coordinates the peer-to-peer communications between the clustermembers. Within each cluster, a near-optimum distributed queuing MAC protocol is executed. The theoretical performance analysis of DQMAN in single-hop networks under non-saturation conditions is presented in this paper. The approach integrates the analysis of the clustering mechanism into the MAC layer model. Up to the knowledge of the authors, this approach is novel in the literature. In addition, the performance of an ad hoc network using DQMAN is compared to that obtained when using the DCF of the IEEE 802.11, as a benchmark reference.

  14. A Novel Medium Access Control for Ad hoc Networks Based on OFDM System

    YU Yi-fan; YIN Chang-chuan; YUE Guang-xin

    2005-01-01

    Recently, hosts of Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols for Ad hoc radio networks have been proposed to solve the hidden terminal problem and exposed terminal problem. However most of them take into no account the interactions between physical (PHY) system and MAC protocol. Therefore, the current MAC protocols are either inefficient in the networks with mobile nodes and fading channel or difficult in hardware implementation. In this paper, we present a novel media access control for Ad hoc networks that integrates a media access control protocol termed as Dual Busy Tone Multiple Access (DBTMA) into Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system proposed in IEEE 802.11a standard. The analysis presented in the paper indicates that the proposed MAC scheme achieves performance improvement over IEEE 802.11 protocol about 25%~80% especially in the environment with high mobility and deep fading. The complexity of the proposed scheme is also lower than other implementation of similar busy tone solution. Furthermore, it is compatible with IEEE 802.11a networks.

  15. Intelligent self-organization methods for wireless ad hoc sensor networks based on limited resources

    Hortos, William S.

    2006-05-01

    A wireless ad hoc sensor network (WSN) is a configuration for area surveillance that affords rapid, flexible deployment in arbitrary threat environments. There is no infrastructure support and sensor nodes communicate with each other only when they are in transmission range. To a greater degree than the terminals found in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) for communications, sensor nodes are resource-constrained, with limited computational processing, bandwidth, memory, and power, and are typically unattended once in operation. Consequently, the level of information exchange among nodes, to support any complex adaptive algorithms to establish network connectivity and optimize throughput, not only deplete those limited resources and creates high overhead in narrowband communications, but also increase network vulnerability to eavesdropping by malicious nodes. Cooperation among nodes, critical to the mission of sensor networks, can thus be disrupted by the inappropriate choice of the method for self-organization. Recent published contributions to the self-configuration of ad hoc sensor networks, e.g., self-organizing mapping and swarm intelligence techniques, have been based on the adaptive control of the cross-layer interactions found in MANET protocols to achieve one or more performance objectives: connectivity, intrusion resistance, power control, throughput, and delay. However, few studies have examined the performance of these algorithms when implemented with the limited resources of WSNs. In this paper, self-organization algorithms for the initiation, operation and maintenance of a network topology from a collection of wireless sensor nodes are proposed that improve the performance metrics significant to WSNs. The intelligent algorithm approach emphasizes low computational complexity, energy efficiency and robust adaptation to change, allowing distributed implementation with the actual limited resources of the cooperative nodes of the network. Extensions of the

  16. Verification of Correspondence Assertions in a Calculus for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Hüttel, Hans; Kühnrich, Morten; Godskesen, Jens Christian

    We introduce a novel process calculus called DBSPI (distributed broadcast SPI-calculus) which models mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). The calculus is a cryptographic broadcast calculus with locations and migration. Communication and migration are limited to neighborhoods. Neighborhood definitions...... are explicitly part of the syntax allowing dynamic extension using bound identifiers. In this semantic setting we study authentication of agents in MANET protocols. A safety property dealing with authentication correspondence assertions is defined. Later a dependent type and effect system is given and...

  17. Optimalization of Beacon Selection for Localization in Wireless AD-HOC Networks

    Martin Matula

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we engage in optimalization of convenient beacons for localization position of a node in the ad-hoc network. An algorithm designed by us localizes position of moving or static node by RSS (Received Signal Strength method and trilateration. At first, localization of unknown node runs by combination of all beacons. Than optimalizating algorithmreduces the number of beacons (and repeats localization, while only three left. Its reduction is based on highest levels of received signal strength. It is only when signals are from the nearest beacons. Position localizating exactness is statistically interpreted from all localization by beacons combination and its repeating.

  18. Mobile Agent as an Approach to Improve QoS in Vehicular Ad Hoc Network

    Kumar, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    Vehicular traffic is a foremost problem in modern cities. Huge amount of time and resources are wasted while traveling due to traffic congestion. With the introduction of sophisticated traffic management systems, such as those incorporating dynamic traffic assignments, more stringent demands are being placed upon the available real time traffic data. In this paper we have proposed mobile agent as a mechanism to handle the traffic problem on road. Mobile software agents can be used to provide the better QoS (Quality of Service) in vehicular ad hoc network to improve the safety application and driver comfort.

