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Sample records for acute pesticide poisoning

  1. [Acute poisoning by pesticides in children].

    Leveau, P

    2016-07-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning in children is rare but potentially serious. Some clinical patterns (toxidromes) are suggestive of the drug class: cholinergic crisis for organophosphate or carbamate insecticides; neurological syndrome for rodenticides; digestive and respiratory syndrome for herbicides. Treatment is symptomatic and only a few patients are treated with an antidote: atropine and pralidoxime for organophosphate insecticides, vitamin K for anticoagulant rodenticides. PMID:27266642

  2. Acute pesticide poisoning--a global public health problem

    Konradsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning has become a major public health problem worldwide, following the intensification of agriculture and the promotion of agro-chemicals in low and middle income countries, with more than 300,000 deaths each year. The easy availability of highly toxic pesticides in the homes...... of farming communities has made pesticides the preferred means of suicide with an extremely high case fatality. Similarly, the extensive use of pesticides exposes the community to both long-term and acute occupational health problems. A concerted effort is urgently needed to address the situation....

  3. Respiratory Failure in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Self-Poisoning

    Eddleston, Michael; Mohamed, Fahim; Davies, James OJ; Eyer, Peter; Worek, Franz; Sheriff, Mh Rezvi; Buckley, Nick A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Acute organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a major clinical problem in the developing world. Textbooks ascribe most deaths to respiratory failure occurring in one of two distinct clinical syndromes - acute cholinergic respiratory failure or the intermediate syndrome. The delayed failure appears to be due to respiratory muscle weakness, but its pathophysiology is not yet clear.

  4. Risk factors for acute pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka

    van der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    pesticide poisoning and having ended an emotional relationship in the past year was clearly associated with intentional self-poisoning. The presence of mental disorders could only be assessed for a subsample of the cases and controls and this showed that alcohol dependence was a risk factor. This study...

  5. Pesticide use and self-reported symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning among aquatic farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming; Jørs, Erik;

    2011-01-01

    associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02-1.28). The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22-0.91). These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide......Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in...... Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88%) had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly...

  6. Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Symptoms of Acute Pesticide Poisoning among Aquatic Farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    Hanne Klith Jensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88% had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02–1.28. The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22–0.91. These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among the farmers and enforcing the effective banning of the most toxic pesticides will considerably reduce the number of acute pesticide poisoning episodes.

  7. Pesticides poisoning

    Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)

  8. Pharmacotherapy to protect the neuromuscular junction after acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.

    Bird, Steven B; Krajacic, Predrag; Sawamoto, Keigo; Bunya, Naofumi; Loro, Emanuele; Khurana, Tejvir S

    2016-06-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world, affecting an estimated three million people annually. Much of the morbidity is directly related to muscle weakness, which develops 1-4 days after poisoning. This muscle weakness, termed the intermediate syndrome (IMS), leads to respiratory, bulbar, and proximal limb weakness and frequently necessitates the use of mechanical ventilation. While not entirely understood, the IMS is most likely due to persistently elevated acetylcholine (ACh), which activates nicotinic ACh receptors at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Thus, the NMJ is potentially a target-rich area for the development of new therapies for acute OP poisoning. In this manuscript, we discuss what is known about the IMS and studies investigating the use of nicotinic ACh receptor antagonists to prevent or mitigate NMJ dysfunction after acute OP poisoning. PMID:27258847

  9. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and dela

  10. N-acetylcysteine in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning: A Randomized, Clinical Trial.

    El-Ebiary, Ahmad A; Elsharkawy, Rasha E; Soliman, Nema A; Soliman, Mohammed A; Hashem, Ahmed A

    2016-08-01

    Organophosphorus poisoning is a major global health problem with hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. Research interest in N-acetylcysteine has grown among increasing evidence of the role of oxidative stress in organophosphorus poisoning. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of N-acetylcysteine as an adjuvant treatment in patients with acute organophosphorus poisoning. This was a randomized, controlled, parallel-group trial on 30 patients suffering from acute organophosphorus poisoning, who were admitted to the Poison Control Center of Tanta University Emergency Hospital, Tanta, Egypt, between April and September 2014. Interventions included oral N-acetylcysteine (600 mg three times daily for 3 days) as an added treatment to the conventional measures versus only the conventional treatment. Outcome measures included mortality, total dose of atropine administered, duration of hospitalization and the need for ICU admission and/or mechanical ventilation. A total of 46 patients were screened and 30 were randomized. No significant difference was found between both groups regarding demographic characteristics and the nature or severity of baseline clinical manifestations. No major adverse effects to N-acetylcysteine therapy were reported. Malondialdehyde significantly decreased and reduced glutathione significantly increased only in the NAC-treated patients. The patients on NAC therapy required less atropine doses than those who received only the conventional treatment; however, the length of hospital stay showed no significant difference between both groups. The study concluded that the use of N-acetylcysteine as an added treatment was apparently safe, and it reduced atropine requirements in patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. PMID:26786042

  11. Intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas Acute poisoning from pesticides

    Jaime Jesús Durán-Nah

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la epidemiología de la intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas (IAP en el Hospital General O'Horán de Mérida, Yucatán, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se revisaron los expedientes de 33 pacientes ³ 13 años, tratados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI, entre 1994 y 1998. Se recopilaron variables demográficas y clínicas relevantes, y se aplicó estadística descriptiva. RESULTADOS: En la población estudiada predominó el sexo masculino (82% del medio rural (70%, y la edad media fue de 34 ± 15.8 años. El intento de suicidio fue causa frecuente de IAP (79%, y en 33% de los casos la intoxicación se produjo por la utilización de organofosforados. La mortalidad fue de 12%. CONCLUSIONES: La IAP fue baja entre los sujetos del medio rural, por lo que los resultados de este estudio parecen no reflejar la realidad del problema. Es importante añadir que los plaguicidas son utilizados con relativa frecuencia para el intento de suicidio.OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiologic pattern of acute pesticide poisoning (APP in a general hospital in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 1994 to 1998, 33 patients 13 years of age or older with diagnosis of APP were studied. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze information. RESULTS: Males were frequently affected (82%, specially those coming from rural areas (60%. The mean age of the group was 34 ± 15.8 years. In 79% of the cases, pesticides were used to commit suicide and 33% of poisoning cases were due to organophospate pesticides. The mortality rate was 12%. CONCLUSIONS: In this small sample, acute poisoning from pesticides in the agricultural setting may be underestimated, since it was less frequent than in the general population. APP was more commonly used by indigent people to commit suicide.

  12. Gastric Lavage in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide poisoning (GLAOP – a randomised controlled trial of multiple vs. single gastric lavage in unselected acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    Cao YuPing

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organophosphorus (OP pesticide poisoning is the most common form of pesticide poisoning in many Asian countries. Guidelines in western countries for management of poisoning indicate that gastric lavage should be performed only if two criteria are met: within one hour of poison ingestion and substantial ingested amount. But the evidence on which these guidelines are based is from medicine overdoses in developed countries and may be irrelevant to OP poisoning in Asia. Chinese clinical experience suggests that OP remains in the stomach for several hours or even days after ingestion. Thus, there may be reasons for doing single or multiple gastric lavages for OP poisoning. There have been no randomised controlled trials (RCTs to assess this practice of multiple lavages. Since it is currently standard therapy in China, we cannot perform a RCT of no lavage vs. a single lavage vs. multiple lavages. We will compare a single gastric lavage with three gastric lavages as the first stage to assess the role of gastric lavage in OP poisoning. Methods/Design We have designed an RCT assessing the effectiveness of multiple gastric lavages in adult OP self-poisoning patients admitted to three Chinese hospitals within 12 hrs of ingestion. Patients will be randomised to standard treatment plus either a single gastric lavage on admission or three gastric lavages at four hour intervals. The primary outcome is in-hospital mortality. Analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis. On the basis of the historical incidence of OP at the study sites, we expect to enroll 908 patients over three years. This projected sample size provides sufficient power to evaluate the death rate; and a variety of other exposure and outcome variables, including particular OPs and ingestion time. Changes of OP level will be analyzed in order to provide some toxic kinetic data. Discussion the GLAOP study is a novel, prospective cohort study that will explore to the toxic

  13. Is prevention of acute pesticide poisoning effective and efficient, with Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment?

    Varma, Anshu; Neupane, Dinesh; Ellekilde Bonde, Jens Peter;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Farmers' risk of pesticide poisoning can be reduced with personal protective equipment but in low-income countries farmers' use of such equipment is limited. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness and efficiency of Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment to reduce organophospha...

  14. Relationship between Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning and Damages Induced by Free Radicals

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between abnormal reactions of free radicals in bodies of patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP) and damages induced by free radicals. Methods 58 AOPP patients and 58 healthy adult volunteers (HAV) were enrolled in an independent samples control design, in which spectrophotometric methods were used to determine the concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and lipoperoxides (LPO) in plasma, and LPO in erythrocytes, vitamin C (VC), vitamin E (VE) and b-carotene (b-CAR) in plasma as well as activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in erythrocytes. Results Compared with the average values of every biochemical parameter in the HAV group, the average values of LPO in plasma and in erythrocytes, and NO in plasma in the AOPP group were significantly increased (P=0.000001), while the average values of VC, VE, a-CAR in plasma as well as SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and AChE in erythrocytes in the AOPP group were significantly decreased (P=0.000001). The findings of Pearson product-moment correlation analysis between the value of AChE in erythrocytes and the values of above biochemical parameters for 58 AOPP patients showed that there was a significant linear negative correlation between AChE in erythrocytes and LPO, NO in plasma, and LPO in erythrocytes (P=0.000001~0.001319), while there was a significant linear positive correlation between AChE in erythrocytes and VC, VE, a-CAR in plasma as well as SOD, CAT, GSH-Px in erythrocytes (P=0.000013~0.000824). The results of discriminant analysis of above chemical parameters for 58 AOPP patients and 58 HAV suggested that the correct rates of discriminant analysis were increased to 100 % when the values of AChE and LPO in plasma and in erythrocytes, or AChE and others, were jointly used for the discriminant analysis. Conclusion The findings of the present study suggest that a series of free radical

  15. Pesticide poisoning: a major health problem in Sri Lanka

    Hoek, Wim van der; Konradsen, F; Athukorala, K;

    1998-01-01

    pesticides is the most important reason for this high number of poisoning cases. The frequent application of highly hazardous pesticides in high concentrations was often irrational and posed serious health and financial risks to the farmers. Sales promotion activities and credit facilities promoted this......Acute pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in Sri Lanka. In several agricultural districts, it precedes all other causes of death in government hospitals. Most of the acute poisoning cases are intentional (suicide) and occur among young adults, mainly males. Poisoning due to...... occupational exposure is also common, but less well documented. In an irrigation area in Sri Lanka a very high incidence of serious pesticide poisoning was observed, with 68% due to intentional ingestion of liquid pesticides. It is argued that the easy availability and widespread use of highly hazardous...

  16. Profile of acute mixed organophosphorus poisoning.

    Thunga, Girish; Sam, Kishore Gnana; Khera, Kanav; Xavier, Vidya; Verma, Murlidhar

    2009-06-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide self-poisoning is a major clinical and public health problem across much of rural Asia and responsible for two thirds of suicidal deaths. However, clinical reports or evidence for the management of mixed poisoning are lacking. Patients are often treated based on the type of symptoms they exhibit, and there are no specific guidelines available to treat mixed poisoning. In this case series, we report 3 acute OP poisoning cases with mixed poisons such as organochlorine, fungicide, copper sulfate, and kerosene. All 3 patients were treated successfully, with a greater focus on OP poisoning with pralidoxime and atropine infusion along with standard decontamination procedures. Because patients developed complications due to the concomitant poisons ingested, they were later treated symptomatically, and in one case, D-penicillamine was administered as antidote for copper poisoning. Mixed poisoning especially with OP compounds makes the diagnosis difficult because the clinical symptoms of OP predominate, whereas damage produced by other pesticides is late to develop and often neglected. Common treatment procedures are focused mainly on the OP poisoning ignoring the complications of other concomitant pesticides ingested. Treating physicians should be prepared and consider the possibility of mixed poisoning prevalent in that region before initiating therapy. PMID:19497478

  17. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. PMID:24716788

  18. 急性有机磷农药中毒患者的急救护理%Emergency nursing care of patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    马鑫

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨急性有机磷农药中毒患者的急救和护理措施。方法:我院收治35例有机磷农药中毒患者,采取急救措施和护理措施,实施治疗。结果:35例患者在经过精心的救护后,治愈34例,死亡1例。结论:对急性有机磷农药中毒患者,采取一定的急救措施,并给予相应的护理干预,具有较好治疗效果,值得推广。%Objective:To investigate the first aid and nursing measuresof acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning patients. Methods Patients in our hospital 35 cases of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning, take emergency measures and nursing measures, the implementation of treatment. Results:35 patients after carefultreatment, 34 cases were cured, 1 cases died. Conclusion:Patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning, take someemergency measures, and give the corresponding nursing intervention, has better curative effect, is worth promoting.

  19. Reducing acute poisoning in developing countries--options for restricting the availability of pesticides

    Konradsen, Flemming; van der Hoek, Wim; Cole, Donald C;

    2003-01-01

    programmes to act effectively. The aim should be to achieve an almost immediate phasing out of the WHO Classes I and II pesticides through national policies and enforcement. These short-term aims will have to be supported by medium- and long-term objectives focusing on the substitution of pesticides......, alcohol or drug addiction, emotional distress, depression, physical illness, social isolation or financial hardship. These should be addressed through preventive health programmes and community development efforts....

  20. Organophosphorus poisoning (acute)

    Eddleston, Michael; Singh, Surjit; Buckley, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus pesticides or nerve gases can cause acute parasympathetic system dysfunction, muscle weakness, seizures, coma, and respiratory failure. Prognosis depends on the dose and relative toxicity of the specific compound, as well as pharmacokinetic factors.

  1. Organophosphorus poisoning (acute)

    Blain, Peter G

    2011-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus pesticides or organophosphate nerve agents can cause acute parasympathetic system dysfunction, muscle weakness, seizures, coma, and respiratory failure. Prognosis depends on the dose and relative toxicity of the specific compound, as well as pharmacokinetic factors.

  2. 急性有机磷农药中毒50例治疗分析%Clinical Analysis of 50 Cases of Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning

    高喜生

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,and to give timely and effective treatment measures.Methods In our hospital in 2006~2008 in two years of 50 patients treated in patients with organophosphorus pesticide for analysis.Results To take timely and ef ective after checking measures,50 cases were completely cured,no excessive toxic reaction of atropine and rebound phenomenon of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.Conclusion Acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning is the clinical common emergency medicine,early and timely give just the right amount of drug detoxification treatment,treatment is the key to success.%目的探析急性有机磷农药中毒患者的临床表现特点,并给予及时有效的救治措施。方法对我院2006年~2008年2年来收治的50例服入有机磷农药的患者进行分析。结果采取及时有效求治措施后,50例患者均完全治愈,无1例出现阿托品过量的中毒反应及有机磷农药中毒反跳现象。结论急性有机磷农药中毒是临床内科常见的急诊,进行早期及时、给予适量的解毒药物治疗措施,是治疗成功的关键。

  3. STUDY ON 52 PATIENTS WITH ACUTE SEVERE ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE POISONING%急性重度有机磷中毒52例临床研究

    孟瑞; 卢敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical application of hemoperfusion combined with hemodialysis and continuous micropump infusion of atropine in the treatment of acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning( ASOPP ). Methods A total of 104 patients with ASOPP were retrospectively analysed, all patients were treated with gastric lavage and so on, the treated group adopted hemoperfusion combined with hemodialysis and continuous micropump infusion of atropine in addition to basic therapy. The clinical data was compared. Results The treated group was superior to the control group in time from coma to consciousness, total amount of atropine and recovery time of cholinesterase etc. The recovery rate was 84.6%. Conclusion It is effective to apply hemoperfusion combined with hemodialysis and continuous micropump iffusion of atropine in rescuing the acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.%目的 评价血液灌流联合血液透析、阿托品微量泵持续泵入治疗急性重度有机磷中毒(acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,ASOPP)的临床应用价值.方法 对104例ASOPP患者进行回顾性分析,所有患者均给予洗胃等治疗,治疗组在对照组基础上加用血液灌流联合血液透析、阿托品微量泵治疗,比较2组各项临床资料.结果 治疗组昏迷至清醒时间、阿托品总量、胆碱酯酶恢复时间等明显优于对照组,治愈率为84.6%.结论 应用血液灌流联合血液透析、阿托品微量泵治疗ASOPP效果较好.

  4. Searching for the universal reactivator for treatment of pesticide poisoning

    According to the present knowledge, none of the currently available oximes (pralidoxime, obidoxime, trimedoxime, MMB-4 or HI-6) originally developed for the treatment of the nerve agent poisonings is able to treat organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Among them, obidoxime seems to be the best candidate, however, its high toxicity disfavors its application in the high quantities. As byproduct of our searching for the new nerve agent reactivators, we found that oxime K027 seems to be very promising in the case of the treatment of organophosphorus pesticide poisonings. Its reactivation potency is similar or better than that of obidoxime, and moreover, its acute toxicity is lower. Thanks to these results, this oxime seems to be the best candidate for future use as universal reactivator for the treatment of poisonings caused by organophosphorus pesticides. This work was supported by the Czech Grant Agency - project No. 305/07/P162.(author)

  5. Treatment experience of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%急性有机磷农药中毒的救治体会

    胡相东

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨急性有机磷农药中毒的救治体会。方法:2010年3月-2013年10月收治急性有机磷农药中毒患者78例,作为研究对象,回顾性分析所有患者的临床资料。结果:78例患者中,75例患者在经过洗胃、服用阿托品、输血治疗、其他症状治疗等系列治疗后均痊愈出院,有效率96.1%;有3例患者因口服有机磷农药中毒且治疗不及时,抢救无效死亡,死亡率3.9%。结论:及时给予患者彻底的洗胃、正确使用阿托品是及时抢救急性有机磷农药中毒的关键,同时有针对性治疗患者的其他症状可以显著提高治疗效果。%Objective:To explore the treatment experience of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.Methods:78 cases with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were selected from March 2010 to October 2013.They were as the study objects.The clinical data of all patients were retrospectively analyzed.Results:In 78 cases,75 cases were recovered discharge after a series of treatment method,such as gastric lavage,taking atropine,blood transfusion treatment and other symptoms treatment.The effective rate was 96.1%.3 cases with oral excessive pesticide poisoning and delayed treatment were rescue invalid death.The mortality was 3.9%.Conclusion:The timely and thorough gastric lavage for patients and the correct use of atropine are the key to timely rescue acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.And targeted therapy in patients with other symptoms can significantly improve the treatment effect.

  6. Massive acute arsenic poisonings.

    Lech, Teresa; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-07-16

    Arsenic poisonings are still important in the field of toxicology, though they are not as frequent as about 20-30 years ago. In this paper, the arsenic concentrations in ante- and post-mortem materials, and also forensic and anatomo-pathological aspects in three cases of massive acute poisoning with arsenic(III) oxide (two of them with unexplained criminalistic background, in which arsenic was taken for amphetamine and one suicide), are presented. Ante-mortem blood and urine arsenic concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 6.7 microg/ml, respectively. Post-mortem tissue total arsenic concentrations were also detected in large concentrations. In case 3, the contents of the duodenum contained as much as 30.1% arsenic(III) oxide. The high concentrations of arsenic detected in blood and tissues in all presented cases are particularly noteworthy in that they are very rarely detected at these concentrations in fatal arsenic poisonings. PMID:15939162

  7. Diagnosis and treatment experience of 58 cases of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%急性有机磷农药中毒58例诊治体会

    林国群

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究探讨急性有机磷农药中毒。方法:收治急性有机磷农药中毒58例,对其进行检查、急性中毒程度分级和诊疗。结果:58例中痊愈52例,迟发性多发性神经病4例,死亡2例,中间综合征5例均痊愈。结论:急性有机磷农药中毒确诊后,应立即予以积极救治,加强护理。%Objective:To study acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.Method:58 patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were checked,classiifed of acute poisoning,diagnosed and treated.Result:In 58 cases,52 cases were cured;4 cases became delayed polyneuropathy;2 cases died.5 cases of intermediate syndrome were all recovered.Conclusion:After conifrming the diagnosis as acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,it should be actively treated and strengthened nursing.

  8. Determinants of lethality from suicidal pesticide poisoning in metropolitan HsinChu.

    Sheu, J J; Wang, J D; Wu, Y K

    1998-12-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning is a global health problem, especially in developing countries. Although Taiwan has quickly industrialized during the last several decades, pesticide use is still prevalent in the agricultural sector. We reviewed 187 consecutive hospitalized cases of the Provincial HsinChu Hospital from January 1989 through December 1995 to explore the determinants of acute pesticide poisoning in Metropolitan HsinChu. The annual incidence rate of acute pesticide poisoning was 3.2/100,000 with an overall fatality rate of 23% which was more severe than the rates found in developed countries. The major agents involved were organophosphates, and the major cause of poisoning was suicide. Alcohol abuse, history of major medical illnesses, and history of suicide were significantly associated with suicidal poisoning; quarrel was the immediate risk factor. Causes of poisoning (suicide vs non-suicide) and selection of the pesticides were major determinants of lethality. More stringent legislation and enforcement regarding the sale and distribution of extremely toxic pesticides are needed to reduce fatalities due to acute pesticide poisoning. PMID:9830692

  9. Survey of pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka

    J. Jeyaratnam; Seneviratne, R. S. de Alwis; Copplestone, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    This study included a sample survey of the clinical records of patients admitted to the different hospitals in Sri Lanka, and showed that approximately 13 000 patients are admitted to hospital annually for pesticide poisoning and that each year 1000 of them die. Suicidal attempts account for 73% of the total, and occupational and accidental poisoning accounts for 24.9%. It is recommended that urgent action be taken to minimize the extent of the problem.

  10. 江苏南部农民急性生产性农药中毒现况调查%Work-related acute pesticide poisoning among farmers in southern Jiangsu province: a cross-sectional study

    丁道正; 涂志斌; 钱娟; 张徐军; 王峻涛; 朱骏; 杨亚明

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解江苏南部农民急性生产性农药中毒情况和影响因素.方法 采用分层整群随机抽样方法,在江苏南部抽取3个村庄共1 380名农民进行现场问卷调查,采用SPSS 16.0软件进行多因素非条件logistic回归分析.结果 3个村庄农民的急性生产性农药中毒率为8.6%;性别、年龄、喷洒农药前不阅读标签、药械滴漏、用手擦汗、打药时身体受污染以及身体感到不适仍继续打药是急性生产性农药中毒的影响因素(P<0.05);使用农药中的危险行为得分与急性生产性农药中毒之间存在剂量-反应关系(R2=0.9840).结论 江苏南部农民急性生产性农药中毒发生率较高,使用农药中危险行为较多.%Objective To explore characteristics and the risk factors of work-related acute pesticide poisoning among farmers in southern part of Jiangsu province.Methods Stratified cluster sampling was used to investigate 1 380 famers from three rural areas in southern Jiangsu province with a questionnaire survey.The database was set up with Epi Data,and SPSS 16.0 software was used for multivariate unconditional logistic regression analyses.Results The rate of workrelated acute pesticide poisoning among the farmers was 8.6%.The factors of work-related acute pesticide poisoning included gender,age,without reading labels before pesticide use,using leaking knapsack during application,wiping the sweat by hand during application,body contact with the pesticide during application,and continuing pesticide application while in ill health stares (P < 0.05 for all).A dose-response relationship between the score of risk behaviors and workrelated acute pesticide poisoning was observed.Conclusion The rate of work-related acute pesticide poisoning is high and relates to risk behaviors among farmers in southern Jiangsu province.

  11. Pipazethate--acute childhood poisoning.

    da Silva, O A; Lopez, M

    1977-01-01

    A previously healthy child who who had accidentally ingested an unknown quantity of 20-mg tablets of pipazethate developed severe acute poisoning with neurologic, metabolic, and cardiovascular disturbances. She recovered with symptomatic and supportive therapy. PMID:589958

  12. 急性有机磷农药中毒合并呼吸衰竭69例临床分析%Analysis of Acute Organic Phosphorus Pesticide Poisoning Complicated with Respiratory Failure of 69 Cases

    毛崇涛

    2012-01-01

      目的探讨并分析急性有机磷农药中毒合并呼吸衰竭的原因,为临床抢救急性有机磷农药中毒提供帮助。方法回顾分析69例重度有机磷农药中毒合并呼吸衰竭病例。结果抢救有机磷农药中毒的首要措施是恢复有效通气,改善缺氧,必要时行气管插管,这样才能提高抢救的成功率。结论正确分析呼吸衰竭,及时的机械通气支持可以有效提高有机磷农药中毒抢救成功率。%  Objective To study and analysis the acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning combination of respiratory failure reasons, for clinical rescuing patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning offer help. Methods Retrospective analysis of 69 cases of severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning combination of respiratory failure cases. Results The rescue organophosphorus pesticide poisoning first step was to restore effective ventilation, improve the lack of oxygen,make necessary endotracheal intubation,in order to improve the success rate of rescue. Conclusion Correct analysis of respiratory failure, timely mechanical ventilation support can effectively improve the organophosphorus pesticide poisoning rescue success rate.

  13. Carbon monoxide poisoning (acute)

    Olson, Kent; Smollin, Craig

    2010-01-01

    The main symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning are non-specific in nature and relate to effects on the brain and heart. The symptoms correlate poorly with serum carboxyhaemoglobin levels. People with comorbidity, elderly or very young people, and pregnant women are most susceptible.Carbon monoxide is produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon fuels, including inadequately ventilated heaters and car exhausts, or from chemicals such as methylene chloride paint stripper.Poisoning is cons...

  14. Neurology of acute organophosphate poisoning

    Singh Gagandeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organophosphate (OP poisoning is one of the most common poisonings in emergency medicine and toxicological practice in some of the less-developed nations in South Asia. Traditionally, OP poisoning comes under the domain of emergency physicians, internists, intensivists, and toxicologists. However, some of the complications following OP poisoning are neurological and involve neurologists. The pathophysiological basis for the clinical manifestations of OP poisoning is inactivation of the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase at the peripheral nicotinic and muscarinic and central nervous system (CNS nerve terminals and junctions. Nicotinic manifestations occur in severe cases and late in the course; these comprise of fasciculations and neuromuscular paralysis. There is a good correlation between the electrophysiological abnormalities and the severity of the clinical manifestations. Neurophysiological abnormalities characteristic of nicotinic junctions (mainly neuromuscular junction dysfunction include: (1 single, supramaximal electrical-stimulus-induced repetitive response/s, (2 decrement-increment response to high frequency (30 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS, and (3 decremental response to high frequency (30 Hz RNS. Atropine ameliorates muscarinic manifestations. Therapeutic agents that can ameliorate nicotinic manifestations, mainly neuromuscular, are oximes. However, the evidence for this effect is inconclusive. This may be due to the fact that there are several factors that determine the therapeutic effect of oximes. These factors include: The OP compound responsible for poisoning, duration of poisoning, severity of poisoning, and route of exposure. There is also a need to study the effect of oximes on the neurophysiological abnormalities.

