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Sample records for acute stress disorder

  1. Cancer, acute stress disorder, and repressive coping

    Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Zachariae, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between repressive coping style and Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) in a sample of cancer patients. A total of 112 cancer patients recently diagnosed with cancer participated in the study. ASD was assessed by the Stanford Acute Stress...... Reaction Questionnaire, and repressive coping was assessed by a combination of scores from the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, and the Bendig version of the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale. Significantly fewer patients classified as "repressors" were diagnosed with ASD compared to patients...... classified as "non-repressors". However, further investigations revealed that the lower incidence of ASD in repressors apparently was caused by a low score on anxiety and not by an interaction effect between anxiety and defensiveness. Future studies have to investigate whether different psychological...

  2. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Acute Stress Disorder II: Considerations for Treatment and Prevention

    Cahill, Shawn P.; Pontoski, Kristin; D'Olio, Carla M.

    2005-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder is a common and often chronic and disabling anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to highly stressful events characterized by actual or threatened harm to the self or others. This is the second of two invited articles summarizing the nature and treatment of PTSD and the associated condition of acute stress disorder (ASD). The present article reviews evidence for the efficacy of psychological and pharmacological treatments for PTSD and ASD. In summary, ...

  3. Does Acute Stress Disorder Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Bank Robbery?

    Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    Unfortunately, the number of bank robberies is increasing and little is known about the subsequent risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several studies have investigated the prediction of PTSD through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). However, there have only been a few studies following nonsexual assault. The present study…

  4. The Relationship between Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Cancer

    Kangas, Maria; Henry, Jane L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following cancer diagnosis. Patients who were recently diagnosed with 1st onset head and neck or lung malignancy (N = 82) were assessed for ASD within the initial month following their diagnosis and reassessed (n =…

  5. Evaluation of Acute Stress Disorder following Pregnancy Losses

    Hamit Sirri Keten

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The study revealed that symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder increased after pregnancy losses. It is of great importance to provide social and psychological support for the couples experiencing a pregnancy loss in terms of their wellbeing. Inability to implement support mechanisms effectively in cases of increased acute stress such as pregnancy loss can predispose to progression to posttraumatic stress disorder. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 226-232

  6. Does acute stress disorder predict posttraumatic stress disorder following bank robbery?

    Hansen, M.; Elklit, A.

    2013-01-01

    Unfortunately, the number of bank robberies is increasing and little is known about the subsequent risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several studies have investigated the prediction of PTSD through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). However, there have only been a few studies...... following nonsexual assault. The present study investigated the predictive power of different aspects of the ASD diagnosis and symptom severity on PTSD prevalence and symptom severity in 132 bank employees. The PTSD diagnosis, based on the three core symptom clusters, was best identified using cutoff scores...... on the Acute Stress Disorder scale. ASD severity accounted for 40% and the inclusion of other risk factors accounted for 50% of the PTSD severity variance. In conclusion, results indicated that ASD appears to predict PTSD differently following nonsexual assault than other trauma types. ASD severity...

  7. Acute Stress Disorder: Conceptual Issues and Treatment Outcomes

    Koucky, Ellen M.; Galovski, Tara E.; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2012-01-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) was included as a diagnosis to the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a way of describing pathological reactions in the first month following a trauma. Since that time, ASD has been the focus of some controversy, particularly regarding the theoretical basis…

  8. A Diagnostic Interview for Acute Stress Disorder for Children and Adolescents

    Miller, Alisa; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Reich, Wendy; Saxe, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a semi-structured clinical interview for assessing acute stress disorder (ASD) in youth and test its psychometric properties. Youth (N = 168) with an acute burn or injury were administered the acute stress disorder module of the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents (DICA-ASD). The DICA-ASD demonstrated strong psychometric properties, including high internal consistency (α = .97) and perfect diagnostic inter-rater agreement (K = 1.00). Partici...

  9. Cognitive Load Undermines Thought Suppression in Acute Stress Disorder.

    Nixon, Reginald D V; Rackebrandt, Julie

    2016-05-01

    Thought suppression studies demonstrate that attempts to suppress can be undermined by cognitive load. We report the first instance in which this has been tested experimentally in a sample of recently traumatized individuals. Individuals with and without acute stress disorder (ASD) were recruited following recent trauma and randomized to load or no load conditions (N=56). They monitored intrusive memories during baseline, suppression, and think anything phases. The impact of suppression and load on self-reported intrusions, attention bias (dot-probe), and memory priming (word-stem task) was assessed. The ASD load group were less able to suppress memories (d=0.32, CI95 [-0.15, 0.83], p=.088) than the ASD no load group (d=0.63, CI95 [0.08, 1.24], panything phase, the ASD load group reported more intrusions than the ASD no load or non-ASD groups (with and without load). No consistent findings were observed in relation to attentional bias. ASD load individuals exhibited stronger priming responses for motor vehicle accident and assault words than all other groups (ds between 0.35-0.73). Working memory did not moderate any outcomes of interest. The findings indicate that cognitive load interferes with suppression and may enhance access to trauma memories and associated material. The study extends previous research by demonstrating these effects for the first time in a clinical sample of recent survivors of trauma. PMID:27157032

  10. Lower Electrodermal Activity to Acute Stress in Caregivers of People with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Adaptive Habituation to Stress

    Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Caring for a relative with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) entails being under chronic stress that could alter body homeostasis. Electrodermal activity (EDA) is an index of the sympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system related to emotionality and homeostasis. This study compares EDA in response to acute stress in the laboratory between…

  11. ACUTE STRESS DISORDER VERSUS CHRONIC POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: INHIBITION OF FEAR AS A FUNCTION OF TIME SINCE TRAUMA

    Jovanovic, Tanja; Sakoman, Andrea Jambrošić; Kozarić-Kovačić, Dragica; Meštrović, Ana Havelka; Duncan, Erica J.; Davis, Michael; Norrholm, Seth D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous work has shown that inhibition of fear is impaired in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) resulting from both civilian and combat trauma. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the inhibition of learned fear in traumatized individuals diagnosed with either acute stress disorder (ASD) or PTSD. This is the first study to use a conditioned inhibition paradigm with traumatized individuals within a month of trauma exposure. We hypothesized that impaired fear inhibition would be evident in PTSD, but not ASD. Method Using established translational, psychophysiological methods including fear-potentiated startle, and skin conductance, we examined fear acquisition, stimulus discrimination, and the transfer of learned safety in a Croatian population with ASD or PTSD. This cross-sectional study included three age-matched groups: healthy nontrauma controls (n = 27), a group with chronic PTSD (10 or more years since trauma exposure, n = 24), and a group with ASD (30 days or less since trauma exposure, n = 27). Results The presence of trauma-related psychopathology, whether acute or chronic, was associated with an impaired ability to transfer learned safety based on fear-potentiated startle measures, while healthy control subjects showed significant fear inhibition in the presence of the safety cue compared to the danger cue, F(1,26) = 12.64, P = .001. Conclusions These data expand our previously observed findings of PTSD-associated fear inhibition deficits by demonstrating that trauma-related impairments in safety learning are evident within 30 days of trauma exposure. PMID:22907890

  12. Symptom Differences in Acute and Chronic Presentation of Childhood Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Famularo, Richard; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-four child abuse victims, age 5-13, were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Children with the acute form of PTSD exhibited such symptoms as difficulty falling asleep, hypervigilance, nightmares, and generalized anxiety. Children exhibiting chronic PTSD exhibited increased detachment, restricted range of affect,…

  13. Blunted Electrodermal and Psychological Response to Acute Stress in Family Caregivers of People with Eating Disorders.

    Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Caring for an offspring with an eating disorder (ED) is associated with high levels of distress, and health problems. Indeed, ED caregivers have to cope with a range of challenges related to their caring role, which represents a chronic stress situation. This tends to alter body homeostasis and caregivers' health status. This study aimed to analyse the electrodermal reactivity and psychological response to acute stress in ED caregivers compared to non-caregivers. As expected, caregivers showed lower electrodermal (p < .001, η2partial = .269 for SCL and p < .01, η2partial = .214 for NSCRs) and psychological response (p < .05, η2partial = .198) to acute stress than non-caregivers. The findings suggest the existence of physiological adaptation to chronic stress in family caregivers of people with EDs. PMID:27160010

  14. The Latent Factor Structure of Acute Stress Disorder following Bank Robbery

    Hansen, M.; Lasgaard, M.; Elklit, A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Acute stress disorder (ASD) was introduced into the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) to identify posttraumatic stress reactions occurring within the first month after a trauma and thus help to...... identify victims at risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Since its introduction, research into ASD has focused on the prediction of PTSD, whereas only a few studies have investigated the latent structure of ASD. Results of the latter have been mixed. In light of the current proposal for...... the ASD diagnosis in the pending DSM-5, there is a profound need for empirical studies that investigate the latent structure of ASD prior to the DSM-5 being finalized. DESIGN: Based on previous factor analytic research, the DSM-IV, and the proposed DSM-5 formulation of ASD, four different models of...

  15. Thought Control Strategies and Rumination in Youth with Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Single-Event Trauma

    Shepperd, Alicia; Glucksman, Ed; Dalgleish, Tim; Yule, William; Smith, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Certain thought control strategies for managing the intrusive symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are thought to play a key role in its onset and maintenance. Whereas measures exist for the empirical assessment of such thought control strategies in adults, relatively few studies have explored how children and adolescents manage posttraumatic intrusive phenomena. Methods: In a prospective longitudinal study of 10–16-year-olds with PTSD, who were survivors of road traffic collisions and assaults, a variety of thought control strategies were assessed in the acute phase. These included strategies thought to be protective (reappraisal, social support) as well as maladaptive (distraction, punishment, worry). Ruminative responses to the trauma were assessed at the follow-up assessment. Results: Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) at each assessment were associated with the use of punishment and reappraisal, whereas social support and rumination were associated with PTSS symptoms at follow-up. Distraction was unrelated to PTSS at any time point. Rumination accounted for variance in PTSS symptoms at follow-up, even when accounting for baseline PTSS, and was found to mediate the relationships between reappraisal and punishment at baseline and PTSS at the follow-up assessment. Conclusions: The present study found no evidence to support advocating any particular thought control strategy for managing the intrusive symptoms of PTSD in youth in the acute posttrauma phase, and raised concerns over the use of reappraisal coping strategies. The study underscores the importance of ruminative responses in the onset and maintenance of PTSD in trauma-exposed youth. PMID:24521228

  16. Posterior midline activation during symptom provocation in acute stress disorder: An fMRI study

    Jan Christopher Cwik

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional imaging studies of patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder showed wide-spread activation of mid-line cortical areas during symptom provocation i.e., exposure to trauma-related cues. The present study aimed at investigating neural activation during exposure to trauma-related pictures in patients with Acute Stress Disorder (ASD shortly after the traumatic event. Nineteen ASD patients and 19 healthy control participants were presented with individualized pictures of the traumatic event and emotionally neutral control pictures during the acquisition of whole-brain data with a 3-T fMRI scanner. Compared to the control group and to control pictures, ASD patients showed significant activation in mid-line cortical areas in response to trauma-related pictures including precuneus, cuneus, postcentral gyrus and pre-supplementary motor area. The results suggest that the trauma-related pictures evoke emotionally salient self-referential processing in ASD patients.

  17. Differences in maladaptive schemas between patients suffering from chronic and acute posttraumatic stress disorder and healthy controls

    Ahmadian, Alireza; Mirzaee, Jafar; Omidbeygi, Maryam; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Background War, as a stressor event, has a variety of acute and chronic negative consequences, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this context, early maladaptive schema-based problems in PTSD have recently become an important research area. The aim of this study was to assess early maladaptive schemas in patients with acute and chronic PTSD. Method Using available sampling methods and diagnostic criteria, 30 patients with chronic PTSD, 30 patients with acute PTSD, and 30 normal ...

  18. Thought Control Strategies and Rumination in Youth with Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Single-Event Trauma

    Meiser-Stedman, R.; Shepperd, A.; Glucksman, E.; Dalgleish, T; Yule, W; SMITH, P., CUBAS, M., CORRIN, J., TAPIA, J., DE PEDRO, I., RUIZ COBO, J., PEREDA ROSALES, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Certain thought control strategies for managing the intrusive symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are thought to play a key role in its onset and maintenance. Whereas measures exist for the empirical assessment of such thought control strategies in adults, relatively few studies have explored how children and adolescents manage posttraumatic intrusive phenomena. Methods: In a prospective longitudinal study of 10-16-year-olds with PTSD, who were survivors of road traffi...

  19. Parent and Child Agreement for Acute Stress Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Other Psychopathology in a Prospective Study of Children and Adolescents Exposed to Single-Event Trauma

    Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Smith, Patrick; Glucksman, Edward; Yule, William; Dalgleish, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Examining parent-child agreement for Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents is essential for informing the assessment of trauma-exposed children, yet no studies have examined this relationship using appropriate statistical techniques. Parent-child agreement for these disorders was examined…

  20. Disordered eating behaviour is associated with blunted cortisol and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress

    Ginty, Annie T; Phillips, Anna C; Higgs, Suzanne; Heaney, Jennifer L. J.; Carroll, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests a potential dysregulation of the stress response in individuals with bulimia nervosa. This study measured both cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to a standardised laboratory stress task in individuals identified as showing disordered eating behaviour to determine whether dysregulation of the stress response is characteristic of the two branches of the stress response system. Female students (N = 455) were screened using two validated eating disorder questionnaires. Twelv...

  1. Symptoms of acute posttraumatic stress disorder in prostate cancer patients following radical prostatectomy.

    Anastasiou, Ioannis; Yiannopoulou, Konstantina G; Mihalakis, Anastasios; Hatziandonakis, Nikolaos; Constantinides, Constantinos; Papageorgiou, Charalambos; Mitropoulos, Dionisios

    2011-01-01

    Psychological morbidity is increasingly reported in cancer survivors. The authors' objective was to determine the presence of acute posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in prostate cancer (PC) patients following radical prostatectomy. Fifteen patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer were assessed for the presence of PTSD-related symptoms by completing the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS), a month following the procedure. A group of 20 patients who underwent surgery for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) served as the control group. PTSD total scores were significantly higher in PC patients when compared with BPH patients, whose PTSD scores did not differ from those reported in the general population (32.6 ± 18.5 vs. 11.3 ± 9.7, p = .001). PTSD did not vary among PC patients when adjusted for educational status. PTSD symptoms are common among patients undergoing radical prostatectomy and independent of their educational level. Research investigating these aspects of posttreatment psychological adjustment is needed for developing well-targeted psychological interventions. PMID:20483867

  2. Dual-task performance under acute stress in female adolescents with borderline personality disorder.

    Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Koenig, Julian; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald

    2016-09-01

    Research to elucidate early alterations of higher cognitive processes in adolescents with BPD is rare. This study investigated differences in dual-task performance in adolescents with BPD during stress and non-stress conditions. The study sample comprised 30 female adolescents with BPD and 34 healthy controls. The impact of stress on dual-task performance was measured using a standardized stressor. Self-reports of distress and measures of heart rate (HR) were obtained to measure stress reactivity. There were no group differences in task performance. Under stress conditions, the performance on the auditory task decreased in both groups but without significant group differences. Healthy controls showed an increase of mean HR after stress induction compared to no change in the BPD group. The finding of attenuated HR response to acute stress in adolescent patients with BPD may contradict current theories that the affective hyperresponsivity in BPD is based on a biologically determined mechanism. PMID:26852226

  3. The Nature of Trauma Memories in Acute Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    Salmond, C. H.; Meiser-Stedman, R.; Glucksman, E.; Thompson, P.; Dalgleish, T.; Smith, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is increasing theoretical, clinical and research evidence for the role of trauma memory in the aetiology of acute pathological stress responses in adults. However, research into the phenomenology of trauma memories in young people is currently scarce. Methods: This study compared the nature of trauma narratives to narratives of…

  4. Differences in maladaptive schemas between patients suffering from chronic and acute posttraumatic stress disorder and healthy controls

    Ahmadian A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alireza Ahmadian,1,2 Jafar Mirzaee,1 Maryam Omidbeygi,1 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,3 Serge Brand3,41Department of Psychology, Kharazmi University, 2Sadr Psychiatric Hospital, Janbazan Medical and Engineering Research Center (JMERC, Tehran, Iran; 3Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 4Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: War, as a stressor event, has a variety of acute and chronic negative consequences, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. In this context, early maladaptive schema-based problems in PTSD have recently become an important research area. The aim of this study was to assess early maladaptive schemas in patients with acute and chronic PTSD.Method: Using available sampling methods and diagnostic criteria, 30 patients with chronic PTSD, 30 patients with acute PTSD, and 30 normal military personnel who were matched in terms of age and wartime experience were selected and assessed with the Young Schema Questionnaire-Long Form, Beck Depression Inventory second version (BDI-II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and the Impact of Events Scale (IES.Results: Both acute and chronic PTSD patients, when compared with normal military personnel, had higher scores for all early maladaptive schemas. Additionally, veterans suffering from chronic PTSD, as compared with veterans suffering from acute PTSD and veterans without PTSD, reported more impaired schemas related, for instance, to Self-Control, Social Isolation, and Vulnerability to Harm and Illness.Discussion: The results of the present study have significant preventative, diagnostic, clinical, research, and educational implications with respect to PTSD. Keywords: veterans, PTSD, depression, anxiety 

  5. Assessing a dysphoric arousal model of acute stress disorder symptoms in a clinical sample of rape and bank robbery victims

    Maj Hansen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the introduction of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD into the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV research has focused on the ability of ASD to predict PTSD rather than focusing on addressing ASD's underlying latent structure. The few existing confirmatory factor analytic (CFA studies of ASD have failed to reach a clear consensus regarding ASD's underlying dimensionality. Although, the discrepancy in the results may be due to varying ASD prevalence rates, it remains possible that the model capturing the latent structure of ASD has not yet been put forward. One such model may be a replication of a new five-factor model of PTSD, which separates the arousal symptom cluster into Dysphoric and Anxious Arousal. Given the pending DSM-5, uncovering ASD's latent structure is more pertinent than ever. Objective:Using CFA, four different models of the latent structure of ASD were specified and tested: the proposed DSM-5 model, the DSM-IV model, a three factor model, and a five factor model separating the arousal symptom cluster. Method:The analyses were based on a combined sample of rape and bank robbery victims, who all met the diagnostic criteria for ASD (N = 404 using the Acute Stress Disorder Scale. Results:The results showed that the five factor model provided the best fit to the data. Conclusions:The results of the present study suggest that the dimensionality of ASD may be best characterized as a five factor structure which separates dysphoric and anxious arousal items into two separate factors, akin to recent research on PTSD's latent structure. Thus, the current study adds to the debate about how ASD should be conceptualized in the pending DSM-5.

  6. Acute Gynecologic Disorders.

    Donaldson, Carolyn K

    2015-11-01

    Premenopausal women with acute pelvic pain comprise a significant percentage of patients who present to the emergency room. Etiologies can be gynecologic, urologic, gastrointestinal, or vascular. Signs and symptoms are often nonspecific and overlapping. The choice of imaging modality is determined by the clinically suspected differential diagnosis. Ultrasound (US) is the preferred imaging modality for suspected obstetric or gynecologic disorders. CT is more useful when gastrointestinal or urinary tract pathology is likely. MR imaging is rarely used in the emergent setting, except to exclude appendicitis in pregnant women. This article presents a comprehensive review of imaging of acute gynecologic disorders. PMID:26526439

  7. Post-traumatic stress disorder in patients with acute burn injury

    Objective: To determine the risk of PTSD in patients with acute burn incidents. Method: This was an observational prospective cross-sectional study conducted in admitted patients in Burns Ward of Civil Hospital, Karachi during a period of 6 months from January 1 to June 30, 2011. Data was collected through questionnaire having socio demographic variables and the Impact of Event-Scale (IES-R) was used to determine the risk of PTSD. Results: Out of 145 patients, 12 (77.3%) were at risk of PTSD with 75 (66.9%) males and 37 (33%) females. Out of these 112 cases, 50% belonged to age group 16-29 years. All burn patients with more than 60% total body surface area (TBSA) involved in injury were at risk. Conclusion: The study reports an astronomic number of burns patients with PTSD risk. PTSD drastically affects the quality of life. The earlier this disorder is diagnosed and assessed; better chances are there for enhanced treatment and better recovery. (author)

  8. Traumatic memories, post-traumatic stress disorder and serum cortisol levels in long-term survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Hauer, Daniela; Weis, Florian; Krauseneck, Till; Vogeser, Michael; Schelling, Gustav; Roozendaal, Benno

    2009-01-01

    Survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) often report traumatic memories from the intensive care unit (ICU) and display a high incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As it is known that subjects with PTSD often show sustained reductions in circulating cortisol concent

  9. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms predict delay to hospital in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Jonathan D Newman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increased delay to hospital presentation with acute coronary syndrome (ACS is associated with poor outcomes. While demographic factors associated with this delay have been well described, scarce data are available on the role of modifiable factors, such as psychosocial disorders, on pre-hospital delay. Patients with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD often avoid stressful situations and may delay presenting for care when they experience cardiac symptoms. It is unknown, however, whether PTSD symptoms negatively impact the time to presentation during an ACS. METHODS: We assessed the relationship between PTSD symptoms and pre-hospital delay in 241 adults with an ACS in the ongoing Prescription Use, Lifestyle, Stress Evaluation (PULSE study. RESULTS: Overall, 66% of patients were male; 40% were Hispanic or Latino. The mean age was 61.9±11.6 years old. PTSD symptoms were present in 17.8% of patients. Pre-hospital delay was longer for patients with PTSD symptoms compared to those without [geometric mean: 25.8 hours (95% CI 13.8-44.8 vs. 10.7 hours (95% CI 8.3-13.8]; P = 0.005. After multivariable adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, depression, left ventricular ejection fraction and history of myocardial infarction, the mean pre-hospital delay was 173% (95% CI: 36%-450% longer for patients with versus without PTSD symptoms. CONCLUSION: Among patients presenting with an ACS, PTSD symptoms were independently associated with longer pre-hospital delays. Future studies of pre-hospital delay should examine the mechanisms underlying this association.

  10. Clinical Analysis on 26 Cases of Acute Stress Disorder.%26例急性应激障碍临床分析

    李永宏; 王菊花; 苟先梅; 郑占营

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究急性应激障碍的易感因素、临床特点及治疗.方法 采用自行设计的调查表对26例急性应激障碍患者进行回顾性研究.结果 急性应激障碍以受教育程度低、从事体力劳动及性格内向的女性为多发,临床症状表现为意识障碍、精神运动障碍、情绪障碍及精神病性症状和躯体症状等多个方面,宜采用心理治疗和药物治疗相结合的治疗方法 .结论 急性应激障碍的发生受多种易感因素影响,临床症状呈多样性,采用心理治疗和药物治疗联合疗法效果王著.%Objective To research the predisposing factors of acute stress disorder, clinical characteristic and treatment. Method A review research was carried to 26 cases of acute stress disorder patients using the self-compiled examination table. Results A-cute stress disorder mainly occured in the women whose edncayion were low, works were manual labour and characters were intro-verted. The clinical symptom included conscious disturbance, psychomotor disturbance, emotional disturbance, psychiatric symp-tom, somatization and so on. The mental healing combined with medicine treatment were suitable method to acute stress disorder patients. Conclusion The occurrence of acute stress disorder is affected by many kinds of predisposing factors. The clinical symp-tom show multiplicity. The therapeutic effect of mental healing combined with medicine is remarkable.

  11. Trastorno por estrés agudo: Presentación de un caso Acute stress disorder: Case report

    A. Calzada Reyes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El trastorno por estrés agudo puede ser secundario a una lesión grave o una amenaza a la integridad física. Ante este tipo de situación, el individuo responde con una serie de reacciones cognitivas, conductuales, emocionales y físicas todas ellas orquestadas por un órgano rector: el cerebro. Se presenta el caso de una paciente con un trastorno por estrés agudo que aparece tras ser agredida en su puesto laboral. Se trata de una mujer de 55 años, con antecedentes de un adecuado desempeño laboral, que después del evento traumático comienza a presentar cambios conductuales evidenciados por irritabilidad, miedo, ansiedad, nerviosismo y sobresaltos. No quiere salir sola a la calle, aqueja malestar al recordar el evento traumático y pérdida de su estabilidad emocional y laboral. Cuando se realiza la evaluación, la paciente se encontraba bajo tratamiento con antidepresivos y ansiolíticos. Se recomienda integrar estudios electrofisiológicos, psicofisiológicos y métodos de evaluación clinimétrica como complemento en el diagnóstico de esta entidad.Acute stress disorder may be the secondary to a serious injury or a threat to physical integrity. Given this situation, the individual responds with a series of cognitive, behavioral, emotional and physical reactions all orchestrated by a governing body: the brain. A case of a patient with acute stress disorder, which appears after being attacked in her job place, is presented. A 55-year old woman, with antecedents of adequate job performance, begins to show behavioral changes evidenced by irritability, fear, anxiety, nervousness and jumpiness after the traumatic event. She does not want to go alone into the street, explains malaise when remembering the traumatic event and loss of emotional and labour stability. At the time when the assessment is made, the patient was being treated with antidepressants and anxiolytics. It is recommended to integrate electrophysiological, psychophysiological

  12. Comparative Study of the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Acute Stress Disorder%创伤后应激障碍与急性应激障碍对比研究

    潘光花

    2012-01-01

    By comparing the post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD)with the stress disorder (ASD)symptoms, this study found that the psychological and social factors in the prevention and treatment of both disorders were very similar :the individual spirit and personality affected the occurrence and development of ASD and PTSD and the main factors affecting the development of them were social culture, family and social support; the intervention of them were both the combination of psychotherapy and medication. Attention should be paid to social support and prevention. In the aspect of the time of onset and duration, the two were quite different: ASD occurred fast and had a short duration while the PTSD had a longer duration and a slower onset.%通过对创伤后应激障碍(post-traumatic stress disorder,PTSD)与急性应激障碍(acute stress disorder,ASD)进行比较,研究发现,两者在心理社会因素以及治疗预防等方面十分相似:个体的精神和人格方面影响着ASD与PTSD的发生和发展,对其影响较大的社会因素主要有文化、家庭以及社会支持等;对两者的干预皆为心理治疗和药物治疗相结合,同时要重视社会支持和预防.在发病时间以及病程上两者存在较大差异:ASD发病快、病程短,而PTSD发病慢、病程长.

  13. ACUTE PSYCHOTIC DISORDER AND HYPOGLYCEMIA

    Singh, S.K.; Agrawal, J.K.; Srivastava, A.S.; Bhardwaj, V.K.; Bose, B. Sarat

    1994-01-01

    A variable array of neuroglycopenic symptoms are frequently encountered in the hypoglycemic stage, but acute psychotic disorders are quite rare. A fifty five year old female presented with an acute psychosis following oral sulfonylurea induced hypoglycemia without preceding features of adrenomedullary stimulation. This case report suggests that an acute and transient psychotic disorder may be an important neuroglycopenic feature and its early recognition protects the patient from severe hypog...

  14. Differences in maladaptive schemas between patients suffering from chronic and acute posttraumatic stress disorder and healthy controls

    Ahmadian A; Mirzaee J; Omidbeygi M; Holsboer-Trachsler E; Br; De, S.

    2015-01-01

    Alireza Ahmadian,1,2 Jafar Mirzaee,1 Maryam Omidbeygi,1 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,3 Serge Brand3,41Department of Psychology, Kharazmi University, 2Sadr Psychiatric Hospital, Janbazan Medical and Engineering Research Center (JMERC), Tehran, Iran; 3Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 4Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: War, as a stressor event, has ...

  15. Differences in maladaptive schemas between patients suffering from chronic and acute posttraumatic stress disorder and healthy controls

    Brand, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Alireza Ahmadian,1,2 Jafar Mirzaee,1 Maryam Omidbeygi,1 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,3 Serge Brand3,41Department of Psychology, Kharazmi University, 2Sadr Psychiatric Hospital, Janbazan Medical and Engineering Research Center (JMERC), Tehran, Iran; 3Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 4Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: War, as a stressor event, ...

  16. Traumatic Stress Disorders and Risk of Subsequent Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder or Bipolar Disorder

    Okkels, Niels; Trabjerg, Betina; Arendt, Mikkel;

    2016-01-01

    schizophrenia (IRR 3.80, CI 2.33-5.80), schizophrenia spectrum disorder (IRR 2.34, CI 1.46-3.53), and bipolar disorder (IRR 4.22, CI 2.25-7.13). Risks were highest in the first year after diagnosis of the traumatic stress disorder and remained significantly elevated after more than 5 years. Mental illness in a......OBJECTIVE: Traumatic stress disorders are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, there is a lack of prospective longitudinal studies investigating the risk of severe mental illness for people diagnosed with traumatic stress disorders. We aimed to assess if patients...... with acute stress reaction (ASR) or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at increased risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders or bipolar disorder. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study covering the entire Danish population including information on inpatient and outpatient mental...

  17. Roles of inter-individual differences and intra-individual acute elevations in early smoking lapse in people with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Dedert, Eric A; Hicks, Terrell A; Dennis, Paul A; Calhoun, Patrick S; Beckham, Jean C

    2016-09-01

    Existing models of the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and smoking have almost exclusively examined mean symptom levels, rather than the acute elevations that might trigger smoking lapse immediately or increase risk of a smoking lapse in the next few hours. We examined ecological momentary assessments (EMA) of PTSD symptom clusters and smoking in the first week of a quit attempt in 52 people with PTSD. In multilevel models including PTSD symptom means, acute elevations, and lagged acute elevations together as simultaneous predictors of odds of smoking in the same models, pre-quit smoking occasions were significantly related to acute elevations in symptoms, including PTSD totals (OR=1.20; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.31), PTSD re-experiencing symptoms (OR=1.16; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.27), PTSD avoidance symptoms (OR=1.20; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.31), PTSD numbing symptoms (OR=1.14; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.24), and PTSD hyperarousal symptoms (OR=1.20; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.31). In contrast, post-quit smoking was related to lagged acute elevations in PTSD re-experiencing (OR=1.24, 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.50) avoidance (OR=1.27, 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.53), and numbing symptoms (OR=1.24, 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.51). During a quit attempt, individuals with PTSD delayed smoking in response to acute elevations in PTSD re-experiencing and Avoidance. This period presents an opportunity to use mobile health interventions to prevent smoking lapse and to use coping skills acquired in trauma-focused therapy to respond to acute PTSD symptom elevation. PMID:27155244

  18. Post-traumatic stress disorder

    ... Post-traumatic stress disorder References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  19. Persistent fear of aftershocks, impairment of working memory, and acute stress disorder predict post-traumatic stress disorder: 6-month follow-up of help seekers following the L'Aquila earthquake.

    Roncone, Rita; Giusti, Laura; Mazza, Monica; Bianchini, Valeria; Ussorio, Donatella; Pollice, Rocco; Casacchia, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our 6-month follow-up study was to assess predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among individuals seeking treatment at the General Hospital Psychiatric Unit within the first month following the L'Aquila earthquake. Clinical, trauma-related and neurocognitive variables were considered. At the 6-month follow-up, 91 (74.5%) out of 122 subjects were re-assessed and administered the Impact of Events Scale-revised (IES-R) for the detection of PTSD according to DSM-IV criteria. Within 4 weeks following the earthquake, patients were assessed with a checklist of traumatic-event-related variables, along with the Stanford Acute Stress Disorder Questionnaire (SASDQ) for the detection of ASD, with a short battery on working (Wechler Memory Scale-R, Digit Forward and Backward) and verbal memory (subtest of Milan Overall Dementia Assessment, MODA). A statistically significant higher proportion of subjects affected by 'partial' ASD showed a PTSD diagnosis (80.6%, N = 29) compared to not diagnosed subjects (40%, N = 22) and a PTSD diagnosis was shown by all the 4 subjects (4.4%) affected by 'full' ASD at the entry in the study. At the 6-month follow-up 56% of the sample could be considered affected by PTSD on the IES-R scale. The results of the logistic regression analysis on our selected predictors indicated that the persistent fear of aftershocks seemed to increase by over 57 times the likelihood of positive estimate of PTSD, followed by impairment of working memory backward (OR 48.2), and having being diagnosed as ASD case in the first 4 week after the earthquake (OR 17.4). This study underlines the importance of identifying PTSD predictors, in order to planning early treatment interventions after natural disasters. PMID:24324929

  20. Risk Preferences under Acute Stress

    Cingl, Lubomír; Cahlíková, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Many important decisions are made under stress and they often involve risky alternatives. There has been ample evidence that stress influences decision making in cognitive as well as in affective domains, but still very little is known about whether individual attitudes to risk change with exposure to acute stress. To directly evaluate the causal effect of stress on risk attitudes, we adopt an experimental approach in which we randomly expose participants to a psychosocial stressor in the for...

  1. [Acute and transient psychotic disorders].

    Marneros, A; Pillmann, F; Haring, A; Balzuweit, S

    2000-04-01

    Psychotic disorders with acute onset, a dramatic and polymorphous symptomatology and rapid resolution have been described in different countries and by different psychiatric schools. They have been called cycloid psychosis, bouffée délirante, psychogenic psychosis or good prognosis schizophrenia. ICD-10 has given an operational definition under the name "acute and transient psychotic disorders" (F23). Their nosological status is unclear. The Halle-Study of acute and transient psychotic disorders (ATPD) has investigated in a prospective manner clinical, para-clinical features and course of illness in 42 patients with ATPD and matched controls with positive schizophrenia, bipolar schizoaffective disorders as well as mentally healthy patients with acute surgical conditions. First results of our study show that ATPD amount to 4% of psychotic in-patients, prefer female sex, show short prodromi, marked affective disturbances within the episode and much better outcome as schizophrenic psychoses according to psychopathological, social, psychological and biographical criteria. Though ATPD may still be an inhomogeneous group, their clinical delineation from schizophrenia seems justified. PMID:10907609

  2. Gender Differences in Animal Models of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Hagit Cohen; Rachel Yehuda

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies report higher prevalence rates of stress-related disorders such as acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women than in men following exposure to trauma. It is still not clear whether this greater prevalence in woman reflects a greater vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. A number of individual and trauma-related characteristics have been hypothesized to contribute to these gender differences in physiological and psychological re...

  3. Acute Stress Decreases but Chronic Stress Increases Myocardial Sensitivity to Ischemic Injury in Rodents

    Eisenmann, Eric D.; Rorabaugh, Boyd R.; Zoladz, Phillip R.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest cause of mortality worldwide, and stress is a significant contributor to the development of CVD. The relationship between acute and chronic stress and CVD is well evidenced. Acute stress can lead to arrhythmias and ischemic injury. However, recent evidence in rodent models suggests that acute stress can decrease sensitivity to myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI). Conversely, chronic stress is arrhythmogenic and increases sensitivity to myocardial IRI. Few studies have examined the impact of validated animal models of stress-related psychological disorders on the ischemic heart. This review examines the work that has been completed using rat models to study the effects of stress on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Utilization of animal models of stress-related psychological disorders is critical in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders in patients experiencing stress-related psychiatric conditions. PMID:27199778

  4. Oxidative Stress and Psychological Disorders

    Salim, Samina

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is an imbalance between cellular production of reactive oxygen species and the counteracting antioxidant mechanisms. The brain with its high oxygen consumption and a lipid-rich environment is considered highly susceptible to oxidative stress or redox imbalances. Therefore, the fact that oxidative stress is implicated in several mental disorders including depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, is not surprising. Although several elegant studies have...

  5. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    ... PTSD include violent personal assaults, natural or human-caused disasters, accidents, or military combat. For Consumers General Information Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder ( NIMH ) Anxiety Information Stress Information Depression Information St. John's Wort Information See more Research ...

  6. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    M Yadollahie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unexpected extreme sudden traumatic stressor may cause post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Important traumatic events include war, violent personal assault (e.g., sexual assault, and physical attack, being taken hostage or kidnapped, confinement as a prisoner of war, torture, terrorist attack, severe car accidents, and natural disasters. In childhood age sexual abuse or witnessing serious injuries or unexpected death of a beloved one are among important traumatic events.PTSD can be categorized into two types of acute and chronic PTSD: if symptoms persist for less than three months, it is termed “acute PTSD,” otherwise, it is called “chronic PTSD.” 60.7% of men and 51.2% of women would experience at least one potentially traumatic event in their lifetime. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD is significantly higher in women than men. Lifetime prevalence of PTSD varies from 0.3% in China to 6.1% in New Zealand. The prevalence of PTSD in crime victims are between 19% and 75%; rates as high as 80% have been reported following rape. The prevalence of PTSD among direct victims of disasters was reported to be 30%–40%; the rate in rescue workers was 10%–20%. The prevalence of PTSD among police, fire, and emergency service workers ranged from 6%–32%. An overall prevalence rate of 4% for the general population, the rate in rescue/recovery occupations ranged from 5% to 32%, with the highest rate reported in search and rescue personnel (25%, firefighters (21%, and workers with no prior training for facing disaster. War is one of the most intense stressors known to man. Armed forces have a higher prevalence of depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol abuse and PTSD. High-risk children who have been abused or experienced natural disasters may have an even higher prevalence of PTSD than adults.Female gender, previous psychiatric problem, intensity and nature of exposure to the traumatic event, and lack of social support are known risk factors for work

  7. Early altered resting-state functional connectivity predicts the severity of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in acutely traumatized subjects.

    Yan Zhou

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between resting-state functional connectivity and the severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms in 15 people who developed PTSD following recent trauma. Fifteen participants who experienced acute traumatic events underwent a 7.3-min resting functional magnetic resonance imaging scan within 2 days post-event. All the patients were diagnosed with PTSD within 1 to 6 months after trauma. Brain areas in which activity was correlated with that of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC were assessed. To assess the relationship between the severity of PTSD symptoms and PCC connectivity, contrast images representing areas positively correlated with the PCC were correlated with the subject's Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale scores (CAPS when they were diagnosed. Furthermore, the PCC, medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral amygdala were selected to assess the correlation of the strength of functional connectivity with the CAPS. Resting state connectivity with the PCC was negatively correlated with CAPS scores in the left superior temporal gyrus and right hippocampus/amygdala. Furthermore, the strength of connectivity between the PCC and bilateral amygdala, and even between the bilateral amygdala could predict the severity of PTSD symptoms later. These results suggest that early altered resting-state functional connectivity of the PCC with the left superior temporal gyrus, right hippocampus and amygdala could predict the severity of the disease and may be a major risk factor that predisposes patients to develop PTSD.

  8. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Stress Related Disorders

    Shalev, Arieh Y

    2009-01-01

    Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent anxiety disorder. PTSD typically follows a psychologically traumatic event, and thus has a recognizable point of onset. PTSD symptoms are present shortly after an exposure to a traumatic event, abate with time in the majority of those who initially express them, and leave a significant minority with chronic PTSD. PTSD may be treated with pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy. The treatment of the early expressions of disorder constitutes a separ...

  9. Deconstructing delayed posttraumatic stress disorder

    Smid, G.E.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, delayed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) must be diagnosed in individuals fulfilling criteria for PTSD if the onset of symptoms is at least six months after the trauma. The purpose of this thesis was to establish the prevale

  10. Acute stress responses: A review and synthesis of ASD, ASR, and CSR.

    Isserlin, Leanna; Zerach, Gadi; Solomon, Zahava

    2008-10-01

    Toward the development of a unifying diagnosis for acute stress responses this article attempts to find a place for combat stress reaction (CSR) within the spectrum of other defined acute stress responses. This article critically compares the diagnostic criteria of acute stress disorder (ASD), acute stress reaction (ASR), and CSR. Prospective studies concerning the predictive value of ASD, ASR, and CSR are reviewed. Questions, recommendations, and implications for clinical practice are raised concerning the completeness of the current acute stress response diagnoses, the heterogeneity of different stressors, the scope of expected outcomes, and the importance of decline in function as an indicator of future psychological, psychiatric, and somatic distress. PMID:19123763

  11. Acute psychological stress reduces working memory-related activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Qin, S.; Hermans, E.J.; Marle, H.J.F. van; Luo, J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute psychological stress impairs higher-order cognitive function such as working memory (WM). Similar impairments are seen in various psychiatric disorders that are associated with higher susceptibility to stress and with prefrontal cortical dysfunctions, suggesting that acute stress m

  12. Deconstructing delayed posttraumatic stress disorder

    Smid, G.E.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, delayed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) must be diagnosed in individuals fulfilling criteria for PTSD if the onset of symptoms is at least six months after the trauma. The purpose of this thesis was to establish the prevalence of delayed PTSD and to examine factors that may explain its occurrence. We conducted a meta-analysis and examined prospective data from disaster survivors, unaccompanied refugee minors, and arm...

  13. Stress, Anxiety and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    Sermin Kesebir

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress has major role in functional gastrointestinal system disorders. The most typical example of this situation is Irritable bowel syndrome. Gastrointestinal system’s response to acute or short-term of stress is delay of gastric emptying and stimulation of colonic transition. While CRF2 receptors are mediate the upper section inhibition, CRF1 is responsible for the lower part colonic and anxiogenic response. Visceral hypersensitivity is managed by the emotional motor system, the amygdala plays a significant role and mucosal mast cells arise. But in people with symptoms of functional gastrointestinal, how is differ motility response in healthy individuals, this situation is due to lack of autonomous nervous system or an increased sensitivity of stress is not adequately understood. The brain-gastrointestinal axis frequency and severity of symptoms associated with negative emotions. American Gastroenterology Association is closely associated with the quality of life and is very difficult to treat the symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders, re-interpreted under the heading of 'Gastrointestinal Distress'. This review is defined as gastrointestinal distresses, physical, emotional, and behavioral components as a disorder in which, almost like an anxiety disorder are discussed. Physical component is pain, gas, and defecation problems, cognitive component is external foci control, catastrophization and anticipatory anxiety, the emotional component is somatic anxiety, hypervigilance, and avoidance of gastrointestinal stimuli as defined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(2.000: 122-133

  14. Subthreshold Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Eylem Ozten; Gokben Hizli Sayar

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder is a very broad category among mental disorders. Since its inclusion in DSM-III, the diagnostic criteria of post-traumatic stress disorder has undergone a number of changes. The diagnosis and treatment of people who have some symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder without meeting full criteria still remains controversial. Although subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder has been debated since it was first defined, the presence of subthreshold post-trauma...

  15. Report and Analysis of 90 Wounded Persons Sleep Disorders in Acute Stress in Yushu Earthquake%玉树地震伤员急性应激期睡眠问题分析

    朱仕超; 李小麟; 黄雪花; 陶庆兰; 吴学华; 蒙雅静; 刘晴晓; 许家军; 李娜

    2011-01-01

    Objective To learn and analyze the sleep disorders in acute stress of the wounded persons in Yushu earthquake. Methods The acute stress reaction of 90 wounded persons in Yushu earthquake were screened with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C) version-17 in April 2010. Sleep disorders were statistically analyzed with SPSS 17. 0. Results In the 17 items of PCL-C, the incidences of the second and the thirteenth item which were related to sleep disorders were respectively 61. 10% ranking at the fifth and 63. 30% ranking at the third. Both scores of these two items had significant positive correlation with the total score of PCL-C and the scores of the flashback symptom, the avoidance symptom and the heightened alertness symptom (P<0. 01). Conclusion Sleep disorder is a common problem in acute stress reaction of wounded persons in earthquakes, which needs high attention to be treated positively.%目的 了解和分析玉树地震伤员急性应激期睡眠问题.方法 2010年4月,对90例玉树地震伤员的急性应激反应采用创伤后应激障碍症状清单平民版(PCL-C)17项量表进行筛查评估,并应用SPSS 17.0软件进行统计学分析.结果 在PCL-C 17个条目中,提示睡眠障碍的条目2和条目13发生率分别为61.10%、63.30%.分别排列第5位、第3位,其得分分别与PCL-C总得分、闪同症状得分、同避症状得分及高警觉性症状得分均呈正相关(P值均<0.01).结论 睡眠障碍是地震伤员急性应激反应中的常见问题,需高度重视,并进行积极有效的处理.

  16. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Basics

    ... Don’t Hurt Yourself For More Information Share Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Basics Download PDF Download ePub Order a free ... might have post-traumatic stress disorder. What is post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD? PTSD is a real illness. You ...

  17. Oxidative Stress Adaptation with Acute, Chronic and Repeated Stress

    Pickering, Andrew. M.; Vojtovich, Lesya; Tower, John; Davies, Kelvin J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress adaptation or hormesis is an important mechanism by which cells and organisms respond to, and cope with, environmental and physiological shifts in the level of oxidative stress. Most studies of oxidative stress adaption have been limited to adaptation induced by acute stress. In contrast, many if not most environmental and physiological stresses are either repeated or chronic. In this study we find that both cultured mammalian cells, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster,...

  18. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    M Yadollahie; Javidi, H.

    2011-01-01

    Unexpected extreme sudden traumatic stressor may cause post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Important traumatic events include war, violent personal assault (e.g., sexual assault, and physical attack), being taken hostage or kidnapped, confinement as a prisoner of war, torture, terrorist attack, severe car accidents, and natural disasters. In childhood age sexual abuse or witnessing serious injuries or unexpected death of a beloved one are among important traumatic events.PTSD can be catego...

  19. Vulnerability to posttraumatic stress disorder

    Lommen, M.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Most individuals will experience a traumatic event during their lives and some will develop subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is characterized by symptoms of re-experiencing the traumatic event, avoidance of reminders of the event, and hyperarousal symptoms. The thesis of Miriam Lommen describes six studies related to three different aims. First, two studies aimed to identify individual differences that increase vulnerability to PTSD. Dutch soldiers were tested before and ...

  20. Post-traumatic stress disorder

    Jonathan I. Bisson

    2010-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterised by disabling symptoms of re-experiencing a traumatic event, avoidance behaviour, and hyperarousal (e.g., irritability or hypervigilance), lasting at least 1 month. PTSD may affect 10% of women and 5% of men at some stage, and symptoms may persist for several years.Risk factors include major trauma, lack of social support, peritraumatic dissociation, and previous psychiatric or personality factors.

  1. Acute Stress Symptoms in Children: Results From an International Data Archive

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Rork, Kristine; Delahanty, Douglas L.; Kenardy, Justin; Kohser, Kristen L.; Landolt, Markus A.; Le Brocque, Robyne; Marsac, Meghan L.; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Nixon, Reginald D.V.; Bui, Eric; McGrath, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms and to examine proposed "DSM-5" symptom criteria in relation to concurrent functional impairment in children and adolescents. Method: From an international archive, datasets were identified that included assessment of acute traumatic stress reactions and concurrent…

  2. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in acute and posttraumatic stress disorder: a case report study Nível sérico do fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro no transtorno de estresse agudo e no transtorno de estresse pós-traumático: relato de casos

    Simone Hauck; Fabiano Gomes; Érico de Moura Silveira Júnior; Ellen Almeida; Marianne Possa; Lúcia Helena Freitas Ceitlin

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in two patients, one with posttraumatic stress disorder and one with acute stress disorder, before and after treatment, and to compare those levels to those of healthy controls. METHOD: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor level, Davidson Trauma Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Global Assessment of Functioning, and Clinical Global Impression were assessed before and after 6 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: Bra...

  3. Functional neuroimaging in posttraumatic stress disorder

    Bremner, J Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Traumatic stress has a broad range of effects on brain function. Brain areas implicated in the stress response include the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. Brain studies in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder replicated findings in animal studies by finding alterations in these brain areas. Brain areas implicated in posttraumatic stress disorder play an important role in the stress response as well as memory, highlighting the important interplay between memory and the tra...

  4. Acute Cold / Restraint Stress in Castrated Rats

    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to determine whether castration altered osmotically stimulated vasopressin (VP release and urinary volume and what is the role of endocrine-stress axis in this process.Materials and methods: Totally 108 mice were studied in two main groups of castrated (n=78 and control (n=30. Each group was extracted by acute cold stress (4◦C for 2h/day, restraint stress (by syringes 60cc 2h/day and cold/restraint stress. The castrated group was treated in sub groups of testosterone, control (sesame oil as vehicle of testosterone. Propranolol as blocker of sympathetic nervous system was given to both groups of castrated mice and main control.Results: Our results showed that, there is interactions between testosterone and sympathetic nervous system on vasopressin, because urine volume was decreased only in testoctomized mice with cold/restraint and cold stress (P<0.001; propranolol as the antagonist of sympathetic nervous system could block and increase urine volume in castrated mice. This increased volume of urine was due to acute cold stress, not restraint stress (p<0.001. The role of testosterone, noradrenalin (NA and Vasopressin (VP in the acute cold stress is confirmed, because testosterone could return the effect of decreased urine volume in control group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Considering the effect of cold/restraint stress on urinary volume in castrated mice shows that there is interaction between sex hormone (testosterone, vasopressin and adrenergic systems.