  19. Ant based heuristic for os service distribution on ad hoc networks

    Heimfarth, Tales; Janacik, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a basic and an extended heuristic to distribute operating system (OS) services over mobile ad hoc networks. The heuristics are inspired by the foraging behavior of ants and are used within our NanoOS, an OS for distributed applications. The NanoOS offers an uniform environment of execution and the code of the OS is distributed among nodes. We propose a basic and an extended swarm optimization based heuristic to control the service migration in order to reduce the com...

  20. Protector Control PC-AODV-BH in The Ad Hoc Networks

    Boujaada, S.; Qaraai, Y.; Agoujil, S.; Hajar, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we deal with the protector control that which we used to secure AODV routing protocol in Ad Hoc networks. The considered system can be vulnerable to several attacks because of mobility and absence of infrastructure. While the disturbance is assumed to be of the black hole type, we purpose a control named "PC-AODV-BH" in order to neutralize the effects of malicious nodes. Such a protocol is obtained by coupling hash functions, digital signatures and fidelity concept. An implement...

  1. Key Management Using Certificate-Based Cryptosystem in Ad Hoc Networks

    LI Fa-gen; GAO Jun-tao; LIU Shuang-gen; HU Yu-pu

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposed a distributed key management approach by using the recently developed concepts of certificate-based cryptosystem and threshold secret sharing schemes. Without any assumption of prefixed trust relationship between nodes, the ad hoc network works in a self-organizing way to provide the key generation and key management services using threshold secret sharing schemes, which effectively solves the problem of single point of failure. The proposed approach combines the best aspects of identity-based key management approaches (implicit certification) and traditional public key infrastructure approaches (no key escrow).

  2. Performance Analysis of AODV Routing Protocol In Vehicular Ad-hoc Network Service Discovery Architecture

    Ramakrishnan, B

    2012-01-01

    VANET is the special type of MANET (Mobile Ad Hoc Networks) where the mobile nodes are vehicles that move on roads at very high speed following traffic rules; they provide communication between vehicle and vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle andRoad side infrastructural unit (V 2 I). This paper explores the possibility of using VANET in inter vehicular communication. An attempt has been made earlier to create a new cluster model for efficient communication among the VANET nodes by the author [1]. A new...

  3. Joint Random Access and Power Control Game in Ad Hoc Networks with Noncooperative Users

    Long, Chengnian; Guan, Xinping

    We consider a distributed joint random access and power control scheme for interference management in wireless ad hoc networks. To derive decentralized solutions that do not require any cooperation among the users, we formulate this problem as non-cooperative joint random access and power control game, in which each user minimizes its average transmission cost with a given rate constraint. Using supermodular game theory, the existence and uniqueness of Nash equilibrium are established. Furthermore, we present an asynchronous distributed algorithm to compute the solution of the game based on myopic best response updates, which converges to Nash equilibrium globally.

  4. Dynamic Head Cluster Election Algorithm for Clustered Ad-Hoc Networks

    Arwa Zabian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In distributed system, the concept of clustering consists on dividing the geographical area covered by a set of nodes into small zones. In mobile network, the clustering mechanism varied due to the mobility of the nodes any time in any direction. That causes the partitioning of the network or the joining of nodes. Several existing centralized or globalized algorithm have been proposed for clustering technique, in a manner that no one node becomes isolated and no cluster becomes overloaded. A particular node called head cluster or leader is elected, has the role to organize the distribution of nodes in clusters. We propose a distributed clustering and leader election mechanism for Ad-Hoc mobile networks, in which the leader is a mobile node. Our results show that, in the case of leader mobility the time needed to elect a new leader is smaller than the time needed a significant topological change in the network is happens.

  5. AODV Robust (AODVR: An Analytic Approach to Shield Ad-hoc Networks from Black Holes

    Mohammad Abu Obaida

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad-hoc networks are vulnerable to several types of malicious routing attacks, black hole is one of those, where a malicious node advertise to have the shortest path to all other nodes in the network by the means of sending fake routing reply. As a result the destinations are deprived of desired information. In this paper, we propose a method AODV Robust (AODVR a revision to the AODV routing protocol, in which black hole is perceived as soon as they emerged and other nodes are alerted to prevent the network of such malicious threats thereby isolating the black hole. In AODVR method, the routers formulate the range of acceptable sequence numbers and define a threshold. If a node exceeds the threshold several times then it is black listed thereby increasing the network robustness.

  6. Yet another paper on minimizing interference on ad-hoc networks

    Korman, Matias

    2011-01-01

    We consider a topology control problem in which we are given a set of $n$ sensors in the plane and we would like to assign a communication radius to each of them. The radii assignment must generate a strongly connected network and have low receiver-based interference (i.e., we minimize the largest in-degree of the network). We give an algorithm that generates a network with $O(\\log \\Delta)$ interference, where $\\Delta$ is the interference of a uniform-radius ad-hoc network. We then adapt the construction to the case in which no sensor can have a communication radius larger than $R_{\\min}$, the minimum value needed to obtain connectivity. We also show that $\\log \\Delta$ interference is needed for some instances, making our algorithms asymptotically optimal.