  15. Correlation between Cholinesterase and Paraoxonase 1 Activities: Case Series of Pesticide Poisoning Subjects

    S Austin Richard

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute exposure to pesticide due to suicidal poisoning is the most extensive cause of pesticide exposure, compared with all other causes including agricultural or industrial exposure. Organophosphate (OP and carbamate group of pesticides can inhibit acetylcholinesterase; on the other hand, paraoxonase1 can detoxify organophosphate poisoning by hydrolyzing organophosphate metabolites. Methods: We have compared the serum paraoxonase1 status and cholinesterase activity of subjects who attempted to commit suicide by consuming OP pesticide. Cholinesterase and paraoxonase1 activity were measured spectrophotometrically using butyrylthiocholine and phenyl acetate as substrates, respectively. Results: A positive correlation was found between serum paraoxonase1 activity and cholinesterase activity among pesticide consumed subjects. Conclusion: Our results suggest that subjects with higher paraoxonase1 activity may have a better chance of detoxifying the lethal effect of acute organophosphate poisoning.

  16. Acute arsenic poisoning in two siblings.

    Lai, Melisa W; Boyer, Edward W; Kleinman, Monica E; Rodig, Nancy M; Ewald, Michele Burns

    2005-07-01

    We report a case series of acute arsenic poisoning of 2 siblings, a 4-month-old male infant and his 2-year-old sister. Each child ingested solubilized inorganic arsenic from an outdated pesticide that was misidentified as spring water. The 4-month-old child ingested a dose of arsenic that was lethal despite extraordinary attempts at arsenic removal, including chelation therapy, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, exchange transfusion, and hemodialysis. The 2-year-old fared well with conventional therapy. PMID:15995066

  17. Clinical Observation of Penehyclidine Hydrochloride in Treatment of Acute Severe Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning%长托宁治疗重度急性有机磷农药中毒的临床观察

    田昭涛

    2014-01-01

    目的::观察重度急性有机磷农药中毒(Severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,SAOPP)患者的急性症状以及分析其治疗措施。方法:采用血液灌流联合长托宁治疗观察组的患者,运用阿托品治疗对照组的患者,当全血CHE值大于65%时,即可停药。结果:两组的治愈时间、治愈率以及呼吸衰竭例数均存在显著性差异,P<0.05,观察组的治疗效果优于对照组。结论:SAOPP患者病情危急,应根据病情进展采用适当的方法进行治疗。%Objective: Observed severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (Severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning, SAOPP) in patients with acute symptoms and analyze their treatment.Methods:Patients with hemoperfusion therapy combined Changtuoning observation group, the use of atropine treatment of patients in the control group, when whole blood CHE values greater than 65%, can be discontinued.Results:Two sets of cure time, the cure rate and the number of cases of respiratory failure, there were significant differences, P<0.05, treatment observation group than the control group.Conclusion:TSAOPP patients in critical condition, treatment should be based on appropriate methods of disease progression.

  18. Acute myocardial infarction: Can it be a complication of acute organophosphorus compound poisoning?

    Joshi, P.; P Manoria; Joseph, D., T.; Z Gandhi

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphorus compounds are used as pesticides and represent a common cause of poisoning in developing countries including India due to their widespread availability and use. Toxicity due to these agents can affect many organs including heart. Here, we report a case of acute organophosphorus poisoning (parathion), followed by acute myocardial infarction; documented by clinical features, electrocardiographic changes, and elevated cardiac enzymes. Myocardial infarction has been rarely report...

  19. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis

  20. Health information systems and pesticide poisoning at Pernambuco

    Pedro Costa Cavalcanti de Albuquerque

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Understanding the epidemiologic profile of a particular disease is key to undertake health actions. To that end, information systems that present quality data help in the decision-making process and demonstrate the impact of the problems.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the contribution of health information systems for the characterization of pesticide poisoning through SINAN, CEATOX and SIM in the State of Pernambuco.METHOD: In this study, the completeness and consistency of the data were assessed, as well as the epidemiological profile of pesticide poisoning in Pernambuco in the period from 2008 to 2012, based on the following Health Information Systems: Center for Toxicological Assistance of Pernambuco (CEATOX, Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN and Mortality Information System (SIM.RESULTS: The data revealed incompleteness and inconsistencies in information. Regarding the profile, females are more affected in the morbidity profile, and men have a higher mortality rate. Poisoning was more frequent in young adults with low educational level. With regard to the circumstances, most of the cases were suicide attempts, unique acute cases and not related to work. Despite suggesting underreporting, the data showed that persons engaged in agriculture are most commonly affected.CONCLUSION: The strengthening of these systems is necessary for the generation of consistent information that support health policies for the population groups involved.

  1. Clinical analysis of acute organic phosphorus pesticide poisoning and intermediate syndrome%急性有机磷农药中毒与中间综合症临床分析

    迟少妍

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the rescue method of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning and intermediate syndrome. Methods:38 patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were treated from January 2007 to December 2005, including 5 patients with intermediate syndrome, and the treatment of all patients were summarized.Result:Through the timely rescue,31 cases were rescued successfully, 7 cases died.Conclusion: Intermediate syndrome (IMS) is one of the most serious complications of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. For patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,measures should be taken in time to rescue; if patients with intermediate syndrome, should establish an effective mechanical ventilation, and its combined treatment in time, in order to improve the success rate of rescue.%目的:探讨急性有机磷农药中毒及中间综合症的抢救方法。方法2005年1月至2007年12月收治的急性有机磷农药中毒患者共38例,其中发生中间综合征的患者共5例,总结对所有患者采用的抢救措施,评价效果。结果经及时的抢救,31例抢救成功,7例死亡。结论中间综合症(IMS)是急性有机磷农药中毒恢复期最严重的并发症之一。对于急性有机磷农药中毒患者,要及时采取措施加以抢救;如果患者出现中间综合症,要及时建立有效的机械通气,并对其辅以综合治疗,以提高抢救成功率。

  2. 21例急性有机磷农药中毒患者皮肤灼伤处理%21 cases of acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning patients with skin burns

    丁娴; 张文军; 周彬

    2011-01-01

    目的探讨急性有机磷农药中毒患者皮肤灼伤处理.方法回顾性分析我院的21例急性有机磷农药中毒患者皮肤灼伤的临床资料.结果创面浅Ⅱ度6-10天治愈,创面深Ⅱ度10-18天治愈.讨论反复进行灼伤创面清洗以及保持灼伤创面的干燥及涂抹典类制剂是灼伤创面扩大和后期感粢的重要措施.%objective to explore the acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning patients with skin burns. Methods retrospective analysis of 21 cases of acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning were burned skin clinical data. Results the wound H degrees 6-shallow 10 days. II deep wounds heal degrees 10-18 days cured. Discuss the repeated bum wounds and keep the wound clean burns dry and daub Canon agents is wound infection and later expanded burns the important measures.

  3. The experience of emergency treatment on acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%急性重度口服有机磷农药中毒的急救与体会

    张海燕

    2014-01-01

    目的:总结急性重度口服有机磷农药中毒的急救经验。方法:2011年2月-2013年12月救治急性重度口服有机磷农药中毒患者30例,对其实施救治措施。结果:本组30例患者经过救治,意识转清醒时间(1.83±1.2)天,胆碱酯酶活性恢复时间(3.2±1.6)天,住院时间(7.3±2.6)天。临床疗效:治愈29例,治愈率96.7%,死亡1例,死亡率3.3%。结论:清洗被污染的皮肤,彻底洗胃,眼污染时用微温水、2%碳酸氢钠溶液清洗,导泻,阿托品的应用以及早期足量使用氯磷定等,是急救急性重度口服有机磷农药中毒的重要措施。%Objective:To summary the experience of emergency treatment on acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Methods:30 cases with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were selected from February 2011 to December 2013. They were treated with first aid measures.Results:After treatment,the average time of 30 cases from consciousness turned to clear was(1.83 ± 1.2)days.Cholinesterase recovery time was(3.2 ± 1.6)days.Hospitalization time was(7.3 ± 2.6)days.Clinical curative effect:29 cases were cured,and the cure rate was 96.7%.1 cases died,and the mortality was 3.3%.Conclusion: There are important measures for emergency treatment on acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,including:washing the contaminated skin,complete gastric lavage,If eye pollution cleaning its with lukewarm water and 2% sodium bicarbonate solution,catharsis, atropine application,early and adequate use of pralidoxime chloride poisoning.

  4. 急性重度有机磷农药中毒患者死亡危险因素分析%Analysis on risk factors of mortality in patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    孙玮艳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the risk factors of mortality in patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Methods Forty-four patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poison were retrospectively analyzed.Various risk factors were statistically evaluated and mortality of patients was compared between groups.Results Hospital mortality in 44 patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning was 22.7%.The mortality was significantly different between APACHE Ⅱ score ≥20 group and APACHE Ⅱ score<20 group (P <0.01),between age ≥ 60 group and age< 60 group (P <0.01),between hypotensive group and non-hypotensive group (P < 0.05 ),between hypoxemia group and non-hypoxemia group (P < 0.05 ),between metabolic acidosis group and non-metabolic acidosis group (P < 0.05 ).Conclusion APACHE Ⅱ score,age, hypotension, hypoxemia, metabolic acidosis may be the risk factors of mortality in patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,and the items can be used to assess the severity of disease and mortality risk in clinic.%目的:探讨急性重度有机磷农药中毒死亡的危险因素。方法回顾性分析急性重度有机磷农药中毒44例患者的临床资料,对各项危险因素进行统计分析,比较患者的病死率。结果44例急性重度有机磷农药中毒患者住院期间病死率22.7%(10/44),其中急性生理学及慢性健康状况评分(APACHE)≥20分和<20分、年龄≥60岁和<60岁、合并低血压和未合并低血压、合并低氧血症和未合并低氧血症、合并代谢性酸中毒和未合并代谢性酸中毒的患者病死率比较,差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05或<0.01)。结论 APACHEⅡ分值、高龄、低血压、低氧血症、代谢性酸中毒可能是急性重度有机磷农药中毒患者死亡的危险因素,在临床中可以用于评估患者病情严重程度与死亡风险。

  5. 急性有机磷农药中毒22例死亡原因分析%Causal analysis of Death in 22 cases with acute organophosphorus pesticids poisoning

    王志祥; 马福来

    2002-01-01

    @@ 有机磷农药是目前应用最为广泛的农业杀虫剂,有机磷农药急性中毒(acute organophosphorus pesticides poisoning,AOPP)居基层医院内科急诊中毒病例之首,病死率在10%以上[1].我院1996年1月~2000年12月共收治有机磷农药急性中毒154例,死亡22例,病死率为28.3%.本文为了提高抢救成功率,降低病死率,分析如下.

  6. Acute poisoning in children; changes over the years, data of pediatric clinic department of toxicology

    Alije Keka

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: In our study drugs and house cleaning products are the most frequent agents causing accidental poisoning in children less than 5 years-old, this age of children is the most susceptible in terms of morbidity. Compared with the previous studies in Pediatric Clinic of Pristina, drugs are still the most frequent cause of acute poisoning in children; the number of poisoning with pesticides has fallen but has increased the number of poisoning with cleaning products. All preventive measures against poisoning should be taken including preventive strategies of education at national level especially in drug and household product storage.

  7. Pesticides poisoning in San Miguel de Tucumán during 2001-2002

    Marta Peñaloza de Terán

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are a frequent worldwide poisoning cause due to their wide spreading and use. The aim of this paper was to describe and analyzed data from 184 patients seen for acute pesticide poisoning at the Toxicology Department of the Municipal Health Bureau of the city of S. M. de Tucumán during 2001-2002. The poisonings were diagnosed by anamnesis and clinic exploration and lab-confirmed using thin-layer chromatography and enzymatic methods. Poisoning motivation (occupational, environmental, food and suicide attempts, age, sex, pesticide type and incidence area were analyzed.Motivations were: occupational (OP (39%, suicide attempts (SA (25%, food (FP (18% and environmental (EP (18%. 94% of OP were males and 82% of SA, females. 94% of EP affected people under 20 years of age. In 58% of the cases organophosphate pesticides were involved. Results show the importance of making workers and population in general aware of the pesticides use and of limiting and strictly controlling the trade of such products.

  8. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  9. Cases of Acute Poisoning in Southeast Anatolia of Turkey

    Cahfer Güloğlu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the biological effects of acute poisoning, nature ofagents involved and pattern of poisoning during 2000 in Diyarbakır City in Southeast AnatolianRegion of Turkey.Data from hospital records of all admissions to Emergency Department (ED of Dicle UniversityHospital following acute poisoning collected retrospectively were analysed for the period January toDecember in 2000. Present study included 44 (25.9% male (M and 126 (74.1% female (F, a total170 consecutive patients. A M/F ratio was found as 1.0/3.5 in the study.Mean age of cases was 23.3±6.3 years old; 63 (37.1% of them were under age of 20 years oldand 147 (86.5% of them were under age of 30 years old. Cases of intoxication have admitted insummer season (93 of 170 patients, especially in April, May and July (24, 26 and 30 patients,respectively. Sixty-two (36.5% cases due to accidental, 108 (63.5% cases due to suicidal goal. Thecases of suicidal purposeful intoxications were mostly determined in females (77 cases, 71.3%,p<0.05, and singles (74 cases, 68.5%, p<0.05. There were only two deaths (1.2% among the 170admissions of acute poisonings during hospitaliztion. One of the deaths was due to pesticides; otherone was due to abuse of medical drug. According to physical examination, tachycardia (59, 34.7%,vomit history (55, 32.4%, and unconsciousness (42, 24.7% were frequently observed; however,hypersecretion (15, 8.8%, bradycardia (5, 2.9%, convulsion (8, 4.7%, and hipertension (2, 1.2%,were seen rarely. Cases who poisoned with pesticide compared other cases have had significantlyhigher rate of convulsion (6, 10.2%, miosis (6, 10.2%, and hypersecretion (12, 20.3% (p=0.018,p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively.In our region, pesticides intoxication especially affected to young unmarried females, and mostof them resulted from suicidal purpose. The annual rate of poisoning-related ED visits and mortalitywere within the reported ranges, psychoactive agents being

  10. 急性有机磷农药中毒的院前救治护理%Acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning for treatment of pre-hospital care

    吴丽莹; 黄品超; 罗明春

    2012-01-01

      Objective Discussion of severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning in patients with pre-hospital emergency treatment and effective care, to improve the success rate. Methods Retrospective analysis the situation of patients with 25 cases of pre-hospital case management and care in our hospital from May 2010 to December 2011 .Results Getting the victims of organophosphorus intoxication out of the toxic environment in time , patients with early gastric lavage nearby, matching doctors with the application of drug detoxification and nursing, attention to the close observation of the course of delivery , strengthening the psychological care pre-hospitaly is an important guarantee for success.Conclusions Effective pre-hospital treatment and care can improve the survival rate.%  目的探讨急性有机磷农药中毒患者的院前有效救治护理,以提高抢救成功率。方法回顾总结我院2010年5月至2011年12月25例患者的院前救治及护理情况。结果对有机磷农药中毒患者及时脱离中毒环境,早期就近洗胃,配合医生做好解毒药物的应用及护理,运送过程注意密切观察病情,加强心理护理是院前救治成功的重要保证。结论有效的院前救治及护理能提高抢救成功率。

  11. Severe chorea after acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Davous, P; Rondot, P; Marion, M H; Gueguen, B

    1986-01-01

    Ten days after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide, a 33-year-old woman exhibited severe chorea. CT scan revealed bilateral lucencies of the pallidum and anterior arm of the internal capsule. Chorea was successfully treated by chlorpromazine and did not relapse after treatment withdrawal. The mechanism of chorea in acute carbon monoxide poisoning is discussed.

  12. Analysis of Recent Situation of Pesticide Poisoning in Bangladesh: Is There a Proper Estimate?

    Gourab Dewan

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Pesticide poisoning is responsible for great number of admissions and deaths in Bangladesh. Creating a register of commercially available pesticides in each region for rapid identification of nature of the pesticide is recommended.

  13. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan; Atilla Çayır; Haşim Olgun

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific...

  14. 急性重度有机磷农药中毒合并呼吸、心跳停止8例临床救治%Clinical treatment of 8 cases of acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning with respiratory,cardiac arrest

    韩海涛

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨急性重度有机磷农药中毒并呼吸、心跳停止的临床救治。方法:收治8例急性重度有机磷农药中毒并呼吸、心跳停止的患者,对其临床资料进行回顾性分析。结果:患者均抢救成功。结论:给予急性重度有机磷农药中毒并呼吸、心跳停止的患者积极有效的治疗,可促进其康复。%Objective:To explore the clinical treatment of acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning with respiratory, cardiac arrest.Methods:8 cases with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning with respiratory,cardiac arrest were selected.The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed.Results:All the patients were successfully treated.Conclusion:The positive and effective treatment for patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning with respiratory,cardiac arrest,can promote the rehabilitation.

  15. Pesticide poisoning in the developing world--a minimum pesticides list

    Eddleston, Michael; Karalliedde, Lakshman; Buckley, Nick;

    2002-01-01

    In parts of the developing world, pesticide poisoning causes more deaths than infectious diseases. Use of pesticides is poorly regulated and often dangerous; their easy availability also makes them a popular method of self-harm. In 1985, the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) produced a...... voluntary code of conduct for the pesticide industry in an attempt to limit the harmful effects of pesticides. Unfortunately, a lack of adequate government resources in the developing world makes this code ineffective, and thousands of deaths continue today. WHO has recommended that access to highly toxic...... pesticides be restricted--where this has been done, suicide rates have fallen. Since an Essential Drugs List was established in 1977, use of a few essential drugs has rationalised drug use in many regions. An analogous Minimum Pesticides List would identify a restricted number of less dangerous pesticides to...

  16. Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    Eddleston Michael

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self-harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. Methods The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an agricultural region of Sri Lanka. Patients who had self-poisoned with pesticides and were admitted to the adult medical wards were interviewed by study doctors following initial resuscitation to identify the source of pesticides they have ingested. Results Of the 669 patients included in the analysis, 425 (63.5% were male; the median age was 26 (IQR 20-36. In 511 (76% cases, the pesticides had been stored either inside or immediately outside the house; among this group only eight patients obtained pesticides that were kept in a locked container. Ten percent (n = 67 of the patients used pesticides stored in the field while 14% (n = 91 purchased pesticides from shops within a few hours of the episode. The most common reasons for choosing the particular pesticide for self-harm were its easy accessibility (n = 311, 46% or its popularity as a suicide agent in their village (n = 290, 43%. Conclusion Three quarters of people who ingested pesticides in acts of self-harm used products that were available within the home or in close proximity; relatively few patients purchased the pesticide for the act. The study highlights the importance of reducing the accessibility of toxic pesticides in the domestic environment.

  17. Acute poisoning in northern Vietnam: epidemiologic, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects

    Ha, Tran Hung

    2010-01-01

    Poisoning is a major health problem in northern Vietnam. The aims of these studies were to improve prevention, differential diagnosis and treatment of this threat to the public. A hospital-based retrospective study of poisoning emergencies admitted to the first Poison Control Center (PCC) in Vietnam during the years 1999 and 2003 (Paper I) revealed that a vast majority of the poisoning emergencies occurred at home. Pesticides, hypnotic pharmaceuticals and heroin were among t...

  18. Acute Poisoning in Children in Bahia, Brazil

    Rodrigues Mendonça, Dilton; Menezes, Marta Silva; Matos, Marcos Antônio Almeida; Rebouças, Daniel Santos; Filho, Jucelino Nery da Conceição; de Assis, Reginara Souza; Carneiro, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Acute poisoning is a frequent accident in childhood, particularly in children under 4 years of age. This was a descriptive study with data collected from standardized forms of the Poison Control Center and patient record charts. All the cases of acute poisoning in children aged 0 to 14 years during the period 2008 to 2012 were selected. The variables studied comprised characteristics of the events and toxic agents, clinical development, and outcome. A total of 657 cases of acute poisoning, with higher frequency in the age-group from 1 to 4 years (48.7%) and male sex (53.4%), were recorded. The occurrences were accidental in 92% of the cases, and 5.8% were due to suicide attempts. Among the toxic agents, medications (28.5%), venomous animals (19.3%), nonvenomous animals (10%), household cleaning products (9.0%), and raticide agents (8.7%) predominated. The majority of cases were characterized as light (73.5%) and around 18% required hospitalization, and there was low lethality (0.5%). PMID:27335994

  19. Acute Poisoning in Children in Bahia, Brazil.

    Rodrigues Mendonça, Dilton; Menezes, Marta Silva; Matos, Marcos Antônio Almeida; Rebouças, Daniel Santos; Filho, Jucelino Nery da Conceição; de Assis, Reginara Souza; Carneiro, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Acute poisoning is a frequent accident in childhood, particularly in children under 4 years of age. This was a descriptive study with data collected from standardized forms of the Poison Control Center and patient record charts. All the cases of acute poisoning in children aged 0 to 14 years during the period 2008 to 2012 were selected. The variables studied comprised characteristics of the events and toxic agents, clinical development, and outcome. A total of 657 cases of acute poisoning, with higher frequency in the age-group from 1 to 4 years (48.7%) and male sex (53.4%), were recorded. The occurrences were accidental in 92% of the cases, and 5.8% were due to suicide attempts. Among the toxic agents, medications (28.5%), venomous animals (19.3%), nonvenomous animals (10%), household cleaning products (9.0%), and raticide agents (8.7%) predominated. The majority of cases were characterized as light (73.5%) and around 18% required hospitalization, and there was low lethality (0.5%). PMID:27335994

  20. ONE CASE REPORT OF ACUTE POISONING BY BARIUM CARBONATE

    GE Qin-min; BIAN Fan; WANG Shu-yun; SHEN Sheng-hui

    2009-01-01

    @@ Most barium poisoning cases were caused by oral intake by mistake. Recent years, barium carbonate poisoning has been rare to be reported. Here we reported a case of acute barium carbonate toxication taken orally on purpose.

  1. Pattern of acute food, drug, and chemical poisoning in Sari City, Northern Iran.

    Ahmadi, Amirhossein; Pakravan, Nasrin; Ghazizadeh, Zeynab

    2010-09-01

    This descriptive and retrospective study was conducted at the poisoning ward of Imam teaching hospital, Sari, Iran, with the aim of evaluating the pattern of poisoning. Hence, the medical profiles of 2057 patients, who were admitted, were carefully reviewed during the period from April 2006 to March 2008 for 2 years. During this period, 2057 cases, 53.9% female and 46.1% male, were admitted with the indication of acute poisoning. The greatest proportion of poisoning occurred between the ages of 18 and 29 years, with suicidal intentions. Most cases of poisoning were intentional (85%). The most common agents involved in acute poisoning were drugs (77.7%), especially sedatives/hypnotics such as benzodiazepines, followed by opioid analgesics. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides were the third major agent that induced poisoning. Twenty-seven patients (1.3%) who were mostly females and young adults died. Death mostly occurred due to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides (19 cases) poisoning, followed by sedatives/hypnotics like benzodiazepines (3 cases). High prevalence of intentional overdose and mortality among young adults requires considerable attention and further studies to find out the underlying causes. In addition, strict rules must be followed regarding the sale of central nervous system drugs and pesticides, particularly organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. Establishing poison information centers in different parts of the country, preparing national treatment guidelines, training healthcare providers, and ensuring easy availability of the antidotes are also recommended. PMID:20144960

  2. The Profile of Acute Poisonings in South East of Turkey

    Davut Akın; Yekta Tüzün; Timuçin Çil

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to analyze the rate characteristics of acute poisonning adults admitted to Departments emergency and hospitalized in Department of internal medicineAll cases of acute poisoning admitted to Dicle University Hospital, between, 2005 and 2006, were included in study. Clinical, laboratory, and demographic characteristics, type of poison and patient’s outcomes were recorded.Eighty poisoning cases included in the study. The mean age was 23±8 years and the majori...

  3. Acute organophosphorus poisoning complicated by acute coronary syndrome.

    Pankaj, Madhu; Krishna, Kavita

    2014-07-01

    We report a case of 30 year old alcoholic male admitted with vomiting, drowsiness, limb weakness and fasciculations after alleged history of consumption of 30 ml of chlorpyriphos insecticide. He had low serum cholinesterase levels. With standard treatment for organophosphorus poisoning (OPP), he improved gradually until day 5, when he developed neck and limb weakness and respiratory distress. This intermediate syndrome was treated with oximes, atropine and artificial ventilation. During treatment, his ECG showed fresh changes of ST elevation. High CPK & CPK-MB levels, septal hypokinesia on 2D echo suggested acute coronary syndrome. Coronary angiography was postponed due to his bedridden and obtunded status. The patient finally recovered fully by day 15 and was discharged. Acute coronary syndrome is a rare occurrence in OP poisoning. The present case thus emphasises the need for careful electrocardiographic and enzymatic monitoring of all patients of organophosphorus poisoning to prevent potential cardiac complication which can prove fatal. PMID:25672037

  4. Gastric lavage in patients with acute poisoning

    Montserrat Amigó Tadín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisonings are a frequent complaint in emergency departments and therapy which prevents the absorption of toxic products taken orally is often indicated: one such option is gastric lavage. Gastric lavage is a digestive decontamination technique whose goal is to remove the maximum amount of poison from the stomach and prevent its absorption. The procedure involves inserting a gastric tube into the stomach through the mouth or nose; firstly to aspirate all the stomach contents and then to perform gastric washing manoeuvres. The effectiveness of gastric lavage is limited and involves a risk of iatrogenesis, and therefore the indications and contraindications should be carefully considered and the technique carried out meticulously to increase its effectiveness and reduce complications, primarily bronchoaspiration. Gastric lavage may be used in conjunction with other digestive decontamination techniques such as administration of activated charcoal. This gastric lavage protocol is based on a review of the literature on this procedure and is supported by the expertise of our research group in gastrointestinal decontamination techniques in patients with acute poisoning.

  5. Factors associated with the decline in suicide by pesticide poisoning in Taiwan

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Eddleston, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    the workforce involved in agriculture and unemployment. We compared pesticide products banned by the Taiwanese government with products that remained on the market and pesticides that accounted for the most poisoning deaths in Taiwan. Results. Age-standardised rates of pesticide suicide showed a 67...... trends in pesticide suicide in Taiwan. Targeted bans on pesticides should focus on those products that account for most deaths....