  5. Postpartum Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    ... with PSI Learn More Pregnancy & Postpartum Mental Health Depression During Pregnancy & Postpartum Anxiety During Pregnancy & Postpartum Pregnancy or Postpartum Obsessive Symptoms Postpartum Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Bipolar Mood Disorders Postpartum Psychosis Tools for ...

  6. 人工神经网络模型在急性应激障碍预警中的应用%Application of artificial neural network in early warning system for acute stress disorder screening

    侯艳红; 张林; 陈晓菲; 张颖; 齐秦甲子; 徐燕杰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore an artificial neural network model in the application of early warning system for Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) screening in the community. Methods The subjects and related information were obtained by Field Epidemiology cluster sample; ASD was diagnosed by Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders (CCMD-3) diagnostic criteria and International Classification of Diseases 10th edition (ICD-10); Using indicators of personality, cognitive appraisal, coping styles, social support, sentiment index, evaluating indicators such as plant nerve function; SPSS13.0 software was adopted to establish the database, and the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was established. Results Accumulation from 2008 to 2012, the army and local emergency responders, and hospital screened the nearly 1000 people, 97 of them were diagnosed acute stress disorder (9%). such as emotion factor, character index, cognitive index, index of plant nerve, 7 variables as input layer of network, fitting for ANN. The model prediction accuracy is 95%; correctly forecasting modeling objects in 95.3% of patients with acute stress disorder, and 95.1% of the patients with non acute stress disorder. According to the sensitivity coefficient, the top four were anxiety character, cognitive function, response ability and plant nerve function. Conclusion ANN carries a high accuracy in ASD screening (prediction) in community which has wide application prospect.%目的:探讨人工神经网络模型在对急性应激障碍预警中的应用。方法通过现场流行病学整群抽样调查获取研究对象及有关信息;急性应激障碍确诊根据中国精神疾病分类( CCMD-3)诊断标准,并参照国际疾病分类第10版( ICD-10)相关内容。采用个性指标,认知评价,应对方式,社会支持,情绪指标,植物神经功能评定等指标;数据库建立采用 SPSS17.0软件,建立神经网络模型( ANN)。结果积累从2008年1月~2012年12月军队及地方突

  7. [Post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth].

    Korábová, I; Masopustová, Z

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the issue of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth to health care professionals. The text focuses on the diagnostic definition of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth, symptoms, physiological background, prevalence, course, risk factors and consequences of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth for a woman, her child and her partner. Options for interventions and therapy are outlined as well. PMID:26982058

  8. Gender Differences in Animal Models of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Hagit Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies report higher prevalence rates of stress-related disorders such as acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in women than in men following exposure to trauma. It is still not clear whether this greater prevalence in woman reflects a greater vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. A number of individual and trauma-related characteristics have been hypothesized to contribute to these gender differences in physiological and psychological responses to trauma, differences in appraisal, interpretation or experience of threat, coping style or social support. In this context, the use of an animal model for PTSD to analyze some of these gender-related differences may be of particular utility. Animal models of PTSD offer the opportunity to distinguish between biological and socio-cultural factors, which so often enter the discussion about gender differences in PTSD prevalence.

  9. Acute Stress and Depression 3 Days after Vaginal Delivery – Observational, Comparative Study

    Srkalović Imširagić, Azijada; Begić, Dražen; Martić-Biočina, Sanja

    2009-01-01

    During the first month postpartum, 85% of women experience some form of mood disorders. The most common are: postpartum blues, non-psychotic postpartum depression, puerperal psychosis. Delivery of a child can be traumatic for some women. Several authors have found that women could get symptoms of one form of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth. However, etiology of established postpartum disorders is still unknown. The aim of this study is to detect symptoms of acute stress ...

  10. What is post-traumatic stress disorder?

    Andreasen, Nancy C.

    2011-01-01

    Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) are categorized as separate and discrete disorders, the boundary between them is sometimes indistinct. Their separation is based on the assumption that PTSD results primarily from psychological stress, while TBI is the consequence of an identifiable injury to the brain. This distinction is based on an antiquated polarity between mind and brain, and the separation of the two disorders often becomes arbitrary in day...

  11. Acute stress may induce ovulation in women

    Cano Antonio

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to gather information either supporting or rejecting the hypothesis that acute stress may induce ovulation in women. The formulation of this hypothesis is based on 2 facts: 1 estrogen-primed postmenopausal or ovariectomized women display an adrenal-progesterone-induced ovulatory-like luteinizing hormone (LH surge in response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH administration; and 2 women display multiple follicular waves during an interovulatory interval, and likely during pregnancy and lactation. Thus, acute stress may induce ovulation in women displaying appropriate serum levels of estradiol and one or more follicles large enough to respond to a non-midcycle LH surge. Methods A literature search using the PubMed database was performed to identify articles up to January 2010 focusing mainly on women as well as on rats and rhesus monkeys as animal models of interaction between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axes. Results Whereas the HPA axis exhibits positive responses in practically all phases of the ovarian cycle, acute-stress-induced release of LH is found under relatively high plasma levels of estradiol. However, there are studies suggesting that several types of acute stress may exert different effects on pituitary LH release and the steroid environment may modulate in a different way (inhibiting or stimulating the pattern of response of the HPG axis elicited by acute stressors. Conclusion Women may be induced to ovulate at any point of the menstrual cycle or even during periods of amenorrhea associated with pregnancy and lactation if exposed to an appropriate acute stressor under a right estradiol environment.

  12. Addiction as a stress surfeit disorder.

    Koob, George F; Buck, Cara L; Cohen, Ami; Edwards, Scott; Park, Paula E; Schlosburg, Joel E; Schmeichel, Brooke; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Wade, Carrie L; Whitfield, Timothy W; George, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction has been conceptualized as a chronically relapsing disorder of compulsive drug seeking and taking that progresses through three stages: binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation. Drug addiction impacts multiple motivational mechanisms and can be conceptualized as a disorder that progresses from positive reinforcement (binge/intoxication stage) to negative reinforcement (withdrawal/negative affect stage). The construct of negative reinforcement is defined as drug taking that alleviates a negative emotional state. Our hypothesis is that the negative emotional state that drives such negative reinforcement is derived from dysregulation of key neurochemical elements involved in the brain stress systems within the frontal cortex, ventral striatum, and extended amygdala. Specific neurochemical elements in these structures include not only recruitment of the classic stress axis mediated by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the extended amygdala as previously hypothesized but also recruitment of dynorphin-κ opioid aversive systems in the ventral striatum and extended amygdala. Additionally, we hypothesized that these brain stress systems may be engaged in the frontal cortex early in the addiction process. Excessive drug taking engages activation of CRF not only in the extended amygdala, accompanied by anxiety-like states, but also in the medial prefrontal cortex, accompanied by deficits in executive function that may facilitate the transition to compulsive-like responding. Excessive activation of the nucleus accumbens via the release of mesocorticolimbic dopamine or activation of opioid receptors has long been hypothesized to subsequently activate the dynorphin-κ opioid system, which in turn can decrease dopaminergic activity in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Blockade of the κ opioid system can also block anxiety-like and reward deficits associated with withdrawal from drugs of abuse and block the

  13. Abuse, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Migraine

    ... Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Migraine Print Email Abuse, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Migraine ACHE Newsletter ... newsletter by entering your e-mail address below. Abuse, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Migraine Gretchen E. ...

  14. Mental disorders in patients with acute necrotic pancreatitis

    Stefanović Dejan; Lekić Nebojša; Dimitrijević Ivan; Žuvela Marinko; Galun Danijel; Radovanović Nebojša; Kerkez Mirko; Kalezić Nevena

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The prognosis of patients with acute pancreatitis is still uncertain regardless of modern therapeutic procedures. It is even more emphasized if the acute pancreatitis is followed by psychic disorders. Objective The aim of the study was to provide an overview of the incidence of certain psychosomatic disorders in patients with acute pancreatitis and evaluate priority therapeutic procedures. Method In this study, we analyzed 16 patients with psychosomatic disorders followed by the ...

  15. Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and Somatoform Disorders

    van Dijke, A.; Ford, J.D.; Van der Hart, O.; Van Son, M.J.M.; Van der Heijden, P.G.M.; Buerhing, M.

    2012-01-01

    Disorders of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS), also known as Complex posttraumatic stress disorder, was assessed in a sample (N = 472) of adult psychiatric patients with confirmed diagnoses of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), Somatoform Disorders (SoD), comorbid BPD + SoD, or Af

  16. The influence of acute stress on the regulation of conditioned fear

    Raio, Candace M.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Fear learning and regulation is a prominent model for describing the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders and stress-related psychopathology. Fear expression can be modulated using a number of regulatory strategies, including extinction, cognitive emotion regulation, avoidance strategies and reconsolidation. In this review, we examine research investigating the effects of acute stress and stress hormones on these regulatory techniques. We focus on what is known about the impact of stress on the ...

  17. Acute stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms among English and Spanish speaking children with recent trauma exposure

    Barber, Beth A.; Kohl, Krista L.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Gold, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    A growing literature suggests the clinical importance of acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms in youth following potentially traumatic events. A multisite sample of English and Spanish speaking children and adolescents (N=479) between the ages of 8 to 17, along with their caregivers completed interviews and self-report questionnaires between 2 days and one month following the event. The results indicate that children with greater total acute stress symptoms reported greater depressive (r = .4...

  18. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use Disorders in College Students

    Borsari, Brian; Read, Jennifer P.; Campbell, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that many college students report post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or substance use disorder (SUD), yet there has been scant attention paid to the co-occurrence of these disorders in college students. This review examines the co-occurrence of PTSD and SUD in college students. Recommendations for counseling centers are provided regarding the assessment of this population, an overview of treatment issues, and three areas of clinical importance when working with this popu...

  19. Postmodern Stress Disorder (PMSD): A Possible New Disorder.

    Eiser, Arnold R

    2015-11-01

    The murder of cardiovascular surgeon, Michael Davidson, MD, suggests the existence of a new disorder, postmodern stress disorder. This disorder is characterized by repetitive exposure to digital images of violence in a variety of electronic media, including films, television, video games, music videos, and other online sources. This disorder appears to be a variant of posttraumatic stress disorder, and shares with it excessive stimulation of the amygdala and loss of the normal inhibitory inputs from the orbitofrontal cingulate cortical gyrus. In postmodern stress disorder, repetitive digital microtraumas appear to have an effect similar to that of macrotraumas of warfare or civilian assaults. Other elements of the disorder include the development of fixed ideas of bullying or public shaming, access to weapons, and loss of impulse control. This syndrome could explain a number of previously inexplicable murders/suicides. Violence against health care professionals is a profound concern for the medical profession, as are assaults on nonclinicians. The recommendation is made to change forensic procedures to include obtaining historic information concerning the use of digital media during investigations of violent crimes and murders so that the disorder may be further characterized. Gaining an understanding of this disorder will require a multidisciplinary approach to this life-threatening public health problem. Research should also focus on the development and evaluation of possible antidotes to postmodern toxicities. PMID:26031889

  20. PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA: AN ENDOCRINE STRESS MIMICKING DISORDER

    Kantorovich, Vitaly; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Pacak, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is an endocrine tumor that can uniquely mimic numerous stress-associated disorders, with variations in clinical manifestations resulting from different patterns of catecholamine secretion and actions of released catecholamines on physiological systems.

  1. Roles of oxidative stress in stomach disorders

    Suzuki, Hidekazu; Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Tsugawa, Hitoshi; Mogami, Sachiko; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2011-01-01

    The stomach is a sensitive digestive organ that is susceptible and exposed to exogenous pathogens from the diet. In response to such pathogens, the stomach induces oxidative stress, which might be related to the development of gastric organic disorders such as gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric cancer, as well as functional disorders such as functional dyspepsia. In particular, the bacterium Helicobacter pylori plays a major role in eliciting and confronting oxidative stress in the stomac...

  2. Animal models of anxiety disorders and stress

    Campos, Alline C; Manoela V. Fogaca; Daniele C. Aguiar; Guimaraes, Francisco S.

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety and stress-related disorders are severe psychiatric conditions that affect performance in daily tasks and represent a high cost to public health. The initial observation of Charles Darwin that animals and human beings share similar characteristics in the expression of emotion raise the possibility of studying the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders in other mammals (mainly rodents). The development of animal models of anxiety and stress has helped to identify the pharmacological mecha...

  3. Acute stress and cardiovascular health: is there an ACE gene connection?

    Holman, E Alison

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular disorders (CVD) are associated with acute and posttraumatic stress responses, yet biological processes underlying this association are poorly understood. This study examined whether renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity, as indicated by a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene, is associated with both CVD and acute stress related to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks. European-American respondents (N = 527) from a nationally representative longitudinal study of coping following 9/11 provided saliva for genotyping. Respondents had completed health surveys before 9/11 and annually for 3 years after, and acute stress assessments 9 to 23 days after 9/11. Respondents with rs4291 AA or TT genotypes reported high acute stress twice as often as those with the AT genotype. Individuals with the TT genotype were 43% more likely to report increased physician-diagnosed CVD over 3 years following 9/11, when the following variables were included in the model: (a) pre-9/11 CVD, mental health, and non-CVD ailments; (b) cardiac risk factors; (c) ongoing endocrine disorders; and (d) significant demographics. The ACE rs4291 TT genotype, which has been associated with HPA axis hyperactivity and higher levels of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), predicted acute stress response and reports of physician-diagnosed CVD in a national sample following collective stress. ACE gene function may be associated with both mental and physical health disorders following collective stress. PMID:23055331

  4. Brain stimulation in posttraumatic stress disorder

    Novakovic, Vladan; Sher, Leo; Mindes, Janet; Golier, Julia A.; Yehuda, Rachel; Lapidus, Kyle A.B.

    2011-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex, heterogeneous disorder that develops following trauma and often includes perceptual, cognitive, affective, physiological, and psychological features. PTSD is characterized by hyperarousal, intrusive thoughts, exaggerated startle response, flashbacks, nightmares, sleep disturbances, emotional numbness, and persistent avoidance of trauma-associated stimuli. The efficacy of available treatments for PTSD may result in part from relief of associat...

  5. Whiplash and post-traumatic stress disorder

    Jaspers, JPC

    1998-01-01

    Purpose : This study examined the comorbidity of whiplash and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following motor vehicle accidents. A treatment strategy in cases with both disorders is proposed. Method: A review of the literature on psychological consequences of motor vehicle accidents and on ris

  6. 精神分裂症与急性应激障碍及抑郁症患者血清蛋白质谱初步分析%Mass spectrum initial analysis of serum protein from patients with schizophrenia, acute stress disorder and depressive disorder

    姜伟; 王开正; 白克镇; 周明术; 代碧珍; 蔡美珠

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the expression statue of mass spectrum of serum protein from patients with schizophrenia, acute stress disorder and depressive disorder, screen differential expressed protein, and to explore its clinical significance.Methods Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) was applied to detecting serum protein mass chromatogram for 122 subjects including 84 patients with schizophrenia, acute stress disorder, or depressive disorder and 38 healthy controls. Biomarker Wizard 3.1 software was adopted to analyze mass spectrum data, screen differential expressed markers, and further to evaluate its clinical value.Results Totally 56 differential expressed protein peaks were detected in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, in which 5 specific marker peaks had potential clinical value.In the groups of schizophrenia and acute stress disorder, 15 differential expressed protein peaks were detected. While in the groups of schizophrema and depressive disorder, 21 differential expressed protein peaks were obtained.Conclusion There exist differential expressed protein markers in sera from patients with schizophrenia, acute stress disorder and depressive disorder, which is of important clinical value in their differential diagnosis, etiological study, proteomic research and its clinical application.%目的 研究精神分裂症、急性应激障碍、抑郁症患者血清蛋白质谱的表达情况,筛选差异表达的标志蛋白并探讨其临床价值.方法 采用表面增强激光解吸电离飞行时间质谱技术(SELDI-TOF-MS)对122例精神分裂症、急性应激障碍、抑郁症患者及健康患者血清蛋白质谱图进行检测,用Biomarker Wizard 3.1版本软件分析质谱数据,筛选血清差异表达的标志蛋白并评价其临床价值.结果 精神分裂症患者与健康者血清有56个差异蛋白质峰,其中5个蛋白质峰作为标志蛋白具有潜在的临床价值;精神

  7. Adolescent Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Yule, William

    2003-01-01

    Based on over a decade of work in the area of PTSD, including a longitudinal study of PTSD among adolescents, Dr. Yule provides an introduction to post-traumatic stress disorder as it occurs in youth. This includes a look at the manifestations of stress reactions, the incidence and prevalence of PTSD, and the relationship between levels of…

  8. Neuroimaging in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Other Stress-related Disorders

    Bremner, J. Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Traumatic stress has a broad range of effects on the brain. Brain areas implicated in the stress response include the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. Studies in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychiatric disorders related to stress have replicated findings in animal studies by finding alterations in these brain areas. Brain regions implicated in PTSD also play an important role in memory function, highlighting the important interplay between memory ...

  9. Mindfulness for the treatment of stress disorders

    Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Dahlgaard, Jesper; Fjorback, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Unexplained Symptoms”, “Functional Somatic Syndromes”, or “Bodily Distress Syndrome”. In our research clinic, we use Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction to treat patients with these disorders. The beneficial effects of the treatment have received increasing support from empirical studies, which indicate that...... mindfulness-based therapies mediate neuroplastic changes and changes in physiological stress mechanisms. We describe some of the experiences gained and results obtained using Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction in clinical treatment....

  10. Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders

    Jie Li; Wuliji O; Wei Li; Zhi-Gang Jiang; Ghanbari, Hossein A.

    2013-01-01

    Living cells continually generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the respiratory chain during energetic metabolism. ROS at low or moderate concentration can play important physiological roles. However, an excessive amount of ROS under oxidative stress would be extremely deleterious. The central nervous system (CNS) is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress due to its high oxygen consumption, weakly antioxidative systems and the terminal-differentiation characteristic of neurons. T...

  11. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    ... recall parts of the event Not interested in life events Feeling emotionally numb or detached from others Having ... it lasted. Powerful fear-related memories of the event seem to be a major part of PTSD. People who have anxiety, depression or other mental disorders are more likely to ...

  12. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Cardiovascular Disease

    Edmondson, Donald; Cohen, Beth E.

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder initiated by exposure to a traumatic event and characterized by intrusive thoughts about the event, attempts to avoid reminders of the event, and physiological hyperarousal. In a number of large prospective observational studies, PTSD has been associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Also, in recent years, a number of studies have shown that cardiovascular events can themselves cause PTSD in more than 1 in...

  13. Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders

    Jie Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Living cells continually generate reactive oxygen species (ROS through the respiratory chain during energetic metabolism. ROS at low or moderate concentration can play important physiological roles. However, an excessive amount of ROS under oxidative stress would be extremely deleterious. The central nervous system (CNS is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress due to its high oxygen consumption, weakly antioxidative systems and the terminal-differentiation characteristic of neurons. Thus, oxidative stress elicits various neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, chemotherapy could result in severe side effects on the CNS and peripheral nervous system (PNS of cancer patients, and a growing body of evidence demonstrates the involvement of ROS in drug-induced neurotoxicities as well. Therefore, development of antioxidants as neuroprotective drugs is a potentially beneficial strategy for clinical therapy. In this review, we summarize the source, balance maintenance and physiologic functions of ROS, oxidative stress and its toxic mechanisms underlying a number of neurodegenerative diseases, and the possible involvement of ROS in chemotherapy-induced toxicity to the CNS and PNS. We ultimately assess the value for antioxidants as neuroprotective drugs and provide our comments on the unmet needs.

  14. Stressful life events predict delayed functional recovery following treatment for mania in bipolar disorder

    Yan-Meier, Leslie; Eberhart, Nicole K.; Hammen, Constance L.; Gitlin, Michael; Sokolski, Kenneth; Altshuler, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Identifying predictors of functional recovery in bipolar disorder is critical to treatment efforts to help patients re-establish premorbid levels of role adjustment following an acute manic episode. The current study examined the role of stressful life events as potential obstacles to recovery of functioning in various roles. 65 patients with bipolar I disorder participated in a longitudinal study of functional recovery following clinical recovery from a manic episode. Stressful life events w...

  15. Acute psychological stress induces short-term variable immune response.

    Breen, Michael S; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Carlson, Joshua M; Ensign, Wayne Y; Woelk, Christopher H; Rana, Brinda K

    2016-03-01

    In spite of advances in understanding the cross-talk between the peripheral immune system and the brain, the molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid adaptation of the immune system to an acute psychological stressor remain largely unknown. Conventional approaches to classify molecular factors mediating these responses have targeted relatively few biological measurements or explored cross-sectional study designs, and therefore have restricted characterization of stress-immune interactions. This exploratory study analyzed transcriptional profiles and flow cytometric data of peripheral blood leukocytes with physiological (endocrine, autonomic) measurements collected throughout the sequence of events leading up to, during, and after short-term exposure to physical danger in humans. Immediate immunomodulation to acute psychological stress was defined as a short-term selective up-regulation of natural killer (NK) cell-associated cytotoxic and IL-12 mediated signaling genes that correlated with increased cortisol, catecholamines and NK cells into the periphery. In parallel, we observed down-regulation of innate immune toll-like receptor genes and genes of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Correcting gene expression for an influx of NK cells revealed a molecular signature specific to the adrenal cortex. Subsequently, focusing analyses on discrete groups of coordinately expressed genes (modules) throughout the time-series revealed immune stress responses in modules associated to immune/defense response, response to wounding, cytokine production, TCR signaling and NK cell cytotoxicity which differed between males and females. These results offer a spring-board for future research towards improved treatment of stress-related disease including the impact of stress on cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, and identifies an immune mechanism by which vulnerabilities to these diseases may be gender-specific. PMID:26476140

  16. Animal models of anxiety disorders and stress

    Alline C. Campos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety and stress-related disorders are severe psychiatric conditions that affect performance in daily tasks and represent a high cost to public health. The initial observation of Charles Darwin that animals and human beings share similar characteristics in the expression of emotion raise the possibility of studying the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders in other mammals (mainly rodents. The development of animal models of anxiety and stress has helped to identify the pharmacological mechanisms and potential clinical effects of several drugs. Animal models of anxiety are based on conflict situations that can generate opposite motivational states induced by approach-avoidance situations. The present review revisited the main rodent models of anxiety and stress responses used worldwide. Here we defined as “ethological” the tests that assess unlearned/unpunished responses (such as the elevated plus maze, light-dark box, and open field, whereas models that involve learned/punished responses are referred to as “conditioned operant conflict tests” (such as the Vogel conflict test. We also discussed models that involve mainly classical conditioning tests (fear conditioning. Finally, we addressed the main protocols used to induce stress responses in rodents, including psychosocial (social defeat and neonatal isolation stress, physical (restraint stress, and chronic unpredictable stress.

  17. Assessing and Treating the Patient with Acute Psychotic Disorders.

    Jensen, Lisa; Clough, Rebecca

    2016-06-01

    Patients with acute psychosis often present to emergency departments. Management of acute agitation and psychosis can be a challenge for the staff. Medical stabilization, appropriate assessment, and diagnosis are important. Verbal de-escalation and other psychosocial interventions are helpful in creating a safe and therapeutic environment. Psychiatric and emergency room nurses are poised to treat patients presenting with acute psychosis and must be knowledgeable of evidence-based approaches to treat these complex disorders. PMID:27229275

  18. POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDERS (PTSD) WITH SEVERE DEPRESSION SYMPTOMS WITH ACUTE PSYCHOTIC IN PATIENT WITH HISTORY AS A PEDOPHILE VICTIMS AND DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN 22 YEARS OLD MAN : A CASE REPORT

    I Ketut Agus Indra Adhiputra

    2014-01-01

    Post traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) is a disorder that is fairly common in thecommunity. Every event in the life will have its own meaning in later, especially eventsthat occur in childhood. Data in the U.S. showed 60% men and 50% women have atraumatic experience, which develops into PTSD approximately 6.7% of the entirepopulation. While data from the Indonesian National Commission of Women, since 20072010there has been 91311 cases of sexual violence against women, as well as cases ofchild...

  19. Plasma concentrations of endocannabinoids and related primary fatty acid amides in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder

    Hauer, D; Schelling, G.; Gola, H.; Campolongo, P; Morath, J; Roozendaal, B.; Hamuni, G.; Karabatsiakis, A.; Atsak, P.; Vogeser, M; Kolassa, I T

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endocannabinoids (ECs) and related N-acyl-ethanolamides (NAEs) play important roles in stress response regulation, anxiety and traumatic memories. In view of the evidence that circulating EC levels are elevated under acute mild stressful conditions in humans, we hypothesized that individuals with traumatic stress exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), an anxiety disorder characterized by the inappropriate persistence and uncontrolled retrieval of traumatic memories, s...

  20. Assessing acute stress with the Implicit Association Test.

    Sato, Hirotsune; Kawahara, Jun-ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Assessments of acute stress using self-report questionnaires can be biased by various factors, including social desirability. The present study used a bias-free method, the Implicit Association Test (IAT), to assess stress. Unlike a previous study (Schmukle & Egloff, 2004) in which acute stress was not detected with the IAT, this study manipulated stress by generating test anxiety and threatening self-esteem. The results revealed that the IAT effect was greater in the high-stress group than in the low-stress group. Participants in the high-stress group associated their concept of self with the concept of anxiety more strongly than did those in the low-stress group. This result suggests that the IAT is a sensitive measure for detecting group differences in acute stress. PMID:21432650

  1. Alterations in neuronal morphology in infralimbic cortex predict resistance to fear extinction following acute stress.

    Moench, Kelly M; Maroun, Mouna; Kavushansky, Alexandra; Wellman, Cara

    2016-06-01

    Dysfunction in corticolimbic circuits that mediate the extinction of learned fear responses is thought to underlie the perseveration of fear in stress-related psychopathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Chronic stress produces dendritic hypertrophy in basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dendritic hypotrophy in medial prefrontal cortex, whereas acute stress leads to hypotrophy in both BLA and prelimbic cortex. Additionally, both chronic and acute stress impair extinction retrieval. Here, we examined the effects of a single elevated platform stress on extinction learning and dendritic morphology in infralimbic cortex, a region considered to be critical for extinction. Acute stress produced resistance to extinction, as well as dendritic retraction in infralimbic cortex. Spine density on apical and basilar terminal branches was unaffected by stress. However, animals that underwent conditioning and extinction had decreased spine density on apical terminal branches. Thus, whereas dendritic morphology in infralimbic cortex appears to be particularly sensitive to stress, changes in spines may more sensitively reflect learning. Further, in stressed rats that underwent conditioning and extinction, the level of extinction learning was correlated with spine densities, in that rats with poorer extinction retrieval had more immature spines and fewer thin spines than rats with better extinction retrieval, suggesting that stress may have impaired learning-related spine plasticity. These results may have implications for understanding the role of medial prefrontal cortex in learning deficits associated with stress-related pathologies. PMID:26844245

  2. Acute stress response and recovery after whiplash injuries. A one-year prospective study

    Kongsted, Alice; Bendix, Tom; Qerama, Erisela;

    2007-01-01

    Chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) represents a major medical and psycho-social problem. The typical symptomatology presented in WAD is to some extent similar to symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder. In this study we examined if the acute stress reaction following a whiplash injury...... response was obtained by 13% of the participants. This was associated with increased risk of considerable persistent pain (OR=3.3; 1.8-5.9), neck disability (OR=3.2; 1.7-6.0), reduced working ability (OR=2.8; 1.6-4.9), and lowered self-reported general health one year after the accident. These associations...... were modified by baseline neck pain intensity. It was not possible to distinguish between participants who recovered and those who did not by means of the IES (AUC=0.6). In conclusion, the association between the acute stress reaction and persistent WAD suggests that post traumatic stress reaction may...

  3. Acute stress response and recovery after whiplash injuries. A one-year prospective study

    Kongsted, Alice; Bendix, Tom; Montvilas, Erisela Qerama;

    2008-01-01

    Chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) represents a major medical and psycho-social problem. The typical symptomatology presented in WAD is to some extent similar to symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder. In this study we examined if the acute stress reaction following a whiplash injury...... response was obtained by 13% of the participants. This was associated with increased risk of considerable persistent pain (OR=3.3; 1.8-5.9), neck disability (OR=3.2; 1.7-6.0), reduced working ability (OR=2.8; 1.6-4.9), and lowered self-reported general health one year after the accident. These associations...... were modified by baseline neck pain intensity. It was not possible to distinguish between participants who recovered and those who did not by means of the IES (AUC=0.6). In conclusion, the association between the acute stress reaction and persistent WAD suggests that post traumatic stress reaction may...

  4. Repeated exposure to conditioned fear stress increases anxiety and delays sleep recovery following exposure to an acute traumatic stressor

    Benjamin N Greenwood

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep-wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by humans, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the development of anxiety and sleep disturbances is unknown. In the current study, adult male F344 rats were exposed to either control conditions or repeated contextual fear conditioning for 22 days followed by exposure to either no, mild (10, or severe (100 acute uncontrollable tail shock stress. Exposure to acute stress produced anxiety-like behavior as measured by a reduction in juvenile social exploration and exaggerated shock-elicited freezing in a novel context. Prior exposure to repeated fear enhanced anxiety-like behavior as measured by shock-elicited freezing, but did not alter social exploratory behavior. The potentiation of anxiety produced by prior repeated fear was temporary; exaggerated fear was present 1 day but not 4 days following acute stress. Interestingly, exposure to acute stress reduced REM and NREM sleep during the hours immediately following acute stress. This initial reduction in sleep was followed by robust REM rebound and diurnal rhythm flattening of sleep / wake behavior. Prior repeated fear extended the acute stress-induced REM and NREM sleep loss, impaired REM rebound, and prolonged the flattening of the diurnal rhythm of NREM sleep following acute stressor exposure. These data suggest that impaired recovery of sleep / wake behavior following acute stress could contribute to the mechanisms by which a history of prior repeated stress increases vulnerability to subsequent novel stressors and stress-related disorders.

  5. Relationships among Childhood Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Dissociation in Men Living with HIV/AIDS

    Kamen, Charles; Bergstrom, Jessica; Koopman, Cheryl; Lee, Susanne; Gore-Felton, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among dissociation, childhood trauma and sexual abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in HIV-positive men. Data was collected from 167 men enrolled in a randomized clinical trial (Project RISE) that examined a group therapy intervention to decrease HIV-related risk behavior and trauma-related stress symptoms. Participants completed the Trauma History Questionnaire, the Impact of Event Scale - Revised, and the Stanford Acute Stress React...

  6. Acute Stress Induces Hyperacusis in Women with High Levels of Emotional Exhaustion

    Hasson, Dan; Theorell, Tores; Bergquist, Jonas; Canlon, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hearing problems is one of the top ten public health disorders in the general population and there is a well-established relationship between stress and hearing problems. The aim of the present study was to explore if an acute stress will increase auditory sensitivity (hyperacusis) in individuals with high levels of emotional exhaustion (EE). Methods: Hyperacusis was assessed using uncomfortable loudness levels (ULL) in 348 individuals (140 men; 208 women; age 23-71 years). Multiv...

  7. Update on the management of post-traumatic stress disorder

    Wallace, Duncan; Cooper, John

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder occurs in people exposed to life-threatening trauma. GPs may be seeing more patients with post-traumatic stress disorder as military personnel return from overseas deployments.

  8. Mental disorders in patients with acute necrotic pancreatitis

    Stefanović Dejan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The prognosis of patients with acute pancreatitis is still uncertain regardless of modern therapeutic procedures. It is even more emphasized if the acute pancreatitis is followed by psychic disorders. Objective The aim of the study was to provide an overview of the incidence of certain psychosomatic disorders in patients with acute pancreatitis and evaluate priority therapeutic procedures. Method In this study, we analyzed 16 patients with psychosomatic disorders followed by the episode of acute pancreatitis among 202 patients that were hospitalized in the period from 1993 until 2000. The diagnosis was based on anamnesis, clinical and laboratory findings and diagnostic procedures such as X-ray, US, CT and MRI. Results Among 16 patients with psychosomatic disorders followed by acute pancreatitis, 13 (81.25% patients were operated on and 3 (18.75% patients were medically treated. 6 patients experienced hallucinations, 5 memory deficiency, 16 disorientation and 14 confabulation. Conclusion Psychosomatic disorders in patients with acute pancreatitis require complex medical treatment. Due to the already mentioned complications, the management of these conditions is very difficult and with uncertain.

  9. Borderline disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder: an equivalence?

    Lonie, I

    1993-06-01

    This paper draws attention to various similarities between Borderline Personality Disorder and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder. It is argued that the former may be considered to be an equivalent of the latter, with the difference that the trauma has either undergone repression or, having been suffered before the establishment of speech, has not been registered in verbal form. The criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder are presented in terms of symptoms of failed attachment consistent with early trauma, and various research papers linking these concepts are considered. Other research in infant attachment suggests intergenerational links between disorganised attachment patterns in infancy and parents with unresolved problems with their own parents. Research concerning the biochemical underpinning of emotional responses is quoted to link these conditions more securely, and may offer a conceptual framework in which to understand the need of these patients for a therapeutic milieu in which early developmental needs may be understood. PMID:8363532

  10. College Student Stress: A Predictor of Eating Disorder Precursor Behaviors

    Shelton, Virginia L.; Valkyrie, Karena T.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders are compulsive behaviors that can consume a person's life to the point of becoming life threatening. Previous research found stress associated with eating disorders. College can be a stressful time. If stress predicted precursor behaviors to eating disorders, then counselors would have a better chance to help students sooner. This…

  11. Traumatic stress, oxidative stress and posttraumatic stress disorder: neurodegeneration and the accelerated-aging hypothesis

    Miller, Mark W.; Sadeh, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with elevated risk for a variety of age-related diseases and neurodegeneration. In this paper, we review evidence relevant to the hypothesis that chronic PTSD constitutes a form of persistent life stress that potentiates oxidative stress (OXS) and accelerates cellular aging. We provide an overview of empirical studies that have examined the effects of psychological stress on OXS, discuss the stress-perpetuating characteristics of PTSD, and th...

  12. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Emerging Concepts of Pharmacotherapy

    Baker, Dewleen G; Caroline M Nievergelt; Risbrough, Victoria B.

    2009-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can result from a traumatic experience that elicits emotions of fear, helpless or horror. Most individuals remain asymptomatic or symptoms quickly resolve, but in a minority intrusive imagery and nightmares, emotional numbing and avoidance, and hyperarousal persist for decades. PTSD is associated with psychiatric and medical co-morbidities, increased risk for suicide, and with poor social and occupational functioning. Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy are ...

  13. Epigenetic Aspects of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Ulrike Schmidt; Florian Holsboer; Theo Rein

    2011-01-01

    Development of psychiatric diseases such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) invokes, as with most complex diseases, both genetic and environmental factors. The era of genome-wide high throughput technologies has sparked the initiation of genotype screenings in large cohorts of diseased and control individuals, but had limited success in identification of disease causing genetic variants. It has become evident that these efforts at the genomic level need to be complemented with endeavours...

  14. Symptoms of stress predict musculoskeletal disorders.

    Leino, P

    1989-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and presumed symptoms of stress. DESIGN: Cross sectional and mixed longitudinal cohort study. Longitudinal data were collected at baseline (1973) and at re-examinations in 1978 and 1983. SETTING: Community based. PARTICIPANTS: Study sample was drawn from employees who had worked for at least 15 months at government owned Valmet metal factories in Finland, and comprised 902 men and women out of a to...

  15. Neurofeedback Treatment and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Reiter, Karen; Andersen, Søren Bo; Carlsson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Neurofeedback is an alternative, noninvasive approach used in the treatment of a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Many different neurofeedback protocols and methods exist. Likewise, PTSD is a heterogeneous disorder. To review the evidence on...... effectiveness and preferred protocol when using neurofeedback treatment on PTSD, a systematic search of PubMed, PsychInfo, Embase, and Cochrane databases was undertaken. Five studies were included in this review. Neurofeedback had a statistically significant effect in three studies. Neurobiological changes were...... reported in three studies. Interpretation of results is, however, limited by differences between the studies and several issues regarding design. The optimistic results presented here qualify neurofeedback as probably efficacious for PTSD treatment....

  16. Posttraumatic stress disorder in Manhattan, New York City, after the September 11th terrorist attacks

    Galea, Sandro; Resnick, Heidi; Ahern, Jennifer; Gold, Joel; Bucuvalas, Michael; Kilpatrick, Dean; Stuber, Jennifer; Vlahov, David

    2002-01-01

    Estimates of acute mental health symptoms in the general population after disasters are scarce. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of acute posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in residents of Manhattan 5–8 weeks after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. We used random-digit dialing to contact a representative sample of adults living in Manhattan below 110th Street. Participants were interviewed about prior life events, personal characteristics, exposure to the events of Septe...

  17. The role of inflammatory stress in acute coronary syndrome

    沈成兴; 陈灏珠; 葛均波

    2004-01-01

    Objective To summarize current understanding of the roles of anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory mechanisms in the development of atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndrome and to postulate the novel concept of inflammation stress as the most important factor triggering acute coronary syndrome. Moreover, markers of inflammation stress and ways to block involved pathways are elucidated.Data sources A literature search (MEDLINE 1997 to 2002) was performed using the key words "inflammation and cardiovascular disease". Relevant book chapters were also reviewed.Study selection Well-controlled, prospective landmark studies and review articles on inflammation and acute coronary syndrome were selected.Data extraction Data and conclusions from the selected articles providing solid evidence to elucidate the mechanisms of inflammation and acute coronary syndrome were extracted and interpreted in the light of our own clinical and basic research.Data synthesis Inflammation is closely linked to atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndrome. Chronic and long-lasting inflammation stress, present both systemically or in the vascular walls, can trigger acute coronary syndrome.Conclusions Inflammation stress plays an important role in the process of acute coronary syndrome. Drugs which can modulate the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory processes and attenuate inflammation stress, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors/angiotensin Ⅱ receptor blockers, statins, and cytokine antagonists may play active roles in the prevention and treatment of acute coronary syndrome when used in addition to conventional therapies (glycoprotein Ⅱb/Ⅲa receptor antagonists, mechanical intervention strategies, etc).

  18. A Prospective Study of Autobiographical Memory and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Cancer

    Kangas, Maria; Henry, Jane L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between autobiographical memory and the onset and maintenance of distressing memories following cancer. In Study 1, participants recently diagnosed with head, neck, or lung cancer were assessed for acute stress disorder (ASD). Participants with ASD reported fewer specific memories than did…

  19. Sex Differences in Stress-Related Psychiatric Disorders: Neurobiological Perspectives

    Bangasser, Debra A.; Valentino, Rita J.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is associated with the onset and severity of several psychiatric disorders that occur more frequently in women than men, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Patients with these disorders present with dysregulation of several stress response systems, including the neuroendocrine response to stress, corticolimbic responses to negatively valenced stimuli, and hyperarousal. Thus, sex differences within their underlying circuitry may explain sex biases in disease ...

  20. POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDERS (PTSD WITH SEVERE DEPRESSION SYMPTOMS WITH ACUTE PSYCHOTIC IN PATIENT WITH HISTORY AS A PEDOPHILE VICTIMS AND DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN 22 YEARS OLD MAN : A CASE REPORT

    I Ketut Agus Indra Adhiputra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Post traumatic stress disorders (PTSD is a disorder that is fairly common in thecommunity. Every event in the life will have its own meaning in later, especially eventsthat occur in childhood. Data in the U.S. showed 60% men and 50% women have atraumatic experience, which develops into PTSD approximately 6.7% of the entirepopulation. While data from the Indonesian National Commission of Women, since 20072010there has been 91311 cases of sexual violence against women, as well as cases ofchild sexual abuse reported to reach 250 cases. Presenting symptoms can range fromanxiety disorders, depression, until psychotic. The severity of symptoms depends on eachself-defense mechanism thus the PTSD symptoms are very diverse.

  1. The Effects of Acute Stress on Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    KUBİLAY, Ayşegül

    2002-01-01

    The physiological effects of acute stressors (transport, handling, netting and confinement) on rainbow trout in an aquaculture system were investigated. Serum cortisol level, serum glucose and lysozyme activity were determined in rainbow trout stressed by acute stressors, and compared with those of unstressed (control) fish. Serum cortisol, glucose levels and lysozyme activity were significantly higher(P

  2. Estimation of Subjective Stress in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Chockalingam A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND and AIMS: Mental stress is considered to be a precipitating factor in acute coronary events. We aimed to assess the association of subjective or 'perceived' mental stress with the occurrence of acute coronary events. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective case-control survey was carried out in a referral teaching hospital. subjects & METHODS: Consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction and ST elevation on electrocardiogram who were admitted to the Coronary Care Unit of a referral teaching hospital were enrolled in the study as cases. Controls were unmatched and were enrolled from amongst patients with coronary artery disease who did not have recent acute coronary events. Subjective Stress Functional Classification (SS-FC for the preceding 2-4 weeks was assessed and assigned four grades from I to IV as follows: I - baseline, II - more than usual but not affecting daily routine, III - significantly high stress affecting daily routine and IV - worst stress in life. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Proportions of different characteristics were compared using chi-square test with Yates continuity correction. Student's unpaired t test was applied for mean age. 'p' value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: SS-FC could be reliably (99% and easily assessed. Eighty (53% of the total 150 patients with acute MI reported 'high' levels of stress (stress class III and IV. This is in contrast to only 30 (20% of 150 healthy controls reporting high stress for the same period (p value < 0.001. CONCLUSION: Patients with acute myocardial infarction report a higher subjective mental stress during 2 to 4 weeks preceding the acute coronary event.

  3. OSO paradigm--A rapid behavioral screening method for acute psychosocial stress reactivity in mice.

    Brzózka, M M; Unterbarnscheidt, T; Schwab, M H; Rossner, M J

    2016-02-01

    Chronic psychosocial stress is an important environmental risk factor for the development of psychiatric diseases. However, studying the impact of chronic psychosocial stress in mice is time consuming and thus not optimally suited to 'screen' increasing numbers of genetically manipulated mouse models for psychiatric endophenotypes. Moreover, many studies focus on restraint stress, a strong physical stressor with limited relevance for psychiatric disorders. Here, we describe a simple and a rapid method based on the resident-intruder paradigm to examine acute effects of mild psychosocial stress in mice. The OSO paradigm (open field--social defeat--open field) compares behavioral consequences on locomotor activity, anxiety and curiosity before and after exposure to acute social defeat stress. We first evaluated OSO in male C57Bl/6 wildtype mice where a single episode of social defeat reduced locomotor activity, increased anxiety and diminished exploratory behavior. Subsequently, we applied the OSO paradigm to mouse models of two schizophrenia (SZ) risk genes. Transgenic mice with neuronal overexpression of Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) type III showed increased risk-taking behavior after acute stress exposure suggesting that NRG1 dysfunction is associated with altered affective behavior. In contrast, Tcf4 transgenic mice displayed a normal stress response which is in line with the postulated predominant contribution of TCF4 to cognitive deficits of SZ. In conclusion, the OSO paradigm allows for rapid screening of selected psychosocial stress-induced behavioral endophenotypes in mouse models of psychiatric diseases. PMID:26628400

  4. Epigenetic Aspects of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Ulrike Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of psychiatric diseases such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD invokes, as with most complex diseases, both genetic and environmental factors. The era of genome-wide high throughput technologies has sparked the initiation of genotype screenings in large cohorts of diseased and control individuals, but had limited success in identification of disease causing genetic variants. It has become evident that these efforts at the genomic level need to be complemented with endeavours in elucidating the proteome, transcriptome and epigenetic profiles. Epigenetics is attractive in particular because there is accumulating evidence that the lasting impact of adverse life events is reflected in certain covalent modifications of the chromatin.

  5. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, obesity, and weight loss

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has frequently been found to have an impact on the development of obesity, with the relationship between past traumatic episodes and obesity usually thought of as uni-directional. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the level of PTSD......-symptoms would decrease as a result of weight loss in obese participants during a 16 week stay at a weight loss facility. During the 16 weeks participants’ Body Mass Index (BMI) decreased significantly. Concurrently, a significant decline in the level of PTSD symptoms was also reported. During the first week of...

  6. Assessment of oxidative stress parameters of brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice in acute stress model

    Gulay Hacioglu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Exposing to stress may be associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Therefore, high level of oxidative stress may eventually give rise to accumulation of oxidative damage and development of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. It has been presented that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF supports neurons against various neurodegenerative conditions. Lately, there has been growing evidence that changes in the cerebral neurotrophic support and especially in the BDNF expression and its engagement with ROS might be important in various disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Hence, we aimed to investigate protective effects of BDNF against stress-induced oxidative damage. Materials and Methods: Five- to six-month-old male wild-type and BDNF knock-down mice were used in this study. Activities of catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD enzymes, and the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA were assessed in the cerebral homogenates of studied groups in response to acute restraint stress. Results: Exposing to acute physiological stress led to significant elevation in the markers of oxidative stress in the cerebral cortexes of experimental groups. Conclusion: As BDNF-deficient mice were observed to be more susceptible to stress-induced oxidative damage, it can be suggested that there is a direct interplay between oxidative stress indicators and BDNF levels in the brain.

  7. Acute gynecologic disorders in adolescents: CT findings

    Kim, Young Tong [Soonchunhyang Univ. Cheonan Hospital/Soonchunhyang Univ. College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Gynecologic disorders that cause pelvic pain in adolescents include hemorrhagic ovarian cysts, rupture or torsion of ovarian cyst or tumors, hematocolpos caused by vaginal obstruction, endometriosis, cystic uterine adenomyosis, pelvic inflammatory diseases, and pelvic inclusion cyst. The use of CT for the evaluation of pelvic pain is increasing, and CT is useful if ultrasound findings are not decisive and the lesion is extensive.

  8. Acute gynecologic disorders in adolescents: CT findings

    Gynecologic disorders that cause pelvic pain in adolescents include hemorrhagic ovarian cysts, rupture or torsion of ovarian cyst or tumors, hematocolpos caused by vaginal obstruction, endometriosis, cystic uterine adenomyosis, pelvic inflammatory diseases, and pelvic inclusion cyst. The use of CT for the evaluation of pelvic pain is increasing, and CT is useful if ultrasound findings are not decisive and the lesion is extensive

  9. Biogenic amines and acute thermal stress in the rat

    Williams, B. A.; Moberg, G. P.

    1975-01-01

    A study is summarized which demonstrates that depletion of the biogenic amines 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or norepinephrine (NE) alters the normal thermoregulatory responses to acute temperature stress. Specifically, NE depletion caused a significant depression in equilibrium rectal temperature at 22 C and a greater depression in rectal temperature than controls in response to cold (6 C) stress; NE depletion also resulted in a significantly higher rectal temperature response to acute heat (38 C) stress. Depletion of 5-HT had less severe effects. It remains unclear whether the primary site of action of these agents is central or peripheral.

  10. Challenges for the implementation of World Health Organization guidelines for acute stress, PTSD, and bereavement: a qualitative study in Uganda

    Kane, Jeremy C.; Adaku, Alex; Nakku, Juliet; Odokonyero, Raymond; Okello, James; Musisi, Seggane; Augustinavicius, Jura; Greene, M. Claire; Alderman, Steve; Tol, Wietse A.

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) published new guidelines for the management of conditions specifically related to stress, including symptoms of acute stress, bereavement, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is important to evaluate potential challenges for the implementation of these guidelines in low-resource settings, however, there is a dearth of research in this area. The current qualitative study aimed to assess perspectives on the feasibility and accept...

  11. Acute psychosocial stress and children's memory

    Veld, D.M.J. de; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Weerth, C. de

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether children's performance on working memory (WM) and delayed retrieval (DR) tasks decreased after stress exposure, and how physiological stress responses related to performance under stress. About 158 children (83 girls; M-age = 10.61 years, SD = 0.52) performed two WM tasks (WM

  12. Relation between stress and symptoms of craniomandibular disorders in adolescents

    Sieber, M.; Grubenmann, E; Ruggia, G M; S. Palla

    2003-01-01

    The psychophysiologic theory proposes that stress can precipitate craniomandibular disorders (CMD) and that stress correlates more strongly to disorders of the masticatory muscles than to temporomandibular joint disorders. Empirical reports show only low correlations between emotional stress and CMD signs and symptoms, and that some of them might be spurious. In the present study this correlation was assessed in 417 adolescents from 11 to 16 years old. Data from the clinical examination were ...

  13. Sympathetic neural responses to mental stress during acute simulated microgravity

    Durocher, John J.; Schwartz, Christopher E.; Carter, Jason R.