  7. Intrusion Detection In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using GA Based Feature Selection

    Nallusamy, R; Duraiswamy, K

    2009-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networking (MANET) has become an exciting and important technology in recent years because of the rapid proliferation of wireless devices. MANETs are highly vulnerable to attacks due to the open medium, dynamically changing network topology and lack of centralized monitoring point. It is important to search new architecture and mechanisms to protect the wireless networks and mobile computing application. IDS analyze the network activities by means of audit data and use patterns of well-known attacks or normal profile to detect potential attacks. There are two methods to analyze: misuse detection and anomaly detection. Misuse detection is not effective against unknown attacks and therefore, anomaly detection method is used. In this approach, the audit data is collected from each mobile node after simulating the attack and compared with the normal behavior of the system. If there is any deviation from normal behavior then the event is considered as an attack. Some of the features of collected audi...

  8. Open-Loop Spatial Multiplexing and Diversity Communications in Ad Hoc Networks

    Louie, Raymond H Y; Collings, Iain B

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of open-loop multi-antenna point-to-point links in ad hoc networks with slotted ALOHA medium access control (MAC). We consider spatial multiplexing transmission with linear maximum ratio combining and zero forcing receivers, as well as orthogonal space time block coded transmission. New closed-form expressions are derived for the outage probability, throughput and transmission capacity. Our results demonstrate that both the best performing scheme and the optimum number of transmit antennas depend on different network parameters, such as the node intensity and the signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio operating value. We then compare the performance to a network consisting of single-antenna devices and an idealized fully centrally coordinated MAC. These results show that multi-antenna schemes with a simple decentralized slotted ALOHA MAC can outperform even idealized single-antenna networks in various practical scenarios.

  9. Identification of Closest and Phantom Nodes in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    G. Satyachellayi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are several services that build on the availability of closest node location information like geographic routing in spontaneous networks, data gathering in sensor networks, movement coordination among autonomous robotic nodes, location specific services for hand held devices and danger warning or traffic monitoring in vehicular networks. Ad hoc networking protocols and location-aware services require that mobile nodes identify the location of their closest nodes. Such a process can be easily misuses or stop by opposed nodes. In absence of a priori trusted nodes, the spotting and identifying of closest node position presents challenges that have been scarcely investigated in the literature. Node can also send message from one to many nodes in a broadcasting manner here.

  10. A Mechanism for Detection of Gray Hole Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Sen, Jaydip; G., Harihara S; Reddy, Harish; Balamuralidhar, P

    2011-01-01

    Protecting the network layer from malicious attacks is an important and challenging security issue in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). In this paper, a security mechanism is proposed to defend against a cooperative gray hole attack on the well known AODV routing protocol in MANETs. A gray hole is a node that selectively drops and forwards data packets after it advertises itself as having the shortest path to the destination node in response to a route request message from a source node. The proposed mechanism does not apply any cryptographic primitives on the routing messages. Instead, it protects the network by detecting and reacting to malicious activities of any node. Simulation results show that the scheme has a significantly high detection rate with moderate network traffic overhead.

  11. Impact of Throughput in Enhancing the Efficiency of Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Network - A Study

    V. Jayaraj

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks (CRAHNs constitute a viable solution to solve the current problems of inefficiency in the spectrum allocation, and to deploy highly reconfigurable and self-organizing wireless networks. Cognitive Radio (CR devices are envisaged to utilize the spectrum in an opportunistic way by dynamically accessing different licensed portions of the spectrum. However the phenomena of channel fading and primary cum secondary interference in cognitive radio networks does not guarantee application demands to be achieved continuously over time. Availability of limited spectrum and the inadequate spectrum resource usage necessitates a new communication standard to utilize the existing wireless spectrum opportunistically. This paper discusses currently existing mechanism for providing better efficiency by utilizing cognitive network intelligence. The frequencies used are utilized to the maximum extent without any interference. This paper aims in comparing the techniques used for enhancing the throughput in CR.

  12. Performance Evaluation of AODV Routing Protocol in Cognitive Radio Ad-hoc Network

    Shubhangi Mahamuni

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A cognitive radio is designed for the utilisation of unused frequency. The transmission opportunity of a cognitive node is not guaranteed due to the presence of primary users (PUs.To better characterize theunique features of cognitive radio networks, we propose new routing metrics, including Routing for CRNs using IEEE 802.11 which are the official standards for wireless communication. Routing protocols, for network without infrastructures, have to be developed. These protocols determine how messages can be forwarded, from a source node to a destination node which is out of the range of the former, using other mobile nodes of the network. Routing, which includes for example maintenance and discovery of routes, is one of the very challenging areas in communication. Numerous simulations of routing protocols have been made using different simulators, such as ns-2.The impact of sensing time, route path and mobility in Ad- Hoc networks on connectivity and throughput tested.

  13. Power and Mobility-Aware Adaptive Dynamic Source Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    XULi; ZHENGBaoyu; YANGZhen

    2005-01-01

    MANET (Mobile ad hoc network) is characterized by a highly dynamic network topology. This makes routing discovery and maintenance challenging for routing protocol design. On the other hand, energy efficient routing may be another important design criterion for MANET since most of nodes are usually powered by battery with limited capacity. With optimization of DSR (Dynamic source routing) protocol, this paper proposes Power and mobility-aware adaptive dynamic source routing (PMADSR). The new routing protocol can be aware of the mobility and remaining battery capacity of nodes. Performance simulation results show that the proposed PMADSR protocol can dynamically balance the traffic load inside the whole network, so as to prolong the network lifetime, as well as achieve higher throughput.

