Kehlet, H; Dahl, J B
Treatment of postoperative pain has not received sufficient attention by the surgical profession. Recent developments concerned with acute pain physiology and improved techniques for postoperative pain relief should result in more satisfactory treatment of postoperative pain. Such pain relief may...... also modify various aspects of the surgical stress response, and nociceptive blockade by regional anesthetic techniques has been demonstrated to improve various parameters of postoperative outcome. It is therefore stressed that effective control of postoperative pain, combined with a high degree of...
Derry, Sheena; Faura, Clara; Edwards, Jayne; McQuay, Henry J; Moore, R Andrew
Background Dipyrone (metamizole) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in some countries to treat pain (postoperative, colic, cancer, and migraine); it is banned in others because of an association with life-threatening blood agranulocytosis. This review updates a 2001 Cochrane review, and no relevant new studies were identified, but additional outcomes were sought. Objectives To assess the efficacy and adverse events of single dose dipyrone in acute postoperative pain. Search methods The earlier review searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and the Oxford Pain Relief Database to December 1999. For the update we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE,EMBASE and LILACS to February 2010. Selection criteria Single dose, randomised, double-blind, placebo or active controlled trials of dipyrone for relief of established moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. We included oral, rectal, intramuscular or intravenous administration of study drugs. Data collection and analysis Studies were assessed for methodological quality and data extracted by two review authors independently. Summed total pain relief over six hours (TOTPAR) was used to calculate the number of participants achieving at least 50% pain relief. Derived results were used to calculate, with 95% confidence intervals, relative benefit compared to placebo, and the number needed to treat (NNT) for one participant to experience at least 50% pain relief over six hours. Use and time to use of rescue medication were additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was collected. Main results Fifteen studies tested mainly 500 mg oral dipyrone (173 participants), 2.5 g intravenous dipyrone (101), 2.5 g intramuscular dipyrone (99); fewer than 60 participants received any other dose. All studies used active controls (ibuprofen, paracetamol, aspirin, flurbiprofen, ketoprofen, dexketoprofen, ketorolac, pethidine, tramadol, suprofen); eight used placebo controls. Over 70% of participants
Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to examine the current state of knowledge regarding foot massageto determine if foot massage has an effect on relieving acute postoperative pain.Method: The following questions were used to guide this review: How does pain occur?What is the pain management modalities used in relieving acute postoperative pain? Does footmassage relieve acute postoperative pain? A comprehensive systematic search of publishedliterature and journal articles from Science Direct, CINAHL, PubMed, ProQuest and fromrelevant textbooks was conducted. The universal case entry website, Google-scholar was usedas well. The following keywords were used: foot massage, pain management, andpostoperative pain. Eight studies on foot massage and more than thirty related articles werereviewed.Result: Postoperative pain is caused by tissue damage that induces release of chemicalmediators from the surgical wound. The four processes of pain are transduction, transmission,perception and modulation. Pain medication is the goal standard for acute postoperative painrelief. In addition, foot massage is a modality that can be used in relieving acute postoperativepain. Massage stimulates large nerve fibers and dermatome layers which contain tactile andpressure receptors. The receptors subsequently transmit the nerve impulse to the centralnervous system. The gate control system in the dorsal horn is activated through the inhibitoryinterneuron, thus closing the gate. Subsequently, the brain does not receive the pain message.Eight reviewed studies demonstrated that foot massage relieves acute postoperative pain.However, there were some methodological limitations of these studies.Conclusion: It is recommended to examine the effect of foot massage on acute postoperativepain with high homogenous samples using various duration of massage and range of time forpain measurement at different settings.Key words: foot massage, pain management and postoperative pain.
Becker, Daniel E.
Abstract Safe and effective management of acute dental pain can be accomplished with nonopioid and opioid analgesics. To formulate regimens properly, it is essential to appreciate basic pharmacological principles and appropriate dosage strategies for each of the available analgesic classes. This article will review the basic pharmacology of analgesic drug classes, including their relative efficacy for dental pain, and will suggest appropriate regimens based on pain intensity. Management of chronic pain will be addressed in the second part of this series. PMID:20553137
Becker, Daniel E
Safe and effective management of acute dental pain can be accomplished with nonopioid and opioid analgesics. To formulate regimens properly, it is essential to appreciate basic pharmacological principles and appropriate dosage strategies for each of the available analgesic classes. This article will review the basic pharmacology of analgesic drug classes, including their relative efficacy for dental pain, and will suggest appropriate regimens based on pain intensity. Management of chronic pai...
McLeod, G A; Davies, H T; Colvin, J R
Postoperative pain relief is often inadequate. Ignorance and misconceptions about opioids by ward staff contribute to this poor management. The introduction of acute pain teams has done much to improve pain relief for patients. It may also have contributed to changes in attitudes and knowledge of medical and nursing staff. We questioned 48 doctors and nurses on their knowledge and beliefs about postoperative pain relief. Staff members were questioned on two units, one with access to an acute pain team and one without. Over half those on the unit using traditional postoperative care thought patients did not receive adequate pain relief (58%). In comparison, only one respondent from the unit with the pain team thought this was the case (P nursing workload had decreased. Acute pain teams have an important role in educating ward staff. The impact of establishing such teams on staff knowledge and attitudes needs further study to ensure that they can carry out this role most effectively. PMID:7536228
Nolli, M; Nicosia, F
The Health Services, not only the Italian one, is under pressure because of request for improving treatment quality and the financial need for reorganization and cost-saving. It's required a rationalization of intervention, together with a careful choice of the best and cheapest techniques and the demonstration of their efficacy. The anaesthesia service activity, in a period of cost rationalization and funds restriction should be aimed to appropriate outcome measures corrected by both patient's risk factors and surgical-anaesthesiological case-mix. The development of a complete strategy for surgical pain management might run into two phases. The first phase, internal and mono-specialistic, should develop like the creation of an Acute Pain Team. The main processes are: focusing the problem (charge of the care), training, information, teaching methodology (timing, methods, drugs, techniques, etc.) and the audit (before and after changes). The main aims are the evaluation of the level of analgesia and pain relief or patient's satisfaction which are partial endpoints useful to demonstrate the improvement and the efficacy of the new pain management strategies. The second phase, multidisciplinary, is directed toward the creation of a Postoperative Evaluation Team. The main objective is to set up a collaborative clinical group able to identify the criteria for quality, efficacy and safety. The major purpose is the evaluation of major outcome measures: surgical outcome, morbidity, mortality and length of hospitalization. The improvement in the quality of postoperative pain treatment goes through a better organization and a progressive increase of the already available therapy. The achievement of the result and the quality projects depend on the interaction among staff members with different behaviours and settings. Internal teaching and training, continuous education for doctors and nurses, and external information, marketing and improvement of attractive capability of
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Managing of acute postoperative pain should be of great interest for all hospital institutions, as one of the key components of patients satisfaction, which indicates quality, as well as the outcome of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of nursing care in managing acute postoperative pain and to establish factors which influence patients assessment of the same. Method. The investigation was conducted on the sample of 135 patients hospitalized in surgical clinics of the Clinical Centre of Vojvodina in Novi Sad in the form of cross-sectional study, by interviewing patients during the second postoperative day and collecting sociodemographic variables, type of surgical procedure and applied analgesic therapy which were taken from their medical documentation. The modified questionnaire of the Strategic and Clinical Quality Indicators in Postoperative Pain Management (SCQIPP was used as the instrument of the investigation. The data were processed with suitable mathematical statistics methods such as multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA, discriminative and other parametric procedures and methods. Roy's test, Pearson's coefficient contingency (χ, multiple correlation coefficient (R were conducted amongst other invariant procedures. Results. The mean score for the individual items of SCQIPP questionnaire was between 2.0 and 4.7 (scale range 1-5 and the percentage of patients answers 'strongly agree' ranged from 4.4 to 77%. The smallest number of positive answers were given by the patients for the item 'In order to assess pain intensity, some of the staff asked me at least once in the morning, in the afternoon and in the evening to show the number from 0-10'. Most of the patients (57% evaluated severe pain during the previous 24 hours, as moderate pain, which represents significantly greater number of patients which complain of severe pain and mild pain (p < 0.001. The analysis of patients evaluation (MANOVA p
Tank, C; Lefering, R; Althaus, A; Simanski, C; Neugebauer, E
The significance of postoperative pain management for patients in the hospital is well known and has been a focus of research for several years. The ambulatory care after hospital discharge, however, is not well investigated. A prospective observational study was therefore conducted to study the transfer management from in-hospital patients to ambulatory care. A patient questionnaire was developed and patients were asked to fill it out at different time points after the operation: during the time in the hospital, then at 2 weeks and 6 months after hospital discharge. In addition, the responsible family doctor was approached and interviewed. The main focus of the questionnaire was the measurement of post-surgical pain (numeric rating scale NRS), patient satisfaction (Cologne patient questionnaire), and quality of life (SF 12). Of a total of 128 patients 72.9% described moderate to severe pain after the orthopaedic operations in the hospital. 90.8% of the patients had pain directly after discharge from the hospital; in 67.4% of the cases pain was ≥3 and in 23.4% of the cases pain was ≥6. Six months after discharge pain was significant in 29.4% of the patients, 60.8% of the patients were satisfied with the transfer to the home setting. 16% were not satisfied at all and 23.2% were neutral. Important factors for dissatisfaction with the transfer management were, according to stepwise logistic regeression analysis, sex (female patients), young age, a poor bodily constitution at the hospital and thereafter, and the pain management in the hospital and after discharge. The study shows the significance of the acute pain therapy not only during the hospital stay but also after discharge. There are very few data on pain therapy after discharge from the hospital. Based on the significance of the chronification of acute pain it is of the utmost importance to close this gap. PMID:24452431
Chouchou, Florian; Khoury, Samar; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Denis, Ronald; Lavigne, Gilles J
Despite the substantial advances in the understanding of pain mechanisms and management, postoperative pain relief remains an important health care issue. Surgical patients also frequently report postoperative sleep complaints. Major sleep alterations in the postoperative period include sleep fragmentation, reduced total sleep time, and loss of time spent in slow wave and rapid eye movement sleep. Clinical and experimental studies show that sleep disturbances may exacerbate pain, whereas pain and opioid treatments disturb sleep. Surgical stress appears to be a major contributor to both sleep disruptions and altered pain perception. However, pain and the use of opioid analgesics could worsen sleep alterations, whereas sleep disruptions may contribute to intensify pain. Nevertheless, little is known about the relationship between postoperative sleep and pain. Although the sleep-pain interaction has been addressed from both ends, this review focuses on the impact of sleep disruptions on pain perception. A better understanding of the effect of postoperative sleep disruptions on pain perception would help in selecting patients at risk for more severe pain and may facilitate the development of more effective and safer pain management programs. PMID:24074687
Postoperative pain relief continues to demand our awareness, and surgeons should be fully aware of the potential physiologic benefits of effective dynamic pain relief regimens and the great potential to improve postoperative outcome if such analgesia is used for rehabilitation. To achieve advanta...... to recent knowledge within surgical pathophysiology. Such efforts must be expected to lead to improved quality of care for patients, with less pain and reduced morbidity leading to cost efficiency....
A 39-year-old para 3 woman presented for elective caesarean section (lower segment caesarean section (LSCS)) for breech presentation. The patient had a strong history of atopy and anaphylaxis to paracetamol, codeine, penicillin and latex. The patient was asthmatic, triggered by aspirin. Epidural anaesthesia was unsuccessful and LSCS was carried out under spinal anaesthesia. Postoperatively the patient was unwilling to take analgesic medication due to fear of an allergic reaction. Three 5% lidocaine patches were applied to the wound for postoperative analgesia. This reduced the patient\\'s visual analogue scale pain score from 10\\/10 to 5\\/10 at rest and 10\\/10 to 7\\/10 with movement. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation was added and this improved associated back pain, reducing the pain further to 2\\/10. This is the first description of lignocaine patch 5% for postoperative LSCS pain. It is suggested that this method of delivery of local anaesthetic, which is easy to apply and has minimal side effects, should be considered not as a sole agent but as part of a multimodal technique to address postoperative LSCS pain.
Mojtaba Miladinia; Shahram Baraz; Kourosh Zarea
Background: Despite the development of pediatric post-operative pain management and use of analgesic/narcotic drugs, post-operative pain remains as a common problem. Some studies suggested, the most effective approach to controlling immediate post-operative pain may include a combination of drug agents and non-drug methods. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of music therapy on the acute post-operative pain in Iranian children. Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental, re...
Evangelina Dávila Cabo de Villa
Full Text Available Maintaining the body homeostasis during both surgical procedure and post-operative period is among the anaesthesiologist’s main goals. There is considerable evidence on the postoperative morbidity resulting from metabolic alterations caused by pain, including prolongation of recovery time, rehabilitation and return of patients to their daily activities. Post-operative pain, known as the fifth vital sign, is generally severe and disabling. In addition, it is undervalued and inadequately treated as it is influenced by several factors such as: difficulty in valuing it and fear to medications (most frequent cause of adverse effects and interactions, which is more complicated in the elderly. This review aims at addressing this problem in such patients.
Full Text Available Management of postoperative pain relieve suffering and leads to earlier mobilization, shortened hospital stay, reduced hospital costs, and increased patient satisfaction. An effective postoperative management is not a standardized regime rather is tailored to the needs of the individual patient, taking into account medical, psychological, and physical condition; age; level of fear or anxiety; surgical procedure; personal preference; and response to therapeutic agents given. The major goal in the management of postoperative pain is to minimize the dose of medications to lessen side effects & provide adequate analgesia. Postoperative pain is still under managed due to obstacles in implementation of Acute Pain Services due to insufficient education, fear of complications associated with available analgesic drugs, poor pain assessment and inadequate staff. This review reflects the clinical aspects of postoperative pain & its assessment & management with an emphasis on research for new analgesic molecules & delivery system.
Full Text Available Management of postoperative pain relieve suffering and leads to earlier mobilization, shortened hospital stay, reduced hospital costs, and increased patient satisfaction. An effective postoperative management is not a standardized regime rather is tailored to the needs of the individual patient, taking into account medical, psychological, and physical condition; age; level of fear or anxiety; surgical procedure; personal preference; and response to therapeutic agents given. The major goal in the management of postoperative pain is to minimize the dose of medications to lessen side effects & provide adequate analgesia. Postoperative pain is still under managed due to obstacles in implementation of Acute Pain Services due to insufficient education, fear of complications associated with available analgesic drugs, poor pain assessment and inadequate staff. This review reflects the clinical aspects of postoperative pain & its assessment & management with an emphasis on research for new analgesic molecules & delivery system.
@@ The practice of modern anaesthesiology has extended into perioperative medicine. Due to their expertise in analgesic drug pharmacology and peripheral nerve blocking, anaesthesiologists have pioneered in the management of acute postoperative pain. Effective postoperative analgesia reduces the incidence of postoperative chronic pain, improves the functioning of organs following surgery and shortens the hospital stay.1,2 Although a variety of analgesic techniques and preventative approaches are at the disposal of modem aneasthesiologists, including patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA), patient controlled intravenous analgesia, multimodal analgesia and pre-empty analgesia.Despite this array of strategies, these predominantly opioid based techniques are still limited by side-effects such as vomiting, nausea, itching and urinary retention.To optimize further the management of acute postoperative pain, basic mechanisms of postoperative pain must be explored and new treatments must continue to be developed.
Full Text Available Background: Despite the development of pediatric post-operative pain management and use of analgesic/narcotic drugs, post-operative pain remains as a common problem. Some studies suggested, the most effective approach to controlling immediate post-operative pain may include a combination of drug agents and non-drug methods. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of music therapy on the acute post-operative pain in Iranian children. Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental, repeated measure design was used. In this study, 63 children were placed in the music and control groups. In the music group, pain intensity was measured before start intervention (baseline. Then, this group listened to two non-speech music for 20 minutes. Then, pain intensity was measured with numeric rating scale, immediately after intervention, 1 hour, 3 hours and 6 hours after intervention, respectively. Also, in the control group, pain intensity was measured in times similar to music group. Results: The mean of pain intensity did not significantly different between the 2 groups at baseline (P>0.05. The results of repeated measure ANOVA showed that, trend of pain intensity between 2 groups was significant (P
Meissner, Winfried; Coluzzi, Flaminia; Fletcher, Dominique; Huygen, Frank; Morlion, Bart; Neugebauer, Edmund; Pérez, Antonio Montes; Pergolizzi, Joseph
Poor management of post-operative acute pain can contribute to medical complications including pneumonia, deep vein thrombosis, infection and delayed healing, as well as the development of chronic pain. It is therefore important that all patients undergoing surgery should receive adequate pain management. However, evidence suggests this is not currently the case; between 10% and 50% of patients develop chronic pain after various common operations, and one recent US study recorded >80% of patients experiencing post-operative pain. At the first meeting of the acute chapter of the Change Pain Advisory Board, key priorities for improving post-operative pain management were identified in four different areas. Firstly, patients should be more involved in decisions regarding their own treatment, particularly when fateful alternatives are being considered. For this to be meaningful, relevant information should be provided so they are well informed about the various options available. Good physician/patient communication is also essential. Secondly, better professional education and training of the various members of the multidisciplinary pain management team would enhance their skills and knowledge, and thereby improve patient care. Thirdly, there is scope for optimizing treatment. Examples include the use of synergistic analgesia to target pain at different points along pain pathways, more widespread adoption of patient-controlled analgesia, and the use of minimally invasive rather than open surgery. Fourthly, organizational change could provide similar benefits; introducing acute pain services and increasing their availability towards the 24 hours/day ideal, greater adherence to protocols, increased use of patient-reported outcomes, and greater receptivity to technological advances would all help to enhance performance and increase patient satisfaction. It must be acknowledged that implementing these recommendations would incur a considerable cost that purchasers of
Finlay, Katherine Anne
Background: Audio-analgesia, the ability of music to reduce the perception of pain, has been a significant field of research in the past decade. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the musical constructs of harmonicity and rhythmicity on acute, post-operative pain. Method: 98 patients scheduled for primary total knee arthroplasty were randomly allocated at their pre-admissions clinic to one of four music listening groups, receiving commercially-available music. The...
Radvansky, Brian M.; Khushbu Shah; Anant Parikh; Sifonios, Anthony N.; Vanny Le; Jean D. Eloy
Objectives. The objective of this narrative review was to examine the usage of ketamine as a postoperative analgesic agent across a wide variety of surgeries. Design. A literature search was performed using the phrases “ketamine” and “postoperative pain.” The authors analyzed the studies that involved testing ketamine's effectiveness at controlling postoperative pain. Effectiveness was assessed through various outcomes such as the amount of opiate consumption, visual analog scale (VAS) pain s...
Nir, R-R; Nahman-Averbuch, H; Moont, R; Sprecher, E; Yarnitsky, D
Preoperative administration of pharmacological substances, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or opioids, has been gaining acclaim as a preemptive measure to minimize postoperative pain. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of this approach in adults undergoing surgical procedures. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register were searched from inception through January 2015. Data from randomized placebo-controlled trials were screened, extracted and assessed for risk of bias according to The Cochrane Collaboration's Tool by two independent authors. The primary outcome measure was reduction in postoperative analgesic consumption during 24 h post surgery; effects were described as mean differences between the drug and placebo arms with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and were pooled using random-effects models. Potential publication bias was tested using funnel plots and Egger's regression test for funnel plot asymmetry. Screened were 511 records, of which 39 were included in the final synthesis with data from 3172 patients. A significant reduction in postoperative analgesic consumption was observed using preoperative administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; 95% CI, -0.61 to -0.14; 31 comparisons), chiefly by the COX-2 inhibitors class (95% CI, -0.95 to -0.33; 13 comparisons). Significant reduction was also observed for gabapentin (95% CI, -1.60 to -0.38; 6 comparisons). No significant effects were observed using opioids, propionic acids or oxicam derivatives. WHAT DOES THIS REVIEW ADD?: Current analyses endorse the effectiveness of COX-2 inhibitors and gabapentin in reducing acute postoperative pain when administered preemptively presurgery. Such corroboration is not found for opioids and other NSAID classes. PMID:26991963
Dualé, Christian; Pereira, Bruno; Abbal, Bertrand; Julien, Hugues; Rat, Patrice; Schoeffler, Pierre; Pickering, Gisèle
Standard verbal or analogue scales may not be accurate to assess acute postoperative pain in elderly patients. This study was designed to field test the Algoplus tool, developed specifically for this population and based on observation of patient behavior. Prospective, observational cohort. Single center, French University hospital. Forty-eight patients, aged over 65, scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia, and observed on admission to the postanesthesia care unit, immediately after extubation, during the different steps of analgesic intervention (demand, relief with intravenous opioid titration, plus intermediate measures when relevant), and either at discharge or 3 hours after admission. A numerical rating scale (NRS) was used to guide analgesia. The Algoplus score and the state of alertness or sedation were noted. NRS scores and Algoplus scores were significantly related, and both scores significantly decreased under the effect of analgesia, but the correlation was low. In early observations, the Algoplus score was higher than that predicted by the NRS score, in relation to residual sedation. Female gender tended to lower the Algoplus score compared to the NRS score. When the NRS score exceeded 3/10, indicating the need for analgesic intervention, the Algoplus score was generally lower than the recommended trigger for analgesia (2/5). These results are promising, but further evidence of a clinical benefit to the use of Algoplus for acute postoperative pain is needed. In future studies, scoring should be adjusted to take into account the time from extubation, the state of sedation, and the patient's gender in order to interpret results. PMID:26697817
Full Text Available Postoperative pain is both distressing and detrimental for the patient. The management of postoperative pain involves assessment of the pain in terms of intensity at rest and activity associated pain, treatment by pharmacological and non pharmacological means as well as monitoring induced side-effects. Besides being physically and emotionally disabling, the pain is associated with various physiological effects involving the increased perioperative stress response. The pain causes the patient to remain immobile, thus becoming vulnerable to DVT, pulmonary atelectasis, muscle wasting and urinary retention. Poor control of postoperative pain could be due to various reasons which may include uniformed prescribing without taking into consideration the individual patient′s physical status, the surgery that has been performed or the site and intensity of pain. Besides, the poor compliance of orders in administrating the analgesics prescribed and the fact that optimal pain relief is not aimed for may also contribute to the inadequate management of the pain occurring in the postoperative period. Thus, despite all efforts, there continues to be inadequate pain relief in a large majority of patients. The introduction of multimodal analgesia including opioids and non-opioids, delivered through various routes, neuraxial use of local anesthetics, either alone or in combination with other drugs, nerve blocks, antihyperalgesics and techniques such as patient controlled analgesia and pre-emptive analgesia have greatly improved the efficacy of pain-control while minimizing the side-effects of any one modality. The recent recommendation of planning the pain services in an organized manner and implementation of Acute Pain Services (APS has proven to be beneficial and rewarding.
背景 术后急性疼痛管理仍然不尽人意,如何防治急性疼痛转化为慢性疼痛仍然是临床亟待解决的问题. 目的 阐述术后急性疼痛转化为慢性疼痛的研究进展,为术后疼痛管理以减少慢性疼痛的发生提供参考. 内容 就急性疼痛转化为慢性疼痛的可能性等方面作一综述. 趋向 进一步研究术后急性疼痛转化为慢性疼痛的机制,以明确有效的预防急性疼痛慢性化的方法.%Background Acute postoperative pain management is still unsatisfactory,how to prevent the acute pain changing into chronic pain remains to be a clinical problem to solved.Objective To discuss the advanced progress of how does the acute pain changed into chronic pain for the rational use of drugs in postoperative pain management,and reduce the incidence of chronic pain.Content Mechanisms,contributing factors,treatment and prevention methods are discussed and updated in this review.Trend Further research into the mechanisms of acute postoperative pain changed into chronic pain must being carry out in order to find a clear and effective method to prevention of acute postoperative pain changed into chronic pain.
Carstensen, M.; Møller, Ann
In experimental trials, ketamine has been shown to reduce hyperalgesia, prevent opioid tolerance, and lower morphine consumption. Clinical trials have found contradictory results. We performed a review of randomized, double-blinded clinical trials of ketamine added to opioid in i.v. patient......-controlled analgesia (PCA) for postoperative pain in order to clarify this controversy. Our primary aim was to compare the effectiveness and safety of postoperative administered ketamine in addition to opioid for i.v. PCA compared with i.v. PCA with opioid alone. Studies were identified from the Cochrane Library 2003...... of 4.5. Pain was assessed using visual analogue scales or verbal rating scales. Six studies showed significant improved postoperative analgesia with the addition of ketamine to opioids. Five studies showed no significant clinical improvement. For thoracic surgery, the addition of ketamine to opioid...
Suza, Dewi Elizadiani
Pain is a subjective experience that can be perceived directly only by the sufferer. It is a multidimensional phenomenon that can be described by pain location, intensity, quality, impact, and meaning. Acute pain following a surgical procedure is the combination of pain as a specific sensation due to a nociceptive response to tissue damage and pain as suffering. Uncontrolled pain in the postoperative period could have detrimental physiologic effects. It can slow the patients’ recovery from su...