    2009-01-01

    Neural and cardiovascular responses to mental stress and acute 6° head-down tilt (HDT) were examined separately and combined. We hypothesized sympathoexcitation during mental stress, sympathoinhibition during HDT, and an additive neural interaction during combined mental stress and HDT. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded in 16 healthy subjects (8 men, 8 women) in the supine position during three randomized trials: 1) menta...

  14. Acute Stress Reduces Reward Responsiveness: Implications for Depression

    Bogdan, Ryan; Pizzagalli, Diego

    2006-01-01

    Background: Stress, one of the strongest risk factors for depression, has been linked to "anbedonic" behavior and dysfunctional reward-related neural circuitry in preclinical models. Methods: To test if acute stress reduces reward responsiveness (i.e., the ability to modulate behavior as a function of past reward), a signal-detection task coupled with a differential reinforcement schedule was utilized. Eighty female participants completed the task under both a stress condition, either threat-...

  15. Acute stress is detrimental to heart regeneration in zebrafish

    Sallin, Pauline; Jaźwińska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress is one of the factors associated with human cardiovascular disease. Here, we demonstrate that acute perceived stress impairs the natural capacity of heart regeneration in zebrafish. Beside physical and chemical disturbances, intermittent crowding triggered an increase in cortisol secretion and blocked the replacement of fibrotic tissue with new myocardium. Pharmacological simulation of stress by pulse treatment with dexamethasone/adrenaline reproduced the regenerati...

  16. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in acute and posttraumatic stress disorder: a case report study Nível sérico do fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro no transtorno de estresse agudo e no transtorno de estresse pós-traumático: relato de casos

    Simone Hauck

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in two patients, one with posttraumatic stress disorder and one with acute stress disorder, before and after treatment, and to compare those levels to those of healthy controls. METHOD: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor level, Davidson Trauma Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Global Assessment of Functioning, and Clinical Global Impression were assessed before and after 6 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were higher in patients than in matched controls before treatment. After 6 weeks, there was a reduction in symptoms and an improvement in functioning in both cases. At the same time, brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels decreased after treatment, even in case 2, treated with psychotherapy only. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, as opposed to what has been described in mood disorders, are increased in posttraumatic stress disorder as well as in acute stress disorder.OBJETIVO: O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os níveis séricos do fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro em um paciente com transtorno de estresse pós-traumático e em um paciente com transtorno de estresse agudo antes e após o tratamento, comparando esses níveis aos de controles saudáveis. MÉTODO: Os níveis do fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro, a Escala Davidson de Trauma, o Inventário de Depressão de Beck, a Avaliação do Funcionamento Global e a Impressão Clínica Global foram medidos antes e após seis semanas de tratamento. RESULTADOS: Os níveis de fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro foram maiores nos pacientes, quando comparados aos controles, antes do tratamento. Depois de seis semanas houve redução dos sintomas e melhora do funcionamento nos dois casos. Ao mesmo tempo, houve redução dos níveis de fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro, mesmo no caso 2, tratado

  17. Acute stress selectively impairs learning to act.

    de Berker, Archy O; Tirole, Margot; Rutledge, Robb B; Cross, Gemma F; Dolan, Raymond J; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Stress interferes with instrumental learning. However, choice is also influenced by non-instrumental factors, most strikingly by biases arising from Pavlovian associations that facilitate action in pursuit of rewards and inaction in the face of punishment. Whether stress impacts on instrumental learning via these Pavlovian associations is unknown. Here, in a task where valence (reward or punishment) and action (go or no-go) were orthogonalised, we asked whether the impact of stress on learning was action or valence specific. We exposed 60 human participants either to stress (socially-evaluated cold pressor test) or a control condition (room temperature water). We contrasted two hypotheses: that stress would lead to a non-selective increase in the expression of Pavlovian biases; or that stress, as an aversive state, might specifically impact action production due to the Pavlovian linkage between inaction and aversive states. We found support for the second of these hypotheses. Stress specifically impaired learning to produce an action, irrespective of the valence of the outcome, an effect consistent with a Pavlovian linkage between punishment and inaction. This deficit in action-learning was also reflected in pupillary responses; stressed individuals showed attenuated pupillary responses to action, hinting at a noradrenergic contribution to impaired action-learning under stress. PMID:27436299

  18. Tribulin in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Davidson, J; Glover, V; Clow, A; Kudler, H; Meador, K; Sandler, M

    1988-11-01

    Tribulin (endogenous monoamine oxidase inhibitor/benzodiazepine receptor binding inhibitor) output was measured in the urine of 18 patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 13 controls. The level of the two inhibitory activities was highly significantly correlated in the group as a whole. There was no difference between output of either inhibitor in patients and controls. However, when the PTSD group was subdivided according to various psychometric ratings, a pattern of output did emerge. Levels of both inhibitory activities were higher in agitated compared with non-agitated subjects, and lower in extroverts compared with introverts. This finding supports the view that tribulin output is raised in conditions of greater arousal. PMID:3270828

  19. Processing threatening information in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Bryant, R A; Harvey, A G

    1995-08-01

    The authors used a modified Stroop task to study how people with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) process threatening information. Participants were motor vehicle accident (MVA) survivors with either PTSD (n = 15), simple phobia of driving (n = 15), or low anxiety (n = 15). Participants named colors of 4 types of words: strong threat words (MVA related), mild threat words (MVA related), positive words, and neutral words. Participants with PTSD demonstrated greater interference on strong threat words than those with simple phobia or low anxiety. Contrary to expectation, participants with simple phobia did not display an interference effect. Findings suggest that individuals with PTSD and simple phobia may process threatening information differently. The nature of attentional bias in different anxiety conditions following trauma is discussed. PMID:7673578

  20. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder obesity and weight loss

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has frequently been found to have a significant impact on the development of obesity. Yet, while a reciprocal relationship has been found between obesity and depression, the relationship between past traumatic episodes and obesity is usually thought of as uni...... directional. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the level of PTSD symptoms decrease as a result of weight loss in 30 obese participants during a 16 week stay at a weight loss facility. During the 16 weeks participants’ Body Mass Index (BMI) decreased significantly. Concurrently, a...... depression also declined, whereas perceived social support was stable. The fact that the level of PTSD symptoms decreases simultaneously with weight loss is an interesting and positive side effect that has not been reported previously. The findings are discussed in term of cognitive theories of PTSD....

  1. Individual differences in delay discounting under acute stress: the role of trait perceived stress

    Karolina M. Lempert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Delay discounting refers to the reduction of the value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. The rate at which individuals discount future rewards varies as a function of both individual and contextual differences, and high delay discounting rates have been linked with problematic behaviors, including drug abuse and gambling. The current study investigated the effects of acute anticipatory stress on delay discounting, while considering two important factors: individual perceptions of stress and whether the stressful situation is future-focused or present-focused. Half of the participants experienced acute stress by anticipating giving a videotaped speech. This stress was either future-oriented (speech about future job or present-oriented (speech about physical appearance. They then performed a delay discounting task, in which they chose between smaller, immediate rewards and larger, delayed rewards. Their scores on the Perceived Stress Scale were also collected. The way in which one appraises a stressful situation interacts with acute stress to influence choices; under stressful conditions, delay discounting rate was highest in individuals with low perceived stress and lowest for individuals with high perceived stress. This result might be related to individual variation in reward responsiveness under stress. Furthermore, the time orientation of the task interacted with its stressfulness to affect the individual’s propensity to choose immediate rewards. These findings add to our understanding of the intermediary factors between stress and decision making.

  2. Acute stress modulates genotype effects on amygdala processing in humans

    Cousijn, Helena; Rijpkema, Mark; Qin, Shaozheng; van Marle, Hein J. F.; Franke, Barbara; Hermans, Erno J.; van Wingen, Guido; Fernández, Guillén

    2010-01-01

    Probing gene–environment interactions that affect neural processing is crucial for understanding individual differences in behavior and disease vulnerability. Here, we tested whether the current environmental context, which affects the acute brain state, modulates genotype effects on brain function in humans. We manipulated the context by inducing acute psychological stress, which increases noradrenergic activity, and probed its effect on tonic activity and phasic responses in the amygdala us...

  3. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Psychopathology in Dancers.

    Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S Victoria

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pre-professional and professional dancers (n=209) who were exposed to traumatic events. Nine self-report instruments assessed (1) adverse childhood experiences, (2) past traumatic events, (3) coping strategies under stressful situations, and (4) fantasy proneness. The psychopathology variables included (5) anxiety, (6) depression, (7) dissociation, (8) shame, and (9)) PTSD diagnostic scale. Statistical calculations included descriptive, distributional, and multivariate analysis of covariates (MANCOVA). Results indicate that dancers had a significantly higher distribution of PTSD (20.2%) compared to the normal population (7.8%). They also had a higher frequency of family members with mental illness, an inability to speak about their trauma, and more suicidal thoughts. The PTSD group of dancers had higher levels of psychopathology (anxiety, depression, dissociation, and shame) and they had more childhood adversity and adult trauma. Compared to the no-PTSD group, the PTSD group had higher scores on fantasy proneness and emotion-oriented coping strategies. These coping strategies may increase psychological instability. Addressing early abuse and trauma is recommended. Clinicians may help dancers alter their internal working models that their self is worthless, others are abusive, and the world is threatening and dangerous. By understanding PTSD in dancers, medical and mental health treatment protocols may be established to address the debilitating, and often hidden, symptoms of PTSD. PMID:26395617

  4. STRESS AND MENTAL DISORDERS IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

    SH AKOOCHEKIAN

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic renal failure and dialysis are complicated situations that affect on somatic and mental status of patients. In this study, relation between stress, renal diseas, dialysis and mental disorders was determined. Methods. In a case control study in Noor hospital"s dialysis ward (affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services the mental status of 30 end stage renal disease (ESRD patients were compaired with well matched control group by MMPI. Results. Hypochondriasis (Hs, depression (D, hysteria (Hy psychastenia (Pt and schizophrenia (Sc were observed in ESRD patients more than controls (P < 0.05. Means of sociopathy (Pd, paranoia (Pa and hypomania (Ma had no difference between groups (P > 0.05. Realy sadness and dysphoria, rumintion with illness, obsession, anxiety, compulsion, impaired process of thinking, isolation tendency and odd sensation in patients were more than control group (P < 0.05. Discussion. Chronic diseases have psychological complication and as a stress must cope and adjust with it. So, these patients and their families must be educated about coping mechanism. When the patients and their families have good coping mechanism, they would be able tolerate these streses.

  5. 赴北川抗震救灾某部官兵急性心理应激障碍及影响因素调查%Acute stress disorder and related factors in a troop after participating in disaster re-lief in Beichuan county after Wenchuan earthquake

    胡光涛; 李学成; 王国威; 贺英; 杨兰; 谭孝琼

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨赴北川抗震救灾部队官兵急性应激障碍(acute stress disorder,ASD)发生情况、临床特征及相关危险因素.方法 采用自编一般情况问卷、创伤后应激反应症状自评量表(post-traumatic stress symptoms self-rating scale,PCL-C)、领悟社会支持量表(perceived social support scale,PSSS)、应对方式问卷(coping style questionnaires,SCSQ)对126名赴北川抗震救灾部队某部官兵进行评定,结合半结构式访谈,确定ASD组和对照组,进行对照分析及相关因素分析.结果 救灾官兵ASD患病率为13.49%,主要症状表现为:反复闯入性痛苦性回忆,噩梦,创伤事件场景的重现,强烈的心理痛苦烦恼,兴趣下降,睡眠障碍和情绪不稳定.ASD主要症状之间相互影响,积极的应对方式和良好的社会支持可减少ASD的发生.结论 在急性应激阶段(1个月)部分抗震救灾官兵已存在ASD症状,应加强必要的心理评估和综合性的心理干预,减缓灾难所致的心理创伤,预防和减少ASD转化为创伤后应激障碍(post-traumatic Stress disorder,PTSD).%Objective To investigate the occurrence circumstance of acute stress disorder (ASD), clinical features and related risk factors, in the officers and soldiers who had gone to Beichuan county to provide disaster relief. Methods We used the self-general questionnaire, post-traumatic stress symptoms self-rating scale (PCL-C), perceived social support scale (PSSS), and coping style questionnaires (SCSQ) to assess the 126 subjects, combining with semi-structured interviews to determine and compare the ASD group and control group, and then analyzed the related factors. Results The prevalence rate of ASD officers and soldiers was 13.49%, with main symptoms of repeatedly breaking into painful memories, nightmares, reproducing the scenes of traumatic events, strong trouble of psychological pain, decreased interest, sleep disorders and emotional instability. These main symptoms of ASD

  6. Computations of uncertainty mediate acute stress responses in humans.

    de Berker, Archy O; Rutledge, Robb B; Mathys, Christoph; Marshall, Louise; Cross, Gemma F; Dolan, Raymond J; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The effects of stress are frequently studied, yet its proximal causes remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that subjective estimates of uncertainty predict the dynamics of subjective and physiological stress responses. Subjects learned a probabilistic mapping between visual stimuli and electric shocks. Salivary cortisol confirmed that our stressor elicited changes in endocrine activity. Using a hierarchical Bayesian learning model, we quantified the relationship between the different forms of subjective task uncertainty and acute stress responses. Subjective stress, pupil diameter and skin conductance all tracked the evolution of irreducible uncertainty. We observed a coupling between emotional and somatic state, with subjective and physiological tuning to uncertainty tightly correlated. Furthermore, the uncertainty tuning of subjective and physiological stress predicted individual task performance, consistent with an adaptive role for stress in learning under uncertain threat. Our finding that stress responses are tuned to environmental uncertainty provides new insight into their generation and likely adaptive function. PMID:27020312

  7. Brain stimulation in posttraumatic stress disorder

    Vladan Novakovic

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a complex, heterogeneous disorder that develops following trauma and often includes perceptual, cognitive, affective, physiological, and psychological features. PTSD is characterized by hyperarousal, intrusive thoughts, exaggerated startle response, flashbacks, nightmares, sleep disturbances, emotional numbness, and persistent avoidance of trauma-associated stimuli. The efficacy of available treatments for PTSD may result in part from relief of associated depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in addition to treatment of core symptoms that derive from reexperiencing, numbing, and hyperarousal. Diverse, heterogeneous mechanisms of action and the ability to act broadly or very locally may enable brain stimulation devices to address PTSD core symptoms in more targeted ways. To achieve this goal, specific theoretical bases derived from novel, well-designed research protocols will be necessary. Brain stimulation devices include both long-used and new electrical and magnetic devices. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT and Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES have both been in use for decades; transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, magnetic seizure therapy (MST, deep brain stimulation (DBS, transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS, and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS have been developed recently, over approximately the past twenty years. The efficacy of brain stimulation has been demonstrated as a treatment for psychiatric and neurological disorders such as anxiety (CES, depression (ECT, CES, rTMS, VNS, DBS, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD (DBS, essential tremor, dystonia (DBS, epilepsy (DBS, VNS, Parkinson Disease (DBS, pain (CES, and insomnia (CES. To date, limited data on brain stimulation for PTSD offer only modest guidance. ECT has shown some efficacy in reducing comorbid depression in PTSD patients but has not been demonstrated to improve most core PTSD symptoms. CES and VNS have shown some efficacy in

  8. RISPERIDONE VERSUS HALOPERIDOL IN ACUTE AND TRANSIENT PSYCHOTIC DISORDER

    Chaudhuri, Bijoy Pratim; Bhagabati, Dipesh; Medhi, Dipanjali

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism of action of a relatively new antipsychotic drug-Risperidone differs from conventional antipsychotics like Haloperidol. We compared low dosages of Risperidone with near equivalent dosages of Haloperidol in first episode drug naive Acute and Transient Psychotic disorder. A single blind randomised four-week study protocol was employed. Highly significant and comparable efficacy as assessed by Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning Scale was seen at the...

  9. Psychogenetics of post-traumatic stress disorder: a short review

    Ahmed Rady

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Rady, Adel Elsheshai, Osama Elkholy, Heba Abou el WafaDepartment of Psychiatry, Alexandria University, Alexandria, EgyptAbstract: Post-traumatic stress disorder is a commonly overlooked psychiatric disorder due to the heterogeneity of symptoms that may simulate many other psychiatric disorders. Such heterogeneity of manifestations may be explained by the multifaceted nature of the different neurotransmitters, endocrinologic axis, and their genetic basis, that are implicated in the etiology. Although this disorder has been studied from many different perspectives, its etiology is still enigmatic. This minireview demonstrates, in brief, that different susceptibility genes are associated with post traumatic stress disorder.Keywords: trauma, post traumatic stress disorder, psychogenetic, stress response, neurobiology

  10. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder after Vaginal Delivery at Primiparous Women

    Milosavljevic, Maja; Lecic Tosevski, Dusica; Soldatovic, Ivan; Vukovic, Olivera; Miljevic, Cedo; Peljto, Amir; Kostic, Milutin; Olff, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Although severe gynaecological pathology during delivery and negative outcome have been shown to be related with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) little is known about traumatic experiences following regular delivery, at the expected time and with a healthy child. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of PTSD during postpartum period after vaginal delivery and its risk factors. The sample included 126 primiparous women. Monthly, for the next three months, the women were assessed for PTSD using the gold standard interview for PTSD, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). Risk factors were assessed including sociodemographic variables, personal medical history and clinical variables. After the first month, 2.4% women had acute full PTSD and another 9.5% had clinically significant level of PTSD symptoms. Following the second and the third month, partial PTSD was found in 5.9% and 1.3% of the women, respectively, and none of participants had full PTSD. Obstetrical interventions were the only significant risk factor for the development of PTSD. Symptoms of postpartum PTSD are not rare after a traumatic delivery, and associated with specific obstetrical risk factors. Awareness of these risk factors may stimulate interventions to prevent this important and neglected postpartum disorder. PMID:27271544

  11. Acute Anteroseptal Myocardial Infarction after a Negative Exercise Stress Test

    Abdullah M. Al-Alawi; Jyotsna Janardan; Peck, Kah Y.; Alan Soward

    2016-01-01

    A myocardial infarction is a rare complication which can occur after an exercise stress test. We report a 48-year-old male who was referred to the Mildura Cardiology Practice, Victoria, Australia, in August 2014 with left-sided chest pain. He underwent an exercise stress test which was negative for myocardial ischaemia. However, the patient presented to the Emergency Department of the Mildura Base Hospital 30 minutes after the test with severe retrosternal chest pain. An acute anteroseptal ST...

  12. Chronic stress and brain plasticity: Mechanisms underlying adaptive and maladaptive changes and implications for stress-related CNS disorders.

    Radley, Jason; Morilak, David; Viau, Victor; Campeau, Serge

    2015-11-01

    Stress responses entail neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral changes to promote effective coping with real or perceived threats to one's safety. While these responses are critical for the survival of the individual, adverse effects of repeated exposure to stress are widely known to have deleterious effects on health. Thus, a considerable effort in the search for treatments to stress-related CNS disorders necessitates unraveling the brain mechanisms responsible for adaptation under acute conditions and their perturbations following chronic stress exposure. This paper is based upon a symposium from the 2014 International Behavioral Neuroscience Meeting, summarizing some recent advances in understanding the effects of stress on adaptive and maladaptive responses subserved by limbic forebrain networks. An important theme highlighted in this review is that the same networks mediating neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral processes during adaptive coping also comprise targets of the effects of repeated stress exposure in the development of maladaptive states. Where possible, reference is made to the similarity of neurobiological substrates and effects observed following repeated exposure to stress in laboratory animals and the clinical features of stress-related disorders in humans. PMID:26116544

  13. "Complex" Posttraumatic Stress Disorder/Disorders of Extreme Stress (CP/DES) in Sexually Abused Children: An Exloratory Study.

    Hall, Darlene Kordich

    1999-01-01

    Compares three groups of young sexually abused children on seven "Complex" Posttraumatic Stress Disorder/Disorders of Extreme Stress (CP/DES) indices. As cumulative number of types of trauma increased, the number of CP/DES symptoms rose. Results suggest that CP/DES also characterizes sexually abused children, especially those who have been…

  14. Predicting Performance Under Acute Stress : The Role of Individual Characteristics

    Delahaij, R.; Dam, K. van; Gaillard, A.W.K.; Soeters, J.

    2011-01-01

    This prospective study examined how differences in coping style, coping self-efficacy, and metacognitive awareness influence coping behavior and performance during a realistic acute stressful exercise in 2 military samples (n = 122 and n = 132). Results showed that coping self-efficacy and coping st

  15. The Roles of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder in Childhood Traumatic Stress and Weight Problems among Women

    Dedert, Eric A.; Becker, Mary E.; Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Braxton, Loretta E.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Beckham, Jean C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) were modeled as intervening variables in the relationship between childhood traumatic stress and weight outcomes in civilian women in the United States. Of the 148 participants, 72 had current PTSD, 64 had current MDD, and 32 had neither disorder. In separate single indirect effect models, there were significant indirect effects of both PTSD and depressive symptoms on body mass index and waist-...

  16. Epigenetic signaling in psychiatric disorders: stress and depression

    Bagot, Rosemary C.; Labonté, Benoit; Peña, Catherine J.; Nestler, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are complex multifactorial disorders involving chronic alterations in neural circuit structure and function. While genetic factors play a role in the etiology of disorders such as depression, addiction, and schizophrenia, relatively high rates of discordance among identical twins clearly point to the importance of additional factors. Environmental factors, such as stress, play a major role in the psychiatric disorders by inducing stable changes in gene expression, neural...

  17. Prostitution, violence, and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Farley, M; Barkan, H

    1998-01-01

    One hundred and thirty people working as prostitutes in San Francisco were interviewed regarding the extent of violence in their lives and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fifty-seven percent reported that they had been sexually assaulted as children and 49% reported that they had been physically assaulted as children. As adults in prostitution, 82% had been physically assaulted; 83% had been threatened with a weapon; 68% had been raped while working as prostitutes; and 84% reported current or past homelessness. We differentiated the types of lifetime violence as childhood sexual assault; childhood physical abuse; rape in prostitution; and other (non-rape) physical assault in prostitution. PTSD severity was significantly associated with the total number of types of lifetime violence (r = .21, p = .02); with childhood physical abuse (t = 2.97, p = .004); rape in adult prostitution (Student's t = 2.77, p = .01); and the total number of times raped in prostitution (Kruskal-Wallace chi square = 13.51, p = .01). Of the 130 people interviewed, 68% met DSM III-R criteria for a diagnosis of PTSD. Eighty-eight percent of these respondents stated that they wanted to leave prostitution, and described what they needed in order to escape. PMID:9698636

  18. Posttraumatic stress disorder: neuroendocrine and pharmacotherapeutic approach.

    Amihaesei, Ioana Cristina; Mungiu, O C

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is represented by the development of characteristic symptoms, that appear following direct/indirect exposure to a traumatic event in which physical harm was threatened, witnessed or experienced. PTSD can also occur after the unexpected death of a family member or close friend, following a serious harm or threat of death or injury to a loved one, or in case of divorce or unemplyoement. It occurs in 1%-4% of the population. As neuroendocrine pattern, PTSD is characterized by abnormal low cortisol levels and higher than normal epinephrine and norepinephrine levels. In chronique forms a total decrease of the hippocampal volume, was found, region of the brain involved in processing memories and in the memorization process. Symptoms are grouped in three main categories: re-experiencing the event, accompanied by anxiety, nightmares and flashbacks; persistent avoidance of any reminders of the event, feeling detached or estranged from others; persistent anxiety and/or physical reactivity. As treatment, besides various psychotherapy techniques, various classes of psychotropic drugs are used, such as morphine, antipsychotics, usual or atypical antidepressants, anticonvulsants, to reduce anxiety, avoidance, nightmares and hyperexcitability. PMID:23077954

  19. Visual false memories in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Moradi, Ali Reza; Heydari, Ali Hosain; Abdollahi, Mohammad Hossain; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Dalgleish, Tim; Jobson, Laura

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated visual false memories in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The Scenic False Memory paradigm (SFM, Hauschildt, Peters, Jelinek, & Moritz, 2012) was administered to male Iranian military personnel who had participated in the Iran-Iraq war and were diagnosed with (n = 21) or without (n = 21) PTSD and a sample of healthy male non-trauma-exposed controls (n = 21). Trauma-exposed participants recalled and recognized a significantly lower percentage of hits and a significantly greater percentage of false memories for both trauma-related and non-trauma-related video scenes, than non-trauma-exposed controls. Among the trauma-exposed participants, those with and without PTSD did not differ significantly in terms of percentage of hits and false memories recalled on the SFM. Those with PTSD were found to recognize significantly fewer hits for both the trauma-related and non-trauma-related videos than those without PTSD. Those with PTSD also recognized significantly more false memories for the trauma video scene than the non-PTSD group. The findings suggest that those with trauma exposure, and in particular those with PTSD, may have a greater susceptibility to visual false memory. PMID:26390193

  20. Diagnosis and classification of disorders specifically associated with stress: proposals for ICD-11.

    Maercker, Andreas; Brewin, Chris R; Bryant, Richard A; Cloitre, Marylene; van Ommeren, Mark; Jones, Lynne M; Humayan, Asma; Kagee, Ashraf; Llosa, Augusto E; Rousseau, Cécile; Somasundaram, Daya J; Souza, Renato; Suzuki, Yuriko; Weissbecker, Inka; Wessely, Simon C; First, Michael B; Reed, Geoffrey M

    2013-10-01

    The diagnostic concepts of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other disorders specifically associated with stress have been intensively discussed among neuro- and social scientists, clinicians, epidemiologists, public health planners and humanitarian aid workers around the world. PTSD and adjustment disorder are among the most widely used diagnoses in mental health care worldwide. This paper describes proposals that aim to maximize clinical utility for the classification and grouping of disorders specifically associated with stress in the forthcoming 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Proposals include a narrower concept for PTSD that does not allow the diagnosis to be made based entirely on non-specific symptoms; a new complex PTSD category that comprises three clusters of intra- and interpersonal symptoms in addition to core PTSD symptoms; a new diagnosis of prolonged grief disorder, used to describe patients that undergo an intensely painful, disabling, and abnormally persistent response to bereavement; a major revision of "adjustment disorder" involving increased specification of symptoms; and a conceptualization of "acute stress reaction" as a normal phenomenon that still may require clinical intervention. These proposals were developed with specific considerations given to clinical utility and global applicability in both low- and high-income countries. PMID:24096776

  1. Feasibility of Identifying Eligible Trauma Patients for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Intervention

    Malcoun, Emily; Houry, Debra; Arndt-Jordan, Cathrine; Kearns, Megan C.; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Hammond-Susten, Michelle; Rothbaum, Barbara O.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research report examines the feasibility of identifying eligible trauma patients for a study providing an early therapeutic intervention for the prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and identifies reasons around participation. Methods: This prospective observational study used a convenience sample of acute trauma victims presenting to a university-affiliated Level One trauma center in a large southeastern city. Patients eligible to participate in the ...

  2. Feasibility of Identifying Eligible Trauma Patients for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Intervention

    Malcoun, Emily; Houry, Debra; Arndt-Jordan, Cathrine; Kearns, Megan C.; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Hammond-Susten, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research report examines the feasibility of identifying eligible trauma patients for a study providing an early therapeutic intervention for the prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and identifies reasons around participation.Methods: This prospective observational study used a convenience sample of acute trauma victims presenting to a university-affiliated Level One trauma center in a large southeastern city. Patients eligible to participate in the early interv...

  3. Feasibility of Identifying Eligible Trauma Patients for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Intervention

    Malcoun, Emily; Houry, Debra; Arndt-Jordan, Cathrine; Kearns, Megan C.; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Hammond-Susten, Michelle; Rothbaum, Barbara O.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research report examines the feasibility of identifying eligible trauma patients for a study providing an early therapeutic intervention for the prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and identifies reasons around participation. Methods: This prospective observational study used a convenience sample of acute trauma victims presenting to a university-affiliated Level One trauma center in a large southeastern city. Patients eligible to participate in the early inter...

  4. Reduced Autobiographical Memory Specificity Predicts Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After Recent Trauma

    Kleim, Birgit; Ehlers, Anke

    2008-01-01

    In this prospective longitudinal study, the authors examined the relationship between reduced specificity in autobiographical memory retrieval and the development of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and specific phobia after injury in an assault. Assault survivors (N = 203) completed the Autobiographical Memory Test (J. M. G. Williams & K. Broadbent, 1986) at 2 weeks after the trauma as well as structured clinical interviews at 2 weeks and 6 months. Participants with acute st...

  5. Parenting stress among parents of children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    Craig, Francesco; Operto, Francesca Felicia; De Giacomo, Andrea; Margari, Lucia; Frolli, Alessandro; Conson, Massimiliano; Ivagnes, Sara; Monaco, Marianna; Margari, Francesco

    2016-08-30

    In recent years, studies have shown that parents of children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders (NDDs) experience more parenting stress than parents of typically developing children, but the relation between the type of disorders and parenting stress is far from clear. The purpose of this study was to compare the parenting stress experienced by parents of 239 children with Specific Learning Disorders (SpLD), Language Disorders (LD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and typical development (TD). Parents of children with NDDs experience more parenting stress than those of children who have TD. Although, parents of children with ASD or ADHD report the most high scores of parenting stress, also the parents of children with SpLD or LD report higher parental stress compared with parent of children without NDDs. Another interesting finding was that IQ level or emotional and behavioral problems are associated with the higher levels of parenting stress. This study suggest that parent, both mothers and fathers, of children with different type of NDDs should be provided with interventions and resources to empower them with the knowledge and skills to reduce their stress and to enhance their quality of life. PMID:27280521

  6. REPEATED ACUTE STRESS INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN RAT

    Nirupama R.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute stress induced alterations in the activity levels of rate limiting enzymes and concentration of intermediates of different pathways of carbohydrate metabolism have been studied. Adult male Wistar rats were restrained (RS for 1 h and after an interval of 4 h they were subjected to forced swimming (FS exercise and appropriate controls were maintained. Five rats were killed before the commencement of the experiment (initial controls, 5 control and equal number of stressed rats were killed 2 h after RS and remaining 5 rats in each group were killed 4 h after FS. There was a significant increase in the adrenal 3β- hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase activity following RS, which showed further increase after FS compared to controls and thereby indicated stress response of rats. There was a significant increase in the blood glucose levels following RS which showed further increase and reached hyperglycemic condition after FS. The hyperglycemic condition due to stress was accompanied by significant increases in the activities of glutamate- pyruvate transaminase, glutamate- oxaloacetate transaminase, glucose -6- phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase and significant decrease in the glucose -6- phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase activities, whereas pyruvate kinase activity did not show any alteration compared to controls. Further, the glycogen and total protein contents of the liver were decreased whereas those of pyruvate and lactate showed significant increase compared to controls after RS as well as FS.The results put together indicate that acute stress induced hyperglycemia results due to increased gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis without alteration in glycolysis. The study first time reveals that after first acute stress exposure, the subsequent stressful experience augments metabolic stress response leading to hyperglycemia. The results have relevance to human health as human beings are exposed to several stressors in a day and

  7. [Immune and enzyme disorders in patients with acute pancreatitis].

    Briskin, B S; Iarovaia, G A; Savchenko, Z I; Rybakov, G S; Khalidov, O Kh; Mkhitarova, L A; Suplotova, A A

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of immune and enzyme disorders in 85 patients with acute pancreatitis shows that persistent imbalance of immunoregulatory T-lymphocytes with suppression predominance; reduction of all immunoglobulines number, imbalance in phagocytic immunity with height of absorbing activity of neutropils and stimultaneous decrease of their digestive capacity are prognostically unfavourable for high risk of pyonecrotic complications and lethal outcome. It is necessary to include immunocorrectors in combined therapy. Direct assessment of leukocytic elastase activity and alpha-IP level in blood plasma permits to evaluate spreading of inflammatory process and it severity, efficacy and prognosis of treatment. PMID:11521303

  8. Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder and psychosis: etiopathogenic and nosological implications

    Álvaro Frías Ibáñez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The relationship between trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and psychosis has promoted heterogeneous research lines, in both etiopathogenic and nosological areas. The main aim of this review is to provide a systematic framework that encompasses this theoretical gap in the literature. Methods: A literature research was carried out through PubMed and PsycINFO between 1980 and May 2013. One hundred and thirteen articles were recruited. A first part of this review describes the role of trauma in the development of psychosis. The second part focuses on research about PTSD and psychosis. Results: Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies with clinical and community samples confirm that childhood trauma (CT is a vulnerability factor for schizophrenia and psychotic-like symptoms in adulthood. More empirical research is needed in order to assess the role of trauma as precipitant of acute psychosis. There is also preliminary evidence with cross-sectional samples that suggests that PTSD and psychosis are a risk factor for each other, with studies about post-psychotic PTSD (PP-PTSD being outstanding. Finally, results from different comparative research studies postulate a subtype of PTSD with psychotic features (PTSD-SP. Conclusions: The role of trauma in psychosis is more conclusive as predispositional rather than as trigger factor. Nosological status of acute psychoses remains a focus of controversy unresolved. The association between PTSD and psychosis is complex, requiring more prospective research in order to determine causal relationships between these pathologies. Also, research in nosological status of PTSD-SP must encourage more comparative studies not limited to neurobiological variables.

  9. Excess mortality of acute and transient psychotic disorders: comparison with bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia

    Castagnini, Augusto; Foldager, Leslie; Bertelsen, Aksel

    2013-01-01

    in the Danish Psychiatric Register between 1995 and 2008 with an ICD-10 diagnosis of ‘acute and transient psychotic disorders’ (ATPDs; n = 4157), bipolar disorder (n = 3200) and schizophrenia (n = 4576). Results: A total of 232 patients (5.6%) with ATPDs, 172 (5.4%) with bipolar disorder and 233 (5......Objective: To investigate mortality and causes of death of short-lived psychotic disorders, by carrying out a comparison with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Method: Record linkage study to the official register of causes of death of all cases aged 15–64 years who were listed for the first time.......1%) with schizophrenia had died over a mean follow-up period of 6.6 years. The standardized mortality ratio for all causes, natural causes and unnatural causes was significantly high for the three conditions. Mortality of ATPDs was greater in men, with about two-thirds of all deaths resulting from natural...

  10. Rumination Predicts Heightened Responding to Stressful Life Events in Major Depressive Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Gentes, Emily L.; Jones, Jason D.; Hallion, Lauren S.; Coleman, Elizabeth S.; Swendsen, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Although studies have documented heightened stress sensitivity in major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. One possible mechanism is the tendency to ruminate in response to stress. We used ecological momentary assessment to study ruminative thoughts following stressful events in 145 adults with MDD, GAD, comorbid MDD-GAD, or no psychopathology. Diagnosed individuals reported more event-related rumination than contro...

  11. Cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder: from acute episode to remission.

    Volkert, J; Schiele, M A; Kazmaier, Julia; Glaser, Friederike; Zierhut, K C; Kopf, J; Kittel-Schneider, S; Reif, A

    2016-04-01

    Considerable evidence demonstrates that neuropsychological deficits are prevalent in bipolar disorder during both acute episodes and euthymia. However, it is less clear whether these cognitive disturbances are state- or trait-related. We here present the first longitudinal study employing a within-subject pre- and post-testing examining acutely admitted bipolar patients (BP) in depression or mania and during euthymia, aiming to identify cognitive performance from acute illness to remission. Cognitive performance was measured during acute episodes and repeated after at least 3 months of remission. To do so, 55 BP (35 depressed, 20 hypo-/manic) and 55 healthy controls (HC) were tested with a neuropsychological test battery (attention, working memory, verbal memory, executive functioning). The results showed global impairments in acutely ill BP compared to HC: depressed patients showed a characteristic psychomotor slowing, while manic patients had severe deficits in executive functioning. Twenty-nine remitted BP could be measured in the follow-up (dropout rate 48 %), whose cognitive functions partially recovered, whereas working memory and verbal memory were still impaired. However, we found that subthreshold depressive symptoms and persisting sleep disturbances in euthymic BP were associated with reduced speed, deficits in attention and verbal memory, while working memory was correlated with psychotic symptoms (lifetime). This result indicates working memory as trait related for a subgroup of BP with psychotic symptoms. In contrast, attention and verbal memory are negatively influenced by state factors like residual symptoms, which should be more considered as possible confounders in the search of cognitive endophenotypes in remitted BP. PMID:26611783

  12. A rare symptom in posttraumatic stress disorder: Spontaneous ejaculation

    Öznur, Taner; Akarsu, Süleyman; Karaahmetoğlu, Bülent; Doruk, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 25 Final Diagnosis: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms: Insomnia • nightmares • spontaneous ejaculation Medication: Paroxentine Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Psychiatry Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Sexual dysfunction is reported to occur more frequently in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients than in the general population. Herein, we present the case of a patient with spontaneous ejaculation that developed when severity of PTSD symptoms incre...

  13. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Patients and Results of Violent Behavior

    Taner Oznur; Mehmet Toygar; Bulent Karaahmetoglu; Havva Oznur; Abdullah Bolu; Barbaros Ozdemir

    2014-01-01

    AIM: High levels of anger and aggression in post-traumatic stress disorder lead to unfavorable social, legal, physical and economic results to family members and the other social layers as much as patients. In this study, it is aimed to investigate the relation between both alcohol-cigarette consumption ratios and anger levels, characteristics of aggressive behaviors and the judicial outcome in cases diagnosed post-traumatic stress disorder due to armed conflict. METHODS: 38 cases diagnos...

  14. Fluoxetine and diazepam acutely modulate stress induced-behavior.

    Giacomini, Ana Cristina V V; Abreu, Murilo S; Giacomini, Luidia V; Siebel, Anna M; Zimerman, Fernanda F; Rambo, Cassiano L; Mocelin, Ricieri; Bonan, Carla D; Piato, Angelo L; Barcellos, Leonardo J G

    2016-01-01

    Drug residue contamination in aquatic ecosystems has been studied extensively, but the behavioral effects exerted by the presence of these drugs are not well known. Here, we investigated the effects of acute stress on anxiety, memory, social interaction, and aggressiveness in zebrafish exposed to fluoxetine and diazepam at concentrations that disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. Stress increased the locomotor activity and time spent in the bottom area of the tank (novel tank). Fluoxetine and diazepam prevented these behaviors. We also observed that stress and fluoxetine and diazepam exposures decreased social interaction. Stress also increased aggressive behavior, which was not reversed by fluoxetine or diazepam. These data suggest that the presence of these drugs in aquatic ecosystems causes significant behavioral alterations in fish. PMID:26403161

  15. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Structure in Injured Children: Functional Impairment and Depression Symptoms in a Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Marsac, Meghan L.; Cirilli, Carla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in children and adolescents who have experienced an acute single-incident trauma, associations between PTSD symptom clusters and functional impairment, and the specificity of PTSD symptoms in relation to depression and general distress. Method: Examined…

  16. The Relationship between Sexual Abuse and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Lawson, David Allen

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a fairly recent inclusion in the literature as a psychiatric disorder. Currently, researchers are trying to relate PTSD to many different environmental and psychosocial stressors including physical abuse, emotional abuse, war trauma, and sexual abuse. This paper addresses research concerning the…

  17. Neuropsychological Effects of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    Turley, Matthew R.; Obrzut, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can affect people of all ages but the literature is lacking on children and adolescents who experience PTSD. The consequences of this disorder extend beyond the basic symptoms by which it is defined. Neuroanatomically, the brains of children with PTSD have been found to be abnormally symmetrical in several…

  18. Effects of RSA Feedback on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptomatology

    Fourie, Phillip

    2006-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the anxiety disorders with particularly debilitating effects due to flashbacks and hypervigilance in daily life. Treatments commonly focus upon either pharmacological or psychotherapeutic modalities, but there is often a need to merge both of these approaches to deal effectively with the somatic, as…

  19. Personality disorders and perceived stress in Major Depressive Disorder

    Candrian, Michele; Schwartz, Faye; Farabaugh, Amy; Perlis, Roy H.; Ehlert, Ulrike; Fava, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    The investigation of comorbidity between major depressive disorder (MDD) and personality disorders (PDs) has attracted considerable interest. Whereas some studies found that the presence of PDs has adverse effects on the course and treatment of MDD, others have failed to demonstrate this link. These inconsistent findings suggest that specific PD comorbidity might affect the course of MDD by modulating factors that increase the overall risk of depression, including an elevated tendency to perc...

  20. Acute stress is detrimental to heart regeneration in zebrafish.

    Sallin, Pauline; Jaźwińska, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Psychological stress is one of the factors associated with human cardiovascular disease. Here, we demonstrate that acute perceived stress impairs the natural capacity of heart regeneration in zebrafish. Beside physical and chemical disturbances, intermittent crowding triggered an increase in cortisol secretion and blocked the replacement of fibrotic tissue with new myocardium. Pharmacological simulation of stress by pulse treatment with dexamethasone/adrenaline reproduced the regeneration failure, while inhibition of the stress response with anxiolytic drugs partially rescued the regenerative process. Impaired heart regeneration in stressed animals was associated with a reduced cardiomyocyte proliferation and with the downregulation of several genes, includingigfbp1b, a modulator of IGF signalling. Notably, daily stress induced a decrease in Igf1r phosphorylation. As cardiomyocyte proliferation was decreased in response to IGF-1 receptor inhibition, we propose that the stress-induced cardiac regenerative failure is partially caused by the attenuation of IGF signalling. These findings indicate that the natural regenerative ability of the zebrafish heart is vulnerable to the systemic paracrine stress response. PMID:27030176

  1. Posttraumatic stress disorder: The development of effective psychological treatments

    Ehlers, Anke; Clark, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has only relatively recently been introduced into the diagnostic classification of mental disorders. Building on advances in the treatment of other anxiety disorders, a range of effective psychological treatments for PTSD has been developed. The most effective of these treatments focus on the patient’s memory for the traumatic event and its meaning. This paper briefly reviews the currently available evidence for these treatments. It then illustrates the pr...

  2. Symptom overlap in posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression

    Gros, Daniel F.; Price, Matthew; Magruder, Kathryn M.; Frueh, B. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been consistent criticism of the diagnostic criteria of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) because of its high comorbidity with other mental disorders. Part of the problem surrounding PTSD may be related to the heterogeneity of its symptoms. In fact, recent research has identified a subset of PTSD symptoms, including symptoms of numbing and dysphoria, that may explain much of the overlap between PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD). The present study sough...

  3. Psychogenetics of post-traumatic stress disorder: a short review

    Ahmed Rady; Adel Elsheshai; Osama Elkholy; et al

    2010-01-01

    Ahmed Rady, Adel Elsheshai, Osama Elkholy, Heba Abou el WafaDepartment of Psychiatry, Alexandria University, Alexandria, EgyptAbstract: Post-traumatic stress disorder is a commonly overlooked psychiatric disorder due to the heterogeneity of symptoms that may simulate many other psychiatric disorders. Such heterogeneity of manifestations may be explained by the multifaceted nature of the different neurotransmitters, endocrinologic axis, and their genetic basis, that are implicated in the etiol...

  4. Anxiety symptom severity differentiates HPA acute stress reactivity in children

    Slattery, Marcia J.; Grieve, Adam J.; Paletz, Elliott M.; Kalin, Ned H.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale/statement of the problem : Considerable research has focused on the relationship of anxiety with alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) acute stress response. Findings, however, differ among studies on adults and children, and among different types of anxiety. This study investigates the relationship of anxiety symptom severity with HPA reactivity to the cold pressor task (CPT) in preadolescent children. We hypothesize that children with increased symptoms of anxiet...

  5. Fibromyalgia and arachnoiditis presented as an acute spinal disorder

    Zamzuri Idris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adhesive arachnoiditis is a chronic, insidious condition that causes debilitating intractable pain and a range of other neurological problems. Its pathophysiology is not well understood. This manuscript discusses its presentations, which can mimic an acute spinal disorder, its hypothetical pathophysiology, treatment, and its relationship with fibromyalgia. Case Description: The authors present a case of a 47-year-old female who presented with clinical features mimicking an acute spinal disorder but later found to have an adhesive arachnoiditis. She was admitted following a trauma with complaints of back pain and paraplegia. On examination, there was marked tenderness over thoracolumbar spine with lower limbs upper motor neuron weakness. An urgent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the spine revealed multiple lesions at her thoracic and lumbar spinal canals, which did not compress the spinal cord. Therefore, conservative management was initiated. Despite on regular therapies, her back and body pain worsened and little improvement in her limbs power was noted. Laminectomy was pursued and found to have spinal cord arachnoiditis. Subsequently, she was operated by other team members for multiple pelvic masses, which later proved to be benign. After gathering all the clinical information obtained at surgery and after taking detailed history inclusive of cognitive functions, diagnosis of an adhesive arachnoiditis syndrome was made. Currently, she is managed by neuropsychologist and pain specialist. Conclusion: This case report highlights the importance of knowing an adhesive arachnoiditis syndrome - a rarely discussed pathology by the neurosurgeon, which discloses a significant relationship between immune and nervous systems.

  6. Evidence of symptom profiles consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder and complex posttraumatic stress disorder in different trauma samples

    Elklit, Ask; Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background: The International Classification of Diseases, 11th version (ICD-11), proposes two related stress and trauma-related disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD (CPTSD). A diagnosis of CPTSD requires that in addition to the PTSD symptoms, an individual must also endorse symptoms in three major domains: (1) affective dysregulation, (2) negative self-concepts, and (3) interpersonal problems. This study aimed to determine if the naturally occurring distribution of...

  7. Gender and stress : is gender role stress? A reexamination of the relationship between feminine gender role stress and eating disorders

    Bekker, M.H.J.; Boselie, A.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was, first, aimed at examining the relationship between eating disorders, feminine gender role stress and other types of stress. In addition, we investigated whether eating disordered women compared to non-clinical controls use depressogenic coping more often. We hypothesized that

  8. Victimization and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Homeless Adolescents.

    Stewart, Angela J.; Steiman, Mandy; Cauce, Ana Mari; Cochran, Bryan N.; WhiteBeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine street victimization and posttraumatic stress symptoms among urban homeless adolescents and to test whether emotional numbing and avoidance represent distinct posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters. Method: Structured, private interviews were conducted with homeless adolescents (N = 374) in the Seattle…

  9. Gray Matter Alterations in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder, and Social Anxiety Disorder

    Cheng, Bochao; Huang, Xiaoqi; Li, Shiguang; Hu, Xinyu; Luo, Ya; Wang, Xiuli; Yang, Xun; Qiu, Changjian; Yang, Yanchun; Zhang, Wei; Bi, Feng; Roberts, Neil; Gong, Qiyong

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD) all bear the core symptom of anxiety and are separately classified in the new DSM-5 system. The aim of the present study is to obtain evidence for neuroanatomical difference for these disorders. We applied voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie to compare gray matter volume (GMV) in magnetic resonance images obtained for 30 p...

  10. Acute stress increases depolarization-evoked glutamate release in the rat prefrontal/frontal cortex: the dampening action of antidepressants.

    Laura Musazzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Behavioral stress is recognized as a main risk factor for neuropsychiatric diseases. Converging evidence suggested that acute stress is associated with increase of excitatory transmission in certain forebrain areas. Aim of this work was to investigate the mechanism whereby acute stress increases glutamate release, and if therapeutic drugs prevent the effect of stress on glutamate release. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Rats were chronically treated with vehicle or drugs employed for therapy of mood/anxiety disorders (fluoxetine, desipramine, venlafaxine, agomelatine and then subjected to unpredictable footshock stress. Acute stress induced marked increase in depolarization-evoked release of glutamate from synaptosomes of prefrontal/frontal cortex in superfusion, and the chronic drug treatments prevented the increase of glutamate release. Stress induced rapid increase in the circulating levels of corticosterone in all rats (both vehicle- and drug-treated, and glutamate release increase was blocked by previous administration of selective antagonist of glucocorticoid receptor (RU 486. On the molecular level, stress induced accumulation of presynaptic SNARE complexes in synaptic membranes (both in vehicle- and drug-treated rats. Patch-clamp recordings of pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex revealed that stress increased glutamatergic transmission through both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms, and that antidepressants may normalize it by reducing release probability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Acute footshock stress up-regulated depolarization-evoked release of glutamate from synaptosomes of prefrontal/frontal cortex. Stress-induced increase of glutamate release was dependent on stimulation of glucocorticoid receptor by corticosterone. Because all drugs employed did not block either elevation of corticosterone or accumulation of SNARE complexes, the dampening action of the drugs on glutamate release must be downstream of these processes

  11. Early Life Stress, Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Alcohol Use Disorders

    Holgate, Joan Y.; Bartlett, Selena E.

    2015-01-01

    Stress is a major driving force in alcohol use disorders (AUDs). It influences how much one consumes, craving intensity and whether an abstinent individual will return to harmful alcohol consumption. We are most vulnerable to the effects of stress during early development, and exposure to multiple traumatic early life events dramatically increases the risk for AUDs. However, not everyone exposed to early life stress will develop an AUD. The mechanisms determining whether an individual’s brain...