  14. MCCM: Multilevel Congestion Avoidance and Control Mechanism for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Md. Manowarul Islam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Congestion in Mobile Ad Hoc Network causes packet loss, longer end-to-end data delivery delay which affects the overall performance of the network significantly. To ensure high throughput, the routing protocol should be congestion adaptive and should be capable of handling the congestion. In this research work, we propose a Multilevel Congestion avoidance and Control Mechanism (MCCM that exploits both congestion avoidance and control mechanism to handle the congestion problem in an effective and efficient way. MCCM is capable of finding an energy efficient path during route discovery process, provide longer lifetime of any developed route. The efficient admission control and selective data packet delivery mechanism of MCCM jointly overcome the congestion problem at any node and thus, MCCM improves the network performance in term of packet delivery ratio, lower data delivery delay and high throughput. The result of performance evaluation section shows that, MCCM outperforms the existing routing protocols carried out in Network Simulator-2(NS-2.

  15. Misbehaving Node Detection in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using Multi Hop Acknowledgement Scheme

    U. Sakthivel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: For any node in a Mobile Ad hoc Network conservation of battery power and bandwidth are the priority. Hence, they try to reduce the overload they would otherwise incur when they forward packets. This selfish behavior of a node affects the throughput of the network. The nodes may also choose a back off value of shorter duration. These problems are handled effectively by the methodology proposed in this study. A conscious effort has been made keeping the constraints of the MANETs in mind. Approach: Misbehavior is best identified at the lower levels as the upper levels of the OSI standard primarily deals with the data the packets carry and less about how, so the network and the MAC layers is where the primary focus lies. Thus, keeping these points in mind, we propose algorithms that work along with the 802.11 MAC protocol to monitor the behavior of neighboring nodes by listening to the channel, specifically monitoring parameters like back off values sent by the nodes. A counter is maintained which is incremented every time node misconduct is detected, subsequently after a particular value is cross the node is labeled as misbehaving and the information is broadcast over the network. Results: Performance parameters like throughput, packet delivery ratio were monitored with traffic of the magnitude 10 to 60 nodes. Also the performance of the network based on the percentage of selfish nodes present in the network was monitored and a graph was generated based on the statistics. Conclusion: An algorithmic approach for misbehaving node detection and isolation in ad hoc networks by modifying the protocol being used in the lower layers which consequently improves performance of the network had been proposed. Simulation results show considerable performance increase upon implementing the proposed algorithm. Further research can confirm the practicality of the proposed idea.

  16. Reduction of Greedy Forwarding using Overlay Multicasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    G. Kiran Kumar#1, B.Vijaya Babu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET is a self configuring network composed of mobile nodes without any fixed infrastructure. Group communications are important in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET. Multicast is an efficient method for implementing group communications. But, it is big challenge to implement the well-organized and scalable multicast in MANET due to the difficulty in group membership scheme and multicast packet forwarding over a dynamic topology. EGMP uses a virtual-zone-based structure to implement scalable and efficient group membership scheme. A zone based bi-directional tree is constructed to achieve more efficient membership management and multicast delivery. The position information is used to guide the zone structure construction, multicast tree formation, and multicast packet forwarding, which efficiently reduce the overhead for route searching and tree structure maintenance. The main aim of this paper is to improve the performance of different multicasting approaching using Two-tier Overlay Multicast Architecture. Scalable overlay multicasting architecture approach to investigate the performance of Overlay multicast approach in Internet like environments based on realistic topologies. Overlay multicast architecture achieves close to optimal average resource utilization in such environments.

  17. Improving TCP Performance over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Busy Tone Assisted Scheme

    Cai Lin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that transmission control protocol (TCP performance degrades severely in IEEE 802.11-based wireless ad hoc networks. We first identify two critical issues leading to the TCP performance degradation: (1 unreliable broadcast, since broadcast frames are transmitted without the request-to-send and clear-to-send (RTS/CTS dialog and Data/ACK handshake, so they are vulnerable to the hidden terminal problem; and (2 false link failure which occurs when a node cannot successfully transmit data temporarily due to medium contention. We then propose a scheme to use a narrow-bandwidth, out-of-band busy tone channel to make reservation for broadcast and link error detection frames only. The proposed scheme is simple and power efficient, because only the sender needs to transmit two short messages in the busy tone channel before sending broadcast or link error detection frames in the data channel. Analytical results show that the proposed scheme can dramatically reduce the collision probability of broadcast and link error detection frames. Extensive simulations with different network topologies further demonstrate that the proposed scheme can improve TCP throughput by 23% to 150%, depending on user mobility, and effectively enhance both short-term and long-term fairness among coexisting TCP flows in multihop wireless ad hoc networks.