Francis, Lavonia; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J
The aim of this study was to determine nurses' knowledge and attitudes regarding postoperative pain and identify postoperative patients' pain intensity experiences. The assessment and management of acute postoperative pain is important in the care of postoperative surgical patients. Inadequate relief of postoperative pain can contribute to postoperative complications such as atelectasis, deep vein thrombosis, and delayed wound healing. A pilot study with an exploratory design was conducted at a large teaching hospital in the eastern United States. The convenience samples included 31 nurses from the gastrointestinal and urologic surgical units and 14 first- and second-day adult postoperative open and laparoscopic gastrointestinal and urologic patients who received patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). The Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain was used to measure nurses' knowledge about pain management. The Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) was used to measure patients' pain intensity. The nurses' mean score on the Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain was 69.3%. Patients experienced moderate pain, as indicated by the score on the SF-MPQ. There is a need to increase nurses' knowledge of pain management. PMID:24315258
Perioperative pain, especial y for postoperative acute pain management, is a very important part of the clinical anesthesia. Perfect postoperative pain therapy can improve the quality of patients’ life. A lot of recent research shows that postoperative pain is influenced by various factors. Using dif erent analgesia drugs with dif erent mechanism, or the dif erent route of administration, blocking the pain transduction, could improve the analgesic effect, reduce adverse drug reactions, and maintain the environment in the relatively stable. At the same time, pain management idea has been from the pain control to pain management and the APS makes its important role in the postoperative pain management.% 围术期疼痛，特别是术后急性疼痛的治疗，是临床麻醉的重要组成部分，完善的术后疼痛治疗对于提高术后患者生活质量具有重要的意义。研究发现，术后急性疼痛的发生和发展受多种因素影响，新型的多模式镇痛应用不同作用机制的镇痛药物，通过不同的给药途径，阻断疼痛传导的不同环节位点，提高镇痛效果，减轻药物不良反应，维持机体内环境的相对稳定，已取代了传统的单模式的镇痛方法。同时，疼痛的管理理念已经从疼痛控制转为疼痛管理，将在术后急性疼痛治疗中发挥着重要的作用。
Goddard, J M; Pickup, S E
An audit project was designed to assess and improve the provision of postoperative analgesia in a children's hospital. Pain assessment for all children and analgesia standards for our institution were introduced prior to data collection. Data were collected on consecutive samples of 316 and 325 children undergoing surgery as inpatients during 10-week periods. Change was initiated between the two periods in response to our findings; our action plan involved education, changes to documentation, the widespread use of diclofenac in children over 2 years of age and recommendations for the prescription of analgesia. The initial prescription of analgesia increased from 95% to 98% (p = 0.019), administration of analgesia to children experiencing bad or severe pain increased from 57% to 71% (p = 0.032) and the number of children experiencing severe pain reduced from 17% to 11% (p = 0.050). Application of audit, by a clinical nurse specialist, enabled us to achieve and demonstrate improvements in the prescription, administration and effectiveness of postoperative analgesia. PMID:8694218
Full Text Available Craig T Hartrick,1 Cecile R Pestano,1 Li Ding,2 Hassan Danesi,2 James B Jones,2 1Beaumont Health System, Troy, MI, 2The Medicines Company, Parsippany, NJ, USA Abstract: Opioids are commonly used in the management of moderate-to-severe postoperative pain. Patient-controlled analgesic techniques are recognized as preferred administration methods. Previously, research has focused on intravenously administered opioids via a programmable pump. More recently, an iontophoretic transdermal system (ITS, which is patient controlled, has been developed. The focus of this review is on pain management using the fentanyl ITS during the 24–72-hour time period immediately following surgery. Fentanyl ITS offers a needle-free alternative to traditional intravenous (IV patient-controlled analgesia (PCA system that is as effective and safe as IV PCA. This system is easy to use for both patients and nurses. The use of fentanyl ITS is generally associated with a better ease-of-care profile, including a greater ease of mobility, from a patients' perspective when compared with morphine IV PCA. Keywords: patient-controlled analgesia, fentanyl iontophoretic transdermal system, ease of care, mobility, patient perspective, review
Postoperative pain has been poorly managed for decades. Recent surveys from USA and Europe do not show any major improvement. Persistent postoperative pain is common after most surgical procedures, and after thoracotomy and mastectomy, about 50% of patients may experience it. Opioids remain the mainstay of postoperative pain treatment in spite of strong evidence of their drawbacks. Multimodal analgesic techniques are widely used but new evidence is disappointing. Regional anaesthetic techniques are the most effective methods to treat postoperative pain. Current evidence suggests that epidural analgesia can no longer be considered the 'gold standard'. Perineural techniques are good alternatives for major orthopaedic surgery but remain underused. Infiltrative techniques with or without catheters are useful for almost all types of surgery. Simple surgeon-delivered local anaesthetic techniques such as wound infiltration, preperitoneal/intraperitoneal administration, transversus abdominis plane block and local infiltration analgesia can play a significant role in improvement of postoperative care, and the last of these has changed orthopaedic practice in many institutions. Current postoperative pain management guidelines are generally 'one size fits all'. It is well known that pain characteristics such as type, location, intensity and duration vary considerably after different surgical procedures. Procedure-specific postoperative pain management recommendations are evidence based, and also take into consideration the role of anaesthetic and surgical techniques, clinical routines and risk-benefit aspects. The role of acute pain services to improve pain management and outcome is well accepted but implementation seems challenging. The need for upgrading the role of surgical ward nurses and collaboration with surgeons to implement enhanced recovery after surgery protocols with regular audits to improve postoperative outcome cannot be overstated. PMID:26509324
Dijk, J.F.M. van
Many patients experience pain after surgery. Adequate pain treatment begins with a reliable pain assessment. The Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) is often used for this purpose; patients are asked to score their pain on a scale from 0 to 10, where 0 indicates no pain and 10 indicates the worst imaginable
Full Text Available [english] The effectiveness of acute pain treatment in hospitals is examined. An efficient therapy of acute pain is efficient and cost-effective. Although every patient is entitled for the relief of pain, many hospitals do not treat acute pain in an optimal manner.[german] Es wird die Effektivität der Akutschmerztherapie in Krankenhäusern untersucht. Eine effiziente Behandlung akuter Schmerzen ist wirksam und spart Kosten. Obwohl jeder Patient Anspruch auf Linderung seiner Schmerzen hat, behandeln viele Krankenhäuser akute Schmerzen noch nicht optimal.
Zhai, Lifeng; Song, Zhoufeng; Liu, Kang
consumption via PCA at 24 hours (MD = -8.28; 95% CI -12.57 to -3.99; P = 0.000) and 48 hours (MD = -4.50; 95% CI -10.98 to -3.61; P = 0.221). Furthermore, gabapentin decreased the rate of postoperative dizziness (relative risk [RR], 0.68; 95% CI 0.47-0.99, P = 0.044) and the occurrence of pruritus (RR, 0.50; 95% CI 0.37-0.67, P = 0.000).Based on the current meta-analysis, gabapentin exerts an analgesic and opioid-sparing effect in acute postoperative pain management without increasing the rate of dizziness and pruritus. PMID:27196473
Kambur, Oleg; Kaunisto, Mari A.; Tikkanen, Emmi; Leal, Suzanne M.; Ripatti, Samuli; Kalso, Eija A.
Background Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) metabolizes catecholamines in different tissues. Polymorphisms in COMT gene can attenuate COMT activity and increase sensitivity to pain. Human studies exploring the effect of COMT polymorphisms on pain sensitivity have mostly included small, heterogeneous samples and have ignored several important single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This study examines the effect of COMT polymorphisms on experimental and postoperative pain phenotypes in a large ethnically homogeneous female patient cohort. Methods Intensity of cold (+2–4°C) and heat (+48°C) pain and tolerance to cold pain were assessed in 1,000 patients scheduled for breast cancer surgery. Acute postoperative pain and oxycodone requirements were recorded. Twenty-two COMT SNPs were genotyped and their association with six pain phenotypes analyzed with linear regression. Results There was no association between any of the tested pain phenotypes and SNP rs4680. The strongest association signals were seen between rs165774 and heat pain intensity as well as rs887200 and cold pain intensity. In both cases, minor allele carriers reported less pain. Neither of these results remained significant after strict multiple testing corrections. When analyzed further, the effect of rs887200 was, however, shown to be significant and consistent throughout the cold pressure test. No evidence of association between the SNPs and postoperative oxycodone consumption was found. Conclusions SNPs rs887200 and rs165774 located in the untranslated regions of the gene had the strongest effects on pain sensitivity. Their effect on pain is described here for the first time. These results should be confirmed in further studies and the potential functional mechanisms of the variants studied. PMID:24343288
Etoricoxib is more effective than celecoxib and placebo for using as preemptive analgesia for acute postoperative pain control in patients underwent arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Trial registration number NCT01017380
Carstensen, M; Møller, A M
In experimental trials, ketamine has been shown to reduce hyperalgesia, prevent opioid tolerance, and lower morphine consumption. Clinical trials have found contradictory results. We performed a review of randomized, double-blinded clinical trials of ketamine added to opioid in i.v. patient......-controlled analgesia (PCA) for postoperative pain in order to clarify this controversy. Our primary aim was to compare the effectiveness and safety of postoperative administered ketamine in addition to opioid for i.v. PCA compared with i.v. PCA with opioid alone. Studies were identified from the Cochrane Library 2003...... of 4.5. Pain was assessed using visual analogue scales or verbal rating scales. Six studies showed significant improved postoperative analgesia with the addition of ketamine to opioids. Five studies showed no significant clinical improvement. For thoracic surgery, the addition of ketamine to opioid...
Nagakura, Yukinori; Jones, Toni L.; Malkmus, Shelle A.; Sorkin, Linda; Yaksh, Tony L.
Further understanding of pathophysiology of postoperative acute pain is necessary for its better management. The methodology of current threshold (CT) determination by using sine-wave stimuli at 3 frequencies has been used to selectively and quantitatively analyze the function of the subsets of fibers (i.e., frequency of 5, 250, and 2000 Hz recruits C-, Aδ-, and Aβ-fibers, respectively). The present study investigated how surgical incision would affect the CTs, and then assessed the efficacy ...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Etoricoxib, a selective Cox-2 inhibitor has been found to be effective as preemptive analgesia for acute postoperative pain. This study evaluates the effect of preoperative use of oral etoricoxib on postoperative pain relief and sleep in patients undergoing lumbar laminectomies. MATERIALS & METHODS: In this prospective, randomized controlled study, fifty patients (ASA I & II aged between 20-50yrs scheduled to undergo lumbar laminectomies were given either etoricoxib 120mg (Group E or placebo (Group P orally one hour before surgery. Visual analog score (VAS was assessed at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours at rest and on movement. Sleep overnight, total fentanyl consumption, incidence of nausea and vomiting, intra-operative blood loss and patient satisfaction were noted. RESULTS: In our study we found that there was reduction in VAS at rest and on movement in the etoricoxib group when compared with the control group at all intervals till 24 hours postoperatively. Total fentanyl consumption was higher in control group in postoperative period. CONCLUSION: Single preoperative oral dose (120mg of etoricoxib given one hour before surgery, has significantly reduced the postoperative pain at rest and on movement and improved sleep in patients undergoing lumbar laminectomies without any side effects and with good patient’s satisfaction
Patients frequently experience moderate to severe pain in the postoperative period. Although the pain management is an integral and important part of the nursing care, studies suggest that, nursing management of postoperative pain remains inadequate. Postoperative care nurses are responsible to assess the patient's pain, teach the patient strategies to deal with the pain, apply the analgesic treatment plan, monitor the results of treatment, educate the patient and the family on pa...
Carstensen, M; Møller, A M
-controlled analgesia (PCA) for postoperative pain in order to clarify this controversy. Our primary aim was to compare the effectiveness and safety of postoperative administered ketamine in addition to opioid for i.v. PCA compared with i.v. PCA with opioid alone. Studies were identified from the Cochrane Library 2003......In experimental trials, ketamine has been shown to reduce hyperalgesia, prevent opioid tolerance, and lower morphine consumption. Clinical trials have found contradictory results. We performed a review of randomized, double-blinded clinical trials of ketamine added to opioid in i.v. patient......, MEDLINE (1966-2009), and EMBASE (1980-2009) and by hand-searching reference lists from review articles and trials. Eleven studies were identified with a total of 887 patients. Quality and validity assessment was performed on all trials included using the Oxford Quality Scale with an average quality score...
Edwards, Jayne E; McQuay, Henry J; Moore, R Andrew
The primary aims of this study were to assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of single-dose oral tramadol plus acetaminophen in acute postoperative pain and to use meta-analysis to demonstrate the efficacy of the combination drug compared with its components. Individual patient data from seven randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trials of tramadol plus acetaminophen were supplied for analysis by the R.W. Johnson Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Raritan, New Jersey, USA. All trials used identical methods and assessed single-dose oral tramadol (75 mg or 112.5 mg) plus acetaminophen (650 mg or 975 mg) in adult patients with moderate or severe postoperative pain. Summed pain intensity and pain relief data over six and eight hours and global evaluations of treatment effect after eight hours were extracted. Number-needed-to-treat (NNT) for one patient to obtain at least 50% pain relief was calculated. NNTs derived from pain relief data were compared with those derived from pain intensity data and global evaluations. Information on adverse effects was collected. Combination analgesics (tramadol plus acetaminophen) had significantly lower (better) NNTs than the components alone, and comparable efficacy to ibuprofen 400 mg. This could be shown for dental but not postsurgical pain, because more patients were available for the former. Adverse effects were similar for the combination drugs and the opioid component alone. Common adverse effects were dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and headache. In sum, this meta-analysis demonstrated analgesic superiority of the combination drug over its components, without additional toxicity. PMID:11844632
Wen, Yeong-Ray; Tan, Ping-Heng; Cheng, Jen-Kun; Liu, Yen-Chin; Ji, Ru-Rong
Management of chronic pain such as nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain associated with diabetic neuropathy, viral infection, and cancer is a real clinical challenge. Major surgeries such as breast and thoracic surgery, leg amputation, and coronary artery bypass surgery also lead to chronic pain in 10–50% of individuals after acute postoperative pain, in part due to surgery-induced nerve injury. Current treatments mainly focus on blocking neurotransmission in the pain pathway and have only r...
To evaluate efficacy and safety of preoperative paracetamol for postoperative pain relief. The study population consisted of 40 adult female patients scheduled for tubectomy as an elective surgery who were in ASA class I. Patients were allocated randomly to receive 325mg of acetaminophen orally half an hour before surgery. Pain was assessed by verbal rating scale in three situations (resting, moving and coughing). Data was collection done using the questionnaire and data analysis done using descriptive statistical methods. The patients who received oral paracetamol experienced moderate and mild pain in 50% of the cases when they were in resting position. Feeling mild and moderate pain with movement was in 40% and 60% respectively. While coughing, 100% of the cases felt only moderate pain and none experienced severe pain. Administration of a single dose of acetaminophen in preoperative period is effective for acute postoperative pain relief. (author)
Pedersen, Katja Venborg; Olesen, Anne Estrup; Osther, Palle Jørn Sloth; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Drewes, Asbjørn
an improvement in rehabilitation. This study evaluates the relationship between preoperative experimental pain assessment and postoperative pain and opioid consumption. Forty-four patients with uni- or bilateral kidney stone disease scheduled for percutaneous nephrolithotomy were included. The...... preoperative pain thresholds were measured using electrical (single and 5 repeated) and pressure pain stimulation over the flank bilaterally (stone-side = operation side and control-side = non-operation side). Postoperative pain scores were recorded on a numerical rating scale and analgesic consumption was...... registered. The responses to repeated electrical stimuli (temporal summation) were preoperatively increased on the stone-side compared to the control-side (P = 0.016). Preoperative electrical pain thresholds from the control-side correlated inversely with postoperative opioid consumption (single stimuli: ρ...
Lunn, T H; Kristensen, B B; Gaarn-Larsen, L;
BACKGROUND: Experimental studies in animals, healthy volunteers, and patients with chronic pain suggest exercise to provide analgesia in several types of pain conditions and after various nociceptive stimuli. To our knowledge, there is no data on the effects of exercise on pain and nociceptive fu...
Kuusniemi, Kristiina; Pöyhiä, Reino
This paper is a summary of presentations on postoperative pain control by the authors at the 2014 PainForum meeting in People's Republic of China. Postoperative pain is often untreated or undertreated and may lead to subsequent chronic pain syndromes. As more procedures migrate to the outpatient setting, postoperative pain control will become increasingly more challenging. Evidence-based guidelines for postoperative pain control recommend pain assessment using validated tools on a consistent basis. In this regard, consistency may be more important than the specific tool selected. Many hospitals have introduced a multidisciplinary acute pain service (APS), which has been associated with improved patient satisfaction and fewer adverse events. Patient education is an important component of postoperative pain control, which may be most effective when clinicians chose a multimodal approach, such as paracetamol (acetaminophen) and opioids. Opioids are a mainstay of postoperative pain control but require careful monitoring and management of side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and somnolence. Opioids may be administered using patient-controlled analgesia systems. Protocols for postoperative pain control can be very helpful to establish benchmarks for pain management and assure that clinicians adhere to evidence-based standards. The future of postoperative pain control around the world will likely involve more and better established APSs and greater communication between patients and clinicians about postoperative pain. The changes necessary to implement and move forward with APSs is not a single step but rather one of continuous improvement and ongoing change. PMID:26893579
Full Text Available Kristiina Kuusniemi,1 Reino Pöyhiä2,3 1Department of Anaesthesiology, Turku University, Turku, Finland; 2Department of Anaesthesiology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; 3Department of Palliative Medicine and Oncology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland Abstract: This paper is a summary of presentations on postoperative pain control by the authors at the 2014 PainForum meeting in People's Republic of China. Postoperative pain is often untreated or undertreated and may lead to subsequent chronic pain syndromes. As more procedures migrate to the outpatient setting, postoperative pain control will become increasingly more challenging. Evidence-based guidelines for postoperative pain control recommend pain assessment using validated tools on a consistent basis. In this regard, consistency may be more important than the specific tool selected. Many hospitals have introduced a multidisciplinary acute pain service (APS, which has been associated with improved patient satisfaction and fewer adverse events. Patient education is an important component of postoperative pain control, which may be most effective when clinicians chose a multimodal approach, such as paracetamol (acetaminophen and opioids. Opioids are a mainstay of postoperative pain control but require careful monitoring and management of side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and somnolence. Opioids may be administered using patient-controlled analgesia systems. Protocols for postoperative pain control can be very helpful to establish benchmarks for pain management and assure that clinicians adhere to evidence-based standards. The future of postoperative pain control around the world will likely involve more and better established APSs and greater communication between patients and clinicians about postoperative pain. The changes necessary to implement and move forward with APSs is not a single step but rather one of continuous improvement and ongoing change. Keywords
Shang, Allan B; Gan, Tong J
Over 60% of surgery is now performed in an ambulatory setting. Despite improved analgesics and sophisticated drug delivery systems, surveys indicate that over 80% of patients experience moderate to severe pain postoperatively. Inadequate postoperative pain relief can prolong recovery, precipitate or increase the duration of hospital stay, increase healthcare costs, and reduce patient satisfaction. Effective postoperative pain management involves a multimodal approach and the use of various drugs with different mechanisms of action. Local anaesthetics are widely administered in the ambulatory setting using techniques such as local injection, field block, regional nerve block or neuraxial block. Continuous wound infusion pumps may have great potential in an ambulatory setting. Regional anaesthesia (involving anaesthetising regional areas of the body, including single extremities, multiple extremities, the torso, and the face or jaw) allows surgery to be performed in a specific location, usually an extremity, without the use of general anaesthesia, and potentially with little or no sedation. Opioids remain an important component of any analgesic regimen in treating moderate to severe acute postoperative pain. However, the incorporation of non-opioids, local anaesthetics and regional techniques will enhance current postoperative analgesic regimens. The development of new modalities of treatment, such as patient controlled analgesia, and newer drugs, such as cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors, provide additional choices for the practitioner. While there are different routes of administration for analgesics (e.g. oral, parenteral, intramuscular, transmucosal, transdermal and sublingual), oral delivery of medications has remained the mainstay for postoperative pain control. The oral route is effective, the simplest to use and typically the least expensive. The intravenous route has the advantages of a rapid onset of action and easier titratibility, and so is recommended for the
Dahl, J B; Rosenberg, J; Dirkes, W E;
Fourteen patients undergoing colorectal surgery received an intraoperative afferent neural block with combined intrathecal and extradural local anaesthetics plus a balanced postoperative low-dose regimen of extradural bupivacaine 10 mg h-1-morphine 0.2 mg h-1 and systemic piroxicam 20 mg/24 h. Po....... Postoperative pain, assessed repeatedly during the initial 48 h, was prevented during rest, mobilization from the supine to the sitting position and during walking, in all but one patient; slight pain was observed intermittently during coughing in four patients....
Objective: To evaluate the effect of intraoperative low-dose ketamine with general anesthesia on postoperative pain after total knee replacement surgery. Study Design: A randomized, double-blind comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, from January and June 2011. Methodology: Sixty adults undergoing total knee arthroplasty were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups of equal size to receive either racemic ketamine infusion (6.25 g/kg/minute) or the same volume of saline. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure each patient's level of pain at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours after surgery. Time to first analgesic request, postoperative morphine consumption and the incidence of side effects were also recorded. Results: Low-dose ketamine infusion prolonged the time to first analgesic request. It also reduced postoperative cumulative morphine consumption at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours postsurgery (p < 0.001). Postoperative VAS scores were also significantly lower in the ketamine group than placebo, at all observation times. Incidences of side effects were similar in both study groups. Conclusion: Intraoperative continuous low-dose ketamine infusion reduced pain and postoperative analgesic consumption without affecting the incidence of side effects. (author)
Houweling, P.L.; Molag, M.L.; Boekel, R.L.M. van; Verbrugge, S.J.; Haelst, I.M. van; Hollmann, M.W.
- On the initiative of the Dutch Association of Anaesthesiologists, a multidisciplinary workgroup has revised the 2003 practice guideline on 'Postoperative pain treatment' for adults and children.- The main reason for revision was the availability of new drugs and new methods of administration. The
Vadivelu, Nalini; Mitra, Sukanya; Narayan, Deepak
Good pain control after surgery is important to prevent negative outcomes such as tachycardia, hypertension, myocardial ischemia, decrease in alveolar ventilation, and poor wound healing. Exacerbations of acute pain can lead to neural sensitization and release of mediators both peripherally and centrally. Clinical wind up occurs from the processes of N-Methyl D-Aspartate (NMDA) activation, wind up central sensitization, long-term potentiation of pain (LTP), and transcription-dependent sensiti...
Savoia, G; Alampi, D; Amantea, B; Ambrosio, F; Arcioni, R; Berti, M; Bettelli, G; Bertini, L; Bosco, M; Casati, A; Castelletti, I; Carassiti, M; Coluzzi, F; Costantini, A; Danelli, G; Evangelista, M; Finco, G; Gatti, A; Gravino, E; Launo, C; Loreto, M; Mediati, R; Mokini, Z; Mondello, E; Palermo, S; Paoletti, F; Paolicchi, A; Petrini, F; Piacevoli, Q; Rizza, A; Sabato, A F; Santangelo, E; Troglio, E; Mattia, C
The aim of these recommendations is the revision of data published in 2002 in the "SIAARTI Recommendations for acute postoperative pain treatment". In this version, the SIAARTI Study Group for acute and chronic pain decided to grade evidence based on the "modified Delphi" method with 5 levels of recommendation strength. Analgesia is a fundamental right of the patient. The appropriate management of postoperative pain (POP) is known to significantly reduce perioperative morbidity, including the incidence of postoperative complications, hospital stay and costs, especially in high-risk patients (ASA III-V), those undergoing major surgery and those hospitalized in a critical unit (Level A). Therefore, the treatment of POP represents a high-priority institutional objective, as well as an integral part of the treatment plan for "perioperative disease", which includes analgesia, early mobilization, early enteral nutrition and active physiokinesitherapy (Level A). In order to improve an ACUTE PAIN SERVICE organization, we recommend: --a plan for pain management that includes adequate preoperative evaluation, pain measurement, organization of existing resources, identification and training of involved personnel in order to assure multimodal analgesia, early mobilization, early enteral nutrition and active physiokinesitherapy (Level A); --the implementation of an Acute Pain Service, a multidisciplinary structure which includes an anesthetist (team coordinator), surgeons, nurses, physiotherapists and eventually other specialists; --referring to high-quality indicators in establishing an APS and considering the following key points in its organization (Level C): --service adoption; --identifying a referring anesthetist who is on call 24 hours a day; --patient care during the night and weekend; --sharing, drafting and updating written therapeutic protocols; --continuous medical education; --systematic pain assessment; --data collection regarding the efficacy and safety of the
Full Text Available Rikkert Ossendorp,1 Tymour Forouzanfar,2 Claire E Ashton-James,2,3 Frank Bloemers11Department of Surgery, VU University Medical Center, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, VU University Medical Center, 3Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, VU University, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsIntroduction: Every year, over 260,000 patients in the Netherlands are diagnosed with a traumatic fracture. Many patients are treated surgically and need postoperative treatment of pain. Research suggests postoperative pain is often under-treated, leaving a significant proportion of patients in moderate to severe postoperative pain. Specialized, evidence-based pain-management protocols offer patients the best possible pain management, and significantly reduce the risk of pain-related health complications.Objective: Our objective was to review the range of postoperative pain protocols that are currently being used to treat postoperative fracture pain within the Netherlands, and investigate whether a specialized, evidence-based protocol for treating postoperative fracture pain exists within this sample.Methods: A written request for the protocol currently being used for the treatment of postoperative pain following the surgical treatment of a fracture was sent to 101 Dutch hospital departments. The administration and dosage of pain medications used during postoperative pain management were then identified and summarized.Results: Of the contacted hospitals, 57% sent in protocols; 45% of these were eligible for analysis. All of the departments sent a general or acute pain protocol rather than a specialized protocol for the treatment of postoperative pain associated with the surgical treatment of fractures. A total of 22 different analgesics were used for pain management in 135 different administration schemes. Paracetamol, diclofenac, and morphine were used in the majority of protocols. Medication was given via oral, rectal, intravenous
Rosenberg, J; Kehlet, H
It has been assumed that adequate postoperative pain relief will improve outcome from surgery, but several controlled trials have demonstrated that pain treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, patient-controlled analgesia or epidural techniques will not significantly improve outcome...... after major procedures. In lower body procedures, however, intra- and early postoperative pain relief with epidural or spinal anaesthesia reduces blood loss and thromboembolic complications. It is hypothesized that effective postoperative pain relief may significantly improve outcome only if integrated...
Lee, Peter J
single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes for catecholamine-O-methyltransferase (COMT), μ-opioid receptor and GTP cyclohydrolase (GCH1) have been linked to acute and chronic pain states. COMT polymorphisms are associated with experimental pain sensitivity and a chronic pain state. No such association has been identified perioperatively. We carried out a prospective observational clinical trial to examine associations between these parameters and the development of postoperative pain in patients undergoing third molar (M3) extraction.
Chang, David J; Desjardins, Paul J; King, Thomas R; Erb, Tara; Geba, Gregory P
Our objective in this study was to compare the analgesic effects of etoricoxib and oxycodone/acetaminophen in a postoperative dental pain model. Patients experiencing moderate to severe pain after extraction of two or more third molars were randomized to single doses of etoricoxib 120 mg (n = 100), oxycodone/acetaminophen 10/650 mg (n = 100), or placebo (n = 25). The primary end-point was total pain relief over 6 h. Other end-points included patient global assessment of response to therapy; onset, peak, and duration of effect; and rescue opioid analgesic use. Active treatments were statistically significantly superior to placebo for all efficacy measures. Total pain relief over 6 h for etoricoxib was significantly more than for oxycodone/acetaminophen (P acetaminophen by 5 min. The peak effect was similar for both drugs. Compared with oxycodone/acetaminophen patients, etoricoxib patients experienced a longer analgesic duration, had a smaller percentage requiring rescue opioids during 6 and 24 h, and required less rescue analgesia during 6 and 24 h. Oxycodone/acetaminophen treatment resulted in more frequent adverse events (AEs), drug-related AEs, nausea, and vomiting compared with etoricoxib treatment. In conclusion, etoricoxib 120 mg provided superior overall efficacy compared with oxycodone/acetaminophen 10/650 mg and was associated with significantly fewer AEs. PMID:15333415
Genevois, A; Marouteau, N; Lemercier, E; Dacher, J N; Thiebot, J
Acute pelvic pain in women is a routine situation in any emergency unit. The radiologist should know how to explore the patient with regards to the history and clinical findings. Ultrasonography is the primary and sometimes the only necessary imaging tool in the assessment of acute pelvic pain in women. MRI is the preferred technique in pregnant or young women. CT is more valuable for assessing nongynecologic disorders or post-partum and post-operative infections. This article reviews the contribution of each imaging technique in this clinical situation. Emphasis is put on the importance of age and clinical findings in the diagnostic strategy. PMID:18288036
Nielsen, B N; Henneberg, S W; Schmiegelow, K;
2013), Embase (1980 to June 2013), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 6). Randomized controlled trials investigating the postoperative analgesic effect of peripherally applied opioids vs. systemic opioids or placebo, measured by pain intensity...... scores, consumption of supplemental analgesics and time to first analgesic were included. Trials with sample sizes of fewer than 10 patients per treatment group or trials with opioids administered intra-articularly or as peripheral nerve blocks were excluded. RESULTS: Data from 26 studies, including 1531...
Werner, Mads U; Duun, Preben; Kehlet, Henrik
with development of significant hyperalgesia. There was a significant correlation between preoperative pain ratings during the burn injury and early (0-2 days, area under the curve) and late (3-10 days, area under the curve) postoperative dynamic pain ratings during limb movement. CONCLUSION: The......BACKGROUND: Despite major advances in the understanding of the neurobiologic mechanisms of pain, the wide variation in acute pain experience has not been well explained. Therefore, the authors investigated the potential of a preoperatively induced heat injury to predict subsequent postoperative...... results of this study suggest that the pain response to a preoperative heat injury may be useful in research in predicting the intensity of postoperative pain. These findings may have important implications to identify patients at risk for development of chronic pain and to stratify individuals for...