  6. Acute poisoning in children; changes over the years, data of pediatric clinic department of toxicology

    Keka Alije; Ramosaj A; Toro H; Azemi M; Baloku A; Sylaj B; Lenjani B; Kyseni K

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To present the frequency, etiology, changes over the years of acute poisoning in children admitted toPediatricClinic ofPristina and to determine the extent and characteristics of the problem, according to which related preventive measures can be taken.Methods:Retrospectively we have analyzed the epidemiology of accidental and suicidal poisonings in children hospitalization inPediatricClinicDepartment ofToxicology during the year2012. Our data we compared with data from previous studies on acute poisoning in children in the PediatricClinic conducted during the years1976-1985 and2001.Results:During the year2012, inPediatricClinic ofPristina5723 children were hospitalized,136 of them or2.3% were treated due to acute poisoning inDepartment ofToxicology,82 of them was boys and54 was girls, rate boys girls was1.5:1.The majority of cases101 or74.2% were under five years with peak age three and35% or25.7% were over five years.The most of the cases was accidentally97% and only 2.9% was suicidal and all of them were over the age of ten.Drugs were the most common agent causing the poisoning71(52.2%) followed by house cleaning products38(27.9%), food10(5.8%), pesticides7(5.14%), rare agent that caused poisoning were: narcotic substances, plant, heavy metals, alcohol, carbon monoxide, carburant.Poisoning occurred mostly in spring and the peak was observed inMay,(1.17% of all patients).January was the month of lowest rate of poisoning. During the years1976-1985, inPediatricClinic ofPristina900 children were hospitalized due to acute poisoning,44.11% were from drugs,15.88% from pesticides,65(7.2%), while during2001 in the unit care intensive were hospitalized66 children due to acute poisoning, among them51.5% were poisoning from drugs,30.03 from pesticides,12.2% from cleaning products.Conclusion:In our study drugs and house cleaning products are the most frequent agents causing accidental poisoning in children less than5 years-old, this age of children is the most

  7. Acute aluminium phosphide poisoning, what is new?

    Yatendra Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide that is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently generated interest with increasing number of cases in the past four decades because of its increased use for agricultural and nonagricultural purposes, and also its easy availability in the markets has led to its increased misuse to commit suicide. Ingestion is usually suicidal in intent, uncommonly accidental and rarely homicidal. The poison affects all systems, shock, cardiac arrhythmias with varied ECG changes and gastrointestinal features being the most prominent. Diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical suspicion, a positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination of coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Unfortunately, the lack of a specific antidote Results in very high mortality and the key to treatment lies in rapid decontamination and institution of resuscitative measures. This article aims to identify the salient features and mechanism of AlP poisoning along with its management strategies and prognostic variables.

  8. Cortical blindness in acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Katafuchi, Y; Nishimi, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Matsuishi, T; Kimura, Y; Otaki, E; Yamashita, Y

    1985-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy had persistent cortical blindness following acute carbon monoxide poisoning. He was believed to have suffered anoxic brain damage due to incomplete combustion of the briquette-type solid fuel. Computed tomographic (CT) scan of the brain and visual evoked potentials (VEP) in the early stage were normal. However, on the 20th hospital day CT scan showed leukomalacia and VEP showed an absence of N1-, and P1-waves which was well correlated with the clinical feature at that time. PMID:4083389

  9. Acute Anterolateral Myocardial Infarction Due to Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    Bita Dadpour; Zohre Oghabian

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a highly effective rodenticide which is used as a suicide poison. Herein, a 24 year-old man who’d intentionally ingested about 1liter of alcohol and one tablet of AlP is reported. Acute myocardial infarction due to AlP poisoning has been occurred secondary to AIP poisoning. Cardiovascular complications are poor prognostic factors in AlP poisoning

  10. Acute Anterolateral Myocardial Infarction Due to Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    Bita Dadpour

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum phosphide (AlP is a highly effective rodenticide which is used as a suicide poison. Herein, a 24 year-old man who’d intentionally ingested about 1liter of alcohol and one tablet of AlP is reported. Acute myocardial infarction due to AlP poisoning has been occurred secondary to AIP poisoning. Cardiovascular complications are poor prognostic factors in AlP poisoning

  11. 阿托品救治有机磷中毒不同给药途径的疗效比较%Study on Atropine Administration Methods in Rescuing Patients with Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning

    黄新桥; 谭琪敏; 钟房友; 钟丽娴

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of different atropine medications in remedy of severely acute organophosphorus pesticide. Methods A retrospective study were performed.This study was carried out in 75 patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. The patients were divided into three groups according atropine medications: Group A(25 cases), were treated with intravenous injection of atropine and artificial; Group B(25 cases)directly with micro pump delivery, Group C(25 cases)achieved using micro-pump after atropine administration patients are atropine artificial intravenous injection, the patient achieved using micro-pump after atropine administration; Compared the efficacy and complications among the three groups. Results There is significant difference between minim continuous pump after atropine administration and interval injecting or minim continuous pump. As a result, the patients in Group C were more effective and fewer complications than that in Group A and C. Conclusion Using micro-pump after atropine administration artificial intravenous injection of atropine was the better effect, it has proved to be a fine medication.%目的:分析基层医院救治有机磷中毒患者时,阿托品不同给药方式的疗效差异,为探索其最佳给药方法提供依据。方法回顾分析75例急性有机磷农药中毒患者的临床资料,25例进行人工间歇静脉推注阿托品法(A 组),25例采用微量泵持续静脉输注阿托品法(B 组,25例先间歇静脉推注阿托品,达阿托品化后再用微量泵泵入阿托品(C 组),分析比较三组阿托品化时间、用量、住院时间、疗效以及不良反应和并发症。结果 C 组阿托品化时间、用量、住院时间、阿托品过量、不足中毒、用量、尿潴留和多器官功能损害等明显降低而治愈率显著提高(P <0.05)。结论采用阿托品人工静脉推注,待患者阿托品化再予以微量泵给药,不仅起效

  12. Acute Pancreatitis Caused By Mushroom Poisoning

    Karahan, Samet; Erden, Abdulsamet; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avci, Deniz; Ortakoyluoglu, Adile Irfan; Karagoz, Hatice; Bulut, Kadir; Basak, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Of the more than 5000 species of mushrooms known, 100 types are toxic and approximately 10% of these toxic types can cause fatal toxicity. A type of mushroom called Amanita phalloides is responsible for 95% of toxic mushroom poisonings. In this article, we report 2 cases of mushroom poisonings caused by Lactarius volemus, known as Tirmit by the local people. The patient and his wife were admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting 20 hours after consuming Lactarius volemus, an edible type of mushroom. The patients reported that they had been collecting this mushroom from the mountains and eating them for several years but had never developed any clinicopathology to date. Further examination of the patients revealed a very rare case of acute pancreatitis due to mushroom intoxication. The male patient was admitted to the intensive care unit while his wife was followed in the internal medicine service, because of her relative mild clinical symptoms. Both patients recovered without sequelae and were discharged. In this article, we aimed to emphasize that gastrointestinal symptoms are often observed in mushroom intoxications and can be confused with acute pancreatitis, thus leading to misdiagnosis of patients. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve patients’ prognosis and prevent the development of complications. PMID:26835473

  13. 江苏省农村居民急性生产性农药中毒调查及危险因素%Investigation of work-related acute pesticide poisoning among farmers in Jiangsu Province and the risk factors

    崔梦晶; 涂志斌; 顾月; 张徐军

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence of work-related acute pesticide poisoning among farmers in Jiangsu Province and to identify the risk factors.Methods Multi-stage stratified sampling and cluster sampling methods were used to randomly select 1490 farmers from the south (Z village),centre (Y village) and north (X village) of Jiangsu Province.The database was established by EpiData 3.1.SPSS 17.0 and SAS 9.13 were used to do chi-square test,trend chi-square test,single factor and multi-factor logistic regression analysis.Results Among 1490 farmers,121 people had work-related acute pesticide poisoning in the past year.The incidence rate in Jiangsu Province was 8.1%.118 farmers (97.5%) were mild pesticide poisoning.3 farmers (2.5%) were moderate pesticide poisoning.The incidence rate of Work-related acute pesticide poisoning in X village of North Jiangsu Province (13.5%,68/505) is obviously higher than that in Y village of Central Jiangsu Province(4.8%,19/399) and Z village of South Jiangsu Province(5.8%,34/586),and the difference is statistically significant (x2=29.60,P<0.01).The incidence rate of Work-related acute pesticide poisoning in female (10.4%,58/557) is obviously higher than that in male (6.8%,63/933),and the difference is statistically significant (x2 =6.26,P<0.05).There are lack of safety guidance,unsafety application methods (without alternate row spraying,without backward application,without down-wind application) and risk behaviors in the spraying (without read labels,preparing pesticides without gloves,wiping sweat with hand (s),equipment leakage,body pollution by pesticide,working when feeling sick,without bath after work).If farmers have risk behaviors above,the incidence rate of Work-related acute pesticide poisoning will be obviously higher than farmers who receive safety guidance and have no such dangerous behaviors,and all the differences are statistically significant (P<0.05).The group of 24~34 years old has the highest

  14. Effect of acute paraquat poisoning on CYP450 isoforms activity in rats by cocktail method.

    Wang, Shuanghu; Wang, Zhiyi; Chen, Dongxin; Chen, Mengchun; Lin, Yingying; Liu, Zezheng; Zhang, Lijing; Wen, Congcong; Wang, Xianqin; Ma, Jianshe

    2015-01-01

    Paraquat is a highly effective contact herbicide that is marketed worldwide as a fantastical, non-selective compound for broadleaf weed control. As compared to most pesticides, paraquat is extremely toxic to humans and the lack of strategies to manage paraquat poisoning has resulted in high fatality rates. The rats were randomly divided into acute paraquat poisoning group and control group. The paraquat group rats were given 36 mg/kg paraquat by intragastric administration. The influence of acute paraquat poisoning on the activities of CYP450 isoforms CYP2B6, CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 were evaluated by cocktail method, they were responded by the changes of pharmacokinetic parameters of bupropion, phenacetin, tolbutamide, metoprolol, midazolam and omeprazole. The six probe drugs were given to rats through intragastric administration, and the plasma concentrations were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. In the results of paraquat group compared to control group, there was statistical pharmacokinetic difference for bupropion, tolbutamide, metoprolol, midazolam and omeprazole. Acute paraquat poisoning may induce the activities of CYP2C19, and inhibit of CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 in rats. This may give advising for reasonable drug use after acute paraquat poisoning. PMID:26770539

  15. Community uptake of safe storage boxes to reduce self-poisoning from pesticides in rural Sri Lanka

    van der Hoek Wim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute poisoning by agricultural pesticides is a well established global public health problem. Keeping pesticides under safe storage is now promoted as a potential way to reduce the number of severe poisoning cases. However, there have been no published studies documenting the feasibility of such an approach. Therefore, the objective of the study presented here was to determine community perceptions and use of in-house safe storage boxes for pesticides in rural Sri Lanka. Methods Boxes with a lock, to be used for the in-house safe storage of pesticides, were distributed to 200 randomly selected farming households in two agricultural communities. A baseline survey determined pesticide storage practices and household characteristics prior to distribution. The selected households were encouraged to make use of the box at community meetings and during a single visit to each household one month after distribution. No further encouragement was offered. A follow-up survey assessed storage practices seven months into the project. Results Following the distribution of the boxes the community identified a number of benefits including the protection of pesticide containers against exposure from the rain and sun and a reduced risk of theft. Data were analysed for 172 households that reported agricultural use of pesticides at follow-up. Of these, 141 (82% kept pesticides in the house under lock against 3 (2% at baseline. As expected, the distribution of boxes significantly reduced the number of households storing pesticides in the field, from 79 (46% at baseline to 4 (2% at follow-up. There was a significant increase in the number of households keeping pesticides safe from children between baseline (64% and seven months after the distribution of boxes (89%. The same was true for adults although less pronounced with 51% at baseline and 66% at follow-up. Conclusion The farming community appreciated the storage boxes and made storage of

  16. Pre-hospital treatment of acute poisonings in Oslo

    Nore Anne K; Bjornaas Mari A; Hovda Knut E; Heyerdahl Fridtjof; Figueiredo Jose CP; Ekeberg Oivind; Jacobsen Dag

    2008-01-01

    Background Poisoned patients are often treated in and discharged from pre-hospital health care settings. Studies of poisonings should therefore not only include hospitalized patients. Aims: To describe the acutely poisoned patients treated by ambulance personnel and in an outpatient clinic; compare patients transferred to a higher treatment level with those discharged without transfer; and study the one-week mortality after pre-hospital discharge. ...

  17. The Profile of Acute Poisonings in South East of Turkey

    Davut Akın

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this prospective study was to analyze the rate characteristics of acute poisonning adults admitted to Departments emergency and hospitalized in Department of internal medicineAll cases of acute poisoning admitted to Dicle University Hospital, between, 2005 and 2006, were included in study. Clinical, laboratory, and demographic characteristics, type of poison and patient’s outcomes were recorded.Eighty poisoning cases included in the study. The mean age was 23±8 years and the majority of the patients (75% were in 15-25 years of ages. 85% of acute poisonings were self-inflicted. Medical drugs overdose were the major cause (62.5% of intoxication followed by agricultural chemicals (35%. The most frequently involved medicinal drugs were psychiatric drugs (20% and paracetamol (17.5%. There was a high rate of suicides attemp in groups of young singles, females, crowded families, patients with low education status, and patient living in cities.

  18. 急性有机磷农药中毒致呼吸衰竭的影响因素分析%Study on correlated clinical factors of respiratory failure induced by acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    陶贤洲; 王佐

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析急性有机磷农药中毒( AOPP)致呼吸衰竭的相关临床因素,为制订有效的预防及干预措施提供科学依据。方法回顾分析94例重性AOPP患者临床资料,根据血气分析结果将患者分为呼吸衰竭组(41例)和非呼吸衰竭组(53例),观察患者的APACHEⅡ评分、胆碱酯酶、血糖、血清淀粉酶、肝肾功能及心肌酶谱等指标。结果胆碱酯酶水平呼吸衰竭组患者低于非呼吸衰竭组患者(P<0.05);APACHEⅡ评分、血清淀粉酶、肝肾功能及心肌酶谱等,呼吸衰竭组患者高于非呼吸衰竭组患者(P<0.05);Logistic回归分析显示APACHEⅡ评分、胆碱酯酶及血清淀粉酶与呼吸衰竭相关。结论 APACHEⅡ评分、胆碱酯酶及血清淀粉酶水平可作为AOPP引起呼吸衰竭的预测指标。%Objective To investigate the correlated clinical factors of respiratory failure induced by acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning ( AOPP) ,and to provide relevant data for prevention and intervention of respiratory failure .Methods This retrospective study in-cluded 94 patients with severe AOPP ,and all patients were divided into respiratory failure group ( n=41 ) and non-respiratory failure group (n=53) according to arterial blood gas analysis .We observed APACHEⅡscores,cholinesterase,blood glucose,serum amylase,hepatic func-tion,renal function and myocardial enzyme between the two groups .Results Cholinesterase level in the respiratory failure group was lower than that in non-respiratory failure group (P<0.05);APACHEⅡ scores,serum amylase,hepatic function,renal function and myocardial enzyme in the respiratory failure group were higher than those of non-respiratory failure group (P<0.05).Spearman correlation analysis and Logistic regression analyses showed APACHEⅡscores,cholinesterase and serum amylase were related to respiratory failure ,and they had sig-nificant predictive effects on respiratory failure

  19. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning alters hemorheological parameters in human.

    Ozturk, Baris; Arihan, Okan; Coskun, Figen; Dikmenoglu-Falkmarken, Neslihan H

    2016-01-01

    Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning seriously hinders oxygen delivery to tissues. This harmful effect of CO may be aggravated by accompanying changes in the viscosity of blood. We had previously reported increased plasma viscosity in people chronically exposed to CO. This study was planned to test our hypothesis that acute CO poisoning increases blood viscosity. For this purpose four main parameters contributing to blood viscosity - hematocrit, erythrocyte deformability, erythrocyte aggregation and plasma viscosity - were determined in patients with acute CO poisoning and compared with healthy controls. Plasma viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation tendency were lower in the CO group (p <  0.05). Erythrocyte deformability was also lower in CO group (p <  0.05). Our results indicate that acute CO poisoning has diverse effects on hemorheological parameters such as attenuating hematocrit value, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation tendency and erythrocyte deformability. PMID:25536918

  20. Acute human self-poisoning with imidacloprid compound: a neonicotinoid insecticide.

    Fahim Mohamed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Deliberate self-poisoning with older pesticides such as organophosphorus compounds are commonly fatal and a serious public health problem in the developing world. The clinical consequences of self-poisoning with newer pesticides are not well described. Such information may help to improve clinical management and inform pesticide regulators of their relative toxicity. This study reports the clinical outcomes and toxicokinetics of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid following acute self-poisoning in humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Demographic and clinical data were prospectively recorded in patients with imidacloprid exposure in three hospitals in Sri Lanka. Blood samples were collected when possible for quantification of imidacloprid concentration. There were 68 patients (61 self-ingestions and 7 dermal exposures with exposure to imidacloprid. Of the self-poisoning patients, the median time to presentation was 4 hours (IQR 2.3-6.0 and median amount ingested was 15 mL (IQR 10-50 mL. Most patients only developed mild symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, headache and diarrhoea. One patient developed respiratory failure needing mechanical ventilation while another was admitted to intensive care due to prolonged sedation. There were no deaths. Median admission imidacloprid concentration was 10.58 ng/L; IQR: 3.84-15.58 ng/L, Range: 0.02-51.25 ng/L. Changes in the concentration of imidacloprid in serial blood samples were consistent with prolonged absorption and/or saturable elimination. CONCLUSIONS: Imidacloprid generally demonstrates low human lethality even in large ingestions. Respiratory failure and reduced level of consciousness were the most serious complications, but these were uncommon. Substitution of imidacloprid for organophosphorus compounds in areas where the incidence of self-poisoning is high may help reduce deaths from self-poisoning.

  1. Analysis of characteristics of acute poisoning caused by various poisons in Guangxi, China%广西各类毒物致急性中毒分析

    胡德宏; 张振明; 刘清华; 蒋东方

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics of acute poisonings caused by various poisons in Guangxi,China.Methods A retrospective investigation was performed in 5859 cases of acute poisonings who were admitted to 63 hospitals in 11 cities,as well as 531 types of poisons involved.The poisons were categorized into 6 groups; each group of cases was stratified by the rural or urban settings,frequency of poisoning,and cause of poisoning to analyze the numbers of cases and constituent ratios.Results Most types of poisons (68.74%) belonged to drugs (217 types) and pesticides (148 types).Most cases of poisonings (61.63%) were caused by pesticides (n=2547) and chemicals (n=1064).Pesticides,poisons of plant origins,and poisons of animal origins were responsible for most of the cases in rural settings; 88.46%,79.10%,and 66.74% of the cases of these poison categories happened in rural settings.Chemicals,drugs,and other poisons were responsible for most of the cases in urban settings; 70.20%,61.74%,and 63.73% of the cases of these poison categories happened in urban settings.The numbers of cases in 5-year-poisoning groups were the highest in all categories of poisons,accounting for 85.24%,88.57%,55.16%,70.79%,68.36%,and 66.44% of cases of respective categories.Most cases of poisonings by chemicals,poisons of animal origin,and other poisons were accident-related (86.24%,72.66%,and 46.71% of the poison categories).Most cases of poisonings by pesticides and drugs were suiciderelated (59.39% and 33.52% of the poison categories).Most cases by poisons of plant origin were caused by accidental ingestion (70.36% of the poison category).Conclusion Most of the acute poisonings in Guangxi area are caused by pesticides and chemicals; the most common causes of poisoning are accidents,accidental ingestion,and suicide.There are significant differences in the causes of acute poisonings between the urban and rural settings.%目的 探讨广西各类毒

  2. Emergency care outcomes of acute chemical poisoning cases in Rawalpindi

    Ibrar Rafique; Umbreen Akhtar; Umar Farooq; Mussadiq Khan; Junaid Ahmad Bhatti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the emergency care outcomes of acute chemical poisoning cases in tertiary care settings in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods: The data were extracted from an injury surveillance study conducted in the emergency departments (ED) of three tertiary care hospitals of Rawalpindi city from July 2007 to June 2008. The World Health Organization standard reporting questionnaire (one page) was used for recording information. Associations of patients' characteristics with ED care outcomes, i.e., admitted vs. discharged were assessed using logistic regression models. Results: Of 62 530 injury cases reported, chemical poisoning was identified in 434 (0.7%) cases. The most frequent patient characteristics were poisoning at home (61.9%), male gender (58.6%), involving self-harm (46.0%), and youth aged 20–29 years (43.3%). Over two-thirds of acute poisoning cases (69.0%) were admitted. Acute poisoning cases were more likely to be admitted if they were youth aged 10–19 years [odds ratio (OR)=4.41], when the poisoning occurred at home (OR=21.84), and was related to self-harm (OR=18.73) or assault (OR=7.56). Conclusions: Findings suggest that controlling access of poisonous substances in youth and at homes might reduce related ED care burden. Safety promotion agencies and emergency physicians can use these findings to develop safety messages.

  3. The role of private pesticide vendors in preventing access to pesticides for self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    Weerasinghe, Manjula; Pearson, Melissa; Peiris, Ravi;

    2014-01-01

    they did want to help to improve identification of such customers. The community did not blame vendors when pesticides used for self-poison were purchased from their shops. Vendors have already taken steps to restrict access, including selling low toxic products, counselling and asking customer to return...

  4. The global distribution of fatal pesticide self-poisoning: Systematic review

    Eddleston Michael

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence is accumulating that pesticide self-poisoning is one of the most commonly used methods of suicide worldwide, but the magnitude of the problem and the global distribution of these deaths is unknown. Methods We have systematically reviewed the worldwide literature to estimate the number of pesticide suicides in each of the World Health Organisation's six regions and the global burden of fatal self-poisoning with pesticides. We used the following data sources: Medline, EMBASE and psycINFO (1990–2007, papers cited in publications retrieved, the worldwide web (using Google and our personal collections of papers and books. Our aim was to identify papers enabling us to estimate the proportion of a country's suicides due to pesticide self-poisoning. Results We conservatively estimate that there are 258,234 (plausible range 233,997 to 325,907 deaths from pesticide self-poisoning worldwide each year, accounting for 30% (range 27% to 37% of suicides globally. Official data from India probably underestimate the incidence of suicides; applying evidence-based corrections to India's official data, our estimate for world suicides using pesticides increases to 371,594 (range 347,357 to 439,267. The proportion of all suicides using pesticides varies from 4% in the European Region to over 50% in the Western Pacific Region but this proportion is not concordant with the volume of pesticides sold in each region; it is the pattern of pesticide use and the toxicity of the products, not the quantity used, that influences the likelihood they will be used in acts of fatal self-harm. Conclusion Pesticide self-poisoning accounts for about one-third of the world's suicides. Epidemiological and toxicological data suggest that many of these deaths might be prevented if (a the use of pesticides most toxic to humans was restricted, (b pesticides could be safely stored in rural communities, and (c the accessibility and quality of care for poisoning

  5. Acute Pancreatitis Caused By Mushroom Poisoning

    Karahan, Samet; Erden, Abdulsamet; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avci, Deniz; Ortakoyluoglu, Adile Irfan; Karagoz, Hatice; BULUT, Kadir; Basak, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Of the more than 5000 species of mushrooms known, 100 types are toxic and approximately 10% of these toxic types can cause fatal toxicity. A type of mushroom called Amanita phalloides is responsible for 95% of toxic mushroom poisonings. In this article, we report 2 cases of mushroom poisonings caused by Lactarius volemus, known as Tirmit by the local people. The patient and his wife were admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting 20 hours after consuming Lactariu...

  6. A CLINICAL PROFILE OF ACUTE POISONING

    Vaddadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 100 patients were studied to know the common poisons, age, sex, clinical manifestations, response to treatment, motive behind the consumption and prognostic factors. Out of 100 cases, most of them committed this with suicidal intention, 21 - 30 age group, males, insecticide poison consumed were affected. 70% of them had domestic problems as the main reason to commit this extreme step. Those who reached early to the hospital had recovered well with a mortality rate of 7%.

  7. CLINICAL STUDY OF ACUTE POISONING: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Praveen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : OBJECTIVES: To determine the common agents, clinical features and outcomes of acute poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of patients of acute poisoning of more than 14 years age admitted through emergency with a history of intentional, self-inflicted and suicidal poisoning in SRMS-IMS from Jan 2010 to Dec 2012. RESULTS: A total of 58 cases were included with a common age of affection 16 to 25 years and male to female ratio 1.63: 1. Poisoning cases occur throughout the year with maximum prevalence in May and minimum in June. Organophosphorus was the most common poison followed by aluminium phosphide. Vomiting was the most common symptoms followed by altered sensorium. 70.68% patients were discharged, 20.68% expired and 8.62% left against medical advice. Aluminium phosphide was the most common toxin consumed by dead patients. CONCLUSION: Acute poisoning is commonly affecting young population and is caused by variety of toxin. High mortality is associated with aluminum phosphide.

  8. Acute Pancreatitis in the Course of Meprobamate Poisoning

    Neila Fathallah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Context We report a case of massive poisoning with meprobamate leading to acute pancreatitis. Case report A 43-year-old patient with a history of schizophrenia and multiple suicide attempts was admitted to the intensive care unit for severe poisoning with meprobamate (voluntary ingestion of 60 g. On admission, the patient was deeply comatose with low blood pressure and hypothermia. Laboratory analysis revealed leukocytosis and high lipase and amylase serum levels. There was no eosinophilia. Abdominal computed tomography showed pancreatitis grade A. The patient was intubated and ventilated, and intravenous dopamine was infused. The patient regained consciousness and was extubated five days later. Improvement in pancreatic tests was noted several days later. The outcome was favorable. Discussion According to the Naranjo probability scale, meprobamate-induced acute pancreatitis was probable. Acute pancreatitis in meprobamate poisoning is exceptional. The pathogenesis of pancreatitis-induced meprobamate poisoning may be explained by two mechanisms: stimulation of pancreatic secretion secondary to cholinergic activation and pancreatic ductal hypertension. Conclusions The signs of severe meprobamate toxicity are numerous including cardiovascular and central nervous symptoms. Acute pancreatitis should also be added as a possible manifestation of meprobamate poisoning.