  18. Gateway Node-Based Greedy Routing Algorithm for Efficient Packet Forwarding in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Mohamed Abbas A,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, vehicular communications are one of the hottest research topics. It has also gained much attention in industry as well as academia. Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs are advances of the wireless communication technologies. Routing is one of the key research issues in VANETs as long as it plays an important role in public safety and commercial applications. In VANET, routing of data is a challenging task due to high speed of nodes (i.e., vehicles movement and rapidly changing topology. Recent research showedthat existing routing algorithm solutions for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs are not able to meet the unique requirements of vehicular networks. In this paper, we propose Gateway Node-Based Greedy Routing(GNGR, a reliable greedy position-based routing approach algorithm. In GNGR, we forward the packets to any of the nodes in the corner of the transmission range of source/forwarding node as most suitable next hop. With this consideration, the nodes move towards the direction of the destination. We propose Dynamic TransitionMobility Model (DTMM to evaluate our routing technique. This paper gives a complete description of our packet forwarding approach and simulation results. The simulation results are carried out based on Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR. Our routing technique is compared with other routing techniques; the PDR is improved significantly compared with other routing techniques of VANET.

  19. Power control in reactive routing protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Heni, Maher

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to change the routing strategy of AODV protocol (Ad hoc On Demand Vector) in order to improve the energy consumption in mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). The purpose is to minimize the regular period of HELLO messages generated by the AODV protocol used for the research, development and maintenance of routes. This information is useful to have an idea about battery power levels of different network hosts. After storing this information, the node elect the shortest path following the classical model used this information to elect safest path (make a compromise) in terms of energy. Transmitter node does not select another node as its battery will be exhausted soon. Any node of the network can have the same information's about the neighborhoods as well as other information about the energy level of the different terminal to avoid routing using a link that will be lost due to an exhausted battery of a node in this link. Analytical study and simulations by Jist/SWANS have been conducted to no...

  20. A Novel Approach for Securing Mobile Ad Hoc Network with an Enhanced Trust Calculation Method

    Amit Chauhan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Adhoc Network is a group of wireless mobile computers in which nodes cooperate by forwarding packets for each other to allow them to communicate beyond direct wireless transmission range. Due to wide-ranging characteristics of the Ad Hoc Networks like decentralization, dynamic topology and neighbor based routing, it is always at a risk to internal as well as external attacks. In a mobile ad hoc network (MANET where security is a crucial issue, trust plays an important factor that could improve the number of successful data transmission process. Many solutions have been proposed by the reaearchers and currently being improved in this area. Most of them are designed to operate in specific particular situations, which may fail to work successfully in other scenarios. The aim of this present work is to emphasize on the use of trust concept to enhance the security by calculating proportion based trust in a global manner. The present work offers an alternate to improve the trustworthiness of the neighbourhood and secure the routing procedure. It helps in computing the trust in neighbours and selecting the most secure route from the available ones for the data transfer. In the proposed model, trust is not calculated for any particular situation instead, it is computed based on a summary of behaviour of the node for a specific amount of period.

  1. A Mechanism for Detection of Cooperative Black Hole Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Sen, Jaydip; Ukil, Arijit

    2011-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of autonomous nodes that communicate with each other by forming a multi-hop radio network and maintaining connections in a decentralized manner. Security remains a major challenge for these networks due to their features of open medium, dynamically changing topologies, reliance on cooperative algorithms,absence of centralized monitoring points, and lack of clear lines of defense. Most of the routing protocols for MANETs are thus vulnerable to various types of attacks. Ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing (AODV) is a very popular routing algorithm. However, it is vulnerable to the well-known black hole attack, where a malicious node falsely advertises good paths to a destination node during the route discovery process. This attack becomes more sever when a group of malicious nodes cooperate each other. In this paper, a defense mechanism is presented against a coordinated attack by multiple black hole nodes in a MANET. The simulation carried out on the propose...

  2. A load-balanced minimum energy routing algorithm for Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Networks

    2006-01-01

    Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Networks (WSNs) have received considerable academia research attention at present. The energy-constraint sensor nodes in WSNs operate on limited batteries, so it is a very important issue to use energy efficiently and reduce power consumption. To maximize the network lifetime, it is essential to prolong each individual node's lifetime through minimizing the transmission energy consumption, so that many minimum energy routing schemes for traditional mobile ad hoc network have been developed for this reason. This paper presents a novel minimum energy routing algorithm named Load-Balanced Minimum Energy Routing (LBMER) for WSNs considering both sensor nodes' energy consumption status and the sensor nodes'hierarchical congestion levels, which uses mixture of energy balance and traffic balance to solve the problem of "hot spots" of WSNs and avoid the situation of"hot spots" sensor nodes using their energy at much higher rate and die much faster than the other nodes. The path router established by LBMER will not be very congested and the traffic will be distributed evenly in the WSNs.Simulation results verified that the LBMER performance is better than that of Min-Hop routing and the existing minimum energy routing scheme MTPR (Total Transmission Power Routing).