Subramanian, Pathmawathi; Ramasamy, Suguna; Ng, Kwan Hoong; Chinna, Karuthan; Rosli, Roshaslina
Alleviating acute pain and providing pain relief are central to caring for surgical patients as pain can lead to many adverse medical consequences. This study aimed to explore patients' experience of pain and satisfaction with postoperative pain control. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 107 respondents who had undergone abdominal surgery in the surgical ward of an urban hospital using the Revised American Pain Society's Patient Outcome and Satisfaction Survey Questionnaires (APS-POQ-R). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Chi-square test showed significant association between race (P = 0.038), education level (P ≤ 0.001), previous operation status (P = 0.032) and operation status (P ≤ 0.001). Further analysis on nominal regression, association between dissatisfaction with factors of operation status (46.09 (95% CI 7.456, 284.947)) and previous operation status (13.38 (95% CI 1.39, 128.74)) was found to be significant. Moderate to high levels of pain intensity in the last 24 h after surgery, as well as moderate to high rates of pain-related interference with care activities were most reported. Pain still remains an issue among surgical patients, and effective pain management and health education are needed to manage pain more effectively after surgery. PMID:25355297
Verchère, Eric; Grenier, Bruno; Mesli, Abdelghani; Siao, Daniel; Sesay, Mussa; Maurette, Pierre
The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of three different postoperative treatments after supratentorial craniotomy. Sixty-four patients were allocated prospectively and randomly into three groups: paracetamol (the P group, n = 8), paracetamol and tramadol (the PT group, n = 29), and paracetamol and nalbuphine (the PN group, n = 27). General anesthesia was standardized with propofol and remifentanil using atracurium as the muscle relaxant. One hour before the end of surgery, all patients received 30 mg/kg propacetamol intravenously then 30 mg/kg every 6 hours. Patients in the PT group received 1.5 mg/kg tramadol 1 hour before the end of surgery. For patients in the PN group, 0.15 mg/kg nalbuphine was injected after discontinuation of remifentanil, because of its mu-antagonist effect. Postoperative pain was assessed in the fully awake patient after extubation (hour 0) and at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours using a visual analog scale (VAS). Additional tramadol (1.5 mg/kg) or 0.15 mg/kg nalbuphine was administered when the VAS score was > or = 30 mm. Analgesia was compared using the Mantha and Kaplan-Meier methods. Adverse effects of the drugs were also measured. The three groups were similar with respect to the total dose of remifentanil received (0.27 +/- 0.1 mircog/kg/min). In all patients, extubation was obtained within 6 +/- 3 minutes after remifentanil administration. Postoperative analgesia was ineffective in the P group; therefore, inclusions in this group were stopped after the eighth patient. Postoperative analgesia was effective in the two remaining groups because VAS scores were similar, except at hour 1, when nalbuphine was more effective (P = .001). Nevertheless, acquiring such a result demanded significantly more tramadol than nalbuphine (P < .05). More cases of nausea and vomiting were observed in the PT group but the difference was not significant (P < .06). In conclusion, pain after supratentorial neurosurgery must be taken into account
Højer Karlsen, Anders Peder; Geisler, Anja; Petersen, Pernille Lykke;
Treatment of postoperative pain should rely on results from randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses of high scientific quality. The efficacy of a particular intervention may depend on the type of surgical procedure, which supports the reporting of "procedure-specific" interventions. The aim...... of this systematic review was to document the procedure-specific evidence for analgesic interventions after total hip arthroplasty (THA). This PRISMA-compliant and PROSPERO-registered review includes randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) of medication-based analgesic interventions after THA...... reporting of adverse events, considerable differences in supplemental analgesic consumption, and basic analgesic regimens generally characterized trials. Meta-analyses of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, local infiltration analgesia, intrathecal opioids, and lumbar plexus block provided a 24-hour...
cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2. Our aim was to determine its effectiveness for the management of moderate postoperative pain. Material and methods: A prospective randomized study was conducted on a total of 96 patients undergoing: appendectomies, oophorectomies, hernioplasties and hip fractures between January and February 2004. One group received parecoxib 40 mg IV each 12 hours (group P and the other one received ketorolac 30 mg IV each 8 hours (group K. Rescue analgesia was paracetamol 1 g IV each 6 hours. An analogical visual scale was used 30 minutes after admittance to the postoperative recovery unit, and after 2, 24 and 48 hours. Results: Pain was assessed through the VAS scale, with no differences found between groups. The need of rescue analgesia on the first day was 83.3% (40/48 in group K, versus 66.7% (32/48 in group P; (p = 0.059. On the second day, the demand of additional analgesia decreased. The need of rescue analgesia was greater among patients undergoing traumatological surgery. Patients that received parecoxib showed a greater percentage of satisfaction, this difference being significant. Conclusions: Pain management was similar in both groups. However, the analgesic patterns showed limitations in the management of pain, since the VAS score and the degree of satisfaction during the first hours can be improved. Considering the effectiveness of rescue therapy with paracetamol, parecoxib combined with paracetamol may be an useful combination for postoperative analgesic management.
Zhu, Qing; Sun, Yuehua; Yun, Xiaodi; Ou, Yuntao; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jun-Xu
Curcumin is a principal ingredient of traditional Chinese medicine, Curcuma Longa, which possesses a variety of pharmacological activities including pain relief. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that curcumin has antinociceptive effects for inflammatory and neuropathic pain. This study examined the effects of curcumin in a rat model of postoperative pain. A surgical incision on the right hind paw induced a sustained mechanical hyperalgesia that lasted for 5 days. Acute curcumin treatment...
Panjganj, Donya; Bevan, Ann
Pain assessment is crucial to achieving optimal pain management in children. Pain that is insufficiently controlled can have extensive short- and long-term repercussions. Many studies continue to report that children experience unnecessary post-operative pain when they are in hospital. The purpose of this literature review was to explore post-operative pain assessment practices used by children's nurses. A literature search of databases was undertaken and inclusion criteria identified. Four themes emerged: pain assessment tools; behavioural cues; documentation; and communication between child, parent/carer and nurse. The findings showed that pain assessment tools were inadequately used, that children's behavioural cues were misinterpreted, and that there was inconsistency in the documentation of pain scores and in communication about pain scores between children, parent/carer and nurse. Addressing the key issues identified from the articles reviewed can help improve nursing practice and care. PMID:27266751
Lee, Mi Geum; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Keun Hwa
Background Although opioids are the most commonly used medications to control postoperative pain in children, the analgesic effects could have a large inter-individual variability according to genotypes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and the analgesic effect of morphine for postoperative pain in children. Methods A prospective study was conducted in 88 healthy children undergoing tonsillectomy, who received morphine during the operation. The postoperative pain score, frequency of rescue analgesics, and side effects of morphine were assessed in the post-anesthesia care unit. The children were genotyped for OPRM1 A118G, ABCB1 C3435T, and COMT Val158Met. Results Children with at least one G allele for OPRM1 (AG/GG) had higher postoperative pain scores compared with those with the AA genotype at the time of discharge from the post-anesthesia care unit (P = 0.025). Other recovery profiles were not significantly different between the two groups. There was no significant relationship between genotypes and postoperative pain scores in analysis of ABCB1 and COMT polymorphisms. Conclusions Genetic polymorphism at OPRM1 A118G, but not at ABCB1 C3435T and COMT Val158Met, influences the analgesic effect of morphine for immediate acute postoperative pain in children. PMID:26839669
Full Text Available The study aims the influence of development of the acute postoperative pancreatitis at the early postoperative period; determine its influence at the frequency and spectrum of complications after abdominal surgery. Material and methods. The work is based on the results of the complex examination and surgical treatment of 1934 patients with various disorders of the digestive system (complicated duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer, gastric cancer, the proximal and distal pancreatic cancer, colon cancer and postgastrectomy syndromes. The dependence of the overall incidence of postoperative complications, the number of complications per patient, and the number of infectious and inflammatory complications per patient, hospital mortality and length of postoperative hospital days for the development of acute postoperative pancreatitis were studied. Results. Acute postoperative pancreatitis is a leading cause of morbidity postoperative intra-abdominal operations. 97,8% of the cases of complicated early postoperative period of the operations on the organs of the abdominal cavity caused by the development of acute postoperative pancreatitis. Specific complications for the acute postoperative pancreatitis (satellite complications were identified. Satellite complication had a clearly defined correlation with the development of the acute postoperative pancreatitis. The negative effect of acute postoperative pancreatitis on the severity of the postoperative period, on the morbidity, on the number of complications per patient, on the number of the infectious and inflammatory complications per patient, hospital mortality and on the duration of the postoperative hospital stay were found.
Lee, Sang-Jun; Lee, Jong-Nam
Background Perioperative opioid administration results in postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and acute opioid tolerance that manifests in increased postoperative pain. Esmolol is an ultra short acting cardioselective β1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, and it has been successfully used for perioperative sympatholysis and it reduces the opioid requirement during total intravenous anesthesia. We tested the hypothesis that perioperative esmolol administration results in decreased PONV and p...
Abelha, Fernando José; Botelho, Miguela; Fernandes, Vera; Barros, Henrique
Introduction Development of acute kidney injury (AKI) during the perioperative period is associated with increases in morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to evaluate the incidence and determinants of postoperative AKI after major noncardiac surgery in patients with previously normal renal function. Methods This retrospective cohort study was carried out in the multidisciplinary Post-Anaesthesia Care Unit (PACU) with five intensive care beds. The study population consisted of 1166 patients wi...
Abdalrahim, Maysoon S; Majali, Sawsan A; Stomberg, Margareta Warrén; Bergbom, Ingegerd
Effective postoperative pain treatment is an essential component to good quality of care. The purpose of this study was to explore nurses' knowledge of and attitudes toward pain in surgical wards before and after implementation of a postoperative management program at a university hospital in Jordan. The program consisted of an education program for nurses, and its effect was evaluated by using a pre- and post-intervention design. Sixty five registered nurses were asked to respond to a 21 items questionnaire, and a total of 240 patients' records were audited. After implementation of the program, the mean scores for all the questionnaire items were found to increase to 75%, with an average of 16/21 for the correct answers. There was a statistically significant difference (p nurses' responses in the pre-intervention phase and their responses in the post-intervention phase for most of the questionnaire items. Also, there was a statistically significant improvement in the documentation of patients' care in 85% of the audited patients' records. It was recommended to introduce an acute pain services (APS) using a well established and safe pain management routines to increase the quality of care. PMID:21186139
Kerimoglu, O S; Yilmaz, S A; Pekin, A; İncesu, F; Dogan, N U; İlhan, T T; Celik, C
The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the effect of drainage on postoperative shoulder and abdominal pain after uncomplicated laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy (LOC). Allocation to drain or not to drain was non-randomised. There were 55 patients with drainage and 56 patients without drainage. Postoperative shoulder and abdominal pain was assessed using a 10-point visual analogue scale. Postoperative hospital stay in the drainage group was longer than the non-drainage group (p = 0.040). Postoperative shoulder pain scores at 6 h and 24 h were similar between the drainage and non-drainage groups (p = 0.376 and p = 0.847, respectively). Postoperative abdominal pain was higher in the drainage group at 6 h (p = 0.009), but was similar at 24 h (p = 0.097) between the groups. These data suggest that for LOC, drainage may not be useful to prevent postoperative shoulder pain and also increases postoperative abdominal pain and length of hospital stay. PMID:25140836
Full Text Available Background: International Association for the Study of Pain defines pain as annoying sensations and emotions associated with actual or potential tissue damage or is described as such damage. Pains always are considered to be subjective sensations with multidimensional nature composed from physical, emotional and cognitive components. One of the main tasks in pain syndrome effective therapy is the option to perform objective assessment of pain intensity and quality utilizing principle of continuity. Independent surveys on pain management in postoperative period are performed in different countries of the world. Studies analyze effectiveness of both - medical and non-medical measurements in order to reduce pain syndrome. Very few investigations of chronic and acute pain influence on recovery process, progress and outcome of illness, assessment of pain intensity and quality are performed in Latvia. In the case of acute pain chronification, pain perception and management can be changed; pains become inadequately long lasting and may combine with psychogenic pains. According to the data obtained by the World Health Organization, fifty percent patients after injuries or operations have severe and insufferable pains despite the development of acute pain treatment and care. Insufficiently controlled postoperative pains become a risk factor for development of various abnormalities. Aim of the study: To study the usage of postoperative period pain intensity and quality assessment scales in the clinical practice of nursing, as well as availability of these methodsMaterial and methods: Survey utilizes quantitative research method. As an investigation tool was chosen questionnaire. Survey was carried out in the surgical profile wards in Riga and regional clinics of Latvia. Questionnaire embraced 309 nurses, working in the surgical profile.Results: Assessment of acute pains should be considered as the fifth vital sign providing more successful achievement of
Nielsen, P R; Christensen, P A; Meyhoff, C S;
In Denmark, the first acute pain service (APS) was introduced in 1993. An important objective became to facilitate implementation of accelerated post-operative rehabilitation programmes (ACC) in selected procedures in abdominal, gynaecological and orthopaedic surgery. Therefore, it is of consider...
The International Association for the Study of Pain defines pain as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage” (IASP, 1997). This definition of pain emphasises that it is neither a sensory nor an emotional experience, but a combination of both. It is a subjective experience influenced by physical, psychological and environmental factors that is assessed from a biopsychosocial perspective. The gold standard in assessing pain however is always what the patient says it is.
Rudin, Asa; Eriksson, Lars; Liedholm, Rolf;
techniques. Standardized surgery was performed during local anesthesia. Postoperative pain management was with rescue paracetamol and ibuprofen. The patients were instructed to record each day their pain at rest and during dynamic conditions, and their requirement of analgesics for 14 days following surgery....
textabstractPain affects almost everyone at some point in his or her life. A definition drawn up by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) has it that pain is always subjective This would seem to imply that the way in which pain is perceived varies from person to person and may also be influenced by the setting and previous experiences. The same definition states that “inability to communicate verbally does not negate the possibility that an individual is experiencing pain...
Werner, Mads U.; Kehlet, Henrik
sensory system either by mechanical, thermal or electrical stimuli, with assessment of the evoked psychophysical response. QST has been used in prospective assessments of how and why some individuals develop persistent postoperative pain. This comprehensive review describes, first, QST as a predictive......Postoperative pain remains inadequately treated, and it has been estimated that 5-10% undergoing surgery will develop moderate to severe persistent pain leading to chronic physical disability and psychosocial distress. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is a graded, standardized activation of the...
Even today, with modern medicine and technology, post-operative pain still exists as anmajor issue in modern treatment. A lot of research efforts have been made, in order toimprove pain outcome for patients that has undergone surgery.Even though physician's and doctors are well educated, the success rate is aboutapproximately 70 %, still there are patients that experience severe pain, after they haveundergone surgery. There could be several reasons to this, for example, lack of method...
Lunn, Troels H; Gaarn-Larsen, Lissi; Kehlet, Henrik
logistic regressions analyses were carried out including 8 potential preoperative explanatory variables (among these anxiety,depression, preoperative pain and pain catastrophizing) to assess pain response to preoperative heat pain stimulation as independent predictor for postoperative pain. 100 patients...... the linear and logistic regression analyses, where only anxiety, preoperative pain and pain catastrophizing were significant explanatory variables (but with low R-Squares;0.05-0.08). Pain responses to 2 types of preoperative heat stimuli were not independent clinical relevant predictors for......It has been estimated that up to 54% of the variance in postoperative pain experience may be predicted with preoperative pain responses to experimental stimuli, with suprathreshold heat pain as the most consistent test modality. We aimed to explore if 2 heat test paradigms could predict...
... Fracture of the spinal cord Muscle spasm (very tense muscles) Ruptured or herniated disk Sciatica Spinal stenosis ( ... as ice, mild painkillers, physical therapy, and proper exercises. Most of the time, back pain will get ...
... narrowing of the spinal canal) Spine curvatures (like scoliosis or kyphosis), which may be inherited and seen ... TD Jr, eds. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Musculoskeletal Disorders, Pain, and Rehabilitation . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, ...
Lee, Mi Hyeon; Chung, Mi Hwa; Han, Cheol Sig; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Choi, Young Ryong; Choi, Eun Mi; Lim, Hyun Kyung; Cha, Young Duk
Background Remifentanil is a short-acting drug with a rapid onset that is useful in general anesthesia. Recently, however, it has been suggested that the use of opioids during surgery may cause opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). Researchers have recently reported that esmolol, an ultra-short-acing β1 receptor antagonist, reduces the postoperative requirement for morphine and provides more effective analgesia than the administration of remifentanil and ketamine. Hence, this study was conducted...
Hamers, J P; Abu-Saad, H H; van den Hout, M A; Halfens, R J
The literature often suggests and assumes that children are under-medicated postoperatively. A review of the literature leads to the conclusion that only a few studies answer the question of whether children's pain is relieved insufficiently. The lack of consensus on expected pain intensity after surgery and caution about prescribing analgesics could explain why analgesics are often prescribed on a pro re nata (prn) basis. Prescription on a prn basis, in fact, means that the nurse makes the decision whether or not an analgesic should be administered. Some studies suggest, however, that nurses under-medicate children and that postoperative pain is relieved insufficiently. In some situations, nurses under-estimate the child's pain, while in others, nurses' attitudes, beliefs and knowledge regarding pain relief strategies play an important role. On the basis of this review of the literature standard prescription of pain medication instead of prn is recommended. Furthermore, research on the incidence and prevalence of pain in children and on the effectiveness of analgesic administration postoperatively is warranted. PMID:9515606
Malvinder S Parmar
Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease is common and patients with many co-morbid conditions frequently have to undergo surgical procedures and, therefore, require effective pain management. The pharmacokinetics of various analgesic agents are not well studied in patients with chronic kidney disease and the risk of accumulation of the main drug or their metabolites, resulting in serious adverse events, is a common scenario on medical and surgical wards. It is common for these patients to be cared for by 'non-nephrologists' who often prescribe the standard dose of the commonly used analgesics, without taking into consideration the patient's kidney function. It is important to recognize the problems and complications associated with the use of standard doses of analgesics, and highlight the importance of adjusting analgesic dosage based on kidney function to avoid complications while still providing adequate pain relief.
Rudin, Asa; Eriksson, Lars; Liedholm, Rolf;
for MTMS were included. Preoperative psychometric indicators of anxiety, depression, and vulnerability were evaluated by patient questionnaires. Thermal thresholds and heat pain perception (1 second phasic stimuli: 44 degrees C to 48 degrees C) were evaluated with quantitative sensory testing......To evaluate the predictive potential of preoperative psychological and psychophysiological variables in estimating severity of postoperative pain following mandibular third molar surgery (MTMS). Methods: Following ethical committee approval and informed consent, 40 consecutive patients scheduled...... techniques. Standardized surgery was performed during local anesthesia. Postoperative pain management was with rescue paracetamol and ibuprofen. The patients were instructed to record each day their pain at rest and during dynamic conditions, and their requirement of analgesics for 14 days following surgery....
Seymour, R A; Williams, F M; Ward, A; Rawlins, M D
Aspirin 1200 mg was compared with placebo in a randomised, double-blind, crossover study in 15 patients with postoperative pain after removal of impacted lower third molars. Over a 5 h investigation period, patients reported significantly less pain (P less than 0.01) after treatment with aspirin, than after treatment with placebo. Peak concentrations of aspirin occurred at 15 min after dosage. Significant negative correlations were observed between plasma aspirin esterase activity and both AUC aspirin (r = -0.904, P less than 0.001) and AUC analgesia (r = -0.91, P less than 0.001). Similarly, a significant correlation was observed between AUC aspirin and AUC analgesia (r = 0.96, P less than 0.001). Evidence from this study would suggest that an individual's pain relief in postoperative dental pain is determined by the rate of aspirin hydrolysis to salicylate. PMID:6378231
Werner, Mads U.; Kehlet, Henrik
Postoperative pain remains inadequately treated, and it has been estimated that 5-10% undergoing surgery will develop moderate to severe persistent pain leading to chronic physical disability and psychosocial distress. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is a graded, standardized activation of the...... research tool in studies investigating the correlation between responses to preoperatively applied experimental pain stimuli and clinical postoperative pain. Second, the use of QST as a valuable prognostic, sequential assessment tool in surgical procedure specific research is presented. Third, the...... implications of these findings for use of QST in future research are discussed. More rational design of predictive studies in PPP, based on surgical procedure specific approaches, is needed in order to improve our understanding of prevention and management of this debilitating postsurgical condition....
Scott, N B; Hodson, M
In order to evaluate the general public's knowledge of postoperative pain and its management, a simple questionnaire was devised and sent out to five general practices in Scotland and Yorkshire. Questionnaires were completed voluntarily by 529 people attending their general practitioner for reasons not related to surgery. Five hundred and fifteen completed questionnaires were analysed. Two hundred and thirty-nine (46.4%) responders had undergone previous major surgery whereas 267 (51.8%) had not. Attitudes to pain varied greatly and confirm the findings of other surveys that amongst the general public there is little or no understanding of the nature of postoperative pain or of the methods available to treat it. Despite the published literature, the public have a high degree of confidence in the ability of doctors and nurses to treat such pain. Widespread public and professional education is required before further improvements can be made to such a universal and basic clinical problem. PMID:9165962
Tighe, Patrick J; Le-Wendling, Linda T; Patel, Ameet; Zou, Baiming; Fillingim, Roger B
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of age, sex, and type of surgery on postoperative pain trajectories derived in a clinical setting from pain assessments in the first 24 hours after surgery. This study is a retrospective cohort study using a large electronic medical records system to collect and analyze surgical case data. The sample population included adult patients undergoing nonambulatory nonobstetric surgery in a single institution over a 1-year period. Analyses of postoperative pain trajectories were performed using a linear mixed-effects model. Pain score observations (91,708) from 7293 patients were included in the statistical analysis. On average, the pain score decreased about 0.042 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.044 to -0.040) points on the numerical rating scale (NRS) per hour after surgery for the first 24 postoperative hours. The pain score reported by male patients was approximately 0.27 (95% CI: -0.380 to -0.168) NRS points lower than that reported by females. Pain scores significantly decreased over time in all age groups, with a slightly more rapid decrease for younger patients. Pain trajectories differed by anatomic location of surgery, ranging from -0.054 (95% CI: -0.062 to -0.046) NRS units per hour for integumentary and nervous surgery to -0.104 (95% CI: -0.110 to -0.098) NRS units per hour for digestive surgery, and a positive trajectory (0.02 [95% CI: 0.016 to 0.024] NRS units per hour) for musculoskeletal surgery. Our data support the important role of time after surgery in considering the influence of biopsychosocial and clinical factors on acute postoperative pain. PMID:25790453
Sadaf, Durre; Ahmad, Muhammad Zubair
Objective: To assess postoperative pain in endodontic therapy and its association with clinical factors such as gender, age, tooth type, pulpal diagnosis, and preoperative pain, length of obturation and sealer extrusion. Study Design: Cross-Sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Dental section of the Aga khan university hospital, Karachi, Pakistan from January to December 2009. Methodology: One hundred and forty patients (140) requiring endodontic therapy for molar and premolar teeth w...
Kontkanen, Irene; Kariniemi, Tristan
The aim of this literature review was to explore the methods and tools used in postoperative pediatric pain assessment. The purpose of this literature review was to conduct a comprehensive description of pain assessment in pediatric patients in surgical settings. The literature review is based on 22 scientific research articles. The data was systematically collected using OVID/CINAHL and Science Direct. Additionally, manual search through library journal collections and e-journals was co...
Full Text Available M Gabrielle Pagé,1 Jennifer Stinson,2,3 Fiona Campbell,2,4 Lisa Isaac,2,4 Joel Katz1,4,51Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health, York University, 2Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, 3Lawrence S Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, 4Department of Anesthesia, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 5Department of Psychology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, CanadaBackground: Post-surgical pain is prevalent in children, yet is significantly understudied. The goals of this study were to examine gender differences in pain outcomes and pain-related psychological constructs postoperatively and to identify pain-related psychological correlates of acute post-surgical pain (APSP and predictors of functional disability 2 weeks after hospital discharge.Methods: Eighty-three children aged 8–18 (mean 13.8 ± 2.4 years who underwent major orthopedic or general surgery completed pain and pain-related psychological measures 48–72 hours and 2 weeks after surgery.Results: Girls reported higher levels of acute postoperative anxiety and pain unpleasantness compared with boys. In addition, pain anxiety was significantly associated with APSP intensity and functional disability 2 weeks after discharge, whereas pain catastrophizing was associated with APSP unpleasantness.Conclusion: These results highlight the important role played by pain-related psychological factors in the experience of pediatric APSP by children and adolescents.Keywords: acute post-surgical pain, children, adolescents, pain anxiety, pain catastrophizing
Werner, Mads Utke; Mjöbo, Helena N; Nielsen, Per R;
Quantitative testing of a patient's basal pain perception before surgery has the potential to be of clinical value if it can accurately predict the magnitude of pain and requirement of analgesics after surgery. This review includes 14 studies that have investigated the correlation between...... preoperative responses to experimental pain stimuli and clinical postoperative pain and demonstrates that the preoperative pain tests may predict 4-54% of the variance in postoperative pain experience depending on the stimulation methods and the test paradigm used. The predictive strength is much higher than...... previously reported for single factor analyses of demographics and psychologic factors. In addition, some of these studies indicate that an increase in preoperative pain sensitivity is associated with a high probability of development of sustained postsurgical pain....
Numerous clinical trials have shown etodolac to be an effective analgesic. The purpose of the present report is to review results of 14 studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of etodolac in a variety of painful conditions. Presented are the results of four postsurgical pain studies, one study of acute gouty arthritis and nine studies of acute musculoskeletal disorders: acute low back pain, acute painful shoulder, tendinitis and bursitis, and acute sports injuries. A single oral dose of etodolac (25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 mg) was compared with aspirin (650 mg) or a combination of acetaminophen (600 mg) plus codeine (60 mg) for the relief of pain up to 12 h following oral, urogenital or orthopedic surgery. In multiple dose studies of acute gouty arthritis and musculoskeletal conditions, etodolac 200 or 300 mg twice a day (b.i.d.) or 200 mg three times a day (t.i.d.) was compared with naproxen 500 mg b.i.d. or t.i.d., diclofenac 50 mg b.i.d. or t.i.d., and piroxicam 20 or 40 mg once a day (o.d.) administered over 5 to 14 days. The efficacy of etodolac was at least equal and in some ways superior to aspirin and acetaminophen plus codeine in the relief of postsurgical pain. In studies of acute gouty arthritis, significant improvement from baseline were seen for all efficacy parameters evaluated for both the etodolac- and naproxen-treated patients. All the present studies of musculoskeletal conditions have shown etodolac to be effective and comparable in analgesic efficacy to naproxen, diclofenac or piroxicam. In summary, etodolac therapy for pain following surgery, in acute gouty arthritis and in acute musculoskeletal conditions resulted in analgesia comparable to that provided by several well-established analgesic or anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:2150571
Henneberg, S W; Hole, P; Haas, Inge Madsen De;
during the investigation. We observed a change in the sleeping pattern with an increased number of sleep-induced myocloniaduring the administration of epidural morphine. In conclusion, the use of epidural morphine in children for postoperative pain relief is very efficient. The minimal effective dose has...
Henneberg, S W; Hole, P; Haas, Inge Madsen De;
during the investigation. We observed a change in the sleeping pattern with an increased number of sleep-induced myoclonia during the administration of epidural morphine. In conclusion, the use of epidural morphine in children for postoperative pain relief is very efficient. The minimal effective dose...
Virgínia I. Marques
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate laser acupuncture as an adjuvant for postoperative pain management in cats. Twenty cats, undergoing ovariohysterectomy, were sedated with intramuscular (IM ketamine (5 mg kg−1, midazolam (0.5 mg kg−1, and tramadol (2 mg kg−1. Prior to induction of anaesthesia, the subjects were randomly distributed into two groups of 10 cats: Laser: bilateral stomach 36 and spleen 6 acupoints were stimulated with infrared laser; Control: no acupuncture was applied. Anaesthesia was induced using intravenous propofol (4 mg kg−1 and maintained with isoflurane. Postoperative analgesia was evaluated by a blinded assessor for 24 h following extubation using the Dynamic Interactive Visual Analogue Scale and Multidimensional Composite Pain Scale. Rescue analgesia was provided with IM tramadol (2 mg kg−1, and the pain scores were reassessed 30 min after the rescue intervention. If the analgesia remained insufficient, meloxicam (0.2 mg kg−1 IM, single dose was administered. Data were analyzed using t-tests, the Mann-Whitney test, and the Friedman test (P<0.05. The pain scores did not differ between groups. However, postoperative supplemental analgesia was required by significantly more cats in the Control (5/10 compared with the Laser group (1/10 (P=0.038. Laser acupuncture reduced postoperative analgesic requirements in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy.