  9. Spectrum of Acute Pharmaceutical and Chemical Poisoning in Northern Bangladesh

    Devendranath Sarkar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute poisoning is a major public health problem in Bangladesh. It is a common method for suicide. A clear picture regarding clinical presentation, most commonly used toxic agents, background factors and outcome of poisoned patients is necessary in every region. The aim of this study was to investigate frequency and outcome of acute pharmaceutical and chemical poisoning cases in Northern Bangladesh. Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study on poisoned patients with 18 years of age and above who were admitted to Rangpur Medical College Hospital during 1st December 2011 to 30th November 2012. Results: During the study period, a total of 956 patients were investigated. Males slightly outnumbered females (51.6%. The majority of patients (92% were in the 18-40 year age-group. Regarding occupation, housewives were the most frequent (33.6% followed by farmers (31.7% and students (20.9%. Organophosphate compounds (OPC were the most commonly used toxic agents (73.5%. Most of poisoning cases occurred following suicidal attempts (88%. Familial disharmony was the main cause of suicidal attempts (92.3%. Univariate Analysis showed that age less than 40 years, being married, living in rural areas and educational attainment below secondary level were significantly associated with an increased risk of poisoning (P

  10. Pre-hospital treatment of acute poisonings in Oslo

    Nore Anne K

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poisoned patients are often treated in and discharged from pre-hospital health care settings. Studies of poisonings should therefore not only include hospitalized patients. Aims: To describe the acutely poisoned patients treated by ambulance personnel and in an outpatient clinic; compare patients transferred to a higher treatment level with those discharged without transfer; and study the one-week mortality after pre-hospital discharge. Methods A one-year multi-centre study with prospective inclusion of all acutely poisoned patients ≥ 16 years of age treated in ambulances, an outpatient clinic, and hospitals in Oslo. Results A total of 3757 health service contacts from 2997 poisoning episodes were recorded: 1860 were treated in ambulances, of which 15 died and 750 (40% were discharged without transfer; 956 were treated in outpatient clinic, of which 801 (84% were discharged without transfer; and 941 episodes were treated in hospitals. Patients discharged alive after ambulance treatment were mainly poisoned by opiates (70%, were frequently comatose (35%, had respiratory depression (37%, and many received naloxone (49%. The majority of the patients discharged from the outpatient clinic were poisoned by ethanol (55%, fewer were comatose (10%, and they rarely had respiratory depression (4%. Among the hospitalized, pharmaceutical poisonings were most common (58%, 23% were comatose, and 7% had respiratory depression. Male patients comprised 69% of the pre-hospital discharges, but only 46% of the hospitalized patients. Except for one patient, who died of a new heroin overdose two days following discharge from an ambulance, there were no deaths during the first week after the poisonings in the 90% of the pre-hospital discharged patients with known identity. Conclusion More than half of the poisoned patients treated in pre-hospital treatment settings were discharged without transfer to higher levels. These poisonings were more often

  11. Cardiovascular Effects of Acute Organophosphate Poisoning

    Shankar Laudari

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion:Cardiac effects of OP poisoning can be life-threatening. Prompt diagnosis, early supportive and definitive therapies with atropine and oximes along with vigilant monitoring of the patients for prominent cardiac effects such as QT prolongation, VT or VF during hospital stay can definitely save lives of the victims.

  12. Intoxicación por plaguicidas Pesticide poisoning

    A. Ferrer

    2003-01-01

    or by their chemical family (organochlorates, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, Bipyridilium compounds, inorganic salts…. All of them are biocides, which normally implies a high toxicity for humans, which has been a cause for concern since the mid-XX century due to the widespread and indiscriminate use of these products. Exposure to pesticides can have effects that are acute, chronic and long-term. Some organochlorate compounds (such as DDT were the first to be used in massive fumigations to fight malaria and have had to be banned because of their capacity for bioaccumulation and environmental persistence. The danger represented by the widespread presence of these agents has been demonstrated in numerous episodes of human toxic epidemics, producers of a high morbidity/mortality, described for nearly all chemical families: organochlorate insecticides and fungicides, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, organomercurial fungicides and inorganic salts. These episodes have above all been caused through the ingestion of foodstuffs and in the occupational field. Other causes of health concern are their carcinogenic capacity and occasional reproductive alterations. The principal characteristics of some of the most relevant families are presented.

  13. The global distribution of fatal pesticide self-poisoning: systematic review

    Gunnell, David; Eddleston, Michael; Phillips, Michael R;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence is accumulating that pesticide self-poisoning is one of the most commonly used methods of suicide worldwide, but the magnitude of the problem and the global distribution of these deaths is unknown. METHODS: We have systematically reviewed the worldwide literature to estimate...

  14. Profile of acute poisoning in three health districts of Botswana

    Mary Kasule

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study sought to characterise acute poisoning cases seen in three health districts of Botswana.Method: A retrospective review of patients’ records was conducted and included patients treated from January 2004 to December 2005. Data on the demographic status of the patients, information about the poisonous agent(s involved, and the circumstances and outcomes of the poisoning incidents were recorded on a pre-tested data collection form.Results: A total of 590 cases of acute poisoning were included in the analysis. The most affected age category was that of children aged less than six years, who constituted 33.4% of the cases. Most incidents were recorded in the urban district of Gaborone. Seventy-eight percent (78% of the incidents were accidental, with the remainder being intentional. The poisonous agents involved were pharmaceuticals (26.6%, natural toxins (25.6%, household products (14.6%, foods (14.4%, alcohol (6.9%, traditional medicines (4.7%, unspecified agents (3.2%, and agrochemicals (2.7%. The most common route of poison exposure was by oral (82.2%, followed by dermal contact (16.5%, while the inhalation of gases occurred in 1.2% of cases. An incidence rate of 4.7/1000, a case fatality rate of 3.8/100, and 1.5% of deaths were recorded over the two-year period.Conclusion: In conclusion, it can be stated that acute poisoning involved mainly young children and resulted in an incidence rate of 4.7/1000, a case fatality rate of 3.8/100, and 1.5% of deaths over the two-year period. There were differences based on age category, gender and residence of the victims, the types of toxic agents involved, as well as the circumstances and the outcomes of the poisoning incidents. Given the fact that pharmaceuticals, natural toxins, household products and foods were the agents most commonly involved, targeted interventions should take these differences into account in addressing the problem of acute poisoning.

  15. Acute Human Self-Poisoning with Imidacloprid Compound: A Neonicotinoid Insecticide

    Fahim Mohamed; Indika Gawarammana; Robertson, Thomas A.; Roberts, Michael S; Chathura Palangasinghe; Shukry Zawahir; Shaluka Jayamanne; Jaganathan Kandasamy; Michael Eddleston; Buckley, Nick A.; Dawson, Andrew H.; Roberts, Darren M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deliberate self-poisoning with older pesticides such as organophosphorus compounds are commonly fatal and a serious public health problem in the developing world. The clinical consequences of self-poisoning with newer pesticides are not well described. Such information may help to improve clinical management and inform pesticide regulators of their relative toxicity. This study reports the clinical outcomes and toxicokinetics of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid following...

  16. Risk factors associated with purchasing pesticide from shops for self-poisoning

    Weerasinghe, Manjula; Konradsen, Flemming; Eddleston, Michael;

    2015-01-01

    -harm. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study will investigate risk factors associated with purchasing pesticides for acts of self-poisoning from pesticide shops, including cases identified over a 9-month period using a population-based case-control group approach. Four interviewer-administered data collection tools...... will be used for this study: a semistructured questionnaire, Beck Suicidal Intent Scale (SIS), Clinical Interview Schedule-Sinhalese version (CIS-Sn) and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Each case (expected n=33) will be compared with two groups of individuals: (1) those who have self...... of individuals who purchase pesticides directly from shops and how they differ from individuals who access pesticides from other sources such as home, home garden or farmland. This information will help inform possible vendor/shop-based intervention strategies aimed at reducing access to pesticides used for self...

  17. Acute mercury poisoning: a case report

    Aktas Can

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mercury poisoning can occur as a result of occupational hazard or suicide attempt. This article presents a 36-year-old case admitted to emergency department (ED due to exposure to metallic mercury. Case Presentatıon A 36-year-old woman presented to the ED with a three-day history of abdominal pain, diarrhea and fever. One week ago her daughter had brought mercury in the liquid form from the school. She had put it on the heating stove. One day later, her 14-month old sister baby got fever and died before admission to the hospital. Her blood pressure was 134/87 mmHg; temperature, 40.2°C; heart rate 105 bpm and regular; respiration, 18 bpm; O2 saturation, 96%. Nothing was remarkable on examination and routine laboratory tests. As serine or urinary mercury levels could not be tested in the city, symptomatic chelation treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC was instituted with regard to presumptive diagnosis and history. At the 7th day of admission she was discharged without any sequelae or complaint. At the discharge day blood was drawn and sent for mercury levels which turned out to be 30 μg/dL (normal range: 0 - 10 μg/dL. Conclusion Public education on poisoning and the potential hazards of mercury are of vital importance for community health.

  18. Refractory status epilepticus following self-poisoning with the organochlorine pesticide endosulfan.

    Roberts, Darren M; Dissanayake, Wasantha; Rezvi Sheriff, M H; Eddleston, Michael

    2004-09-01

    We describe a case of refractory status epilepticus presenting to a rural general hospital in Sri Lanka. This patient's condition was precipitated by intentional self-poisoning with the organochlorine insecticide endosulfan. Although rarely seen in developed countries, pesticide poisoning particularly with endosulfan is an important cause of difficult-to-manage seizures in Asian countries. In this case report, we discuss the management of status epilepticus and refractory status epilepticus. Further, we specifically discuss the clinical pharmacology and toxicology of endosulfan. PMID:15337143

  19. An Unusual Cause of Supraventricular Tachycardia: Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Suat Zengin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available      Carbon monoxide (CO is a toxic gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing compounds. Exposure to high concentrations of CO can be letha and is the most common cause of death from poisoning worldwide. Cardiac manifestations after exposure to CO, including myocardial ischemia, heart failure, and arrhythmias, have been reported. A 28-year-old a patient was admitted to our emergency department with altered consciousness as a consequence of acute domestic exposure to CO from a stove. His carboxyhemoglobin level was 39%. The oxygen treatment was started promptly, and therapeutic red cell exchange was performed. An electrocardiogram revealed supraventricular tachycardia (SVT, and an echocardiographic examination demonstrated normal cardiac functions. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the second to report a case of SVT attack due to acute CO intoxication. This paper discusses the management of this complication in patients poisoned with CO.

  20. Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    Mohamed, Fahim; Manuweera, Gamini; Gunnell, David;

    2009-01-01

    outside the house; among this group only eight patients obtained pesticides that were kept in a locked container. Ten percent (n = 67) of the patients used pesticides stored in the field while 14% (n = 91) purchased pesticides from shops within a few hours of the episode. The most common reasons for...

  1. Respiratory Complications from Acute Corrosive Poisonings in Adults

    Chibishev, Andon; Simonovska, Natasa; Bozinovska, Cvetanka; Pereska, Zanina; Smokovski, Ivica; Glasnovic, Marija

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Acute corrosive poisonings are caused by ingestion of corrosive chemicals which are most commonly used as household agents. Intoxications with these kind of agents produce numerous and severe post-corrosive complications of the upper gastrointestinal tract. On the other hand, our experience showed that corrosive agents may also cause injuries of the respiratory system, which makes the treatment very hard and additionally complicates the severe clinical condition of the patient. ...

  2. Prognostic Significance of Various Biochemical Parameters in Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning

    Sumathi, M. E.; Kumar, S. Harish; Shashidhar, K N; Takkalaki, Nandini

    2014-01-01

    Background: Organophosphorus (OP) compounds are a heterogeneous group of insecticides widely used in agricultural industry. These OP compounds are likely to have more adverse effects in developing countries like India due to its easy availability and less awareness which results in high morbidity and mortality. Aims and objectives: 1. To estimate plasma cholinesterase, amylase, lipase and, creatine phosphokinase (CPK) in acute OP poisoning. 2. To correlate these biochemical parameters with pl...

  3. Acute Human Lethal Toxicity of Agricultural Pesticides: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Miller, Matthew; Bhalla, Kavi

    2010-01-01

    Matthew Miller and Kavi Bhalla discuss new research findings from Andrew Dawson and colleagues on the human toxicity of pesticides in Sri Lanka, and call for urgent reclassification of agricultural pesticides to help reduce suicides by poisonings.

  4. Acute Toxicity of Four Organophosphorus Pesticide Products

    2012-01-01

    Acute toxicity of phoxim,acephate,isofenphos-methyl and isocarbophos on male SD rats of clean grade was carried out by gastric lavage method at room temperature of 18℃. These rats are 4 to 5 months old with body weight of 180 to 220 kg. The results indicate that the orders of the toxicity of these four pesticides on SD rats are isofenphos-methyl,isocarbophos,acephate,phoxim. We found that the median lethal concentration of phoxim in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 3. 892 g /kg,3. 051 g /kg,2. 618 g /kg and 2. 458 g /kg respectively; the median lethal concentration of isofenphos-methyl in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 015 g /kg,0. 013g /kg,0. 012g /kg and 0. 011 g /kg respectively; the median lethal concentration of isocarbophos in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 049 g /kg,0. 046 g /kg,0. 043 g /kg,0. 041 g /kg respectively; and the median lethal concentration of acephate in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 137 g /kg,0. 113 g /kg,0. 100 g /kg,0. 085 g /kg respectively. Finally,we evaluated the characteristics of toxicity effect and safe concentration of these pesticides to SD rats.

  5. To identify morbidity and mortality predictors in acute organophosphate poisoning

    Arti Muley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphorus poisoning remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality, but no definite parameters have been identified as predictors of outcome. Prediction of morbidity at presentation might help in decision making in places of limited resources like rural settings in developing countries. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 cases were included in this retrospective cohort study. Logged relative risk of requirement of mechanical ventilation and hospital stay >7 days was measured in patients with serum acetylcholinesterase (s. acetylcholinesterase 1000, presenting in 12 and in patients with SpO 2 7 days. Conclusion: S. acetylcholinesterase, SpO 2 at room air, GCS, and duration of exposure at presentation can be used to identify the requirement of special care in acute organophosphorus poisoning. This can aid in decision making regarding admission to intensive care unit and referral in the places with limited resources.

  6. Effect of Intensive Atropine Doses (Rapid Incremental Loading and Titration for Management of Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning: a Case Series

    Abu Saleh Ahmed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Acute poisoning with organophosphorus (OP pesticides is a common method of suicide and entails considerable mortality in Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and outcomes of a protocol for treatment of OP poisoning that included titrated incremental atropine as loading dose and slow infusion for maintenance.  Methods:In this prospective descriptive case series, definitive OP poisoned patients were enrolled in an adult medicine unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from April 2006 to April 2007. Clinical examinations were done as soon as the patient entered the ward. Patient’s demographics, comorbid conditions and the occurrence of specific clinical outcomes including death, need for assisted ventilation and clinical complications were recorded. The patients were treated according to the protocol. Results: A total of 56 patients were enrolled over the study period. The median age of the study population was 22.5 years. Most patients were men (67.8%. The most common clinical presentation was miosis (58.9%. In total, 11 patients died (19.6%. Intermediate syndrome developed in 12 patients (21.4% and 6 of them died. Assisted ventilation was required in 16 cases (28.5. Patients with diastolic blood pressure ≤ 70 mmHg and/or GCS ≤ 10 were significantly less likely to survive (P = 0.02, 0.006, respectively. Moreover, early respiratory failure (P < 0.001 and the need for assisted ventilation (P < 0.001 were significantly higher among deceased cases. The mortality rate in this study was similar to previous studies. The frequency of atropine toxicity in the present study (1.8% was considerably lower than conventional regimen used in previous studies. Conclusion:Using the new protocol, lower rate of atropine toxicity developed in victims. Hence, the new protocol appears to be safer and its effectiveness should be further evaluated in case control studies in Bangladesh.    How to cite this article: Ahmed AS

  7. 碳酸氢钠联合乌司他丁治疗急性辛硫磷农药中毒胆碱酯酶活力的变化%The influence of sodium bicarbonate combined with ulinastatin on cholinesterase activity for patients with acute phoxim pesticide poisoning

    赵波; 杨兰菊; 肖磊; 孙宝泉; 邹宪宝; 高冬梅; 菅向东

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of sodium bicarbonate combined with ulinastatin on cholinesterase activity for patients with acute phoxim pesticide poisoning.Methods A total of 67 eligible patients with acute phoxim pesticide poisoning,Who were admitted to the emeryency department of hospital from March 2011 to February 2014,Acording to different treatments au patients were randomly divided into the conventional treatment group (n=34) and the sodium bicarbonate+ulinastatin group (n=35).The conventional treatment group were given thorough gastric lavage with water,the sodium bicarbonate + ulinastatin group were given gastric lavage with 2% sodium bicarbonate solution.Both groups were given such treatments as catharsis,administration of oxygen,fluid infusion,diuresis,and antidotes such as atropine and pralidoxime methylchloride.On the basis of comprehensive treatment,people in the sodium bicarbonate+ulinastatin group were given 5% sodium bicarbonate injection and ulinastatin.The clinical effect of the two groups were compared.Results The serum cholinesterase activity of the sodium bicarbonate +ulinastatin group was significantly higher than the conventional treatment group from the 5th day,and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).The total atropine dosage,total pralidoxime methylchloride dosage and hospitalization days were better than the conventional treatment group,and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).The difference in the time of atropinization between the two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05).The results of arterial blood pH,HCO3-of the sodium bicarbonate + ulinastatin group were higher than the conventional treatment group,and the difference of HCO3-at the 10th day was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusions Sodium bicarbonate combined with ulinastatin can improve the therapeutic effect and reduce complications in the treatment of acute phoxim pesticide poisoning,and have beneficial

  8. Analysis of chest image performance in patients with acute chlorine poisoning

    Objective: To explore chest image features of patients with acute chlorine poisoning and their clinical values. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed by chest image features of 117 patients with acute chlorine poisoning. All the patients were classified according to Chinese management of occupational acute chlorine poisoning diagnosis standard. Results: Sixty-five patients presented with stimulus response, and normal or both lungs had a little more white on their chest images. Thirty-one cases presented with minor poisoning, and without or the texture of both lungs was increased, and grew hazy and coarse.seventeen cases were moderate, and small sample vague shadows or single or multiple limitations lamellar shadow. Four cases were serious,and two lungs had extensive and density homogeneous consolidation shadow. Conclusions: It would make the diagnosis and assessment of chlorine poisoning more easier based on the combination of chest image features, the clear history of acute chlorine poisoning and relevant clinical performance. (authors)

  9. Pattern of acute poisoning at two urban referral hospitals in Lusaka, Zambia

    Z’gambo, Jessy; Siulapwa, Yorum; Michelo, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background Poisoning remains an important public health problem contributing significantly to the global burden of disease. Evidence on the exact burden and pattern of acute poisoning in Zambia is limited. We aimed to characterise acute poisoning with regard to demographic and epidemiologic factors of cases reported at the University Teaching Hospital and Levy Mwanawasa General Hospital; two large referral hospitals in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving retrosp...

  10. Severe but reversible acute kidney injury resulting from Amanita punctata poisoning

    Kang, Eunjung; Cheong, Ka-Young; Lee, Min-Jeong; Kim, Seirhan; Shin, Gyu-Tae; Kim, Heungsoo; Park, In-Whee

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom-related poisoning can cause acute kidney injury. Here we report a case of acute kidney injury after ingestion of Amanita punctata, which is considered an edible mushroom. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred within 24 hours from the mushroom intake and were followed by an asymptomatic period, acute kidney injury, and elevation of liver and pancreatic enzymes. Kidney function recovered with supportive care. Nephrotoxic mushroom poisoning should be considered as a cause of acute kidney i...

  11. CT of the brain in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Cerebral computed tomographic (CT) findings of acute carbon monoxide (Co) poisoning were analized in thirty-six cases treated with hyperbraric oxygen therapy and their relationship with prognosis was evaluated. The cases were classified into there groups, early stage, interval form, and non-interval form groups. In all groups, the initial abnormality was low density areas presumably due to edema, demyelination and/or softening. It was seen in the globus pallidus and/or white matter. Following these initial changes, cerebral hemorrhage, ventricular dilatation, and cerebral atrophy developed in a few cases. The frequency of abnormal CT findings was higher in the interval form group (85 %) or non-interval group (83 %) than the early stage group (41 %). The prognosis was good in most cases with normal CT findings. The possibility of recovery diminished in the patients with abnormal CT findings. The prognosis was particularly poor in cases showing abnormality both in globus pallidus and white matter. We conclude that CT is useful not only for detecting the pathologic change but also for predicting the prognosis of the patient with acute Co poisoning. (author)

  12. A simplified acute physiology score in the prediction of acute aluminum phosphide poisoning outcome

    Shahin Shadnia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Aluminum phosphide (AlP is used as a fumigant. It produces phosphine gas, which is a mitochondrial poison. Unfortunately, there is no known antidote for AlP intoxication, and also, there are few data about its prognostic factors. AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II in the prediction of outcome in patients with acute AlP poisoning requiring admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Materials and Methods : This was a prospective study in patients with acute AlP poisoning, admitted to the ICU over a period of 12 months. The demographic data were collected and SAPSII was recorded. The patients were divided into survival and non-survival groups due to outcome. Statistical Analysis : The data were expressed as mean ± SD for continuous or discrete variables and as frequency and percentage for categorical variables. The results were compared between the two groups using SPSS software. Results : During the study period, 39 subjects were admitted to the ICU with acute AlP poisoning. All 39 patients required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation in addition to gastric decontamination with sodium bicarbonate, permanganate potassium, and activated charcoal, therapy with MgSO 4 and calcium gluconate and adequate hydration. Among these patients, 26 (66.7% died. SAPSII was significantly higher in the non-survival group than in the survival group (11.88 ± 4.22 vs. 4.31 ± 2.06, respectively (P < 0.001. Conclusion : SAPSII calculated within the first 24 hours was recognized as a good prognostic indicator among patients with acute AlP poisoning requiring ICU admission.

  13. Acute human lethal toxicity of agricultural pesticides: a prospective cohort study.

    Dawson, Andrew H; Michael Eddleston; Lalith Senarathna; Fahim Mohamed; Indika Gawarammana; Bowe, Steven J.; Gamini Manuweera; Buckley, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: agricultural pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in the developing world, killing at least 250,000-370,000 people each year. Targeted pesticide restrictions in Sri Lanka over the last 20 years have reduced pesticide deaths by 50% without decreasing agricultural output. However, regulatory decisions have thus far not been based on the human toxicity of formulated agricultural pesticides but on the surrogate of rat toxicity using pure unformulated pesticides. We aim...

  14. Acute Human Lethal Toxicity of Agricultural Pesticides:A Prospective Cohort Study

    Dawson, Andrew H; Eddleston, Michael; Senarathna, Lalith; Mohamed, Fahim; Gawarammana, Indika; Bowe, Steven J.; Manuweera, Gamini; Buckley, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Agricultural pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in the developing world, killing at least 250,000-370,000 people each year. Targeted pesticide restrictions in Sri Lanka over the last 20 years have reduced pesticide deaths by 50% without decreasing agricultural output. However, regulatory decisions have thus far not been based on the human toxicity of formulated agricultural pesticides but on the surrogate of rat toxicity using pure unformulated pesticides. We aim...

  15. Electrocardiographic findings and cardiac manifestations in acute aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Beyranvand, Mohammad-Reza; Momenzadeh, Seyed-Akbar; Shadnia, Shahin

    2012-07-01

    Aluminium phosphide (AlP) poisoning has a high mortality due to cardiovascular involvement. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of cardiac manifestations and electrocardiographic (ECG) findings in 20 patients with acute AlP poisoning, who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in Tehran, Iran, over a period of 6 months (between October 2008 and April 2009). The sex, age, cause and manner of ingestion, number of ingested AlP tablets, cardiac and ECG manifestations, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), CPK-myocardial band (CPK-mb) and troponin-T (TnT) were extracted from the patients' files. All data were analysed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The majority (60%) of patients were male. The mean age was 27 ± 8.7 years. The mortality rate was 40%. In all of the patients, the cause of poisoning was intentional suicide and ingestion was the route of exposure. The mean number of ingested AlP tablets per patient was 2.2 ± 1.1. The average time interval between admission and cardiovascular manifestations or ECG findings was 168.8 ± 116.2 min. The range of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure was 60-130 mmHg and 40-70 mmHg, respectively. Dysrhythmia was observed in nine (45%) cases. Elevation of the ST segment was seen in nine cases (45%). Seven patients (35%) had prolonged QTc intervals. Bundle branch block (BBB) was observed in four (20%) patients. In nine (45%) patients, the serum cardiac TnT qualitative assay was positive. There were no significant differences between normal and abnormal ECG groups according to sex, age, number and manner of ingested AlP tablets and SBP. There was a significant correlation between cardiac manifestations and ECG findings and TnT-positive results with mortality in acute AlP poisoning. PMID:22687771

  16. Severe acute caffeine poisoning due to intradermal injections: Mesotherapy hazard

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Caffeine is indicated in the treatment of migraine headaches, as well as neonatal apnea and bradycardia syndrome. In mild poisoning, the most prevalent symptoms are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, tremor, anxiety and headache. In more severe cases, symptoms consist of heart rythym abnormalities, myocardial infarction and seizures. Due to its common lipolytic effect, caffeine is used in mesotherapy, usually in combination with drugs of similar effect. We presented a patient with acute iatrogenic caffeine poisoning. Case report. A 51-year-old woman, with preexisting hypertension and hypertensive cardiomyopathy was subjected to cosmetic treatment in order to remove fat by intradermal caffeine injections. During the treatment the patient felt sickness, an urge to vomit, and a pronounced deterioration of general condition. Upon examination, the patient exhibited somnolence, hypotension and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, which was sufficient enough evidence for further hospitalization. On admission to the intensive care unit the patient was anxious with increased heart rate, normotensive, with cold, damp skin, and visible traces of injection sites with surrounding hematomas on the anterior abdominal wall. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT on electrocardiographic monitoring was found. The laboratory analysis determined a lowered potassium level of 2.1 mmol/L (normal range 3,5 - 5.2 mmol/L, and a toxicological analysis (liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection proved a toxic concentration of caffeine in plasma - 85.03 mg/L (toxic concentration over 25 mg/L. On application of intensive therapy, antiarrhythmics, and substitution of potassium, as well as both symptomatic and supportive therapy, there was a significant recovery. The patient was discharged without any sequele within four days. Conclusion. A presented rare iatrogenic acute caffeine poisoning occured due to massive absorption of caffeine from the

  17. Poisoning of raptors with organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides with emphasis on Canada, U.S. and U.K.