  3. Performance Analysis of TORA & DSR Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    D GEETHA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links. Each node operates not only as an end system, but also as a router to forward packets. The nodes are free to move about and organize themselves into a network. These nodes change position frequently. The main classes of routing protocols are Proactive, Reactive and Hybrid. A Reactive (on-demand routing strategy is a popular routing category for wireless ad hoc routing. It is a relatively new routing philosophy that provides a scalable solution to relatively large network topologies. The design follows the idea that each node tries to reduce routing overhead by sending routing packets whenever a communication is requested. In this paper an attempt has been made to compare the performance of two prominent on demand reactive routing protocols for MANETs: Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR protocols. This subjected the protocols to identical loads and environmental conditions and evaluates their relative performance with respect to quantitative metrics; throughput, average delay, packet delivery ratio and routing load. From the detailed simulation results and analysis of presented, we use NS-2 simulator for simulation of DSR and TORA protocol and variation occurs in mobility of packets, time interval between the packets sent and packet size of packets sent in throughout the protocols.

  4. A multihop key agreement scheme for wireless ad hoc networks based on channel characteristics.

    Hao, Zhuo; Zhong, Sheng; Yu, Nenghai

    2013-01-01

    A number of key agreement schemes based on wireless channel characteristics have been proposed recently. However, previous key agreement schemes require that two nodes which need to agree on a key are within the communication range of each other. Hence, they are not suitable for multihop wireless networks, in which nodes do not always have direct connections with each other. In this paper, we first propose a basic multihop key agreement scheme for wireless ad hoc networks. The proposed basic scheme is resistant to external eavesdroppers. Nevertheless, this basic scheme is not secure when there exist internal eavesdroppers or Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) adversaries. In order to cope with these adversaries, we propose an improved multihop key agreement scheme. We show that the improved scheme is secure against internal eavesdroppers and MITM adversaries in a single path. Both performance analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the improved scheme is efficient. Consequently, the improved key agreement scheme is suitable for multihop wireless ad hoc networks. PMID:23766725

  5. Simulation based study of common issues in Flooding over Mobile ad hoc networks

    Ramandeep kaur

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless network is a network set up by using radio signal frequency to communicate among computers and other network devices.Sometimes it’s also referred to as Wi-Fi network or WLAN [1]. With the advances of wireless communication technology, a mobile ad hocnetwork (MANET is comprised of mobile hosts that can communicate with each other using wireless links. It is also possible to have access to some hosts in a fixed infrastructure, depending on the kind of mobile ad hoc network available. The wireless communication medium does not have a foreseeable behavior as in a wired channel [2]. On the contrary, the wireless communication medium has variable and unpredictable characteristics. This paper focuses on flooding; the source node broadcasts its packet to all its neighboring nodes. The goal of this paper for working on homogenous to heterogeneous networks and improve the network connectivity among the neighboring nodes. We analyze the performance and discuss the flooding techniques by using AODV and DSDV protocols. We demonstrate through simulations that our protocols used in this proposed work provide good performance and incur a significantly smaller congestion. This paper shows that the proposed mechanisms improve the Throughput and significantly enhance the network performances in terms of delay.

  6. Joint iterative beamforming and power adaptation for MIMO ad hoc networks

    Kivanc Didem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we present distributed cooperative and regret-matching-based learning schemes for joint transmit power and beamforming selection for multiple antenna wireless ad hoc networks operating in a multi-user interference environment. Under the total network power minimization criterion, a joint iterative approach is proposed to reduce the mutual interference at each node while ensuring a constant received signal-to-interference and noise ratio at each receiver. In cooperative and regret-matching-based power minimization algorithms, transmit beamformers are selected from a predefined codebook to minimize the total power. By selecting transmit beamformers judiciously and performing power adaptation, the cooperative algorithm is shown to converge to a pure strategy Nash equilibrium with high probability in the interference impaired network. The proposed cooperative and regret-matching-based distributed algorithms are also compared with centralized solutions through simulation results.

  7. Efficient Data Dissemination Scheme for the Urban Vehicular ad hoc Networks

    Yuyue Du

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid network topology change of vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs, the implementation of reliable data dissemination among vehicles has encountered many challenges. In this study, the Hierarchical Assisted-node-based Data Dissemination Scheme (HADD of VANETs is presented. Since the vehicle mobility is limited to the road layout, the relative locations among vehicles are partially predictable. In our scheme, the location predictability among neighbor vehicles is taken into consideration to reduce the communication failure caused by the rapid change of the relative locations. Considering the drivers’ requirement degree for the data source information varies with different distances, the amount of data is customized according to the different requirements in order to reduce the channel conflict and increase the data dissemination efficiency. Simulation results show that the novel scheme can obviously improve the network performance of data dissemination rate and delay.

  8. A High Certificate Authority Scheme for Authentication in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    A. Rajaram

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs, it is easy to launch wormhole, man-in-the-middle and denial of service (DoS attacks, or to impersonate another node. Trust based cross layer approach established a network consisting confidentiality and authentication of packets in both routing and link layers., in this paper, we propose to develop an enhanced distributed certificate authority scheme to provide data integrity, thus making the network more secure from both inside and outside attacks. The proposed scheme makes use of Shamir's secret sharing scheme along with a redundancy technique to support certificate renewal and revocation. The malicious nodes are detected by the trusting mechanism by monitoring the behavior hop by hop. By simulation results, we show that the proposed scheme achieves more packet delivery ratio while attaining less delay and overhead, compared with the trust based cross layer approach.