  12. Fatty acids and oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders

    Tonello Lucio; Cocchi Massimo; Tsaluchidu Sofia; Puri Basant K

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine whether there is published evidence for increased oxidative stress in neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods A PubMed search was carried out using the MeSH search term 'oxidative stress' in conjunction with each of the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic categories of the American Psychiatric Association in order to identify potential studies. Results There was published evidence of increased oxidative stress in the following DSM-IV-TR diagnostic categ...

  13. Experience of acute stressful events and coping strategies of trauma patients with stress

    Nikolina Farčić; Ivana Barać

    2012-01-01

    Aim To affirm experience of acute stress event and strategy of facing stress within trauma patients, so that, nurse/technician in their further work could help overcome mentioned event and it's intensity, with help of their intercession and experience.Methods The Impact of Event Scale – Revised (IES-R), also with sociodemographic questionnaire were used as an instrument of measuring. The research has been conducted on 100 examinees which were hospitalisated at Clinical section of traumatolo...

  14. Comparison of the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on metabolic features in rats

    Fatemeh ROSTAMKHANI; Homeira ZARDOOZ; Saleh ZAHEDIASL; Babak FARROKHI

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to compare the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on metabolic factors.Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into control and stressed groups.Stress was applied by a communication box acutely (1 d) and chronically (15 and 30 d).Blood sampling was carried out by retro-orbital-puncture method.The plasma levels of glucose,cholesterol,triglyceride,insulin,and corticosterone were measured.In addition,feed and water intake,latency to eat and drink,adrenal and body weights were determined.Acute and chronic psychological stress did not significantly change basal plasma corticosterone levels.However,immediately (1 min) after acute exposure to stress,plasma corticosterone level increased compared to that before stress exposure.Acute stress increased plasma insulin levels significantly.Fifteen days of stress exposure resulted in plasma glucose increase.Chronic stress significantly increased feed intake,latency to eat,and adrenal weight compared to acute stress.The body weights of both control and stressed groups increased markedly during the experiment.Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index did not change significantly in the stressed group.In conclusion,application of acute and chronic psychological stress leads to different metabolic and/or behavioral changes but the metabolic changes resulting from acute exposure to stress seem to be more pronounced.

  15. Investigation of risk factors for acute stress reaction following induced abortion

    Vukelić Jelka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Termination of pregnancy - induced abortion is inevitable in family planning as the final solution in resolving unwanted pregnancies. It can be the cause of major physical and phychological concequences on women’s health. Diverse opinions on psychological consequences of induced abortion can be found in literature. Material and methods. A prospective study was performed in order to predict acute stress disorder (ASD after the induced abortion and the possibility of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Seven days after the induced abortion, 40 women had to fill in: 1. a special questionnaire made for this investigation, with questions linked to some risk factors inducing stress, 2. Likert’s emotional scale and 3. Bryant’s acute stress reaction scale. Results. After an induced abortion 52.5% women had ASD and 32.5% women had PTSD. Women with ASD after the abortion developed more sense of guilt, irritability, shame, self-judgement, fear from God and self-hatred. They were less educated, had lower income, they were more religious, did not approve of abortion and had worse relationship with their partners after the abortion in comparison to women without ASD. Age, number of previous abortions and decision to abort did not differ between the two groups. Discussion and conclusion. Induced abortion represents a predisposing factor for ASD and PTSD in women. Some psychosocial factors contribute to the development of stress after abortion. Serbia has a task to reduce the number of abortions which is very high, in order, to preserve reproductive and phychological health of women.

  16. Dissociative Spectrum Disorders in the Primary Care Setting

    Elmore, James L.

    2000-01-01

    Dissociative disorders have a lifetime prevalence of about 10%. Dissociative symptoms may occur in acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatization disorder, substance abuse, trance and possession trance, Ganser's syndrome, and dissociative identity disorder, as well as in mood disorders, psychoses, and personality disorders. Dissociative symptoms and disorders are observed frequently among patients attending our rural South Carolina community mental health center. Given the...

  17. Think aloud: acute stress and coping strategies during golf performances.

    Nicholls, Adam R; Polman, Remco C J

    2008-07-01

    A limitation of the sport psychology coping literature is the amount of time between a stressful episode and the recall of the coping strategies used in the stressful event (Nicholls & Polman, 2007). The purpose of this study was to develop and implement a technique to measure acute stress and coping during performance. Five high-performance adolescent golfers took part in Level 2 verbalization think aloud trials (Ericsson & Simon, 1993), which involved participants verbalizing their thoughts, over six holes of golf. Verbal reports were audio-recorded during each performance, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using protocol analysis (Ericsson & Simon, 1993). Stressors and coping strategies varied throughout the six holes, which support the proposition that stress and coping is a dynamic process that changes across phases of the same performance (Lazarus, 1999). The results also revealed information regarding the sequential patterning of stress and coping, suggesting that the golfers experienced up to five stressors before reporting a coping strategy. Think aloud appears a suitable method to collect concurrent stress and coping data. PMID:18612855

  18. Prenatal Acute Stress Attenuated Epileptiform Activities in Neonate Mice

    Behnam Heshmatian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Development of the central nervous system (CNS is dependent on interactionsbetween genetic and epigenetic factors, some of which could affect the susceptibilityof the developing brain to damaging insults. Gestational stress has been shown as a potentialfactor associated with higher risk of developing certain neurological and psychiatricdisorders. This study tested the hypothesis that maternal stress influences the risk ofepilepsy in offsprings.Materials and Methods: Pregnant mice were exposed to restraint stress twice a day forthree days at the start of the last week of gestation. Ten days after birth, the intact hippocampiof the newborn mice were excised and prepared for investigation. The hippocampiwere bathed in low magnesium artificial cerebrospinal fluid to induce field potential,and the subsequent spontaneous seizure-like events of the CA1 neurons were recorded.Plasma corticosterone was measured using a commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA kitand the values were expressed as μg/100 ml.Results: Both the number of recurrent seizures and the duration of seizure activity werereduced in the stressed group compared to the controls (p<0.001. Stress induced a significantrise in serum corticosterone levels in both pregnant mice and in their newbornpups (p<0.001.Conclusion: These findings suggest that acute prenatal stress, which may mimic acutestress in human pregnancy, is a likely factor affecting seizure control in childhood temporallobe epilepsy. The underlying inhibitory mechanism may be an increase in the level ofneurosteroids both in the blood and the brain.

  19. Neural temporal dynamics of stress in comorbid major depressive disorder and social anxiety disorder

    Waugh Christian E; Hamilton J; Chen Michael C; Joormann Jutta; Gotlib Ian H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite advances in neurobiological research on Major Depressive Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder, little is known about the neural functioning of individuals with comorbid depression/social anxiety. We examined the timing of neural responses to social stress in individuals with major depression and/or social anxiety. We hypothesized that having social anxiety would be associated with earlier responses to stress, having major depression would be associated with sustain...

  20. Personality Disorders, Coping Strategies, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Women with Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Johnson, Dawn M.; Sheahan, Timothy C.; Chard, Kathleen M.

    2003-01-01

    Using a treatment-seeking sample of adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, the relationships between coping strategies, personality disorders (PD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were explored. A variety of PDs were found to exist in this population, with avoidant, antisocial, dependent PDs having higher frequencies than…

  1. Associations between Prolonged Grief Disorder, Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety in Rwandan Genocide Survivors

    Schaal, Susanne; Dusingizemungu, Jean-Pierre; Jacob, Nadja; Neuner, Frank; Elbert, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that symptoms of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) represent a symptom cluster distinct from bereavement-related depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of the present study was to confirm and extend these findings using the most recent criteria defining PGD. The authors interviewed…

  2. Acute Short-Term Mental Stress Does Not Influence Salivary Flow Rate Dynamics

    Naumova, Ella A; Sandulescu, Tudor; Al Khatib, Philipp; Thie, Michael; Lee, Wing-Kee; Zimmer, Stefan; Arnold, Wolfgang H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Results of studies that address the influence of stress on salivary flow rate and composition are controversial. The aim of this study was to reveal the influence of stress vulnerability and different phases of stress reactivity on the unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate. We examined that acute mental stress does not change the salivary flow rate. In addition, we also examined the salivary cortisol and protein level in relation to acute mental stress stimuli. Methods: S...

  3. Epigenetic and immune function profiles associated with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Uddin, Monica; Aiello, Allison E.; Wildman, Derek E.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Pawelec, Graham; de los Santos, Regina; Goldmann, Emily; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    The biologic underpinnings of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have not been fully elucidated. Previous work suggests that alterations in the immune system are characteristic of the disorder. Identifying the biologic mechanisms by which such alterations occur could provide fundamental insights into the etiology and treatment of PTSD. Here we identify specific epigenetic profiles underlying immune system changes associated with PTSD. Using blood samples (n = 100) obtained from an ongoing, ...

  4. Attention Bias Variability and Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Iacoviello, Brian M.; Wu, Gang; Abend, Rany; Murrough, James W.; Feder, Adriana; Fruchter, Eyal; Levinstein, Yoav; Wald, Ilan; Bailey, Christopher R.; Pine, Daniel S.; Neumeister, Alexander; Bar-Haim, Yair; Charney, Dennis S.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive theories implicate information-processing biases in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Results of attention-bias studies in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been inconsistent, suggesting biases towards and away from threat. Within-subject variability of attention biases in posttraumatic patients may be a useful marker for attentional control impairment and the development of posttrauma symptoms. This study reports 2 experiments investigating threat-related attention biases,...

  5. DIAGNOSTIC CHALLENGES IN ASSESSING POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER.

    Mariana Arnaudova; Ivan Aleksandrov; Valery Stoyanov; Veronika Ivanova; Petar Y. Petrov

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of those psychiatric disorders that are still away from our attention, understanding, assessment and proper management. What could be the reason as by its name and diagnostic criteria an etiological fact is specified, namely a specific traumatic event. In our paper we aim to share and elicit some difficulties that we have met in consulting, diagnostic and management of people, who have suffered a traumatic event. On the base of a review of c...

  6. Behavioral Interventions for Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Gray, Matt J.; Christina M. Hassija

    2007-01-01

    Optimal therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) follows logically from an understanding of etiological models describing the development and maintenance of the disorder. Accordingly, the present article provides a brief overview of PTSD with particular attention paid to etiology. Exposure-based interventions have consistently been shown to promote superior posttraumatic adjustment relative to alternate treatment approaches. In addition to describing exposure therapy for PTSD, we brie...

  7. Assessment of clinical depression comorbid with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Simonović Maja; Grbeša Grozdanko; Milenković Tatjana; Radisavljević Miša

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aim. Comorbidity of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression is often recognized in the clinical practice. The aim of the paper was to determine the severity of depression and the group of symptoms which are the most prominent in clinical depression comorbid with PTSD. Methods. Totally 60 patients were assessed and divided into the experimental and control group using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Investigator Version (SCID-I, modifie...

  8. Childhood Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Alcohol Dependence

    Brady, Kathleen T.; Back, Sudie E.

    2012-01-01

    Early-childhood trauma is strongly associated with developing mental health problems, including alcohol dependence, later in life. People with early-life trauma may use alcohol to help cope with trauma-related symptoms. This article reviews the prevalence of early-childhood trauma and its robust association with the development of alcohol use disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. It also examines the potential biological mechanisms by which early adverse experiences can result in long-...

  9. Prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder among adults in flood district

    Feng Shuidong; Liu Aizhong; Tan Hongzhuan; Huang Peng; Chen Mengshi

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Flood is one of the most common and severe forms of natural disasters. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common disorder among victims of various disasters including flood. Early prediction for PTSD could benefit the prevention and treatment of PTSD. This study aimed to establish a prediction model for the occurrence of PTSD among adults in flood districts. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2000 among individuals who were affected by the 1998 floo...

  10. Neuromodulator and Emotion Biomarker for Stress Induced Mental Disorders

    Simeng Gu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Affective disorders are a leading cause of disabilities worldwide, and the etiology of these many affective disorders such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder is due to hormone changes, which includes hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the peripheral nervous system and neuromodulators in the central nervous system. Consistent with pharmacological studies indicating that medical treatment acts by increasing the concentration of catecholamine, the locus coeruleus (LC/norepinephrine (NE system is regarded as a critical part of the central “stress circuitry,” whose major function is to induce “fight or flight” behavior and fear and anger emotion. Despite the intensive studies, there is still controversy about NE with fear and anger. For example, the rats with LC ablation were more reluctant to leave a familiar place and took longer to consume the food pellets in an unfamiliar place (neophobia, i.e., fear in response to novelty. The reason for this discrepancy might be that NE is not only for flight (fear, but also for fight (anger. Here, we try to review recent literatures about NE with stress induced emotions and their relations with mental disorders. We propose that stress induced NE release can induce both fear and anger. “Adrenaline rush or norepinephrine rush” and fear and anger emotion might act as biomarkers for mental disorders.

  11. [Posttraumatic stress disorder endophenotypes: several clinical dimensions for specific treatments].

    Auxéméry, Y

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder is a syndrome with a very complex clinical that it is useful to describe according to a multidimensional approach. Following a critical review of the international literature, we have been able to highlight the genetic supports of posttraumatic stress disorder in the perspective of returning to the source of the clinical of this syndrome in order to steer its treatment better. We consider in succession the neuromodulation pathways involving dopamine, serotonine and noradrenaline to describe the hyperdomaminergic, hyposerotoninergic and hypernoradrenergic endophenotypes of posttraumatic stress disorder. Neurogenetic studies have affirmed two essential proposals. On the one hand, the pharmacological treatment of psychotraumatic disorders can be very closely adjusted to the different endophenotypes. On the other hand, the psychotherapeutic approach retains all its importance in the sense that it is the subjective implication that generated the trauma, subjectivity interacting with a genetic heritage and environmental factors integrating a social context. The changing definition of posttraumatic stress disorder over time comes from scientific exploration in part determined by a sociocultural context and, reciprocally, the psychic trauma is caused by the collapse of reassuring social values which were considered as immutable. The clinical is not developed according to fixed references: the evolution of neurogenetic techniques changes our perception of psychic traumas and the therapeutic possibilities. PMID:23167137

  12. Posttraumatic stress disorder in the wake of heart disease

    Spindler, Helle; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that patients after a cardiac event may be at risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present article reviews studies looking at PTSD as a sequel of heart disease with a focus on prevalence, risk factors, and future research directions.......There is increasing recognition that patients after a cardiac event may be at risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present article reviews studies looking at PTSD as a sequel of heart disease with a focus on prevalence, risk factors, and future research directions....

  13. New approaches in the pharmacotherapy of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Silver, J M; Sandberg, D P; Hales, R E

    1990-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may develop after exposure to severe stress, such as combat, accidents, assaults, and natural disasters. Pharmacotherapy can be a useful adjunct in the comprehensive treatment of these patients. The presence of comorbid conditions, including depression, panic disorder, substance abuse, and traumatic brain injury, should be carefully evaluated. Symptoms of PTSD that are associated with central nervous system hyperarousal or reexperiencing of the traumatic event appear to be the most responsive to pharmacotherapy. Social withdrawal and dulled responsiveness have not been shown to be alleviated through standard pharmacologic interventions. A therapeutic strategy is proposed that is based on the patient's symptoms and initial response to medication. PMID:2120203

  14. Acute Anteroseptal Myocardial Infarction after a Negative Exercise Stress Test

    Al-Alawi, Abdullah M.; Janardan, Jyotsna; Peck, Kah Y.; Soward, Alan

    2016-01-01

    A myocardial infarction is a rare complication which can occur after an exercise stress test. We report a 48-year-old male who was referred to the Mildura Cardiology Practice, Victoria, Australia, in August 2014 with left-sided chest pain. He underwent an exercise stress test which was negative for myocardial ischaemia. However, the patient presented to the Emergency Department of the Mildura Base Hospital 30 minutes after the test with severe retrosternal chest pain. An acute anteroseptal ST segment elevation myocardial infarction was observed on electrocardiography. After thrombolysis, he was transferred to a tertiary hospital where coronary angiography subsequently revealed significant left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis. Thrombus aspiration and a balloon angioplasty were performed. The patient was discharged three days after the surgical procedure in good health.

  15. Prenatal Stress and Acute Stress Later in Life Impacts the Responses in Tests for Depressive-Like Behavior in a Sex-Specific Manner

    Sickmann, Helle Mark; Skoven, Christian; Arentzen, Tina S.;

    Prenatal maternal stress increases the predisposition for affective disorders. Furthermore, women appear twice as likely as men to develop stress- and depression-related disorders. Comparable behavioral changes characteristic of clinical depression are found in rat offspring following prenatal...... stress (PS). These include increased helplessness, altered anxiety indicators and sleep modifications. Our purpose was to further investigate behavioral depression indices following PS as well as CNS structural changes including sex specificity of these variables. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were...... locomotor activity, depressive- and anxiety-like behavior as well as sleep architecture. Some animals were analyzed for CNS microstructural changes based on diffusion MRI. Subsets of PS and control rats were exposed to an acute stressor prior to the behavioral tests. Rearing/climbing activity in a familiar...

  16. DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER IN SEXUAL ABUSE

    Ni Made Apriliani Saniti

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic experiences may happen anytime in our life. The more terrible the situation, the bigger chance for a person to have post traumatic psychological problem, that is the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Sexual abuse is a kind of traumatic event that caused psychological trauma/stress for the victim. In order to be able to manage patient with PTSD, physician should comprehend properties regarding PTSD, including proper treatment and management.

  17. Unpaired extinction: Implications for treating post-traumatic stress disorder

    Schreurs, Bernard G.; Smith-Bell, Carrie A.; Burhans, Lauren B.

    2010-01-01

    Extinction of fear is important for treating stress-related conditions particularly post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although traditional extinction presents the feared stimulus by itself, there is evidence from both clinical and basic research that repeatedly presenting the feared stimulus by itself does not prevent fear from returning. This renewal or relapse can be “thwarted” by unpaired extinction – presentations of the feared stimulus and the event producing the fear. However, no m...

  18. Financial stress and outcomes after acute myocardial infarction.

    Sachin J Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association between financial stress and health care outcomes. Our objective was to examine the association between self-reported financial stress during initial hospitalization and long-term outcomes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used prospective registry evaluating myocardial infarction: Event and Recovery (PREMIER data, an observational, multicenter US study of AMI patients discharged between January 2003 and June 2004. Primary outcomes were disease-specific and generic health status outcomes at 1 year (symptoms, function, and quality of life (QoL, assessed by the Seattle Angina Questionnaire [SAQ] and Short Form [SF]-12. Secondary outcomes included 1-year rehospitalization and 4-year mortality. Hierarchical regression models accounted for patient socio-demographic, clinical, and quality of care characteristics, and access and barriers to care. RESULTS: Among 2344 AMI patients, 1241 (52.9% reported no financial stress, 735 (31.4% reported low financial stress, and 368 (15.7% reported high financial stress. When comparing individuals reporting low financial stress to no financial stress, there were no significant differences in post-AMI outcomes. In contrast, individuals reporting high financial stress were more likely to have worse physical health (SF-12 PCS mean difference -3.24, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: -4.82, -1.66, mental health (SF-12 MCS mean difference: -2.44, 95% CI: -3.83, -1.05, disease-specific QoL (SAQ QoL mean difference: -6.99, 95% CI: -9.59, -4.40, and be experiencing angina (SAQ Angina Relative Risk = 1.66, 95%CI: 1.19, 2.32 at 1 year post-AMI. While 1-year readmission rates were increased (Hazard Ratio = 1.50; 95%CI: 1.20, 1.86, 4-year mortality was no different. CONCLUSIONS: High financial stress is common and an important risk factor for worse long-term outcomes post-AMI, independent of access and barriers to care.

  19. The prevalence and the predictive factors of acute stress disorder among survivors of road traffic accidents%交通事故幸存者急性应激障碍的流行情况及预测因素分析

    李秀丽; 王力; 孙鲁毅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyze the prevalence and risk factors of acute stress disorder (ASD) among survivors of road traffic accidents.Methods A total of 206 participants ( 168 men,38 women) were administrated with the acute stress disorder scale (ASDS) 2 to 23 days after the traffic accidents.Results There was a total of 61 (29.6%) possible ASD patients among all participants.Women had more serious ASD symptoms than men (male:36.70 ± 11.42; female:41.18 ± 12.58; P< 0.05 ),the married's ASD symptom severity was higher than the single's ( married:38.37 ± 11.94 ; single/widowed/divorced:30.86 ± 8.37 ; P < 0.01 ),people with low degree of education had more severe ASD symptoms than the people who had high degree of education (P<0.05) ; being elder( r=0.43,P<0.01 ),having fear / helpless / horror experience of accident ( r=0.21,P< 0.01 ) were significantly correlated with the severity of ASD symptoms.According to linear regression analysis,age could positively predicted ASD symptoms ( β =0.29,P < 0.01 ) too.Conclusion ASD is a common mental problems among Chinese survivors of road traffic accident,and the main predictive factors of ASD include gender,age,marital status,the degree of education,whether there is fear / helpless / horror experience of accident.%目的 了解交通事故幸存者人群中急性应激障碍(Acute Stress Disorders,ASD)的流行情况,并分析相关的预测因素.方法 采用急性应激障碍量表(Acute Stress Disorders Scale,ASDS)对206名交通事故幸存者的急性应激症状进行评估,临床评估距离被试经历车祸时间为2 ~23d.结果 206名中国交通事故幸存者中共有61人为可能的ASD患者,发生率为29.6%;女性较男性ASD症状严重[(男(36.70±11.42)分;女(41.18±12.58)分;t=-2.14,P<0.05],已婚者较单身者ASD症状严重[已婚(38.37±11.94)分;未婚/丧偶/离异(30.86±8.37)分;t=5.22,P<0.01],文化程度低者较文化程度高

  20. 75 FR 41092 - Stressor Determinations for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    2010-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN32 Stressor Determinations for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Correction In rule document 2010-16885 beginning on page 39843 in the issue of Tuesday, July 13, 2010 make...

  1. Identification of Characteristics and Causes of Childhood Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Motta, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    Notes growing interest in children with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and suspicion that rise in family violence, violence in schools, and other stressors may lead to characteristic PTSD symptoms of reexperiencing trauma, psychological numbing, and increased states of arousal. Examines characteristics of childhood PTSD and its causes.…

  2. Cognitions in prolonged exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder

    Hagenaars, M.A.; Minnen, A. van; Rooij, M.J. de

    2010-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study investigates the impact of prolonged exposure treatment on cognitive changes in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Seventy-seven PTSD patients with mixed traumas went through 8 to 12 sessions of imaginal exposure and exposure in vivo without any cogniti

  3. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Examination of What Clinicians Know

    McKenzie, Kylie J.; Smith, David I.

    2006-01-01

    Undetected posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has serious adverse consequences. General practitioners (GPs), psychologists, and psychiatrists all have an important part to play in recognising, assessing, and treating individuals with PTSD. The knowledge level of these clinicians was investigated using a purpose-designed PTSD Knowledge…

  4. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children: What Elementary Teachers Should Know

    Ray, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is not limited to the men and women who have been exposed to the horrors of war through military service. Children who are exposed to traumatic and life-threatening events, such as school shootings, physical and sexual abuse, and community violence, also can suffer from PTSD. This article explores the causes,…

  5. Cognitive mechanisms and posttraumatic stress disorder: Clinical and analogue research.

    I.M. Engelhard; M. Kindt

    2005-01-01

    The contributions to this special issue "Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry," are driven by influential cognitive theories of Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They include clinical and analogue research and address different aspects of PTSD. Two papers focus on the clarificat

  6. Connection and Recovery: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and School Reintegration.

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    This paper provides an introduction to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in a manner that facilitates the interested learner's further exploration. It presents theoretical references and reviews the social factors and epidemiology of PTSD in children and adolescents. The psychobiology of PTSD is described in relation to the types of memory it…

  7. Occurrence of delayed-onset post-traumatic stress disorder

    Utzon-Frank, Nicolai; Breinegaard, Nina; Bertelsen, Mette;

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops according to consensus criteria within the first 1-6 months after a horrifying traumatic event, but it is alleged that PTSD may develop later. The objective was to review the evidence addressing occurrence of PTSD with onset >6 months after a traumatic...

  8. Best Practices for Counselors Who Treat Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Marotta, Sylvia A.

    2000-01-01

    Counselors would benefit from what other mental health care professionals consider to be best practices for preventing and treating posttraumatic stress disorders. The purpose of this article is to summarize for counselors those best practices that have been recently developed and published by a multidisciplinary group in an article published in…

  9. Posttraumatic stress disorder following preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome

    van Pampus, MG; Wolf, H; Schultz, WCMW; Neeleman, J; Aarnoudse, JG

    2004-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in connection with pregnancy was first described in the 1990s-initially in relation to childbirth but later more specifically to the mode of delivery. Instrumental vaginal delivery carries the highest risk of PTSD followed by emergency caesarean section and norma

  10. Complex posttraumatic stress disorder: voices of healing.

    Spermon, Deborah; Darlington, Yvonne; Gibney, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report on a phenomenological study of experiences of recovery of 7 women with histories of childhood maltreatment. We propose a model that recalls the Anglo-Franc etymological origins of rekeverer: to regain consciousness, health, or strength. Dimensions include development of a selfhood; tasks of connection and separation; regulation of overwhelming emotions; management of choices; and internalization of therapeutic relational dynamics. Based on the findings, we suggest that theory and research need to extend concepts of healing, add methodologies privileging victim/survivor voices, and revisit concepts such as neutrality and resistance as they apply to dissociative disorders. Practitioners should have specific training in trauma models, although they need to hold these theories lightly because therapeutic goals and pathways of change might well differ for each client. Integrated whole-of-government initiatives need to identify those at risk of abuse as early as possible, and provide response funding beyond assessment services. PMID:23034776

  11. The Pursuit of Happiness, Stress and Temporomandibular Disorders

    D. Marcus

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mismanaging the pursuit of happiness causes negative psychological effects such as stress and disappointment. The resultant stress often manifests itself as psychological and physical health problems. We explore the problems of measuring happiness according to materialistic wealth and demonstrate that misinterpreting happiness can lead to a stress inducing pursuit. The happiness that human beings pursue is often material-based hedonism whereas eudaimonic happiness has been shown to be a by-product of the pursuit of meaningful activities. Pursuing a predefined happiness, the failure to achieve it and the resistance to it can create stress induced psychosomatic health problems; temporomandibular disorders (TMD are one such example. Masticatory myofascial pain syndrome is a form of TMD that has a strong association to psychological stress. In this paper the research on TMD associated facial pain across different socioeconomic status (SES groups is utilized to compare an objective, stress related physiological disorder with happiness data. We also discuss how the pressures of pursuing socially determined aesthetic happiness such as conforming to society’s expectations of smile and facial aesthetics can drive people to make surgical or orthodontic changes. This review proposes that pursuing happiness has the propensity to cause not only psychological stress but also negative behaviors. We aim to encourage further scientific research that will help to clarify this philosophical pursuit.

  12. Individual Differences in Delay Discounting Under Acute Stress: The Role of Trait Perceived Stress

    Lempert, Karolina M.; Porcelli, Anthony J.; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Tricomi, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Delay discounting refers to the reduction of the value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. The rate at which individuals discount future rewards varies as a function of both individual and contextual differences, and high delay discounting rates have been linked with problematic behaviors, including drug abuse and gambling. The current study investigated the effects of acute anticipatory stress on delay discounting, while considering two important factors: individual per...

  13. Individual differences in delay discounting under acute stress: the role of trait perceived stress

    ElizabethTricomi; KarolinaM.Lempert; AnthonyJ.Porcelli

    2012-01-01

    Delay discounting refers to the reduction of the value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. The rate at which individuals discount future rewards varies as a function of both individual and contextual differences, and high delay discounting rates have been linked with problematic behaviors, including drug abuse and gambling. The current study investigated the effects of acute anticipatory stress on delay discounting, while considering two important factors: individual per...

  14. Germ Cell Origins of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Risk: The Transgenerational Impact of Parental Stress Experience.

    Rodgers, Ali B; Bale, Tracy L

    2015-09-01

    Altered stress reactivity is a predominant feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may reflect disease vulnerability, increasing the probability that an individual will develop PTSD following trauma exposure. Environmental factors, particularly prior stress history, contribute to the developmental programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis. Critically, the consequences of stress experiences are transgenerational, with parental stress exposure impacting stress reactivity and PTSD risk in subsequent generations. Potential molecular mechanisms underlying this transmission have been explored in rodent models that specifically examine the paternal lineage, identifying epigenetic signatures in male germ cells as possible substrates of transgenerational programming. Here, we review the role of these germ cell epigenetic marks, including posttranslational histone modifications, DNA methylation, and populations of small noncoding RNAs, in the development of offspring stress axis sensitivity and disease risk. PMID:25895429

  15. Diathesis-stress theories in the context of life stress research: implications for the depressive disorders.

    Monroe, S M; Simons, A D

    1991-11-01

    Advances in the conceptualization and measurement of life stress in the past 2 decades raise several questions concerning traditional diathesis-stress theories of psychopathology. First, comprehensive measures of life stress force investigators to become more precise about the particular stressful circumstances hypothesized to interact with diatheses. Second, the influence of the diathesis on a person's life is typically ignored, which results in several types of possible bias in the assessment of life stress. Finally, information is available on diatheses and stress for specific disorders to provide a foundation for more empirically based hypotheses about diathesis-stress interactions. This possibility is outlined for depression. Such an approach provides the basis for developing broader, yet more specific, frameworks for investigating diathesis-stress theories of psychopathology in general and of depression in particular. PMID:1758917

  16. Tibia stress fracture secondary to obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Guler, Gulen; Kutuk, Meryem Ozlem; Yildirim, Veli; Celik, Gonca Gül; Toros, Fevziye; Milcan, Abtullah

    2016-04-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by obsessions and compulsions. Early-onset OCD is one of the most common mental illnesses of children and adolescents, with a prevalence of 1% to 3%. It is related to worse lifespan symptoms and prognosis. Therefore, the treatment of OCD in children and adolescent has gained importance. If it is not treated successfully, the compulsive behaviors may cause extreme stress for children and their parents. Although minor complications of OCD are commonly observed, major complications are considerably rare due to the nature of compulsive behaviors. Apparently, loss of vision, autocastration, rectal prolapse are examples of major complications secondary to OCD. As far as we know, it is the first case of tibia stress fracture secondary to OCD. In the present case report, we will discuss tibia stress fracture developing secondary to compulsive behavior due to OCD. PMID:27284118

  17. Acute Restraint Stress Enhances Hippocampal Endocannabinoid Function via Glucocorticoid Receptor Activation

    Wang, Meina; Hill, Matthew N.; Zhang, Longhua; Gorzalka, Boris B.; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Alger, Bradley E.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to behavioral stress normally triggers a complex, multi-level response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis that helps maintain homeostatic balance. Although the endocannabinoid (eCB) system (ECS) is sensitive to chronic stress, few studies have directly addressed its response to acute stress. Here we show that acute restraint stress enhances eCB-dependent modulation of GABA release measured by whole-cell voltage clamp of inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) in rat h...

  18. Rumination predicts heightened responding to stressful life events in major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder.

    Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Gentes, Emily L; Jones, Jason D; Hallion, Lauren S; Coleman, Elizabeth S; Swendsen, Joel

    2015-02-01

    Although studies have documented heightened stress sensitivity in major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. One possible mechanism is the tendency to ruminate in response to stress. We used ecological momentary assessment to study ruminative thoughts after stressful events in 145 adults with MDD, GAD, comorbid MDD-GAD, or no psychopathology. Diagnosed individuals reported more event-related rumination than controls, even after adjusting for event stressfulness. Rumination was equally common in MDD and GAD and was especially severe among comorbid cases. More rumination immediately after the event predicted poorer affect, more maladaptive behavior, and more MDD and GAD symptoms at the next signal, even when pre-event levels of these variables were controlled. Rumination mediated, but did not moderate, the association of stress with affect and with symptoms. Stress-related rumination was more deleterious for diagnosed than healthy individuals, more intense for more severe clinical cases, and more persistent for cases with a greater temperamental vulnerability for emotional disorders. These results implicate rumination as a mechanism of stress sensitivity and suggest pathways through which it may maintain depression and anxiety in everyday life. PMID:25688429

  19. Predictors of Therapy Efficacy for Homeostatic Post-Stress Disorders

    S.A. Mironov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to reveal predictors of stress pathogenicity and to study the possibility of their application for monitoring rehabilitation effectiveness in individuals with distress consequences. Materials and Methods. The study involved 175 males who had suffered once traumatic stress, associated with professional activities. Anamnestic, instrumental and laboratory methods of investigation were used along with psychological techniques and calculation of integral indexes. Besides, to investigate the possibility of applying the predictors for monitoring sanogenetic changes the studied individuals participated in standard rehabilitation programs according to the methods developed by Pogodina et al. Results. There have been revealed the most informative predictors of stress pathogenicity and therapy efficacy for homeostatic post-stress disorders resulting from interaction of the organism with the environment. It has been established that in individuals with a single exposure to traumatic stress the most informative predictors of stress pathogenicity are vegetative disturbances and sexual status disorders associated with them, such as sexual dysfunctions and family-sexual disharmonies. Complex evaluation of the revealed predictors is possible when applying integral indexes based on measuring vegetative and psychosomatic parameters. It is quite easy to implement and at the same time informative not only for assessment of patients initial condition but also for monitoring rehabilitation effectiveness in individuals with distress consequences.

  20. The MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical Scales in the Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Comorbid Disorders

    Wolf, Erika J.; Miller, Mark W.; Orazem, Robert J.; Weierich, Mariann R.; Castillo, Diane T.; Milford, Jaime; Kaloupek, Danny G.; Keane, Terence M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) Restructured Clinical Scales (RCSs) in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) receiving clinical services at Veterans Affairs medical centers. Study 1 included 1,098 men who completed the MMPI-2 and were assessed for a range of psychological disorders via structured clinical interview. Study 2 included 136 women who completed the MMPI-2 and were interviewed with the Cli...

  1. Posttraumatic stress disorder and trauma characteristics are correlates of premenstrual dysphoric disorder

    Pilver, Corey E.; Levy, Becca R.; Libby, Daniel J.; Desai, Rani A.

    2011-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often comorbid with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in women; however, it is unclear whether this relationship is driven by the trauma that may lead to PTSD or if PTSD is uniquely associated with PMDD. In this study, we examine trauma and PTSD as independent correlates of PMDD. Researchers conducted a cross-sectional, secondary data analysis of 3,968 female participants (aged 18–40) of the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys. Women who...

  2. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Increases Sensitivity to Long Term Losses among Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Engelmann, Jan B.; Maciuba, Britta; Vaughan, Christopher; Paulus, Martin P.; Dunlop, Boadie W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Decisions under risk and with outcomes that are delayed in time are ubiquitous in real life and can have a significant impact on the health and wealth of the decision-maker. Despite its potential relevance for real-world choices, the degree of aberrant risky and intertemporal decision-making in patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has received little attention to date. Method We used a case-control design to co...

  3. The Stressed Female Brain: Neuronal activity in the prelimbic but not infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex suppresses learning after acute stress

    Lisa Y. Maeng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Women are nearly twice as likely as men to suffer from anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, indicating that many females are especially vulnerable to stressful life experience. A profound sex difference in the response to stress is also observed in laboratory animals. Acute exposure to an uncontrollable stressful event disrupts associative learning during classical eyeblink conditioning in female rats but enhances this same type of learning process in males. These sex differences in response to stress are dependent on neuronal activity in similar but also different brain regions. Neuronal activity in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA is necessary in both males and females. However, neuronal activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC during the stressor is necessary to modify learning in females but not in males. The mPFC is often divided into its prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL subregions, which differ both in structure and function. Through its connections to the BLA, we hypothesized that neuronal activity within the PL, but not IL, during the stressor is necessary to suppress learning in females. To test this hypothesis, either the PL or IL of adult female rats was bilaterally inactivated with GABAA agonist muscimol during acute inescapable swim stress. 24h later, all subjects were trained with classical eyeblink conditioning. Though stressed, females without neuronal activity in the PL learned well. In contrast, females with IL inactivation during the stressor did not learn well, behaving similar to stressed vehicle-treated females. These data suggest that exposure to a stressful event critically engages the PL, but not IL, to disrupt associative learning in females. Together with previous studies, these data indicate that the PL communicates with the BLA to suppress learning after a stressful experience in females. This circuit may be similarly engaged in women who become cognitively impaired after stressful

  4. 124例地震伤员及家属急性应激障碍发生情况及影响因素分析%Investigation on morbidity and influential factors of acute stress disorder of 124 victims after 5.12 earthquake

    何梅; 覃霞

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨地震受灾人员急性应激障碍的发生率、主要临床表现及影响因素.方法 采用结构式及非结构式访谈与临床观察相结合的方法对某院收治的124例地震伤员及家属进行调查分析.结果 “5.12”汶川地震伤员及家属急性应激障碍的发生率较高(37%),临床表现主要反应在生理、心理和行为3个方面,突出表现在反复体验、睡眠障碍、焦虑、恐惧、易激惹、兴趣减低等方面.从影响因素来看,依次为负性自动思维,不良应对方式,是否有丧亲,自感应激强度,社会支持、性别、自已受伤等方面.结论 急性应激障碍发生较早,症状表现复杂,应受到早期救援人员和医护人员的高度重视,根据其不同临床表现和影响因素采取合理有效的干预措施以降低其发生率,促进恢复.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the morbility, clinical manifestation and influential factor of acute stress disorder (ASD) of victims in 5.12 earthquake. METHODS Investigated and analyzed the 124 inpatients and families from earthquake with structure and non-structure discussion and clinical observation. RESULTS The morbidity of ASD was very high (37%) . The main clinical manifestations were physiological, psychological and behavioral reactions. Among them, repeated experience, sleep disorder, anxiety, horror, irritability, interesting loss, etc. were the key reactions. The most important influential factors were the negative automatic thoughts, the harmful reaction, whether there was loss of family, the self induction of the stress, social support, gender, injured themselves, etc. CONCLUSION ASD happens early after the disaster, and the morbidity is very high. It should pay more attention by the early rescue team and staff in order to lower the ASD morbidity and improve the recovery after disaster.

  5. Early Sleep Psychiatric Intervention for Acute Insomnia: Implications from a Case of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Abe, Yuichiro; Nishimura, Go; Endo, Takuro

    2012-01-01

    Insomnia is a common problem among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and patients suffering from acute insomnia with psychiatric comorbidity are more likely to develop chronic insomnia without appropriate intervention. Here we report a case of obsessive-compulsive disorder with acute insomnia, successfully treated with early sleep psychiatric non-pharmacological intervention. The augmentation of medication runs a risk of exacerbating daytime impairment. Clinicians usually pre...

  6. Screening and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with substance use disorders

    Dam,, Anandamoy

    2014-01-01

    Roughly, one out of four patients with a substance use disorder (SUD) also meets criteria for PTSD. Both disorders seem to be highly intertwined. Two chapters of this thesis focus on the development of a screening questionnaire to detect PTSD within substance abuse treatment centers. For this purpose, a PTSD screener from the United States army was used, the Primary Care posttraumatic stress disorder screen (PC-PTSD). Based on the results of this study a new screener was assembled and cross-v...

  7. Brain structure in post-traumatic stress disorder: A voxel-based morphometry analysis

    Tan, Liwen; Zhang, Li; Qi, Rongfeng; Lu, Guangming; Li, Lingjiang; Liu, Jun; Li, Weihui

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the difference in brain structure in 12 mine disaster survivors with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder, 7 cases of improved post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and 14 controls who experienced the same mine disaster but did not suffer post-traumatic stress disorder, using the voxel-based morphometry method. The correlation between differences in brain structure and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms was also investigated. Results showed that the gray matter v...

  8. Acute short-term mental stress does not influence salivary flow rate dynamics.

    Ella A Naumova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Results of studies that address the influence of stress on salivary flow rate and composition are controversial. The aim of this study was to reveal the influence of stress vulnerability and different phases of stress reactivity on the unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate. We examined that acute mental stress does not change the salivary flow rate. In addition, we also examined the salivary cortisol and protein level in relation to acute mental stress stimuli. METHODS: Saliva of male subjects was collected for five minutes before, immediately, 10, 30 and 120 min after toothbrushing. Before toothbrushing, the subjects were exposed to acute stress in the form of a 2 min public speech. Salivary flow rate and total protein was measured. The physiological stress marker cortisol was analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To determine the subjects' psychological stress reaction, the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory State questionnaire (STAI data were obtained. The subjects were divided into stress subgroup (S1 (psychological reactivity, stress subgroup (S2 (psychological and physiological reactivity and a control group. The area under the curve for salivarycortisol concentration and STAI-State scores were calculated. All data underwent statistical analysis using one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: Immediately after stress exposure, all participants exhibited a psychological stress reaction. Stress exposure did not change the salivary flow rate. Only 69% of the subjects continued to display a physiological stress reaction 20 minutes after the public talk. There was no significant change in the salivary flow rate during the psychological and the physiological stress reaction phases relative to the baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Acute stress has no impact on the salivary flow rate; however, there may be other responses through salivary proteins that are increased with the acute stress stimuli. Future studies are needed to examine

  9. Posttraumatic stress disorder in disaster relief workers following direct and indirect trauma exposure to Ground Zero.

    Zimering, Rose; Gulliver, Suzy B; Knight, Jeffrey; Munroe, James; Keane, Terence M

    2006-08-01

    The present study compared rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in relief workers at the World Trade Center collapse from two sources: direct exposure to the disaster site and indirect exposure through survivor narratives. Standardized clinical interviews for PTSD were conducted with 109 relief workers 6-8 months after the September 11th terrorist attacks. Rates of acute PTSD from direct and indirect exposure to traumatic stressors were 6.4% and 4.6%, respectively. The findings suggest that indirect exposures can lead to PTSD even when Criterion A1 of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000, p. 463), i.e., "experienced by a family member or other close associate" is not met. Further research is necessary to define precisely the parameters of indirect traumatic exposure that may be linked to the development of PTSD. PMID:16929511

  10. Attenuation of Acute and Chronic Restraint Stress-induced Perturbations in Experimental Animals by Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn

    Kulkarni, M. P.; Juvekar, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Nelumbo nucifera was investigated on acute stress (immobilization stress)-induced biochemical alterations in Swiss mice. The animals were also subjected to acute physical stress (swimming endurance test) and acute chemical stress (writhing test) to gauge the antistress potential of the extract. Further to evaluate the antistress activity of Nelumbo nucifera in chronic stress condition, fresh Wistar rats were subjected to cold restraint stress (4° for 1 h) for 7 da...

  11. Attenuation of acute and chronic restraint stress-induced perturbations in experimental animals by Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn

    Kulkarni M; Juvekar A

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Nelumbo nucifera was investigated on acute stress (immobilization stress)-induced biochemical alterations in Swiss mice. The animals were also subjected to acute physical stress (swimming endurance test) and acute chemical stress (writhing test) to gauge the antistress potential of the extract. Further to evaluate the antistress activity of Nelumbo nucifera in chronic stress condition, fresh Wistar rats were subjected to cold restraint stress (4° for 1 h) f...

  12. Administration of exogenous acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito, an endogenous ghrelin enhancer, improves the decrease in postprandial gastric motility in an acute restraint stress mouse model

    Nahata, M; Saegusa, Y.; C. Sadakane; Yamada, C; Nakagawa, K.; Okubo, N.; Ohnishi, S.; Hattori, T.; Sakamoto, N.; Takeda, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical or psychological stress causes functional disorders in the upper gastrointestinal tract. This study aims to elucidate the ameliorating effect of exogenous acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito, a Kampo medicine which acts as a ghrelin enhancer, on gastric dysfunction during acute restraint stress in mice. Methods Fasted and postprandial motor function of the gastric antrum was wirelessly measured using a strain gauge force transducer and solid gastric emptying was detected in mi...

  13. Perceived Stress in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder is Related with Obsessive but Not Compulsive Symptoms

    Pedro eMorgado; Daniela eFreitas; João M Bessa; Nuno eSousa; Cerqueira, João J.

    2013-01-01

    Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is achronic psychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent intrusive thoughts and/or repetitive compulsory behaviors. This psychiatric disorder is known to be stress responsive, as symptoms increase during periods of stress but also because stressful events may precede the onset of OCD. However, only a few and inconsistent reports have been published about the stress perception and the stress-response in these patients. Herein, we have characterized the co...

  14. Effects of acute psychosocial stress exposure on endocrine and affective reactivity in college students differing in the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism.

    Verschoor, Ellen; Markus, C Rob

    2011-07-01

    Enhanced stress vulnerability has been implicated in the pathogenesis of affective disorders. Although both genetic (5-HTTLPR) and cognitive (neuroticism) factors are known to increase stress vulnerability, no experimental study has investigated the interaction between these two factors on psychobiological reactivity following acute stress exposure. This study used a balanced experimental design to examine the interaction between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism in neuroendocrine and affective stress responses. From a large group of 771 students, 48 carriers of the short/short (S/S) allele and 48 carriers of the long/long (L/L) allele with the lowest and the highest neuroticism scores (77 females, 19 males; mean age ± SD: 20.6 ± 2 years) were selected and exposed to an acute psychosocial stressor. Mood was assessed before and after the stressor, and salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before and at 20, 30, and 60 min after stressor onset. Acute stress increased salivary cortisol concentration regardless of either 5-HTTLPR genotype or neuroticism, but it caused a less profound negative mood change in L/L compared to S/S-allele carriers with the lowest neuroticism scores. The 5-HTTLPR genotype influences affective reactivity to acute stress conditional upon neuroticism, improving resilience to acute stress in L/L-allele carriers if they do not already possess high cognitive-affective (neuroticism) vulnerability. PMID:21438771

  15. Neural mechanisms of impaired fear inhibition in posttraumatic stress disorder

    Tanja eJovanovic

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD can develop in some individuals who are exposed to an event that causes extreme fear, horror, or helplessness (APA, 1994. PTSD is a complex and heterogeneous disorder, which is often co-morbid with depression, substance abuse, and anxiety disorders such as panic or social phobia. Given this complexity, progress in the field can be greatly enhanced by focusing on phenotypes that are more proximal to the neurobiology of the disorder. Such neurobiological intermediate phenotypes can provide investigative tools to increase our understanding of the roots of the disorder and develop better prevention or intervention programs. In the present paper, we argue that the inhibition of fear responses is an intermediate phenotype that is related to both the neurocircuitry associated with the disorder, and is linked to its clinical symptoms. An advantage of focusing on fear inhibition is that the neurobiology of fear has been well investigated in animal models providing the necessary groundwork in understanding alterations. Furthermore, because many paradigms can be tested across species, fear inhibition is an ideal translational tool. Here we review both the behavioral tests and measures of fear inhibition and the related neurocircuitry in neuroimaging studies with both healthy and clinical samples.

  16. Reliving and Disorganization in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Panic Disorder Memories

    Hagenaars, M.A.; Minnen, A. van; Hoogduin, C.A.L.

    2009-01-01

    Intense, disorganized recollections are one of the core symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and considered to be the result of inadequate processing of trauma information. A first panic attack resembles trauma in being an unexpected frightening and subjectively life-threatening event,

  17. The MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical Scales in the Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Comorbid Disorders

    Wolf, Erika J.; Miller, Mark W.; Orazem, Robert J.; Weierich, Mariann R.; Castillo, Diane T.; Milford, Jaime; Kaloupek, Danny G.; Keane, Terence M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) Restructured Clinical Scales (RCSs) in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) receiving clinical services at Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers. Study 1 included 1,098 men who completed the MMPI-2 and were…

  18. Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder and psychosis: etiopathogenic and nosological implications

    Álvaro Frías Ibáñez; Carolina Palma Sevillano; Eloi Giné Serven; Elena Aluco Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The relationship between trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and psychosis has promoted heterogeneous research lines, in both etiopathogenic and nosological areas. The main aim of this review is to provide a systematic framework that encompasses this theoretical gap in the literature. Methods: A literature research was carried out through PubMed and PsycINFO between 1980 and May 2013. One hundred and thirteen articles were recruited. A first part of this ...

  19. Are We Winning the War against Posttraumatic Stress Disorder?

    McNally, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    The most methodologically rigorous epidemiological study on American military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan found that 4.3% of troops developed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Among deployed combatants, 7.6% developed PTSD, whereas 1.4% of deployed noncombatants did so. The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs has launched a program ensuring that all veterans with PTSD will receive evidence-based cognitive-behavioral therapy, and the Army has developed Battlemind postdeploym...