    Mineau, P.; Fletcher, M.R.; Glaser, L.C.; Thomas, N.J.; Brassard, C.; Wilson, L.K.; Elliott, J.E.; Lyon, L.A.; Henny, C.J.; Bollinger, T.; Porter, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    We reviewed cases of raptor mortality resulting from cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides. We compiled records from the U.S., U.K. and Canada for the period 1985-95 (520 incidents) and surveyed the relevant literature to identify the main routes of exposure and those products that led to the greatest number of poisoning cases. A high proportion of cases in the U.K. resulted from abusive uses of pesticides (willful poisoning). The proportion was smaller in North America where problems with labeled uses of pesticides were as frequent as abuse cases. Poisoning resulting from labeled use was possible with a large number of granular pesticides and some seed treatments through secondary poisoning or through the ingestion of contaminated invertebrates, notably earthworms. With the more toxic products, residue levels in freshly-sprayed insects were high enough to cause mortality. The use of organophosphorus products as avicides and for the topical treatment of livestock appeared to be common routes of intoxication. The use of insecticides in dormant oils also gave rise to exposure that can be lethal or which can debilitate birds and increase their vulnerability. A few pesticides of high toxicity were responsible for the bulk of poisoning cases. Based on limited information, raptors appeared to be more sensitive than other bird species to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Some of the more significant risk factors that resulted in raptor poisonings were: insectivory and vermivory; opportunistic taking of debilitated prey; scavenging, especially if the gastrointestinal tracts are consumed; presence in agricultural areas; perceived status as pest species; and flocking or other gregarious behavior at some part of their life cycle. Lethal or sublethal poisoning should always be considered in the diagnosis of dead or debilitated raptors even when another diagnosis (e.g., electrocution, car or building strike) is apparent. Many cases of poisoning are not currently

  18. Poisoning

    ... talking with the Poison Control Center. GETTING HELP Call the Poison Control Center emergency number at 1-800-222-1222. DO NOT wait until the person has symptoms before you call. Try to have the following information ready: The ...

  19. Brain CT scan in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    The brain CT findings in 19 patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning was analysed and the emphasis was placed on the relationship between CT findings and prognosis. Five had a normal manifestation in CT ; eight had the findings of ovoid or patchy low density area in globus pallidus, bilateral or unlateral, during the second day to fifth week after poisoning, and the low density areas were decreasing and blurring in edge in follow up and at last disappeared during 3 - 14 weeks in three cases of them ; nine showed the appearance of diffuse low density of white matter and of globus pallidus in some of them ; two had an appearance of brain atrophy. The pathology of CT findings mentioned above may be brain edema, necrosis, malacia and degeneration in gray matter and globus pallidus. The result suggested the cases with normal CT manifestation, cerebral edema and decreasing and disappearing low density area had a good prognosis, in contrary, the cases with persistant low density in globus pallidus had a poorer prognosis. (author)

  20. Pesticides and children

    Prevention and control of damage to health, crops, and property by insects, fungi, and noxious weeds are the major goals of pesticide applications. As with use of any biologically active agent, pesticides have unwanted side-effects. In this review, we will examine the thesis that adverse pesticide effects are more likely to occur in children who are at special developmental and behavioral risk. Children's exposures to pesticides in the rural and urban settings and differences in their exposure patterns are discussed. The relative frequency of pesticide poisoning in children is examined. In this connection, most reported acute pesticide poisonings occur in children younger than age 5. The possible epidemiological relationships between parental pesticide use or exposure and the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood cancer are discussed. The level of consensus among these studies is examined. Current concerns regarding neurobehavioral toxicity and endocrine disruption in juxtaposition to the relative paucity of toxicant mechanism-based studies of children are explored

  1. Analysis of Nine Cases of Acute Thallium Poisoning

    WANG Qiwei; HUANG Xiaojiang; LIU Liang

    2007-01-01

    In this study nine cases of thallium poisoning in a series of homicidal poisoning were analyzed in order to provide more information concerning thallium poisoning. It was found that the most common clinical feature of thallium poisoning was peripheral neuropathy and paraesthesia was more common than amyasthenia. Understanding of these clinical characteristics of thallium poisoning was helpful to early identification and differential diagnosis. Since the early administration of Prussian Blue, as a specific antidote for thallium poisoning, can substantially improve the prognosis, it is of great importance to establish a correct and early diagnosis.

  2. Do Bolivian small holder farmers improve and retain knowledge to reduce occupational pesticide poisonings after training on Integrated Pest Management?

    Jørs, Erik; Lander, Flemming; Huici, Omar;

    2014-01-01

    -reported symptoms after pesticide handling. Similar though less pronounced improvements was seen among neighbor farmers having had less training and information on pesticide handling and alternatives than the FFS trained farmers. Training of farmers on IPM and good agricultural practices has positive effects, but...... changes in 'knowledge, attitude and practice' (KAP) on IPM and symptoms of poisoning when handling pesticides. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 21.0 using χ2-test, Cochran's Q test and Student's T-test. RESULTS: Improvements were seen in both groups but most significant among the FFS...

  3. Evaluation of respiratory dysfunction in a pig model of severe acute dichlorvos poisoning

    HE Xin-hua; WU Jun-yuan; LI Chun-sheng; SU Zhi-yu; JI Xian-fei; HAN Yi; WANG Sheng-qi; ZHANG Jian

    2012-01-01

    Background Respiratory failure is the main cause of death in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.In this study,a pulse-induced contour cardiac output monitor was used to evaluate the respiratory status in a pig model of acute dichlorvos poisoning.Methods Twenty female pigs were randomly allocated to dichlorvos (n=7),atropine (n=7),and control (n=6) groups.In the dichlorvos group,pigs were administered 80% emulsifiable dichlorvos (100 mg/kg) via a gastric tube.In the atropine group,pigs were similarly administered dichlorvos,and 0.5 hours later,atropine was injected to attain and maintain atropinization.The control group was administered saline solution.Arterial blood gas was measured at 0,0.5,1,2,4,and 6 hours post-injection.The extravascular lung water index and pulmonary vascular permeability index were recorded by the pulse-induced contour cardiac output monitor.At termination of the study,the animals were euthanized,the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio was determined,and histopathology was observed.Results In the dichlorvos group,the extravascular lung water index and pulmonary vascular permeability index were substantially increased from 0.5 hours and were particularly high within 1 hour.In the atropine group,these indices increased initially,but decreased from the 1-hour mark.The control group exhibited no obvious changes.In both the dichlorvos and atropine groups,the extravascular lung water index was negatively correlated with partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspiration oxygen (PO2/FiO2) and positively correlated with the pulmonary vascular permeability index.Compared with the control group,the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio markedly increased and the histopathological findings obviously changed in the dichlorvos group,but only mildly increased and changed,respectively,in the atropine group.Conclusion The extravascular lung water index is an appropriate and valuable parameter for assessment of respiratory function in acute dichlorvos poisoning.

  4. [Acute coronary syndrome with impaired left ventricular function in a carbon monoxide poisoning].

    Capilla, E; Pons, F; Poyet, R; Kerebel, S; Jego, C; Louge, P; Cellarier, G-R

    2016-02-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is the leading cause of death by poisoning in France. Neuropsychological symptoms are most common. We report on a patient with acute coronary syndrome and transient left ventricular dysfunction in carbon monoxide poisoning. Patient improved under hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Coronary angiography shows no significant lesion leading to myocardial stunning diagnose. Patients exposed to carbon monoxide must have systematic cardiac evaluation with electrocardiogram and dosage of biomarkers. PMID:25261170

  5. Reaching for the bottle of pesticide--a cry for help. Self-inflicted poisonings in Sri Lanka

    Konradsen, Flemming; Hoek, Wim van der; Peiris, Pushpalatha

    2005-01-01

    . Also, issues around "love affairs," arranged marriages and domestic physical, sexual or psychological abuse in the domestic environment are referred to by many self-harmers or their relatives as a reason for ingesting poison. Clearly, easy access to lethal pesticides by impulsive individuals often...

  6. Nursing experience of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%有机磷农药中毒护理体会

    董丽仙

    2015-01-01

    Due to the use or an improper protection of organophosphorus pesticide, poisoning events occur. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning harm for human life is bigger, the rescue is not timely mortality is higher. Agricultural production in the process of organophosphorus pesticide use many, poisoning, and often happen, so we must strengthen the organophosphorus pesticide poisoning the clinical diagnosis and treatment and nursing of patients, and improve the success rate of rescue and reduce mortality.%有机磷农药的使用或防护不当致中毒事件时有发生,有机磷农药中毒对人的生命危害较大,抢救不及时死亡率较高,我县是农业县,农业生产过程中有机磷农药使用相对多,中毒事件时有发生,必须加强对有机磷农药中毒患者的临床诊治与护理,提高患者抢救成功率,降低死亡率。

  7. PESTICIDE USE AND HUMAN HEALTH IN NORTHWESTERN JAMAICA

    Ncube, Ngqabutho; Bessler, Patricia; Jolly, Pauline E; Tint, Kyaw; Fogo, Christopher; Binns, Alvin; Jolly, Curtis M.

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies have detected high levels of pesticide residues in surface water and aquatic life in Jamaica and acute pesticide poisoning is believed to be widespread there. Despite efforts by the Jamaican government to create awareness of the dangers of pesticides and adopt safe a pesticide disposal method, many farmers still display poor pesticide handling and disposal practices. The objectives of this study were to 1) describe pesticide use by farmers in northwestern Jamaica including...

  8. Acute poisoning with clenbuterol--a case report.

    Chodorowski, Z; Sein Anand, J

    1997-01-01

    In the paper we have described a case of acute, unintentional intoxication with clenbuterol, a selective beta 2-agonist. A 21-year-old bodybuilder to improve his physical fitness and to increase his muscle bulk was using clenbuterol in a dose of two tablets (20 mg) daily for a week before poisoning. On a day of acute intoxication he drank orange juice containing 48 tablets (4.8 g) of clenbuterol, which had been placed there by his friends. The patient was admitted to our clinic with tachycardia at rate 160 bpm, headache, dizziness, tremor, sweats, muscle weakness, agitation. Serum potassium concentration was 2.6 mmol/L, blood glucose level 18.7 mmol/L. All the symptoms and biochemical abnormalities disappeared after intravenous treatment with propranolol (1.0 mg) and potassium chloride (60 mmol) within five hour period. This case indicates that more attention should be paid to clenbuterol widely used as a stimulant by athletes, especially by bodybuilders. PMID:9478104

  9. A community-based cluster randomised trial of safe storage to reduce pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    Pearson, Melissa; Konradsen, Flemming; Gunnell, David;

    2011-01-01

    . One approach to reducing access to pesticides is for households to store pesticides in lockable "safe-storage" containers. However, before this approach can be promoted, evidence is required on its effectiveness and safety. Methods/Design A community-based cluster randomised controlled trial has been...... at the 5% significance level. Secondary outcomes will include the incidence of all pesticide poisoning and total self-harm. Discussion This paper describes a large effectiveness study of a community intervention to reduce the burden of intentional poisoning in rural Sri Lanka. The study builds on a strong...... partnership between provincial health services, local and international researchers, and local communities. We discuss issues in relation to randomisation and contamination, engaging control villages, the intervention, and strategies to improve adherence. Trial Registritation The trial is registered...

  10. Causes of Acute Poisoning Hospital admission in Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Yasuj, 2008

    S Mohammad Hosseini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: About 7% of patient referred to hospital are various forms of poisoning. This study was performed to determine the major causes of acute poisoning leading to Hospitalization at Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Yasuj, Iran. Methods: This descriptive study was performed from August 2007 to July 2008 on 470 cases of poisonings referred to Shahid Beheshti hospital of Yasuj. Demographic characteristics, time of poisoning, poisoning factor, history of previous poisoning, history of psychiatric disease, medication and other therapeutic intervention based on questionnaires and interviews with patients or companions of patients were recorded. Data were analyzed by Chi-Square Test. Results: Majority of poisoned patients were single females, in the age range of 21-30 years, unemployed, lived in urban areas, and had at least a diploma. The majority of cases were intentional poisoning with a history of depression, previous poisoning and attempted suicide. Significant relationship were seen between poisoning, age, sex, and job, (p0.05. Conclusion: With respect to the results of this study, the majority of these poisonings occurred among young, single and unemployed females due to suicide and drug intoxication. Necessary actions should be done in drug usage and maintenance, taking action against non-prescription drugs and giving proper public education to families.

  11. Diagnostic value of low-field MRI for acute poisoning brain injury

    Objective: To investigate the value of low-field MIR in diagnosis of acute CO poisoning brain injury. Methods: The brain MIR and clinical data of 110 patients with acute CO poisoning brain injury confirmed by clinical examination were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Long T1 and T2 signal intensity was showed on MRI in cerebral hemispheres and globus pallidus symmetrically. There were three basic types of MIR manifestations, white matter of brain type, globus pallidus type and brain mixed type. Conclusions: MRI could be used for confirming the degree and range of acute CO poisoning brain injury. It has important clinical value in the diagnosis, staging and prognosis of patients with acute CO poisoning brain injury. (authors)

  12. Structural Findings in the Brain MRI of Patients with Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Yasmin Davoudi

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The white matter and globus pallidus were the most common affected regions in brain following acute CO poisoning. Signal abnormalities and restricted diffusion in MRI were correlated with duration of exposure to CO but not with the carboxyhemoglobin levels.

  13. Neurological Effects of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Coskun YARAR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity due to poisoning in all over the world. Although the incidence of COP has not been known exactly in the childhood, almost one-third of CO exposures occurred in children. The data regarding COP in children are inconclusive. Children may be more vulnerable to CO exposure than adults as a result of their high respiration and metabolic rates, high oxygen metabolism, and immature central nervous system. Recent researches proposed new theories about neurological effects of CO toxicity. The clinical presentations associated acute COP may be various and nonspecific. Unrecognized CO exposure may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. CO exposed children often become symptomatic earlier, and recover more rapidly, than similarly CO exposed adults. Mild clinical signs and symptoms associated with COP are headache, dizziness, weakness, lethargy, and myalgia; however, severe signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, syncope, convulsion, coma, cardiopulmonary arrest and death can also accompany with COP. Neurologic manifestations can include altered mental status at different degrees, neck stiffness, tremor, ataxia, and positive Babinski's sign. Delayed neurologic sequels (DNS of COP might be seen in children like adults. DNS symptoms and signs in children include memory problems, mental retardation, mutism, fecal and urinary incontinence, motor deficits, facial palsy, psychosis, chronic headache, seizures, and epilepsy. After CO exposure children must be cared to detect and treat DNS. Although hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is reported to prevent development of DNS, its indications, application duration and procedures are controversial in both of the children and adults. Although their predictive values are limited, exposing to CO more than eight hours and suffering from CO-induced coma, cardiac arrest, lactic acidosis, high COHb levels, and pathologic findings

  14. Characteristics of Children with Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Ankara: A Single Centre Experience.

    Unsal Sac, Rukiye; Taşar, Medine Ayşin; Bostancı, İlknur; Şimşek, Yurda; Bilge Dallar, Yıldız

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to define characteristics of children with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Eighty children hospitalized with acute carbon monoxide poisoning were recruited prospectively over a period of 12 months. Sociodemographic features, complaints and laboratory data were recorded. When the patient was discharged, necessary preventive measures to be taken were explained to parents. One month later, the parents were questioned during a control examination regarding the precautions that they took. The ages of the cases were between one month and 16 yr. Education levels were low in 86.2% of mothers and 52.6% of fathers. All families had low income and 48.8% did not have formal housing. The source of the acute carbon monoxide poisoning was stoves in 71.2% of cases and hot-water heaters in 28.8% of cases. Three or more people were poisoned at home in 85.1% of the cases. The most frequent symptoms of poisoning were headache and vertigo (58.8%). Median carboxyhemoglobin levels at admission to the hospital and discharge were measured as 19.5% and 1.1% (P carbon monoxide poisoning are usually from families with low socioeconomic and education levels. Education about prevention should be provided to all people who are at risk of carbon monoxide poisoning before a poisoning incident occurs. PMID:26713060

  15. Hospital Performance Indicators and Their Associated Factors in Acute Child Poisoning at a Single Poison Center, Central Saudi Arabia.

    Alanazi, Menyfah Q; Al-Jeriasy, Majed I; Al-Assiri, Mohammed H; Afesh, Lara Y; Alhammad, Fahad; Salam, Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    Admission rate and length of stay (LOS) are two hospital performance indicators that affect the quality of care, patients' satisfaction, bed turnover, and health cost expenditures. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with higher admission rates and extended average LOS among acutely poisoned children at a single poison center, central Saudi Arabia.This is a cross-sectional, poison and medical chart review between 2009 and 2011. Exposures were child characteristics, that is, gender, age, body mass index (BMI), health history, and Canadian 5-level triage scale. Poison incident characteristics were, that is, type, exposure route, amount, form, home remedy, and arrival time to center. Admission status and LOS were obtained from records. Chronic poisoning, plant allergies, and venomous bites were excluded. Bivariate and regression analyses were applied. Significance at P 1 h. Triage levels: non-urgent cases (58%), less urgent (11%), urgent (18%), emergency (12%), resuscitative (1%). Admission rate was (20.6%) whereas av. LOS was 13 ± 22 h. After adjusting and controlling for confounders, older children (adj.OR = 1.19) and more critical triage levels (adj.OR = 1.35) were significantly associated with higher admission rates compared to younger children and less critical triage levels (adj.P = 0.006) and (adj.P = 0.042) respectively. Home remedy prior arrival was significantly associated with higher av. LOS (Beta = 9.48, t = 2.99), compared to those who directly visited the center, adj.P = 0.003.Hospital administrators are cautioned that acutely poisoned children who received home remedies prior arrival are more likely to endure an extended LOS. This non-conventional practice is not recommended. PMID:26717371

  16. Edaravone attenuates brain damage in rats after acute CO poisoning through inhibiting apoptosis and oxidative stress.

    Li, Qin; Bi, Ming Jun; Bi, Wei Kang; Kang, Hai; Yan, Le Jing; Guo, Yun-Liang

    2016-03-01

    Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the most common cause of death from poisoning all over the world and may result in neuropathologic and neurophysiologic changes. Acute brain damage and delayed encephalopathy are the most serious complication, yet their pathogenesis is poorly understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of Edaravone against apoptosis and oxidative stress after acute CO poisoning. The rat model of CO poisoning was established in a hyperbaric oxygen chamber by exposed to CO. Ultrastructure changes were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TUNEL stain was used to assess apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence double stain were used to evaluate the expression levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) protein and their relationship. By dynamically monitored the carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) level in blood, we successfully established rat model of severe CO poisoning. Ultrastructure changes, including chromatin condensation, cytoplasm dissolution, vacuoles formation, nucleus membrane and cell organelles decomposition, could be observed after CO poisoning. Edaravone could improve the ultrastructure damage. CO poisoning could induce apoptosis. Apoptotic cells were widely distributed in cortex, striatum and hippocampus. Edaravone treatment attenuated neuronal apoptosis as compared with the poisoning group (P < 0.01). Basal expressions of HO-1 and Nrf-2 proteins were found in normal brain tissue. CO poisoning could activate HO-1/Nrf-2 pathway, start oxidative stress response. After the administration of Edaravone, the expression of HO-1 and Nrf-2 significantly increased (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that Edaravone may inhibit apoptosis, activate the Keapl-Nrf/ARE pathway, and thus improve the ultrastructure damage and neurophysiologic changes following acute CO poisoning. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 372-379, 2016

  17. Successful Treatment of Acute Lethal Dose of Acrylamide Poisoning

    Ali Banagozar Mohammadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acrylamide (C3H5NO is a vinyl monomer. This water-soluble crystalline solid is a colorless, odorless agent which is used in scientific laboratories and some industries. Acrylamide has cellular oxidative effects. Acute or chronic poisoning with this agent happens as a result of skin, respiratory, or oral contacts. Clinical manifestations depend on the dose, duration, and frequency of contact. Management of these patients consists of conservative and palliative therapies to reduce the oxidative effects. Case: The case was a 29-year-old girl with a Master of Sciences degree in genetics who worked in a university research center with previous history of depression. She had ingested 100cc of 30% Acrylamide solution for intentional suicide attempt. The patient was successfully managed using N-acetyl cysteine, vitamin C, and melatonin. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment with recommended agents together with supportive therapies can save the life of patients exposed to potentially lethal doses of acrylamide, although intentional or accidental.

  18. Poisoning

    ... that could poison you include the following: Cleaning products Household products, such as nail polish remover and other personal ... Get rid of old or expired medicines and household products. Keep medicines and chemicals in their original containers. ...

  19. Salvianolic Acids Attenuate Rat Hippocampal Injury after Acute CO Poisoning by Improving Blood Flow Properties

    Li Guan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning causes the major injury and death due to poisoning worldwide. The most severe damage via CO poisoning is brain injury and mortality. Delayed encephalopathy after acute CO poisoning (DEACMP occurs in forty percent of the survivors of acute CO exposure. But the pathological cause for DEACMP is not well understood. And the corresponding therapy is not well developed. In order to investigate the effects of salvianolic acid (SA on brain injury caused by CO exposure from the view point of hemorheology, we employed a rat model and studied the dynamic of blood changes in the hemorheological and coagulative properties over acute CO exposure. Compared with the groups of CO and 20% mannitol + CO treatments, the severe hippocampal injury caused by acute CO exposure was prevented by SA treatment. These protective effects were associated with the retaining level of hematocrit (Hct, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, whole blood viscosities and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in red blood cells (RBCs. These results indicated that SA treatment could significantly improve the deformation of erythrocytes and prevent the damage caused by CO poisoning. Meanwhile, hemorheological indexes are good indicators for monitoring the pathological dynamic after acute CO poisoning.

  20. Electrophysiological correlates of respiratory failure in acute organophosphate poisoning: Evidence for differential roles of muscarinic and nicotinic stimulation

    Jayawardane, Pradeepa; Senanayake, Nimal; Buckley, Nick A.; Dawson, Andrew H

    2012-01-01

    Background. Respiratory failure in acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning can occur early and also relatively late in the clinical course, and the pathophysiology of respiratory failure at these different phases may have important clinical implications. Objective. To compare the electrophysiological findings in patients with early and late respiratory failure following acute OP poisoning. Methods. A prospective observational case series of consenting symptomatic patients with acute OP poisoning...

  1. A community-based cluster randomised trial of safe storage to reduce pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka: study protocol

    Pearson Melissa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The WHO recognises pesticide poisoning to be the single most important means of suicide globally. Pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health and clinical problem in rural Asia, where it has led to case fatality ratios 20-30 times higher than self-poisoning in the developed world. One approach to reducing access to pesticides is for households to store pesticides in lockable "safe-storage" containers. However, before this approach can be promoted, evidence is required on its effectiveness and safety. Methods/Design A community-based cluster randomised controlled trial has been set up in 44,000 households in the North Central Province, Sri Lanka. A census is being performed, collecting baseline demographic data, socio-economic status, pesticide usage, self-harm and alcohol. Participating villages are then randomised and eligible households in the intervention arm given a lockable safe storage container for agrochemicals. The primary outcome will be incidence of pesticide self-poisoning over three years amongst individuals aged 14 years and over. 217,944 person years of follow-up are required in each arm to detect a 33% reduction in pesticide self-poisoning with 80% power at the 5% significance level. Secondary outcomes will include the incidence of all pesticide poisoning and total self-harm. Discussion This paper describes a large effectiveness study of a community intervention to reduce the burden of intentional poisoning in rural Sri Lanka. The study builds on a strong partnership between provincial health services, local and international researchers, and local communities. We discuss issues in relation to randomisation and contamination, engaging control villages, the intervention, and strategies to improve adherence. Trial Registritation The trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov ref: NCT1146496 (http://clinicaltrialsfeeds.org/clinical-trials/show/NCT01146496.

  2. Acute kidney injury and disseminated intravascular coagulation due to mercuric chloride poisoning

    Dhanapriya, J.; Gopalakrishnan, N; Arun, V.; Dineshkumar, T.; Sakthirajan, R.; Balasubramaniyan, T.; Haris, M

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic heavy metal and occurs in organic and inorganic forms. Inorganic mercury includes elemental mercury and mercury salts. Mercury salts are usually white powder or crystals, and widely used in indigenous medicines and folk remedies in Asia. Inorganic mercury poisoning causes acute kidney injury (AKI) and gastrointestinal manifestations and can be life-threatening. We describe a case with unknown substance poisoning who developed AKI and disseminated intravascular coagulation (...

  3. Acute methanol poisonings: Folates administration and visual sequelae

    Zakharov, S.; Nurieva, O.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Diblik, P.; Kuthan, P.; Pelclová, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2014), s. 309-316. ISSN 1214-021X Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Methanol poisoning * Treatment outcome * Folinic acid Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.302, year: 2014

  4. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H. [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2005-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  5. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: Emergency management and hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    Severance, H.W.; Kolb, J.C.; Carlton, F.B.; Jorden, R.C.

    1989-10-01

    An ice storm in February 1989 resulted in numerous incidences of carbon monoxide poisoning in central Mississippi secondary to exposure to open fires in unventilated living spaces. Sixteen cases were treated during this period at the University of Mississippi Medical Center and 6 received Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy. These 6 cases and the mechanisms of CO poisoning are discussed and recommendations for emergency management are reviewed.10 references.