  9. RTOS BASED SECURE SHORTEST PATH ROUTING ALGORITHM IN MOBILE AD- HOC NETWORKS

    R. Ramesh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Increase of number of the nodes in the wireless computing environment leads to different issues like power, data rate, QoS, simulators and security. Among these the security is the peak issue faced by most of the wireless networks. Especially networks without having a centralized system (MANETS is facing severe security issues. One of the major security issues is the wormhole attack while finding the shortest path. The aim of this paper is to propose an algorithm to find a secure shortest path against wormhole attack. Existing algorithms are mainly concentrated on detecting the malicious node but they are hardware specific like directional antennas and synchronized clocks. But the proposed algorithm is both software and hardware specific. RTOS is included to make the ad hoc network a real time application.

  10. RTOS Based Secure Shortest Path Routing Algorithm In Mobile Ad- Hoc Networks

    R. Ramesh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Increase of number of the nodes in the wireless computing environment leads to different issues like power, data rate, QoS, simulators and security. Among these the security is the peak issue faced by most of the wireless networks. Especially networks without having a centralized system (MANETS is facing severe security issues. One of the major security issues is the wormhole attack while finding the shortest path. The aim of this paper is to propose an algorithm to find a secure shortest path against wormhole attack. Existing algorithms are mainly concentrated on detecting the malicious node but they are hardware specific like directional antennas and synchronized clocks. But the proposed algorithm is both software and hardware specific. RTOS is included to make the ad hoc network a real time application.

  11. Reducing Congestion in Obstructed Highways with Traffic Data Dissemination Using Ad hoc Vehicular Networks

    Hewer, Thomas D.; Nekovee, Maziar; Coveney, Peter V.

    2010-12-01

    Vehicle-to-vehicle communications can be used effectively for intelligent transport systems (ITSs) and location-aware services. The ability to disseminate information in an ad hoc fashion allows pertinent information to propagate faster through a network. In the realm of ITS, the ability to spread warning information faster and further is of great advantage to receivers. In this paper we propose and present a message-dissemination procedure that uses vehicular wireless protocols to influence vehicular flow, reducing congestion in road networks. The computational experiments we present show how a car-following model and lane-change algorithm can be adapted to "react" to the reception of information. This model also illustrates the advantages of coupling together with vehicular flow modelling tools and network simulation tools.

  12. Clustering of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: An Adaptive Broadcast Period Approach

    Gavalas, Damianos; Konstantopoulos, Charalampos; Mamalis, Basilis

    2011-01-01

    Organization, scalability and routing have been identified as key problems hindering viability and commercial success of mobile ad hoc networks. Clustering of mobile nodes among separate domains has been proposed as an efficient approach to address those issues. In this work, we introduce an efficient distributed clustering algorithm that uses both location and energy metrics for cluster formation. Our proposed solution mainly addresses cluster stability, manageability and energy efficiency issues. Also, unlike existing active clustering methods, our algorithm relieves the network from the unnecessary burden of control messages broadcasting, especially for relatively static network topologies. This is achieved through adapting broadcast period according to mobile nodes mobility pattern. The efficiency, scalability and competence of our algorithm against alternative approaches have been demonstrated through simulation results.

  13. Cluster Based Misbehaviour Detection and Authentication Using Threshold Cryptography in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    R. Murugan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks, the misbehaving nodes can cause dysfunction in the network resulting in damage of other nodes. In order to establish secure communication with the group members of a network, use of a shared group key for confidentiality and authentication is required. Distributing the shares of secret group key to the group members securely is another challenging task in MANET. In this paper, we propose a Cluster Based Misbehavior Detection and Authentication scheme using threshold cryptography in MANET. For secure data transmission, when any node requests a certificate from a cluster head (CH, it utilizes a threshold cryptographic technique to issue the certificate to the requested node for authentication. The certificate of a node is renewed or rejected by CH, based on its trust counter value. An acknowledgement scheme is also included to detect and isolate the misbehaving nodes. By simulation results, we show that the proposed approach reduces the overhead.

  14. Cluster Based Node Misbehaviour Detection, Isolation and Authentication Using Threshold Cryptography in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    R. Murugan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks, the misbehaving nodes can cause dysfunction in the network resultingin damage of other nodes. In order to establish secure communication with the group members ofa network, use of a shared group key for confidentiality and authentication is required. Distributingthe shares of secret group key to the group members securely is another challenging task inMANET. In this paper, we propose a Cluster Based Misbehavior Detection and Authenticationscheme using threshold cryptography in MANET. For secure data transmission, when any noderequests a certificate from a cluster head (CH, it utilizes a threshold cryptographic technique toissue the certificate to the requested node for authentication. The certificate of a node is renewedor rejected by CH, based on its trust counter value. An acknowledgement scheme is alsoincluded to detect and isolate the misbehaving nodes. By simulation results, we show that theproposed approach reduces the overhead.