Guimaraes-Pereira, Luis; Valdoleiros, Ines; Reis, Pedro; Abelha, Fernando
Background Persistent postoperative pain (PPP) is defined as persistent pain after surgery of greater than three months’ duration. Objectives Identify the incidence of PPP in our hospital and its associated factors; evaluate quality of life (QoL) and treatment of patients. Patients and Methods We conducted an observational prospective study in adults proposed to various types of surgery using the brief pain inventory short form preoperatively (T0), one day after surgery, and three months later (T3). If the patient had pain at T3 and other causes of pain were excluded, they were considered to have PPP, and the McGill Pain Questionnaire Short Form was applied. QoL was measured with the EuroQol 5-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D). Results One hundred seventy-five patients completed the study. The incidence of PPP was 28%, and the affected patients presented lower QoL. The majority referred to a moderate to severe level of interference in their general activity. Cholecystectomies were less associated with PPP, and total knee/hip replacements were more associated with it. Preoperative pain, preoperative benzodiazepines or antidepressants, and more severe acute postoperative pain were associated with the development of PPP. Half of the patients with PPP were under treatment, and they refer a mean symptomatic relief of 69%. Conclusions This study, apart from attempting to better characterize the problem of PPP, emphasizes the lack of its treatment. PMID:27252908
Shams, P N; Selva, D
Purpose To investigate the incidence and risk factors for acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) following endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EnDCR). Methods Retrospective single-surgeon interventional case series, including 196 consecutive patients undergoing 203 endonasal DCR, with clinical and radiological evidence of nasolacrimal duct or common canalicular obstruction. Pre-operative lacrimal and sinonasal clinical assessment and imaging, intraoperative endoscopic video recording, and post-operative clinical and endoscopic findings were analysed for cases of ARS occurring within the first 4 weeks following DCR among patients with and without a past history of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Surgical complications and outcomes at 12 months and management of ARS are reported. Results Three patients (1.5%) developed ARS within the first 5 post-operative days, none of which had experienced peri-operative complications and all had a past history of CRS. The rate of CRS in this cohort of 196 patients was 10.2% (n=20), of which 15% (n=3) developed ARS, although none had symptoms of CRS at the time of surgery; one had undergone previous sinus surgery. Presenting symptoms of ARS included facial pain, tenderness over the affected sinus, and nasal discharge; all patients responded to oral antibiotic therapy. Discussion The rate of ARS following EnDCR was 1.5%. In those with a prior history of CRS, it was 15% (P=0.009). ARS developed within the first post-operative week among patients with a past history of CRS, who were asymptomatic at the time of surgery, and responded to oral antibiotics. CRS may be a risk factor for the development of post-operative ARS. PMID:23846379
Nielsen, Rikke V; Siegel, Hanna; Fomsgaard, Jonna S;
Glucocorticoids have attracted increasing attention as adjuvants in the treatment of acute postoperative pain. Furthermore, anecdotal reports may support glucocorticoids for preventing sustained postoperative pain. We explored preoperative dexamethasone combined with paracetamol and ibuprofen on...... acute and sustained pain after lumbar disk surgery. In this blinded study, 160 patients undergoing lumbar disk surgery were randomly assigned to 16 mg IV dexamethasone or placebo. All patients received perioperative paracetamol and ibuprofen, and postoperative IV patient-controlled analgesia with...... morphine. Primary outcome was pain during mobilization (visual analog scale) 2 to 24 hours postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were acute pain at rest, morphine consumption, nausea, vomiting, ondansetron consumption, sedation, and quality of sleep. Patients were followed up by written questionnaire 3...
Valoración de la actividad de una Unidad de Dolor Agudo Postoperatorio por los cuidadores del paciente quirúrgico Assessment of the activity of an Acute Postoperative Pain Unit by the staff taking care of surgical patients
al 19% de los facultativos; p=0,01. El aspecto mejor valorado de la UDAP fue la mejora en el control del dolor postoperatorio; el peor, la comunicación entre los profesionales y, la sugerencia más referida, la de intentar mejorarla. Conclusiones: El papel de la UDAP es muy bien comprendido en nuestro hospital por los cuidadores del paciente quirúrgico y aunque su actividad es unánimemente percibida como útil y necesaria, existen problemas de integración y comunicación, especialmente con la enfermería de planta. La identificación de situaciones como esta mediante estudios de opinión sobre su actividad, puede ser útil para dirigir mejoras en el funcionamiento de las Unidades de Dolor Agudo con modelos organizativos similares al nuestro.Objective: An Acute Postoperative Pain Unit (APPU staffed by nurses and supervised by the Service of Anesthesiology was created in our center in 2.000. The aim of this study was to assess how the staff taking care of surgical patients perceive its activity. Material and method: The Service of Anesthesiology and Resuscitation and the Post-Anesthetic Recovery Unit (PARU maintain an APPU staffed by nurses that provides planned and protocolized management of postoperative pain to more than 1.000 patients/year undergoing the most aggressive and painful surgical procedures in a second-level hospital. Nurses and doctors taking care of the patients were requested to anonymously and voluntarily answer a written questionnaire with 15 questions (12 close-ended questions grouped in 4 categories and 3 open-ended questions that assessed several aspects of their activity. Results: Out of 168 questionnaires handed out, 87 questionnaires returned were considered (52%, 48 from doctors and 39 from nurses. The role of the APPU was well or very well understood by 97% of the responders and its activity was perceived rather unanimously as useful, effective and necessary by 98, 93 and 97%, respectively. Treatment indications were considered
Hardwick, Jody; Osswald, Michael; Walker, Daniel
A 34-year-old woman with a diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis (HLH) received a double umbilical cord blood transplantation following a myeloablative chemotherapy preparative regimen with busulfan and cyclophosphamide. HLH is a rare, potentially fatal hematologic disorder characterized by the overactivation of histocytes and T lymphocytes, leading to organ infiltration and acute illness. On day 25 post-transplantation, the patient required a platelet transfusion for a platelet count of 6,000 per ml (normal range = 150,000-450,000 per ml). The patient's blood type prior to the cord blood transplantation was B positive and, although both umbilical cord blood donors were O positive, the patient was still B positive per blood bank testing on that day. Although the recipient of an allogenic stem cell transplantation will eventually become the blood type of the donor, the time for this process to occur varies for each person. That process must be monitored by the blood bank for the purpose of cross-matching blood products to decrease hemolysis as much as possible. The patient was premedicated with the facility's standard for platelet transfusions: acetaminophen 650 mg and diphenhydramine 25 mg about 30 minutes prior to the platelet transfusion. PMID:24161631
Reust, Carin E; Williams, Amy
Acute abdominal pain accounts for approximately 9% of childhood primary care office visits. Symptoms and signs that increase the likelihood of a surgical cause for pain include fever, bilious vomiting, bloody diarrhea, absent bowel sounds, voluntary guarding, rigidity, and rebound tenderness. The age of the child can help focus the differential diagnosis. In infants and toddlers, clinicians should consider congenital anomalies and other causes, including malrotation, hernias, Meckel diverticulum, or intussusception. In school-aged children, constipation and infectious causes of pain, such as gastroenteritis, colitis, respiratory infections, and urinary tract infections, are more common. In female adolescents, clinicians should consider pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy, ruptured ovarian cysts, or ovarian torsion. Initial laboratory tests include complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein, urinalysis, and a pregnancy test. Abdominal radiography can be used to diagnose constipation or obstruction. Ultrasonography is the initial choice in children for the diagnosis of cholecystitis, pancreatitis, ovarian cyst, ovarian or testicular torsion, pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy-related pathology, and appendicitis. Appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdominal pain requiring surgery, with a peak incidence during adolescence. When the appendix is not clearly visible on ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can be used to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:27175718
Uzhva, V P
The significance of the pronounced durable systemic arterial hypotension (SAH) in the origin of an acute postoperative ischemic hepatitis (APIH) was established, basing on the analysis of 40 clinical observations. Its occurrence is promoted by hemorrhage with 30% and more the circulating blood volume (CBV) deficiency, chronic cardiovascular system and pulmonary diseases, liver cirrhosis, shock, massive infusions of the blood and its components, the abdominal aorta atherosclerosis with stenosis of tr. coeliacus, a. hepatica. Forgoing SAH, the presence of promoting factors, jaundice, the transpherase activity raising in 3-5 times, the level of blood coagulating factors reduction, stable intestinal paresis were diagnostically significant symptoms. Experimental model of an APIH was elaborated in dogs, which occurs due to hypotension, caused by CBV reduction by 40% during two hours. The refractoriness of a. hepatica propria to the blood reinfusion was established. In the APIH occurrence threat the perftoran application in the 20 ml/kg dosage is the prophylaxis method as well as the method of the curative tactics choice. PMID:10857279
Good, M; Chin, C C
Music is a method nurses can use to help relieve pain, however little is known about its effectiveness across cultures. In this study, Western music was tested for its effectiveness in reducing postoperative pain in 38 Taiwanese patients, and its acceptability was explored. A pretest and post-test experimental design was used with visual analogue scales to measure sensation and distress of pain. Before surgery, subjects were randomly assigned to receive tape recorded music or the usual care. Those who were assigned to the music group chose among 5 types of sedative music. On postoperative Day 1 and Day 2, the effectiveness of the tape-recorded music was investigated during 15 minutes of rest in bed. Patients were interviewed on Day 3 to determine their liking for the music, its calming effects, and the helpfulness of the music. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant interaction between time and group in the distress of pain on Day 1, but not on Day 2, and in pain sensation on Day 2, but not Day 1. Subjects from Taiwan were similar to subjects in a previous study in the United States in their liking for the music, and in reports of the helpfulness of the music for pain sensation and distress, but fewer Taiwanese found the music calming, and they had different choices: more chose harp music and fewer chose jazz than subjects in the U.S. study, and some would prefer Buddhist hymns or popular songs heard in Taiwan. Findings support the use of culturally acceptable music in addition to analgesic medication for the sensation and distress of postoperative pain. PMID:9542366
Rahimi, Mojtaba; Farsani, Daryoush Moradi; Naghibi, Khosrou; Alikiaii, Babak
Background: Postoperative pain is a major problem following laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and there is no general agreement on the effective method of pain relief. Rectal morphine suppositories are one of the newly released morphine forms. The aim of this study is to compare the impact of suppository morphine with placebo on pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: Seventy patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia, were randomly allocated to two groups according to the drug used for postoperative analgesia: Group morphine suppository (MS - 10 mg) just before induction of anesthesia And Group placebo suppository (PS) (the pills were made from cocoa butter, physically similar to the real drug). Pain intensity based on visual analog scale (VAS) and opioid consumption were assessed 30 and 60 min, and 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 h after arrival of the patient to the recovery room. Results: VAS scores were significantly lower in MS group (from 3.8 ± 1 to 5.3 ± 1.6) compared with PS group (from 4.9 ± 0.9 to 6.7 ± 1) from 30 min after arrival to the recovery room until 16 h postoperatively (P < 0.05). There were no additional analgesic requirements in the first 2 h after the entrance of the patient to the recovery room in MS group. The number of patients requiring pethidine was significantly different between two groups (P < 0.05) in all periods except for 24 h postoperatively. Conclusion: Suppository morphine administration is more effective than placebo to reduce pain and analgesic requirements after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:27110554
Full Text Available Anastasia Gkotsi,1 Dimosthenis Petsas,2 Vasilios Sakalis,3 Asterios Fotas,3 Argyrios Triantafyllidis,3 Ioannis Vouros,3 Evangelos Saridakis,2 Georgios Salpiggidis,3 Athanasios Papathanasiou31Department of Experimental Physiology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Department of Anesthesiology, 3Department of Urology, Hippokration General Hospital, Thessaloniki, GreecePurpose: Pain rating scales are widely used for pain assessment. Nevertheless, a new tool is required for pain assessment needs in retrospective studies.Methods: The postoperative pain episodes, during the first postoperative day, of three patient groups were analyzed. Each pain episode was assessed by a visual analog scale, numerical rating scale, verbal rating scale, and a new tool – pain point system scale (PPSS – based on the analgesics administered. The type of analgesic was defined based on the authors’ clinic protocol, patient comorbidities, pain assessment tool scores, and preadministered medications by an artificial neural network system. At each pain episode, each patient was asked to fill the three pain scales. Bartlett’s test and Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin criterion were used to evaluate sample sufficiency. The proper scoring system was defined by varimax rotation. Spearman’s and Pearson’s coefficients assessed PPSS correlation to the known pain scales.Results: A total of 262 pain episodes were evaluated in 124 patients. The PPSS scored one point for each dose of paracetamol, three points for each nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug or codeine, and seven points for each dose of opioids. The correlation between the visual analog scale and PPSS was found to be strong and linear (rho: 0.715; P <0.001 and Pearson: 0.631; P < 0.001.Conclusion: PPSS correlated well with the known pain scale and could be used safely in the evaluation of postoperative pain in retrospective studies.Keywords: pain scale, retrospective studies, pain point system
Kupesić, Sanja; Aksamija, Alenka; Vucić, Niksa; Tripalo, Ana; Kurjak, Asim
Acute pelvic pain may be the manifestation of various gynecologic and non-gynecologic disorders from less alarming rupture of the follicular cyst to life threatening conditions such as rupture of ectopic pregnancy or perforation of inflamed appendix. In order to construct an algorithm for differential diagnosis we divide acute pelvic pain into gynecologic and non-gynecologic etiology, which is than subdivided into gastrointestinal and urinary causes. Appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency and should always be considered in differential diagnosis if appendix has not been removed. Apart of clinical examination and laboratory tests, an ultrasound examination is sensitive up to 90% and specific up to 95% if graded compression technique is used. Still it is user-depended and requires considerable experience in order to perform it reliably. Meckel's diverticulitis, acute terminal ileitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis and functional bowel disease are conditions that should be differentiated from other causes of low abdominal pain by clinical presentation, laboratory and imaging tests. Dilatation of renal pelvis and ureter are typical signs of obstructive uropathy and may be efficiently detected by ultrasound. Additional thinning of renal parenchyma suggests long-term obstructive uropathy. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy, salpingitis and hemorrhagic ovarian cysts are three most commonly diagnosed gynecologic conditions presenting as an acute abdomen. Degenerating leiomyomas and adnexal torsion occur less frequently. For better systematization, gynecologic causes of acute pelvic pain could be divided into conditions with negative pregnancy test and conditions with positive pregnancy test. Pelvic inflammatory disease may be ultrasonically presented with numerous signs such as thickening of the tubal wall, incomplete septa within the dilated tube, demonstration of hyperechoic mural nodules, free fluid in the "cul-de-sac" etc. Color Doppler ultrasound contributes to more
Bryce, G; Bomfim, D I; Bassi, G S
Although dental implant placements have high success rates and a low incidence of morbidity, post-operative pain and complications with the healing process have been reported. There is little guidance available regarding optimal pre- and post-operative management of dental implant placement. This first paper discusses the mechanisms of pain associated with dental implant placement and offers guidance to clinicians on optimal pre- and post-operative pain management regimes. The second paper aims to discuss pre- and post-operative means of reducing the risk of early healing complications. PMID:25104691
Barasch, Andrei; Safford, Monika M.; McNeal, Sandre F.; Robinson, Michelle; Grant, Vivian S.; Gilbert, Gregg H.
We investigated disparities in the prescription of analgesics following dental procedures that were expected to cause acute post-operative pain. Patients over the age of 19 years who had been treated by surgical and/or endodontic dental procedures were included in this study. We reviewed 900 consecutive charts and abstracted data on procedures, patients, and providers. We used chi-square and logistic regression models for analyses. There were 485 White subjects 357 African-American subjects included in this review; 81% of the African-American and 78% of White patients received a post-operative narcotic prescription (p=0.56). In multivariate regression models, patients over age 45 (p=0.003), those with insurance that covered medication and those with pre-existing pain (p=0.004) were more likely to receive narcotic analgesics. Students prescribed more narcotics than residents (p=0.001). No differences were found by race in prescribing analgesics. PMID:21371065
Marques, Virgínia I.; Cassu, Renata N.; Nascimento, Felipe F.; Tavares, Rafaela C. P.; Crociolli, Giulliane C.; Guilhen, Rafael C.; Nicácio, Gabriel M.
The aim of this study was to evaluate laser acupuncture as an adjuvant for postoperative pain management in cats. Twenty cats, undergoing ovariohysterectomy, were sedated with intramuscular (IM) ketamine (5 mg kg−1), midazolam (0.5 mg kg−1), and tramadol (2 mg kg−1). Prior to induction of anaesthesia, the subjects were randomly distributed into two groups of 10 cats: Laser: bilateral stomach 36 and spleen 6 acupoints were stimulated with infrared laser; Control: no acupuncture was applied. Anaesthesia was induced using intravenous propofol (4 mg kg−1) and maintained with isoflurane. Postoperative analgesia was evaluated by a blinded assessor for 24 h following extubation using the Dynamic Interactive Visual Analogue Scale and Multidimensional Composite Pain Scale. Rescue analgesia was provided with IM tramadol (2 mg kg−1), and the pain scores were reassessed 30 min after the rescue intervention. If the analgesia remained insufficient, meloxicam (0.2 mg kg−1 IM, single dose) was administered. Data were analyzed using t-tests, the Mann-Whitney test, and the Friedman test (P cats in the Control (5/10) compared with the Laser group (1/10) (P = 0.038). Laser acupuncture reduced postoperative analgesic requirements in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy. PMID:26170879
Idvall, E; Hamrin, E; Sjöström, B; Unosson, M
Quality indicators in postoperative pain management: a validation study. In a previous study, strategic and clinical quality indicators were developed from a tentative model to assess high quality in postoperative pain management. The aim of the present study was to investigate the content validity of these 15 indicators. The indicators were compiled in a questionnaire, and two groups of nurses (n=210, n=321) scored each indicator on a 5-point scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree) from three different standpoints: whether it was essential for achieving high quality, whether it was realistic to carry out, and whether it was possible for nurses to influence management. The respondents were also asked to choose the most crucial indicators for the quality of care. The results showed that both groups of nurses judged the 15 indicators to have content validity from all three standpoints. Both groups also found the same six indicators to be the most crucial. These indicators concerned detecting and acting on signs and symptoms, performing prescriptions, informing and educating, acting on behalf of patients, competence/knowledge, and attitudes. The validated indicators should be useful to consider when implementing a strategy for postoperative pain management and when planning to evaluate the quality of care. PMID:12453175
Ana P Johnson
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Access to postoperative acute pain treatment is an important component of perioperative care and is frequently managed by a multidisciplinary team of anesthesiologists, surgeons, pharmacists, technicians and nurses. In some developing countries, treatment modalities are often not performed due to scarce health care resources, knowledge deficiencies and cultural attitudes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Gabapentin is an antiepileptic drug used in a variety of chronic pain conditions. Increasing numbers of randomized trials indicate that gabapentin is effective as a postoperative analgesic. This procedure-specific systematic review aims to analyse the 24-hour postoperative effect of gabapentin on acute pain in adults. Methods Medline, The Cochrane Library and Google Scholar were searched for double-blind randomized placebo controlled trials of gabapentin for postoperative pain relief compared with placebo, in adults undergoing a surgical procedure. Qualitative analysis of postoperative effectiveness was evaluated by assessment of significant difference (P Quantitative analyses of combined data from similar procedures, were performed by calculating the weighted mean difference (WMD of 24-hour cumulated opioid requirements, and the WMD for visual analogue scale (VAS pain, (early (6 h and late (24 h postoperatively, between study groups. Side-effects (nausea, vomiting, dizziness and sedation were extracted for calculation of their relative risk (RR. Results Twenty-three trials with 1529 patients were included. In 12 of 16 studies with data on postoperative opioid requirement, the reported 24-hour opioid consumption was significantly reduced with gabapentin. Quantitative analysis of five trials in abdominal hysterectomy showed a significant reduction in morphine consumption (WMD – 13 mg, 95% confidence interval (CI -19 to -8 mg, and in early pain scores at rest (WMD – 11 mm on the VAS, 95% CI -12 to -2 mm and during activity (WMD -8 mm on the VAS; 95% CI -13 to -3 mm, favouring gabapentin. In spinal surgery, (4 trials, analyses demonstrated a significant reduction in morphine consumption (WMD of – 31 mg (95%CI – 53 to -10 mg and pain scores, early (WMD – 17 mm on the VAS; 95 % CI -31 to -3 mm and late (WMD -12 mm on the VAS; 95% CI -23 to -1 mm also favouring gabapentin treatment. Nausea was improved with gabapentin in
Allred, Kelly D; Byers, Jacqueline F; Sole, Mary Lou
The purpose of this study was to determine if listening to music or having a quiet rest period just before and just after the first ambulation on postoperative day 1 can reduce pain and/or anxiety or affect mean arterial pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and/or oxygen saturation in patients who underwent a total knee arthroplasty. Fifty-six patients having a total knee arthroplasty were randomly assigned to either a music intervention group or a quiet rest group. A visual analog scale was used to measure pain and anxiety. Physiologic measures, including blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate, were also obtained. Statistical findings between groups indicated that the music group's decrease in pain and anxiety was not significantly different from the comparison rest group's decrease in pain (F = 1.120; p = .337) or anxiety (F = 1.566; p = .206) at any measurement point. However, statistical findings within groups indicated that the sample had a statistically significant decrease in pain (F = 6.699; p = .001) and anxiety (F = 4.08; p = .013) over time. Results of this research provide evidence to support the use of music and/or a quiet rest period to decrease pain and anxiety. The interventions pose no risks and have the benefits of improved pain reports and decreased anxiety. It potentially could be opioid sparing in some individuals, limiting the negative effects from opioids. Nurses can offer music as an intervention to decrease pain and anxiety in this patient population with confidence, knowing there is evidence to support its efficacy. PMID:20207324
Doğan Bakı, Elif; Kavrut Ozturk, Nilgün; Ayoğlu, Rauf Umut; Emmiler, Mustafa; Karslı, Bilge; Uzel, Hanife
Background Sternotomy causes considerable postoperative pain and postoperative pain management encompasses different analgesic regimens. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of peroperative parasternal block with levobupivacaine on acute and chronic pain after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Materials and Methods A total of 81 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery were included in this study. Patients were randomly allocated by opening an envelope to receive either parasternal block with pharmacologic analgesia (group P; before sternal wire placement: sternotomy and mediastinal tube sites were infiltrated with local anesthetics) or pharmacologic analgesia alone (group C) for postoperative pain relief. All patients received intravenous tramadol with patient-controlled analgesia at the end of the surgery. Demographic characteristics, vital signs, tramadol consumption, analgesic intake, and intensity of pain with a visual analogue scale were recorded for each patient. Six months after surgery, the patients' type of chronic pain was evaluated using the Leeds Assessment Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs pain scale questionnaire. Results Patients who received parasternal block experienced less pain and needed less opioid analgesic (125.75 ± 28.9 mg in group P vs 213.17 ± 61.25 mg in group C) for 24 hours postoperatively (P block had a benefical effect on the management of postoperative acute pain and decreased opioid consumption after surgery but had no significant effect in chronic post surgical pain. PMID:25900900
David H Goldstein
Full Text Available The Canadian Collaborative Acute Pain Initiative, established in 2002, is a voluntary, multidisciplinary consortium of acute pain health professionals from across Canada whose goal is to improve acute pain management through discussion and consensus. The group met in January 2002 to define strategic areas related to the treatment of acute pain. The areas identified were: the definition of pain; the epidemiology of pain; the concept of an 'ideal' acute pain management service; education; therapeutic options; symptom management; and research and safety. In November 2002, a second meeting was held to develop objectives and recommendations for the management of acute pain based on the defined areas. The outcome of these discussions is summarized in this paper.
Werner, M U; Perkins, F M; Holte, Kathrine; Pedersen, J L; Kehlet, H
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the analgesic effects of the anticonvulsant, gabapentin, in a validated model of acute inflammatory pain. METHODS: Twenty-two volunteers were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Gabapentin 1...... stimuli (visual analog scale [VAS]), assessments of thermal and mechanical detection thresholds, and areas of secondary hyperalgesia. Side effects drowsiness and postural instability were assessed by subjective ratings (VAS). RESULTS: The burn injury induced significant primary and secondary hyperalgesia...... inflammation following a thermal injury. These observations suggest a clinical potential of gabapentin in the treatment of postoperative pain....
Uquillas, Carlos A; Capogna, Brian M; Rossy, William H; Mahure, Siddharth A; Rokito, Andrew S
Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR) can provide excellent clinical results for patients who fail to respond to conservative management of symptomatic rotator cuff tears. ARCR, however, can be associated with severe postoperative pain and discomfort that requires adequate analgesia. As ARCR continues to shift toward being performed as an outpatient procedure, it is incumbent on physicians and ambulatory surgical centers to provide appropriate pain relief with minimal side effects to ensure rapid recovery and safe discharge. Although intravenous and oral opioids are the cornerstone of pain management after orthopedic procedures, they are associated with drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and increased length of hospital stay. As health care reimbursements continue to become more intimately focused on quality, patient satisfaction, and minimizing of complications, the need for adequate pain control with minimal complications will continue to be a principal focus for providers and institutions alike. We present a review of alternative modalities for pain relief after ARCR, including cryotherapy, intralesional anesthesia, nerve blockade, indwelling continuous nerve block catheters, and multimodal anesthesia. In choosing among these modalities, physicians should consider patient- and system-based factors to allow the efficient delivery of analgesia that optimizes recovery and improves patient satisfaction. PMID:27079219
Gamst-Jensen, Hejdi; Vedel, Pernille Nygaard; Lindberg-Larsen, Viktoria Oline;
OBJECTIVE: Burn patients suffer excruciating pain due to their injuries and procedures related to surgery, wound care, and mobilization. Acute Stress Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, chronic pain and depression are highly prevalent among survivors of severe burns. Evidence-based pain...
Ekaterina Vladimirovna Podchufarova
Full Text Available The paper gives an account of approaches to treating patients with acute and chronic back pain in the context of evidence-based medicine and current clinical guidelines. In the vast majority, acute back pain is a benign self-limiting condition (nonspecific musculoskeletal pain and most patients need additional instrumental examinations. An active approach to treatment is considered to be optimal. It is expedient to apply a more differential approach involving the refinement of mechanisms for development of the pain syndrome and the elaboration of treatment strategy in relation to the leading pathophysiological mechanism when examining the patients with chronic back pain.
Virgínia I. Marques; Cassu, Renata N.; Nascimento, Felipe F.; Tavares, Rafaela C. P.; Crociolli, Giulliane C.; Guilhen, Rafael C.; Gabriel M. Nicácio
The aim of this study was to evaluate laser acupuncture as an adjuvant for postoperative pain management in cats. Twenty cats, undergoing ovariohysterectomy, were sedated with intramuscular (IM) ketamine (5 mg kg−1), midazolam (0.5 mg kg−1), and tramadol (2 mg kg−1). Prior to induction of anaesthesia, the subjects were randomly distributed into two groups of 10 cats: Laser: bilateral stomach 36 and spleen 6 acupoints were stimulated with infrared laser; Control: no acupuncture was applied. An...
Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Hansen, J.B.; Kehlet, H.
recently been shown to correlate to acute postoperative pain after cesarean section, but the findings have not been confirmed in larger studies or other procedures. Preoperative electrical pain detection threshold and pain tolerance were assessed in patients undergoing a primary unilateral groin hernia...... pain (rho = -0.13, P = .09, and rho = -1.2, P = .4, respectively. PERSPECTIVE: Although preoperative electrical nociceptive stimulation may predict patients at risk of high-intensity acute pain after other surgical procedures, this was not the case in groin hernia repair patients receiving concomitant...