  6. Profile of acute carbon monoxide poisoning in the west province of Iran

    Objective: To document the epidemiology and risk factors of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in the west of Iran and specify potentially presentable characteristics. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Imam Khomeini Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran, from July 2006 to March 2008. Methodology: This study was conducted using the records of 143 cases of CO poisoning referred to the only centre for the reference of poisoning cases. Intent, age groups, source of poisoning and clinical presentation were noted and described as frequency. Results: One-hundred forty two cases (99.3%), were accidental and only one case (0.7%) was suicidal. Mortality was (21.7%, n=31). The highest mortality was found in the age groups of 20-30 years and below 10 years. The greatest frequency happened in autumn and winter. The clinical symptoms and manifestations of CO poisoning included headache (35.3%), nausea (25.4%), vomiting (21%), dyspnea (10.3%), and decrease in level of consciousness (8%). Gas water heaters (35%), room heaters (32%), stoves (24%) and other items (9%) were the principal sources of the individuals' exposure to CO. Conclusion: CO poisoning is a serious public health problem in west of Iran (Kermanshah). The number of CO poisoning cases was highest in the colder seasons of the year, whereas the majority of the poisoning cases could be prevented. (author)

  7. Pattern of acute poisonings in childhood in Ankara: what has changed in twenty years?

    Andiran, Nesibe; Sarikayalar, Fikriye

    2004-01-01

    Poisoning represents one of the most common medical emergencies in childhood, and epidemiological properties differ from country to country. Thus, special epidemiological surveillance for each country is necessary to determine the problem according to which preventive measures can be taken. The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of acute poisoning cases admitted to a pediatric referral hospital. All poisoned patients under 17 years of age, except for cases food poisoning, presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) from January 1995 to December 2000 were determined. The information about each case was recorded on standardized forms and a retrospective chart review survey was done. Complete epidemiological and clinical data were obtained for 489 patients. The mean age of all poisoned patients (mean +/- standard deviation) was 5.96 +/- 4.87 years, and the age range was 0.01 to 17 years. Three hundred and thirty-one children, forming 63.6% of all patients, were under five years of age. Slightly more boys (52.3%) than girls were intoxicated at ages less than 10 years, after which more girls (79%) than boys were involved. The majority of all cases were due to accidental poisoning (78.1% of all poisonings) which occurred mostly in children under five years of age (73.3%). While accidental poisonings (97.1%) were the most common mode of poisoning between 1-5 years, self-poisonings (67.3%) had the highest ratio in cases over 10 years of age. In patients younger than one year of age, 74.2% of all poisonings were due to therapeutical error. Drugs were the most frequent offending agent (57.7%), followed by ingestion of a caustic/corrosive substance (16.8%) and carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication (9.4%). Analgesics were the most common agents, forming 23.7% of all poisonings due to drugs, followed by ingestion of multiple drugs and tricyclic antidepressants at ratios of 21.6% and 9.6%, respectively. The most common route of poisoning was ingestion of the

  8. Pesticide exposure in children.

    2012-12-01

    This statement presents the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics on pesticides. Pesticides are a collective term for chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Children encounter pesticides daily and have unique susceptibilities to their potential toxicity. Acute poisoning risks are clear, and understanding of chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure are emerging. Epidemiologic evidence demonstrates associations between early life exposure to pesticides and pediatric cancers, decreased cognitive function, and behavioral problems. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Recognizing and reducing problematic exposures will require attention to current inadequacies in medical training, public health tracking, and regulatory action on pesticides. Ongoing research describing toxicologic vulnerabilities and exposure factors across the life span are needed to inform regulatory needs and appropriate interventions. Policies that promote integrated pest management, comprehensive pesticide labeling, and marketing practices that incorporate child health considerations will enhance safe use. PMID:23184103

  9. PREDICTING OUTCOME AND SEVERITY IN ACUTE ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS POISONING WITH CLINICAL SCORING AND SERUM CHOLINESTERASE LEVELS

    Basavaraj R

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Organophosphorus compound poisoning is the most common medico toxic emergency in India the increase in pesticide use in agriculture has paralleled the increase in the use of these products for deliberate self-warm. Respiratory failure is the most common complication of OP poisoning leading to death. Early recognition and prompt ventilator support may improve survival. Owing to limited availability of resources, all OP poisoning patients are not managed in ICUs in Indian setup. It is therefore important that clinical features and criteria to predict the need for ventilator support be identified at initial examination. Hence this study was undertaken to assess the severity of organophosphorus compound poisoning both clinically by using Peradeniya scoring and by estimating serum choline esterase levels. METHODS: Cross sectional study was done at basaveswar teaching and general hospital attached to MR Medical College. Cases with history of exposure to organophosphorus compound within previous 24 hours were chosen after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients were evaluated for Peradeniya OP poisoning scale and serum cholinesterase levels for assessment of severity of poisoning. Serum cholinesterase levels and Peradeniya OP poisoning scale were studied to predict the need for ventilator support. The results were analyzed using Chi-square test. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: It was done using pearson’s chi square test. RESULTS: In this study requirement of ventilator support was seen in 36% of patients. Mortality in our study was 18%. Only 15.6% of patients with mild grade of poisoning according to Peradeniya OP poisoning scale required ventilator support, whereas 84.4% did not require ventilator support. Most of patients with moderate (70.6% and severe poisoning (100% according to Peradeniya OP poisoning scale required ventilator support. 93.7% of patients with serum cholinesterase levels more than 50% did not require

  10. Impact of chronic and acute pesticide exposures on periphyton communities

    Aquatic ecosystems face variable exposure to pesticides, especially during floodings which are associated with short bursts of high contaminant concentrations that influence biological systems. A study was undertaken to highlight the impact of the herbicide diuron applied in mixture with the fungicide tebuconazole on natural periphyton during flooding events. Periphyton were grown in two series of two lotic outdoor mesocosms: one series was non-contaminated while the other was exposed to chronic contamination. After 4 weeks, one channel of each series was exposed to three successive pulses, with each pulse followed by one week of recovery. Impacts on periphyton were assessed by using Denaturing Gel Gradient Electrophoresis to characterize eukaryotic community structure. At a functional scale, photosynthetic efficiency was quantified during each pulse, and the induced tolerance to diuron was estimated by performing short-term inhibition tests based on photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, pesticide concentrations in the water column and periphyton matrix were measured. Diuron was adsorbed in the periphyton during each pulse and desorbed 13 h after pulse end. The different pulses affected the eukaryotic community structures of the control biofilms, but not of the chronically exposed ones. During the first pulse, photosynthetic efficiency was correlated with pesticide concentration in the water phase, and there was no difference between periphyton from chronically contaminated channels and control channels. However, during the second and third pulses, the photosynthetic efficiency of periphyton chronically exposed to pesticides appeared to be less impacted by the acute pulsed exposure of pesticide. These changes were consistent with the acquisition of induced tolerance to diuron since only after the third pulse that periphyton from chronic channel became tolerant to diuron. Our experimental study indicates that the effects of pulsed acute exposures to pesticides on

  11. 某市2008至2010年农药中毒病例分析%Epidemiological analysis for Quzhou pesticide poisoning of year 2008 to 2010

    赵士光; 刘斯峰

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析衢州市农药中毒病例的特征,为制定防治对策提供科学依据.方法 收集衢州市2008至2010年农药中毒的登记数据,用SPSS 12.0软件进行统计分析.结果 2008至2010年衢州市共发生农药中毒1222例,其中,生产性农药中毒225例,占18.4%,死亡1例,病死率为0.44%;非生产性农药中毒997例,占81.6%,死亡77例,病死率为7.72%.生产性农药中毒以男性为主(172例),占76.4%,非生产性农药中毒以女性为主(519例),占52.1%.农药中毒主要发生在第3季度.生产性农药中毒和非生产性农药中毒均以65岁以上年龄组的病例最多,分别为81例(占36.0%)和262例 (占26.3%);农药种类均以有机磷类杀虫剂为主.结论 农药中毒在衢州市严重威胁着公众的健康,非生产性农药中毒应引起重视,有机磷类杀虫剂为主要的中毒农药.%Objective To provide scientific evidence of making measures for prevention of pesticide poisoning,the investigation on the condition of pesticide poisoning was carried out in Quzhou.Methods Registration data of pesticide poisoning from 2008 to 2010 in Quzhou were collected and statistically analyzed by SPSS 12.0.Results During the three years,there were 1222 cases reported for pesticide poisoning.Among them,the number of occupational poisoning was 225 (1 case died),with fatality rate of 0.44%.The number of non-occupational poisoning was 997 (77 cases died),and its fatality rate was 7.72%.The incidence of occupational poisoning and non-occupational poisoning accounted for 18.4% and 81.6% respectively.Male patients were in the majority in occupational pesticides poisoning (accounting for 76.4%),female patients in non-occupational poisoning (accounting for 52.1%).The pesticide poisoning mainly occurred from July to September.Occupational poisoning and non-occupational poisoning cases mainly concentrated in over 65 age group,accounting for 36.0% (81 cases) and 26.3% (262 cases

  12. Minoxidil poisoning presenting as acute coronary syndrome: a rare case scenario

    Shrikant Kalyanrao Panchal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of severe minoxidil poisoning (3000 mg with resultant severe hypotension, tachycardia and subendocardial ischemia initially treated crystalloid, dopamine, aspirin, clopidogrel on the lines of acute coronary syndrome with partial haemodynamic improvement. After getting the history of minoxidil poisoning, the patient was treated with bolus doses of norepinephrine, and norepinephrine infusion, resulting in resolution of hypertension, tachycardia and reversal of ischemia. Topical minoxidil is commonly used agent for male pattern baldness. It also has got antihypertensive action when ingested, acute coronary syndrome and compensatory tachycardia with successful management with norepinephrine bolus and infusion. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 784-785

  13. Acute Poisoning in Children: A Hospital-Based Study in Arak, Iran (2008-2012

    Ali Arjmand Shabestari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poisoning is one of the important reasons for children’s admission to hospital. Knowledge of epidemiology of poisoning in each region plays an important role in planning prevention, care, and treatment of patients. This study was conducted to determine the characteristics of acute poisoning epidemiology in children attending pediatric wards of Amirkabir Hospital in Arak in a five-year period (March 2008 to March 2012. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 224 children admitted for poisoning. Data were retrospectively collected from patients’ files and analyzed using SPSS 16 software. Results: Of the total population, 54.9% were boys and the rest were girls. Mean age of children was 3.54±2.99 years, and the most common age range was 1-3 years (50.9%. The highest rate of children’s admission due to poisoning was in the winter (30.8%. The most common causes of poisoning included drugs (65.2%, kerosene (7.1%, and food poisoning (5.4%. The most common poisoning drugs, included benzodiazepines (21.9%, gastrointestinal drugs (19.9%, opioid analgesics (15.1%. The most prevalent drugs were methadone, metoclopramide, and clonazepam. At admission, the most common presenting symptoms were neurological (51.3%, and gastrointestinal symptoms (38.4%. Conclusion: High prevalence of poisoning with groups of drugs mentioned could indicate community-wide excessive use of these drugs, as well as negligence of families in keeping them out of children’s reach. Therefore, raising knowledge and awareness about variety of poisoning and how to prevent them, through holding workshops, national media, schools, and health centers can be a valuable step toward upkeep of children’s health.

  14. Assessing biomarkers and neuropsychological outcomes in rural populations exposed to organophosphate pesticides in Chile – study design and protocol

    Ramirez-Santana, M.; Zuniga, L.; S Corral; R. Sandoval; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Velden, K. van der; Roeleveld, N.; Pancetti, F.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health effects of pesticides are easily diagnosed when acute poisonings occurs, nevertheless, consequences from chronic exposure can only be observed when neuropsychiatric, neurodegenerative or oncologic pathologies appear. Therefore, early monitoring of this type of exposure is especially relevant to avoid the consequences of pathologies previously described; especially concerning workers exposed to pesticides on the job. For acute organophosphate pesticides (OPP) exposure, two b...

  15. ACUTE ACCIDENTAL POISONING IN CHILDREN: A HOSPITAL-BASED RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Kameshore

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute accidental poisoning in children is a big problem anywhere in the world. Studies done elsewhere in India showed a wide range of incidence of the problem. Hence, it was felt important to study its magnitude and associated characteristics as of now. OBJECTIVE: The current study was taken up to know the magnitude among children admitted in JNIMS, Imphal which is a newly established medical institute and also to study the characteristics like age, gender, type of poison, duration of hospital-stay and outcome of the cases. MATERIALS & METHODS: Retrospective data of all acute accidental poisoning cases among children admitted in the Pediatrics Ward, JNIMS, Imphal during the period July 2008 - December 2013 were analyzed by using descriptive statistics. RESULT: Of all the 13,663 children admitted, 148 cases were because of acute accidental poisoning giving an incidence rate of 1.08%. The male is to female ratio was 1.31:1. The last three years of the study period showed a slightly increasing trend in the incidence. Children aged 1-4 years were the most commonly affected (65.54%. Kerosene oil was by far the commonest (42% of all the poisonous substances consumed. Food poisoning, poisoning with organic compounds, poisoning with medicinal drugs and poisoning with corrosives comprised 21%, 12%, 9% and 8% respectively of all the cases. There was no mortality. DISCUSSION: The incidence rate of 1.08% as found out from the current study was on the lower side as compared to reports of previous studies done in other parts of the country. Yet, it was two-fold of the incidence reported from RIMS which is situated in the same State. Parental negligence in storing poisonous substances in the household was implicated. They need to be made aware for keeping harmful poisonous substances in safe places out of the reach of children. CONCLUSION: Community-based studies are recommended for estimating more accurately the magnitude of the problem in the

  16. A Case of Mushroom Poisoning with Russula subnigricans: Development of Rhabdomyolysis, Acute Kidney Injury, Cardiogenic Shock, and Death.

    Cho, Jong Tae; Han, Jin Hyung

    2016-07-01

    Mushroom exposures are increasing worldwide. The incidence and fatality of mushroom poisoning are reported to be increasing. Several new syndromes in mushroom poisoning have been described. Rhabdomyolytic mushroom poisoning is one of new syndromes. Russula subnigricans mushroom can cause delayed-onset rhabdomyolysis with acute kidney injury in the severely poisoned patient. There are few reports on the toxicity of R. subnigricans. This report represents the first record of R. subnigricans poisoning with rhabdomyolysis in Korea, describing a 51-year-old man who suffered from rhabdomyolysis, acute kidney injury, severe hypocalcemia, respiratory failure, ventricular tachycardia, cardiogenic shock, and death. Mushroom poisoning should be considered in the evaluation of rhabdomyolysis of unknown cause. Furthermore, R. subnigricans should be considered in the mushroom poisoning with rhabdomyolysis. PMID:27366018

  17. Analysis on structural characteristics of poison system in acute poisoning of Guangxi%广西急性中毒毒物体系构成特点分析

    蒋东方; 张振明; 刘清华

    2013-01-01

    A total of 6004 cases of acute poisoning with 532 kinds of related poisons from 63hospitals were analyzed.According to the classification of pharmaceutical,pesticide,chemical,animal,plant and other poisons,the numbers of poison categories were 217,148,61,34,36 and 36 kinds accounting for 40.8%,27.8%,11.5%,6.4%,6.8%,6.7% of total number of poisons respectively.According to the case count,they were divided into three groups of low,medium and high morbidity and their poison numbers were 462,59 and 11 kinds accounting for 86.8%,11.1%,2.1% of total number of poisons respectively.According to the types of poisons,they were divided into five groups of poisoning 1,2,3,4,5 years and their poison numbers were 320,91,34,33 and 54 kinds accounting for 60.2%,17.1%,6.4%,6.2%,10.1% of total number of poisons respectively.According to the time of poisoning,they were divided into three groups of 1-year,discontinuous and perennial poisoning and their poison numbers were 320,158 and 54 kinds accounting for 60.2%,29.7%,10.1% of total number of poisons respectively.%分析63家医院收治的6004例急性中毒病例的相关毒物,共有532种,按医药、农药、化学、动物、植物、其他分为6类,各类毒物数为217、148、61、34、36、36种,分别占总毒物数的40.8%、27.8%、11.5%、6.4%、6.8%、6.7%.将各类毒物按中毒病例数分为低、中、高发病3组,各组毒物数分别为462(86.8%)、59(11.1%)、11(2.1%)种.各类毒物按中毒发生年数分为5个组,各类毒物合计数分别为320(60.2%)、91(17.1%)、34(6.4%)、33(6.2%)、54(10.1%)种.各类毒物按发生中毒的时间分为1年、间断、常年中毒3个组,各类毒物合计数分别为320(60.2%)、158 (29.7%)、54(10.1%)种.

  18. Should hyperbaric oxygen be used to treat the pregnant patient for acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Van Hoesen, K.B.; Camporesi, E.M.; Moon, R.E.; Hage, M.L.; Piantadosi, C.A. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA))

    1989-02-17

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the leading cause of death due to poisoning. Although uncommon, CO poisoning does occur during pregnancy and can result in fetal mortality and neurological malformations in fetuses who survive to term. Uncertainty arises regarding the use of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) as a treatment for the pregnant patient because of possible adverse effects on the fetus that could be induced by oxygen at high partial pressures. While the dangers of hyperoxia to the fetus have been demonstrated in animal models, careful review of animal studies and human clinical experience indicates that the short duration of hyperoxic exposure attained during HBO therapy for CO poisoning can be tolerated by the fetus in all stages of pregnancy and reduces the risk of death or deformity to the mother and fetus. A case is presented of acute CO poisoning during pregnancy that was successfully treated with HBO. Recommendations are suggested for the use of HBO during pregnancy.

  19. 急性有机磷农药中毒患者心肌酶及心电图检测临床分析%CLINICAL ANALYSIS OF MYOCARDIAL ENZYME AND ECG OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE POISONING PATIENTS

    王卫民; 何玉娟

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To discuss the clinical significance of changes on myocardial enzymes and ECG in patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning and its relationship with prognosis.[Methods]From January 2006 -December 2009, 85 patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were admitted to hospital and the dynamic observation of their enzymes was made, then compared clinical data to analyze.[Results]The serum enzyme of 85 cases of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were increased with different levels, EKG changed obviously, 16 cases died.[Conclusion]The illness is severer, the more obvious increase of enzymes is found, and the prognosis is worse.It should protect the heart at early stage to reduce mortality and improve the cure rate.%[目的]探讨急性有机磷农药中毒患者心肌酶学及心电图改变的临床意义及预后的关系.[方法]对2006年1月~2009年12月85例急性有机磷农药中毒患者入院后作心肌酶动态观察并结合临床资料进行分析.[结果]85例急性有机磷农药中毒病人的血清心肌酶均有不同程度的升高,心电图发生明显改变,死亡16例.[结论]病情越重,心肌酶升高幅度越明显,预后越差,应早期应用保护心脏药物,降低死亡率,提高治愈率.

  20. Multi-residue method for the determination of pesticides and pesticide metabolites in honeybees by liquid and gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry--Honeybee poisoning incidents.

    Kiljanek, Tomasz; Niewiadowska, Alicja; Semeniuk, Stanisław; Gaweł, Marta; Borzęcka, Milena; Posyniak, Andrzej

    2016-02-26

    A method for the determination of 200 pesticides and pesticide metabolites in honeybee samples has been developed and validated. Almost 98% of compounds included in this method are approved to use within European Union, as active substances of plant protection products or veterinary medicinal products used by beekeepers to control mites Varroa destructor in hives. Many significant metabolites, like metabolites of imidacloprid, thiacloprid, fipronil, methiocarb and amitraz, are also possible to detect. The sample preparation was based on the buffered QuEChERS method. Samples of bees were extracted with acetonitrile containing 1% acetic acid and then subjected to clean-up by dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) using a new Z-Sep+ sorbent and PSA. The majority of pesticides, including neonicotionoids and their metabolites, were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) but some of pesticides, especially pyrethroid insecticides, were analyzed by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The procedure was validated according to the Guidance document SANCO/12571/2013 at four concentration levels: 1, 5, 10 and 100 ng/g bees and verified in the international proficiency test. The analysis of bee samples spiked at the limit of quantification (LOQ) showed about 98% mean recovery value (trueness) and 97% of analytes showed recovery in the required range of 70-120% and RSDr (precision) below 20%. Linearity and matrix effects were also established. The LOQs of pesticides were in the range of 1-100 ng/g. The developed method allows determination of insecticides at concentrations of 10 ng/g or less, except abamectin and tebufenozide. LOQ values are lower than the median lethal doses LD50 for bees. The method was used to investigate more than 70 honeybee poisoning incidents. Data about detected pesticides and their metabolites are included. PMID:26830634

  1. The Effects of Acute Hydrogen Sulfide Poisoning on Cytochrome P450 Isoforms Activity in Rats

    Xianqin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is the second leading cause of toxin related death (after carbon monoxide in the workplace. H2S is absorbed by the upper respiratory tract mucosa, and it causes histotoxic hypoxemia and respiratory depression. Cocktail method was used to evaluate the influences of acute H2S poisoning on the activities of cytochrome P450 isoforms CYP2B6, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP2C9, which were reflected by the changes of pharmacokinetic parameters of six specific probe drugs, bupropion, metoprolol, midazolam, phenacetin, omeprazole, and tolbutamide, respectively. The experimental rats were randomly divided into two groups, control group and acute H2S poisoning group (inhaling 300 ppm for 2 h. The mixture of six probes was given to rats by oral administration and the blood samples were obtained at a series of time points through the caudal vein. The concentrations of probe drugs in rat plasma were measured by LC-MS. The results for acute H2S poisoning and control groups were as follows: there was a statistically significant difference in the AUC and Cmax for bupropion, metoprolol, phenacetin, and tolbutamide, while there was no statistical pharmacokinetic difference for midazolam and omeprazole. Acute H2S poisoning could inhibit the activity of CYP2B6, CYP2D6, CYP1A2, and CYP2C9 in rats.

  2. Oral administration of lactulose: a novel therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning via increasing intestinal hydrogen production.

    Fan, Dan-Feng; Hu, Hui-Jun; Sun, Xue-Jun; Meng, Xiang-En; Zhang, Yu; Pan, Shu-Yi

    2016-01-01

    It has been known that the pathophysiology of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is related to hypoxia, the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Studies have shown that the novel, safe and effective free radical scavenger, hydrogen, has neuroprotective effects in both acute CO poisoning and delayed neuropsychological sequelae in CO poisoning. Orally administered lactulose, which may be used by some intestinal bacteria as a food source to produce endogenous hydrogen, can ameliorate oxidative stress. Based on the available findings, we hypothesize that oral administration of lactulose may be a novel therapy for acute CO poisoning via increasing intestinal hydrogen production. PMID:27000012

  3. 2006至2009年某市农药中毒情况%Situation of pesticide poisoning in Huzhou from 2006 to 2009

    刘弢; 张传会; 张鹏; 金玫华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the situations of pesticide poisoning in Huzhou and take preventive strategy and measures against the pesticide poisoning. Methods Case reports between 2006 and 2009 in the data base of reporting system for occupational diseases were computed by Excel for windows and statistical significance by SPSS12.0. Results A total of 2298 patients were reported from 2006 to 2009.Among them, the incidence of occupational poisoing accounted for 25.59% (588 cases), including 4 fatalities (fatality rate, 0.68% ). Male patients (458 cases, 77.89% ) were more than femal ones ( 130 cases, 22.11% ) in occupational pesticides poisoning. Summer and autumn were the most seasons in occupational pesticides poisoning occurring. The incidence of non-occupational pesticides poisoning accounted for 74.41% ( 1710 cases ),including 112 fatalities (fatality rate, 6.55%). Femal patients (952 cases, 55.67% ) were more than male ones (758 cases, 44.33% ) in non-occupational pesticides poisoning. 15-55 years were the highest incidences among non-occupational pesticides poisoning patients. Insecticides especially organophosphorus insecticides such as methamidophos, parathion, and omethoate comprised a higher proportion, accounting for 79.98% of the pesticides poisoning. Conclusion The incidence and the fatality rate of occupational pesticide poisoning were reduced in the city. However, more attention should be paied to non-occupational pesticides poisoning. To decrease the numbers of pesticide poisoning and the risks of death, the relevant departments should take preventive strategy and measures against the pesticide poisoning.%目的 了解湖州市农药中毒的危害现状,为农药中毒预防控制提供依据.方法 将2006至2009年每年应用"中国疾病预防控制信息系统"的子系统"健康危害因素检测信息系统"所建立的农药中毒报告数据库导入Excel,进行汇总统计,使用SPSS 12.0软件进行统计分析.结果 2006至2009

  4. Severe acute caffeine poisoning due to intradermal injections: Mesotherapy hazard

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša; Babić Gordana; Šegrt Zoran; Vuković-Ercegović Gordana; Janković Snežana; Aćimović Ljubomir

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Caffeine is indicated in the treatment of migraine headaches, as well as neonatal apnea and bradycardia syndrome. In mild poisoning, the most prevalent symptoms are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, tremor, anxiety and headache. In more severe cases, symptoms consist of heart rythym abnormalities, myocardial infarction and seizures. Due to its common lipolytic effect, caffeine is used in mesotherapy, usually in combination with drugs of similar effect. We presented a patient wit...

  5. The Acute Oral Toxicity of Commonly Used Pesticides in Iran, to Honeybees (Apis Mellifera Meda

    Rasuli Farhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The honey bee is credited with approximately 85% of the pollinating activity necessary to supply about one-third of the world’s food supply. Well over 50 major crops depend on these insects for pollination. The crops produce more abundantly when honey bees are plentiful. Worker bees are the ones primarily affected by pesticides. Poisoning symptoms can vary depending on the developmental stage of the individual bee, and the kind of chemical employed. The oral toxicity of these insecticides: (phosalone and pirimicarb, acaricide (propargite, insecticide and acaricide (fenpropathrin, fungicides, and bactericides (copper oxychloride and the Bordeaux mixture, were evaluated for the purposes of this research. The results showed that fenpropathrin had high acute oral toxicity (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 0.54 and 0.3 ppm, respectively. Propargite had 7785 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-24h and 6736 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-48h in honeybees and is therefore, non-toxic to Apis mellifera. On the other hand, copper oxychloride had minimum acute oral toxicity to honeybees (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 4591.5 and 5407.9 ppm, respectively and was therefore considered non-toxic. Also, the Bordeaux mixture was safe to use around honeybees. Phosalone and primicarb were considered highly and moderately toxic to honeybees, respectively.