  15. Inspiration from genetics to promote recognition and protection within ad hoc sensor networks

    Korsnes, Reinert

    2009-01-01

    This work illustrates potentials for recognition within {\\em ad hoc} sensor networks if their nodes possess individual inter-related biologically inspired genetic codes. The work takes ideas from natural immune systems protecting organisms from infection. Nodes in the present proposal have individual gene sets fitting into a self organised phylogenetic tree. Members of this population are genetically ''relatives''. Outsiders cannot easily copy or introduce a new node in the network without going through a process of conception between two nodes in the population. Related nodes can locally decide to check each other for their genetic relation without directly revealing their gene sets. A copy/clone of a gene sequence or a random gene set will appear as alien. Nodes go through a cycle of introduction (conception or ''birth'') with parents in the network and later exit from it (''death''). Hence the phylogenetic tree is dynamic or possesses a genetic drift. Typical lifetimes of gene sets and number of offspring ...

  16. A Protocol for Content-Based Communication in Disconnected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Julien Haillot

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In content-based communication, information flows towards interested hosts rather than towards specifically set destinations. This new style of communication perfectly fits the needs of applications dedicated to information sharing, news distribution, service advertisement and discovery, etc. In this paper we address the problem of supporting content-based communication in partially or intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. The protocol we designed leverages on the concepts of opportunistic networking and delay-tolerant networking in order to account for the absence of end-to-end connectivity in disconnected MANETs. The paper provides an overview of the protocol, as well as simulation results that show how this protocol can perform in realistic conditions.

  17. Arithmetic Encoding Based Dynamic Source Routing for Ad-Hoc Networks

    Ajay Koul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An ad hoc network is a collection of mobile stations forming a temporary network without the aid of any centralized coordinator. Routing messages are an essential component of Mobile Adhoc Networks, as each packet needs to be passed quickly through intermediate nodes from source to destination. Internal threats due to changes in the node behaviour that target the routing discovery or maintenance phase of the routing protocol and security challenges can however lead to insecure communication in MANETS. We proposed a model that found the improper behaviour of the nodes and eliminated them. Also it provided secure routing mechanism of sharing messages between source and destination by modifying and making use of Arithmetic encoding that not only saved the bandwidth but also provided the security by crypting the data. The reason we chose Arithmetic coding was because it typically enabled very high coding efficiency and provided better security.

  18. Cooperative Medium Access Control Protocol for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks using Spatial Diversity

    Tazeem Ahmad Khan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement the Performance of MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc Network using spatial diversity. Spatial diversity implemented using cooperative transmission technique in Medium access control (MAC layer level protocol. In noisy environment limit the network performance like coverage area, limit number of node, degrade packet transmission rate, increase packet loss rate etc. In this paper enhance the source to destination transmission range, minimize the packet loss, improve packet transmission rate and appropriate end to end delay. When direct link is fail to transmit packet then Cooperative scheme help to transmit packet. Cooperative scheme is to help the packet transmission with five handshakes instead of four. This scheme implemented in MANET network on MAC layer protocol. Cooperative scheme improve the performance with help of intermediate node between sources to destination. We are performance analysis using discrete simulator NS-2 in MANET. Our performance based on MAC layer level with cooperative scheme in IEEE WLAN standard CSMA/CA protocol.

  19. A Review of Current Routing Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Rashid Hafeez Khokhar

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a dynamic wireless network that can be formed without any pre-existing infrastructure in which each node can act as a router. MANET has no clear line of defense, so, it is accessible to both legitimate network users and malicious attackers. In the presence of malicious nodes, one of the main challenges in MANET is to design the robust security solution that can protect MANET from various routing attacks. Different mechanisms have been proposed using various cryptographic techniques to countermeasure the routing attacks against MANET. However, these mechanisms are not suitable for MANET resource constraints, i.e., limited bandwidth and battery power, because they introduce heavy traffic load to exchange and verifying keys. In this paper, the current security issues in MANET are investigated. Particularly, we have examined different routing attacks, such as flooding, blackhole, link spoofing, wormhole, and colluding misrelay attacks, as well as existing solutions to protect MANET protocols.

  20. Performance Analysis of Contention Window Cheating Misbehaviors in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Kalaiarasi, R; Pari, S Neelavathy; Sridharan, D

    2010-01-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of nodes that can be rapidly deployed as a multi-hop network without the aid of any centralized administration. Misbehavior is challenged by bandwidth and energy efficient medium access control and fair share of throughput. Node misbehavior plays an important role in MANET. In this survey, few of the contention window misbehavior is reviewed and compared. The contention window cheating either minimizes the active communication of the network or reduces bandwidth utilization of a particular node. The classification presented is in no case unique but summarizes the chief characteristics of many published proposals for contention window cheating. After getting insight into the different contention window misbehavior, few of the enhancements that can be done to improve the existing contention window are suggested. The purpose of this paper is to facilitate the research efforts in combining the existing solutions to offer more efficient methods to reduce contention win...