Full Text Available Aim: To compare the levels of postoperative pain after cleaning and shaping of root canals using two different root canal irrigants for debridement. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with irreversible pulpitis, pulp necrosis and non-vital teeth exhibiting acute apical periodontitis requiring root canal treatment were included. At random, canals were cleaned and shaped with the following protocols. 2% chlorhexidine solution in group I and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution in group II were used as an irrigants. Access cavities were closed with a sterile cotton pellet and cavit. The patients recorded degree of pain at various time intervals after cleaning and shaping on a visual analogue scale for 1 week. Results: The mean pain score for group I was between 0.65 and 3.35 and for group II was between 0.95 and 4.50. There was significant difference in the pain level between the two groups only at 6 th hour postoperatively (P<0.05 and the pain was more in sodium hypochlorite group. Conclusions: More pain was present in teeth irrigated using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite when compared to that in teeth irrigated using 2% chlorhexidine solution. Significant difference in pain level was present only at 6th hour postoperatively, and at all other periods (24 th hour, 4 th and 7 th days there was no significant difference in pain level between the two groups.
Zavras, Nick; Tsamoudaki, Stella; Ntomi, Vasileia; Yiannopoulos, Ioannis; Christianakis, Efstratios; Pikoulis, Emmanuel
Background Although circumcision for phimosis in children is a minor surgical procedure, it is followed by pain and carries the risk of increased postoperative anxiety. This study examined predictive factors of postoperative pain and anxiety in children undergoing circumcision. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of children scheduled for elective circumcision. Circumcision was performed applying one of the following surgical techniques: sutureless prepuceplasty (SP), preputial pl...
Gemma Robleda; Amalia Sillero-Sillero; Teresa Puig; Ignasi Gich; Josep-E. Baños
OBJECTIVES: to analyze the relationship between preoperative emotional state and the prevalence and intensity of postoperative pain and to explore predictors of postoperative pain. METHOD: observational retrospective study undertaken among 127 adult patients of orthopedic and trauma surgery. Postoperative pain was assessed with the verbal numeric scale and with five variables of emotional state: anxiety, sweating, stress, fear, and crying. The Chi-squared test, Student's t test or ANOVA and a...
Anthony Davis; Chinn, David J; Sunil Sharma
Background: Arthroscopic shoulder surgery is increasingly performed as a day case procedure. Optimal post-operative pain relief remains a challenge due to considerable variations in the level of pain experienced between individuals. Our aim was to examine whether the preoperative electrical pain threshold was a strong predictor of elevated postoperative pain levels following arthroscopic subacromial decompression (ASD) surgery. Methods: Forty consenting patients with American Society of Anest...
Dohoo, S E; Dohoo, I R
Three hundred and twenty-two Canadian animal health technologists (AHTs) were surveyed to determine their attitudes toward postoperative pain management in dogs and cats following 6 surgical procedures, their concerns regarding the use of opioid analgesics, and their role within veterinary practices with respect to postoperative pain control. Two hundred and sixty-four (82%) returned the questionnaire. Pain perception was defined as the average of pain rankings for dogs and cats (on a scale o...
Bardiau, Françoise; Braeckman, M.M.; Seidel, Laurence; Albert, Adelin; Boogaerts, J.G.
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of an Acute Pain Service (APS) inception on postoperative pain management in a general teaching hospital using pain indicators as performance measures. DESIGN: Open, prospective, nonrandomized, observational study. SETTING: Postanesthesia Care Unit, surgical wards of University Hospital Center of Charleroi. PATIENTS: 1304 patients in the pre-APS inception phase and 671 patients after its implemention who have undergone various types of surgery (orthoped...
Sunshine, A; Olson, N Z; Zighelboim, I; DeCastro, A; Minn, F L
Tramadol hydrochloride is a synthetic opiate agonist with a plasma elimination half-life of 5 to 6 hours and peak plasma levels at about 1 1/2 hours. It derives its activity from attachment to the mu-receptor and blockage of norepinephrine reuptake. The purpose of this single-dose, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to determine the analgesic effectiveness of an oral administration of two dose levels of tramadol hydrochloride (75 or 150 mg) compared with the combination of 650 mg acetaminophen plus 100 mg propoxyphene napsylate in 161 patients with severe postoperative pain after cesarean section. Analgesia was assessed over a 6-hour period. Treatments were compared on the basis of standard scales for pain intensity and relief and a number of derived variables based on these data. A global rating of the study medication was also used to compare treatments. The three active treatments were effective analgesics, statistically superior to placebo for many hourly and summary measures. A dose response was seen between the two tramadol doses, with the 150 mg dose providing significantly greater analgesia over the lower dose. The 75 mg dose of tramadol was generally more effective than the acetaminophen-propoxyphene combination after hour 2, and significantly so for some hourly time points, as well as for the global rating of the medication. The 150 mg dose of tramadol was significantly more effective than the acetaminophen-propoxyphene combination from hour 2 through hour 6 for the sum of pain intensity differences and total pain relief scores, as well as for the global rating of the medication. Tramadol hydrochloride at both dose levels is an effective analgesic agent and at 150 mg is statistically superior to the acetaminophen-propoxyphene combination. No serious adverse effects were observed; however, dizziness was more frequently reported with 150 mg tramadol. PMID:1351804
Kuusniemi K; Pöyhiä R
Kristiina Kuusniemi,1 Reino Pöyhiä2,3 1Department of Anaesthesiology, Turku University, Turku, Finland; 2Department of Anaesthesiology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; 3Department of Palliative Medicine and Oncology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland Abstract: This paper is a summary of presentations on postoperative pain control by the authors at the 2014 PainForum meeting in People's Republic of China. Postoperative pain is often untreated or undertre...
Rakel, Barbara A.; Blodgett, Nicole Petsas; Zimmerman, M. Bridget; Logsden-Sackett, Nyla; Clark, Charles; Noiseux, Nicolas; Callaghan, John; Herr, Keela; Geasland, Katharine; Yang, Xiaoyan; Sluka, Kathleen A
This study determined preoperative predictors of movement and resting pain following total knee replacement (TKR). We hypothesized that younger patients with higher preoperative pain intensity, pain sensitivity, trait anxiety, pain catastrophizing, and depression would be more likely to experience higher postoperative movement pain than older patients with lower scores on these variables prior to surgery and that predictors would be similar for resting pain. Demographics, analgesic intake, an...
Sin, Wai Man; Chow, Ka Ming
Unrelieved postoperative pain may have a negative impact on the physiological and psychological well-being of patients. Pharmacological methods are currently used to relieve such pain in gynecological patients; however, inadequate pain control is still reported, and the use of nonpharmacological pain-relieving methods is increasingly being advocated, one of which is music therapy. The purpose of this literature review was to identify, summarize, and critically appraise current evidence on music therapy and postoperative pain management among gynecological patients. A systematic search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, British Nursing Index, and Allied and Complementary Medicine was conducted using the search terms music, gynecological, pain, surgery, operative, and post-operative to identify relevant articles in English from 1995 to the present. All identified articles were assessed independently for inclusion into review. A total of 7 articles were included after removal of duplicates and exclusion of irrelevant studies. All the included studies assessed the effects of music therapy on postoperative pain intensity, and three of them measured pain-related physiological symptoms. The findings indicated that music therapy, in general, was effective in reducing pain intensity, fatigue, anxiety, and analgesic consumption in gynecological patients during the postoperative period. It is recommended as an adjunct to pharmacological pain-relieving methods in reducing postoperative pain. Future researches on music therapy to identify the most effective application and evaluate its effect by qualitative study are recommended. PMID:26697822
Tomas, A; Bledsoe, D; Wall, S; Davidson, G; Lascelles, B D X
Most models of acute post-operative orthopedic pain involve the injection of a clinically irrelevant pro-inflammatory agent. The ideal model should, however, be clinically relevant and allow full functional recovery of enrolled animals after research is completed. This study explored the validity of a model employing arthrotomy and objectively measured limb use. Six purpose-bred Beagles underwent arthrotomies on each stifle with a washout period in between. Using a randomized crossover design, each dog received placebo and an extended-release buprenorphine (ER-Bup) preparation. Static and dynamic ground reaction forces (GRFs) were measured prior to and for 72 h following surgery using a pressure sensitive walkway (PSW). GRFs for each hind limb were compared using difference (delta), and symmetry indices (SI). The effects of surgery and of treatment were analyzed using repeated measures ANCOVA. The results indicated significantly decreased limb use compared to baseline for placebo, and significantly increased limb use in the ER-Bup group over placebo at all times for % bodyweight distribution (%BWdistrib), peak vertical force (PVF) and vertical impulse (VI). There was a significant treatment by time interaction for velocity (P = 0.03) and %BWdistrib (P = 0.01, 0.003). Overall, the data show that reduced limb use was present for at least 72 h following arthrotomy. In addition, the use of the ER-Bup analgesic decreased lameness, confirming the validity of this approach as a model of post-operative pain. Subjective assessments did not detect the pain-inducing effects of arthrotomy or pain-alleviating effects of treatment, and subjective measures of procedural pain in research dogs need to be developed. PMID:25910516
Full Text Available Background: Pregabalin is a potent ligand for alpha-2-delta subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels in the central nervous system, which exhibits potent anticonvulsant, analgesic and anxiolytic activity. The pharmacological activity of pregabalin is similar to that of gabapentin and shows possible advantages. Although it shows analgesic efficacy against neuropathic pain, very limited evidence supports its postoperative analgesic efficacy. We investigated its analgesic efficacy in patients experiencing acute pain after abdominal hysterectomy and compared it with gabapentin and placebo. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 90 women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy who were anaesthetized in a standardized fashion. Patients received 300 mg pregabalin, 900 mg gabapentin or placebo, 1-2 hours prior to surgery. Postoperative analgesia was administered at visual analogue scale (VAS ≥3. The primary outcome was analgesic consumption over 24 hours and patients were followed for pain scores, time to rescue analgesia and side effects as secondary outcomes. Results: The diclofenac consumption was statistically significant between pregabalin and control groups, and gabapentin and control groups; however, pregabalin and gabapentin groups were comparable. Moreover, the consumption of tramadol was statistically significant among all the groups. Patients in pregabalin and gabapentin groups had lower pain scores in the initial hour of recovery. However, pain scores were subsequently similar in all the groups. Time to first request for analgesia was longer in pregabalin group followed by gabapentin and control groups. Conclusion: A single dose of 300 mg pregabalin given 1-2 hours prior to surgery is superior to 900 mg gabapentin and placebo after abdominal hysterectomy. Both the drugs are better than placebo.
Full Text Available Opiates such as morphine are one of the most effective classes of medication prescribed to treat both acute and chronic pain.They act to suppress pain through mu-receptor activation on primary afferent nerve fibers, dorsal horn neurons and supraspinal pain center neorons. When morphine is administered epidurally, it diffuses to the cord substance, producing analgesia ,The aim of this study was to check the efficacy of this method for controling postoperative lumbar pain after microdiscectomy. In a randomized clinical trial, numbers of 100 patients were included into two equal groups due to low back radicular pain and underwent microdiscectomy. In study group, an absorbable gelatin sponge (Gelfoam is contoured to the epidural space, placed in methylprednisolone acetate (40-80 mg, and then injected with 2 mg/ml morphine and control group received an absorbable gelatin, placed in methylprednisolone acetate (40-80 mg and were injected with normal saline (5mL as a placebo. The main outcome to be compared between trial and placebo groups were: Patient comfort rate in recovery room and ward, amount of analgesics used, postoperative ambulation time, post operative hospitalization days. The restlessness and agitation during recovery in study group was lower than control group. Mean systolic blood pressure increment was lower in morphine group. Only 6% of patients in study group compared to 98% in placebo group had either moderate or severe pain six hours after operation. Mean morphine dose used for study group was 10.75 mg compared to 21.4 mg among control group patients (P < 0.0001. Mean ambulation time was 2 days among study group patients compared to 2.6 days in control group. Mean hospitalization length was 4.7 and 7 days in study and control group respectively. By means of the technique assigned to the patient (an epidural morphine sponge during Lumbar microdiscectomy the results were: Better controlled postoperative pain, early ambulation of
Bradshaw, Prisca; Hariharan, Seetharaman; Chen, Deryk
Objectives: Patients with high anxiety states in the preoperative period often have more intense postoperative pain, despite adequate pain control during the intraoperative period. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the preoperative psychological status and the pain experienced postoperatively in a sample of Caribbean patients. Design and methods: A prospective study was conducted in elective surgical adult patients at a teaching hospital in the Caribbean. Patients’ preoperative psychological status was assessed using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and a preoperative ‘expected’ pain score was recorded. Postoperatively, ‘observed’ pain scores at 4 and 24 hours and the maximum pain score during 24 hours were recorded. Demographic data and clinical details including data regarding postoperative analgesia were collected. Expected and observed pain scores were compared between patients with and without anxiety and depression. Results: A total of 304 patients were enrolled. The overall prevalence of anxiety and depression was 43% and 27%, respectively, based on the HADS scores. There were significant associations between the postoperative pain scores and factors such as preoperative anxiety and depression (HADS) scores, preoperative expected pain scores, patient educational level, presence of preoperative pain and surgical duration. Age, gender, ethnicity and type of anaesthesia did not impact postoperative pain scores. Conclusion: The presence of preoperative anxiety and depression as indicated by HADS score may significantly influence postoperative pain. Other factors such as educational level, presence of preoperative pain and surgical duration may also impact postoperative pain. Some of these factors may be modifiable and must be addressed in the preoperative period. PMID:27551421
Bashetty Kusum; Hegde Jayshree
Aim: To compare the levels of postoperative pain after cleaning and shaping of root canals using two different root canal irrigants for debridement. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with irreversible pulpitis, pulp necrosis and non-vital teeth exhibiting acute apical periodontitis requiring root canal treatment were included. At random, canals were cleaned and shaped with the following protocols. 2% chlorhexidine solution in group I and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution i...
Johnson, Ana P; Ryan Mahaffey; Rylan Egan; Theogene Twagirumugabe; Parlow, Joel L
BACKGROUND: Access to postoperative acute pain treatment is an important component of perioperative care and is frequently managed by a multidisciplinary team of anesthesiologists, surgeons, pharmacists, technicians and nurses. In some developing countries, treatment modalities are often not performed due to scarce health care resources, knowledge deficiencies and cultural attitudes. OBJECTIVES: In advance of a comprehensive knowledge translation initiative, the present study aimed to determi...
Full Text Available Background: Treatment of acute post-thoracotomy pain is particularly important not only to keep the patient comfortable but also to minimize pulmonary complications. Aim: This study was designed to test the effect of pre-induction administration of clonidine, given as a single intravenous dose, on post-operative pain scores and fentanyl consumption in patients after thoracic surgery. Setting and Design: Tertiary referral centre. Prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Methods: Sixty patients were randomly allocated to receive clonidine (3 mcg/kg or saline pre-operatively before induction of anaesthesia. The primary endpoint was pain on coughing (visual analogue scale (VAS 0-100 mm 120 min after surgery, time to first analgesic injection in the post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU and 24-h fentanyl consumption. Statistical Analysis: For between-group comparisons, t-test and U-test were used as appropriate after checking normality of distribution. The incidence of complications between the groups was compared by Fisher′s exact test. Results: The post-operative VAS for the first 120 min and the fentanyl consumption at 24 h was significantly greater in the placebo group compared with the clonidine group (P<0.05. The sedation score was increased in the clonidine group during study drug infusion, but did not differ significantly on admission to the PACU. Conclusions: A single intravenous dose of clonidine (3 mcg/kg given before induction of anaesthesia significantly reduced the post-operative VAS score in the initial period and fentanyl consumption during 24 h after thoracic surgery.
Hansen, M S; Mathiesen, O; Trautner, S;
Due to its non-invasive mode of administration, intranasal (IN) application of drugs may be a valuable alternative to non-invasive pain management. With characteristics that appear to be ideal for IN application, IN fentanyl may have a place in the out-of-hospital treatment and the paediatric....... No significant analgesic differences between IN fentanyl and intravenous (IV) fentanyl were demonstrated in treatment of acute and post-operative pain. Significant analgesic effect of IN fentanyl was demonstrated in the treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer patients. In the paediatric population, results...... fentanyl, respectively. Significant analgesic effect of IN fentanyl was demonstrated in the treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer patients. However, the significant deficiencies in trials investigating acute and post-operative pain, and the paediatric population makes firm recommendations impossible....
Rudin, A.; Wolner-Hanssen, P.; Hellbom, M.;
BACKGROUND: Pre-operative identification of reliable predictors of post-operative pain may lead to improved pain management strategies. We investigated the correlation between pre-operative pain, psychometric variables, response to heat stimuli and post-operative pain following a laparoscopic tubal...... perception, psychological vulnerability, STAI and HADS. In the multiple regression model pre-operative pain and heat pain perception were significant predictive factors (R=0.537-0.609). CONCLUSION: The study indicates that pre-surgical pain and heat pain sensitivity are important pre-operative indicators of...... ligation procedure. METHODS: Assessments of anxiety, mood, psychological vulnerability and pre-operative pain were made before surgery using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS), a psychological vulnerability test and the Short-Form McGill Pain...
Full Text Available Introduction: Postoperative pain as an important medical concern is usually treated by opioids which also are of various inevitable side effects. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of multimodal preincisional premedication on preventing post-cholecystectomy acute pain. Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, sixty patients undergoing open cholecystectomy were randomized into two groups. Before anesthesia induction, Diclofenac suppository (100 mg and oral Clonidine (0.2 mg were administered in the first group. Immediately before operation, patients received Ketamine (1 mg/kg IV while the control group received placebo. The site of incision was infiltrated by the surgeon with 20 mL Bupivacaine 0.25% in both groups. Anesthesia induction and maintenance were similar in both groups. The severity of pain was recorded 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after operation according to Visual Analogue Scale. Results: The severity of pain at two defined stages (6 and 12 hours later was significantly less in the intervention group than the control group (P<0.005. The average pain severity score was less than the control group (P<0.005. Conclusion: In our study, the administration of Clonidine, Diclofenac and Ketamine and bupivacaine infiltration to the site of incision, altogether was associated with a significant decrease in pain score and opioid requirement after cholecystectomy in comparison to bupivacaine infiltration to the site of incision.
Background: Arthroscopic shoulder surgery is increasingly performed as a day case procedure. Optimal post-operative pain relief remains a challenge due to considerable variations in the level of pain experienced between individuals. Our aim was to examine whether the preoperative electrical pain threshold was a strong predictor of elevated postoperative pain levels following arthroscopic subacromial decompression (ASD) surgery. Methods: Forty consenting patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade 1-2 presenting for elective ASD surgery were recruited. Patients’ electrical pain thresholds were measured preoperatively using a PainMatcher® (Cefar Medical AB, Lund, Sweden) device. Following surgery under general anaesthesia, the maximum pain experienced at rest and movement was recorded using a visual analogue scale until the end of postoperative day four. Results: In univariate analyses (t-test), the postoperative pain experienced (Area Under Curve) was significantly greater in patients with a low pain threshold as compared with a high pain threshold at both rest (mean 12.5, S.E. 1.7 v mean 6.5, S.E.1.2. P=0.008) and on movement (mean 18.7, S.E. 1.5 v mean 14.1, S.E.1.4. P=0.031). In multivariate analyses, adjusting for additional extra analgesia, the pain experienced postoperatively was significantly greater in the low pain threshold group both at rest (mean difference 4.9, 95% CI 1.5 to 8.4, P=0.007) and on movement (mean difference 4.1, 95%CI 0.03 to 8.2, P=0.049). Conclusions: Preoperative pain threshold can predict postoperative pain level following ASD of the shoulder. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01351363 Level of Evidence: II PMID:24358863
Højsted, J; Hellum, K L
From research results published over the last years it appears that many surgical patients are still undertreated for their postoperative pain. The study was performed in order to reveal the attitudes and knowledge of physicians and nurses towards postoperative pain therapy. Questionnaires were sent to physicians and nurses at the surgical and anaesthesiological wards at the hospital. The study revealed that the real purpose of postoperative pain management, to ensure early mobilization and nutrition of the patients, did not receive proper attention. Too many of the house staff accepted that the patients should have moderate or severe pain, especially the younger physicians. The house staff is still concerned about the risk of inducing dependency when using opioids. The knowledge of the analgesics used in the ward is not sufficient and inappropriate methods of administration of opioids are still used. Educational intervention to improve the staff's knowledge about pain management in postoperative care is strongly needed. PMID:10643361
Juul, Rasmus V; Knøsgaard, Katrine R; Olesen, Anne E; Pedersen, Katja V; Kreilgaard, Mads; Christrup, Lona L; Osther, Palle J; Drewes, Asbjørn M; Lund, Trine M
Joint analysis of pain intensity and opioid consumption is encouraged in trials of postoperative pain. However, previous approaches have not appropriately addressed the complexity of their interrelation in time. In this study, we applied a non-linear mixed effects model to simultaneously study pain intensity and opioid consumption in a 4-h postoperative period for 44 patients undergoing percutaneous kidney stone surgery. Analysis was based on 748 Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) scores of pain intensity and 51 observed morphine and oxycodone dosing events. A joint model was developed to describe the recurrent pattern of four key phases determining the development of pain intensity and opioid consumption in time; (A) Distribution of pain intensity scores which followed a truncated Poisson distribution with time-dependent mean score ranging from 0.93 to 2.45; (B) Probability of transition to threshold pain levels (NRS ≥ 3) which was strongly dependent on previous pain levels ranging from 2.8-15.2% after NRS of 0-2; (C) Probability of requesting opioid when allowed (NRS ≥ 3) which was strongly correlated with the number of previous doses, ranging from 89.8% for requesting the first dose to 26.1% after three previous doses; (D) Reduction in pain scores after opioid dosing which was significantly related to the pain intensity at time of opioid request (P probability of rescue dosing or the effect of opioids in the postoperative pain period. PMID:27116023
Full Text Available We aimed at reporting the first case of rapidly progressive acute postoperative endophthalmitis after phacoemulsification cataract surgery in an immunocompetent patient caused by Rothia mucilaginosa. An immunocompetent patient manifested endophthalmitis signs 48 hours after an uncomplicated cataract surgery by phacoemulsification. A bacteria of the family Micrococcaceae was cultured in the vitreous biopsy, namely R. mucilaginosa. The patient did not show a favorable clinical response after vitrectomy and systemic, intravitreal, and topical fortified antibiotics. The patient’s eye was very painful, and consequently, it deemed necessary to perform an evisceration. R. mucilaginosa may be an aggressive etiologic agent for postoperative endophthalmitis. Although the isolated R. mucilaginosa was susceptible to empirical treatment, it was impossible to control the infection with standard treatment, probably due to its ability to create a biofilm around the intraocular lens.
Álvarez-Ramos, Pablo; Del Moral-Ariza, Amparo; Alonso-Maroto, José M; Marín-Casanova, Pilar; Calandria-Amigueti, José M; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel; Rodríguez de la Rúa, Enrique
We aimed at reporting the first case of rapidly progressive acute postoperative endophthalmitis after phacoemulsification cataract surgery in an immunocompetent patient caused by Rothia mucilaginosa. An immunocompetent patient manifested endophthalmitis signs 48 hours after an uncomplicated cataract surgery by phacoemulsification. A bacteria of the family Micrococcaceae was cultured in the vitreous biopsy, namely R. mucilaginosa. The patient did not show a favorable clinical response after vitrectomy and systemic, intravitreal, and topical fortified antibiotics. The patient's eye was very painful, and consequently, it deemed necessary to perform an evisceration. R. mucilaginosa may be an aggressive etiologic agent for postoperative endophthalmitis. Although the isolated R. mucilaginosa was susceptible to empirical treatment, it was impossible to control the infection with standard treatment, probably due to its ability to create a biofilm around the intraocular lens. PMID:27103973
A prospective evaluation of In-111 labeled autologous platelet scintigraphy for the early diagnosis of acute postoperative renal transplant rejection was undertaken. To date, 28 consecutive patients between 7 and 14 days post-op have been injected with 500μCi of In-111 platelets followed by imaging at 24 and 48 hours. Activity within the renal transplant exceeding activity in the adjacent iliac vessels was considered to be evidence of rejection, and both chemical evidence and clinical impression of rejection at 5 days after completion of imaging was accepted as proof of ongoing or incipient rejection at the time of scintigraphy. In addition, to visual inspection, independent quantitative analysis compared the area-normalized activity over the transplant with the adjacent iliac vessels (normal <1.0). For 5 patients, positive In-111 scintigraphy was present before convincing clinical evidence of rejection. In-111 platelet scintigraphy is useful not only to confirm the clinical diagnosis of rejection but also to establish the early, pre-clinical diagnosis of incipient acute postoperative renal transplant rejection
Tisdale, P.L.; Collier, B.D.; Kauffman, H.M.; Adams, M.B.; Isitman, A.T.; Hellman, R.S.; Rao, S.A.; Joestgen, T.; Krohn, L.
A prospective evaluation of In-111 labeled autologous platelet scintigraphy for the early diagnosis of acute postoperative renal transplant rejection was undertaken. To date, 28 consecutive patients between 7 and 14 days post-op have been injected with 500..mu..Ci of In-111 platelets followed by imaging at 24 and 48 hours. Activity within the renal transplant exceeding activity in the adjacent iliac vessels was considered to be evidence of rejection, and both chemical evidence and clinical impression of rejection at 5 days after completion of imaging was accepted as proof of ongoing or incipient rejection at the time of scintigraphy. In addition, to visual inspection, independent quantitative analysis compared the area-normalized activity over the transplant with the adjacent iliac vessels (normal <1.0). For 5 patients, positive In-111 scintigraphy was present before convincing clinical evidence of rejection. In-111 platelet scintigraphy is useful not only to confirm the clinical diagnosis of rejection but also to establish the early, pre-clinical diagnosis of incipient acute postoperative renal transplant rejection.
Alireza Farhad; Zahed Mohammadi
Patients typically associate dental care with pain. Pain has both physiological and psychological components. Endodontic post-treatment pain continues to be a significant problem facing the dental profession. For those patients presenting with preoperative pain, it has been reported that up to 80% of this population will continue to report pain after endodontic treatment. Many studies have demonstrated that endodontic treatment is efficacious in reducing post-treatment pain. Despite the fact ...
Mirbagher Ajorpaz, Neda; Mohammadi, Abouzar; Najaran, Hamed; Khazaei, Shala
Background: Music, as a non-pharmacological and inexpensive nursing intervention, can be used easily as a complementary technique in reducing pain along with other methods. While some studies have demonstrated pain to decrease after music, others found music to be ineffective on pain. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of music on postoperative pain in patients under open heart surgery. Patients and Methods: A quasi-experimental study was performed on 60 patients ...