  20. Treatment of nightmares in the context of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Gehrman, Philip R; Harb, Gerlinde C

    2010-11-01

    Nightmares are a common feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and are frequently resistant to treatment. Two emerging treatments for nightmares are pharmacotherapy with prazosin and psychotherapy using imagery rehearsal (IR). A case illustration demonstrates the application of these treatments with a client suffering from chronic, severe PTSD. The case illustrates the use of these strategies for managing PTSD-related nightmares, as well as the novel approach of scheduled awakenings following relapse. PMID:20865767

  1. Emotional working memory capacity in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

    Schweizer, Susanne; Dalgleish, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Participants with a lifetime history of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and trauma-exposed controls with no PTSD history completed an emotional working memory capacity (eWMC) task. The task required them to remember lists of neutral words over short intervals while simultaneously processing sentences describing dysfunctional trauma-related thoughts (relative to neutral control sentences). The task was designed to operationalise an everyday cognitive challenge for those with mental health...

  2. Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Incarcerated Men

    Wolff, Nancy; Huening, Jessica; Shi, Jing; Frueh, B. Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Trauma exposure and trauma-related symptoms are prevalent among incarcerated men, suggesting a need for behavioral health intervention. A random sample of adult males (N = 592) residing in a single high-security prison were screened for trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Trauma was a universal experience among incarcerated men. Rates of current PTSD symptoms and lifetime PTSD were significantly higher (30 to 60 %) than rates found in the general male population...

  3. Neuropsychological Functioning in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Abuse

    Samuelson, Kristin W.; Metzler, Thomas J.; Rothlind, Johannes; Choucroun, Gerard; Neylan, Thomas C.; Lenoci, Maryanne; Henn-Haase, Clare; Weiner, Michael W.; Marmar, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown differences in neuropsychological functioning between groups with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and control participants. Because individuals with PTSD often have a history of comorbid alcohol abuse, the extent to which an alcohol confound is responsible for these differences remains a concern. The current study compares neuropsychological testing scores in 4 groups of veterans with and without PTSD (PTSD+] and PTSD–, respectively) and with and without a history of a...

  4. Cognitive processes in post-traumatic stress disorder

    Yıldırımlı, Gamze; Tosun, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) consists of a pattern of symptoms that include cognitive, affective, sensory and behavioral systems. In PTSD, the individual experiences disturbing emotions and sensations such as anxiety, panic, depression, anger, tension, high startle response and hyper-vigilance as a result of re-experiencing traumatic memories, flashbacks, attention difficulties, memory loss, nightmares and intrusive thoughts. To get rid of these emotions, he avoids all stimuli that r...

  5. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia

    Strauss, Gregory P.; Duke, Lisa A.; Ross, Sylvia A.; Allen, Daniel N.

    2009-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly comorbid with schizophrenia and may be associated with higher levels or lower levels of negative symptoms. In the current study, we attempted to clarify the relationship between PTSD and negative symptoms by examining the proportion of patients meeting various negative symptom criteria in a sample of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia alone or schizophrenia and comorbid PTSD. Results indicated that the presence of PTSD in schizophrenia was ass...

  6. Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Urban Residents

    Parto, Jacklyn A.; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies indicate a high risk of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among women and low-income, urban-residing African Americans. This study examined PTSD symptoms among urban-residing, socioeconomically diverse, working age, African Americans and whites. Participants completed the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. Of the 2,104 participants, 268 (12.7%) screened positive for PTSD symptoms. Women (13.8%) were more likely than men (11.3%), white participants (13.8%) were more likely th...

  7. Pain Medication Use Among Patients With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Schwartz, Ann C.; Bradley, Rebekah; Penza, Kristin M.; Sexton, Melissa; Jay, Daniel; Haggard, Patrick J.; Garlow, Steven J.; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship of analgesic medication use with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis was investigated among a sample of 173 African Americans presenting for routine outpatient visits at an urban mental health center. Seventy-eight (43.5%) of the sample met DSM-IV PTSD criteria. Those with PTSD had significantly higher use of analgesic medication (both opiate and non-opiate), as compared with non-PTSD patients. PTSD symptoms, as measured by the Posttraumatic Symptom Scale, were sig...

  8. Comorbidity: 1. Autocognitive developmental disorders of structured psychosocial stress

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2003-01-01

    We explore regularities in comorbid psychiatric and chronic inflammatory disorders from an extension of Irun Cohen's perspective on autoimmune disease, finding that structured psychosocial stress can literally write a distorted image of itself onto child development, resulting in a life course trajectory to characteristic forms of comorbid mind/body dysfunction. Extension of the approach appears possible for schizophrenia and associated conditions, although without such direct relation to st...

  9. Animal models of post-traumatic stress disorder: face validity

    Denis Pare

    2013-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition that develops in a proportion of individuals following a traumatic event. Despite recent advances, ethical limitations associated with human research impede progress in understanding PTSD. Fortunately, much effort has focused on developing animal models to help study the pathophysiology of PTSD. Here, we provide an overview of animal PTSD models where a variety of stressors (physical, psychosocial, or psychogenic) are used to...

  10. TNF-α from hippocampal microglia induces working memory deficits by acute stress in mice.

    Ohgidani, Masahiro; Kato, Takahiro A; Sagata, Noriaki; Hayakawa, Kohei; Shimokawa, Norihiro; Sato-Kasai, Mina; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2016-07-01

    The role of microglia in stress responses has recently been highlighted, yet the underlying mechanisms of action remain unresolved. The present study examined disruption in working memory due to acute stress using the water-immersion resistant stress (WIRS) test in mice. Mice were subjected to acute WIRS, and biochemical, immunohistochemical, and behavioral assessments were conducted. Spontaneous alternations (working memory) significantly decreased after exposure to acute WIRS for 2h. We employed a 3D morphological analysis and site- and microglia-specific gene analysis techniques to detect microglial activity. Morphological changes in hippocampal microglia were not observed after acute stress, even when assessing ramification ratios and cell somata volumes. Interestingly, hippocampal tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were significantly elevated after acute stress, and acute stress-induced TNF-α was produced by hippocampal-ramified microglia. Conversely, plasma concentrations of TNF-α were not elevated after acute stress. Etanercept (TNF-α inhibitor) recovered working memory deficits in accordance with hippocampal TNF-α reductions. Overall, results suggest that TNF-α from hippocampal microglia is a key contributor to early-stage stress-to-mental responses. PMID:26551431

  11. Epidemiology, course and outcome of acute polymorphic psychotic disorder: implications for ICD-11

    Castagnini, Augusto; Foldager, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    concepts of bouffée délirante and cycloid psychosis. Sampling and Methods: We selected all subjects aged 15-64 years (n = 5,426) who were listed in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register with a first-admission diagnosis of ATPDs in 1995-2008 and estimated incidence rates, course and outcome up to 2010...... schizophrenic or predominantly delusional symptoms. Acute polymorphic psychotic disorder was more common in females, while cases with acute schizophrenic features predominated in younger males and evolved more often into schizophrenia and related disorders. Conclusions: These findings suggest that acute...

  12. Sertraline versus paroxetine in the treatment of panic disorder: an acute, double-blind noninferiority comparison.

    Bandelow, B.; Behnke, K.; Lenoir, S.; Hendriks, G.J.; Alkin, T.; Goebel, C.; Clary, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Several classes of medications have demonstrated efficacy in panic disorder, but direct comparison of 2 proven treatments is still uncommon. The purpose of this study was to compare sertraline and paroxetine in the acute treatment of panic disorder. METHOD: Adult outpatients with panic di

  13. Acute Psychosocial Stress and Emotion Regulation Skills Modulate Empathic Reactions to Pain in Others

    Gabriele eBuruck; Johannes eWendsche; Marlen eMelzer; Alexander eStrobel; Denise eDörfel

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test, an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain i...

  14. Acute psychosocial stress and emotion regulation skills modulate empathic reactions to pain in others

    Buruck, Gabriele; Wendsche, Johannes; Melzer, Marlen; Strobel, Alexander; Dörfel, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via...

  15. ROLE OF STRESS IN LIFESTYLE DISORDERS AND ITS MANAGEMENT

    Tripathi J.S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Ayurvedic classics have comprehensively discussed the phenomenon of life, health and disease, in their entire entirety with their subtle and gross relations/interactions with the environment, physical objects and cosmos on one hand and the social, interpersonal and behavioral on the other. Technological advancements, industrialization and excessive urbanization in 21st century have given rise to situation which produced dangerous emotional strain and stress. Sustained nervous tension is therefore a common phenomenon today, which stems directly from different kinds of frustration, worry and despondency. In addition, intake of unhealthy diet, smoking, drinking and addiction of drugs, rampant in today's society also results in different kinds of psychological stresses. In nutshell, it can be said that one is living today in a century of stress. All this leads to various kinds of Chronic diseases, which are termed as Lifestyle disorders, which require a comprehensive management, dietary habits, lifestyle changes and medical management. The present article presents an overview on the stress as one of the most important factor responsible for the present day lifestyle disorders and their management.

  16. Acute deep brain stimulation in the thalamic reticular nucleus protects against acute stress and modulates initial events of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Magdaleno-Madrigal, Víctor Manuel; Pantoja-Jiménez, Christopher Rodrigo; Bazaldúa, Adrián; Fernández-Mas, Rodrigo; Almazán-Alvarado, Salvador; Bolaños-Alejos, Fernanda; Ortíz-López, Leonardo; Ramírez-Rodriguez, Gerardo Bernabé

    2016-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used as an alternative therapeutic procedure for pharmacoresistant psychiatric disorders. Recently the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) gained attention due to the description of a novel pathway from the amygdala to this nucleus suggesting that may be differentially disrupted in mood disorders. The limbic system is implicated in the regulation of these disorders that are accompanied by neuroplastic changes. The hippocampus is highly plastic and shows the generation of new neurons, process affected by stress but positively regulated by antidepressant drugs. We explored the impact of applying acute DBS to the TRN (DBS-TRN) in male Wistar rats exposed to acute stress caused by the forced-swim Porsolt's test (FST) and on initial events of hippocampal neurogenesis. After the first session of forced-swim, rats were randomly subdivided in a DBS-TRN and a Sham group. Stimulated rats received 10min of DBS, thus the depressant-like behavior reflected as immobility was evaluated in the second session of forced-swim. Locomotricity was evaluated in the open field test. Cell proliferation and doublecortin-associated cells were quantified in the hippocampus of other cohorts of rats. No effects of electrode implantation were found in locomotricity. Acute DBS-TRN reduced immobility in comparison to the Sham group (pcell proliferation (Ki67 or BrdU-positive cells; p=0.02, p=0.02) and the number of doublecortin-cells compared to the Sham group (p<0.02). Similar effects were found in rats previously exposed to the first session of forced-swim. Our data could suggest that TRN brain region may be a promising target for DBS to treat intractable depression. PMID:27435420

  17. posttraumatic stress disorder: a theoretical model of the hyperarousal subtype

    CharlesStewartWeston

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a frequent and distressing mental disorder, about which much remains to be learned. It is a heterogeneous disorder; the hyperarousal subtype (about 70% of occurrences and simply termed PTSD in this paper is the topic of this article, but the dissociative subtype (about 30% of occurrences and likely involving quite different brain mechanisms is outside its scope. A theoretical model is presented that integrates neuroscience data on diverse brain regions known to be involved in PTSD, and extensive psychiatric findings on the disorder. Specifically, the amygdala is a multifunctional brain region that is crucial to PTSD, and processes peritraumatic hyperarousal on grounded cognition principles to produce hyperarousal symptoms. Amygdala activity also modulates hippocampal function, which is supported by a large body of evidence, and likewise amygdala activity modulates several brainstem regions, visual cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC, and medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC, to produce diverse startle, visual, memory, numbing, anger, and recklessness symptoms. Additional brain regions process other aspects of peritraumatic responses to produce further symptoms. These contentions are supported by neuroimaging, neuropsychological, neuroanatomical, physiological, cognitive, and behavioral evidence. Collectively, the model offers an account of how responses at the time of trauma are transformed into an extensive array of the 20 PTSD symptoms that are specified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition. It elucidates the neural mechanisms of a specific form of psychopathology, and accords with the Research Domain Criteria framework

  18. Pharmacotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder: Review with clinical applications

    Matthew Jeffreys, MD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a prevalent psychiatric diagnosis among veterans and has high comorbidity with other medical and psychiatric conditions. This article reviews the pharmacotherapy recommendations from the 2010 revised Department of Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG for PTSD and provides practical PTSD treatment recommendations for clinicians. While evidence-based, trauma-focused psychotherapy is the preferred treatment for PTSD, pharmacotherapy is also an important treatment option. First-line pharmacotherapy agents include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and the selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor venlafaxine. Second-line agents have less evidence for their usefulness in PTSD and carry a potentially greater side effect burden. They include nefazodone, mirtazapine, tricyclic antidepressants, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Prazosin is beneficial for nightmares. Benzodiazepines and antipsychotics, either as monotherapy or used adjunctively, are not recommended in the treatment of PTSD. Treating co-occurring disorders, such as major depressive disorder, substance use disorders, and traumatic brain injury, is essential in maximizing treatment outcomes in PTSD. The CPG provides evidence-based treatment recommendations for treating PTSD with and without such co-occurring disorders.

  19. Posttraumatic stress disorder and the nature of trauma

    van der Kolk, Bessel

    2000-01-01

    The role of psychological trauma (eg, rape, physical assaults, torture, motor vehicle accidents) as an etiological factor in mental disorders, anticipated as early as the 19th century by Janet, Freud, and Breuer, and more specifically during World War I and II by Kardiner, was “rediscovered” some 20 years ago in the wake of the psychological traumas inflicted by the Vietnam war and the discussion “in the open ” of sexual abuse and rape by the women's liberation movement, 1980 marked a major turning point, with the incorporation of the diagnostic construct of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) into the 3rd edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) and the definition of its main diagnostic criteria (reexperiencing of the traumatic event, avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma, and symptoms of increased arousal). Initially described as resulting from a onetime severe traumatic incident, PTSD has now been shown to be triggered by chronic multiple traumas as well. This “state-of-the-art” article discusses past and current understanding of the disorder, with particular emphasis on the recent explosive developments in neuroimaging and other fields of the neurosciences that have highlighted the complex interrelationships between the psychological, psychiatric, biological, and neuroanatomical components of the disorder, and opened up entirely new therapeutic perspectives on how to help the victims of trauma overcome their past. PMID:22034447

  20. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Patients and Results of Violent Behavior

    Taner Oznur

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: High levels of anger and aggression in post-traumatic stress disorder lead to unfavorable social, legal, physical and economic results to family members and the other social layers as much as patients. In this study, it is aimed to investigate the relation between both alcohol-cigarette consumption ratios and anger levels, characteristics of aggressive behaviors and the judicial outcome in cases diagnosed post-traumatic stress disorder due to armed conflict. METHODS: 38 cases diagnosed as post-traumatic stress disorder were included to the study. Pre- and post-traumatic alcohol/cigarette consumption amounts and aggressive behaviors are determined. Impact of Events Scale (Revised (IES-R was used for evaluating post-traumatic stress disorder symptom patterns and severity, Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire was used for measuring anger and aggression levels, and Taylor and #8217;s Violence Rating Scale was used for evaluating the judicial outcome of aggression. RESULTS: 23 of cases (60.6% were married with children, 13 of cases (34.25 were single and 2 of cases (5.2% were divorced.18 of cases (47.4% were graduate. IES-R total score was 66,9 +/- 12,7, Buss Perry total score was 111,3 +/- 20,5, and Taylor and #8217;s Violence Rate was 2,5 +/- 1,0. When the pre- and post-traumatic aggressive behaviors were compared; physical violence to the partner was increased more than ten times, Physical and verbal violence to social individuals were increased more than four and seven times, respectively. And also it is observed that inflicting damage to property was increased 17 times, reckless driving was increased 11 times, and self-mutilation was increased 5 times. Alcohol consumption was determined as 0 (0 - 126 g/day for pre-trauma cases and 16.5 (0 - 294 g/day for post-trauma cases. Cigarette smoking was determined as 5 (0 and #8211; 40 cigarette/day for pre-trauma cases and 30 (0 -60 cigarette/day for post-trauma cases. CONCLUSION: Post

  1. Neurofeedback Treatment and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Effectiveness of Neurofeedback on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and the Optimal Choice of Protocol.

    Reiter, Karen; Andersen, Søren Bo; Carlsson, Jessica

    2016-02-01

    Neurofeedback is an alternative, noninvasive approach used in the treatment of a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Many different neurofeedback protocols and methods exist. Likewise, PTSD is a heterogeneous disorder. To review the evidence on effectiveness and preferred protocol when using neurofeedback treatment on PTSD, a systematic search of PubMed, PsychInfo, Embase, and Cochrane databases was undertaken. Five studies were included in this review. Neurofeedback had a statistically significant effect in three studies. Neurobiological changes were reported in three studies. Interpretation of results is, however, limited by differences between the studies and several issues regarding design. The optimistic results presented here qualify neurofeedback as probably efficacious for PTSD treatment. PMID:26825263

  2. Acute neuropsychiatric disorders in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome: Japanese case reports

    Akahoshi K

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Keiko Akahoshi,1 Hiroshi Matsuda,2 Masuko Funahashi,1 Tomoyuki Hanaoka,3 Yasuyuki Suzuki11Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Children’s Rehabilitation Hospital, Tokyo; 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama; 3Department of Pediatrics, Bihoro Rehabilitation Hospital, Hokkaido, JapanBackground: The aim of this study was to evaluate acute neuropsychiatric disorders in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome. We report 13 Japanese adolescents or young adults with Down syndrome who developed acute neuropsychiatric disorders including withdrawal, depression, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and occasional delusions or hallucinations.Methods: The following information was collected from each patient: age at onset of acute neuropsychiatric disorder, complications, signs and symptoms, personality traits before the onset of the acute neuropsychiatric disorder, prescribed medications with their respective doses and the response to treatment, and senile changes observed on magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography.Results: The mean age at onset of these disorders was 21.2 years. Brain imaging showed almost senile changes; patients responded well to low-dose psychotropic therapy. Patients had an onset at a young age and presented with treatable conditions, although the average age of the onset of Alzheimer’s disease is generally over 40 years of age in patients with Down syndrome.Conclusion: These findings suggest that the pathology of acute neuropsychiatric disorder in patients with Down syndrome may be related to presenile changes; however, these disorders present features and a clinical course that is different from those presented in typical Alzheimer’s disease with Down syndrome.Keywords: Down syndrome, acute neuropsychiatric disorders, Alzheimer’s disease

  3. The Evolution of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder following Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Alway, Yvette; Gould, Kate Rachel; McKay, Adam; Johnston, Lisa; Ponsford, Jennie

    2016-05-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may develop following traumatic brain injury (TBI), despite most patients having no conscious memory of their accident. This prospective study examined the frequency, timing of onset, symptom profile, and trajectory of PTSD and its psychiatric comorbidities during the first 4 years following moderate-to-severe TBI. Participants were 85 individuals (78.8% male) with moderate or severe TBI recruited following admission to acute rehabilitation between 2005 and 2010. Using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Disorders (SCID-I), participants were evaluated for pre- and post-injury PTSD soon after injury and reassessed at 6 months, 12 months, 2 years, 3 years, and 4 years post-injury. Over the first 4 years post-injury, 17.6% developed injury-related PTSD, none of whom had PTSD prior to injury. PTSD onset peaked between 6 and 12 months post-injury. The majority of PTSD cases (66.7%) had a delayed-onset, which for a third was preceded by subsyndromal symptoms in the first 6 months post-injury. PTSD frequency increased over the first year post-injury, remained stable during the second year, and gradually declined thereafter. The majority of subjects with PTSD experienced a chronic symptom course and all developed one or more than one comorbid psychiatric disorder, with mood, other anxiety, and substance-use disorders being the most common. Despite event-related amnesia, post-traumatic stress symptoms, including vivid re-experiencing phenomena, may develop following moderate-to-severe TBI. Onset is typically delayed and symptoms may persist for several years post-injury. PMID:26176500

  4. The effect of acute stress on memory depends on word valence.

    Smeets, Tom; Jelicic, Marko; Merckelbach, Harald

    2006-10-01

    The present study investigated the effect of acute stress on working memory and memory for neutral, emotionally negative, and emotionally positive words in healthy undergraduates. Participants (N=60) were exposed to either the Trier Social Stress Test (stress group) or a non-stressful task (control group). Analyses of salivary cortisol samples taken throughout the study showed elevated glucocorticoid levels after the experimental manipulation in the stress group, but not in the control group. Recall performance was impaired in the stress group, but only so for neutral words. No differences between the stress and control group were found on working memory measures. For the stress group, digit span forward and digit span total scores were associated with correct recall of neutral words. All in all, this study lends further support to the notion that the memory effects of exposure to acute stress depend on the valence of the memory material. PMID:16388863

  5. Animal models for posttraumatic stress disorder: An overview of what is used in research

    Borghans, Bart; Homberg, Judith R.

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common anxiety disorder characterised by its persistence of symptoms after a traumatic experience. Although some patients can be cured, many do not benefit enough from the psychological therapies or medication strategies used. Many researchers use animal models to learn more about the disorder and several models are available. The most-used physical stressor models are single-prolonged stress, restraint stress, foot shock, stress-enhanced fear learnin...

  6. Association of Pediatric Stress Hyperglycemia with Insulin Metabolism Disorders

    Peyman Eshraghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transient hyperglycemia is a condition that happens during acute physiologic stress in children.  The aim of this study is to determine if there is any relation between stress hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome in pediatric patients.   Materials and Methods:  The study was performed on children hospitalized in Amirkola pediatric hospital, North of Iran, between February 2011 to January 2013. Children with a history of stress hyperglycemia were studied for the presence of metabolic syndrome or Anti GAD65 Autoantibodies. A total of 50 patients were studied.   Results: None of our patients had developed type 1 diabetes. OGTT was normal in all patients. Metabolic syndrome was present in 2 cases (4%. The prevalence of insulin resistance was 16%. The most common metabolic abnormality noted was hypertriglyciredemia and one patient was positive for GAD 65 autoantibody.  Conclusion: According to our data children with stress hyperglycemia do not appear to be at increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes but insulin resistance is relatively common in these patients.

  7. Posttraumatic stress disorder: a state-of-the-science review.

    Nemeroff, Charles B; Bremner, J Douglas; Foa, Edna B; Mayberg, Helen S; North, Carol S; Stein, Murray B

    2006-02-01

    This article reviews the state-of-the-art research in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from several perspectives: (1) Sex differences: PTSD is more frequent among women, who tend to have different types of precipitating traumas and higher rates of comorbid panic disorder and agoraphobia than do men. (2) Risk and resilience: The presence of Group C symptoms after exposure to a disaster or act of terrorism may predict the development of PTSD as well as comorbid diagnoses. (3) Impact of trauma in early life: Persistent increases in CRF concentration are associated with early life trauma and PTSD, and may be reversed with paroxetine treatment. (4) Imaging studies: Intriguing findings in treated and untreated depressed patients may serve as a paradigm of failed brain adaptation to chronic emotional stress and anxiety disorders. (5) Neural circuits and memory: Hippocampal volume appears to be selectively decreased and hippocampal function impaired among PTSD patients. (6) Cognitive behavioral approaches: Prolonged exposure therapy, a readily disseminated treatment modality, is effective in modifying the negative cognitions that are frequent among PTSD patients. In the future, it would be useful to assess the validity of the PTSD construct, elucidate genetic and experiential contributing factors (and their complex interrelationships), clarify the mechanisms of action for different treatments used in PTSD, discover ways to predict which treatments (or treatment combinations) will be successful for a given individual, develop an operational definition of remission in PTSD, and explore ways to disseminate effective evidence-based treatments for this condition. PMID:16242154

  8. Critical features of acute stress-induced cross-sensitization identified through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis output.

    Belda, Xavier; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Stress-induced sensitization represents a process whereby prior exposure to severe stressors leaves animals or humans in a hyper-responsive state to further stressors. Indeed, this phenomenon is assumed to be the basis of certain stress-associated pathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder and psychosis. One biological system particularly prone to sensitization is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the prototypic stress system. It is well established that under certain conditions, prior exposure of animals to acute and chronic (triggering) stressors enhances HPA responses to novel (heterotypic) stressors on subsequent days (e.g. raised plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels). However, such changes remain somewhat controversial and thus, the present study aimed to identify the critical characteristics of the triggering and challenging stressors that affect acute stress-induced HPA cross-sensitization in adult rats. We found that HPA cross-sensitization is markedly influenced by the intensity of the triggering stressor, whereas the length of exposure mainly affects its persistence. Importantly, HPA sensitization is more evident with mild than strong challenging stressors, and it may remain unnoticed if exposure to the challenging stressor is prolonged beyond 15 min. We speculate that heterotypic HPA sensitization might have developed to optimize biologically adaptive responses to further brief stressors. PMID:27511270

  9. Effect of estrogen on plasma ceruloplasmin level in rats exposed to acute stress

    Ganaraja B

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasma ceruloplasmin, a copper containing protein, belongs to a class called acute phase proteins. Reduced level of ceruloplasmin was associated with Wilson′s disease and Menke′s kinky hair disease in man, primarily affecting copper metabolism. Stress was known to increase Ceruloplasmin. Several stress associated changes were commonly observed in women at menopause and also those who underwent overiectomy. Present experiment investigated the effect of estrogen on ceruloplasmin level in acute stress. AIMS: To assess the estradiol induced changes in plasma ceruloplasmin concentration on exposure of the rats to acute stress. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Acute stress was induced by forcing the rats to swim till exhaustion. The rats were overiectomised bilaterally to remove the primary source of sex hormones. And hormone replacement was done later. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Wistar albino female rats were used. Acute stress was induced before overiectomy, following recovery from surgery, and again after Estradiol Valerate injection (for 10 days in same group of rats. The plasma ceruloplasmin was estimated immediately after stress during each stage - that is preoperative control, stressed control, after overiectomy and then following treatment with Estradiol Valerate. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Paired sample T test was applied to analyze the findings. Results: We found lowest ceruloplasmin level after stress in overiectomised animals, while on substitution of estradiol the trend appeared to be reversed. CONCLUSION: The result suggested a direct effect of estrogen on hepatic ceruloplasmin production/release and this could account for some of the beneficial effects of hormone replacement therapy.

  10. Acute stress switches spatial navigation strategy from egocentric to allocentric in a virtual Morris water maze.

    van Gerven, Dustin J H; Ferguson, Thomas; Skelton, Ronald W

    2016-07-01

    Stress and stress hormones are known to influence the function of the hippocampus, a brain structure critical for cognitive-map-based, allocentric spatial navigation. The caudate nucleus, a brain structure critical for stimulus-response-based, egocentric navigation, is not as sensitive to stress. Evidence for this comes from rodent studies, which show that acute stress or stress hormones impair allocentric, but not egocentric navigation. However, there have been few studies investigating the effect of acute stress on human spatial navigation, and the results of these have been equivocal. To date, no study has investigated whether acute stress can shift human navigational strategy selection between allocentric and egocentric navigation. The present study investigated this question by exposing participants to an acute psychological stressor (the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task, PASAT), before testing navigational strategy selection in the Dual-Strategy Maze, a modified virtual Morris water maze. In the Dual-Strategy maze, participants can chose to navigate using a constellation of extra-maze cues (allocentrically) or using a single cue proximal to the goal platform (egocentrically). Surprisingly, PASAT stress biased participants to solve the maze allocentrically significantly more, rather than less, often. These findings have implications for understanding the effects of acute stress on cognitive function in general, and the function of the hippocampus in particular. PMID:27174311

  11. Acute stress modulates feedback processing in men and women: differential effects on the feedback-related negativity and theta and beta power.

    Stella Banis

    Full Text Available Sex-specific prevalence rates in mental and physical disorders may be partly explained by sex differences in physiological stress responses. Neural networks that might be involved are those underlying feedback processing. Aim of the present EEG study was to investigate whether acute stress alters feedback processing, and whether stress effects differ between men and women. Male and female participants performed a gambling task, in a control and a stress condition. Stress was induced by exposing participants to a noise stressor. Brain activity was analyzed using both event-related potential and time-frequency analyses, measuring the feedback-related negativity (FRN and feedback-related changes in theta and beta oscillatory power, respectively. While the FRN and feedback-related theta power were similarly affected by stress induction in both sexes, feedback-related beta power depended on the combination of stress induction condition and sex. FRN amplitude and theta power increases were smaller in the stress relative to the control condition in both sexes, demonstrating that acute noise stress impairs performance monitoring irrespective of sex. However, in the stress but not in the control condition, early lower beta-band power increases were larger for men than women, indicating that stress effects on feedback processing are partly sex-dependent. Our findings suggest that sex-specific effects on feedback processing may comprise a factor underlying sex-specific stress responses.

  12. Prolonged grief disorder, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder among bereaved Kosovar civilian war survivors: a preliminary investigation

    N. Morina; V. Rudari; G. Bleichhardt; H. Prigerson

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study aimed at examining diagnostic concordance between Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD), Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among bereaved war survivors who had lost relatives due to war-related violence. Method: We investigated the rates of PGD

  13. Biological studies of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Pitman, Roger K; Rasmusson, Ann M; Koenen, Karestan C; Shin, Lisa M; Orr, Scott P; Gilbertson, Mark W; Milad, Mohammed R; Liberzon, Israel

    2012-11-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the only major mental disorder for which a cause is considered to be known: that is, an event that involves threat to the physical integrity of oneself or others and induces a response of intense fear, helplessness or horror. Although PTSD is still largely regarded as a psychological phenomenon, over the past three decades the growth of the biological PTSD literature has been explosive, and thousands of references now exist. Ultimately, the impact of an environmental event, such as a psychological trauma, must be understood at organic, cellular and molecular levels. This Review attempts to present the current state of this understanding on the basis of psychophysiological, structural and functional neuroimaging, and endocrinological, genetic and molecular biological studies in humans and in animal models. PMID:23047775

  14. Effect of Symptoms of Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder on Symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Korean Conscripts

    Lee, Dong-Yun; Lee, Cheol-Soon; Park, Chul-Soo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Cha, Bo-Seok; Lee, So-Jin; Bhang, Soo Young

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study is conducted to investigate the effect of symptoms of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among 224 conscripts during 5 weeks of military basic training. Methods Total number of subject is 224 conscripts. We evaluated past and present symptoms of ADHD with Korean-Wender Utah rating scale (K-WURS) and Korean adult attention -deficit/hyperactivity disorder scale (K-AADHDS) and stress and symptoms of PTSD wi...

  15. The Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms among Addiction Treatment Patients with Cocaine Use Disorders

    Saunders, Elizabeth C.; Lambert-Harris, Chantal; McGovern, Mark P.; Meier, Andrea; Xie, Haiyi

    2015-01-01

    Co-occurring cocaine use and posttraumatic stress disorders are prevalent and associated with negative treatment, health and societal consequences. This study examined the relationships among PTSD symptoms, gender, and cocaine use problems. Within a cross-sectional design, we gathered archival point prevalence data on new admissions (n = 573) to three addiction treatment agencies. Demographic, substance use, and PTSD symptom information were collected across the three agencies. Logistic regre...

  16. From Soldiers to Children: Developmental Sciences Transform the Construct of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Franks, Bridget A.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was first included in the American Psychiatric Association's "Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders" in 1980. Long used to describe the reactions of soldiers affected by stress in combat situations, PTSD is now recognised as a disorder affecting abused and neglected infants and…

  17. Acute Immobilization Stress Modulate GABA Release from Rat Olfactory Bulb: Involvement of Endocannabinoids—Cannabinoids and Acute Stress Modulate GABA Release

    Alejandra Delgado; Erica H. Jaffé

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effects of cannabinoids and acute immobilization stress on the regulation of GABA release in the olfactory bulb. Glutamate-stimulated 3H-GABA release was measured in superfused slices. We report that cannabinoids as WIN55, 212-2, methanandamide, and 2-arachidonoylglycerol were able to inhibit glutamate- and KCl-stimulated 3H-GABA release. This effect was blocked by the CB1 antagonist AM281. On the other hand, acute stress was able per se to increase endocannabinoid activity. Th...

  18. Latent Factor Structure of DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Gentes, Emily; Dennis, Paul A.; Kimbrel, Nathan A.; Kirby, Angela C.; Hair, Lauren P.; Beckham, Jean C.; Calhoun, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the latent factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) based on DSM-5 criteria in a sample of participants (N = 374) recruited for studies on trauma and health. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were used to compare the fit of the previous 3-factor DSM-IV model of PTSD to the 4-factor model specified in DSM-5 as well as to a competing 4-factor “dysphoria” model (Simms, Watson, & Doebbeling, 2002) and a 5-factor (Elhai et al., 2011) model of PTSD. Resul...

  19. Stroop-interference effect in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Cui, Hong; Chen, Guoliang; Liu, Xiaohui; Shan, Moshui; Jia, Yanyan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the conflict processing in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients, we conducted the classical Stroop task by recording event-related potentials. Although the reaction time was overall slower for PTSD patients than healthy age-matched control group, the Stroop-interference effect of reaction time did not differ between the two groups. Compared with normal controls, the interference effects of N 2 and N 450 components were larger and the interference effect of slow potential component disappeared in PTSD. These data indicated the dysfunction of conflict processing in individuals with PTSD. PMID:25182347

  20. Child maltreatment: the neurobiological aspects of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Painter, Kirstin; Scannapieco, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Childhood trauma due to physical abuse, neglect, or sexual abuse is a serious problem in the United States. Trauma can result in disruption or injury to the developing brain and lead to neurodevelopmental deficits that affect a child's functioning and can result in lifelong problems. Research has provided insight into how early childhood maltreatment affects brain development. This article examines the research on trauma, its effects on the brain, and evidence-based interventions. An overview of normal brain functioning and posttraumatic stress disorder is presented. Implications for social work practice with children who have experienced child maltreatment are discussed. PMID:23879352

  1. ANIMAL MODELS OF POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: FACE VALIDITY

    SONAL eGOSWAMI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a debilitating condition that develops in a proportion of individuals following a traumatic event. Despite recent advances, ethical limitations associated with human research impede progress in understanding PTSD. Fortunately, much effort has focused on developing animal models to help study the pathophysiology of PTSD. Here, we provide an overview of animal PTSD models where a variety of stressors (physical, psychosocial, or psychogenic are used to examine the long-term effects of severe trauma. We emphasize models involving predator threat because they reproduce human individual differences in susceptibility to, and in the long-term consequences of, psychological trauma.

  2. [Psychosocial Characteristics of Adolescent Girls with Posttraumatic Stress Disorders and Substance Use Disorders].

    Thomsen, Monika; Baldus, Christiane; Herschelmann, Susanne; Schäfer, Ingo; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Psychosocial Characteristics of Adolescent Girls with Posttraumatic Stress Disorders and Substance Use Disorders Already in adolescence posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) often occur comorbid. SUD is usually in the focus of treatment and underlying PTSD is not always recognized. To date there is no explicit offer for the simultaneous treatment of both clinical pictures in adolescence. In the present study we tested whether the group intervention Seeking Safety, that is implemented successfully in adulthood, would also be interesting for the youth clientele. In addition we analyzed the characteristics of a target group of girls and young women between 14 and 21 years, that could be reached for such a program in a German city. In the present study we conducted 39 complete interviews that enable an estimation of the various strains and symptoms of those affected. The results clarify that female adolescents with a dual diagnosis PTSD and SUD are currently not sufficiently addressed by the supply system and could benefit from a specific treatment like Seeking Safety. PMID:27595808

  3. Effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress in rat lungs* **

    Torres, Ronaldo Lopes; Torres, Iraci Lucena da Silva; Laste, Gabriela; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Cardoso; Cardoso, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro; Belló-Klein, Adriane

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress, as quantified by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), in rat lungs. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: acute treatment, comprising rats receiving a single injection of methylprednisolone (50 mg/kg i.p.); acute control, comprising rats i.p. injected with saline; chronic treatment, comprising rats receiving methy...

  4. Effects of acute stress on learning and memory processes of malnourished rats

    Lucas Duarte Ferreira Manhas dos Vales; Marisa Tomoe Hebihara Fukuda; Sebastião de Sousa Almeida

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of acute stress on the processes of learning and memory in malnourished rats tested in the Morris water maze. The animals were divided into eight groups according to nutritional status (malnourished or well nourished) and stress (stressed or unstressed). In Experiment I the animals were subjected to immobilization stress procedure before the learning session and in Experiment II after the learning sessions. The test consisted of two daily se...

  5. Grey matter alterations in post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder and social anxiety disorder

    Bochao eCheng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and social anxiety disorder (SAD all bear the core symptom of anxiety and are separately classified in the new DSM-5 system. The aim of the present study is to obtain evidence for neuroanatomical difference for these disorders. We applied voxel-based morphometry (VBM with Diffeomorphic Anatomic Registration Through Exponentiated Lie (DARTEL to compare grey matter volume (GMV in Magnetic Resonance (MR images obtained for thirty patients with PTSD, twenty nine patients with OCD, twenty patients with SAD and thirty healthy controls. GMV across all four groups differed in left hypothalamus and left inferior parietal lobule and post hoc analyses revealed that this difference is primarily due to reduced GMV in the PTSD group relative to the other groups. Further analysis revealed that the PTSD group also showed reduced GMV in frontal lobe, temporal lobe and cerebellum compared to the OCD group, and reduced GMV in frontal lobes bilaterally compared to SAD group. A significant negative correlation with anxiety symptoms is observed for GMV in left hypothalamus in three disorder groups. We have thus found evidence for brain structure differences that in future could provide biomarkers to potentially support classification of these disorders using MRI.

  6. Chronic and acute effects of stress on energy balance: are there appropriate animal models?

    Harris, Ruth B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Stress activates multiple neural and endocrine systems to allow an animal to respond to and survive in a threatening environment. The corticotropin-releasing factor system is a primary initiator of this integrated response, which includes activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The energetic response to acute stress is determined by the nature and severity of the stressor, but a typical response to an acute stressor is inhibition of food...

  7. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a sing...

  8. TREATMENT OF 20 CASES OF ACUTE LUMBAR DISC PROTRUSION WITH YIN THERAPY FOR YANG DISORDER

    TAO Jing; KANG Ming-fei; ZHAO Rong

    2006-01-01

    @@ Lumbar disc protrusion is one of the common reasons of lumbar and leg pain. How to alleviate acute pain effectively is the major problem encountered in the clinical medicine. From June 2005 to March 2006, yin therapy for yang disorder had been adopted in the treatment of 20 cases of acute lumbar disc protrusion and the significant therapeutic effects had been achieved. The report is as follows.

  9. CSWS Versus SIADH as the Probable Causes of Hyponatremia in Children With Acute CNS Disorders

    Hadi SORKHI; MohammadReza SALEIOMRAN; Rahim BARARI SAVADKOHI; Farkhondeh BAGHDADI; Naeemeh NAKHJAVANI; Bijani, Ali

    2013-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Sorkhi H, Salehi Omran MR, Barari Savadkoohi R, Baghdadi F, Nakhjavani N, Bijani A. CSWS versus SIADH as the probable Causes of Hyponatremia in Children with Acute CNS Disorders. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Summer;7(3): 34-39. ObjectiveThere is a major problem about the incidence, diagnosis, and differentiation of cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) and syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) in patients with acute central nervous system (...

  10. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. 4.129 Section 4.129 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event...

  11. Individual differences in early adolescents' latent trait cortisol (LTC): Relation to recent acute and chronic stress.

    Stroud, Catherine B; Chen, Frances R; Doane, Leah D; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-08-01

    Research suggests that environmental stress contributes to health by altering the regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Recent evidence indicates that early life stress alters trait indicators of HPA axis activity, but whether recent stress alters such indicators is unknown. Using objective contextual stress interviews with adolescent girls and their mothers, we examined the impact of recent acute and chronic stress occurring during the past year on early adolescent girls' latent trait cortisol (LTC) level. We also examined whether associations between recent stress and LTC level: a) varied according to the interpersonal nature and controllability of the stress; and b) remained after accounting for the effect of early life stress. Adolescents (n=117;M age=12.39years) provided salivary cortisol samples three times a day (waking, 30min post-waking and bedtime) over 3days. Results indicated that greater recent interpersonal acute stress and greater recent independent (i.e., uncontrollable) acute stress were each associated with a higher LTC level, over and above the effect of early adversity. In contrast, greater recent chronic stress was associated with a lower LTC level. Findings were similar in the overall sample and a subsample of participants who strictly adhered to the timed schedule of saliva sample collection. Implications for understanding the impact of recent stress on trait-like individual differences in HPA axis activity are discussed. PMID:27155256

  12. Life Stress and First Onset of Psychiatric Disorders in Daughters of Depressed Mothers

    Gershon, Anda; Hayward, Chris; Schraedley-Desmond, Pamela; Rudolph, Karen D.; Booster, Genery D.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2011-01-01

    This study used a comprehensive, interview-based measure of life stress to assess the role of different types of stress in predicting first onset of psychiatric disorders among daughters of depressed (n = 22) mothers and healthy (n = 22) mothers. Several types of stress were assessed: Chronic interpersonal stress, chronic non-interpersonal stress, episodic dependent (i.e., self-generated) interpersonal stress, episodic dependent non-interpersonal stress, episodic independent interpersonal str...

  13. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Reason for or Consequence of Facial Plastic Surgery?

    Ehlert, Ulrike

    2015-08-01

    Facial plastic surgery may be undertaken for a variety of reasons. Patients may have had traumatic experiences prior to surgery, such as an accident, a physical assault, or severe illness resulting in facial damage, and they may have used inadequate coping strategies. These patients usually appear suspicious toward medical staff and need special attention because they are at high risk of being unsatisfied with the outcome of surgery. Some patients may hold unrealistic assumptions about the outcome of plastic surgery. Yet other patients may suffer from complications of surgery and may thus experience facial plastic surgery as a trauma. In all such events these patients require special attention. First of all, careful exploration of traumatic experiences prior to surgery should take place even if this does not seem to be part of the standard treatment and requires additional time. Patients usually experience strong relief when their concerns are taken seriously, and treatment outcomes can thus be improved. Moreover, patients should be checked for acute stress disorder (ASD) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and if so diagnosed, specialized treatment should be initiated postoperatively. Patients with ASD or PTSD will experience the surgical intervention and the treatment postsurgery with more confidence and greater satisfaction if the surgeon also engages in the psychosocial aspects of their history. PMID:26372715

  14. Brazilian version of the Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress - Revised (SIDES-R: adaptation and validation process

    Jessica Camargo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD contemplates the impact of acute traumatic events, but the literature indicates that this is not true for chronic exposure to stress. In this sense, the category disorders of extreme stress not otherwise specified (DESNOS has been proposed to characterize the behavior and cognitive alterations derived from exposure to continuous early life stress. The Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress - Revised (SIDES-R was developed to investigate and measure DESNOS. Considering the lack of instruments designed to assess DESNOS, especially in Brazil, the aim of this study was to translate, adapt, and validate the contents of SIDES-R to Brazilian Portuguese (SIDES-R-BR. METHOD: The original interview was subjected to translation, back-translation, semantic equivalence and conceptual correspondence analyses by naive and specialized judges, respectively, an acceptability trial, and inter-rater validity analysis. RESULTS: The interview underwent semantic and structural adaptations considering the Brazilian culture. The final version, SIDES-R-BR, showed a mean understanding score of 4.98 on a 5-point verbal rating scale, in addition to a kappa coefficient of 0.853. CONCLUSION: SIDES-R-BR may be a useful tool in the investigation of DESNOS and contributes a valuable input to clinical research in Brazil. The availability of the instrument allows to test symptoms with adequate reliability, as verified by the kappa coefficient and translation steps.

  15. Clinical relevance of dipyridamole stress Tc-99m-sestamibi myocardial SPECT for the early stage of acute myocardial infarction after reperfusion treatment

    This study aimed to evaluate coronary flow in acute myocardial infarction (MI) by stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), and to compare that with metabolic status and perfusion at rest. Twenty-three patients with acute MI who received successful angioplasty within 12 hours were studied. All patients underwent dipyridamole stress or rest technetium (Tc)-99m-sestamibi and 123I-BMIPP SPECT imaging in the acute phase (mean 3.8 and 7.3 days respectively). For each images, segmental accumulations were semi-quantitatively graded by 4-point scoring system (0=normal, 1=mild reduction, 2=severe reduction, 3=defect) for 14 segments to yield the total defect score (TDS). TDS in stress MPI was significantly bigger than that in rest MPI, although it was not significantly different from that in BMIPP. In the segments with infarction, dipyridamole stress MPI revealed to have greater defect than rest Tc in acute phase. This may indicate that the myocardium salvaged by reperfusion has disorder in coronary flow as well as metabolic disorder. (author)

  16. Medical post-traumatic stress disorder: catching up with the cutting edge in stress research

    Weinert, Craig; Meller, William

    2007-01-01

    We briefly summarize two original research papers and a review article. We then review the formal structure of the diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and discuss the use of continuous measures of PTSD in comparison with diagnostic instruments. Problems with distinguishing incident from prevalent PTSD cases lead to questions of whether medical PTSD is a new important problem. By examining current studies, we demonstrate that medical PTSD is lagging in fundamental and interventi...

  17. Stress modulation of drug self-administration: implications for addiction comorbidity with post-traumatic stress disorder

    Logrip, Marian L.; Zorrilla, Eric P.; Koob, George F.

    2011-01-01

    Drug abuse and dependence present significant health burdens for our society, affecting roughly 10% of the population. Stress likely contributes to the development and persistence of drug use; for example, rates of substance dependence are elevated among individuals diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Thus, understanding the interaction between stress and drug use, and associated neuroadaptations, is key for developing therapies to combat substance use disorders. For this pu...

  18. Multicomponent Behavioral Treatment for Chronic Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Trauma Management Therapy

    Turner, Samuel M.; Beidel, Deborah C.; Frueh, B. Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe and chronic mental disorder that is highly prevalent within Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Centers. A severe psychiatric disorder, combat-related PTSD is typically accompanied by multiple comorbid psychiatric disorders, symptom chronicity, and extreme social maladjustment. Thus, PTSD is a complex…

  19. Enhanced screening for posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid diagnoses in children and adolescents

    Verlinden, Eva; Opmeer, Brent C; Van Meijel, Els P M; Beer, Renée; De Roos, Carlijn; Bicanic, Iva A. E.; Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Olff, Miranda; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be a debilitating disorder and often co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders, such as mood, behavioral, and anxiety disorders. Early identification of PTSD and psychiatric comorbidity is highly relevant in order to offer children appropriate an

  20. Assessment of clinical depression comorbid with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Simonović Maja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Comorbidity of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression is often recognized in the clinical practice. The aim of the paper was to determine the severity of depression and the group of symptoms which are the most prominent in clinical depression comorbid with PTSD. Methods. Totally 60 patients were assessed and divided into the experimental and control group using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Investigator Version (SCID-I, modified (SCID for DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnostic criteria. The presence and the severity of the disorders were assessed by means of the following instruments: Clinician-Administrated PTSD Scale for DSM-IV (CAPS-DX, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS and 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD. The differences between groups were evaluated using Student t test and by means of the correlation analysis of the data with p < 0.05. Results. The obtained results showed that depression witch was comorbid with PTSD was of significant clinical severity with 31.20 score on HAMD and 30.43 score on MADRS in PTSD-D group. The group of the symptoms: lassitude, inability to feel, suicidal thoughts and inner tension contributed mostly to the global severity of the comorbid clinical depression on MADRS. The group of the symptoms: suicide and somatic symptoms, gastrointestinal, guilt, hypochondriasis, work and activity, anxiety psychic, agitation, and weight loss, genital symptoms and anxiety somatic contributed mostly to the global severity of comorbid clinical depression on HAMD. The average score was 16.03 and 16.97 on HAMD and MADRS, respectively in PTSD group. Conclusion. Depression which is comorbid with posttraumatic stress disorder represents significant clinical entity with domination of the different groups of symptoms between the groups PTSD and PTSD-D on HAMD. Identification of aforementioned severity of illness and delineated group of symptoms lead

  1. Evidence for smaller right amygdala volumes in posttraumatic stress disorder following childhood trauma

    I.M. Veer; N.Y.L. Oei; M.A. van Buchem; Ph. Spinhoven; B.M. Elzinga; S.A.R.B. Rombouts

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampus and amygdala volumes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood trauma are relatively understudied, albeit the potential importance to the disorder. Whereas some studies reported smaller hippocampal volumes, little evidence was found for abnormal amygdala volumes. Here

  2. Brain structure in post-traumatic stress disorder: A voxel-based morphometry analysis.

    Tan, Liwen; Zhang, Li; Qi, Rongfeng; Lu, Guangming; Li, Lingjiang; Liu, Jun; Li, Weihui

    2013-09-15

    This study compared the difference in brain structure in 12 mine disaster survivors with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder, 7 cases of improved post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and 14 controls who experienced the same mine disaster but did not suffer post-traumatic stress disorder, using the voxel-based morphometry method. The correlation between differences in brain structure and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms was also investigated. Results showed that the gray matter volume was the highest in the trauma control group, followed by the symptoms-improved group, and the lowest in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the symptoms-improved group, the gray matter volume in the lingual gyrus of the right occipital lobe was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the right middle occipital gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus was reduced in the symptoms-improved group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule and right superior frontal gyrus was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. The gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule was significantly positively correlated with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory subscale score in the symptoms-improved group and chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group (r = 0.477, P = 0.039). Our findings indicate that (1) chronic post-traumatic stress disorder patients have gray matter structural damage in the prefrontal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe, (2) after post-traumatic stress, the disorder symptoms are improved and gray matter structural damage is reduced, but cannot recover to the trauma-control level, and (3) the superior parietal lobule is possibly associated with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-traumatic stress disorder patients exhibit gray matter abnormalities. PMID:25206550

  3. Brain structure in post-traumatic stress disorder A voxel-based morphometry analysis**

    Liwen Tan; Li Zhang; Rongfeng Qi; Guangming Lu; Lingjiang Li; Jun Liu; Weihui Li

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the difference in brain structure in 12 mine disaster survivors with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder, 7 cases of improved post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and 14 controls who experienced the same mine disaster but did not suffer post-traumatic stress disorder, us-ing the voxel-based morphometry method. The correlation between differences in brain structure and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms was also investigated. Results showed that the gray matter volume was the highest in the trauma control group, fol owed by the symptoms-improved group, and the lowest in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the symptoms-improved group, the gray matter volume in the lingual gyrus of the right occipital lobe was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the right middle occipital gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus was reduced in the symptoms-improved group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule and right superior frontal gyrus was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. The gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule was significantly positively correlated with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory subscale score in the symptoms-improved group and chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group (r = 0.477, P = 0.039). Our findings indicate that (1) chronic post-traumatic stress disorder patients have gray matter structural damage in the prefrontal lobe, occip-ital lobe, and parietal lobe, (2) after post-traumatic stress, the disorder symptoms are improved and gray matter structural damage is reduced, but cannot recover to the trauma-control level, and (3) the superior parietal lobule is possibly associated with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-traumatic stress disorder patients exhibit gray matter abnormalities.