  6. Distribution and Economic Loss Analysis for 38 Hospitalized Children with Acute Poisoning%38例急性中毒住院儿童病例分布及经济损失分析

    宋瑞娟; 宋瑞华; 牛彦青; 王莉

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To understand the distribution features and economic losses of the hospitalized children with acute poisoning, scientific basis was provided to prevent and control the acute poisoning in children.Methods:A retrospective analysis of 38 cases of acute poisoning in children admitted to the pediatric in Heji Hospital affiliated to Changzhi Medical College from 2007 to 2012.Results:In the children with poisoning,25 cases were male,while 13 caseswere female.Children were divided into four groups according to the age:<1,1~4,5~9,and 10~14,whose distribution were respectively 6 cases,20 cases,4 cases,8 cases.Rural and urban poisoning proportion was 1.38:1.The peak was in September and the indoor poisoning accounted for 86.84%.34.21% poisoning was caused by the drug in acute poisoning,while the same with the chemical poisoning.The economic losses of acute poisoning caused by pesticide was(5 171.03 ±4 843.46)RMB on average,which was the highest.The economic losses caused by plant was (2 062.63±715.78)RMB on average, which was the second highest.Conclusion:The number of male children with acute poisoning in the hospital were larger than the female, and mainly concentrated in 1~4 years old,who lived in rural rather than the city.In addition,drug poisoning was the main type of acute poisoning.Pesticide poisoning made the largest economic loss.Measures should be taken to prevent and control the acute poisoning according to its epidemiological characteristics.%目的:了解急性中毒住院患儿的分布特征和经济损失,为儿童急性中毒的预防、控制提供科学依据。方法:回顾性分析38例儿童急性中毒病例。结果:38例中毒患儿中,男25例,女13例;<1岁、1~4岁、5~9岁、10~14岁年龄组分别为6、20、4、8例;农村、城市中毒比例1.38∶1;9月份为发病高峰期;发生在户内占86.84%。急性中毒中药物中毒和化学性中毒各占34.21%。急性中毒的经济损失

  7. Does the clock make the poison? Circadian variation in response to pesticides.

    Louisa A Hooven

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circadian clocks govern daily physiological and molecular rhythms, and putative rhythms in expression of xenobiotic metabolizing (XM genes have been described in both insects and mammals. Such rhythms could have important consequences for outcomes of chemical exposures at different times of day. To determine whether reported XM gene expression rhythms result in functional rhythms, we examined daily profiles of enzyme activity and dose responses to the pesticides propoxur, deltamethrin, fipronil, and malathion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Published microarray expression data were examined for temporal patterns. Male Drosophila were collected for ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECOD, esterase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and, and uridine 5'-diphosphoglucosyltransferase (UGT enzyme activity assays, or subjected to dose-response tests at four hour intervals throughout the day in both light/dark and constant light conditions. Peak expression of several XM genes cluster in late afternoon. Significant diurnal variation was observed in ECOD and UGT enzyme activity, however, no significant daily variation was observed in esterase or GST activity. Daily profiles of susceptibility to lethality after acute exposure to propoxur and fipronil showed significantly increased resistance in midday, while susceptibility to deltamethrin and malathion varied little. In constant light, which interferes with clock function, the daily variation in susceptibility to propoxur and in ECOD and UGT enzyme activity was depressed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Expression and activities of specific XM enzymes fluctuate during the day, and for specific insecticides, the concentration resulting in 50% mortality varies significantly during the day. Time of day of chemical exposure should be an important consideration in experimental design, use of pesticides, and human risk assessment.

  8. Children, Learning, and Poisons Don't Mix: Kick the Pesticide Habit.

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY.

    This brochure examines basic information about pesticides and their use in and around schools, how children are exposed to pesticides and their health effects, and how a school can kick the habit of using pesticides. A special issues section covers the chemicals that should not be part of a school pest control effort, the restricted use of…

  9. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in delayed encephalopathy of acute carbon monoxide poisoning - comparison with CT -

    Eleven magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomographic (CT) imaging were performed in nine patients with mild to moderate degree of delayed neuropsychiatric symptoms following acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, to evaluate the capability of MR in demonstrating any additional finding to CT. The MR images were obtained using 0.15 Tesla resistive system with various combination of three pulse sequences, including partial saturation recovery, T2-weighted spin echo and inversion recovery. Bilateral white matter abnormalities suggesting demyelination were demonstrated in 4 patients with MR and in only 2 patients with CT. The contrast discrimination between normal and abnormal white matter proved to be better with T2-weighted spin echo and inversion recovery than with partial saturation recovery and CT. But necrosis of the globus pallidus (1 patient) and diffuse atrophy (3 patients) were equally demonstrated on both MR and CT. It is suggested that MR be used as a initial imaging method in the evaluation of the delayed encephalopathy following acute CO poisoning, especially for the detection of the possible white matter lesions. Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning produces hypoxia by displacing oxygen from hemoglobin and preventing its release from hemoglobin in tissues, often resulting in fetal event. Victims who survive acute CO poisoning may have various delayed symptoms and signs. Occasionally, an apparent recovery is followed within two days to three weeks by a sudden neurological deterioration. The degree of neuropsychiatric symptoms depends upon the extent and severity of the pathologic changes in the brain. The pathologic effects of CO poisoning are present in almost all organs of patients. However, the most important changes occur in the brain, which consist of necrosis of the globus pallidus and reticular zone of the substantia nigra, and the degeneration of the cerebral white matter. The diagnostic superiority of magnetic resonance (MR) over CT has already

  10. Ulinastatin suppresses endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats with acute paraquat poisoning

    Hai-feng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung injury is the main manifestation of paraquat poisoning. Few studies have addressed brain damage after paraquat poisoning. Ulinastatin is a protease inhibitor that can effectively stabilize lysosomal membranes, prevent cell damage, and reduce the production of free radicals. This study assumed that ulinastatin would exert these effects on brain tissues that had been poisoned with paraquat. Rat models of paraquat poisoning were intraperitoneally injected with ulinastatin. Simultaneously, rats in the control group were administered normal saline. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that most hippocampal cells were contracted and nucleoli had disappeared in the paraquat group. Fewer cells in the hippocampus were concentrated and nucleoli had disappeared in the ulinastatin group. Western blot assay showed that expressions of GRP78 and cleaved-caspase-3 were significantly lower in the ulinastatin group than in the paraquat group. Immunohistochemical findings showed that CHOP immunoreactivity was significantly lower in the ulinastatin group than in the paraquat group. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining showed that the number of apoptotic cells was reduced in the paraquat and ulinastatin groups. These data confirmed that endoplasmic reticular stress can be induced by acute paraquat poisoning. Ulinastatin can effectively inhibit this stress as well as cell apoptosis, thereby exerting a neuroprotective effect.

  11. Using bosentan to treat paraquat poisoning-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    Zhongchen Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paraquat poisoning is well known for causing multiple organ function failure (MODS and high mortality. Acute lung injury and advanced pulmonary fibrosis are the most serious complications. Bosentan is a dual endothelin receptor antagonist. It plays an important role in treating PF. There is no related literature on the use of bosentan therapy for paraquat poisoning. OBJECTIVE: To study the use of bosentan to treat acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis as induced by paraquat. METHOD: A total of 120 adult Wister male rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the paraquat poisoning group (rats were intragastrically administered with paraquat at 50 mg/kg body weight once at the beginning; the bosentan therapy group (rats were administered bosentan at 100 mg/kg body weight by intragastric administration half an hour after paraquat was administered, then the same dose was administered once a day; and a control group (rats were administered intragastric physiological saline. On the 3rd, 7th, 14th, and 21st days following paraquat exposure, rats were sacrificed, and samples of lung tissue and venous blood were collected. The levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, endothelin-1 (ET-1, and hydroxyproline (HYP in the plasma and lung homogenate were determined. Optical and electronic microscopes were used to examine pathological changes. RESULT: The TGF-β1, ET-1, and HYP of the paraquat poisoning group were significantly higher than in the control group, and they were significantly lower in the 21st day therapy group than in the paraquat poisoning group on the same day. Under the optical and electronic microscopes, lung tissue damage was observed to be more severe but was then reduced after bosentan was administered. CONCLUSION: Bosentan can reduce inflammation factor release. It has a therapeutic effect on acute lung injury as induced by paraquat.

  12. Acute Lantana camara poisoning in a Boer goat kid : case report

    A. Ide

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute Lantana camara poisoning in a Boer goat kid is described. The animal was part of a flock of boer goats that was introduced from the Kalahari thornveld, where the plant does not occur, to an area where the plant grew abundantly. At necropsy, the animal was severely icteric, dehydrated and constipated, with hepatosis, distention of the gall-bladder and nephrosis, but no skin lesions. Histopathological findings of the liver confirmed moderate hepatosis with single-cell necrosis and bile stasis. The pathology is consistent with that described in acute Lantana poisoning in cattle, sheep and goats. The absence of photosensitisation may be attributed to relatively mild liver damage, or the rapid course of this toxicosis.

  13. Research progress in immunological mechanism of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Kai FENG

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP is a syndrome constituted by acute dementia, psychiatric symptoms, pyramidal and extrapyramidal symptoms, which can be developed after the original clinical symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning recovered. Lots of studies have been done to explain the mechanisms of DEACMP, and more and more researches have demonstrated that the immunological mechanism may be involved in or play an important role on the pathogenesis of the process. This article will review the researches of immunological mechanism of DEACMP in recent years and give some prompts to clinical study in the future. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.10.006

  14. Acute Lantana camara poisoning in a Boer goat kid : case report

    Ide, A.; C.L.C. Tutt

    1998-01-01

    Acute Lantana camara poisoning in a Boer goat kid is described. The animal was part of a flock of boer goats that was introduced from the Kalahari thornveld, where the plant does not occur, to an area where the plant grew abundantly. At necropsy, the animal was severely icteric, dehydrated and constipated, with hepatosis, distention of the gall-bladder and nephrosis, but no skin lesions. Histopathological findings of the liver confirmed moderate hepatosis with single-cell necrosis and bile st...

  15. Combined administration of hyperbaric oxygen and hydroxocobalamin improves cerebral metabolism after acute cyanide poisoning in rats

    Hansen, M B; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Hyldegaard, O

    2013-01-01

    -to-pyruvate ratio in rat brain by means of microdialysis during acute CN poisoning. Anesthetized rats were allocated to three groups: 1) vehicle (1.2 ml isotonic NaCl intra-arterially); 2) potassium CN (5.4 mg/kg intra-arterially); 3) potassium CN, OHCob (100 mg/kg intra-arterially) and subsequent HBOT (284 kPa in...

  16. ACUTE ACCIDENTAL POISONING IN CHILDREN: A HOSPITAL-BASED RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Kameshore; Singh; Jibo; Minita

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Acute accidental poisoning in children is a big problem anywhere in the world. Studies done elsewhere in India showed a wide range of incidence of the problem. Hence, it was felt important to study its magnitude and associated characteristics as of now. OBJECTIVE: The current study was taken up to know the magnitude among children admitted in JNIMS, Imphal which is a newly established medical institute and also to study the characteristics like age, gender, type ...

  17. Sequential CT change of the globus pallidus in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    We presented CT findings in the globus pallidus of three cases of acute CO poisoning. The initial low density lesions in the bilateral globus pallidus became isodense two to three weeks after the onset, and later appeared again as low density spots. These changes on CT were similar to the so-called ''fogging effect'' that is often found in cases of cerebral infarcts. (author)

  18. Abnormal pancreatic enzymes and their prognostic role after acute paraquat poisoning

    Yi Li; Meng Wang; Yanxia Gao; Wen Yang; Qun Xu; Michael Eddleston; Li Li; Xuezhong Yu

    2015-01-01

    Ingestion of paraquat causes multi-organ failure. Prognosis is best estimated through measurement of blood paraquat concentrations but this facility is not available in most hospitals. We studied the prognostic significance of abnormal pancreatic enzymes for survival. Patients with acute paraquat poisoning were recruited. An extensive series of blood tests including serum amylase were serially checked. Patients were sorted according to their serum amylase activity (normal [660 U/L]), and surv...

  19. The Effect of Acute Fluoride Poisoning on Nitric Oxide and Methemoglobin Formation in the Guinea pig

    ŞİRELİ, Meltem

    2004-01-01

    To study the effect of acute fluoride poisoning on nitric oxide and methemoglobin formation, 250 mg/kg bw sodium fluoride was applied alone and verapamil was applied together with fluoride. Blood nitric oxide (Griess reaction) and calcium levels; hemoglobin, methemoglobin and hematocrit values; and erythrocyte counts were determined and compared with those of the controls. After the fluoride application it was found that there was a relative relationship between the increase in nitric oxide a...

  20. Residential Proximity to Agricultural Pesticide Applications and Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Rull, Rudolph P.; Gunier, Robert; Von Behren, Julie; Hertz, Andrew; Crouse, Vonda; Buffler, Patricia A.; Reynolds, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Ambient exposure from residential proximity to applications of agricultural pesticides may contribute to the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Using residential histories collected from the families of 213 ALL cases and 268 matched controls enrolled in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study, the authors assessed residential proximity within a half-mile (804.5 meters) of pesticide applications by linking address histories with reports of agricultural pesticide use...

  1. Effect of hemoperfusion on internal environment of patients with acute poisoning

    Hua Li; Wen-Qiang Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of hemoperfusion on the internal environment of patients with acute poisoning.Methods: A total of 36 patients with the acute poisoning who received the hemoperfusion treatment in Department of Emergency Medicine of this hospital were selected as the research subjects and a retrospective study was performed on them. At the beginning, 30 min and 120 min of hemoperfusion treatment, the blood was taken from the blood-collecting point of artery with cardiopulmonary bypass to detect the blood pH, partial pressure of CO2, partial pressure of oxygen, blood lactic acid, potassium, sodium, free calcium, bicarbonate ion and blood glucose level. The above indicators at the different time point were compared. Results:At the beginning, 30 min and 120 min of hemoperfusion, there was no significant difference in the partial pressure of CO2, pH, blood potassium, blood sodium, bicarbonate ion and free calcium between groups. But at the beginning, 30 min and 120 min of hemoperfusion, there was the significant difference in the partial pressure of oxygen, lactic acid and blood glucose between groups.Conclusion:There is no significant effect on the internal environment of patients with acute poisoning who receive the hemoperfusion treatment.

  2. Health Aspects of Organophosphorous Pesticides in Asian Countries

    B Balali-Mood; Moodi, M; Balali-Mood, K; Balali-Mood, M

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorous (OP) pesticides are used frequently in agriculture, particularly in Asian countries over the past decades. Poisoning by these agents, either as acute or chronic in these nations, is a serious health problem. OP pesticides residue in fruits and vegetables that may not induce early clinical features, could also affect the human health. Therefore, medical and health professionals should be aware and learn more on the toxicology, prevention and proper management of OP poisoning....

  3. Acute Copper Sulfate Poisoning: Case Report and Review of Literature

    Mahesh Chand Meena

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Copper sulfate ingestion is a relatively popular method for committing suicide in Indian subcontinent. It causes a high mortality rate, and so a growing concern has been raised to identify the severe alarming signs suggestive of poor prognosis and to improve treatment approaches. Case report: A 22-year-old unmarried man working as a painter was found unconscious at his friend residence. The patient developed hypotension, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis with hematemesis and melena, renal and hepatic failure, severe metabolic acidosis and intravascular hemolysis during admission at hospital. His signs were refractory to treatment with fluid replacement therapy, vasoactive drugs, antiemetic drugs, ranitidine, furosemide, methylene blue and 2,3 dimercaptopropane-1-sulphonate. He died six hours post-admission. In post-mortem examinations, there were multiple sub-pleural and sub-epicardial hemorrhages and the gastrointestinal mucosa was congested, hemorrhagic, and greenish blue in color. The liver, on histological examination, showed sub-massive hepatic necrosis. On toxicological analyses, copper sulfate was detected in preserved viscera and results for other heavy metals were negative. Conclusion: Hypotension, cyanosis, uremia and jaundice can be considered as signs of poor prognosis in copper sulfate poisoning. Copper sulfate ingestion is life-threatening due to its deleterious effects on the upper GI, kidneys, liver and blood. Having no time to waste, aggressive treatments should be immediately instituted and signs of poor prognosis should be kept in mind.

  4. 有机磷农药中毒患者中毒原因及心理护理分析%Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning Patients the Cause of Poisoning and Psychological Care Analysis

    王桂云

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the cause of poisoning and the effect of psychological nursing for the patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Methods 110 patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were randomly divided into observation group and control group. The control group received routine nursing, the observation group was combined with psychological nursing.Results The observation group was better than the control group (P<0.05); the HAMD score was lower than the control group (P<0.05).Conclusion The effect of psychological nursing is notable for patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.%目的 分析有机磷农药中毒患者中毒原因及心理护理效果.方法 选取有机磷农药中毒患者110例,将其随机分为观察组与对照组,对照组给予常规护理,观察组联合心理护理.结果 观察组治疗配合情况优于对照组(P<0.05);HAMD评分低于对照组(P<0.05).结论 有机磷农药中毒患者实施心理护理的效果显著.

  5. The pathology of acute Nolletia gariepina poisoning of cattle

    E. C. Du Plessis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity in cattle by the shrub Nolletia gariepina was induced experimentally by intraruminal administration of 3 g/kg dried, milled plant material as a single dose. The animals had to be starved for 24 hours before dosing, as dosing on a full rumen did not induce any signs of toxicity during 5 days of observation and clinical pathology monitoring. Clinical signs were not specific and varied according to the duration (acute versus subacute of the toxicological process. Clinical pathological parameters indicated renal and to a lesser extent hepatic damage, with raised serum concentrations of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT. Increased urinary sodium and potassium concentration and GGT activity, as well as proteinuria, were evident. Histological and electron microscopic examinations revealed acute renal tubular epithelial cell degeneration and necrosis, especially of the proximal convoluted tubules. Mild hepatocellular degeneration was also noticeable.

  6. Acute methoxetamine and amphetamine poisoning with fatal outcome: A case report

    Marek Wiergowski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Methoxetamine (MXE is a psychoactive substance distributed mostly via the Internet and is not liable to legal regulation in Poland. MXE has a toxicity profile similar to that of ketamine but longer-lasting effects. The paper describes a case of acute poisoning that resulted from recreational use of MXE and amphetamine and ended in death. In mid-July 2012, a 31-year old man was admitted to the clinical toxicology unit in Gdańsk because of poisoning with an unknown psychoactive substance. The patient was transported to the emergency department (ED at 5:15 a.m. in a very poor general condition, in a deep coma, with acute respiratory failure, hyperthermia (> 39°C and generalized seizures. Laboratory tests showed marked leukocytosis, signs of massive rhabdomyolysis, hepatic failure and beginning of acute renal failure. Despite intensive therapy, the patient died 4 weeks after the poisoning in the course of multi-organ dysfunction syndrome. Chemical and toxicological studies of serum and urine samples collected on the poisoning day at 1:40 p.m. confirmed that amphetamine and MXE had been taken earlier that day. Concentration of amphetamine in the serum (0.06 μg/ml was within the non-toxic range, while MXE (0.32 μg/ml was within the toxic range of concentrations. Amphetamine was also detected in the patient's hair, which suggested a possibility of its use within the last dozen weeks or so. The serious clinical course of intoxication and co-existence of amphetamine and MXE in the patient's blood and urine suggest the possibility of adverse interactions between them.

  7. Toxicokinetics of paraquat in Korean patients with acute poisoning

    Kim, Hak-Jae; Kim, Hyung-Ki; Lee, HwaYoung; Bae, Jun-Seok; Kown, Jun-Tack; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2015-01-01

    To conduct a kinetic study of paraquat (PQ), we investigated 9 patients with acute PQ intoxication. All of them ingested more than 20 ml of undiluted PQ herbicide to commit suicide and arrived at our hospital early, not later than 7 h after PQ ingestion. The urine dithionite test for PQ in all of the nine patients was strongly positive at emergency room. Blood samples were obtained every 30 min for the first 2~3 h and then every 1 or 2 h, as long as the clinical progression was stable among t...

  8. Pralidoxime in acute organophosphorus insecticide poisoning--a randomised controlled trial.

    Michael Eddleston

    2009-06-01

    benefit. CONCLUSIONS: Despite clear reactivation of red cell acetylcholinesterase in diethyl organophosphorus pesticide poisoned patients, we found no evidence that this regimen improves survival or reduces need for intubation in patients with organophosphorus insecticide poisoning. The reason for this failure to benefit patients was not apparent. Further studies of different dose regimens or different oximes are required.

  9. Duration of an induced resistance of sheep to acute poisoning by Crotalaria retusa seeds

    Lisanka Angelo Maia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the duration of the resistance after the end of the ingestion of non-toxic doses of Crotalaria retusa seeds. Ten sheep were divided into 3 groups of 3 animals each and a control group with 1 sheep. To induce resistance, sheep in groups 1, 2 and 3 received 20 daily doses of 2g kg-1 of C. retusa seeds, followed by 7 daily doses of 4g kg-1. To determine the duration of resistance the sheep in groups 1, 2 and 3 were challenged orally, 3, 7 and 15 days, respectively, after receiving the last dose of 4g kg-1, with a single dose of 5g kg-1. Sheep of groups 1 and 2 did not develop overt signs of poisoning. Two sheep of group 3, challenged 15 days after the end of the resistance induction period, showed signs of acute poisoning and died. These results suggest that the induced resistance of sheep to acute poisoning by C. retusa seeds is of short duration, from 7 to 15 days.

  10. Effects of acute organophosphate poisoning on pituitary target gland hormones at admission, discharge and three months after poisoning: A hospital based pilot study

    Pinaki Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphate compound (OPC poisoning is common in the developing countries such as India. The acute and later effects of OPC poisoning on pituitary and target gland hormones is largely unknown. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted at Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research between January 2012 and March 2013. Fourteen patients (8 males, age 18-50 years with acute OPC poisoning were included in the study based on the history and clinical features, documented decreased in plasma cholinesterase activity or presence of the OPC in gastric lavage/blood samples. The hormonal parameters were done at baseline, at the time of discharge and at three months of follow-up. Results: A total of 14 patients out of 46 with the mean age of 30.1 ± 10.3 years were finally eligible for the study. Hormonal alterations at admission were similar to sick euhormonal syndrome. Overall 7 of them had nine hormonal deficits at three months of follow up, 4 having sub normal basal cortisol level and two each had low testosterone and growth hormone and only one had thyroxine deficiency. Conclusion: Acute organophosphate poisoning results in endocrine dysfunction akin to sick euhormonal syndrome. However, in a small subset of patients, varying level of hormonal insufficiency may occur either at admission or later. These observations need re-validation in a larger group of patients with specific OPC.

  11. [Acute drug poisonings in children in a general pediatric service (epidemiologic profile)].

    Aïlal, F; Dehbi, F; Slaoui, B

    1998-06-01

    Acute drug poisonings of the child is a major problem for health authorities all over the world, and are responsible for serious morbidity with mortality risks. The present retrospective study has involved 150 cases of drug poisoning observed in the Casablanca children's hospital over a period of 7 years. Most intoxication cases are accidental (84%), (mostly in children of 1 to 5 years old 74.6%), willful (11.3%), or iatrogenic (4.7%). Happening most often at home (95%) with a high frequency between 5 and 6 p.m. (24%) and 11 a 12 p.m. (13.3%), time of strong hunger. The large majority of drugs wer psychotropic agents (56%), principally diazepins (39%). Followed by oral contraceptive (8%), antihistaminics (8%), analgesics (7%), antibiotics (4%) and others (11%). Prevention is of high importance, and must be made effective on the wildest scale. PMID:9689865

  12. Pesticides

    ... rodents, noxious weeds, and insects. Pesticides help prevent crop loss and, potentially, human disease. According to the ... pesticides. DO NOT mix pesticides. DO NOT set traps or place bait in areas where children or ...

  13. [Clinical symptoms and circumastances of acute poisonings with fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and panther cap (Amanita pantherina)].

    Łukasik-Głebocka, Magdalena; Druzdz, Artur; Naskret, Maciej

    2011-01-01

    Mushroom poisonings in Poland are quite common, especially in summer and autumn, but fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and panther cap (Amanita pantherina) are rather rare cause of these intoxications. Fly agaric is a cause of deliberate poisoning, whereas panther cap poisoning also happens accidentally. The main toxins of these two mushrooms are ibotenic acid (pantherine, agarine), muscimol, muscazone and muscaridine. The other bioactive substances are stizolobic and stizolobinic acids and aminodicarboxyethylthiopropanoic acids. All these compounds are responsible for diverse picture of intoxication. An analysis of patients with Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina poisoning hospitalized in the Poznan Departament of Toxicology revealed that symptoms occurred after 30 minutes to 2 hours with vomiting, hallucinations, restlessness, increased psychomotor drive and central nervous system depression. Other antycholinergic symptoms like tachycardia and increased blood pressure, mydriasis, dry and red skin were seen only in a few cases. Acute respiratory failure was the most dangerous symptom observed in the course of poisoning. PMID:22010435

  14. Toxicokinetics of paraquat in Korean patients with acute poisoning.

    Kim, Hak-Jae; Kim, Hyung-Ki; Lee, Hwayoung; Bae, Jun-Seok; Kown, Jun-Tack; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2016-01-01

    To conduct a kinetic study of paraquat (PQ), we investigated 9 patients with acute PQ intoxication. All of them ingested more than 20 ml of undiluted PQ herbicide to commit suicide and arrived at our hospital early, not later than 7 h after PQ ingestion. The urine dithionite test for PQ in all of the nine patients was strongly positive at emergency room. Blood samples were obtained every 30 min for the first 2~3 h and then every 1 or 2 h, as long as the clinical progression was stable among the patients for 30 h after PQ ingestion. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUCinf), which was extrapolated to infinity, was calculated using the trapezoidal rule. Toxicokinetic parameters, such as the terminal elimination half-life, apparent oral clearance, and apparent volume of distribution (Vd/F) were calculated. The maximum PQ concentration (Cmax) and the time to reach maximum PQ concentration (Tmax) were also obtained. Plasma PQ concentrations in nine patients were well described by a bi-exponential curve with a mean terminal elimination half-life of 13.1±6.8 h. Cmax and AUCinf were 20.8±25.7 mg/l and 172.5±160.3 h·mg/l, respectively. Apparent volume of distribution and apparent oral clearance were 50.9±61.3 l/kg and 173.4±111.2 l/h, respectively. There were a significant correlation (r =0.84; p<0.05) between the PQ amount ingested and Cmax. AUCinf also showed a significant correlation (r =0.83; p<0.05) with the PQ amount ingested. These correlations provide evidence that PQ has dose-linear toxicokinetic characteristics. PMID:26807021

  15. The Acute Oral Toxicity of Commonly Used Pesticides in Iran, to Honeybees (Apis Mellifera Meda)

    Rasuli Farhang; Rafie Javad Nazemi; Sadeghi Amin

    2015-01-01

    The honey bee is credited with approximately 85% of the pollinating activity necessary to supply about one-third of the world’s food supply. Well over 50 major crops depend on these insects for pollination. The crops produce more abundantly when honey bees are plentiful. Worker bees are the ones primarily affected by pesticides. Poisoning symptoms can vary depending on the developmental stage of the individual bee, and the kind of chemical employed. The oral toxicity of these insecticides: (p...

  16. Ultrastructural effects of acute tetraethyllead poisoning on nerve cells of the rabbit brain

    Niklowitz, W.J.

    1974-08-01

    A study of the ultrastructural alterations of nerve cell components in specific areas of the brain of the rabbit after acute poisoning with tetraethyllead (TEL). A single dose of 100 mg/kg of TEL caused neurological disorders such as convulsions after a latency of 12 to 18 h. An electron microscopic study revealed that the nerve cells of the areas investigated contained different stages of degenerative changes not demonstrated by light microscopy. These appear to be dependent on location and antedate the neurological disorders. The cytopathogenesis is discussed in the light of these findings and available biochemical data. (CIS Abstract Vol. 2)

  17. Glasgow coma scale in acute poisonings before and after use of antidote in patients with history of use of psychotropic agents

    Poplas-Sušić Tonka; Klemenc-Ketis Zalika; Komericki-Grzinić Marija; Kersnik Janko

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Data on emergency interventions in poisonings are scarce. Objective. To determine the effectiveness of antidote therapy in acute poisoning-related emergency medical services (EMS) interventions. Methods. A prospective observational study included all poisoning-related intervention cases over 3 years (1999-2001) in the Celje region, Slovenia, covering 125,000 inhabitants. Data were recorded on an EMS form. Results. Psychoactive agents were present in 56.5% out of 244 poisoning-re...