Alper, Isik; Yüksel, Esra
We evaluated postoperative pain intensity and the incidence of chronic pain in patients with renal cell carcinoma undergoing laparoscopic or open radical nephrectomy.In this prospective study, 27 laparoscopic nephrectomy (Group LN) and 25 open nephrectomy (Group ON) patients were included. All patients received paracetamol infusion and intramuscular morphine 30 minutes before the end of the operation and intravenous patient controlled analgesia with morphine postoperatively. Data including patients' demographics, visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores at postoperative 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours, postoperative morphine consumption, analgesic demand, analgesic delivery, number of patients requiring rescue analgesics, side effects because of analgesic medications, and overall patient satisfaction were recorded and compared between the two groups. Two and 6 months after the operation, patients were evaluated for chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP).Postoperative average VAS pain scores were not different between the two groups. However, only at 2 hours postoperatively, pain score was significantly higher in Group ON than in Group LN. In both groups, the highest pain scores were recorded at 30 minutes and 1 hour after surgery. Ninety-six percent of group ON patients and 88% of group LN patients required additional analgesia in the early postoperative period (P = 0.33). Postoperative morphine consumption and analgesic demand were found to be similar between the two groups. CPSP at 2 months after surgery was observed in 4 out of 25 patients (16%) in the ON group and 3 out of 27 patients (11.1%) in the LN group (P = 0.6). Chronic pain at 6 months after surgery was observed in 1 ON patient (4%) and 1 LN patient (3.7%, P = 0.9).This study demonstrated that postoperative acute pain scores were not different after laparoscopic or open nephrectomy and patients undergoing laparoscopic or open nephrectomy were at equal risk of developing CPSP. Pain control
Kim, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Jooeun; Kim, Jae Yong; Tchah, Hungwon
Purpose To compare early postoperative pain and visual outcomes after epipolis-laser in situ keratomileusis (epi-LASIK) and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in the treatment of myopia. Methods A retrospective chart review was designed and included 49 eyes in 30 patients who underwent epi-LASIK and 54 eyes in 29 patients who underwent PRK. During the early postoperative period (days 1 to 5), pain, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), and time to epithelial healing were recorded. Visual outcomes ...
Kjærgaard, M; Møiniche, S; Olsen, K S
In this systematic review, we evaluated double-blind, randomized and controlled trials on the effect of wound infiltration with local anesthetics compared with the effect of placebo on post-operative pain after lumbar spine surgery.......In this systematic review, we evaluated double-blind, randomized and controlled trials on the effect of wound infiltration with local anesthetics compared with the effect of placebo on post-operative pain after lumbar spine surgery....
Valeria Calcaterra; Selene Ostuni; Irene Bonomelli; Simonetta Mencherini; Marco Brunero; Elisa Zambaiti; Savina Mannarino; Daniela Larizza; Riccardo Albertini; Carmine Tinelli; Gloria Pelizzo
Postoperative effect of music listening has not been established in pediatric age. Response on postoperative distress and pain in pediatric day care surgery has been evaluated. Forty-two children were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to the music-group (music intervention during awakening period) or the non-music group (standard postoperative care). Slow and fast classical music and pauses were recorded and played via ambient speakers. Heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, g...
Dahl, Jørgen B; Mathiesen, Ole; Kehlet, Henrik
Recently, much attention has been directed towards the effect of opioid-sparing strategies on postoperative morbidity and hospitalization, and on different nociceptive mechanisms involved in various postoperative pain states and surgical procedures. This has resulted in an increased interest in...
Foss, Nicolai Bang; Kristensen, Morten Tange; Kristensen, Billy Bjarne; Jensen, Pia Søe; Kehlet, Henrik
Hip fracture surgery usually carries a high demand for rehabilitation and a significant risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Postoperative epidural analgesia may reduce morbidity and has been shown to facilitate rehabilitation in elective orthopedic procedures. No studies exist on the...... effect of postoperative epidural analgesia on pain and rehabilitation after hip fracture surgery....
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to analyze the relationship between preoperative emotional state and the prevalence and intensity of postoperative pain and to explore predictors of postoperative pain.METHOD: observational retrospective study undertaken among 127 adult patients of orthopedic and trauma surgery. Postoperative pain was assessed with the verbal numeric scale and with five variables of emotional state: anxiety, sweating, stress, fear, and crying. The Chi-squared test, Student's t test or ANOVA and a multivariate logistic regression analysis were used for the statistical analysis.RESULTS: the prevalence of immediate postoperative pain was 28%. Anxiety was the most common emotional factor (72% and a predictive risk factor for moderate to severe postoperative pain (OR: 4.60, 95% CI 1.38 to 15.3, p<0.05, AUC: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.62 to 0.83. Age exerted a protective effect (OR 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.99, p<0.01.CONCLUSION: preoperative anxiety and age are predictors of postoperative pain in patients undergoing orthopedic and trauma surgery.
Jignesh S. Chaudhari
Conclusions: 112 patients from diclofenac only received group and 13 patients from diclofenac + tramadol received group complain of post operative pain. Post-operative pain control at 12 hours is sufficient but high post-operative pain scores at 18 hour of post-operative time interval suggesting needs of additional pain control. Majority of study patients received single analgesic (Diclofenac sodium. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 757-762
Full Text Available Patients typically associate dental care with pain. Pain has both physiological and psychological components. Endodontic post-treatment pain continues to be a significant problem facing the dental profession. For those patients presenting with preoperative pain, it has been reported that up to 80% of this population will continue to report pain after endodontic treatment. Many studies have demonstrated that endodontic treatment is efficacious in reducing post-treatment pain. Despite the fact that the pain relief afforded by endodontic treatment is effective,it is rarely immediate and complete. Therefore, it is evident that post-treatment analgesic intervention is required in a variable percentage of endodontic cases. The purpose of this review article was to assess three main pharmacologic approaches in the control of post-treatment endodontic pain.
Rohatagi, Shashank; Kastrissios, Helen; Sasahara, Kunihiro; Truitt, Kenneth; Moberly, James B; Wada, Russell; Salazar, Daniel E
AIM To develop a pain relief model for a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, CS-706, that permits prediction of doses for acute pain relief in Japanese and Western populations. METHODS A categorical response model was developed to describe the probability of pain relief (PR) over time for a Phase 2a study. Models were also developed to describe patient's use of rescue medication and onset of pain relief. RESULTS The placebo response was described by a first-order increase in PR that achieved a stable response after 4 h. The effect of CS-706 on PR was described using an Emax model; the plasma concentration of CS-706 producing 50% of the maximum response was estimated to be 87 ng ml−1, the median peak plasma concentration achieved after a 50-mg oral dose. The probability of rescue medication (REMD) decreased over time and was a function of the last observed PR score. This probability was < 16% for patients with a PR score ≥2. The probability of experiencing meaningful PR was 98% in patients who did not require REMD and 47% in those who required REMD. For patients who did not require REMD, the median onset time of meaningful pain relief (TMPR) decreased with increasing doses. In patients who required REMD, there was a saturable decline in TMPR, with the greatest improvement occurring from placebo to 50-mg doses. CONCLUSIONS The set of models developed permitted compilation of multiple dose–response curves for dose selection of CS-706 in Westerners and facilitated scaling of doses to a Japanese population. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT Modelling and simulation are being increasingly used to support decision-making in new drug development.Novel modelling methods are required to capture the complexity of multiple end-points for a disease and to address questions such as dose selection in various populations.The focus of this study was to present a novel pain relief model to address such questions. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS New contributions of this work to the
Kiekkas, Panagiotis; Gardeli, Panagiota; Bakalis, Nick; Stefanopoulos, Nikolaos; Adamopoulou, Katerina; Avdulla, Christos; Tzourala, Georgia; Konstantinou, Evangelos
Undertreatment of postoperative pain can aggravate patient outcomes and is associated with attending nurses' knowledge deficits or negative attitudes toward pain. The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge and attitudes toward postoperative pain of surgical department nurses and to identify predictors of their knowledge and attitudes. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional survey that took place in the departments of general surgery, orthopedics, neurosurgery, ear-nose-throat surgery, and obstetrics/gynecology at five Greek hospitals. Participants were a convenience sample of registered and assistant nurses. Nurses were asked to complete a three-section questionnaire, which included demographics, a Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP) tool modified for postoperative pain, and seven questions capturing personal characteristics, working conditions, and feelings about work. One hundred eighty-two questionnaires were completed. Average scores were 45.35% for modified KASRP tool; 28.57% for pain assessment; 55.44% for general pain management; and 47.13% for use of analgesics. Four of the five most commonly missed items referred to use of analgesics. More previous personal experience of postoperative pain (p = .002) and being a registered nurse (p = .015) predicted higher modified KASRP tool score. Participation in continuing education programs and department of employment were also associated with differences in the modified tool score. The knowledge deficits and negative attitudes of the nurses toward postoperative pain highlight the role of pregraduate and continuing education, appropriately specialized for each surgical department, in the development of empathy toward patients in pain and of clinical competency regarding pain assessment and administration of analgesics. PMID:24981120
Aoki, T; Yamaguchi, H; Naito, H; Shiiki, K; Izawa, K; Ota, Y; Sakamoto, H; Kaneko, A
The efficacy of the selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor meloxicam for treatment of postoperative oral surgical pain was assessed in a randomized controlled trial. Patients undergoing unilateral mandibular 3rd molar extraction surgery were allocated to 3 groups, A, B and C. After oral premedication of meloxicam 10 mg in group A, ampiroxicam 27 mg in group B and placebo in group C, surgery was completed within 30 min under local anaesthesia using 2% lidocaine. For postoperative pain relief the patients were allowed to take oral loxoprofen (60 mg per tablet). Postoperative pain was evaluated at the clinic on the 1st, 7th and 14th postoperative day (POD) using a visual analogue scale (VAS), as was the number of loxoprofen tablets consumed, and the results were compared among the 3 groups with statistical significance of Psurgery and 1 POD was significantly lower in group A than in group C (Psurgery. PMID:16540287
Ono, Hitomi; Ohtani, Norimasa; Matoba, Atsuko; Kido, Kanta; Yasui, Yutaka; Masaki, Eiji
Perioperative tachycardia and hypertension are often treated with esmolol, a short-acting β1-adrenoceptor antagonist. Besides its cardiac effect, esmolol is reported to exert antinociceptive effects. This study examined the efficacy of intrathecal (IT) esmolol on pain responses in a postoperative pain model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) were anesthetized with sevoflurane and an IT catheter was implanted. Six days after catheter implantation, a postoperative pain model was established by plantar incision under sevoflurane anesthesia. Withdrawal latencies were assessed by applying a focused radiant heat source before plantar incision; 1 day after the incision (before esmolol administration); and 5, 10, and 15 minutes after bolus administration of IT esmolol. Plantar incision produced hypersensitivity in the postoperative pain model expressed as decreased withdrawal latency to heat stimulation (before incision: 13.9 ± 0.29 seconds and 1 day after incision: 6.3 ± 0.26 seconds). These decreased latencies caused by incision were significantly increased by esmolol administration (40 μg, 80 μg) at 5 minutes (10.7 ± 1.16 seconds, 10.5 ± 1.16 seconds). No postoperative antinociceptive effects of esmolol were observed at 10 or 15 minutes. IT administration of esmolol produced antinociceptive effects of short duration in a rat postoperative pain model. These results suggest that IT esmolol could offer a new strategy for managing perioperative pain, although an alternative approach is necessary to lengthen the duration of the analgesia. PMID:23411610
Aim: To evaluate the incidence and associated factors of postoperative intense pain and haemodynamic changes during radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma. Materials and methods: A total of 123 consecutive hepatocellular carcinoma patients who underwent radiofrequency ablation were prospectively recruited. Patient factors, tumour characteristics, procedural factors, intraoperative haemodynamic changes, complications, postoperative events, laboratory values before and after ablation, and postoperative pain were evaluated. Postoperative pain was scored using a visual analogue scale after the procedure. Results: The mean age of the patients was 65.6 ± 9.6 years. In multiple logistic regression analysis, patients who underwent general anaesthesia [odds ratio (95% CI): 2.68 (1.23–5.81); p = 0.013] and had more postoperative nausea and vomiting episodes [3.10 (1.11–8.63); p = 0.036] were associated with intense pain. These findings remain robust after propensity score matching. For mean difference values between before and after RFA, higher in change in aspartate transaminase (p = 0.026), alanine transaminase (p = 0.016) and white blood cell count (p = 0.015), and lower in change in haemoglobin (p = 0.009) were also correlated with intense pain. There was no significant difference in haemodynamic changes between the general anaesthesia and local anaesthesia group during ablation. Conclusion: General anaesthesia, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and laboratory factors were associated with postoperative intense pain in patients who underwent radiofrequency ablation. Counselling and modification of analgesics should be considered in patients with related factors for intense pain
Wright, Caroline E; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Montgomery, Guy H.; Weltz, Christina; Goldfarb, Alisan; Pace, Benjamin; Silverstein, Jeffrey H.
Despite the best available clinical care, pain following surgery is a virtually universal patient experience that can have pervasive negative consequences. Given the large variability among patients in postoperative pain levels, research on novel modifiable risk factors is needed. One such factor suggested by recent experimental studies indicates that disruption of even a single night’s sleep can increase subsequent pain in healthy volunteers. In this preliminary clinical study, we tested the...
Simon Elison NM
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, oral health services are mostly in the form of dental extractions aimed at alleviating acute dental pain. Conservative methods of alleviating acute dental pain are virtually non-existent. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to determine treatment success of emergency pulpotomy in relieving acute dental pain. Methods Setting: School of Dentistry, Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Study design: Longitudinal study. Participants: 180 patients who presented with dental pain due to acute irreversible pulpitis during the study period between July and August 2001. Treatment and evaluation: Patients were treated by emergency pulpotomy on permanent posterior teeth and were evaluated for pain after one, three and six week's post-treatment. Pain, if present, was categorised as either mild or acute. Results Of the patients with treated premolars, 25 (13.9% patients did not experience pain at all while 19 (10.6% experienced mild pain. None of the patients with treated premolars experienced acute pain. Among 136 patients with treated molars 56 (31% did not experience any pain, 76 (42.2% experienced mild pain and the other 4 (2.2% suffered acute pain. Conclusion The short term treatment success of emergency pulpotomy was high being 100% for premolars and 97.1% for molars, suggesting that it can be recommended as a measure to alleviate acute dental pain while other conservative treatment options are being considered.
Hyllested, M; Jones, S; Pedersen, J L;
BACKGROUND: Quantitative reviews of postoperative pain management have demonstrated that the number of patients needed to treat for one patient to achieve at least 50% pain relief (NNT) is 2.7 for ibuprofen (400 mg) and 4.6 for paracetamol (1000 mg), both compared with placebo. However, direct...... comparisons between paracetamol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have not been extensively reviewed. The aims of this review are (i) to compare the analgesic and adverse effects of paracetamol with those of other NSAIDs in postoperative pain, (ii) to compare the effects of combined...... a systematic, qualitative review of postoperative pain studies comparing paracetamol (minimum 1000 mg) with NSAID in a double-blind, randomized manner. A quantitative review was not performed as too many studies of high scientific standard (27 out of 41 valid studies, including all major surgery studies) would...
Forslund, Kerstin; Quell, Robin; Sørlie, Venke
The call to the Emergency Medical Dispatch Centre is often a person's first contact with the health-care system in cases of acute illness or injury and acute chest pain is a common reason for calling. The aim was to illuminate how spouses to persons with acute chest pain experienced the alarm situation, the emergency call and the prehospital emergency care. Interviews were conducted with nineteen spouses. A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach was used for the analyses. The themes responsibility and uneasiness emerged as well as an overall theme of aloneness. Being a spouse to a person in need of acute medical and nursing assistance was interpreted as "Being responsible and trying to preserve life" and "Being able to manage the uneasiness and having trust in an uncertain situation." When their partners' life was at risk the spouses were in an escalating spiral of worry, uncertainty, stress, fear of loss, feeling of loneliness and desperation. They had to manage emotional distress and felt compelled to act to preserve life, a challenging situation. PMID:18929341
Mislav Klobučić; Duška Šklebar; Renata Ivanac; Dragica Vrabec Matković; Anita Jug-Klobučić; Ivan Šklebar
Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of heme biosynthesis in liver due to deficiency of porphobilinogen deaminase enzyme. Clinically, AIP is dominatedby a colicky type pain, which does not subside after taking usual analgesics. Additional frequent symptoms are vomiting, hypertension, peripheral neuropathy, seizures, depression, delirium and coma. This paper reported a case of a twenty-fi- ve-year-old female patient, who had undergone a period of six days be...
Full Text Available Maman Sani Chaibou,1 Samuila Sanoussi,2 Rachid Sani,2 Nouhou A Toudou,1 Hadjara Daddy,1 Moussa Madougou,1 Idrissa Abdou,1 Habibou Abarchi,2 Martin Chobli31Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, 2Department of Surgery, The Niamey National Hospital, Niamey, Republic of Niger; 3Department of Anesthesiology, Hubert K Maga University Teaching Hospital, Cotonou, BeninObjective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the management of postoperative pain at the Niamey National Hospital.Methods: A prospective study was conducted in the Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care at the Niamey National Hospital from March to June, 2009. Data collected included age, sex, literacy, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA physical status classification, type of anesthesia, type of surgery, postoperative analgesics used, and the cost of analgesics. Three types of pain assessment scale were used depending on the patient's ability to describe his or her pain: the verbal rating scale (VRS, the numerical rating scale (NRS, or the visual analog scale (VAS. Patients were evaluated during the first 48 hours following surgery.Results: The sample included 553 patients. The VRS was used for the evaluation of 72% of patients, the NRS for 14.4%, and the VAS for 13.6%. Of the VRS group, 33.9%, 8.3%, and 2.1% rated their pain as 3 or 4 out of 4 at 12, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively, respectively. For the NRS group, 33.8%, 8.8%, and 2.5% rated their pain as greater than 7 out of 10 at 12, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively, respectively. For the VAS group, 29.3%, 5.4%, and 0% rated their pain as greater than 7 out of 10 at 12, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively, respectively. Conclusion: Postoperative pain assessment and management in developing countries has not been well described. Poverty, illiteracy, and inadequate training of physicians and other health personnel contribute to the underutilization of postoperative analgesia. Analysis of the results
Singh, Anil P.; Jena, Sritam S; Rajesh Kr Meena; Mallika Tewari; V Rastogi
Background and Aim: Intravenous (IV) route for fentanyl administration is the gold standard for post-operative pain relief, but complications such as respiratory depression, bradycardia and hypotension have limited this route. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to compare the efficacy of nebulised fentanyl with IV fentanyl for post-operative pain relief after lower abdominal surgery. Methods: In the post-operative care unit, at the time of first onset of pain (visual analogue sca...
Full Text Available Background: Parents have reported challenges in assessing their child's postoperative pain at home.Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the parental use of the Parents' Postoperative Pain Measure -tool (PPPM on 1-3 -year-old children's non-pharmacological pain alleviation at home.Methodology: This was a non-randomized, prospective study with two parallel groups, where the parents in the intervention group were provided with PPPM in addition to a pain diary consisting of a verbal pain scale. The data were collected from 50 parents whose children had undergone day surgery in three Finnish university hospitals between January 2006 and June 2007. Parents completed questionnaires consisting of background information, verbal pain rating scale and a sub-scale measuring parents' use of non-pharmacological methods in children's postoperative pain alleviation.Results: Most children had mild postoperative pain after discharge, but in some children pain was moderate or severe. Non-pharmacological interventions were used commonly for pain alleviation in both groups, including holding the child in lap, comforting the child and spending time with the child more than usual during the recovery period after discharge. However, the use of non-pharmacological pain alleviation methods was 15% more common in the intervention group than in the control group. Parents of the intervention group had carried the child (p=0.04 and used distraction (p=0.05 more commonly than parents in control group. No group differences were found in parental assessments of the helpfulness of non-pharmacological pain alleviation methods.Conclusions: Children's pain remains under-treated and their pain alleviation can be promoted by providing the parents pain assessment tools, such as PPPM, to be used at home. The results can be utilized to further improve children's pain alleviation. More parental education is needed to promote their skills to alleviate the
Sunshine, A; Olson, N Z; Colon, A; Rivera, J; Kaiko, R F; Fitzmartin, R D; Reder, R F; Goldenheim, P D
The efficacy and safety of graded doses (10, 20, and 30 mg) of controlled-release (CR) oxycodone was compared with that of immediate-release (IR) oxycodone (15 mg), immediate-release oxycodone 10 mg in combination with acetaminophen 650 mg (APAP), and placebo in a single-dose, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study. The participants, 182 inpatients experiencing moderate to severe pain after abdominal or gynecologic surgery, provided hourly ratings of pain intensity and relief for 12 hours after administration. All active treatments were significantly superior to placebo for many hourly measurements and for the sum of pain intensity differences (SPID) and total pain relief (TOTPAR). A dose response was found among the three levels of CR oxycodone for pain relief and peak pain intensity difference (PID), with the 20- and 30-mg doses being significantly better than the 10-mg dose. For all active treatments, peak PID and peak pain relief occurred approximately 2 to 4 hours after administration. The median time to onset of relief was 32 minutes for oxycodone plus APAP, 41 minutes for IR oxycodone, and 46 minutes for CR oxycodone 30 mg. Duration of pain relief showed that the 10-, 20-, and 30-mg doses of CR oxycodone had durations of action of 10 to 12 hours compared with IR oxycodone and oxycodone plus APAP (both approximately 7 hours). Typical adverse events, particularly somnolence, occurred in all active treatment groups. Treatment with CR oxycodone was safe and effective in this study, and its characteristics will be beneficial in the treatment of pain. PMID:8844441
Seymour, R A; Hawkesford, J E; Hill, C M; Frame, J; Andrews, C
Aims To determine the comparative efficacy of a new novel adenosine agonist (WAG 994) in postoperative pain after third molar surgery. Methods One hundred and twenty-two patients with postoperative pain after third molar surgery were randomised in a placebo double-blind trial with an active control group. In the early postoperative period patients received either a single dose of WAG 994 1 mg, ibuprofen 400 mg or matched placebos. Pain intensity score was recorded on serial visual analogue scales over a 6 h investigation period. Similarly, pain relief was completed on a 4 point categorical scale at each evaluation point. Patients had access to escape analgesic and if these were taken, the time and dosage were recorded. A sparse sampling technique was used to investigate the relationship between analgesic effects and plasma concentrations of WAG 994. Results All three treatment groups were matched for various demographic variables. For all efficacy measures, WAG 994 was not significantly different from placebo (P > 0.05), whereas ibuprofen 400 mg was significantly superior to placebo (P < 0.001). No significant relationships (P < 0.05) were found between WAG 994 pharmacokinetic variables and efficacy measures. Conclusion WAG 994, an adenosine agonist, did not show efficacy in the management of postoperative pain after third molar surgery. Although this pain responds well to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, it appears to be resistant to compounds that interact with purinergic receptors. PMID:10383546
Foss, Nicolai; Palm, H; Kehlet, H; Foss, Nicolai Bang; Kristensen, Morten Tange; Palm, Henrik; Kehlet, Henrik
. Patients were stratified into four groups according to surgical procedure: screws or pins, arthroplasty, dynamic hip screw (DHS), and intra-medullary hip screw (IMHS). RESULTS: Cumulated pain levels were significantly different between surgical procedures both for hip flexion (P=0.002) and for walking (P=0.......02) with highest dynamic pain levels for patients who had either DHSs or IMHSs compared with arthroplasty or parallel implants. There were significant negative correlations between ambulatory capacity assessed by the cumulated ambulation score and both the dynamic cumulated pain scores on hip flexion (r=-0...
Hennessy, Winnie; Wagner, Elizabeth; Dumas, Bonnie P; Handley, Patricia
The purpose of this feasibility study was to determine the impact of establishing a comfort function goal preoperatively on postoperative pain scores and opiate requirements in lumbar fusion patients. A comfort function goal is defined as the pain score identified by the patient describing the level of pain tolerance to participate in healing activities such as deep breathing, ambulation and participation in activities of daily living. The design was prospective, nonrandomized, intervention group (n = 30) compared with retrospective chart review as control group (n = 30). Sample included patients scheduled for routine lumbar fusion in an urban southeastern hospital. The study intervention established a comfort function goal during a routine preoperative patient education class. No significant difference in pain score or opiate requirement was found for these data. However, a fundamental clinical question arose surrounding opiate requirements and dosing management. In our hospital, the norm for postoperative pain management is to categorize pain scores as mild (1-3), moderate (4-6), and severe (7-10) pain. Physician orders commonly use this differential to order opiate dose ranges. In this sample, the mean pain score for the intervention group at home is 5.8 and the mean comfort function goal is 4.9. Based on normative categories of pain scores, if a patient's baseline of tolerable pain is 4.9, this has potential impact on clinician responses to managing pain, as 4.9-5.8 is, for this patient, perhaps a mild range of pain, not moderate. If a patient reports a pain score of 7, and their norm is 5.8, the delta is only 1.2. Does this imply that the patient is experiencing mild or severe pain? Does the nurse deliver a dose of pain medication that is in the mild or severe dose range? PMID:26293197
Choi, Byung Moon
Fentanyl is the most commonly used opioid analgesic in intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) in Korea. IV oxycodone was approved for postoperative IV PCA by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety of Korea in 2013. The approved dosage regimen for postoperative pain relief with IV oxycodone is IV bolus loading of 2 mg followed by PCA composed of demand boluses of 1 mg and no background infusion with an oxycodone concentration of 1 mg/ml. However, a simulation study indicated that the minimum effective analgesic concentration (MEAC, as indicated by relief of pain by administering rescue analgesics) of oxycodone was reached most quickly with a higher loading dose of 0.1 mg/kg and IV PCA with background infusion. Oxycodone is a therapeutic option as an analgesic for postoperative pain management. It is necessary to reduce the analgesic dose of oxycodone in elderly patients because metabolic clearance decreases with age. PMID:27274364
BACKGROUND: There have been recent studies suggesting that patients anesthetized with propofol have less postoperative pain compared with patients anesthetized with volatile anesthetics. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind study, 80 patients undergoing day-case diagnostic laparoscopic gynecological surgery were either anesthetized with IV propofol or sevoflurane. The primary outcome measured was pain on a visual analog scale. RESULTS: Patients anesthetized with propofol had less pain compared with patients anesthetized with sevoflurane (P = 0.01). There was no difference in any of the other measured clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The patients anesthetized with propofol appeared to have less pain than patients anesthetized with sevoflurane.
Juul, Rasmus V; Knøsgaard, Katrine R; Olesen, Anne E; Pedersen, Katja V; Kreilgaard, Mads; Christrup, Lona L; Osther, Palle J; Drewes, Asbjørn M; Lund, Trine M
intensity and opioid consumption in a 4-h postoperative period for 44 patients undergoing percutaneous kidney stone surgery. Analysis was based on 748 Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) scores of pain intensity and 51 observed morphine and oxycodone dosing events. A joint model was developed to describe the...
Maria Luiza Alves; Joaquim Edson Vieira; Lígia Andrade Silva Telles Mathias; Judymara Lauzi Gozzani
Objective: This study evaluated the relationship between psychological coping mechanisms and symptoms of anxiety and depression in the preoperative and postoperative periods in relation to the intensity of postoperative pain among patients undergoing breast cancer surgery. Methods: Female patients who were scheduled to receive immediate surgical treatment for breast cancer were invited to participate, and answered the following questionnaires: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS...
Chorney, Jill MacLaren; Twycross, Alison; Mifflin, Katherine; Archibald, Karen
BACKGROUND: Thousands of children undergo surgery each year, and a shift toward same-day surgeries and decreased lengths of hospital stay results in parents being increasingly responsible for their child’s postoperative care. Recent studies have tested interventions designed to improve parent management of their children’s postoperative pain at home, but progress in this area has been limited by a lack of synthesis of these findings.OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of interventions a...