  4. Estrogen enhances stress-induced prefrontal cortex dysfunction: relevance to Major Depressive Disorder in women

    Shansky, Rebecca M; Arnsten, Amy F.T.

    2006-01-01

    It is well documented that exposure to stress can precipitate or exacerbate many mental illnesses, 1,2 including major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women are twice as likely as men to develop these disorders, 3 4 as well as most anxiety disorders and phobias, 5 but the biological causes of this discrepancy are poorly understood. Interestingly, there is evidence that the increased prevalence of MDD in women occurs primarily during the childbearing years,...

  5. Early Age Thermal Conditioning Improves Broiler Chick's Response to Acute Heat Stress at Marketing Age

    Ahmed M. Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Acute heat stress at marketing age especially in broiler chickens raised in open houses with reduced means of heat exchange leads to economic losses. The objective of this study was to determine beneficial effects of early age thermal conditioning in reducing adverse effects of acute heat stress and decrease losses. Approach: Ninety one day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three treatments (n = 30: (1 control (normally raised, (2 early age thermal conditioning (exposed to temperature of 40±1°C for 24 h at 5th day of age, then raised as control chicks and (3 chronic stress (exposed to 33±2°C from day one till 6 weeks of age. At 42nd day of age, all chicks were subjected to acute heat stress of 39±2°C for 2 h. Blood samples were collected from all groups before and after exposure to acute heat stress. Results: Blood pH increased in both controls and thermally-conditioned chicks after exposure to acute heat stress coinciding with significant decrease in blood carbon dioxide pressure (pCo2 in controls only. Blood potassium level decreased in controls, while in thermally-conditioned or chronically-stressed no significant changes were observed. Blood sodium level showed a trend toward decreased levels in controls while a trend toward increased levels was observed in both thermally-conditioned and chronically-stressed birds. Importantly, significant reductions were observed in total erythrocyte count and hemoglobin level in chronically-stressed birds as compared to other groups before and after acute stress exposure. Hetrophil/lymphocyte ratio increased in both controls and thermally-conditioned chicks after acute heat exposure, but not in chronically-stressed birds. Conclusion: When exposed to acute heat stress at marketing age, chicks subjected to early age thermal conditioning responded very similar to birds adapted to chronic heat stress indicating a protective role of early age thermal conditioning.

  6. Evidence of symptom profiles consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder and complex posttraumatic stress disorder in different trauma samples

    Ask Elklit

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The International Classification of Diseases, 11th version (ICD-11, proposes two related stress and trauma-related disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and complex PTSD (CPTSD. A diagnosis of CPTSD requires that in addition to the PTSD symptoms, an individual must also endorse symptoms in three major domains: (1 affective dysregulation, (2 negative self-concepts, and (3 interpersonal problems. This study aimed to determine if the naturally occurring distribution of symptoms in three groups of traumatised individuals (bereavement, sexual victimisation, and physical assault were consistent with the ICD-11, PTSD, and CPTSD specification. The study also investigated whether these groups differed on a range of other psychological problems. Methods and Results: Participants completed self-report measures of each symptom group and latent class analyses consistently found that a three class solution was best. The classes were “PTSD only,” “CPTSD,” and “low PTSD/CPTSD.” These classes differed significantly on measures of depression, anxiety, dissociation, sleep disturbances, somatisation, interpersonal sensitivity, and aggression. The “CPTSD” class in the three samples scored highest on all the variables, with the “PTSD only” class scoring lower and the “low PTSD/CPTSD” class the lowest. Conclusion: This study provides evidence to support the diagnostic structure of CPTSD and indicted that CPTSD is associated with a broad range of other psychological problems.

  7. Evidence of symptom profiles consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder and complex posttraumatic stress disorder in different trauma samples

    Elklit, Ask; Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background The International Classification of Diseases, 11th version (ICD-11), proposes two related stress and trauma-related disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD (CPTSD). A diagnosis of CPTSD requires that in addition to the PTSD symptoms, an individual must also endorse symptoms in three major domains: (1) affective dysregulation, (2) negative self-concepts, and (3) interpersonal problems. This study aimed to determine if the naturally occurring distribution of symptoms in three groups of traumatised individuals (bereavement, sexual victimisation, and physical assault) were consistent with the ICD-11, PTSD, and CPTSD specification. The study also investigated whether these groups differed on a range of other psychological problems. Methods and Results Participants completed self-report measures of each symptom group and latent class analyses consistently found that a three class solution was best. The classes were “PTSD only,” “CPTSD,” and “low PTSD/CPTSD.” These classes differed significantly on measures of depression, anxiety, dissociation, sleep disturbances, somatisation, interpersonal sensitivity, and aggression. The “CPTSD” class in the three samples scored highest on all the variables, with the “PTSD only” class scoring lower and the “low PTSD/CPTSD” class the lowest. Conclusion This study provides evidence to support the diagnostic structure of CPTSD and indicted that CPTSD is associated with a broad range of other psychological problems. PMID:24851144

  8. Acute restraint stress enhances hippocampal endocannabinoid function via glucocorticoid receptor activation.

    Wang, Meina; Hill, Matthew N; Zhang, Longhua; Gorzalka, Boris B; Hillard, Cecilia J; Alger, Bradley E

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to behavioural stress normally triggers a complex, multilevel response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis that helps maintain homeostatic balance. Although the endocannabinoid (eCB) system (ECS) is sensitive to chronic stress, few studies have directly addressed its response to acute stress. Here we show that acute restraint stress enhances eCB-dependent modulation of GABA release measured by whole-cell voltage clamp of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in vitro. Both Ca(2+)-dependent, eCB-mediated depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI), and muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR)-mediated eCB mobilization are enhanced following acute stress exposure. DSI enhancement is dependent on the activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and is mimicked by both in vivo and in vitro corticosterone treatment. This effect does not appear to involve cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an enzyme that can degrade eCBs; however, treatment of hippocampal slices with the L-type calcium (Ca(2+)) channel inhibitor, nifedipine, reverses while an agonist of these channels mimics the effect of in vivo stress. Finally, we find that acute stress produces a delayed (by 30 min) increase in the hippocampal content of 2-arachidonoylglycerol, the eCB responsible for DSI. These results support the hypothesis that the ECS is a biochemical effector of glucocorticoids in the brain, linking stress with changes in synaptic strength. PMID:21890595

  9. Role of genetic disorders in acute recurrent pancreatitis

    Volker Keim

    2008-01-01

    There was remarkable progress in the understanding of the role genetic risk factors in chronic pancreatitis.These factors seem to be much more important than thought in the past.The rare autosomal-dominant mutations N29I and R122H of PRSS1(cationic trypsinogen) as well as the variant N34S of SPINK1(pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor) are associated to a disease onset in childhood or youth.Compared to chronic alcoholic pancreatitis the progression is slow so that for a long time only signs of acute-recurrent pancreatitis are found.Only at later time points(more than 10-15 years) there is evidence for chronic pancreatitis in the majority of patients.Acute recurrent pancreatitis may therefore be regarded as a transition state until definite signs of chronic pancreatitis are detectable.

  10. Intrathecal Clonidine Pump Failure Causing Acute Withdrawal Syndrome With 'Stress-Induced' Cardiomyopathy.

    Lee, Hwee Min D; Ruggoo, Varuna; Graudins, Andis

    2016-03-01

    Clonidine is a central alpha(2)-agonist antihypertensive used widely for opioid/alcohol withdrawal, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and chronic pain management. We describe a case of clonidine withdrawal causing life-threatening hypertensive crisis and stress-induced cardiomyopathy. A 47-year-old man with chronic back pain, treated with clonidine for many years via intrathecal pump (550 mcg/24 h), presented following a collapse and complaining of sudden worsening of back pain, severe headache, diaphoresis, nausea and vomiting. A few hours prior to presentation, his subcutaneous pump malfunctioned. On presentation, vital signs included pulse 100 bpm, BP 176/103 mmHg, temperature 37.8 °C and O2 saturation 100 % (room air). Acute clonidine withdrawal with hypertensive crisis was suspected. Intravenous clonidine loading dose and a 50 mcg/h infusion were commenced. Five hours later, severe chest pain, dyspnoea, tachycardia, hypoxia, with BP 180/120 mmHg and pulmonary edema ensued. ECG showed sinus tachycardia with no ST elevation. Repeated intravenous clonidine doses were given (25 mcg every 5-10 min), with ongoing clonidine infusion to control blood pressure. Glyceryl trinitrate infusion, positive pressure ventilation and intravenous benzodiazepines were added. Bedside echocardiogram showed stress-induced cardiomyopathy pattern. Serum troponin-I was markedly elevated. His coronary angiography showed minor irregularities in the major vessels. Over the next 3 days in the ICU, drug infusions were weaned. Discharge was 12 days later on oral clonidine, metoprolol, perindopril, aspirin and oxycodone-SR. Two months later, his echocardiogram was normal. The intrathecal pump was removed. We report a case of stress-induced cardiomyopathy resulting from the sudden cessation of long-term intrathecal clonidine. This was managed by re-institution of clonidine and targeted organ-specific therapies. PMID:26370679

  11. Long-lasting hippocampal synaptic protein loss in a mouse model of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Leonie Herrmann

    Full Text Available Despite intensive research efforts, the molecular pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and especially of the hippocampal volume loss found in the majority of patients suffering from this anxiety disease still remains elusive. We demonstrated before that trauma-induced hippocampal shrinkage can also be observed in mice exhibiting a PTSD-like syndrome. Aiming to decipher the molecular correlates of these trans-species posttraumatic hippocampal alterations, we compared the expression levels of a set of neurostructural marker proteins between traumatized and control mice at different time points after their subjection to either an electric footshock or mock treatment which was followed by stressful re-exposure in several experimental groups. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic in vivo study analyzing the long-term neuromolecular sequelae of acute traumatic stress combined with re-exposure. We show here that a PTSD-like syndrome in mice is accompanied by a long-lasting reduction of hippocampal synaptic proteins which interestingly correlates with the strength of the generalized and conditioned fear response but not with the intensity of hyperarousal symptoms. Furthermore, we demonstrate that treatment with the serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI fluoxetine is able to counteract both the PTSD-like syndrome and the posttraumatic synaptic protein loss. Taken together, this study demonstrates for the first time that a loss of hippocampal synaptic proteins is associated with a PTSD-like syndrome in mice. Further studies will have to reveal whether these findings are transferable to PTSD patients.

  12. RAAS and stress markers in acute ischemic stroke

    Back, C.; Thiesen, K L; Olsen, Karsten Skovgaard;

    2015-01-01

    . RESULTS: The acute systolic blood pressure was significantly increased, 148 (141-168) vs 140 (130-147) mmHg post-stroke. Angiotensin I, renin and aldosterone levels were significantly lower, angiotensin II was unchanged, and ACE activity was higher in the acute phase compared to post-stroke. No...... differences in RAAS were detected between jugular and cubital plasma levels. Jugular venous plasma levels of epinephrine and cortisol were elevated in the acute phase compared to cubital levels (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Increased epinephrine and cortisol levels in the jugular vein blood may reflect a higher...

  13. The effect of obesity on inflammatory cytokine and leptin production following acute mental stress.

    Caslin, H L; Franco, R L; Crabb, E B; Huang, C J; Bowen, M K; Acevedo, E O

    2016-02-01

    Obesity may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by eliciting chronic systemic inflammation and impairing the immune response to additional stressors. There has been little assessment of the effect of obesity on psychological stress, an independent risk factor for CVD. Therefore, it was of interest to examine interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and leptin following an acute mental stress task in nonobese and obese males. Twenty college-aged males (21.3 ± 0.56 years) volunteered to participate in a 20-min Stroop color-word and mirror-tracing task. Subjects were recruited for obese (body mass index: BMI > 30) and nonobese (BMI < 25) groups, and blood samples were collected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. The acute mental stress task elicited an increase in heart rate, catecholamines, and IL-1β in all subjects. Additionally, acute mental stress increased cortisol concentrations in the nonobese group. There was a significant reduction in leptin in obese subjects 30 min posttask compared with a decrease in nonobese subjects 120 min posttask. Interestingly, the relationship between the percent change in leptin and IL-1Ra at 120 min posttask in response to an acute mental stress task was only observed in nonobese individuals. This is the first study to suggest that adiposity in males may impact leptin and inflammatory signaling mechanisms following acute mental stress. PMID:26511907

  14. Posttraumatic stress disorder and sleep-disordered breathing: a review of comorbidity research.

    Krakow, Barry J; Ulibarri, Victor A; Moore, Bret A; McIver, Natalia D

    2015-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are common disorders, but limited data address their co-morbidity. Emerging research indicates PTSD and SDB may co-occur more frequently than expected and may impact clinical outcomes. This review describes historical developments that first raised suspicions for a co-morbid relationship between PTSD and SDB, including barriers to the recognition and diagnosis of this co-morbidity. Objective diagnostic data from polysomnography studies in PTSD patients reveal widely varying prevalence rates for co-morbidity (0-90%). Use of standard, recommended technology (nasal cannula pressure transducer) versus older, less reliable technology (thermistor/thermocouple) appears to have influenced objective data acquisition and therefore SDB rates in sleep studies on PTSD patients. Studies using higher quality respiratory sensors demonstrated the highest prevalence of SDB in PTSD patients. Clinical relevance, theoretical models and research recommendations are discussed. The lack of widely acknowledged, tested, or proven explanatory models and pathophysiological mechanisms to understand the relationship between these two disorders may prove formidable barriers to further investigations on prevalence and clinical relevance, albeit both conditions are associated with waking or sleeping hyperarousal activity, which may inform future studies. PMID:25644985

  15. Effect of Beta vulgaris Linn. leaves extract on anxiety- and depressive-like behavior and oxidative stress in mice after acute restraint stress

    Kunjbihari Sulakhiya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Beta vulgaris is commonly known as "beet root" possessing antioxidant, anticancer, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory properties. Objective: To study the protective effect of Beta vulgaris Linn. ethanolic extract (BVEE of leaves against acute restraint stress (ARS-induced anxiety- and depressive-like behavior and oxidative stress in mice. Materials and Methods: Mice (n = 6 were pretreated with BVEE (100 and 200 mg/kg, p. o. for 7 days and subjected to ARS for 6 h to induce behavioral and biochemical changes. Anxiety- and depressive-like behavior were measured by using different behavioral paradigms such as open field test (OFT, elevated plus maze (EPM, forced swim test (FST, and tail suspension test (TST 40 min postARS. Brain homogenate was used to analyze oxidative stress parameters, that is, malondialdehyde (MDA and reduced glutathione (GSH level. Results: BVEE pretreatment significantly (P < 0.05 reversed the ARS-induced reduction in EPM parameters, that is, percentage entries and time spent in open arms and in OFT parameters, that is, line crossings, and rearings in mice. ARS-induced increase in the immobility time in FST and TST was attenuated significantly (P < 0.05 by BVEE pretreatment at both the dosage. An increase in MDA and depletion of GSH level postARS was prevented significantly (P < 0.05 with BVEE pretreatment at both the dosage (100 and 200 mg/kg. Conclusion: BVEE exhibits anxiolytic and antidepressant activity in stressed mice along with good antioxidant property suggesting its therapeutic potential in the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders.

  16. Acute movement disorder with bilateral basal ganglia lesions in diabetic uremia

    Gurusidheshwar M Wali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute movement disorder associated with symmetrical basal ganglia lesions occurring in the background of diabetic end stage renal disease is a recently described condition. It has distinct clinico-radiological features and is commonly described in Asian patients. We report the first Indian case report of this potentially reversible condition and discuss its various clinico-radiological aspects.

  17. MMPI-2 F Scale as a Predictor of Acute Versus Chronic Disorder Classification

    Cukrowicz, Kelly C.; Reardon, Maureen Lyons; Donohue, Keith F.; Joiner, Jr., Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relation between elevation of the infrequency (F) scale on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and the classification of psychological disorders as chronic or acute in an outpatient mental health setting. MMPI-2 and clinician rating data at time of intake were considered for 158 adult patients from an…

  18. Frequency of adverse outcomes of acute myocardial infarction in patients with stress hyperglycem)a

    Objective: To determine the frequency of in-hospital adverse outcomes of acute myocardial infarction in patients with stress hyperglycemia. Methodology: This was a descriptive cross sectional study conducted from August 2010 to January 2011 in Cardiology department, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar. Patients of age 25-70 years, of either gender, non-diabetic with acute myocardial infarction with stress hyperglycemia were included. Random blood sugar >144 mg/dl was taken as stress hyperglycemia for patients at presentation of acute myocardial infarction. Patients were monitored for electrical complications such as atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation and complete heart block and mechanical complications such as cardiac pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock during hospital stay. The statistical analysis was performed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS Ver. 15.0). Results: A total of 341 patients having acute myocardial infarction with stress hyperglycemia were studied. The mean age was 56.35 +- 9.748 (95% CI 57.39 - 55.31). Male were 58.1% (n=198). The frequency of various major in-hospital electrical adverse outcomes of acute myocardial infarction with stress hyperglycemia were atrial fibrillation (AF) 15.8%, ventricular tachycardia (VT) 11.7%, ventricular fibrillation (VF) 10.9% and complete heart block (CHB) 6.7%, while mechanical adverse outcomes were cardiac pulmonary edema (CPE) 7.9% and cardiogenic shock (CS) 11.7%. Conclusion: Stress hyperglycemia has adverse impact on outcomes of patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction. Among electrical and mechanical complications of acute myocardial infarction in patients with stress hyperglycemia, the two most frequent in-hospital adverse outcomes were atrial fibrillation and cardiogenic shock, respectively. (author)

  19. The Influence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder on Treatment Outcomes of Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Boritz, Tali; Barnhart, Ryan; McMain, Shelley F

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on treatment outcomes in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Participants were 180 individuals diagnosed with BPD enrolled in a randomized controlled trial that compared the clinical and cost effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and general psychiatric management (GPM). Multilevel linear models and generalized linear models were used to compare clinical outcomes of BPD patients with and without PTSD. BPD patients with comorbid PTSD reported significantly higher levels of global psychological distress at baseline and end of treatment compared to their non-PTSD counterparts. Both groups evidenced comparable rates of change on suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), global psychological distress, and BPD symptoms over the course of treatment and post-treatment follow-up. DBT and GPM were effective for BPD patients with and without PTSD across a broad range of outcomes. PMID:26305394

  20. Acute intermittent porphyria: comorbidity and shared familial risks with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in Sweden.

    Cederlöf, Martin; Bergen, Sarah E; Larsson, Henrik; Landén, Mikael; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) has been associated with schizophrenia in some studies, but prior research is limited by the absence of comparison populations. Here, we linked Swedish registers to examine the risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in 717 individuals diagnosed with AIP and their first-degree relatives, compared with matched individuals without AIP and their first-degree relatives. Individuals with AIP had a fourfold increased risk of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Similarly, relatives of individuals with AIP had double the risk of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, suggesting that these associations may be as a result of common genetic influences. PMID:26494868

  1. Psychosocial Acute Treatment in Early-Episode Schizophrenia Disorders

    Bola, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews evidence on the treatment of early episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders that contradicts, in some cases, the American Psychiatric Association's generic recommendation of antipsychotic medication treatment for at least a year. Method: Evidence on lack of diagnostic validity, absence of demonstrated long-term…

  2. Bipolar Disorder Comorbid With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adult Inpatients With Acute Relapse

    Marin, Alina; Scott, Duncan; Groll, Dianne L

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this prospective, observational study was to detect the rate of comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a sample of inpatients diagnosed with bipolar disorder, and to identify differences between patients with bipolar disorder with concomitant ADHD and those without concomitant ADHD.

  3. Acute social stress and cardiac electrical activity in rats

    Sgoifo, A; Stilli, D; de Boer, SF; Koolhaas, JM; Musso, E; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of experiments aimed at describing electrocardiographic responses to different acute social stressors in healthy male rats. Electrocardiograms were telemetrically recorded during maternal aggression, social defeat, and psychosocial stimulation, as obtained using the

  4. Posttraumatic stress due to an acute coronary syndrome increases risk of 42-month major adverse cardiac events and all-cause mortality

    Edmondson, Donald; Rieckmann, Nina; Shaffer, Jonathan A.; Joseph E Schwartz; Burg, Matthew M.; Davidson, Karina W.; Clemow, Lynn; Shimbo, Daichi; Kronish, Ian M.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 15% of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to their ACS event. We assessed whether ACS-induced PTSD symptoms increase risk for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and all-cause mortality (ACM) in an observational cohort study of 247 patients (aged 25–93 years; 45% women) hospitalized for an ACS at one of 3 academic medical centers in New York and Connecticut between November 2003 and June 2005. Within 1 week of admission,...

  5. Social Support, Social Intimacy, and Cardiovascular Reactions to Acute Psychological Stress

    Anna C Phillips; Gallagher, Stephen; Carroll, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    peer-reviewed Background: Exaggerated cardiovascular reactions to psychological stress are considered a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity. Social support may reduce such risk by attenuating cardiovascular reactivity to stress. Purpose: To examine the effects of three independent social support variables and their interaction on cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress. The variables were stranger or friend presence; active supportive or passive presence, and male or ...

  6. High-fat diet did not change metabolic response to acute stress in rats

    Farrokhi, Babak; Ghalami, Jamileh; Hedayati, Mehdi; Rostamkhani, Fatemeh; Zardooz, Homeira

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of high-fat diet on metabolic factors in the presence of acute foot-shock and psychological stresses in male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into high-fat (45 % cow intra-abdominal fat) and normal (standard pellets) diet groups; then, each group was allocated into stressed and control groups. Stress was induced by a communication box. Blood samples were collected by retro-orbital-puncture method under isoflurane anesthesia. Plasma levels of gluc...

  7. Working memory performance after acute exposure to the cold pressor stress in healthy volunteers

    Duncko, Roman; Johnson, Linda; Merikangas, Kathleen; Grillon, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Effects of acute stress exposure on learning and memory have been frequently studied in both animals and humans. However, only a few studies have focused specifically on working memory performance and the available data are equivocal. The present study examined working memory performance during the Sternberg item recognition task after exposure to a predominantly adrenergic stressor. Twenty four healthy subjects were randomly assigned to a stress group or a control group. The stress group was...

  8. Deficiency of Antinociception and Excessive Grooming Induced by Acute Immobilization Stress in Per1 Mutant Mice

    Jing Zhang; Zhouqiao Wu; Linglin Zhou; Huili Li; Huajing Teng; Wei Dai; Yongqing Wang; Zhong Sheng Sun

    2011-01-01

    Acute stressors induce changes in numerous behavioral parameters through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Several important hormones in paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) play the roles in these stress-induced reactions. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and corticosterone are considered as molecular markers for stress-induced grooming behavior. Oxytocin in PVN is an essential modulator for stress-induced antinocicepti...

  9. Media's role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings.

    Holman, E Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-01

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = -2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, -4.31, -0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities. PMID:24324161

  10. Acute Modulation of Sugar Transport in Brain Capillary Endothelial Cell Cultures during Activation of the Metabolic Stress Pathway*

    Cura, Anthony J.; Carruthers, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    GLUT1-catalyzed equilibrative sugar transport across the mammalian blood-brain barrier is stimulated during acute and chronic metabolic stress; however, the mechanism of acute transport regulation is unknown. We have examined acute sugar transport regulation in the murine brain microvasculature endothelial cell line bEnd.3. Acute cellular metabolic stress was induced by glucose depletion, by potassium cyanide, or by carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, which reduce or deplete i...

  11. Posttraumatic stress disorder among bereaved relatives of cancer patients.

    Elklit, Ask; Reinholt, Nina; Nielsen, Louise Hjort; Blum, Alon; Lasgaard, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and predictors of PTSD in individuals who experienced the loss of a close relative to cancer. A total of 251 bereaved relatives ages 14 to 76 (M = 41.3, SD = 16.8) were recruited at a counseling service for cancer patients and their relatives. The prevalence of current probable PTSD was 40% in the bereaved sample. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis indicated that full-time employment, perceived control, and a secure attachment style moderated the risk for PTSD. Moreover, a long period of caretaking, high levels of somatization, and dissociation were all associated with an increased risk of PTSD. PMID:20623415

  12. Posttraumatic stress disorder among bereaved relatives of cancer patients

    Elklit, A.; Reinholt, Nina; Nielsen, Louise Hjort;

    2010-01-01

    and their relatives. The prevalence of current probable PTSD was 40% in the bereaved sample. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis indicated that full-time employment, perceived control, and a secure attachment style moderated the risk for PTSD. Moreover, a long period of caretaking, high levels......The aim of this study was to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and predictors of PTSD in individuals who experienced the loss of a close relative to cancer. A total of 251 bereaved relatives ages 14 to 76 (M = 41.3, SD = 16.8) were recruited at a counseling service for cancer patients...... of somatization, and dissociation were all associated with an increased risk of PTSD. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC....

  13. Study on serum cytokine levels in posttraumatic stress disorder patients

    Min Guo; Tao Liu; Jun-Cheng Guo; Xiang-Ling Jiang; Feng Chen; Yun-Suo Gao

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To evaluate serumIL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 andTNF-α levels in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients.Methods:We utilizedELISA technology to examine cytokines such asIL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10andTNF-α in serum from50 well-characterized individuals with a primaryDSM-Ⅳ PTSD diagnosis, and 50age- and gender-matched healthy controls. We conservatively employed a Mann-Whitney U testing.Results: Individuals with primaryPTSD had significantly elevated peripheral cytokine levels for all 6 different cytokines compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls (allP<0.01).Conclusions: These findings suggest that a generalized inflammatory state may be present in individuals with PTSD.

  14. Trauma narratives in posttraumatic stress disorder: a review.

    O'Kearney, Richard; Perrott, Kelly

    2006-02-01

    Nineteen empirical studies providing evidence about the nature of trauma narratives in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were reviewed. Selected studies had participants with a diagnosis of PTSD or with PTSD symptoms. The studies used either linguistic indices or participants' rating of narrative quality. There was evidence of a relationship between PTSD specific pathology and the occurrence of sensory/perceptual references and disturbed temporal aspects. Evidence for PTSD-related narrative fragmentation was inconclusive, and there were little data about specific self-referential content. Poor validity and confusion of content and syntactic aspects of narrative organization limited the data on the organization of PTSD narratives. Approaches that address some of these limitations and allow narrative-based evaluation of memory for trauma in PTSD are outlined. PMID:16568467

  15. Post-traumatic stress disorder: some diagnostic and clinical issues.

    Creamer, M

    1989-12-01

    The development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a group of 42 individuals exposed to a multiple homicide was examined. A comparison of DSM-III and DSM-III-R indicated that 74% qualified for a diagnosis of PTSD using DSM-III, but only 33% met the criteria outlined in DSM-III-R. The most commonly reported symptoms were found to be intrusive recollections of the event and exaggerated startle response. In general, those symptoms that are new additions in the revised version were the least frequently reported, whilst guilt, which has been excluded from DSM-III-R, was experienced by 38% of the sample. It is suggested that the new criteria may not cluster with the core syndrome of PTSD. PMID:2610651

  16. Posttraumatic stress disorder, drug companies, and the Internet.

    Mansell, Penny; Read, John

    2009-01-01

    The public increasingly acquires information about the causes of, and treatments for, mental health problems from the Internet. This study investigated the top 54 websites about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Google and Yahoo! to assess differences in the content of websites funded and not funded by drug companies. In all, 42% of the websites received drug company funding. There was no relationship found between the causes stated and whether the website was drug company funded. Drug company-funded websites, however, gave significantly more emphasis to medication in the treatment of PTSD. This study confirms an earlier study indicating that the pervasive influence of the pharmaceutical industry in the mental health field, designed to maximize product sales, now includes information available to the public via the Internet. PMID:19197709

  17. Primary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder:drugs and implications

    Joachim C Burbiel

    2015-01-01

    Because posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly debilitating condition, prevention is an important research topic. This article reviews possible prevention approaches that involve the administration of drugs before the traumatic event takes place. The considered approaches include drugs that address the sympathetic nervous system, drugs interfere with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, narcotics and other psychoactive drugs, as well as modulators of protein synthesis. Furthermore, some thoughts on potential ethical implications of the use of drugs for the primary prevention of PTDS are presented. While there are many barriers to overcome in this field of study, this paper concludes with a call for additional research, as there are currently no approaches that are well-suited for regular daily use.

  18. Psychodynamic group treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in Vietnam veterans.

    Koller, P; Marmar, C R; Kanas, N

    1992-04-01

    Exposure to combat frequently imparts a sense of aloneness, guilt, and helplessness. These and other intrapsychic and interpersonal issues need to be addressed in treating Vietnam veterans suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Group therapy is proposed as a core treatment modality for dealing with these problems. A model is proposed in which patients are treated for 1 year or more in weekly groups that meet for 16-week sequential segments. Clinical guidelines are made explicit to new members by the co-therapists. Discussion topics deal not only with traumatic experiences related to combat, but also with important pre- and postwar issues that are relevant to the symptoms of PTSD. Timely integration and working through of these issues in the group is critical. PMID:1572783

  19. Cognitive processes in post-traumatic stress disorder

    Gamze Yıldırımlı

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD consists of a pattern of symptoms that include cognitive, affective, sensory and behavioral systems. In PTSD, the individual experiences disturbing emotions and sensations such as anxiety, panic, depression, anger, tension, high startle response and hypervigilance as a result of reexperiencing traumatic memories, flashbacks, attention difficulties, memory loss, nightmares and intrusive thoughts. The cognitive approach asserts that cognitions play a triggering and maintaining role for these symptoms and tries to explain them with the information processing framework. According to this approach, the traumatic event that is experienced is processed differently from daily, ordinary events. This different information processing strategy stands out in attention, memory, dissociation, cognitive beliefs, cognition-affect processes and coping strategies. In the present paper, research on how these constructs that are parts of the information processing in cognitive systems function in PTSD will be reviewed.

  20. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder among urban residents.

    Parto, Jacklyn A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2011-07-01

    Previous studies indicate a high risk of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among women and low-income, urban-residing African-Americans. This study examined PTSD symptoms among urban-residing, socioeconomically diverse, working-age African-Americans and whites. The participants completed the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. Of the 2104 participants, 268 (12.7%) were screened positive for PTSD symptoms. Women (13.8%) were more likely than men (11.3%), white participants (13.8%) were more likely than African-Americans (11.9%), and younger participants (16.1%) were more likely than older participants (10.2%) to screen positive for PTSD symptoms. A significant interaction (p = 0.05) revealed that white women living below the 125% poverty level were most likely to report PTSD symptoms. These findings highlight the importance of PTSD screening in low-income urban neighborhoods. PMID:21716054

  1. Comparative Study of Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, or Major Depressive Disorder

    Moon, Eunok; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Do-Hyung; Hwang, Boram

    2013-01-01

    Objective Heart rate variability (HRV) changes as a function of psychiatric illness. This study aimed to evaluate HRV among patients with various psychiatric disorders. Methods The present study recruited patients with schizophrenia (n=35), bipolar disorder (n=41), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n=34), or major depressive disorder (n=34) as well as healthy controls (n=27). The time-domain analysis (the standard deviation of all RR intervals [SDNN] and the square root of the mean square...

  2. OPTICAL IMAGING OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN ACUTE LUNG INJURY FROM HYPEROXIA AND SEPSIS

    Sepehr, Reyhaneh; Audi, Said H.; Maleki, Sepideh; Staniszewski, Kevin; EIS, ANNIE L.; Konduri, Girija G.; Ranji, Mahsa

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many acute and chronic pulmonary disorders such as acute lung injury (ALI) in adults and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. Bacterial infection and oxygen toxicity, which result in pulmonary vascular endothelial injury, contribute to impaired vascular growth and alveolar simplification seen in the lungs of premature infants with BPD. Hyperoxia induces ALI, reduces cell proliferation, causes DNA damag...

  3. Interaction between diazepam and hippocampal corticosterone after acute stress: impact on memory in middle-aged mice

    Daniel eBeracochea

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Benzodiazepines (BDZ are widely prescribed in the treatment of anxiety disorders associated to aging. Interestingly, whereas a reciprocal interaction between the GABAergic system and HPA axis has been evidenced, there is to our knowledge no direct evaluation of the impact of BDZ on both hippocampus (HPC corticosterone concentrations and HPC-dependent memory in stressed middle-aged subjects. We showed previously that an acute stress induced in middle-aged mice severe memory impairments in a hippocampus-dependent task, and increased in parallel hippocampus corticosterone concentrations, as compared to non stressed middle-aged controls (Tronche et al., 2010. Based on these findings, the aims of the present study were to evidence the impact of diazepam (a positive allosteric modulator of the GABA-A receptor on HPC glucocorticoids concentrations and in parallel on HPC-dependent memory in acutely stressed middle-aged mice.Microdialysis experiments showed an interaction between diazepam doses and corticosterone concentrations into the HPC. From 0.25 mg/kg to 0.5 mg/kg, diazepam dose-dependently reduces intra-HPC corticosterone concentrations and in parallel, dose-dependently increased hippocampal-dependent memory performance. In contrast, the highest (1.0mg/kg diazepam dose induces a reduction in HPC corticosterone concentration, which was of greater magnitude as compared to the two other diazepam doses, but however decreased the hippocampal-dependent memory performance. In summary, our study provides first evidence that diazepam restores in stressed middle-aged animals the hippocampus-dependent response, in relation with HPC corticosterone concentrations. Overall, our data illustrate how stress and benzodiazepines could modulate cognitive functions depending on hippocampus activity.

  4. Construction and evaluation of a self rating scale for stress-induced Exhaustion Disorder, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale

    Besèr, Aniella; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Wahlberg, Kristina; Peterson, Ulla; Nygren, Åke; Åsberg, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged stress (≥ six months) may cause a condition which has been named exhaustion disorder (ED) with ICD-10 code F43.8. ED is characterised by exhaustion, cognitive problems, poor sleep and reduced tolerance to further stress. ED can cause long term disability and depressive symptoms may develop. The aim was to construct and evaluate a self-rating scale, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), for the assessment of ED symptoms. A second aim was to examine the relationship between...

  5. Myocardial Infarction - Stress PRevention INTervention (MI-SPRINT) to reduce the incidence of posttraumatic stress after acute myocardial infarction through trauma-focused psychological counseling: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Meister, Rebecca; Princip, Mary; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Schnyder, Ulrich; Barth, Jürgen; Znoj, Hansjörg; Herbert, Claudia; von Känel, Roland

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) may occur in patients after exposure to a life-threatening illness. About one out of six patients develop clinically relevant levels of PTSD symptoms after acute myocardial infarction (MI). Symptoms of PTSD are associated with impaired quality of life and increase the risk of recurrent cardiovascular events. The main hypothesis of the MI-SPRINT study is that trauma-focused psychological counseling is more effective than non-trauma focused co...

  6. Motor dysfunction during sleep in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Ross, R J; Ball, W A; Dinges, D F; Kribbs, N B; Morrison, A R; Silver, S M; Mulvaney, F D

    1994-12-01

    A subjective disturbance of sleep, including the occurrence of repetitive, stereotypical anxiety dreams, is characteristic of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The phenomenology of the PTSD anxiety dream has seemed most consistent with an underlying rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dysfunction. However, motor behavior reportedly can accompany PTSD dreams, and normal REM sleep typically involves a nearly total paralysis of the body musculature. As a means of understanding this discrepancy, anterior tibialis muscle activity during sleep was studied in a group of Vietnam combat veterans with current PTSD and in an age-matched normal control group. The PTSD subjects had a higher percentage of REM sleep epochs with at least one prolonged twitch burst; they also were more likely to have periodic limb movements in sleep, during nonrapid eye movement sleep. Both these forms of muscle activation also have been observed in REM behavior disorder (RBD), a parasomnia characterized by the actual enactment of dream sequences during REM sleep. The identification of RBD-like signs in PTSD adds to the evidence for a fundamental disturbance of REM sleep phasic mechanisms in PTSD. PMID:7701184

  7. Abnormal Functional Connectivity Density in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Zhang, Youxue; Xie, Bing; Chen, Heng; Li, Meiling; Liu, Feng; Chen, Huafu

    2016-05-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs in individuals who have experienced life-threatening mental traumas. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated that the pathology of PTSD may be associated with the abnormal functional integration among brain regions. In the current study, we used functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping, a novel voxel-wise data-driven approach based on graph theory, to explore aberrant FC through the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging of the PTSD. We calculated both short- and long-range FCD in PTSD patients and healthy controls (HCs). Compared with HCs, PTSD patients showed significantly increased long-range FCD in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), but no abnormal short-range FCD was found in PTSD. Furthermore, seed-based FC analysis of the left DLPFC showed increased connectivity in the left superior parietal lobe and visual cortex of PTSD patients. The results suggested that PTSD patients experienced a disruption of intrinsic long-range functional connections in the fronto-parietal network and visual cortex, which are associated with attention control and visual information processing. PMID:26830769

  8. Post-traumatic stress disorder following disasters: a systematic review

    Neria, Y.; Nandi, A.; Galea, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Disasters are traumatic events that may result in a wide range of mental and physical health consequences. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is probably the most commonly studied post-disaster psychiatric disorder. This review aimed to systematically assess the evidence about PTSD following exposure to disasters. Method A systematic search was performed. Eligible studies for this review included reports based on the DSM criteria of PTSD symptoms. The time-frame for inclusion of reports in this review is from 1980 (when PTSD was first introduced in DSM-III) and February 2007 when the literature search for this examination was terminated. Results We identified 284 reports of PTSD following disasters published in peer-reviewed journals since 1980. We categorized them according to the following classification: (1) human-made disasters (n=90), (2) technological disasters (n=65), and (3) natural disasters (n=116). Since some studies reported on findings from mixed samples (e.g. survivors of flooding and chemical contamination) we grouped these studies together (n=13). Conclusions The body of research conducted after disasters in the past three decades suggests that the burden of PTSD among persons exposed to disasters is substantial. Post-disaster PTSD is associated with a range of correlates including sociodemographic and background factors, event exposure characteristics, social support factors and personality traits. Relatively few studies have employed longitudinal assessments enabling documentation of the course of PTSD. Methodological limitations and future directions for research in this field are discussed. PMID:17803838

  9. DIAGNOSTIC CHALLENGES IN ASSESSING POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER.

    Mariana Arnaudova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is one of those psychiatric disorders that are still away from our attention, understanding, assessment and proper management. What could be the reason as by its name and diagnostic criteria an etiological fact is specified, namely a specific traumatic event. In our paper we aim to share and elicit some difficulties that we have met in consulting, diagnostic and management of people, who have suffered a traumatic event. On the base of a review of current psychiatric classifications and ongoing discussions we briefly summarize and discuss important key points. The definition of the event, associated with PTSD is different in DSM-III (introduced for the fist time in a classification of mental disorders, DSM-IV and ICD-10. DSM-IV is less restrictive and includes events that occur more frequently. In DSM-5, PTSD is placed in chapter “Trauma and Stressor-related disorders” and the accent is on the variable clinical characteristics of psychological distress. Emotional reactions to the traumatic event are no longer part of Criterion A. The clinical presentation varies and a number of intrusive psychological and physiological reactions of distress are described. Here comes a problem- the assessment of the trauma itself and the determination of the basic symptoms, when such an event happens. So, the skills to assess the trauma, to determine and competently attribute these symptoms to the specific event and cluster are of great importance. We conclude that a number of risk and prognostic factors should be considered in the process of assessment, diagnosis and management.

  10. The Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms among Addiction Treatment Patients with Cocaine Use Disorders

    Saunders, Elizabeth C.; Lambert-Harris, Chantal; McGovern, Mark P.; Meier, Andrea; Xie, Haiyi

    2016-01-01

    Co-occurring cocaine use and posttraumatic stress disorders are prevalent and associated with negative treatment, health and societal consequences. This study examined the relationships among PTSD symptoms, gender, and cocaine use problems. Within a cross-sectional design, we gathered archival point prevalence data on new admissions (n = 573) to three addiction treatment agencies. Demographic, substance use, and PTSD symptom information were collected across the three agencies. Logistic regression analyses revealed that patients with cocaine use disorders had a two-fold increased odds for a probable PTSD diagnosis, compared to patients without a cocaine use disorder (OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.49–3.22, p < 0.001). Among females with cocaine use disorder, multinomial regression yielded a significant increase in the risk of moderate (RRR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.10–4.10, p < 0.05) and severe (RRR = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.33–6.21, p < 0.01) PTSD symptoms. Males with cocaine use disorders had a two-fold increase in the risk of moderate PTSD symptoms (RRR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.23–3.68, p < 0.01), but had no increased risk of developing severe PTSD symptoms (RRR = 1.93, 95% CI = 0.85–4.39, p = 0.117). Cocaine use appears to impact the risk of PTSD symptoms, especially in females. Future research should explore the generalizability of these findings to more racially and ethnically diverse samples, as well as among persons with this comorbidity who are not engaged in treatment services. PMID:25715071

  11. Maintenance of a positive outlook during acute stress protects against pro-inflammatory reactivity and future depressive symptoms

    Aschbacher, K; Epel, E; Wolkowitz, O M; Prather, A A; Puterman, E; Dhabhar, F.S.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive and affective responses to acute stress influence pro-inflammatory cytokine reactivity, and peripheral cytokines (particularly lnterleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)), can act on the brain to promote depressive symptoms. It is unknown whether acute stress-induced changes in positive affect and cognitions (POS) and pro-inflammatory reactivity predict future depressive symptoms. We examined acute stress responses among women, to determine prospective predictors of depressive symptoms. Hypotheses:...

  12. Fire-related post-traumatic stress disorder: brain 1H-MR spetroscopic findings

    To investigate the MR imaging and 1H-MR spectroscopic findings of acute fire-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Sixteen patients (M:F=10:6; mean age, 16 years) with fire-related PTSD underwent MR imagine and 1H-MR spectroscopy, and for control purposes, the procedures were repeated in eight age-matched normal volunteers. In all patients and controls, the regions of interest where data were acquired at MRS were the basal ganglia (BG), frontal periventricular white matter (FWM), and parietal periventricular white matter (PWM). In all patients with PTSD, MR images appeared normal. In contrast, MRS showed that in the BG, NAA/Cr ratios were significantly lower in patients than in volunteers. This decrease did not, however, show close correlation with the severity of the neuropsychiatric symptoms. In patients, neither NAA/Cr ratios in FWM nor PWM, nor Cho/Cr ratios in all three regions, were significantly different from those in the control group. Decreased NAA/Cr ratios in the BG, as seen at 1H-MRS, might be an early sign of acute fire-related PTSD

  13. Fire-related post-traumatic stress disorder: brain {sup 1}H-MR spetroscopic findings

    Lim, Myung Kwan; Suh, Chang Hae; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Sung Tae; Lee, Jeong Seop; Kang, Min Hee [Inha University Hospital College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hye [Gachon Medical School, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Hee [National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda (United States)

    2003-06-01

    To investigate the MR imaging and {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopic findings of acute fire-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Sixteen patients (M:F=10:6; mean age, 16 years) with fire-related PTSD underwent MR imagine and {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy, and for control purposes, the procedures were repeated in eight age-matched normal volunteers. In all patients and controls, the regions of interest where data were acquired at MRS were the basal ganglia (BG), frontal periventricular white matter (FWM), and parietal periventricular white matter (PWM). In all patients with PTSD, MR images appeared normal. In contrast, MRS showed that in the BG, NAA/Cr ratios were significantly lower in patients than in volunteers. This decrease did not, however, show close correlation with the severity of the neuropsychiatric symptoms. In patients, neither NAA/Cr ratios in FWM nor PWM, nor Cho/Cr ratios in all three regions, were significantly different from those in the control group. Decreased NAA/Cr ratios in the BG, as seen at {sup 1}H-MRS, might be an early sign of acute fire-related PTSD.

  14. Melatonin Attenuates Noise Stress-induced Gastrointestinal Motility Disorder and Gastric Stress Ulcer: Role of Gastrointestinal Hormones and Oxidative Stress in Rats

    Zhang, Lei; Gong, Ji T; Zhang, Hu Q; Song, Quan H; Xu, Guang H; Lei CAI; Tang, Xiao D; Zhang, Hai F; Liu, Fang-E; Jia, Zhan S.; Zhang, Hong W

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims There are increasing evidences for gastrointestinal motility disorder (GIMD) and gastric stress ulcer induced by noise stress. The present study was to investigate the reversed effect of melatonin on GIMD and gastric stress ulcer induced by noise stress and potential mechanism. Methods Noise stress was induced on rats, and melatonin (15 mg/kg) was administered to rats by intraperitoneal injection. Differences were assessed in gastric residual rate (GRR), small intestine propul...

  15. Abnormal Fear Memory as a Model for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Desmedt, Aline; Marighetto, Aline; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo

    2015-09-01

    For over a century, clinicians have consistently described the paradoxical co-existence in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) of sensory intrusive hypermnesia and declarative amnesia for the same traumatic event. Although this amnesia is considered as a critical etiological factor of the development and/or persistence of PTSD, most current animal models in basic neuroscience have focused exclusively on the hypermnesia, i.e., the persistence of a strong fear memory, neglecting the qualitative alteration of fear memory. The latest is characterized by an underrepresentation of the trauma in the context-based declarative memory system in favor of its overrepresentation in a cue-based sensory/emotional memory system. Combining psychological and neurobiological data as well as theoretical hypotheses, this review supports the idea that contextual amnesia is at the core of PTSD and its persistence and that altered hippocampal-amygdalar interaction may contribute to such pathologic memory. In a first attempt to unveil the neurobiological alterations underlying PTSD-related hypermnesia/amnesia, we describe a recent animal model mimicking in mice some critical aspects of such abnormal fear memory. Finally, this line of argument emphasizes the pressing need for a systematic comparison between normal/adaptive versus abnormal/maladaptive fear memory to identify biomarkers of PTSD while distinguishing them from general stress-related, potentially adaptive, neurobiological alterations. PMID:26238378

  16. Thermoregulatory disorders and illness related to heat and cold stress.

    Cheshire, William P

    2016-04-01

    Thermoregulation is a vital function of the autonomic nervous system in response to cold and heat stress. Thermoregulatory physiology sustains health by keeping body core temperature within a degree or two of 37°C, which enables normal cellular function. Heat production and dissipation are dependent on a coordinated set of autonomic responses. The clinical detection of thermoregulatory impairment provides important diagnostic and localizing information in the evaluation of disorders that impair thermoregulatory pathways, including autonomic neuropathies and ganglionopathies. Failure of neural thermoregulatory mechanisms or exposure to extreme or sustained temperatures that overwhelm the body's thermoregulatory capacity can also result in potentially life-threatening departures from normothermia. Hypothermia, defined as a core temperature of shivering, respiratory depression, cardiac dysrhythmias, impaired mental function, mydriasis, hypotension, and muscle dysfunction, which can progress to cardiac arrest or coma. Management includes warming measures, hydration, and cardiovascular support. Deaths from hypothermia are twice as frequent as deaths from hyperthermia. Hyperthermia, defined as a core temperature of >40.5°C, may present with sweating, flushing, tachycardia, fatigue, lightheadedness, headache, and paresthesia, progressing to weakness, muscle cramps, oliguria, nausea, agitation, hypotension, syncope, confusion, delirium, seizures, and coma. Mental status changes and core temperature distinguish potentially fatal heat stroke from heat exhaustion. Management requires the immediate reduction of core temperature. Ice water immersion has been shown to be superior to alternative cooling measures. Avoidance of thermal risk and early recognition of cold or heat stress are the cornerstones of preventive therapy. PMID:26794588

  17. DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER IN SEXUAL ABUSE

    Ni Made Apriliani Saniti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic experiences may happen anytime in our life. The more terrible the situation, the bigger chance for a person to have post traumatic psychological problem, that is the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Sexual abuse is a kind of traumatic event that caused psychological trauma/stress for the victim. In order to be able to manage patient with PTSD, physician should comprehend properties regarding PTSD, including proper treatment and management. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  18. Abnormal Hippocampal Morphology in Dissociative Identity Disorder and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Correlates with Childhood Trauma and Dissociative Symptoms

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M.; Giesen, Mechteld E.; Nijenhuis, Ellert R. S.; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H.; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M.; Madsen, Sarah K.; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.; Veltman, Dick J.; Reinders, Antje A. T. S.

    2015-01-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization ar

  19. The Developmental Mental-Disorder Histories of Adults With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Prospective Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study

    Koenen, Karestan C.; Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom; Gregory, Alice; Harrington, HonaLee; Poulton, Richie

    2008-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiologic studies have established that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly comorbid with other mental disorders. However, such studies have largely relied on adults' retrospective reports to ascertain comorbidity. The authors examined the developmental mental health histories of adults with PTSD using data on mental disorders assessed across the first 3 decades of life among members of the longitudinal Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study; 100% o...

  20. The Incremental Validity and Clinical Utility of the MMPI-2 Infrequency Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale

    Marshall, Margarita B.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2006-01-01

    The incremental validity and clinical utility of the recently developed Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) Infrequency Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale (Fptsd) was examined in relation to the family of MMPI-2 F scales in distinguishing feigned post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from disability claimants with PTSD.…

  1. Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Cohen, Judith A.; Bukstein, Oscar; Walter, Heather; Benson, R. Scott; Chrisman, Allan; Farchione, Tiffany R.; Hamilton, John; Keable, Helene; Kinlan, Joan; Schoettle, Ulrich; Siegel, Matthew; Stock, Saundra; Medicus, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This Practice Parameter reviews the evidence from research and clinical experience and highlights significant advances in the assessment and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder since the previous Parameter was published in 1998. It highlights the importance of early identification of posttraumatic stress disorder, the importance of…

  2. Sex, stress, and epigenetics: regulation of behavior in animal models of mood disorders

    Hodes Georgia E

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Women have a higher incidence of stress related disorders including depression and generalized anxiety disorder, and epigenetic mechanisms likely contribute to this sex difference. Evidence from preclinical research suggests that epigenetic mechanisms are responsible for both sexual dimorphism of brain regions and sensitivity of the stress response. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation and histone modifications can occur transgenerationally, developmentally, or in respons...

  3. Thalamus lesions in chronic and acute seizure disorders

    Tschampa, Henriette J.; Greschus, Susanne; Urbach, Horst [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology (Neuroradiology), Bonn (Germany); Sassen, Robert; Bien, Christian G. [University of Bonn, Department of Epileptology, Bonn (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Transient signal changes in the pulvinar have been described following status epilepticus. However, we observed persistent thalamus changes after seizures. The purpose of this study was to characterize thalamus changes in patients with seizure disorders and to correlate imaging findings with clinical features. We searched among 5,500 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams performed in patients with seizures and identified 43 patients. The MRI scans of these patients were reviewed and correlated with clinical data. We identified four patterns of thalamus lesions: (a) fluid attenuated inversion recovery-hyperintense pulvinar lesions (20 patients), as known from status epilepticus. Ten patients in this group had a status epilepticus. Among the remaining patients, three had frequent seizures and seven had sporadic seizures. Twelve patients had follow-up exams for a median of 11 months. The lesions had persisted in 11/12 cases in the last available exam and were reversible in one case only. In seven cases, cone-shaped thalamus atrophy resulted, (b) linear defects in the medial and anterior thalamus (five patients), accompanied by atrophy of the mamillary body and the fornix in patients with chronic epilepsy, (c) extensive bilateral thalamus lesions in two patients with a syndrome caused by mutation in the mitochondrial polymerase gamma, and (d) other thalamus lesions not associated with the seizure disorder (16 patients). The spectrum of thalamus lesions in patients with seizure disorders is wider than previously reported. Postictal pulvinar lesions can persist and may result in thalamic atrophy. Linear defects in the anterior thalamus are associated with limbic system atrophy. (orig.)

  4. Thalamus lesions in chronic and acute seizure disorders

    Transient signal changes in the pulvinar have been described following status epilepticus. However, we observed persistent thalamus changes after seizures. The purpose of this study was to characterize thalamus changes in patients with seizure disorders and to correlate imaging findings with clinical features. We searched among 5,500 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams performed in patients with seizures and identified 43 patients. The MRI scans of these patients were reviewed and correlated with clinical data. We identified four patterns of thalamus lesions: (a) fluid attenuated inversion recovery-hyperintense pulvinar lesions (20 patients), as known from status epilepticus. Ten patients in this group had a status epilepticus. Among the remaining patients, three had frequent seizures and seven had sporadic seizures. Twelve patients had follow-up exams for a median of 11 months. The lesions had persisted in 11/12 cases in the last available exam and were reversible in one case only. In seven cases, cone-shaped thalamus atrophy resulted, (b) linear defects in the medial and anterior thalamus (five patients), accompanied by atrophy of the mamillary body and the fornix in patients with chronic epilepsy, (c) extensive bilateral thalamus lesions in two patients with a syndrome caused by mutation in the mitochondrial polymerase gamma, and (d) other thalamus lesions not associated with the seizure disorder (16 patients). The spectrum of thalamus lesions in patients with seizure disorders is wider than previously reported. Postictal pulvinar lesions can persist and may result in thalamic atrophy. Linear defects in the anterior thalamus are associated with limbic system atrophy. (orig.)

  5. Exposure to acute stress enhances decision-making competence: Evidence for the role of DHEA.

    Shields, Grant S; Lam, Jovian C W; Trainor, Brian C; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to acute stress can impact performance on numerous cognitive abilities, but little is known about how acute stress affects real-world decision-making ability. In the present study, we induced acute stress with a standard laboratory task involving uncontrollable socio-evaluative stress and subsequently assessed decision-making ability using the Adult Decision Making Competence index. In addition, we took baseline and post-test saliva samples from participants to examine associations between decision-making competence and adrenal hormones. Participants in the stress induction group showed enhanced decision-making competence, relative to controls. Further, although both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) reactivity predicted decision-making competence when considered in isolation, DHEA was a significantly better predictor than cortisol when both hormones were considered simultaneously. Thus, our results show that exposure to acute stress can have beneficial effects on the cognitive ability underpinning real-world decision-making and that this effect relates to DHEA reactivity more than cortisol. PMID:26874561

  6. A preliminary study of cortisol and norepinephrine reactivity to psychosocial stress in borderline personality disorder with high and low dissociation.

    Simeon, Daphne; Knutelska, Margaret; Smith, Lisa; Baker, Bryann R; Hollander, Eric

    2007-01-15

    The goal of the current study was to investigate subjective and neurohormonal reactivity to acute psychosocial stress in borderline personality disorder (BPD) as a function of dissociative symptoms. Five BPD subjects with high dissociation, 8 BPD subjects with low dissociation, and 11 healthy control subjects were compared in basal urinary cortisol and norepinephrine, as well as in plasma cortisol and norepinephrine reactivity to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Subjective stress rating and emotional response to the TSST were also measured. The three groups differed significantly in cortisol stress reactivity, with the high-dissociation BPD group demonstrating the most robust response. The three groups did not significantly differ in norepinephrine stress reactivity. In the combined BPD sample, dissociation severity tended to be inversely correlated with basal urinary norepinephrine, was positively correlated with norepinephrine stress reactivity. Childhood trauma was inversely correlated with basal urinary cortisol. In conclusion, despite its small sample size this pilot study suggests that dissociative symptomatology may be a marker of heightened biological vulnerability to stress in BPD, and merits further study. PMID:17169436

  7. Depressive Symptoms Are Associated with Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Jingkai Wei; Pratik Pimple; Shah, Amit J.; Cherie Rooks; Douglas Bremner, J.; Nye, Jonathon A.; Ijeoma Ibeanu; Nancy Murrah; Lucy Shallenberger; Paolo Raggi; Viola Vaccarino

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Depression is an adverse prognostic factor after an acute myocardial infarction (MI), and an increased propensity toward emotionally-driven myocardial ischemia may play a role. We aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in young survivors of an MI. Methods We studied 98 patients (49 women and 49 men) age 38–60 years who were hospitalized for acute MI in the previous 6 months. Patients underwent myocardial perfusion ...

  8. Trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder and psychiatric disorders in a middle-income setting: prevalence and comorbidity

    Dorrington, Sarah; Zavos, Helena; Ball, Harriet; McGuffin, Peter; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sumathipala, Athula; Hotopf, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Background Most studies of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have focused on ‘high-risk’ populations defined by exposure to trauma. Aims To estimate the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a LMIC, the conditional probability of PTSD given a traumatic event and the strength of associations between traumatic events and other psychiatric disorders. Method Our sample contained a mix of 3995 twins and 2019 non-twins. We asked parti...

  9. Study of the variations in apoptotic factors in hippocampus of male rats with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Behrang Alani; Nader Maghsoudi; Ali Khatibi; Mahdi Noureddini; Farzad Asefifar; Jamal Shams

    2013-01-01

    Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a stress-related psychosomatic disorder caused by occurrence of a traumatic event and the hippocampus volume of the patients with Post-traumatic stress disorder decreased. However, the mechanisms that cause such damage are not well-understood. The aim of this study is to detect the expression of apoptosis-related Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-3 and Insulin-like growth Factor-I proteins in the hippocampus region in the Predatory stress rats. Mater...

  10. Correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder in forensic psychiatric outpatients in the Netherlands

    Henrichs, Jens; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of 154 Dutch forensic psychiatric outpatients aged 1862 years, this study investigated whether risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mainly identified in nonforensic research, forensic psychiatric factors, and potential comorbid mental disorders were associated with PTSD. Data on demographics, victimization during childhood or adolescence, and forensic psychiatric factors were derived from electronic medical records. Mental disorders were assessed using structur...

  11. Myocardial stress in patients with acute cerebrovascular events

    Jespersen, C.M.; Hansen, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    patients. The huge majority of these findings are fully reversible. The changes may mimic myocardial infarction, but are not necessarily identical to coronary thrombosis. Based on the literature these signs may represent an acute catecholamine release provoked by the cerebrovascular catastrophe itself and...

  12. Myocardial stress in patients with acute cerebrovascular events

    Jespersen, Christian M; Fischer Hansen, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    Signs of myocardial involvement are common in patients with acute cerebrovascular events. ST segment deviations, abnormal left ventricular function, increased N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), prolonged QT interval, and/or raised troponins are observed in up to one third of the...

  13. Acute phase proteins in cattle after exposure to complex stress

    Lomborg, S. R.; Nielsen, L. R.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.;

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Stressors such as weaning, mixing and transportation have been shown to lead to increased blood concentrations of acute phase proteins (APP), including serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin, in calves. This study was therefore undertaken to assess whether SAA and haptoglobin levels in bl...

  14. White Matter Abnormalities in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Following a Specific Traumatic Event

    Lei Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD are complicated by wide variability in the intensity and duration of prior stressors in patient participants, secondary effects of chronic psychiatric illness, and a variable history of treatment with psychiatric medications. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies, patient samples have often been small, and they were not often compared to similarly stressed patients without PTSD in order to control for general stress effects. Findings from these studies have been inconsistent. The present study investigated whole-brain microstructural alterations of white matter in a large drug-naive population who survived a specific, severe traumatic event (a major 8.0-magnitude earthquake. Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, we explored group differences between 88 PTSD patients and 91 matched traumatized non-PTSD controls in fractional anisotropy (FA, as well as its component elements axial diffusivity (AD and radial diffusivity (RD, and examined these findings in relation to findings from deterministic DTI tractography. Relations between white matter alterations and psychiatric symptom severity were examined. PTSD patients, relative to similarly stressed controls, showed an FA increase as well as AD and RD changes in the white matter beneath left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and forceps major. The observation of increased FA in the PTSD group suggests that the pathophysiology of PTSD after a specific acute traumatic event is distinct from what has been reported in patients with several years duration of illness. Alterations in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be an important aspect of illness pathophysiology, possibly via the region's established role in fear extinction circuitry. Use-dependent myelination or other secondary compensatory changes in response to heightened demands for threat appraisal and emotion regulation may be involved.

  15. Diagnosis and classification of disorders specifically associated with stress: proposals for ICD-11

    Maercker, Andreas; Brewin, Chris R; Bryant, Richard A.; Cloitre, Marylene; van Ommeren, Mark; Jones, Lynne M; Humayan, Asma; Kagee, Ashraf; Llosa, Augusto E; Rousseau, Cécile; Somasundaram, Daya J; Souza, Renato; Suzuki, Yuriko; Weissbecker, Inka; Wessely, Simon C

    2013-01-01

    The diagnostic concepts of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other disorders specifically associated with stress have been intensively discussed among neuro- and social scientists, clinicians, epidemiologists, public health planners and humanitarian aid workers around the world. PTSD and adjustment disorder are among the most widely used diagnoses in mental health care worldwide. This paper describes proposals that aim to maximize clinical utility for the classification and grouping o...

  16. Women’s posttraumatic stress symptoms and autism spectrum disorder in their children

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Koenen, Karestan C; Lyall, Kristen; Ascherio, Alberto; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring through multiple pathways: maternal stress may affect the fetus; ASD in children may increase risk of PTSD in mothers; and the two disorders may share genetic risk. Understanding whether maternal PTSD is associated with child’s ASD is important for clinicians treating children with ASD, as PTSD in parents is associated with poorer family functioning. We examined the association of ...

  17. The Effect of Acute Stress on Post-Stress Oxygen Consumption Rate in Southern Catfish, Silurus meridionalis Chen

    Zhen-Dong Cao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The post-stress oxygen consumption rate (VO2 was investigated in southern catfish (47.433.92 g after different acute stress. The stress treatment were chasing for 2.5 min (CH, air exposure for 2.5 min (AE, 12.5C coldwater bath for 2.5 min (CB, 2.5 min chasing plus 2.5 min air exposure (CA and chasing at 12.5C for 2.5 min (CC, respectively. All water and air temperature was 25C except that of coldwater bath group. VO2 of all groups were increased immediately after stress (coldwater bath was increased a little slower and slowly return to a pre-stress level. The VO2peak of CC group was significantly higher than those of all other groups (p2peak of CH group was significantly higher than that of CE group, while the latter was significantly higher than those of AE and CB groups (p2peak/VO2rest in both chasing groups (CH and CC were significantly higher than those of other groups (p2 response of southern catfish to chase was larger that air exposure and acute low-temperature stress, while air exposure and low-temperature stress might have little effects on VO2 response; Compared to chase effect, added air exposure treatment after chase lowered the post-stress VO2 response, while coldwater bath chase might elevated the post-stress VO2 response and as a sit-and-wait forager with poor aerobic and anaerobic capacity, the stress response of southern catfish was relatively lower.

  18. Effects of acute laboratory stress on executive functions

    Katrin Starcke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that stress can affect executive functioning. However, previous results are mixed with respect to the direction and size of effects, especially when considering different subcomponents of executive functions. The current study systematically investigates the effects of stress on the five components of executive functions proposed by Smith and Jonides (1999: Attention and inhibition; task management; planning; monitoring; and coding. Healthy participants (N = 40 were either exposed to the computerized version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test as a stressor (N = 20, or to a rest condition (N = 20. Stress reactions were assessed with heart rate and subjective measures. After the experimental manipulation, all participants performed tasks that measure the different executive functions. The manipulation check indicates that stress induction was successful (i.e., the stress group showed a higher heart rate and higher subjective responses than the control group. The main results demonstrate that stressed participants show a poorer performance compared with unstressed participants in all executive subcomponents, with the exception of monitoring. Effect sizes for the tasks that reveal differences between stressed and unstressed participants are high. We conclude that the laboratory stressor used here overall reduced executive functioning.

  19. Single prolonged stress: toward an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Yamamoto, Shigeto; Morinobu, Shigeru; Takei, Shiro; Fuchikami, Manabu; Matsuki, Aya; Yamawaki, Shigeto; Liberzon, Israel

    2009-01-01

    Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are reported to be effective in decreasing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, a subgroup of PTSD patients remain chronically symptomatic and maintain conditioned fear responses to traumatic stimuli. In this context, the establishment of an appropriate animal model of PTSD is necessary to promote better understanding of the mechanisms of the disorder and to facilitate the development of more effective therapeutic alternatives to SSRIs. Although no single widely accepted animal model of PTSD has been established to date, the single prolonged stress (SPS) animal model has been partially validated as a model for PTSD. SPS rats mimic the pathophysiological abnormalities and behavioral characteristics of PTSD, such as enhanced anxiety-like behavior and glucocorticoid negative feedback, and they exhibit the expected therapeutic response to paroxetine on enhanced fear memory. In addition, SPS rats exhibit enhanced freezing in response to contextual fear conditioning, and impaired extinction of fear memory, which is alleviated by D-cycloserine. The enhanced consolidation and impaired extinction of fear memory found in SPS rats suggests that this model has additional value because recent studies of PTSD indicate that memory abnormalities are a central feature. In this study, we summarize the behavioral and pathophysiological PTSD-like symptoms in SPS, focusing on memory abnormalities, and evaluate the validity of SPS as an animal model of PTSD. PMID:19918929

  20. Acute Exercise and Oxidative Stress: CrossFit™ vs. Treadmill Bout

    Kliszczewicz Brian; John Quindry C.; Daniel Blessing L.; Gretchen Oliver D.; Michael Esco R.; Kyle Taylor J.

    2015-01-01

    CrossFit™, a popular high-intensity training modality, has been the subject of scrutiny, with concerns of elevated risk of injury and health. Despite these concerns empirical evidence regarding physiologic stresses including acute oxidative stress is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute redox response to a CrossFit™ bout. Furthermore, these findings were compared to a high-intensity treadmill bout as a point of reference. Ten males 26.4 ± 2.7 yrs havi...

  1. Psychotrauma and effective treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in soldiers and peacekeepers

    Quarcoo David; Joachim Ricarda; Mache Stefanie; Vitzthum Karin; Groneberg David A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Psychotrauma occurs as a result to a traumatic event, which may involve witnessing someone's actual death or personally experiencing serious physical injury, assault, rape and sexual abuse, being held as a hostage, or a threat to physical or psychological integrity. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder and was defined in the past as railway spine, traumatic war neurosis, stress syndrome, shell shock, battle fatigue, combat fatigue, or post-traumatic stress syn...

  2. Examining the intersection of sex and stress in modeling neuropsychiatric disorders

    Goel, Nirupa; Bale, Tracy L.

    2009-01-01

    Sex-biased neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder and schizophrenia, are the major cause of disability in the developed world. Elevated stress sensitivity has been proposed as a key underlying factor in disease onset. Sex differences in stress sensitivity are associated with CRF and serotonin neurotransmission, important central regulators of mood and coping responses. To elucidate the underlying neurobiology of stress-related disease predisposition, it is critical to...

  3. Acute Psychosocial Stress and Emotion Regulation Skills Modulate Empathic Reactions to Pain in Others

    Gabriele eBuruck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test, an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one’s emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior.

  4. Some physiological and biochemical methods for acute and chronic stress evaluation in dairy cows

    Giuseppe Bertoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress factors are so numerous and so diverse in their strength and duration that the consequences on animal welfare can be quite varied. The first important distinction concerns the characterization of acute and chronic stress conditions. Acute stress is a short-lived negative situation that allows a quick and quite complete recovery of the physiological balance (adaptation, while chronic stress is a long lasting condition from which the subject cannot fully recover (maladaptation. In the latter case, the direct effects of the stress factors (heat, low energy, anxiety, suffering etc., as well as the indirect ones (changes occurring at endocrinological, immune system or function level can be responsible for pre-pathological or pathological consequences which reduce animal welfare. To evaluate the possible chronic stress conditions in single animals or on a farm (in particular a farm of dairy cows, some parameters of the direct or indirect effects can be utilised. They are physiological (mainly hormone changes: cortisol, β-endorphin, behavioural (depression, biochemical (metabolites, acute phase proteins, glycated proteins etc., as well as performance parameters (growing rate, milk yield, fertility, etc.. Special attention has been paid to the interpretation of cortisol levels and to its changes after an ACTH challenge. Despite fervent efforts, well established and accepted indices of chronic stress (distress are currently lacking; but without this objective evaluation, the assessment of animal welfare and, therefore, the optimization of the livestock production, could prove more difficult.

  5. Acute psychosocial stress and emotion regulation skills modulate empathic reactions to pain in others.

    Buruck, Gabriele; Wendsche, Johannes; Melzer, Marlen; Strobel, Alexander; Dörfel, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one's emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior. PMID:24910626

  6. Chronic subordination stress induces hyperphagia and disrupts eating behavior in mice modeling binge-eating-like disorder

    Maria eRazzoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge eating disorder (BED is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We developed a naturalistic murine model of subordination stress induced hyperphagia associated with the development of obesity. Here we tested the hypotheses that the eating responses of subordinate mice recapitulate the BED and that limiting hyperphagia could prevent stress-associated metabolic changes. Methods: Adult male mice were exposed to a model of chronic subordination stress associated with the automated acquisition of food intake and we performed a detailed meal pattern analysis. Additionally, using a pair-feeding protocol was test the hypothesis that the manifestation of obesity and the metabolic syndrome could be prevented by limiting hyperphagia. Results: The architecture of feeding of subordinate mice was disrupted during the stress protocol due to disproportionate amount of food ingested at higher rate and with shorter satiety ratio than control mice. Subordinate mice hyperphagia was further exacerbated in response to either hunger or to the acute application of a social defeat. Notably, the obese phenotype but not the fasting hyperglycemia of subordinate mice was abrogated by preventing hyperphagia in a pair feeding paradigm. Conclusion: Overall these results support the validity of our chronic subordination stress to model binge eating disorder allowing for the determination of the underlying molecular mechanisms and the generation of testable predictions for innovative therapies, based on the understanding of the regulation and the control of food

  7. Chronic obstructive lung disease and posttraumatic stress disorder: current perspectives

    Abrams TE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thad E Abrams,1,2 Amy Blevins,1,3 Mark W Vander Weg1,2,4 1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, 2Center for Comprehensive Access and Delivery Research and Evaluation, Iowa City VA Health Care System, 3Hardin Health Sciences Library, 4Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Background: Several studies have reported on the co-occurrence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and psychiatric conditions, with the most robust evidence base demonstrating an impact of comorbid anxiety and depression on COPD-related outcomes. In recent years, research has sought to determine if there is a co-occurrence between COPD and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD as well as for associations between PTSD and COPD-related outcomes. To date, there have been no published reviews summarizing this emerging literature.Objectives: The primary objective of this review was to determine if there is adequate evidence to support a co-occurrence between PTSD and COPD. Secondary objectives were to: 1 determine if there are important clinical considerations regarding the impact of PTSD on COPD management, and 2 identify targeted areas for further research.Methods: A structured review was performed using a systematic search strategy limited to studies in English, addressing adults, and to articles that examined: 1 the co-occurrence of COPD and PTSD and 2 the impact of PTSD on COPD-related outcomes. To be included, articles must have addressed some type of nonreversible obstructive lung pathology.Results: A total of 598 articles were identified for initial review. Upon applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, n=19 articles or abstracts addressed our stated objectives. Overall, there is inconclusive evidence to support the co-occurrence between PTSD and COPD. Studies finding a significant co-occurrence generally had inferior methods of identifying COPD; in contrast, studies that utilized more robust COPD

  8. Stress among nurses working in an acute hospital in Ireland.

    Donnelly, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Stress among nurses leads to absenteeism, reduced efficiency, long-term health problems and a decrease in the quality of patient care delivered. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted. The study\\'s aim was to identify perceived stressors and influencing factors among nurses working in the critical and non-critical care practice areas. A convenience sample of 200 nurses were invited to complete the Bianchi Stress Questionnaire. Information was collected on demographics and daily nursing practice. Findings indicated that perceived stressors were similar in both groups. The most severe stressors included redeployment to work in other areas and staffing levels. Results from this study suggest that age, job title, professional experience and formal post-registration qualifications had no influence on stress perception. These results will increase awareness of nurses\\' occupational stress in Ireland.

  9. Longitudinal platelet reactivity to acute psychological stress among older men and women.

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; von Känel, Roland; Mills, Paul J; Roepke, Susan K; Hong, Suzi; Dimsdale, Joel E; Mausbach, Brent T; Patterson, Thomas L; Ziegler, Michael G; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Grant, Igor

    2009-09-01

    Platelet reactivity to acute stress is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk; however, little research exists to provide systematic methodological foundations needed to generate strong longitudinal research designs. Study objectives were: 1) to evaluate whether markers of platelet function increase in response to an acute psychological stress test among older adults, 2) to establish whether reactivity remains robust upon repeated administration (i.e. three occasions approximately 1 year apart), and 3) to evaluate whether two different acute speech stress tasks elicit similar platelet responses. The 149 subjects (mean age 71 years) gave a brief impromptu speech on one of two randomly assigned topics involving interpersonal conflict. Blood samples drawn at baseline and post-speech were assayed using flow cytometry for platelet responses on three outcomes (% aggregates, % P-selectin expression, and % fibrinogen receptor expression). Three-level hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed significant stress-induced increases in platelet activation on all outcomes (p < 0.001). No significant habituation on any measure was found. Additional reactivity differences were associated with male gender, history of myocardial infarction, and use of aspirin, statins, and antidepressants. The results demonstrate that laboratory acute stress tests continued to produce robust platelet reactivity on three activation markers among older adults over 3 years. PMID:19096987

  10. Childhood trauma and comorbid mood and anxiety disorders in adult patients with post-traumatic stress disorder

    Julia Morgan; Solara Calderon; Molly Lebow; Dan Iosifescu; Dennis Charney; Adriana Feder

    2012-01-01

    Childhood trauma (CT) is associated with mood and anxiety disorders in adulthood, especially with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These disorders frequently co-occur, yet few PTSD comorbidity studies have focused on samples with a range of CT severity and none have included participants with adulthood-only trauma in the same study. We investigated SCID diagnoses of comorbid mood and anxiety disorders among 69 adult PTSD patients (M age = 37.94, SD=11.13; 53.6% female), wit...

  11. Neuroimmunomodulation Countering Various Diseases, Disorders, Infections, Stress and Aging

    K. Dhama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimmunomodulation involves interactions among nervous, endocrine and immune systems. An integrated function is performed by nervous and immune systems that is responsible for preservation of integrity and homeostasis of the organism. Though Central Nervous System (CNS has a limited repertoire for its own protection, it has the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB and the capacity to engage peripheral immune system to eliminate infections and xenobiotics. Neural cells involved in the process of providing neural immunity include: Glial cells, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Besides working as sentinels to get rid of pathogens in the process of neurodevelopment, both central as well as peripheral immune cells actively participate helping in cognitive brain functions. Neurogenesis process may also be regulated by adaptive immune cells peripherally. Recently there is a discovery of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway wherein vagal nerve has shown anti-inflammatory role in endotoxemia and shock. Hormones viz., nor-epinephrine, epinephrine and glucocorticoids prepare immune system to combat infections and enhance distribution and trafficking of immune cells by several ways. This review focuses on neurobiology, neuro-immune cross talk, neuroimmunoregulation, stress and neuroimmunomodulation which will be beneficial for researchers, professionals and academicians. Topics like neurotoxic and neuroprotective roles of immune reactions (which are innate in nature in the process of aging are highly debated among researchers. In this review, topics like neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, role of vitamins, minerals, herbs and drugs and volatile oils in the process of neuroimmunomodulation and particularly countering various diseases, disorders, infections, stress and aging have been discussed vividly to enhance and update the knowledge of the scientific community regarding this particular topic ‘Neuroimmunomodulation’.

  12. Impaired Functional Connectivity in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Mechanism for Chronic Stress-Induced Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Ignacio Negrón-Oyarzo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress-related psychiatric diseases, such as major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia, are characterized by a maladaptive organization of behavioral responses that strongly affect the well-being of patients. Current evidence suggests that a functional impairment of the prefrontal cortex (PFC is implicated in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Therefore, chronic stress may impair PFC functions required for the adaptive orchestration of behavioral responses. In the present review, we integrate evidence obtained from cognitive neuroscience with neurophysiological research with animal models, to put forward a hypothesis that addresses stress-induced behavioral dysfunctions observed in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. We propose that chronic stress impairs mechanisms involved in neuronal functional connectivity in the PFC that are required for the formation of adaptive representations for the execution of adaptive behavioral responses. These considerations could be particularly relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of chronic stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  13. Relationship between Self-Reported Health and Stress in Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Reed, Phil; Sejunaite, Karolina; Osborne, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    The current study explore the relationship between various forms of experienced stress (general stress and parenting stress) and both health-related quality of life (QoL) and reported physical health symptoms. One hundred and twenty-two mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder responded to an online survey included questionnaires on…

  14. Maternal Stress Predicted by Characteristics of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability

    Peters-Scheffer, Nienke; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    To determine maternal stress and child variables predicting maternal stress, 104 mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) completed the Dutch version of the Parental Stress Index (PSI; De Brock, Vermulst, Gerris, & Abidin, 1992) every six months over a period of two years. The level of maternal…

  15. Enhanced screening for posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid diagnoses in children and adolescents

    Verlinden, Eva; Opmeer, Brent C; Els P. M. Van Meijel; Beer, Renée; De Roos, Carlijn; Bicanic, Iva A. E.; Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Olff, Miranda; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be a debilitating disorder and often co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders, such as mood, behavioral, and anxiety disorders. Early identification of PTSD and psychiatric comorbidity is highly relevant in order to offer children appropriate and timely treatment. The Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES-13) is a reliable and valid self-report measure designed to screen children for PTSD. However, this measure is not useful as ...

  16. Structural and functional involvement of amygdale in posttraumatic stress disorder

    Pathophysiological imaging studies of brain neuro-network concerned with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have given several models, where the interaction in the amygdala-ventral/medial prefrontal cortex-hippocampus (Am-vmPFC-Hp) system is widely noticed. This paper describes the review of the structure, function and functional connectivity of Am in PTSD in relation to the Am-vmPFC-Hp system. For the structure of Am in PTSD, many studies by MRI have shown that its volume is unchanged but, exceptionally, authors have found the significant 6% volume reduction. Increased functional activity of Am has been demonstrated in PTSD by positron emission tomography (PET), but refuting findings are still presented. Studies in a larger scale are awaited for conclusion. The functional connectivity of Am in PTSD seems still controversial in an aspect of its direction in the Am-vmPFC-Hp system and participation of other systems, not studied hitherto, is thought possible. Authors expect further progress of PTSD imaging study not only from its pathophysiologic aspect but also from its therapeutic (mental and medical) view, which can compensate our knowledge of PTSD from both standpoints. (R.T.)

  17. Treatment of sleep disturbances in posttraumatic stress disorder: A review

    Frank B. Schoenfeld, MD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances are among the most commonly reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms. It is essential to conduct a careful assessment of the presenting sleep disturbance to select the optimal available treatment. Cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBTs are at least as effective as pharmacologic treatment in the short-term and more enduring in their beneficial effects. Cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia and imagery rehearsal therapy have been developed to specifically treat insomnia and nightmares and offer promise for more effective relief of these very distressing symptoms. Pharmacotherapy continues to be an important treatment choice for PTSD sleep disturbances as an adjunct to CBT, when CBT is ineffective or not available, or when the patient declines CBT. Great need exists for more investigation into the effectiveness of specific pharmacologic agents for PTSD sleep disturbances and the dissemination of the findings to prescribers. The studies of prazosin and the findings of its effectiveness for PTSD sleep disturbance are examples of studies of pharmacologic agents needed in this area. Despite the progress made in developing more specific treatments for sleep disturbances in PTSD, insomnia and nightmares may not fully resolve.

  18. Presenting concerns of veterans entering treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Rosen, Craig; Adler, Emerald; Tiet, Quyen

    2013-10-01

    Patient-centered care involves engaging patients as partners in establishing treatment priorities. No prior studies have examined what specific problems veterans hope to address when they enter posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment. Veterans starting outpatient (n = 216) and residential (n = 812) PTSD treatment in 2 multisite care management trials specified (open-ended) the 2 or 3 problems that they most wanted to improve through treatment. Over 80% mentioned PTSD-symptom-related concerns including PTSD or trauma (19.2% to 19.9% of patients), anger (31.0% to 36.7%), sleep problems (14.3% to 27.3%), nightmares (12.3% to 19.4%), and estrangement/isolation (7.9% to 20.8%). Other common problems involved depression (23.1% to 36.5%), anxiety not specific to PTSD (23.9% to 27.8%), relationships (20.4% to 24.5%), and improving coping or functioning (19.2% to 20.4%). Veterans' treatment goals varied significantly by outpatient versus residential setting, gender, and period of military service. Our findings confirm the importance of educating patients about how available efficacious treatments relate to clients' personal goals. Our results also suggest that clinicians should be prepared to offer interventions or provide referrals for common problems such as anger, nightmares, sleep, depression, or relationship difficulties if these problems do not remit with trauma-focused psychotherapy or if patients are unwilling to undergo trauma-focused treatment. PMID:24123262

  19. Emotional working memory capacity in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Schweizer, Susanne; Dalgleish, Tim

    2011-08-01

    Participants with a lifetime history of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and trauma-exposed controls with no PTSD history completed an emotional working memory capacity (eWMC) task. The task required them to remember lists of neutral words over short intervals while simultaneously processing sentences describing dysfunctional trauma-related thoughts (relative to neutral control sentences). The task was designed to operationalise an everyday cognitive challenge for those with mental health problems such as PTSD; namely, the ability to carry out simple, routine tasks with emotionally benign material, while at the same time tackling emotional laden intrusive thoughts and feelings. eWMC performance, indexed as the ability to remember the word lists in the context of trauma sentences, relative to neutral sentences, was poorer overall in the PTSD group compared with controls, suggestive of a particular difficulty employing working memory in emotion-related contexts in those with a history of PTSD. The possible implications for developing affective working memory training as an adjunctive treatment for PTSD are explored. PMID:21684525

  20. Treatment of sleep disturbances in posttraumatic stress disorder: a review.

    Schoenfeld, Frank B; Deviva, Jason C; Manber, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are among the most commonly reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. It is essential to conduct a careful assessment of the presenting sleep disturbance to select the optimal available treatment. Cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBTs) are at least as effective as pharmacologic treatment in the short-term and more enduring in their beneficial effects. Cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia and imagery rehearsal therapy have been developed to specifically treat insomnia and nightmares and offer promise for more effective relief of these very distressing symptoms. Pharmacotherapy continues to be an important treatment choice for PTSD sleep disturbances as an adjunct to CBT, when CBT is ineffective or not available, or when the patient declines CBT. Great need exists for more investigation into the effectiveness of specific pharmacologic agents for PTSD sleep disturbances and the dissemination of the findings to prescribers. The studies of prazosin and the findings of its effectiveness for PTSD sleep disturbance are examples of studies of pharmacologic agents needed in this area. Despite the progress made in developing more specific treatments for sleep disturbances in PTSD, insomnia and nightmares may not fully resolve. PMID:23015583

  1. Advances and controversies in military posttraumatic stress disorder screening.

    Lee, Daniel J; Warner, Christopher H; Hoge, Charles W

    2014-09-01

    As the longest war in American history draws to a close, an unprecedented number of service members and veterans are seeking care for health challenges related to transitioning home and to civilian life. Congressionally mandated screening for mental health concerns in the Department of Defense (DoD), as well as screening efforts Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities, has been established with the goal of decreasing stigma and ensuring service members and veterans with depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) receive needed treatment. Both the DoD and VA have also developed integrated behavioral health in primary-care based initiatives, which emphasize PTSD screening, treatment, and care coordination. This article discusses the rationale for population-level deployment-related mental health screening, recent changes to screening frequency, commonly used screening instruments such as the primary care PTSD screen (PC-PTSD), PTSD checklist (PCL), and Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS); as well as the strengths/limitations of each, and recommended cut-off scores based on expected PTSD prevalence. PMID:25023512

  2. Cognitive processes in post-traumatic stress disorder

    Gamze Yıldırımlı

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD consists of a pattern of symptoms that include cognitive, affective, sensory and behavioral systems. In PTSD, the individual experiences disturbing emotions and sensations such as anxiety, panic, depression, anger, tension, high startle response and hyper-vigilance as a result of re-experiencing traumatic memories, flashbacks, attention difficulties, memory loss, nightmares and intrusive thoughts. To get rid of these emotions, he avoids all stimuli that remind the traumatic event. The cognitive approach asserts that cognitions play a triggering and maintaining role for these symptoms and tries to explain them with the information processing framework. According to this approach, the traumatic event that is experienced is processed differently from daily, ordinary events. This different information processing strategy stands out in attention, memory, dissociation, cognitive beliefs, cognition-affect processes and coping strategies. In the present paper, research on how these constructs that are parts of the information processing in cognitive systems function in PTSD will be reviewed.

  3. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in patients with traumatic brain injury

    Schmidt Roger

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe traumatic stressors such as war, rape, or life-threatening accidents can result in a debilitating psychopathological development conceptualised as Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Pathological memory formation during an alarm response may set the precondition for PTSD to occur. If true, a lack of memory formation by extended unconsciousness in the course of the traumatic experience should preclude PTSD. Methods 46 patients from a neurological rehabilitation clinic were examined by means of questionnaires and structured clinical interviews. All patients had suffered a TBI due to an accident, but varied with respect to falling unconscious during the traumatic event. Results 27% of the sub-sample who were not unconscious for an extended period but only 3% (1 of 31 patients who were unconscious for more than 12 hours as a result of the accident were diagnosed as having current PTSD (P Conclusion TBI and PTSD are not mutually exclusive. However, victims of accidents are unlikely to develop a PTSD if the impact to the head had resulted in an extended period of unconsciousness.

  4. Frequency of posttraumatic stress disorder (ptsd) among flood affected individuals

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship of exposure to a traumatic event and the subsequent onset of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in the population exposed to floods in Pakistan. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and duration of study: Individuals exposed to the 2010 flood in district Shadadkot, Sindh from April 2012 to September 2012. Methodology: Sample of the study comprised of 101 individuals from the flood affected areas in Pakistan. Age range of the participants was 15 to 50 years (M=27.73, SD = 7.19), with participation of both males and females. PTSD was assessed by using the self report measure, impact of Event Scale (IES) and the subjective and objective experience to flood was assessed through Flood Related Exposure Scale (FRES) devised by the authors. Results: The prevalence rate of PTSD among the flood affected population was 35.5%. Trauma had significant positive relation with objective flood exposure and subjective flood exposure (r=.27 and r =.38) respectively. Inverse relation appeared between age and PTSD (r=-.20). PTSD was higher among females as compared to males. Conclusion: Understanding the prevalence of PTSD helps the mental health professionals in devising intervention strategies. A longitudinal study design is recommended that may be developed for better understanding of trajectories of trauma response across time span. Our findings may help identify populations at risk for treatment research. (author)

  5. Post-traumatic stress disorder in Asian refugees.

    Ton-That, N

    1998-12-01

    This study profiles 127 cases of Vietnamese, Cambodian, Laotian and Chinese refugee outpatients diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Traumatic etiologies included victims of wars such as political refugees, concentration camp prisoners and victims of rape, severe personal losses (property or human lives). These traumata were experienced by our subjects during the period between the end of the Vietnam war in April 1975 and recent times, when they finally arrived in the USA. Clinical symptoms of these subjects reflected many influences of their oriental culture background and are characterized by internalization that needs to be overcome for assessment as well as for therapy. Symptomatic treatment with psychopharmacology and supportive therapy are helpful while cultural approaches have been adopted by many patients to reach the inner self pathology that could be of both mental and organic in nature. These facts need to be taken into consideration in the future description of the PTSD clinical picture. Recommendations are made for future PTSD studies in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos, and to promote a global movement for prevention of any socio-political situation that may generate PTSD. PMID:9895199

  6. Information Processing Bias in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Weber, Darren L

    2008-01-01

    This review considers theory and evidence for abnormal information processing in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cognitive studies have indicated sensitivity in PTSD for traumatic information, more so than general emotional information. These findings were supported by neuroimaging studies that identify increased brain activity during traumatic cognition, especially in affective networks (including the amygdala, orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex). In theory, it is proposed that traumatic cognition may interfere with neutral cognition and there is evidence of abnormal neutral stimulus processing in PTSD. Firstly, PTSD patients perform poorly on a variety of neuropsychology tasks that involve attention and memory for neutral information. The evidence from event-related potentials and functional neuroimaging also indicates abnormal results in PTSD during neutral stimulus processing. The research evidence generally provides support for theories of trauma sensitivity and abnormal neutral stimulus processing in PTSD. However, there is only tentative evidence that trauma cognition concurrently interferes with neutral cognition. There is even some evidence that traumatic or novelty arousal processes can increase the capacity for attentive processing, thereby enhancing cognition for neutral stimulus information. Research on this topic has not yet fully explored the mechanisms of interaction between traumatic and neutral content in the cognitive dynamics of PTSD. PMID:19639038

  7. Post-traumatic stress disorder: a right temporal lobe syndrome?

    Engdahl, B.; Leuthold, A. C.; Tan, H.-R. M.; Lewis, S. M.; Winskowski, A. M.; Dikel, T. N.; Georgopoulos, A. P.

    2010-12-01

    In a recent paper (Georgopoulos et al 2010 J. Neural Eng. 7 016011) we reported on the power of the magnetoencephalography (MEG)-based synchronous neural interactions (SNI) test to differentiate post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subjects from healthy control subjects and to classify them with a high degree of accuracy. Here we show that the main differences in cortical communication circuitry between these two groups lie in the miscommunication of temporal and parietal and/or parieto-occipital right hemispheric areas with other brain areas. This lateralized temporal-posterior pattern of miscommunication was very similar but was attenuated in patients with PTSD in remission. These findings are consistent with observations (Penfield 1958 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 44 51-66, Penfield and Perot 1963 Brain 86 595-696, Gloor 1990 Brain 113 1673-94, Banceaud et al 1994 Brain 117 71-90, Fried 1997 J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 9 420-8) that electrical stimulation of the temporal cortex in awake human subjects, mostly in the right hemisphere, can elicit the re-enactment and re-living of past experiences. Based on these facts, we attribute our findings to the re-experiencing component of PTSD and hypothesize that it reflects an involuntarily persistent activation of interacting neural networks involved in experiential consolidation.

  8. Physiological Responses to Acute Psychological Stress Are Reduced by the PPARγ Agonist Rosiglitazone

    Ryan, Karen K.; Grayson, Bernadette E.; Jones, Kenneth R.; Schneider, Alexander L.; Woods, Stephen C.; Seeley, Randy J.; Herman, James P.; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.

    2012-01-01

    Physiological reactions to psychological stress are positively associated with several important chronic conditions including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases and are linked to increased mortality. As such, the identification of cellular and molecular pathways that act to reduce stress responding may represent important targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we report that acute treatment with the peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonist rosiglitazone (RSG...

  9. Corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in songbird plasma and brain: effects of season and acute stress

    Newman, Amy E.M.; Soma, Kiran K.

    2009-01-01

    Prolonged increases in plasma glucocorticoids can exacerbate neurodegeneration. In rats, these neurodegenerative effects can be reduced by dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an androgen precursor with anti-glucocorticoid actions. In song sparrows, season and acute restraint stress affect circulating levels of corticosterone and DHEA, and the effects of stress differ in plasma collected from the brachial and jugular veins. Jugular plasma is an indirect index of the neural steroidal milieu. Here, w...

  10. Acute stress increases interstitial fluid amyloid-β via corticotropin-releasing factor and neuronal activity

    Kang, Jae-Eun; Cirrito, John R.; Dong, Hongxin; John G. Csernansky; Holtzman, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Aggregation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in the extracellular space of the brain is critical in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Aβ is produced by neurons and released into the brain interstitial fluid (ISF), a process regulated by synaptic activity. To determine whether behavioral stressors can regulate ISF Aβ levels, we assessed the effects of chronic and acute stress paradigms in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice. Isolation stress over 3 months increased Aβ levels by 84%. ...

  11. Graded stress radiography in acute injury to the lateral ligaments of the ankle

    The diagnostic accuracy of graded stress radiography in 26 patients with acute injury to the lateral ankle ligaments has been compared with findings at arthrography and surgery. Measuring talar tilt angles and anterior talar displacement over a range of pressures applied to the distal tibia using a commercially available stress device allows diagnostic distinction between isolated anterior talofibular ligament injury and a combined lesion that involves the calcaneofibular ligament. The results compare well with arthrographic and surgical findings. (orig.)

  12. Prognostic significance of sinus deceleration during dobutamine stress echocardiography test following acute myocardial infarction

    Šalinger Sonja; Tomašević Miloje; Glasnović Jozef; Apostolović Svetlana; Pavlović Milan; Pešić Zoran; Ranđelović Miomir; Stojković Aleksandar; Krstić Nebojša; Milić Dragan

    2006-01-01

    Background/Aim. Chronotropic incompetence during exercise stress testing after acute myocardial infarction is an indicator of ischemia or impaired left ventricular function. On the other side, infusion of dobutamine leads to a typical dose-dependent increase in heart rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate of paradoxical sinus deceleration during dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE), as the sign of ischemia and impaired left ventricular function, or the consequence of infarction local...

  13. Effect of estrogen on plasma ceruloplasmin level in rats exposed to acute stress

    Ganaraja B; Pavithran P; Ghosh S

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma ceruloplasmin, a copper containing protein, belongs to a class called acute phase proteins. Reduced level of ceruloplasmin was associated with Wilson′s disease and Menke′s kinky hair disease in man, primarily affecting copper metabolism. Stress was known to increase Ceruloplasmin. Several stress associated changes were commonly observed in women at menopause and also those who underwent overiectomy. Present experiment investigated the effect of estrogen on cer...

  14. Sex differences in physiological reactivity to acute psychosocial stress in adolescence

    Ordaz, Sarah; Luna, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Females begin to demonstrate greater negative affective responses to stress than males in adolescence. This may reflect the concurrent emergence of underlying differences in physiological response systems, including corticolimbic circuitries, the hypothalamic—pituitary— adrenal axis (HPAA), and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). This review examines when sex differences in physiological reactivity to acute psychosocial stress emerge and the directionality of these differences over developmen...

  15. Freeze, Flight, Fight, Fright, Faint: Adaptationist Perspectives on the Acute Stress Response Spectrum

    Bracha, Dr. H. Stefan

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the existing evolutionary perspectives on the acute stress response habitual faintness and blood-injection-injury type-specific phobia (BIITS phobia). In this article, an alternative evolutionary perspective, based on recent advances in evolutionary psychology, is proposed. Specifically, that fear-induced faintness (eg, fainting following the sight of a syringe, blood, or following a trivial skin injury) is a distinct Homo sapiens-specific extreme-stress survival response...

  16. Acute neuropsychiatric disorders in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome: Japanese case reports

    Akahoshi, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Keiko Akahoshi,1 Hiroshi Matsuda,2 Masuko Funahashi,1 Tomoyuki Hanaoka,3 Yasuyuki Suzuki11Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Children’s Rehabilitation Hospital, Tokyo; 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama; 3Department of Pediatrics, Bihoro Rehabilitation Hospital, Hokkaido, JapanBackground: The aim of this study was to evaluate acute neuropsychiatric disorders in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome. We report 13 ...