Objectives: To compare the effect of postoperative intravenous dose of dexamethasone on morbidity in patients undergoing tonsillectomy. Design: Randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in ENT Department Shaikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan Hospital (CMH) Muzaffarabad from 10th Jan 2010 to 15th Feb 2011. Patients and Methods: After getting informed consent, a total of 60 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected and tonsillectomy by dissection method was carried out. They were divided into two groups of 30 each using a random numbers table. Group A received 0.25 mg/kg body weight (maximum 20 mg) of Dexamethasone postoperatively intravenously for 03 days while group B (control group) did not receive any steroid. Results: In group A, 80% patients had mild pain, 16.7% had moderate pain and 3.3% had a severe pain while in group B, 30% patients had mild pain, 6.7% had moderate pain and 63.3% had severe pain (p< 0.05). In group A, 76.7% patients had mild emesis while in group B, 86.7% had moderate emesis (p< 0.05). There was an insignificant difference in secondary hemorrhage. Conclusion: Dexamethasone given postoperatively significantly reduces the morbidity that is pain, episodes of emesis thus early recovery to a normal lifestyle with no effect on secondary hemorrhage in patients undergoing Tonsillectomy by dissection method. (author)
Vieira, Lucas; Nissen, Leonardo; Sela, Gustavo; Amara, Yara; Fonseca, Vinicius
Objective Evaluate intraoperative cooling of the oropharynx to reduce postoperative pain in tonsillectomy using monopolar electrocautery. Methods Sixty-six patients, age 1 to 12 years, were selected for the study, 33 in the control group and 33 in the experimental group. After randomization, patients underwent subcapsular dissection and hemostasis with monopolar electrocautery. Patients in the experimental group had the oropharynx cooled after tonsil dissection and hemostasis for 10 minutes. The procedure was done through the oral cavity by irrigation with 500 mL of 0.9% saline, in temperatures between 5°C and 10°C, for 5 minutes. The evaluation of postoperative pain was made with the pain visual analog scale (VAS) for 10 days. As complementary data on the evaluation of pain, we recorded daily use of ketoprofen for pain relief. Results Pain after tonsillectomy assessed by VAS was significantly lower in the experimental group at days 0, 5, and 6 (p < 0.05). There were no differences in the use of ketoprofen between the groups. Conclusion Cooling of the oropharynx after tonsillectomy promotes clinically significant reduction in postoperative pain, without additional complications. PMID:25992083
Lamontagne, Yves; Bousquet, Pierre; Elie, Robert; Courtois, Monique
Personality, anxiety and depression were assessed in 62 hospital workers divided in three experimental groups: those with acute organic low back pain, those with acute functional low back pain, and asymptomatic control subjects. Results showed no statistical differences between groups in the evaluation of personality. Asymptomatic subjects had significantly lower scores for trait anxiety and depression than did patients suffering from low back pain. Patients with pain of organic origin were a...
Cooper, Stephen A; Desjardins, Paul J; Turk, Dennis C;
sensitivity. Recommendations are presented on assessment measures, study designs, and operational factors. Although most of the methodological advances have come from studies of postoperative pain after dental impaction, bunionectomy, and other surgeries, the design considerations discussed are applicable......This article summarizes the results of a meeting convened by the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT) on key considerations and best practices governing the design of acute pain clinical trials. We discuss the role of early phase clinical trials......, including pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) trials, and the value of including both placebo and active standards of comparison in acute pain trials. This article focuses on single-dose and short-duration trials with emphasis on the perioperative and study design factors that influence assay...
Merivirta, Riika; Pitkänen, Mikko; Alanen, Jouko; Haapoja, Elina; Koivisto, Mari; Kuusniemi, Kristiina
Background Quality of life is decreased in patients with hallux valgus deformity, mainly because of pain. Significant improvement is usually achieved by surgery. However, postoperative pain can be moderate to severe for 2–3 days. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of transdermal fentanyl for postoperative pain management after forefoot surgery. Methods Sixty patients undergoing hallux valgus or hallux rigidus surgery were allocated to receive a patch delivering either fentanyl 12 μg/hour or placebo for postoperative pain. The consumption of rescue opioid oxycodone, the primary outcome measure, was evaluated daily until the fourth postoperative day. Total consumption of oxycodone during the study period was also assessed. Pain scores and possible adverse effects were evaluated every 6 hours during the first 24 hours and on the fourth postoperative day. Results The use of rescue opioid was low in both groups, the median (range) consumption of oxycodone being 10 (0–50) mg on the day of surgery (no difference between the groups, P=0.31) and 0 (0–35) mg thereafter. The total combined consumption was 10 (0–105) mg in the fentanyl group and 20 (0–70) mg in the placebo group (P=0.23). There were no statistically significant differences in pain scores or adverse effects between the groups. Conclusion As a part of multimodal analgesia with ibuprofen and acetaminophen, a patch delivering fentanyl 12 μg/hour did not significantly decrease the consumption of rescue opioid or pain scores after forefoot surgery. PMID:25653553
Bujedo, Borja Mugabure
Background Spinal opioid administration is an excellent option to separate the desirable analgesic effects of opioids from their expected dose-limiting side effects to improve postoperative analgesia. Therefore, physicians must better identify either specific opioids or adequate doses and routes of administration that result in a mainly spinal site of action rather than a cerebral analgesic one. Methods The purpose of this topical review is to describe current available clinical evidence to d...
Kol, Emine; Alpar, Sule Ecevit; Erdoğan, Abdullah
The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of preoperative pain management education and the role of analgesics administration before the onset of pain postoperatively. The study was a prospective, randomized, and single-blind clinical trial, which was conducted January 1, 2008 through October 1, 2008 in the Thoracic Surgery Unit of Akdeniz University Hospital. A total of 70 patients who underwent thoracotomy (35 in the control group and 35 in the study group) were included in the study. Of the patients, 70% (n = 49) were male and 30% (n = 21) were female. Mean age was 51 ± 10 years (range = 25-65). The same analgesia method was used for all patients; the same surgical team performed each operation. Methods, including preemptive analgesia and placement of pleural or thoracic catheter for using analgesics, that were likely to affect pain level, were not used. The same analgesia medication was used for both patient groups. But the study group, additionally, was educated on how to deal with pain preoperatively and on the pharmacological methods to be used after surgery. An intramuscular diclofenac Na 75 mg was administered to the study group regardless of whether or not they reported pain in the first two postoperative hours. The control group did not receive preoperative education, and analgesics were not administered to them unless they reported pain in the postoperative period. The routine analgesics protocol was as follows: diclofenac Na 75 mg (once a day) intramuscular administered upon the complaint of pain following extubation in the postoperative period and 20 mg mepederin intravenously (maximum dose, 100 mg/day), in addition, when the patient expressed pain. Pain severity was assessed during the second, fourth, eighth, 16th, 24th, and 48th hours, and marked using the Verbal Category Scale and the Behavioral Pain Assessment Scale. Additionally, the total dose of daily analgesics was calculated. The demographic characteristics showed a
Maria Luiza Alves
Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the relationship between psychological coping mechanisms and symptoms of anxiety and depression in the preoperative and postoperative periods in relation to the intensity of postoperative pain among patients undergoing breast cancer surgery. Methods: Female patients who were scheduled to receive immediate surgical treatment for breast cancer were invited to participate, and answered the following questionnaires: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, the Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20, the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ, and the visual analogue scale (VAS. Results: Of the 139 patients, 122 (87.8% had an aggressive procedure. Eighty-five patients (61.2% had a history of preoperative pain while 54 (38.7% had not. There was no difference in VAS scores between patients subjected to aggressive or non-aggressive surgery. Only the CSQ subscale catastrophizing showed correlation with VAS at 24 hours and with HADS/D postoperatively. The HADS scores indicated both anxiety and depression, but did not distinguish patients subjected to aggressive or non-aggressive surgery. Conclusions: The majority of patients did not exhibit depression and anxiety. Coping mechanisms and pain in the preoperative period did not have a strong predictive value for additional postoperative pain, but those with a higher anxiety score had greater pain.
Boeke, Saskia; Duivenvoorden, Hugo; Verhage, F.; Zwaveling, A.
textabstractSummary: This study examined the extent to which measures of anxiety could predict pain and the length of hospitalization following surgery in 111 patients with gallstones over and above what could be predicted on the basis of biographical and medical status variables. Self-reported pain on the third day postoperative could hardly be explained by the variables measured. Preoperative anxiety did not increase the value of the prediction. Age, type of surgery, cystitis and wound infe...
Ringold, Forrest G.; Minkowitz, Harold S; Gan, Tong Joo; Aqua, Keith A.; Chiang, Yu-Kun; Evashenk, Mark A; Palmer, Pamela P
Background and Objectives This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of a sufentanil sublingual tablet system (SSTS) for the management of postoperative pain following open abdominal surgery. Methods At 13 hospital sites in the United States, patients following surgery with pain intensity of greater than 4 on an 11-point numerical rating scale were randomized to receive SSTS dispensing a 15-μg sufentanil tablet sublingually with a 20-minute lockout or an identical system dispensing a placeb...
Olapour, Alireza; Behaeen, Kaveh; Akhondzadeh, Reza; Soltani, Farhad; al Sadat Razavi, Forough; Bekhradi, Reza
Background Pain is a major problem in patients after cesarean and medication such as aromatherapy which is a complementary therapy, in which the essences of the plants oils are used to reduce such undesirable conditions. Objectives In this study, the effect of aromatherapy using Lavender (Lavandula) essential oil on cesarean postoperative pain was assessed. Materials and Methods In a triple blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial study, 60 pregnant women who were admitted to a general hosp...
Jung, Jae-Young; Cho, Jae-Heung; Chung, Seok-Hee
Introduction Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a common surgical method in orthopaedics; however, pain management after TKA remains a significant challenge. This review provides a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of acupuncture for postoperative pain after TKA. Methods and analysis The following 10 databases will be searched until August 2015: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, AMED, CINAHL, three Chinese databases (the China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, the Chongqing VIP Chinese ...
Stephan, Bradley C; Parsa, Fereydoun D
Prescribed opioids are routinely used for many postoperative patients. However, these medications have daunting adverse effects on the body's innate pain management system - the action of the beta-endorphins. The prescribed opioids not only severely impair the function of the mu-opioid receptors, but also inhibit the release of beta-endorphin. This is unfortunate, because beta-endorphin appears to be a much more potent agonist of the mu-opioid receptor than opioids. In addition, beta-endorphin indirectly elevates dopamine, a neurotransmitter related to feelings of euphoria. Therefore, by prescribing opioids, practitioners may inadvertently prolong and increase the overall intensity of the postoperative patients' pain as well as herald anhedonia. This article highlights the relationships between prescribed (exogenous) opioids, beta-endorphins, mu-opioid receptors, wellness, mood, and postoperative pain. The role of patient education, opioid alternatives, and additional recommendations regarding pain control in the postoperative patient are also discussed. PMID:27011886
De Pinto, Mario; Dagal, Armagan; O'Donnell, Brendan; Stogicza, Agnes; Chiu, Sheila; Edwards, William Thomas
Pain is a major problem for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. Despite numerous improvements it is estimated that as many as 70% of the patients experience moderate-to-severe postoperative pain during their stay in the ICU. Effective pain management means not only decreasing pain intensity, but also reducing the opioids' side effects. Minimizing nausea, vomiting, urinary retention, and sedation may indeed facilitate patient recovery and it is likely to shorten the ICU and hospital stay. Adequate postoperative and post-trauma pain management is also crucial for the achievement of effective rehabilitation. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that effective acute pain management may be helpful in reducing the development of chronic pain. When used appropriately, and in combination with other treatment modalities, regional analgesia techniques (neuraxial and peripheral nerve blocks) have the potential to reduce or eliminate the physiological stress response to surgery and trauma, decreasing the possibility of surgical complications and improving the outcomes. Also they may reduce the total amount of opioid analgesics necessary to achieve adequate pain control and the development of potentially dangerous side effects. PMID:26557482
Kart, T; van der Laan, K; Crombach, J; Rasmussen, M; Møller, K B; Hole, P; Henneberg, S W
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the analgesic treatment currently used in children, and to identify if problems can be related to any particular routine or group of children. Analgesics administered pre-, per- and postoperatively were recorded, and intensity of pain during rest...... though improvements have been obtained, it is still a challenge to optimize the postoperative pain management of children, and when doing so attention should be paid not only to pain relief, but also to side effects of the administered analgesics.......The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the analgesic treatment currently used in children, and to identify if problems can be related to any particular routine or group of children. Analgesics administered pre-, per- and postoperatively were recorded, and intensity of pain during rest...... unacceptable pain, while unacceptable pruritus, nausea or vomiting were observed in 18 children. It was not possible to relate the incidence of pain and side effects to any particular analgesic treatment or type of surgery, but groups of children that might need additional attention were identified. Even...
Full Text Available Postoperative effect of music listening has not been established in pediatric age. Response on postoperative distress and pain in pediatric day care surgery has been evaluated. Forty-two children were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to the music-group (music intervention during awakening period or the non-music group (standard postoperative care. Slow and fast classical music and pauses were recorded and played via ambient speakers. Heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, glucose and cortisol levels, faces pain scale and Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability (FLACC Pain Scale were considered as indicators of response to stress and pain experience. Music during awakening induced lower increase of systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels. The non-music group showed progressive increasing values of glycemia; in music-group the curve of glycemia presented a plateau pattern (P<0.001. Positive impact on reactions to pain was noted using the FLACC scale. Music improves cardiovascular parameters, stress-induced hyperglycemia. Amelioration on pain perception is more evident in older children. Positive effects seems to be achieved by the alternation of fast, slow rhythms and pauses even in pediatric age.
Lin, Hong-Qi; Jia, Dong-Lin
The pain following gynecological laparoscopic surgery is less intense than that following open surgery; however, patients often experience visceral pain after the former surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of preemptive ketamine on visceral pain in patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery. Ninety patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Group 1 received placebo. Group 2 was intravenously injected with preincisional saline and local infiltration with 20 mL ropivacaine (4 mg/mL) at the end of surgery. Group 3 was intravenously injected with preincisional ketamine (0.3 mg/kg) and local infiltration with 20 mL ropivacaine (4 mg/mL) at the end of surgery. A standard anesthetic was used for all patients, and meperidine was used for postoperative analgesia. The visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for incisional and visceral pain at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h, cumulative analgesic consumption and time until first analgesic medication request, and adverse effects were recorded postoperatively. The VAS scores of visceral pain in group 3 were significantly lower than those in group 2 and group 1 at 2 h and 6 h postoperatively (Pketamine may reduce visceral pain in patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery. PMID:27465337
Full Text Available Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of heme biosynthesis in liver due to deficiency of porphobilinogen deaminase enzyme. Clinically, AIP is dominatedby a colicky type pain, which does not subside after taking usual analgesics. Additional frequent symptoms are vomiting, hypertension, peripheral neuropathy, seizures, depression, delirium and coma. This paper reported a case of a twenty-fi- ve-year-old female patient, who had undergone a period of six days between the first presentationto the medical department and the diagnosis confirmation. It has accentuated possible mistakes in symptomatic therapy administration as well as dangers of a delayed diagnosis.
Comeaux, Tressa; Comeaux, Tressa
Postoperative pain is difficult to manage with analgesia alone. Complementary interventions such as music therapy provide a level of distraction, thus promoting comfort. In this study, decreased pain and environmental noise were demonstrated, without diminishing state anxiety, in a group of postoperative patients. PMID:24358573
Joshi, G P; Bonnet, F; Kehlet, H
undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery, and reporting pain scores, were retrieved from the Embase and MEDLINE databases. The efficacy and adverse effects of the analgesic techniques was assessed. The recommendations were based on procedure-specific evidence from a systematic review and supplementary......Aim The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the available literature on the management of pain after laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Method Randomized studies, published in English between January 1995 and July 2011, assessing analgesic and anaesthetic interventions in adults...... transferable evidence from other relevant procedures. Results Of the 170 randomized studies identified, 12 studies were included. Overall, all approaches including ketorolac, methylprednisolone, intraperitoneal instillation of ropivacaine, intravenous lidocaine infusion, intrathecal morphine and epidural...
Full Text Available Background: Several measurement tools have been used for assessment of postoperative pain in pediatric patients. Self-report methods have limitations in younger children and parent, nurse or physician assessment can be used as a surrogate measure. These tools should be tested in different cultures as pain can be influenced by sociocultural factors. The objective was to assess the inter-rater agreement on four different behavioral pain assessment scales in our local population. Materials and Methods: This prospective, descriptive, observational study was conducted in Pakistan. American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II children, 3-7 years of age, undergoing elective surgery were enrolled. Four pain assessment scales were used, Children′s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale (CHEOPS, Toddler Preschool Postoperative Pain Scale (TPPPS, objective pain scale (OPS, and Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability (FLACC. After 15 and 60 min of arrival in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU, each child evaluated his/her postoperative pain by self-reporting and was also independently assessed by the PACU nurse, PACU anesthetist and the parent. The sensitivity and specificity of the responses of the four pain assessment scales were compared to the response of the child. Results: At 15 min, sensitivity and specificity were >60% for doctors and nurses on FLACC, OPS, and CHEOPS scales and for FLACC and CHEOPS scale for the parents. Parents showed poor agreement on OPS and TPPS. At 60 min, sensitivity was poor on the OPS scale by all three observers. Nurses showed a lower specificity on FLACC tool. Parents had poor specificity on CHEOPS and rate of false negatives was high with TPPS. Conclusions: We recommend the use of FLACC scale for assessment by parents, nurses, and doctors in Pakistani children aged between 3 and 7.
SEYMOUR, R. A.; Kelly, P J; Hawkesford, J E
1A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of single doses of racemic ketoprofen 12.5 and 25 mg and paracetamol 500 and 1000 mg in patients with post-operative pain after third molar surgery over a 6 h investigation period.
Werner, M U; Gaarn-Larsen, L; Basse, L;
The aim of the study was to evaluate initial postoperative pain intensity and the association with recovery of gastrointestinal function and length of stay (LOS) in a multimodal programme with epidural analgesia, early oral nutrition and mobilisation with a 48 h planned hospital stay. One hundred...
Full Text Available Pain assessment in children can be extremely challenging. Most professional bodies recommend that parents or carers should be involved with their child’s pain assessment; but the evidence that parents can accurately report pain on behalf of their children is mixed. Our objective was to examine whether there were differences in post-operative pain score ratings between the child, nurse and parent or carer after surgery. Cognitively intact children aged four upwards, undergoing all surgical procedures, whose parents were present in the post-anaesthetic recovery unit (PACU, were studied. Thirty-three children were included in the study. The numerical rating scale was used to rate the child’s pain by the child, nurse and parent on arrival to the PACU and prior to discharge. We found strong correlations between children’s, nurses’ and parent’s pain scores on admission and discharge from PACU. The intraclass correlation of pain scores reported by children, nurses and parents was 0.94 (95% confidence intervals 0.91-0.96, P<0.0001. In cognitively intact children, it is adequate to manage pain based upon the assessment of children’s and nurses’ pain scores alone. The numerical rating scale appeared to be suitable for younger children. Whilst there are benefits of parents being present in recovery, it is not essential for optimizing the assessment of pain.
Slagelse, Charlotte; Petersen, Karin L; Dahl, Jørgen Berg;
without CLND. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Embase and PubMed databases were searched. Full-text English language articles published before June 2013 were included. Prospective and retrospective studies assessing persistent (>1 month) sensory nerve injury, postoperative pain...... pain was suggested to explain persistent pain in 31-66% of patients with SLNB and 82-89% of patients with CLND. Sensory-nerve-related complications in melanoma patients seem to be less pronounced following SLNB compared with CLND. Prospective observational studies are necessary to identify predictors...... of persistent pain, to evaluate the prevalence and impact of pain and sensory abnormalities, and to develop strategies for prevention of long-term complications....
Jæger, Pia; Koscielniak-Nielsen, Zbigniew J; Schrøder, Henrik M;
arthroplasty in general anesthesia into this blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Patients were allocated to an adductor canal block via a catheter with either ropivacaine or placebo; bolus of 0.75% ropivacaine/saline, followed by infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine/saline. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT......BACKGROUND: Revision knee arthroplasty is assumed to be even more painful than primary knee arthroplasty and predominantly performed in chronic pain patients, which challenges postoperative pain treatment. We hypothesized that the adductor canal block, effective for pain relief after primary total...... difference found between groups was in the primary endpoint: pain during knee flexion at 4 h. However, due to a larger than anticipated dropout rate and heterogeneous study population, the study was underpowered. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01191593....
Full Text Available Riika Merivirta,1 Mikko Pitkänen,2 Jouko Alanen,3 Elina Haapoja,1 Mari Koivisto,4 Kristiina Kuusniemi11Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care, Emergency Care and Pain Medicine of Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Turku, 2Department of Anaesthesia, Hospital Orton, Invalid Foundation, Helsinki, 3Terveystalo Clinic Hospital, Helsinki, 4Department of Biostatistics, University of Turku, Turku, FinlandBackground: Quality of life is decreased in patients with hallux valgus deformity, mainly because of pain. Significant improvement is usually achieved by surgery. However, postoperative pain can be moderate to severe for 2–3 days. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of transdermal fentanyl for postoperative pain management after forefoot surgery.Methods: Sixty patients undergoing hallux valgus or hallux rigidus surgery were allocated to receive a patch delivering either fentanyl 12 µg/hour or placebo for postoperative pain. The consumption of rescue opioid oxycodone, the primary outcome measure, was evaluated daily until the fourth postoperative day. Total consumption of oxycodone during the study period was also assessed. Pain scores and possible adverse effects were evaluated every 6 hours during the first 24 hours and on the fourth postoperative day.Results: The use of rescue opioid was low in both groups, the median (range consumption of oxycodone being 10 (0–50 mg on the day of surgery (no difference between the groups, P=0.31 and 0 (0–35 mg thereafter. The total combined consumption was 10 (0–105 mg in the fentanyl group and 20 (0–70 mg in the placebo group (P=0.23. There were no statistically significant differences in pain scores or adverse effects between the groups.Conclusion: As a part of multimodal analgesia with ibuprofen and acetaminophen, a patch delivering fentanyl 12 µg/hour did not significantly decrease the consumption of rescue opioid or pain scores after forefoot surgery
da Silva, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal; Monteiro, Maria Rachel; Belladonna, Felipe Gonçalves; Almeida, José Flávio; De-Deus, Gustavo; Neves, Aline de Almeida
The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare postoperative pain after foraminal instrumentation using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) or 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) gel irrigation protocol in nonvital single-rooted teeth after reciprocating instrumentation. Sixty-two volunteers presenting a single root canal diagnosed with asymptomatic necrosis and apical periodontitis were randomized into 2 experimental groups regarding the irrigation protocol (ie, 5.25% NaOCl and 2% CHX gel groups). Endodontic treatment was performed in a single session under reciprocating instrumentation with foraminal instrumentation. Volunteers were instructed to record pain intensity. Scores from 1 to 4 were attributed to each kind of pain after 24, 48, and 72 h. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Student´s t tests were used to determine significant differences at ppain after 24, 48 or 72 h was 77.4%, 88.7% and 95.1%, respectively. No statistically significant age difference was found between the groups (p>0.05, Student´s t test). Postoperative pain showed no statistically significant difference at any observation period when using 5.25% NaOCl or 2% CHX gel (p>0.05). Moreover, no significant difference was observed in the mean number of analgesic tablets used between the groups (p>0.05). In conclusion, the use of 5.25% NaOCl or 2% CHX gel resulted in the same postoperative pain. Therefore, it can be inferred that irrigant choice has no relation with short-term follow up regarding postoperative pain. PMID:26200143
Heringlake, Matthias; Nowak, Yvonne; Schön, Julika; Trautmann, Jens; Berggreen, Astrid Ellen; Charitos, Efstratios I.; Paarmann, Hauke
Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication after cardiac surgery and is associated with a poor prognosis. Mechanical ventilation is an important risk factor for developing AKI in critically ill patients. Ventilation with high tidal volumes has been associated with postoperative organ dysfunction in cardiac surgical patients. No data are available about the effects of the duration of postoperative respiratory support in the immediate postoperative period on the incidence...
Many of the abdominal foreign bodies are due to accidental ingestion. Our objective in this case report is to emphasize the importance of the enquiry about the foreign body in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain. According to our knowledge, this is the first report of bowel perforation caused by paper ingestion. A 14-year-old boy with abdominal pain underwent exploratory laparotomy and was found to have abdominal pus and ileal perforation. A crumpled paper was found at the site of perforation. Postoperative enquiry revealed that the patient had ingested 10 crumpled papers. We highlight that recording the history is an important aspect in the management of patients with acute abdominal pain and that foreign bodies should be included in its differential diagnosis. (author)
Full Text Available Many of the abdominal foreign bodies are due to accidental ingestion. Our objective in this case report is to emphasize the importance of the enquiry about the foreign body in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain. According to our knowledge, this is the first report of bowel perforation caused by paper ingestion. A 14-year-old boy with abdominal pain underwent exploratory laparotomy and was found to have abdominal pus and ileal perforation. A crumpled paper was found at the site of perforation. Postoperative enquiry revealed that the patient had ingested 10 crumpled papers. We highlight that recording the history is an important aspect in the management of patients with acute abdominal pain and that foreign bodies should be included in its differential diagnosis.
Priyank Sethi; Manish Agarwal; Hemant Ramesh Chourasia; Mahesh Pratap Singh
Introduction: One of the aims of root canal treatment is to prevent or eliminate pain. Postoperative endodontic pain control continues to be a significant challenge. Aim: To compare and evaluate the effect of single oral dose of 100 mg of tapentadol, 400 mg of etodolac, or 10 mg of ketorolac as a pretreatment analgesic for the prevention and control of postoperative endodontic pain in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. The incidence of side effects was recorded as secondary ...
Lee, Hyun-Young; Kim, Sang Hun; So, Keum Yung; Kim, Dong Jun
Background Although arthroscopic shoulder surgery is less invasive and painful than open shoulder surgery, it can often cause intra-operative hemodynamic instability and severe post-operative pain. This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of the interscalene brachial plexus block (IBPB) on intra-operative hemodynamic changes and post-operative pain during arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Methods After institutional review board approval, 50 consecutive patients that had undergone ar...
Kim, Do Yeon; Oh, Chang Hyun; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Park, Hyung Chun; Park, Chong Oon
Objective To evaluate the usefulness of back pain questionnaires for lumbar disc screening among Korean young males. Methods We carried out a survey for lumbar disc screening through back pain questionnaires among the volunteers with or without back pain. Three types of back pain questionnaire (Oswestry Low Back Pain Score, Aberdeen Low Back Pain Scale, and Acute Low Back Pain Screeing Questionnaire) were randomly assigned to the examinees. The authors reviewed lumbar imaging studies (simple ...
Hsiao, Tsai-Yun; Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang
This article describes the experience of a nurse who used music therapy as the intervention to reduce a patient's pain during wound care after orthopedic surgery. The intervention was applied between April 8th and April 29th 2008. The nurse applied Roy's adaptation model as the assessment tool. The major and primary health problem identified was acute pain accelerated by wound care. The pain of this client not only triggered negative feelings, but also affected negatively on his daily life and feelings of self-belongingness. Through an individual-tailored music therapy, the client's pain during wound care was greatly reduced and even completely disappeared. The ultimate outcome of decrease in pain included reductions in negative feelings and increased positive spiritual strength. It is recommended that nurses who are responsible for wound care use this simple and economical music intervention to reduce acute postoperative pain. PMID:19634107
Nilgun Kavrut Ozturk
Full Text Available Background. Parasternal block and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS have been demonstrated to produce effective analgesia and reduce postoperative opioid requirements in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of TENS and parasternal block on early postoperative pain after cardiac surgery. Methods. One hundred twenty patients undergoing cardiac surgery were enrolled in the present randomized, controlled prospective study. Patients were assigned to three treatment groups: parasternal block, intermittent TENS application, or a control group. Results. Pain scores recorded 4 h, 5 h, 6 h, 7 h, and 8 h postoperatively were lower in the parasternal block group than in the TENS and control groups. Total morphine consumption was also lower in the parasternal block group than in the TENS and control groups. It was also significantly lower in the TENS group than in the control group. There were no statistical differences among the groups regarding the extubation time, rescue analgesic medication, length of intensive care unit stay, or length of hospital stay. Conclusions. Parasternal block was more effective than TENS in the management of early postoperative pain and the reduction of opioid requirements in patients who underwent cardiac surgery through median sternotomy. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov number NCT02725229.