  17. Tomoscintigraphy for prediction of the results of angiosurgery for acute ischemic disorders of cerebral circulation

    Preoperative volume and degree of ischemic involvement of the brain shown by single-photon emission computer-aided tomoscintigraphy (SECT) and the time course of neurologic status following reconstructive surgery on the carotid arteries were studied in 20 patients with acute disorders of cerebral circulation. The volume of hypoperfused cerebral tissue and volumic index of cerebral tissue hypoperfision were calculated from the data of tomoscintigraphy of the brain. 7 refs.; 4 tabs

  18. Anxiety and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Context of Human Brain Evolution:A Role for Theory in DSM-V?

    Bracha, Dr. H. Stefan; Maser, Dr. Jack D.

    2008-01-01

    The “hypervigilance, escape, struggle, tonic immobility” evolutionarily hardwired acute peritraumatic response sequence is important for clinicians to understand. Our commentary supplements the useful article on human tonic immobility (TI) by Marx, Forsyth, Gallup, Fusé and Lexington (2008). A hallmark sign of TI is peritraumatic tachycardia, which others have documented as a major risk factor for subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). TI is evolutionarily highl...

  19. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

    Heather M Buechel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/ stress hormone/ allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation, and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 mo. and aged (21 mo. male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress groups (n = 9-12/ group. We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the three hour restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 hours after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors.

  20. Posttraumatic stress disorder in eating disorder patients: The roles of psychological distress and timing of trauma.

    Isomaa, Rasmus; Backholm, Klas; Birgegård, Andreas

    2015-12-15

    Exposure to traumatic events may be a risk factor for subsequent development of an eating disorder (ED). In a previous study, we showed that trauma exposure impacted symptom load in ED patients. We also saw an effect of trauma on general psychological distress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and ED severity, to focus on the mediating role of psychological distress for the association, and to assess the role of timing of trauma in relation to emergence of ED. Participants were Swedish adult ED patients with a history of traumatic exposure (N=843, Mean age 27.2, 97.3% female). One fourth (24.1%) of the participants had a lifetime diagnosis of PTSD. PTSD had an impact on ED severity, but the impact was mediated by psychological distress. When stratifying the sample based on timing of trauma a significant effect was present only in those with trauma within a year of emergence of ED. The results suggest emotion regulation as a possible underlying factor of interest in future research. PMID:26453121

  1. Sleep disorders in the elderly: depression and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Guerrero, J; Crocq, M A

    1994-01-01

    We report on two studies of sleep in the elderly. (1) One hundred and ninety-eight Spanish outpatients aged over 65 who met ICD-10 criteria for either a depressive episode, a recurrent, or a persistent mood disorder were compared with a matched population of depressives aged under 55. Factorial analysis and multiple regression showed that sleep complaints in the older group correlated less with severity of depression and had a less stable response to pharmacological treatment. (2) Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and sleep complaints were studied in 817 World War II veterans from Alsace-Lorraine who had been forcibly drafted into the Wehrmacht and subsequently detained as prisoners of war in Russia. The diagnosis of PTSD was associated with more severe wartime stressors and long internment. Eighty percent of respondants still report recurrent distressing dreams of wartime or captivity events after over 45 years. We analyzed sleep complaints in two elderly populations. Part one describes a Spanish study which compared the nosological significance and treatment response of sleep complaints in depressives aged over 65 or under 55. In part two, we study sleep complaints in former Alsatian prisoners of war (POWs) and analyze the influence of previous stressors and the aging process. PMID:7799245

  2. New avenues for treating emotional memory disorders: towards a reconsolidation intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder

    Kindt, Merel; van Emmerik, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The discovery that fear memories may change upon retrieval, a process referred to as memory reconsolidation, opened avenues to develop a revolutionary new treatment for emotional memory disorders. Reconsolidation is a two-phase process in which retrieval of a memory initiates a transient period of memory destabilization, followed by a protein synthesis-dependent restabilization phase. This reconsolidation window offers unique opportunities for amnesic agents to interfere with the process of memory restabilization, thereby weakening or even erasing the emotional expression from specific fear memories. Here we present four uncontrolled case descriptions of patients with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who received a reconsolidation intervention. The intervention basically involves a brief reactivation of the trauma memory aimed to trigger memory destabilization, followed by the intake of one pill of 40 mg propranolol HCl (i.e. a noradrenergic beta-blocker) that should disrupt the process of memory restabilization. We present three cases who showed a steep decline of fear symptoms after only one or two intervention sessions. To illustrate that the translation from basic science to clinical practice is not self-evident, we also present a description of a noneffective intervention in a relatively complex case. Even though the reconsolidation intervention is very promising, the success of the treatment depends on whether the memory reactivation actually triggers memory reconsolidation. Obviously the uncontrolled observations described here warrant further study in placebo-controlled designs.

  3. Social stress modulates the cortisol response to an acute stressor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Jeffrey, J D; Gollock, M J; Gilmour, K M

    2014-01-15

    In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of subordinate social status, circulating cortisol concentrations were elevated under resting conditions but the plasma cortisol and glucose responses to an acute stressor (confinement in a net) were attenuated relative to those of dominant trout. An in vitro head kidney preparation, and analysis of the expression of key genes in the stress axis prior to and following confinement in a net were then used to examine the mechanisms underlying suppression of the acute cortisol stress response in trout experiencing chronic social stress. With porcine adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as the secretagogue, ACTH-stimulated cortisol production was significantly lower for head kidney preparations from subordinate trout than for those from dominant trout. Dominant and subordinate fish did not, however, differ in the relative mRNA abundance of melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) or cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) within the head kidney, although the relative mRNA abundance of these genes was significantly higher in both dominant and subordinate fish than in sham trout (trout that did not experience social interactions but were otherwise treated identically to the dominant and subordinate fish). The relative mRNA abundance of all three genes was significantly higher in trout exposed to an acute net stressor than under control conditions. Upstream of cortisol production in the stress axis, plasma ACTH concentrations were not affected by social stress, nor was the relative mRNA abundance of the binding protein for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF-BP). The relative mRNA abundance of CRF in the pre-optic area of subordinate fish was significantly higher than that of dominant or sham fish 1h after exposure to the stressor. Collectively, the results indicate that chronic social stress modulates cortisol production at the level of the interrenal cells, resulting in an attenuated

  4. Posttraumatic stress disorder increases sensitivity to long term losses among patients with major depressive disorder.

    Jan B Engelmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decisions under risk and with outcomes that are delayed in time are ubiquitous in real life and can have a significant impact on the health and wealth of the decision-maker. Despite its potential relevance for real-world choices, the degree of aberrant risky and intertemporal decision-making in patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD has received little attention to date. METHOD: We used a case-control design to compare decision-making in healthy control subjects (N=16 versus untreated depressed subjects in a current major depressive episode (N=20. In order to examine how major depressive disorder (MDD may impact decision-making, subjects made decisions over (1 risky outcomes and (2 delayed outcomes in the domain of gains and losses using choice paradigms from neuroeconomics. In a pre-planned analysis, depressed subjects were subdivided into those with primary PTSD along with comorbid MDD (MDD+PTSD versus those with primary MDD without PTSD (MDD-only. Choice behavior was modeled via a standard econometric model of intertemporal choice, a quasi-hyperbolic temporal discounting function, which was estimated for each subject group separately. RESULTS: Under conditions of potential gain, depressed subjects demonstrated greater discounting for gains across all time frames compared to controls. In the realm of losses, both subgroups of depressed subjects discounted more steeply than controls for short time frames. However, for delayed losses ranging from >1-10 years, MDD+PTSD subjects showed shallower discounting rates relative to MDD-only subjects, who continued to discount future losses steeply. Risk attitudes did not contribute to differences in intertemporal choice. CONCLUSIONS: Depressed patients make choices that minimize current pain and maximize current reward, despite severe later consequences or lost opportunities. Anxiety associated with PTSD may serve as a partially

  5. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Seda Tokgunaydin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to review empirical studies that were used to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for the treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (February have been searched in national and international databases. The articles that were gathered by the search have been read and the ones that were not therapy effectiveness studies, cognitive behavioral group therapies and that included posttraumatic stress disorder comorbid with alcohol/substance abuse, personality disorders and psychotic disorders were eliminated. The remaining 13 studies that fulfiilrf research criteria were introduced in the context of method and therapy characteristics. It can be seen that the cognitive behavioral group therapies are effective in decreasing the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and/or comorbid disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 95-107

  6. An Instrument to Prepare for Acute Care of the Individual with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Emergency Department

    Venkat, Arvind; Migyanka, Joann M.; Cramer, Ryan; McGonigle, John J.

    2016-01-01

    We present an instrument to allow individuals with autism spectrum disorder, their families and/or their caregivers to prepare emergency department staff for the care needs of this patient population ahead of acute presentation.

  7. Cognition following acute tryptophan depletion : Difference between first-degree relatives of bipolar disorder patients and matched healthy control volunteers

    Sobczak, S; Riedel, W J; Booij, I; Aan Het Rot, M; Deutz, N E P; Honig, A

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serotonergic circuits have been proposed to mediate cognitive processes, particularly learning and memory. Cognitive impairment is often seen in bipolar disorders in relation to a possible lowered serotonergic turnover. METHODS: We investigated the effects of acute tryptophan depletion (

  8. Acute stress-induced antinociception is cGMP-dependent but heme oxygenase-independent

    Carvalho-Costa, P.G. [Programa de Graduação em Psicobiologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Branco, L.G.S. [Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Leite-Panissi, C.R.A. [Programa de Graduação em Psicobiologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-09-19

    Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), which is produced by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), participates as a neuromodulator in physiological processes such as thermoregulation and nociception by stimulating the formation of 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In particular, the acute physical restraint-induced fever of rats can be blocked by inhibiting the enzyme HO. A previous study reported that the HO-CO-cGMP pathway plays a key phasic antinociceptive role in modulating noninflammatory acute pain. Thus, this study evaluated the involvement of the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in antinociception induced by acute stress in male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=8/group) using the analgesia index (AI) in the tail flick test. The results showed that antinociception induced by acute stress was not dependent on the HO-CO-cGMP pathway, as neither treatment with the HO inhibitor ZnDBPG nor heme-lysinate altered the AI. However, antinociception was dependent on cGMP activity because pretreatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) blocked the increase in the AI induced by acute stress.

  9. Acute stress-induced antinociception is cGMP-dependent but heme oxygenase-independent

    Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), which is produced by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), participates as a neuromodulator in physiological processes such as thermoregulation and nociception by stimulating the formation of 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In particular, the acute physical restraint-induced fever of rats can be blocked by inhibiting the enzyme HO. A previous study reported that the HO-CO-cGMP pathway plays a key phasic antinociceptive role in modulating noninflammatory acute pain. Thus, this study evaluated the involvement of the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in antinociception induced by acute stress in male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=8/group) using the analgesia index (AI) in the tail flick test. The results showed that antinociception induced by acute stress was not dependent on the HO-CO-cGMP pathway, as neither treatment with the HO inhibitor ZnDBPG nor heme-lysinate altered the AI. However, antinociception was dependent on cGMP activity because pretreatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) blocked the increase in the AI induced by acute stress

  10. Chronic idiopathic urticaria and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): an under-recognized comorbidity.

    Gupta, Madhulika A; Gupta, Aditya K

    2012-01-01

    A large body of literature supports the role of psychologic stress in urticaria; however, the comorbidity between chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a classic stress-mediated syndrome, has received little attention. The underlying etiology of urticaria is not identifiable in about 70% of patients, possibly because of difficulties with identification of a direct cause-and-effect relationship between a potential causative factor and the onset of urticaria. The core features of PTSD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision [DSMIV-TR]) that are important in urticaria include (1) autonomic nervous system reactivity and state of sympathetic hyperarousal that can manifest as CIU, and (2) the persistent re-experiencing of the traumatic events in PTSD, which can manifest as urticaria or angioedema, or both, affecting a previously traumatized body region (eg, urticarial wheals affecting the body region where the patient had been stabbed years earlier). The following features of PTSD make it difficult to use the cause-and-effect model for the determination of causation: (1) PTSD may first emerge years after the initial trauma and is classified as PTSD with Delayed Onset (DSMIV-TR); and (2) the traumatic triggers that precipitate the PTSD symptoms may be unique and idiosyncratic to the patient and not even qualify as stressful or traumatic by standard criteria (eg, precipitating events for the PTSD may include smell of a certain cologne that was used by the perpetrator or witnessing a scene in a movie that was reminiscent of the location where the abuse occurred). Finally, in PTSD with Delayed Onset, patients may not make a conscious association between their recurrent urticaria and their earlier traumas because they can develop classically conditioned associations between stimuli that are reminiscent of the original abuse situation and their somatic reactions such as urticaria. The clinician

  11. Relationship between oxygen free radicals, cytokines, cortisol and stress complications in patients with acute cerebrovascular disease

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between oxygen free radicals, cytokines, cortisol and stress complications in patients with acute cerebrovascular disease (ACVD). Methods: Serum levels of superoxide dismutases (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA) (with biochemistry) interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and cortisol (with RIA) were measured in 32 patients with acute cerebrovascular disease (ACVD) plus stress complications and 48 patients without stress complications as well as 36 controls. Results: Serum SOD contents in non-stressed group were higher than those in stressed group (P<0.05) but lower than those of the controls (P<0.05). However the levels of MDA, IL-6, TNF-α and cortisol were highest in the stressed group and lowest in the controls (all P<0.05). Conclusion: Oxygen free radicals, IL-6, TNF-α and cortisol were involved in stress complications in patients with ACVD. Monitoring the levels of serum SOD, MDA, IL-6, TNF-α and cortisol could be useful for predicting stress complications and evaluating the therapeutic effect. (authors)

  12. The acute antipanic and anxiolytic activity of aerobic exercise in patients with panic disorder and healthy control subjects

    Graetz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Exercise has long been regarded as a healthy behavior with both preventive and therapeutic properties for a variety of physical and mental pathological conditions. Regular physical activity is anxiolytic in healthy subjects and patients with panic disorder. In contrast, acute exercise may induce acute panic attacks or increase subjective anxiety in patients with panic disorder more than in other people. The effects of quiet rest or an aerobic treadmill exercise on cholecystokinin tetrapep...

  13. Cumulative exposure to prior collective trauma and acute stress responses to the Boston marathon bombings.

    Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2015-06-01

    The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metropolitan Boston (n = 846) and New York City (n = 941) completed Internet-based surveys shortly after the Boston Marathon bombings. Cumulative direct exposure and indirect exposure to prior community trauma and acute stress symptoms were assessed. Acute stress levels did not differ between Boston and New York metropolitan residents. Cumulative direct and indirect, live-media-based exposure to 9/11, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook shooting were positively associated with acute stress responses in the covariate-adjusted model. People who experience multiple community-based traumas may be sensitized to the negative impact of subsequent events, especially in communities previously exposed to similar disasters. PMID:25896419

  14. Glucose intolerance induced by blockade of central FGF receptors is linked to an acute stress response

    Jennifer M. Rojas

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: The effect of acute inhibition of central FGFR signaling to impair glucose tolerance likely involves a stress response associated with pronounced, but transient, sympathoadrenal activation and an associated reduction of insulin secretion. Whether this effect is a true consequence of FGFR blockade or involves an off-target effect of the FGFR inhibitor requires additional study.

  15. Family Stress Management Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: An Educational and Skills Training Intervention Program.

    Nelson, David V.; Cleveland, Sidney E.; Baer, Paul E.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a conceptual background for specific behavioral-therapy approach to family stress management in dealing with the sequelae of acute myocardial infarction for all family members with the goal of reducing morbidity for all family members as they cope with ongoing survivorship issues. Describes the program and discusses its pilot…

  16. Acute exercise improves endothelial function despite increasing vascular resistance during stress in smokers and nonsmokers.

    Rooks, Cherie R; McCully, Kevin K; Dishman, Rod K

    2011-09-01

    The present study examined the effect of acute exercise on flow mediated dilation (FMD) and reactivity to neurovascular challenges among female smokers and nonsmokers. FMD was determined by arterial diameter, velocity, and blood flow measured by Doppler ultrasonography after forearm occlusion. Those measures and blood pressure and heart rate were also assessed in response to forehead cold and the Stroop Color-Word Conflict Test (CWT) before and after 30 min of rest or an acute bout of cycling exercise (∼50% VO₂ peak). Baseline FMD and stress responses were not different between smokers and nonsmokers. Compared to passive rest, exercise increased FMD and decreased arterial velocity and blood flow responses during the Stroop CWT and forehead cold in both groups. Overall, acute exercise improved endothelial function among smokers and nonsmokers despite increasing vascular resistance and reducing limb blood flow during neurovascular stress. PMID:21457274

  17. An analysis of early developmental trauma in social anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder

    2014-01-01

    Background The early contributions of childhood trauma (emotional, physical, sexual, and general) have been hypothesized to play a significant role in the development of anxiety disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD). The aim of this study was to assess childhood trauma differences between PTSD and SAD patients and healthy controls, as measured by the Early Trauma Inventory. Methods We examined individuals (N = 109) with SAD with moderate/severe early developmental trauma (EDT) (n = 32), individuals with SAD with low/no EDT (n = 29), individuals with PTSD with EDT (n = 17), and healthy controls (n = 31). The mean age was 34 years (SD = 11). Subjects were screened with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Analysis of variance was performed to assess group differences. Correlations were calculated between childhood traumas. Results Although not statistically significant, individuals with PTSD endorsed more physical and sexual childhood trauma compared with individuals with SAD with moderate/severe EDT who endorsed more emotional trauma. For all groups, physical and emotional abuse occurred between ages 6 and 11, while the occurrence of sexual abuse in individuals with PTSD was at 6–11 years and later (13–18 years) in individuals with SAD with moderate/severe EDT. For emotional abuse in all groups, the perpetrator was mostly a primary female caregiver; for sexual abuse, it was mostly a nonfamilial adult male, while for physical abuse, it was mostly a caregiver (male in PTSD and female in SAD with moderate/severe EDT). Conclusions The contribution of childhood abuse to the development of PTSD and SAD and the differences between these groups and other anxiety disorders should not be ignored and attention should be given to the frequency and severity

  18. The influence of acute stress on attention mechanisms and its electrophysiological correlates

    Jessica Sänger

    2014-10-01

    By means of the EEG, subjects who got stressed showed a reduced allocation to the relevant luminance change apparent in a modulation of the N1pc. The following N2pc, which reflects a re-allocation of attentional resources, supports the error pattern. There was only an N2pc in conditions, which required to bias the less salient luminance change. Moreover, this N2pc was decreased as a consequence of the induced stress. These results allow the conclusion that acute stress impairs the intention-based attentional allocation and enhances the stimulus-driven selection, leading to a strong distractibility during attentional information selection.

  19. Neurobehavioral Mechanisms of Traumatic Stress in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Lapiz-Bluhm, M Danet; Peterson, Alan L

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder that develops following trauma exposure. It is characterized by four symptom clusters: intrusion, avoidance, negative alteration in cognitions and mood, and alterations in arousal and reactivity. Several risk factors have been associated with PTSD, including trauma type and severity, gender and sexual orientation, race and ethnicity, cognitive reserve, pretrauma psychopathology, familial psychiatric history, and genetics. Great strides have been made in understanding the neurobiology of PTSD through animal models and human imaging studies. Most of the animal models have face validity, but they have limitations in the generalization to the human model of PTSD. Newer animal models, such as the "CBC" model, have better validity for PTSD, which takes into account the different components of its diagnostic criteria. To date, fear conditioning and fear extinction animal models have provided support for the hypothesis that PTSD is a dysregulation of the processes related to fear regulation and, especially, fear extinction. More research is needed to further understand these processes as they relate not only to PTSD but also to resilience. Further, this research could be instrumental in the development of novel effective treatments for PTSD. PMID:24691656

  20. Stress-induced enhancement of fear learning: an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Rau, Vinuta; DeCola, Joseph P; Fanselow, Michael S

    2005-01-01

    Fear is an adaptive response that initiates defensive behavior to protect animals and humans from danger. However, anxiety disorders, such as Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), can occur when fear is inappropriately regulated. Fear conditioning can be used to study aspects of PTSD, and we have developed a model in which pre-exposure to a stressor of repeated footshock enhances conditional fear responding to a single context-shock pairing. The experiments in this chapter address interpretations of this effect including generalization and summation or fear, inflation, and altered pain sensitivity. The results of these experiments lead to the conclusion that pre-exposure to shock sensitizes conditional fear responding to similar less intense stressors. This sensitization effect resists exposure therapy (extinction) and amnestic (NMDA antagonist) treatment. The pattern predicts why in PTSD patients, mild stressors cause reactions more appropriate for the original traumatic stressor and why new fears are so readily formed in these patients. This model can facilitate the study of neurobiological mechanisms underlying sensitization of responses observed in PTSD. PMID:16095698

  1. Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and generalised anxiety disorder in adolescents after a natural disaster: a study of comorbidity

    Bastia Binaya; Kar Nilamadhab

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Information on mental health sequel in adolescents following natural disasters from developing countries is scant. Method Around one year after a super-cyclone, proportion of adolescents exhibiting post-traumatic psychiatric symptoms, prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression and generalized anxiety disorder, comorbidity and impairment of performance in school were studied in Orissa, India. Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for child...

  2. Risk factors of child physical abuse by parents with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder

    Kalebić Jakupčević, Katija; Ajduković, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine the risk that parents with mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (MADD) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) will physically abuse their child and evaluate the specific contribution of mental health, perceived social support, experience of childhood abuse, and attributes of family relations to the risk of child physical abuse. Method The study conducted in 2007 included men (n = 25) and women (n = 25) with a diagnosis of MADD, men with a diagnosis o...

  3. Perturbations in Effort-Related Decision-Making Driven by Acute Stress and Corticotropin-Releasing Factor.

    Bryce, Courtney A; Floresco, Stan B

    2016-07-01

    Acute stress activates numerous systems in a coordinated effort to promote homeostasis, and can exert differential effects on mnemonic and cognitive functions depending on a myriad of factors. Stress can alter different forms of cost/benefit decision-making, yet the mechanisms that drive these effects, remain unclear. In the present study, we probed how corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) may contribute to stress-induced alterations in cost/benefit decision-making, using an task where well-trained rats chose between a low effort/low reward lever (LR; two pellets) and a high effort/high reward lever (HR; four pellets), with the effort requirement increasing over a session (2, 5, 10, and 20 presses). One-hour restraint stress markedly reduced preference for the HR option, but this effect was attenuated by infusions of the CRF antagonist, alpha-helical CRF. Conversely, central CRF infusion mimicked the effect of stress on decision-making, as well as increased decision latencies and reduced response vigor. CRF infusions did not alter preference for larger vs smaller rewards, but did reduce responding for food delivered on a progressive ratio, suggesting that these treatments may amplify perceived effort costs that may be required to obtain rewards. CRF infusions into the ventral tegmental area recapitulated the effect of central CRF treatment and restraint on choice behavior, suggesting that these effects may be mediated by perturbations in dopamine transmission. These findings highlight the involvement of CRF in regulating effort-related decisions and suggest that increased CRF activity may contribute to motivational impairments and abnormal decision-making associated with stress-related psychiatric disorders such as depression. PMID:26830960

  4. Stress-induced enhancement of fear conditioning and sensitization facilitates extinction-resistant and habituation-resistant fear behaviors in a novel animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Corley, Michael J; Caruso, Michael J; Takahashi, Lorey K

    2012-01-18

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by stress-induced symptoms including exaggerated fear memories, hypervigilance and hyperarousal. However, we are unaware of an animal model that investigates these hallmarks of PTSD especially in relation to fear extinction and habituation. Therefore, to develop a valid animal model of PTSD, we exposed rats to different intensities of footshock stress to determine their effects on either auditory predator odor fear extinction or habituation of fear sensitization. In Experiment 1, rats were exposed to acute footshock stress (no shock control, 0.4 mA, or 0.8 mA) immediately prior to auditory fear conditioning training involving the pairing of auditory clicks with a cloth containing cat odor. When presented to the conditioned auditory clicks in the next 5 days of extinction testing conducted in a runway apparatus with a hide box, rats in the two shock groups engaged in higher levels of freezing and head out vigilance-like behavior from the hide box than the no shock control group. This increase in fear behavior during extinction testing was likely due to auditory activation of the conditioned fear state because Experiment 2 demonstrated that conditioned fear behavior was not broadly increased in the absence of the conditioned auditory stimulus. Experiment 3 was then conducted to determine whether acute exposure to stress induces a habituation resistant sensitized fear state. We found that rats exposed to 0.8 mA footshock stress and subsequently tested for 5 days in the runway hide box apparatus with presentations of nonassociative auditory clicks exhibited high initial levels of freezing, followed by head out behavior and culminating in the occurrence of locomotor hyperactivity. In addition, Experiment 4 indicated that without delivery of nonassociative auditory clicks, 0.8 mA footshock stressed rats did not exhibit robust increases in sensitized freezing and locomotor hyperactivity, albeit head out vigilance

  5. The implicit affiliation motive moderates cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress in high school students.

    Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Budde, Henning

    2014-10-01

    It has been previously shown that the implicit affiliation motive - the need to establish and maintain friendly relationships with others - leads to chronic health benefits. The underlying assumption for the present research was that the implicit affiliation motive also moderates the salivary cortisol response to acute psychological stress when some aspects of social evaluation and uncontrollability are involved. By contrast we did not expect similar effects in response to exercise as a physical stressor. Fifty-nine high school students aged M=14.8 years were randomly assigned to a psychosocial stress (publishing the results of an intelligence test performed), a physical stress (exercise intensity of 65-75% of HRmax), and a control condition (normal school lesson) each lasting 15min. Participants' affiliation motives were assessed using the Operant Motive Test and salivary cortisol samples were taken pre and post stressor. We found that the strength of the affiliation motive negatively predicted cortisol reactions to acute psychosocial but not to physical stress when compared to a control group. The results suggest that the affiliation motive buffers the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the HPA axis. PMID:25016451

  6. Predicting violence in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Jovanović Aleksandar A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Frequent expression of negative affects, hostility and violent behavior in individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD were recognized long ago, and have been retrospectively well documented in war veterans with PTSD who were shown to have an elevated risk for violent behavior when compared to both veterans without PTSD and other psychiatric patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of clinical prediction of violence in combat veterans suffering from PTSD. Methods. The subjects of this study, 104 male combat veterans with PTSD were assessed with the Historical, Clinical and Risk Management 20 (HCR-20, a 20-item clinicianrated instrument for assessing the risks for violence, and their acts of violence during one-year follow-up period were registered based on bimonthly check-up interviews. Results. Our findings showed that the HCR-20, as an actuarial measure, had good internal consistency reliability (α = 0.82, excellent interrater reliability (Interaclass Correlation ICC = 0.85, as well as excellent predictive validity for acts of any violence, non-physical violence or physical violence in the follow-up period (AUC = 0.82-0.86. The HCR-20 also had good interrater reliability (Cohen's kappa = 0.74, and acceptable predictive accuracy for each outcome criterion (AUC = 0.73-0.79. Conclusion. The results of this research confirm that the HCR-20 may also be applied in prediction of violent behavior in the population of patients suffering from PTSD with reliability and validity comparable with the results of previous studies where this instrument was administered to other populations of psychiatric patients.

  7. Carvacrol modulates oxidative stress and decreases cell injury in pancreas of rats with acute pancreatitis.

    Kılıç, Yeliz; Geyikoglu, Fatime; Çolak, Suat; Turkez, Hasan; Bakır, Murat; Hsseinigouzdagani, Mirkhalil

    2016-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is considered as major problem around the world and the incidence of AP is increasing. Carvacrol (CAR), a monoterpenic phenol, has good antioxidant activity. This in vivo study was designed to evaluate whether CAR provide protection against AP that developed by pancreas injury. The rats were randomised into groups to receive (I) no therapy; (II) 50 µg/kg cerulein at 1 h intervals by four intraperitonally (i.p.) injections; (III) 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg CAR by one i.p. injection; and (IV) cerulein plus CAR after 2 h of cerulein administration. 12 h later, serum samples were obtained to assess pancreatic function, the lipase and amylase values. The oxidative stress markers were evaluated by changes in the amount of lipid peroxides measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) and changes in main tissue antioxidant enzyme levels including SOD, CAT and GSH-PX. Histopathological examination was performed using scoring systems. Additionally, oxidative DNA damage was determined by measuring the increases of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) formations. We found that the increasing doses of CAR decreased AP-induced MDA and 8-OH-dG levels. Moreover, the pancreas antioxidant enzyme activities were higher than that of the rats in the AP group when compared to the AP plus CAR group. In the treatment groups, the lipase and amylase were reduced. Besides, histopathological findings in the pancreatic tissue were alleviated (p < 0.05). We suggest that CAR could be a safe and potent new drug candidate for treating AP through its antioxidative mechanism of action for the treatment of a wide range of disorders related to pancreas. PMID:26093481

  8. Understanding recovery in children following traffic-related injuries: Exploring acute traumatic stress reactions, child coping, and coping assistance

    Marsac, Meghan L; Donlon, Katharine A.; Hildenbrand, Aimee K.; Winston, Flaura K.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Millions of children incur potentially traumatic physical injuries every year. Most children recover well from their injury but many go on to develop persistent traumatic stress reactions. This study aimed to describe children’s coping and coping assistance (i.e., the ways in which parents and peers help children cope) strategies and to explore the association between coping and acute stress reactions following an injury. Children (N = 243) rated their acute traumatic stress reactions within ...

  9. The impact of dissociation on the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder

    Hagenaars, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation investigated the impact of dissociation on the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), on memory formation, and on treatment efficacy. First, the predictive power of peritraumatic psychological and somatoform dissociation was investigated in two studies using a prospec

  10. The influence of stress on social cognition in patients with borderline personality disorder

    Deckers, J.W.; Lobbestael, J.; Wingen, G.A. van; Kessels, R.P.C.; Arntz, A.; Egger, J.I.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by severe difficulties in interpersonal relationships and emotional functioning. Theories of BPD suggest that individuals with BPD have heightened emotional sensitivity, increased stress reactivity, and problems in making sense of in

  11. The influence of stress on social cognition in patients with borderline personality disorder

    Deckers, J.W.M.; Lobbestael, J.; Wingen, G.A. van; Kessels, R.P.C.; Arntz, A.R.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by severe difficulties in interpersonal relationships and emotional functioning. Theories of BPD suggest that individuals with BPD have heightened emotional sensitivity, increased stress reactivity, and problems in making sense of int

  12. The influence of stress on social cognition in patients with borderline personality disorder

    J.W.M. Deckers; J. Lobbestael; G.A. van Wingen; R.P.C. Kessels; A. Arntz; J.I.M. Egger

    2014-01-01

    Background: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by severe difficulties in interpersonal relationships and emotional functioning. Theories of BPD suggest that individuals with BPD have heightened emotional sensitivity, increased stress reactivity, and problems in making sense of in

  13. Integrated circuits and molecular components for stress and feeding: implications for eating disorders

    Hardaway, J. A.; Crowley, N. A.; Bulik, C. M.; Kash, T. L.

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders are complex brain disorders that afflict millions of individuals worldwide. The etiology of these diseases is not fully understood, but a growing body of literature suggests that stress and anxiety may play a critical role in their development. As our understanding of the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to disease in clinical populations like anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder continue to grow, neuroscientists are using animal models to understand the neurobiology of stress and feeding. We hypothesize that eating disorder clinical phenotypes may result from stress-induced maladaptive alterations in neural circuits that regulate feeding, and that these circuits can be neurochemically isolated using animal model of eating disorders. PMID:25366309

  14. A Study of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Effect of Oral Antioxidant Supplementation in Severe Acute Malnutrition

    Ghone, Rahul A.; Suryakar, Adinath N.; Kulhalli, P. M.; Bhagat, Sonali S.; Padalkar, Ramchandra K.; Karnik, Aarti C.; Hundekar, Prakash S.; Sangle, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition represents one of the most severe health problems in India. Free radicals play an important role in immunological response, which induces the oxidative surplus in severe acute malnutrition. Severe dietary deficiency of nutrients leads to increased oxidative stress in cellular compartments. Aim: The goal of this study was to inspect impact of oxidative stress in the form of serum malondialdehyde as product of lipid peroxidation, vitamin E, zinc and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in patients with severe acute malnutrition. Material and Methods: Sixty severe acute malnutrition patients were studied before and after supplementation of antioxidants for one month, and their status were compared with those of 60 age and sex matched healthy controls. The level of serum MDA was analyzed by the Kei Satoh method, serum vitamin E concentration was measured by Baker and Frank Method, serum zinc was measured by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase was measured by Kajari Das Method. Results: Significantly increased levels of serum malondialdehyde (p0.05) increase in vitamin E levels as compared to those before supplementation results. Conclusion: Harsh deficiency of various nutrients in severe acute malnutrition leads to generation of heavy oxidative stress. These effects may be minimized with supplementation of antioxidants. PMID:24298460

  15. Changes of central haemodynamic parameters during mental stress and acute bouts of static and dynamic exercise.

    Lydakis, C; Momen, A; Blaha, C; Gugoff, S; Gray, K; Herr, M; Leuenberger, U A; Sinoway, L I

    2008-05-01

    Chronic dynamic (aerobic) exercise decreases central arterial stiffness, whereas chronic resistance exercise evokes the opposite effect. Nevertheless, there is little information available on the effects of acute bouts of exercise. Also, there is limited data showing an increase of central arterial stiffness during acute mental stress. This study aimed to determine the effect of acute mental and physical (static and dynamic exercise) stress on indices of central arterial stiffness. Fifteen young healthy volunteers were studied. The following paradigms were performed: (1) 2 min of mental arithmetic, (2) short bouts (20 s) of static handgrip at 20 and 70% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), (3) fatiguing handgrip at 40% MVC and (4) incremental dynamic knee extensor exercise. Central aortic waveforms were assessed using SphygmoCor software. As compared to baseline, pulse wave transit time decreased significantly for all four interventions indicating that central arterial stiffness increased. During fatiguing handgrip there was a fall in the ratio of peripheral to central pulse pressure from 1.69+/-0.02 at baseline to 1.56+/-0.05 (Pfatiguing handgrip protocols, whereas there was no change in the knee extensor protocol. We conclude that (1) during all types of acute stress tested in this study (including dynamic exercise) estimated central stiffness increased, (2) during static exercise the workload posed on the left ventricle (expressed as change in central pulse pressure) is relatively higher than that posed during dynamic exercise (given the same pulse pressure change in the periphery). PMID:18273040

  16. [Sleep disturbances and spatial memory deficits in post-traumatic stress disorder: the case of L'Aquila (Central Italy)].

    Ferrara, Michele; Mazza, Monica; Curcio, Giuseppe; Iaria, Giuseppe; De Gennaro, Luigi; Tempesta, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Altered sleep is a common and central symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In fact, sleep disturbances are included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for PTSD. However, it has been hypothesized that sleep disturbances are crucially involved in the aetiology of PTSD, rather than being solely a symptom arising secondarily from this disorder. Therefore, knowing the long-term effects of a trauma can be essential to establish the need of specific interventions for the prevention and treatment of mental disorders that may persist years after a traumatic experience. In one study we showed, for the first time, that even after a period of two years people exposed to a catastrophic disaster such as the L'Aquila earthquake continue to suffer from a reduced sleep quality. Moreover, we observed that sleep quality scores decreased as a function of the proximity to the epicentre, suggesting that the psychological effects of an earthquake may be pervasive and long-lasting. It has been widely shown that disruption of sleep by acute stress may lead to deterioration in memory processing. In fact, in a recent study we observed alterations in spatial memory in PTSD subjects. Our findings indicated that PTSD is accompanied by an impressive deficit in forming a cognitive map of the environment, as well as in sleep-dependent memory consolidation. The fact that this deterioration was correlated to the subjective sleep disturbances in our PTSD group demonstrates the existence of an intimate relationship between sleep, memory consolidation, and stress. PMID:27291208

  17. Associations between stress disorders and cardiovascular disease events in the Danish population

    Gradus, Jaimie L; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Svensson, Elisabeth; Ehrenstein, Vera; Lash, Timothy L; Milstein, Arnold; Adler, Nancy ,; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a well-documented risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, it is unknown whether another common stress disorder—adjustment disorder—is also associated with an increased risk of CVD and whether gender modifies these associations. The aim of this study was to examine the overall and gender-stratified associations between PTSD and adjustment disorder and 4 CVD events. Design Prospective cohort study utilising Danish national regis...

  18. Negative Affect Mediates Effects of Psychological Stress on Disordered Eating in Young Chinese Women

    Chen, Jue; Zhen WANG; Guo, Boliang; Arcelus, Jon; Zhang, Haiyin; Jia, Xiuzhen; Xu, Yong; Qiu, Jianyin; Xiao, Zeping; Yang, Min

    2012-01-01

    Background The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating ...

  19. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (emdr): treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder

    Navas-Torrejano Diana Stefanía

    2011-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder is classified as an anxiety disorder characterized for apathological response to a stressful event that involves a physical or psychological risk.It is a public health problem that causes great disability and difficulties in biopsychosocialdevelopment of the patient. Currently, there are different therapeutic methods fortreating this disease; the most studied one with positive results is “eye movementdesensitization and reprocessing” (EMDR) based on bilateral vis...

  20. Core modular blood and brain biomarkers in social defeat mouse model for post traumatic stress disorder

    Yang, Ruoting; Daigle Jr, Bernie J; Muhie, Seid Y; Hammamieh, Rasha; Jett, Marti; Petzold, Linda; Francis J Doyle

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe anxiety disorder that affects a substantial portion of combat veterans and poses serious consequences to long-term health. Consequently, the identification of diagnostic and prognostic blood biomarkers for PTSD is of great interest. Previously, we assessed genome-wide gene expression of seven brain regions and whole blood in a social defeat mouse model subjected to various stress co...

  1. MARKERS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN GENERALIZED ANXIETY PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER: THERAPEUTIC IMPLICATIONS

    Khanna Ranjana S.; Reena Negi; Deepti Pande; Shruti Khanna; Hari D. Khanna

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence that oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. Our aim was to measure oxidative stress in anxiety disorders subjects, and assesses the potential confounding influences of anti anxiety therapy. Serum malondialdehyde and antioxidant levels were estimated in patients at the time of presentation and also after anti- anxiety therapy for 3 months. During the period of study no antioxidant/s was given to the patients and control subjects. Serum ...

  2. Hopelessness as a Risk Factor for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Among Interpersonal Violence Survivors

    Scher, Christine D.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2005-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder often co-occurs with depression, and they may share common risk factors. One possible common cognitive risk factor is hopelessness. Thus, we examined whether hopelessness was related to symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. Participants were 202 female survivors of interpersonal violence. Relationships between self-reported and interviewer-rated measures of hopelessness gathered at 2 weeks post-trauma and self-reported and interviewer-rated symptoms of pos...

  3. Prevalence rate of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD and other psychological disorders among Saudi firefighters

    Mohammed Alghamd

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Firefighters have a high probability of being exposed to a variety of traumatic events. Potentially traumatic events can occur during a single rescue such as: providing aid to seriously injured or helpless victims. Moreover, firefighters who are injured in the line of duty may have to retire as a consequence of their injury. The psychological cost of this exposure may increase the risk of long-term problems, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms, depression, and anxiety. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of PTSD symptoms, depression, anxiety, and assess related variables such as coping strategies and social support among Saudi firefighters. Method: Two hundred firefighters completed the Fire-fighter Trauma History Screen (FTHS to measure the number of traumatic events, Screen for Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms (SPTSS scale to assess the prevalence of PTSD symptoms, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS to assess depression and anxiety, Brief Cope (BC scale to measure coping strategies used, and Social Support scale was used to evaluate the firefighter's support received. Results: The results showed that 84% (169/200 of firefighters were exposed to at least one traumatic event. The result presented that 57% (96/169 of exposure firefighters fully met the DSM-IV criteria for PTSD with high levels of depression and anxiety; 39% (66/169 partially met the PTSD criteria. However, only 4% participants have not met the PTSD criteria. The results also revealed that adaptive coping strategies and higher perceived social support was associated with lower levels of PTSD. Conclusion: The high prevalence rate of PTSD related to the type and severity of the traumatic events and years of experience in the job. Accordingly, many firefighters were severely affected by their experiences, and we should be developing methods to help them.

  4. The Neurocircuitry of Fear, Stress, and Anxiety Disorders

    Shin, Lisa M.; Liberzon, Israel

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are a significant problem in the community, and recent neuroimaging research has focused on determining the brain circuits that underlie them. Research on the neurocircuitry of anxiety disorders has its roots in the study of fear circuits in animal models and the study of brain responses to emotional stimuli in healthy humans. We review this research, as well as neuroimaging studies of anxiety disorders. In general, these studies have reported relatively heightened amygdala ...

  5. Post-traumatic stress disorder, social anxiety disorder, and depression in survivors of the Kosovo War: experiential avoidance as a contributor to distress and quality of life

    T.B. Kashdan; N. Morina; S. Priebe

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted on psychological disorders other than post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in war survivors. The aim of this study was to examine PTSD, social anxiety disorder (SAD), and major depressive disorder (MDD) and their associations with distress and quality of life in 174

  6. Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ and NOP receptor gene regulation after acute or repeated social defeat stress

    Green, Megan K.; Devine, Darragh P.

    2009-01-01

    Antagonists of the NOP receptor have antidepressant effects in rodent models, suggesting that the N/OFQ-NOP system may play an important role in affective disorders. Furthermore, multiple lines of experimental evidence link N/OFQ neurotransmission with physiological and behavioral responses to stress. One possibility is that disregulated expression of the N/OFQ peptide neurotransmitter and/or the NOP receptor may participate in the etiology of stress-induced psychopathology. In the present se...

  7. A diagnostic dilemma between psychosis and post-traumatic stress disorder: a case report and review of the literature

    Coentre Ricardo; Power Paddy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Post-traumatic stress disorder is defined as a mental disorder that arises from the experience of traumatic life events. Research has shown a high incidence of co-morbidity between post-traumatic stress disorder and psychosis. Case presentation We report the case of a 32-year-old black African woman with a history of both post-traumatic stress disorder and psychosis. Two years ago she presented to mental health services with auditory and visual hallucinations, persecutor...

  8. Victimization, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptomatology, and Later Nonsuicidal Self-Harm in a Birth Cohort

    Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Skegg, Keren

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal population-based study examined pathways to nonsuicidal self-harm (NSSH) in relation to childhood sexual abuse (CSA), assault victimization in early adulthood, posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology (PTSD), and other mental disorders. At age 21, 476 men and 455 women completed interviews on assault victimization, PTSD, and…

  9. Parenting Stress in Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and ADHD

    Miranda, Ana; Tárraga, Raul; Fernández, M. Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla; Pastor, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the parenting stress experienced by parents of 121 children from 5 to 9 years old with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), comorbid ASD+ADHD, and typical development in different domains related to child and parent characteristics using the Parenting Stress…

  10. Construct Validity of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist in Cancer Survivors: Analyses Based on Two Samples

    DuHamel, Katherine N.; Ostrof, Jamie; Ashman, Teresa; Winkel, Gary; Mundy, Elizabeth A.; Keane, Terence M.; Morasco, Benjamin J.; Vickberg, Suzanne M. J.; Hurley, Karen; Chhabra, Rosy; Scigliano, Eileen; Papadopoulos, Esperanza; Moskowitz, Craig; Redd, William

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is critically important for the identification and treatment of this disorder. The PTSD Checklist (PCL; F. W. Weathers & J. Ford, 1996) is a self-report measure that is increasingly used. In this study, the authors investigated the factorial validity of the PCL with data from 236 cancer…

  11. Contrasting Models of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Reply to Monroe and Mineka (2008)

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C.; Bohni, Malene Klindt

    2008-01-01

    The authors address the 4 main points in S. M. Monroe and S. Mineka's comment. First, the authors show that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis includes an etiology and that it is based on a theoretical model with a…

  12. The Link Between Stress Disorders and Autonomic Dysfunction in Muscular Dystrophy

    Rasna eSabharwal

    2014-01-01

    Muscular dystrophy is a progressive disease of muscle weakness, muscle atrophy and cardiac dysfunction. Patients afflicted with muscular dystrophy exhibit autonomic dysfunction along with cognitive impairment, severe depression, sadness, and anxiety. Although the psychological aspects of cardiovascular disorders and stress disorders are well known, the physiological mechanism underlying this relationship is not well understood, particularly in muscular dystrophy. Therefore, the goal of this p...

  13. Design guidelines for a virtual coach for post-traumatic stress disorder patients

    Tielman, M.; Brinkman, W.P.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) often need to specify and relive their traumatic memories in therapy to relieve their disorder, which can be a very painful process. One new development is an internet-based guided self-therapy system (IBGST), where people work at home and a therap

  14. The evolution of the painful sensitivity in acute and chronic stress.

    Cristea, A; Ciobanu, A; Stoenescu, M; Rusei, I

    1994-01-01

    The clinical research was made on two groups of young volunteer students. We considered stress consisting in chronic informational overexposure during the examination session and the acute stress from their emotions before a hard examination. The painful sensitivity was analysed by measuring the retraction time of the finger from water at 55 degrees C. The experimental research was made on a group of 100 male mice. The acute stress was performed by subjecting each mouse to swim (behavioral despair test). Painful sensitivity was determined by the test of the hot plate heated at 50 degrees C. Individuals with hyper (H) and hypo (h) painful sensitivity were selected for the tests. In chronic stress, the results proved increased painful sensitivity (hyperalgia) more important at "h" compared to "H" (p behaviors with opposite mechanisms involved in stress analgesia. This hypothesis is related with studies which demonstrate the involvement in stress analgesia of non-opioid monoaminergic mechanisms together with the opioid mechanisms (Lewis, 1980). PMID:8640371

  15. The younger sibling of PTSD: similarities and differences between complicated grief and posttraumatic stress disorder

    Maercker, Andreas; Znoj, H

    2010-01-01

    Just as traumatic experiences may lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in some individuals, grief may also be a serious health concern for individuals who have experienced bereavement. At present, neither the DSM-IV nor the ICD-10 recognizes any form of grief as a mental disorder. The aim of this review is to summarize recent advances in definition, assessment, prevention, and treatment of complicated grief disorder (CGD) and to compare CGD with PTSD. Four areas are id...

  16. The younger sibling of PTSD: similarities and differences between complicated grief and posttraumatic stress disorder

    Maercker, Andreas; Znoj, Hansjörg

    2010-01-01

    Just as traumatic experiences may lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in some individuals, grief may also be a serious health concern for individuals who have experienced bereavement. At present, neither the DSM-IV nor the ICD-10 recognizes any form of grief as a mental disorder. The aim of this review is to summarize recent advances in definition, assessment, prevention, and treatment of complicated grief disorder (CGD) and to compare CGD with PTSD. Four areas are identified to be o...

  17. Fear of memories: the nature of panic in posttraumatic stress disorder

    Bryant, Richard A; Joscelyne, Amy; McLean, Siobhan; Drobny, Juliette

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although there is increasing evidence that panic attacks are common in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little is known if posttraumatic panic is comparable to panic attacks observed in panic disorder (PD).Objective: This study examined the cognitive responses to panic attacks in participants with PD and PTSD. Method: Participants with PD (n=22) and PTSD (n=18) were assessed on the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule for DSM-IV and subsequently administered the Agoraphobic Co...

  18. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in South Africa: analysis from the South African Stress and Health Study

    Atwoli, Lukoye; Stein, Dan J.; Williams, David R.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Petukhova, Maria; Kessler, Ronald C.; Koenen, Karestan C

    2013-01-01

    Background: South Africa’s unique history, characterised by apartheid, a form of constitutional racial segregation and exploitation, and a long period of political violence and state-sponsored oppression ending only in 1994, suggests a high level of trauma exposure in the general population. The aim of this study was to document the epidemiology of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the South African general population. Methods: The South African Stress and Health Study is a n...

  19. The effect of stress management training on stress and depression in women with depression disorders: Using cognitive-behavioral techniques

    Abbasian, Farahzad; Najimi, Arash; Meftagh, Sayyed Davood; Ghasemi, Gholamreza; Afshar, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of stress management training through cognitive-behavioral techniques on stress, social adaptability and depression in women with depression disorders. Materials and Methods: In this study, 40 patients diagnosed with depression who had referred to psychiatry and consultation clinics of Isfahan were randomly selected and assigned to intervention and control groups (20 patients in each group). The intervention group received eight 90...

  20. Markers of Oxidative Stress and Neuroprogression in Depression Disorder

    Magdaléna Vaváková; Zdeňka Ďuračková; Jana Trebatická

    2015-01-01

    Major depression is multifactorial disorder with high prevalence and alarming prognostic in the nearest 15 years. Several mechanisms of depression are known. Neurotransmitters imbalance and imbalance between neuroprogressive and neuroprotective factors are observed in major depression. Depression is accompanied by inflammatory responses of the organism and consequent elevation of proinflammatory cytokines and increased lipid peroxidation are described in literature. Neuropsychiatric disorders...