Full Text Available AIM: We reasoned that addition of musicotherapy -a simple and convenient method with no adverse effects- in the preoperative period would have favorable effects pertaining to postoperative pain. METHODS: One hundred patients, between the ages of 20-40 years, who were undergoing elective caesarean delivery under general anaesthesia, were enrolled. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups (with 50 patients in each and in group 1, patients listened to music through a headphone for one hour immediately before surgery whereas in group 2, patients did not listen to any music during the same period. The anaesthetic technique was standardized. All neonates were also assessed and Apgar scores were recorded. In the postanaesthesia care unit, patients were connected to i.v.-PCA device when they were able to respond to commands. The patients level of satisfaction with perioperative care was assessed by a 10-cm visual analogue scale and the severity of postoperative pain was assessed with VAS. RESULTS: Postoperative tramadol consumption, total amount of tramadol consumption, additional analgesic use and all VAS values were lower in group 1 (p<0.05. Apgar scores were significantly greater in group 1. CONCLUSION: We imply that music therapy given before surgery decreases postoperative pain and analgesic requirement. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(2.000: 107-112
Full Text Available Background: Anxiety and depressive disorders can be widespread among patients who are being treated in surgical clinics and they can affect operation outcomes. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the level of their anxiety and depression in the preoperative period and the pain level in the postoperative period, analgesic requirement, development of complications and the duration of hospital stay in patients followed up in an ENT clinic. Materials and Methods : One hundred and three (n=103 subjects [male = 56 (%54, female = 47 (%45.6] filled out the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, sociodemographic data evaluation form before the surgery. Postsurgical pain levels of the subjects were evaluated by the Visual Pain Scale. The analgesic requirements of the subjects were assessed and their duration of hospital stay was noted. Results: While the presence of preoperative anxiety was a predictor of postoperative pain, such a relationship was not found between depression and postoperative pain. On the Visual Pain Scale, it was observed that the anxiety levels were moderately correlated with the Visual Pain Scale assessments on the first day of postoperative period (r = 0.30, P < 0.00. Frequency of analgesic use and Visual Pain Scale assessments on the second day of postoperative period were negatively correlated (r = -0.43, P< 0.000. Conclusion: For elective conditions requiring short-term hospitalization in ENT surgery, presence of preoperative anxiety seems to be a significant predictor of postoperative pain.
Full Text Available "nAbstract: Endodontic postoperative pain is still one of the major problems for dentists. According to the researches periapical inflammation after RCT is one of the most important factors causing endodontic postoperative pain. Histamine is one of the effective chemical mediators, which produces such inflammation. So, for controlling pains after RCT, the factors reducing inflammation should be found. The aim of this study was to investigate pain control after RCT by drug prophylaxis with antihistamine (asetemizole. 60 patients were divided in 2 groups (30 patients in each group. Group 1 had a capsule of asetemizole (20mg and the second group had a placebo capsule one hour before RCT. The patients completed the questionnaire after RCT and gave it back on the next session. The evaluated times were 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24 and 72 h after RCT. This study indicated that asetemizole was able to reduce the moderate pericemental pain just at the 9 and 12 hours after RCT, and it was not able to reduce the spontaneous pain after RCT significantly on the evaluated times
Ceppa, Eugene P; Lyo, Victoria; Grady, Eileen F.; Knecht, Wolfgang; Grahn, Sarah; Peterson, Anders; Nigel W. Bunnett; Kirkwood, Kimberly S.; Cattaruzza, Fiore
Acute pancreatitis is a life-threatening inflammatory disease characterized by abdominal pain of unknown etiology. Trypsin, a key mediator of pancreatitis, causes inflammation and pain by activating protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), but the isoforms of trypsin that cause pancreatitis and pancreatic pain are unknown. We hypothesized that human trypsin IV and rat P23, which activate PAR2 and are resistant to pancreatic trypsin inhibitors, contribute to pancreatic inflammation and pain. Inje...
Objectives: To compare the efficacy of ibuprofen and acetaminophen in reducing postoperative third molar extraction pain in patients reporting to Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry. Study design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and duration of study: The study was carried out on patients who presented for surgical removal of impacted teeth at Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry Rawalpindi (AFID) from February 2008 to March 2--9 at the Department of Oral Surgery, Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry Rawalpindi. Patients and methods: One hundred and forty patients requiring surgical removal of mandibular impacted teeth were equally divided into two groups. Surgical extraction of third molar tooth was performed under local anesthesia. Patients in group A were given ibuprofen and in group B were given acetaminophen at 6 hourly intervals. First dose was given 3 hours postoperatively. Each patient rated pain on a visual analog scale at baseline and then at 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours postoperatively. Results: There was statistically significant difference (p=0.025) during first 12 hours with ibuprofen group showing better efficacy but afterwards there was no significant difference in the efficacy of both drugs. Conclusions: Ibuprofen is more effective in controlling severe third molar extraction pain as compared to acetaminophen but has similar efficacy in controlling moderate pain. (author)
Abdelhalim, Ashraf A.; Al harethy, Sami; Moustafa, Mohamed
Background: Pain following ear-nose and throat surgery is one of the most important complaints for which, several drugs are used. This prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial was designed to compare the analgesic effect of tramadol versus lornoxicam for post-operative pain relief in patients undergoing ENT surgical procedures. Methods: One hundred and twenty patients of ASA class I-II, who had undergone elective ENT surgical procedures under general anesthesia, were assigned in a randomized manner into three equal groups. Group L received lornoxicam8 mg IV, Group T received tramadol 1 mg/kg IV and Group C received IV saline after induction of anesthesia before the start of the surgery. Post-operative pain was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and sedation level was evaluated during stay in the post-anesthesia care unit with a four-point sedation scale. Intraoperative blood loss was estimated using the Five-Point Scale. Adverse events in the first 24 h post-operative were recorded. Results: The VAS pain scores were significantly higher in Group C as compared with those in Groups L and T at 30 min and 1, 2, 4and 6 h post-operatively, with no significant difference between Group L and Group T. The amount of morphine consumption post-operatively was significantly lower in Group L (5.2 ± 2.5 mg) and Group T (5.0 ± 2.0 mg) as compared with that in Group C (7.4 ± 2.3 mg) (P = 0.001). The time for the first analgesic requirement was significantly less in Group L (92.62 ± 24.23 min) and Group T (88 ± 21.43 min) as compared with that in Group C (42.82 ± 25.61 min), with no significant difference between the other two groups. Estimated intraoperative blood loss score by the surgeons showed no significant difference between the three groups. The most frequent side-effects in the three groups were nausea and vomiting, and their incidence was significantly higher in the placebo group as compared with the other two groups. Conclusion: Tramadol 1
Ashraf A Abdelhalim
Full Text Available Background: Pain following ear-nose and throat surgery is one of the most important complaints for which, several drugs are used. This prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial was designed to compare the analgesic effect of tramadol versus lornoxicam for post-operative pain relief in patients undergoing ENT surgical procedures. Methods: One hundred and twenty patients of ASA class I-II, who had undergone elective ENT surgical procedures under general anesthesia, were assigned in a randomized manner into three equal groups. Group L received lornoxicam8 mg IV, Group T received tramadol 1 mg/kg IV and Group C received IV saline after induction of anesthesia before the start of the surgery. Post-operative pain was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS and sedation level was evaluated during stay in the post-anesthesia care unit with a four-point sedation scale. Intraoperative blood loss was estimated using the Five-Point Scale. Adverse events in the first 24 h post-operative were recorded. Results: The VAS pain scores were significantly higher in Group C as compared with those in Groups L and T at 30 min and 1, 2, 4and 6 h post-operatively, with no significant difference between Group L and Group T. The amount of morphine consumption post-operatively was significantly lower in Group L (5.2 ± 2.5 mg and Group T (5.0 ± 2.0 mg as compared with that in Group C (7.4 ± 2.3 mg (P = 0.001. The time for the first analgesic requirement was significantly less in Group L (92.62 ± 24.23 min and Group T (88 ± 21.43 min as compared with that in Group C (42.82 ± 25.61 min, with no significant difference between the other two groups. Estimated intraoperative blood loss score by the surgeons showed no significant difference between the three groups. The most frequent side-effects in the three groups were nausea and vomiting, and their incidence was significantly higher in the placebo group as compared with the other two groups. Conclusion
Choi, Byung Moon
Fentanyl is the most commonly used opioid analgesic in intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) in Korea. IV oxycodone was approved for postoperative IV PCA by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety of Korea in 2013. The approved dosage regimen for postoperative pain relief with IV oxycodone is IV bolus loading of 2 mg followed by PCA composed of demand boluses of 1 mg and no background infusion with an oxycodone concentration of 1 mg/ml. However, a simulation study indicated that the ...
McNicol, E D; Tzortzopoulou, A; Cepeda, M S; Francia, M B D; Farhat, T; Schumann, R
Paracetamol is the most commonly prescribed analgesic for the treatment of acute pain. The efficacy and safety of i.v. formulations of paracetamol is unclear. We performed a systematic search (multiple databases, bibliographies, any language, to May 2010) for single-dose, randomized, controlled clinical trials of propacetamol or i.v. paracetamol for acute postoperative pain in adults or children. Thirty-six studies involving 3896 patients were included. For the primary outcome, 37% of patients (240/367) receiving propacetamol or i.v. paracetamol experienced at least 50% pain relief over 4 h compared with 16% (68/527) receiving placebo (number needed to treat=4.0; 95% confidence interval, 3.5-4.8). The proportion of patients in propacetamol or i.v. paracetamol groups experiencing at least 50% pain relief diminished over 6 h. Patients receiving propacetamol or paracetamol required 30% less opioid over 4 h and 16% less opioid over 6 h than those receiving placebo. However, this did not translate to a reduction in opioid-induced adverse events (AEs). Similar comparisons between propacetamol or i.v. paracetamol and active comparators were either not statistically significant, not clinically significant, or both. AEs occurred at similar rates with propacetamol or i.v. paracetamol and placebo. However, pain on infusion occurred more frequently in those receiving propacetamol compared with placebo (23% vs 1%). A single dose of either propacetamol or i.v. paracetamol provides around 4 h of effective analgesia for about 37% of patients with acute postoperative pain. Both formulations are associated with few AEs, although patients receiving propacetamol have a higher incidence of pain on infusion. PMID:21558067
Mehlisch, D R; Jasper, R D; Brown, P; Korn, S H; McCarroll, K; Murakami, A A
This single-dose, double-blind, parallel-group, single-site study compared ibuprofen lysine 400 mg with acetaminophen 1000 mg and placebo in 240 patients with moderate-to-severe postoperative dental pain. The relative onset of analgesic response, overall analgesic efficacy, duration of effect, and safety were assessed over a 6-hour postdose period. Analgesic efficacy was assessed by patient self-rating of pain intensity, pain relief, time to meaningful pain relief, need for additional analgesic medication, and patient global evaluation. Both ibuprofen lysine 400 mg and acetaminophen 1000 mg were significantly (P < or = 0.05) more effective than placebo. Ibuprofen lysine had a significantly (P < or = 0.05) faster onset of action with greater peak and overall analgesic effect than did effect than did acetaminophen. All treatments were generally well tolerated. PMID:8595637
Full Text Available Introduction. Acute periapical inflammation is the most common cause of postoperative pain developing as a result of mechanical, chemical and/or microbial injury of periapical tissue. The major inflammatory event responsible for periapical pain is increased vasodilatation and vascular permeability, partly caused by prostaglandin E2, with consequent edema, which leads to the compression of nerve fibers. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of prostaglandin E2 in apical tissue fluid after endodontic treatment of intact and teeth with large restorations and to compare it with the occurrence and intensity of postoperative pain. Methods. Single-rooted teeth of 24 patients, selected for this study, were distributed into two groups: intact (group 1, n=27 and asymptomatic teeth with large restorations (group 2, n=20. Clinical examination of the involved teeth included the electric pulp test, recording pain on percussion, spontaneous pain, and a radiographic examination. Samples of apical tissues fluid were obtained from root canals at two treatment visits, and prostaglandin E2 concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay. Pain intensity was assessed by visual analogue scale. Results. Prostaglandin E2 concentrations at the second visit, in teeth with large restorations, was significantly higher (36% than at the first treatment visit (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p<0.05. Occurrence and intensity of spontaneous pain after the first visit were significantly higher in group 2 (p<0.05 than in group 1. Conclusion. These results suggest that the increased prostaglandin E2 concentration, caused by endodontic treatment of teeth with large restorations, is well correlated with the intensity of postoperative pain.
目的：探讨降低咬合对急性牙髓炎一次性根管治疗术后疼痛的影响。方法选择2012年1-8月汕头市金平区中医医院口腔科门诊收治的下颌磨牙急性牙髓炎患者44例（共44颗患牙），按就诊顺序随机分为试验组和对照组，每组22例（22颗患牙）。试验组患牙在行一次性根管治疗术后作降低咬合处理，使其在正中、侧方咬合位均无咬合接触；对照组患牙在行一次性根管治疗术后不作降低咬合处理。记录两组患者术后疼痛发生情况，并在术后7 d内每天1次记录疼痛的视觉模拟评分（visual analogue scale/score，VAS）分值。比较两组患者术后疼痛发生率及疼痛VAS分值的差异。结果试验组患者术后疼痛发生率为36.36%，对照组为40.91%，两组患者的术后疼痛发生率差异无统计学意义（P>0.05）。两组患者术后7 d内的疼痛VAS分值比较，实验组均比对照组略低，但差异并无统计学意义（P>0.05）。两组患者中发生术后疼痛者7 d内的疼痛VAS分值比较，试验组均比对照组低，且差异均有统计学意义（P＜0.05）。结论单纯降低咬合对急性牙髓炎一次性根管治疗术后疼痛发生率无明显影响，但对于会发生术后疼痛的患者，可以减轻其疼痛的程度。%Objective To discuss the effect of occlusal reduction on the postoperative pain level after one-visit endodon-tic treatment for acute pulpitis. Methods Totally 44 cases of acute pulpitis of mandibular molar were selected and di-vided into the experiment and control groups. The experiment group included 22 cases receiving total occlusal reduction in both centric and lateral occlusion after the root canal therapy. The control group included 22 cases without reduced oc-clusion. The rate of pain response and VAS(Visual Analogue Scale/Score),which was evaluated 7 days,1 time per day,were recorded after operation. A comparison of the pain response and VAS
Mathiesen, O.; Jacobsen, L.S.; Holm, H.E.;
randomly allocated to either Group A (placebo), Group B (pregabalin 300 mg), or Group C (pregabalin 300 mg+dexamethasone 8 mg). The medication and acetaminophen 1 g were given before operation. Spinal anaesthesia was performed. Postoperative pain treatment was with acetaminophen 1 g three times daily and...... patient-controlled i.v morphine, 2.5 mg bolus. Nausea was treated with ondansetron. Morphine consumption, pain intensity at rest and during mobilization, nausea and vomiting, sedation, dizziness, and consumption of ondansetron were recorded 2, 4, and 24 h after operation. P < 0.05 was considered...
Suffeda, Alexander; Meissner, Winfried; Rosendahl, Jenny; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando
Abstract The aim was to assess the association between objectified preoperative psychological factors and postoperative pain at the first day after otolaryngological surgery in accordance with other predictors of postoperative pain. Eighty-two (82) patients (59% male, median age 56 years) were included between January and May 2015. The psychological assessment the day before surgery included the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), pain catastrophizing scale (PCS), State-Trait Operation Anxiety (STOA) inventory, and the resilience scale (RS-13). On first postoperative day, patients were rated their pain using the questionnaires of the German-wide project Quality Improvement in Postoperative Pain Treatment (QUIPS) including a numeric rating scale (NRS, 0–10) for determination of patient's maximal pain. QUIPS allowed standardized assessment of patients’ characteristics, pain parameters, and outcome. The influence of preoperative and postoperative parameters on patients’ maximal postoperative pain was estimated by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. The mean maximal pain was 3.2 ± 2.9. In univariate analysis, higher PHQ-9 score more than 4 (P = 0.010), higher STOA trait anxiety (P = 0.044), and higher STOA total score (P = 0.043) were associated to more postoperative pain. In multivariate analysis higher PHQ-9 score remained an independent predictor for severe pain (beta = 0.302; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.054–0.473; P = 0.014). When all parameters were included into multivariate analysis, 2 of all somatic, psychological, and treatment factors were associated with severe maximal pain: more depression (PHQ-9; beta = 0.256; 95% CI: 0.042–0.404; P = 0.017), and use of opioids in the recovery room (beta = 0.371; 95% CI: 0.108–0.481; P = 0.002). Otolaryngological surgery covers the spectrum from low to severe postoperative pain and is therefore a good model for pain management studies. A set of somatic and psychological parameters seems
Jacob, Adam K.; Passe, Melissa A.; Mantilla, Carlos B.
Background. Postthoracotomy pain syndrome (PTPS) is unfortunately very common following thoracotomy and results in decreased quality of life. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine perioperative patient, surgical, and analgesic characteristics associated with the development of PTPS. Methods. Sixty-six patients who presented to the Mayo Clinic Rochester Pain Clinic were diagnosed with PTPS 2 months or more after thoracotomy with postoperative epidural analgesia. These patients were matched with sixty-six control patients who underwent thoracotomy with postoperative epidural analgesia and were never diagnosed with PTPS. Results. Median (IQR) hospital stay was significantly different between control patients (5 days (4, 6)) compared with PTPS patients (6 days (5, 8)), P thoracotomy were at an increased risk of developing PTPS, and this is a novel finding. Patients who utilize higher oral morphine equivalents for the first 3 days were also at increased risk for PTPS.
Dionne, Raymond A.; Wirdezk, Peggy R.; Butler, Donald P.; Fox, Philip C.
The analgesic efficacy of two doses of conorphone (20 and 40 mg), a mixed agonist-antagonist analgesic, were compared to two doses of codeine for postoperative pain in the oral surgery model. Each subject received 2 of the 4 possible treatment at two separate sessions in an incomplete block, single crossover design. Both doses of conorphone and the 60 mg dose of codeine were superior to 30 mg of codeine for the various indices of analgesic activity. The 40 mg dose of conorphone resulted in a high incidence of side effects (25/30 subjects) such as drowsiness, dizziness, nausea and vomiting. The low dose of conorphone resulted in side effects similar to 60 mg of codeine with the exception of a greater incidence of drowsiness. These data suggest that while 40 mg of conorphone may not be well tolerated clinically, 20 mg of conorphone may be an alternative to 60 mg of codeine for postoperative pain. PMID:6597688
Kjeldsen, Helle Birgitte; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt; Rosenberg, Jacob
scores than VAS, especially at low levels of pain. Patients preferred the NRS as compared to the VAS, and when choosing between the four different VAS presentations, they preferred the horizontal VAS with stop lines at the ends. CONCLUSION: For daily clinical practice for guiding postoperative analgesic......BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in pain scores with different visual analog scale (VAS) presentations and to compare those differences with a numeric rating scale. We also asked the patients for preference of the different methods. METHODS: Prior to the trial, we...... performed power calculations to estimate a preferred sample size, and 62 postoperative patients supplied a complete set of data to the study. Inclusion criteria were newly operated patients within the first 5 days after surgery. Every patient included was with 1-minute intervals and presented with one of...
Dexamethasone has been reported to reduce postoperative symptoms after different surgical procedures. We evaluated the efficacy of preoperative dexamethasone in ameliorating postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), and pain after mastectomy. In this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 70 patients scheduled for mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection were analyzed after randomization to treatment with 8 mg intravenous dexamethasone (n = 35) or placebo (n = 35). All patients underwent standardized procedures for general anesthesia and surgery. Episodes of PONV and pain score were recorded on a visual analogue scale. Analgesic and antiemetic requirements were also recorded. Demographic and medical variables were similar between groups. The incidence of PONV was lower in the dexamethasone group at the early postoperative evaluation (28.6% vs. 60%; p = 0.02) and at 6 h (17.2% vs. 45.8%; p = 0.03). More patients in the placebo group required additional antiemetic medication (21 vs. 8; p = 0.01). Dexamethasone treatment significantly reduced postoperative pain just after surgery (VAS score, 4.54 ± 1.55 vs. 5.83 ± 2.00; p = 0.004), at 6 h (3.03 ± 1.20 vs. 4.17 ± 1.24; p < 0.0005) and at 12 h (2.09 ± 0.85 vs. 2.54 ± 0.98; p = 0.04). Analgesics were required in more patients of the control group (21 vs. 10; p = 0.008). There were no adverse events, morbidity or mortality. Preoperative intravenous dexamethasone (8 mg) can significantly reduce the incidence of PONV and pain in patients undergoing mastectomy with axillary dissection for breast cancer. NCT01116713
Jin, Shu-Qing; Ding, Xi-Bing; Tong, Yao; Ren, Hao; Chen, Zhi-Xia; Wang, Xin; Li, Quan
Early post-operative mobilization is important both to reduce immobility-related complications and to get the best functional result following surgery on knee. We hypothesized that saphenous nerve block would reduce pain in this patient category compared with placebo injection. In this study, two reviewers independently searched the databases of PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library (last performed on 12 October, 2014) to retrieve eligible randomized controlled clinical trials. The primary out...
Lee, Seunghoon; Park, Jimin; KIM, JIHYE; Kang, Jung Won; Choi, Do-Young; Park, Sun Jin; Nam, Dongwoo; Lee, Jae-Dong
Introduction This review aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for patients with postoperative pain after laparoscopic surgery. Methods and analysis We will search the following databases from their inception to October 2014: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), three Chinese databases (China National Kno...
King, Nicole M; Quiko, Albin S; Slotto, James G; Connolly, Nicholas C; Hackworth, Robert J; Heil, Justin W
Background/objective Liposome bupivacaine, a prolonged-release bupivacaine formulation, recently became available at the Naval Medical Center San Diego (NMCSD); before availability, postsurgical pain for large thoracic/abdominal procedures was primarily managed with opioids with/without continuous thoracic epidural (CTE) anesthesia. This retrospective chart review was part of a clinical quality initiative to determine whether postsurgical outcomes improved after liposome bupivacaine became available. Methods Data from patients who underwent laparotomy, sternotomy, or thoracotomy at NMCSD from May 2013 to May 2014 (after liposome bupivacaine treatment became available) were compared with data from patients who underwent these same procedures from December 2011 to May 2012 (before liposome bupivacaine treatment became available). Collected data included demographics, postoperative pain control methods, opioid consumption, perioperative pain scores, and lengths of intensive care unit and overall hospital stays. Results Data from 182 patients were collected: 88 pre-liposome bupivacaine (laparotomy, n=52; sternotomy, n=26; and thoracotomy, n=10) and 94 post-liposome bupivacaine (laparotomy, n=49; sternotomy, n=31; and thoracotomy, n=14) records. Mean hospital stay was 7.0 vs 5.8 days (P=0.009) in the pre- and post-liposome bupivacaine groups, respectively, and mean highest reported postoperative pain score was 7.1 vs 6.2 (P=0.007), respectively. No other significant between-group differences were observed for the overall population. In the laparotomy subgroup, there was a reduction in the proportion of patients who received CTE anesthesia post-liposome bupivacaine (22% [11/49] vs 35% [18/52] pre-liposome bupivacaine). Conclusion Surgeons and anesthesiologists have changed the way they manage postoperative pain since the time point that liposome bupivacaine was introduced at NMCSD. Our findings suggest that utilization of liposome bupivacaine may be a useful alternative
Ohmann, Christian; Franke, Claus; Yang, Qin; Decker, Franz; Verde, Pablo E
Purpose: Application of multinomial logistic regression for diagnostic support of acute abdominal pain, a diagnostic problem with many differential diagnoses. Methods: The analysis is based on a prospective data base with 2280 patients with acute abdominal pain, characterized by 87 variables from history and clinical examination and 12 differential diagnoses. Associations between single variables from history and clinical examination and the final diagnoses were investigated with multinomial ...
A single-blind, parallel-group study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and safety of an analgesic combining 650 mg of acetaminophen and 25 mg of pentazocine in 129 patients with moderate postoperative pain. Comparisons were made with a combination containing acetaminophen (300 mg) and codeine (30 mg), a combination containing acetaminophen (650 mg) and propoxyphene napsylate (100 mg), and a placebo. A nurse observer queried patients at regular intervals over a six-hour period concerning the intensity of pain and the degree of pain relief. The scores obtained were used in the calculation of standard measures of analgesic efficacy. Acetaminophen/pentazocine proved to be significantly superior to placebo and equivalent to the other active analgesic combinations. No side effects were reported with acetaminophen/pentazocine, acetaminophen/propoxyphene napsylate, or placebo. One mild side effect was questionably associated with acetaminophen/codeine. This study demonstrates that the combination of acetaminophen and pentazocine is as safe and effective in controlling postoperative pain of moderate severity as other commonly used analgesics. PMID:2870808
Gómez de Diego, Rafael; Cutando Soriano, Antonio; Montero Martín, Javier; Prados Frutos, Juan Carlos; López-Valverde Centeno, Antonio
Objetives: To determine whether preoperative state anxiety and depression modulate or influence objective and subjective postoperative pain following dental implant insertion. Study Design: Prospective, clinical study with 7-day follow-up of a sample of 105 subjects who preoperatively completed the state anxiety questionnaire (STAI-E) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and postoperatively, at 2 and 7 days, recorded objective pain with the Semmes-Weinstein mechanical esthesiometer (SW test) a...
Ling-hua Chang; Chung-Hua Hsu; Gwo-Ping Jong; Shungtai Ho; Shiow-luan Tsay; Kuan-Chia Lin
Background. Postoperative pain management remains a significant challenge for all healthcare providers. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to examine the adjuvant effects of auricular acupressure on relieving postoperative pain and improving the passive range of motion in patients with total knee replacement (TKR). Method. Sixty-two patients who had undergone a TKR were randomly assigned to the acupressure group and the sham control group. The intervention was delivered three times a...
Marincek, B. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)
Common causes of acute abdominal pain include appendicitis, cholecystitis, bowel obstruction, urinary colic, perforated peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, diverticulitis, and nonspecific, nonsurgical abdominal pain. The topographic classification of acute abdominal pain (pain in one of the four abdominal quadrants, diffuse abdominal pain, flank or epigastric pain) facilitates the choice of the imaging technique. The initial radiological evaluation often consists of plain abdominal radiography, despite significant diagnostic limitations. The traditional indications for plain films - bowel obstruction, pneumoperitoneum, and the search of ureteral calculi - are questioned by helical computed tomography (CT). Although ultrasonography (US) is in many centers the modality of choice for imaging the gallbladder and the pelvis in children and women of reproductive age, CT is considered to be one of the most valued tools for triaging patients with acute abdominal pain. CT is particularly beneficial in patients with marked obesity, unclear US findings, bowel obstruction, and multiple lesions. The introduction of multidetector row CT (MDCT) has further enhanced the utility of CT in imaging patients with acute abdominal pain. (orig.)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Candidate gene studies on the basis of biological hypotheses have been a practical approach to identify relevant genetic variation in complex traits. Based on previous reports and the roles in pain pathways, we have examined the effects of variations of loci in the genes of monoamine neurotransmitter systems including metabolizing enzymes, receptors and transporters on acute clinical pain responses in humans. Results Variations in the catecholamine metabolizing enzyme genes (MAOA and COMT showed significant associations with the maximum post-operative pain rating while the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 showed association with the onset time of post-operative pain. Analgesic onset time after medication was significantly associated with the norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2. However, the association between COMT genetic variation and pain sensitivity in our study differ from previous studies with small sample sizes, population stratification and pain phenotype derived from combining different types of pain stimuli. Correcting for multiple comparisons did not sustain these genetic associations between monoamine neurotransmitter systems and pain sensitivity even in this large and homogeneous sample. Conclusion These results suggest that the previously reported associations between genetic polymorphisms in the monoamine neurotransmitter systems and the interindividual variability in pain responses cannot be replicated in a clinically relevant pain phenotype.
Conclusion: The perioperative infusion of Dex may be an attractive option during laparoscopic surgery as it, offered better control of intraoperative and post-operative hemodynamics, and decreased post-operative pain level and better sedation scores, as compared with control. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 1052-1056