  18. Association of Pesticide Exposure with Neurologic Dysfunction and Disease

    Kamel, Freya; Hoppin, Jane A

    2004-01-01

    Poisoning by acute high-level exposure to certain pesticides has well-known neurotoxic effects, but whether chronic exposure to moderate levels of pesticides is also neurotoxic is more controversial. Most studies of moderate pesticide exposure have found increased prevalence of neurologic symptoms and changes in neurobehavioral performance, reflecting cognitive and psychomotor dysfunction. There is less evidence that moderate exposure is related to deficits in sensory or motor function or per...

  19. The Anion Gap is a Predictive Clinical Marker for Death in Patients with Acute Pesticide Intoxication.

    Lee, Sun-Hyo; Park, Samel; Lee, Jung-Won; Hwang, Il-Woong; Moon, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Park, Su-Yeon; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2016-07-01

    Pesticide formulation includes solvents (methanol and xylene) and antifreeze (ethylene glycol) whose metabolites are anions such as formic acid, hippuric acid, and oxalate. However, the effect of the anion gap on clinical outcome in acute pesticide intoxication requires clarification. In this prospective study, we compared the anion gap and other parameters between surviving versus deceased patients with acute pesticide intoxication. The following parameters were assessed in 1,058 patients with acute pesticide intoxication: blood chemistry (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glucose, lactic acid, liver enzymes, albumin, globulin, and urate), urinalysis (ketone bodies), arterial blood gas analysis, electrolytes (Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) HCO3 (-), Ca(++)), pesticide field of use, class, and ingestion amount, clinical outcome (death rate, length of hospital stay, length of intensive care unit stay, and seriousness of toxic symptoms), and the calculated anion gap. Among the 481 patients with a high anion gap, 52.2% had a blood pH in the physiologic range, 35.8% had metabolic acidosis, and 12.1% had acidemia. Age, anion gap, pesticide field of use, pesticide class, seriousness of symptoms (all P < 0.001), and time lag after ingestion (P = 0.048) were significant risk factors for death in univariate analyses. Among these, age, anion gap, and pesticide class were significant risk factors for death in a multiple logistic regression analysis (P < 0.001). In conclusions, high anion gap is a significant risk factor for death, regardless of the accompanying acid-base balance status in patients with acute pesticide intoxication. PMID:27366016

  20. Assessing the connection between organophosphate pesticide poisoning and mental health: A comparison of neuropsychological symptoms from clinical observations, animal models and epidemiological studies.

    Stallones, Lorann; Beseler, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatry and psychology are beginning to recognize the importance of lead, mercury and heavy metals as causal partners in the development of mental disorders. Further, mental health researchers and clinicians are embracing the idea that the combined effects of genetics and environmental exposures can result in perturbations in brain neurochemistry leading to psychiatric disorders. The purpose of this review is to examine the biological foundations for the epidemiological observations previously identified by reviewing the toxicology literature and relating it to epidemiological studies addressing the role of poisoning with organophosphate pesticides (OPs) in neurobehavioral and neuropsychological disorders. The goal of this review is to raise awareness in the mental health community about the possibility that affective disorders might be the result of contributions from environmental and occupational pesticide poisoning. PMID:26654853

  1. Brain injury due to acute organophosphate poisoning Magnetic resonance imaging manifestation and pathological characteristics

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute organophosphate poisoning can cause injuries of multiple visceras; especially,central nervous system injury can increase risk factors of patients with severe acute organophosphate poisoning. An application of modem image may increase diagnostic rate of brain injury in an earlier period and provide evidences for clinical treatment.OBJECTIVE: To reveal imaging manifestations, pathological characteristics and multi-ways injured mechanism of brain injury due to acute organophosphate poisoning.DESIGN: Contrast observational study.SETTING: Department of Medical Image, the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Department of Nerve Molecule Imaging Medicine and Laboratory of Neurology, the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University from August 2003 to February 2004. A total of 30 healthy cats weighing 2.8 - 3.5 g and of both genders were selected from Animal Experimental Center of Hebei Medical University.METHODS: Thirty healthy cats were randomly divided into control group (n =5) and intoxication group (n=25). Cats in the control group were subcutaneously injected with 0.3 mL/kg saline at four points; while, cats in the intoxication group were subcutaneously injected with 400 g/L 0.3 mL/kg O,O-dimethyl-S-(methoxycarbonylmethyl) thiophosphate at four points. Two minutes after intoxication, cats received muscular injection with 0.5 mg/kg atropine sulfate, and then, brain tissues were collected from parietal lobe, basal ganglia, hippocampus, cerebellum and brain stem were observed at 3, 6, 24 hours, 3 and 7 days after intoxication respectively under optic microscope and electron microscope and expressions of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP),glutamic acid (Glu) and γ-amino butyric acid after immunohistochemical staining.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Results of MRI examinations; histological changes under optic microscope and electron

  2. Cost to government health-care services of treating acute self-poisonings in a rural district in Sri Lanka

    Wickramasinghe, Kanchana; Steele, Paul; Dawson, Andrew;

    2009-01-01

    less toxic pesticides and possibly by improving case management in primary care hospitals. Additional research is needed to assess if increasing infrastructure and staff at peripheral hospitals could reduce the overall cost to the government, optimize case management and reduce pressure on secondary......OBJECTIVE: To estimate the direct financial costs to the Sri Lanka Ministry of Health of treating patients after self-poisoning, particularly from pesticides, in a single district. METHODS: Data on staff, drug, laboratory and other inputs for each patient admitted for self-poisoning were...... prospectively collected over a one-month period from one general hospital (2005) and five peripheral hospitals (2006) in the Anuradhapura district. Data on transfers to secondary- and tertiary-level facilities were obtained for a 6-month period from 30 peripheral hospitals. The cost of the inputs in United...

  3. ACUTE TOXICITY OF PESTICIDES IN ADULT AND WEANLING RATS

    LD sub 50 values were determined for 57 pesticides administered by the oral or dermal route to adult male and female Sherman rats. Nine pesticides tested by the oral route (bufencarb, cacodylic acid, dialifor, deltamethrin, dicamba, diquat, quintozene, phoxim, pyrazon) and 4 test...

  4. Brain temperature measured by {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in acute and subacute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Fujiwara, Shunrou; Nishimoto, Hideaki; Murakami, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Akira; Ogasawara, Kuniaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka, Iwate (Japan); Yoshioka, Yoshichika [Osaka University, Laboratory of Biofunctional Imaging, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka (Japan); Matsuda, Tsuyoshi [MR Applications and Workflow Asia Pacific, GE Healthcare Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Beppu, Takaaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka, Iwate (Japan); Iwate Medical University, Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, Iwate (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    Brain temperature (BT) is associated with the balance between cerebral blood flow and metabolism according to the ''heat-removal'' theory. The present study investigated whether BT is abnormally altered in acute and subacute CO-poisoned patients by using {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Eight adult CO-poisoned patients underwent 3-T magnetic resonance imaging in the acute and subacute phases after CO exposure. MRS was performed on deep cerebral white matter in the centrum semiovale, and MRS-based BT was estimated by the chemical shift difference between water and the N-acetyl aspartate signal. We defined the mean BT + 1.96 standard deviations of the BT in 15 healthy controls as the cutoff value for abnormal BT increases (p < 0.05) in CO-poisoned patients. BT of CO-poisoned patients in both the acute and subacute phases was significantly higher than that of the healthy control group. However, BT in the subacute phase was significantly lower than in the acute phase. On the other hand, no significant difference in body temperature was observed between acute and subacute CO-poisoned patients. BT weakly correlated with body temperature, but this correlation was not statistically significant (rho = 0.304, p = 0.2909). The present results suggest that BT in CO-poisoned patients is abnormally high in the acute phase and remains abnormal in the subacute phase. BT alteration in these patients may be associated with brain perfusion and metabolism rather than other factors such as systemic inflammation and body temperature. (orig.)

  5. Brain temperature measured by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in acute and subacute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Brain temperature (BT) is associated with the balance between cerebral blood flow and metabolism according to the ''heat-removal'' theory. The present study investigated whether BT is abnormally altered in acute and subacute CO-poisoned patients by using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Eight adult CO-poisoned patients underwent 3-T magnetic resonance imaging in the acute and subacute phases after CO exposure. MRS was performed on deep cerebral white matter in the centrum semiovale, and MRS-based BT was estimated by the chemical shift difference between water and the N-acetyl aspartate signal. We defined the mean BT + 1.96 standard deviations of the BT in 15 healthy controls as the cutoff value for abnormal BT increases (p < 0.05) in CO-poisoned patients. BT of CO-poisoned patients in both the acute and subacute phases was significantly higher than that of the healthy control group. However, BT in the subacute phase was significantly lower than in the acute phase. On the other hand, no significant difference in body temperature was observed between acute and subacute CO-poisoned patients. BT weakly correlated with body temperature, but this correlation was not statistically significant (rho = 0.304, p = 0.2909). The present results suggest that BT in CO-poisoned patients is abnormally high in the acute phase and remains abnormal in the subacute phase. BT alteration in these patients may be associated with brain perfusion and metabolism rather than other factors such as systemic inflammation and body temperature. (orig.)

  6. Acute Renal Failure due to Copper Sulfate Poisoning; a Case Report

    Fakhrossadat Mortazavi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Copper sulfate is a blue and odorless salt with various industrial, chemical, agricultural and medicinal applications. Copper sulfate poisoning is rare in children. Case Presentation:A 23-month old boy accidentally ingested a solution of copper sulfate, used as a disinfectant agent in animal husbandry. He was referred to Children's Hospital of Tabriz because of frequent vomiting and lethargy. The major systemic complications were intravascular hemolysis, anemia and acute renal failure. The patient was successfully treated with multiple packed cell transfusions, dimercaprol, penicillamine and peritoneal dialysis. Plasma copper level 15 days after ingestion was 216 ?g/dl.Conclusion:Copper sulfate is a highly toxic agent that, when ingested, can cause local and systemic damage including coma, shock, severe intravascular hemolysis, hepatotoxicity and acute renal failure with high mortality.

  7. Neurotoxicity and reactive astrogliosis in the anterior cingulate cortex in acute ciguatera poisoning.

    Zhang, Xu; Cao, Bing; Wang, Jun; Liu, Jin; Tung, Vivian Oi Vian; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing; Chan, Leo Lai; Li, Ying

    2013-06-01

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs) cause long-term disturbance of cerebral functions. The primary mechanism of neurotoxicity is related to their interaction with voltage-gated sodium channels. However, until now, the neurological targets for CTXs in the brain of intact animals have not been described. In our study, 1 day following oral exposure to 0.26 ng/g of Pacific ciguatoxin 1 (P-CTX-1), we performed in vivo electrophysiological recordings in the rat anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and identified the increase in spontaneous firings and enhanced responses to visceral noxious stimulation. Local field recordings characterized the P-CTX-1-induced synaptic potentiation and blockage of the induction of electrical stimulation-induced long-term potentiation in the medial thalamus (MT)-ACC pathway. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular administration of P-CTX-1 at doses of 1.0, 5.0, and 10 nM produced a dose-dependent increase in ACC neuronal firings and MT-ACC synaptic transmission. Further studies showed upregulated Na(+) channel expression in astrocytes under pathological conditions. We hypothesized that the astrocytes might have been activated in the ciguatera poisoning in vivo. Increases in glial fibrillary acid protein expression were detected in reactive astrocytes in the rat ACC. The activation of astroglia was further indicated by activation of the gap junction protein connexin 43 and upregulation of excitatory amino acid transporter 2 expression suggesting that glutamate was normally rapidly cleared from the synaptic cleft during acute ciguatera poisoning. However, neurotoxicity and reactive astrogliosis were not detected in the ACC after 7 days of P-CTX-1 exposure. The present results are the first characterization of P-CTX-1-invoked brain cortex neuronal excitotoxicity in vivo and supported the theme that neuron and astroglia signals might play roles in acute ciguatera poisoning. PMID:23494292

  8. Acute Pancreatitis Caused By Mushroom Poisoning: A Report of Two Cases.

    Karahan, Samet; Erden, Abdulsamet; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avci, Deniz; Ortakoyluoglu, Adile Irfan; Karagoz, Hatice; Bulut, Kadir; Basak, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Of the more than 5000 species of mushrooms known, 100 types are toxic and approximately 10% of these toxic types can cause fatal toxicity. A type of mushroom called Amanita phalloides is responsible for 95% of toxic mushroom poisonings. In this article, we report 2 cases of mushroom poisonings caused by Lactarius volemus, known as Tirmit by the local people. The patient and his wife were admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting 20 hours after consuming Lactarius volemus, an edible type of mushroom. The patients reported that they had been collecting this mushroom from the mountains and eating them for several years but had never developed any clinicopathology to date. Further examination of the patients revealed a very rare case of acute pancreatitis due to mushroom intoxication. The male patient was admitted to the intensive care unit while his wife was followed in the internal medicine service, because of her relative mild clinical symptoms. Both patients recovered without sequelae and were discharged. In this article, we aimed to emphasize that gastrointestinal symptoms are often observed in mushroom intoxications and can be confused with acute pancreatitis, thus leading to misdiagnosis of patients. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve patients' prognosis and prevent the development of complications. PMID:26835473

  9. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas.

    Onodera, Makoto; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Sato, Masayuki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Beppu, Takaaki; Inoue, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been observed. Method. The subjects included patients treated for acute carbon monoxide poisoning in whom a medical emergency team was able to measure the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning. We examined the relationship between the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning and carbon monoxide exposure time and the relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and carbon monoxide exposure time. Results. A total of 10 patients met the above criteria. The carboxyhemoglobin levels at the site of poisoning were significantly and positively correlated with the exposure time (rs = 0.710, p = 0.021), but the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were not correlated with the exposure time. Conclusion. In rural areas, the carboxyhemoglobin level measured at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning correlated with the exposure time. PMID:27239377

  10. Comparative assessment of blood and urine analyses in patients with acute poisonings by medical, narcotic substances and alcohol in clinical toxicology.

    Ostapenko, Yury Nikolaevich; Lisovik, Zhanna Andreevna; Belova, Maria Vladimirovna; Luzhnikov, Evgeny Alekseevich; Livanov, Alexandr Sergeevich

    2005-01-01

    Acute poisonings by medical, narcotic substances and alcohol are actual in Russia in the recent years. Comparison of analytic facilities of modern analytical techniques: chromatographic (HPLC, GC, GC-MS) and immuno-chemical (FPIA) in clinical toxicology for urgent diagnostics, assessment of the severity of acute poisoning and the efficacy of the treatment in patients with acute poisonings by psychotropic drugs, narcotics and alcohol have been done. The object of the study were serum, blood, urine of 611 patients with acute poisonings by amitriptyline, clozapine, carbamazepine, opiates and also alcohol. Threshold concentrations (threshold, critical and lethal) of the toxicants and their active metabolites which corresponded to different degrees of poisoning severity have been determined. The most comfortable and informative screening method for express diagnostics and assessment of severity of acute poisonings by psychotropic drugs and narcotics showed the HPLC with using automatic analyzers. FPIA using the automatic analyzer could be applied for screening studies, if group identification is enough. GC-FID method is advisable in case of poisoning by medical substances and narcotics in view of repeated investigation for assessment of the efficacy of the therapy. GC-MS could be advisable for confirming the results of other methods. GC-TCD possess high sensitivity and specificity and is optimal for express differential diagnostics and quantitative assessment of acute poisoning by ethanol and other alcohols. PMID:16225131

  11. Clinical Rescue of Severe Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning with Coma%抢救重度有机磷农药中毒伴昏迷患者临床观察分析

    于承民

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察抢救重度有机磷农药中毒伴昏迷患者治疗效果。方法将31例重度有机磷农药中毒伴昏迷患者,随机分为观察组(15例)和对照组(16例),均给予常规迅速清除毒物,同时应用chE复能药和胆碱受体拮抗药,并与血液灌流。在血液净化期间对解磷氯定,阿托品,肝素等给予不同治疗方案:观察组改变用药剂量,对照组按常规给药治疗。结果观察组治愈率73.3%,与对照组52.3%相比有显著性。结论改变用药剂量,频率,救治重度有机磷农药中毒伴昏迷患者肺水肿,呼吸肌麻痹,脑水肿,中间综合征发生率低,并且缩短病程,减少并发症。%Objective To investigate the acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning with coma patient outcomes.Methods 31 cases of severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning with coma patients were randomly divided into two groups (15 patients)and control group (16 cases)were given routine quickly remove toxins,and application of complex energy chE and cholinergic receptor antagonist drug medicine,and perfused with blood.During the blood purification chlorine set for solubilizing,atropine,heparin given dif erent treatment options:change the dose observation group,the control group conventional drug treatment.Results The cure rate was 73.3%,52.3%,compared with the control group was significant.Conclusion Change the dose,frequency,treatment of severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning pulmonary edema in patients with coma,respiratory muscle paralysis,cerebral edema,low incidence.

  12. Study on decorporating and detoxicating acute depleted uranium poison with some flavonoids

    In order to investigate decorporating and detoxicating acute depleted uranium poison of flavonoids, the decorporation effect of flavonoids with catechol group, chelating agent of catechols amino carboxylic acid type (8102) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were studied under DU exposure and Wistar rats as animal model. In 3d later after injecting DU with dose of 20 mg/kg and then injecting flavonoids with dose of 10 mg/kg in abdomen, the mortality, uranium contents, kidney function and pathological observation of kidney were investigated. It has been found that nearly 20% mortality occurs both in the T2 and in T1 groups meanwhile 30% mortality occurs in the control group. But death has not been observed in 8102 group. The concentration of excreted urine uranium increases and the level of serum uranium decreases when T2 used. The retention of uranium in kidney with T2 group also increases. Large reducing of urea nitrogen and creatinine in serum has been observed in 8102 and F1 groups, and reducing of creatinine has also been observed in F2, T1 and T2 groups. The serious injury of kidney has not been observed in T2 group. The protection efficiency can be listed as T2> 8102>T1>F1>QU. It has been revealed that flavonoid T2 is the most effective protector from the damage and poison of DU. (authors)

  13. Paraquat poisoning: an experimental model of dose-dependent acute lung injury due to surfactant dysfunction

    M.F.R. Silva

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the most characteristic feature of paraquat poisoning is lung damage, a prospective controlled study was performed on excised rat lungs in order to estimate the intensity of lesion after different doses. Twenty-five male, 2-3-month-old non-SPF Wistar rats, divided into 5 groups, received paraquat dichloride in a single intraperitoneal injection (0, 1, 5, 25, or 50 mg/kg body weight 24 h before the experiment. Static pressure-volume (PV curves were performed in air- and saline-filled lungs; an estimator of surface tension and tissue works was computed by integrating the area of both curves and reported as work/ml of volume displacement. Paraquat induced a dose-dependent increase of inspiratory surface tension work that reached a significant two-fold order of magnitude for 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight (P<0.05, ANOVA, sparing lung tissue. This kind of lesion was probably due to functional abnormalities of the surfactant system, as was shown by the increase in the hysteresis of the paraquat groups at the highest doses. Hence, paraquat poisoning provides a suitable model of acute lung injury with alveolar instability that can be easily used in experimental protocols of mechanical ventilation

  14. Computed tomography of delayed encephalopathy of acute carbon monoxide poisoning - correlation with clinical findings -

    Cerebral computed tomography (CT) findings were described in twenty-six cases with the late sequelae of acute carbon monoxide poisoning and were computed with the neurological symptoms and signs. The CT findings include symmetrical periventricular white matter low density in five cases, globes pallidus low density in six cases, ventricular dilatation in seven cases, ventricular dilatation and sulci widening in three cases, and normal findings in ten cases. Only one case showed low densities in both periventricular white matter and globes pallidus. Late sequelae of the interval from of carbon monoxide poisoning were clinically categorized as cortical dysfunction, parkinsonian feature, and cerebella dysfunction. The severity of the clinical symptoms and signs of neurological sequelae is generally correlated with presence and multiplicity of abnormal brain CT findings. But of fourteen cases showing the parkinsonian feature, only five cases had low density of globes pallidus in brain CT. Another case showing small unilateral low density of globes pallidus had no parkinsonian feature but showed mild cortical dysfunction.

  15. Acute toxicity assessment of Osthol content in bio-pesticides using two aquatic organisms

    Yim, Eun-Chae; Kim, Hyeon Joe; Kim, Seong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study focused on the assessment of acute toxicity caused by Osthol, a major component of environment-friendly biological pesticides, by using two aquatic organisms. Methods The assessment of acute toxicity caused by Osthol was conducted in Daphnia magna and by examining the morphological abnormalities in Danio rerio embryos. Results The median effective concentration value of Osthol in D. magna 48 hours after inoculation was 19.3 μM. The median lethal concentration of D. rerio...

  16. Evaluation of acceptability and use of lockable storage devices for pesticides in Sri Lanka that might assist in prevention of self-poisoning

    Harriss Louise

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-poisoning with pesticides is a major reason for high suicide rates in rural areas of many developing countries. Safer storage of pesticides may be one means of prevention. We have conducted a study to assess the acceptability and use of lockable boxes for storing pesticides in rural Sri Lanka. Methods Four hundred lockable metal storage boxes were given to farming households, 100 in each of four villages. Assessment interviews were conducted by Sumithrayo (NGO field workers immediately after boxes were supplied (T1, 11 – 14 weeks later (T2, 30 weeks later (T3, and 18 months later (T4. Data on suicide and self-harm were collected from local police and hospitals. Results At T1 only 1.8% (7/396 of households reported locking up pesticides, 72.5% (279/385 easy access to pesticides for adults and 50.4% (195/387 easy access for children. At T3 most informants in households using pesticides reported using the box all (82.3%, 298/362 or most of the time (7.2%, 26/362. Informants usually reported always locking the box (92.8%, 336/362 and most boxes were locked on inspection (93.6%, 339/362. By T4 there was some reduction in reporting that the box was kept locked all of the time (75.2%, 267/355 and the box being locked on inspection (73.8%, 262/355. Easy child access to the key was reported in relatively few households (10.7% at T4, although interviewers judged that this was possible in rather more (20.6%. Most informants regarded the box as useful (100% at T3 and 99.4% at T4, with convenience for storage, security, avoiding wastage, and protection of children being major factors. A message on the box about how to deal with bad feelings and the importance of safer storage was well received. The locks had been broken or the key lost in a few households. Conclusion Introduction of lockable boxes for storing pesticides to farming households in Sri Lanka appeared to be acceptable. Most households used the boxes responsibly

  17. The clinical and imaging characteristics of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Objective: To discuss the clinical and imaging characteristics of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP). Methods: The clinical data of 14 patients with DEACMP were respectively analyzed. Results: Initial symptom included mentally falling (MMSE rate < 20 points) in 14 patients (100%), incontinence of urine in 11 patients (78%). Relatively significant increase of hematoma (HCT) (average level 0.503±0.027) was found in 6 patients. Three kinds of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance including diffuse white matter lesion, cortical lesion and basal nuclei lesion often existed in association. Therapy for improving circulation was given in 14 patients, and therapy with hormone was given in 9 patients; with 85% improvement rate. 5 patients without hormone therapy but with improving circulation therapy also received improvement. Conclusion: High level of HCT might be one of the causes of DECACMP due to acute disturbance of brain micro-circulation.. Close monitoring the change of HCT levels should be adopted for at least 3-6 months during therapy. Therapy for improving circulation and for anti-agglutination of platelets should be performed besides the routine high-tension oxygen therapy. Low FA value on DTI indicates the occurrence of a demyelization change in the brain long tract fibers, which indicated therapeutic effect of hormone treatment. And, therefore it would be better to perform DTI scan before therapy for individualized therapy. (authors)

  18. The spectrum of intermediate syndrome following acute organophosphate poisoning: a prospective cohort study from Sri Lanka.

    Pradeepa Jayawardane

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intermediate syndrome (IMS is a major cause of death from respiratory failure following acute organophosphate poisoning. The objective of this study was to determine repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS predictors of IMS that would assist in patient management and clinical research. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Seventy-eight consenting symptomatic patients with organophosphate poisoning were assessed prospectively with daily physical examination and RNS. RNS was done on the right and left median and ulnar nerves at 1, 3, 10, 15, 20, and 30 Hz. The study was conducted as a prospective observational cohort study in the Central Province, Sri Lanka. IMS was diagnosed in ten out of 78 patients using a priori clinical diagnostic criteria, and five of them developed respiratory failure. All ten patients showed progressive RNS changes correlating with the severity of IMS. A decrement-increment was observed at intermediate and high frequencies preceding the onset of clinical signs of IMS. As the patient developed clinical signs of IMS, decrement-increment was progressively noted at low and intermediate frequencies and a combination of decrement-increment and repetitive fade or severe decrement was noted at high frequencies. Severe decrement preceded respiratory failure in four patients. Thirty patients developed forme fruste IMS with less severe weakness not progressing to respiratory failure whose RNS was characterized by decrement-increment or a combination of decrement-increment and repetitive fade but never severe decrements. CONCLUSIONS: Characteristic changes in RNS, preceding the development of IMS, help to identify a subgroup of patients at high risk of developing respiratory failure. The forme fruste IMS with the characteristic early changes on RNS indicates that IMS is a spectrum disorder. RNS changes are objective and precede the diagnosis and complications of IMS. Thus they may be useful in clinical management and research.

  19. THE SPECTRUM OF INTERMEDIATE SYNDROME FOLLOWING ACUTE ORGANOPHOSPHORUS POISONING: A RETROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY FROM A TEACHING HOSPITAL OF CHHATTISGARH

    Murthy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate syndrome is a common complication found in patients with organo-phosphorus poisoning. The aim of this study was to find its incidence in this tribal dominated area of Chhattisgarh state. This is a retrospective study carried out at the ICU of a teaching Medical College hospital. In a period of one year, 720 cases of acute poisoning were admitted in the medical ICU ward, out of which, 682 cases (94.7% were of organo-phosphorus poisoning. 64 cases (9.3% had signs & symptoms of intermediate syndrome, which included inability to flex the neck, respiratory difficulty, convulsions and other features. All the 64 cases of intermediate syndrome required ventilatory support. Male: female ratio was 8:10. The commonest compound implicated in poisoning was Fenthion. Mortality was 18%. Patients with respiratory muscle weakness & proximal muscle paresis were the definitive predictors for the development of intermediate syndrome. Early recognition & prompt treatment has often proved successful, but, in mixed poisoning, recovery is variable and unpredictable.

  20. A retrospective study of paradigm and outcome of acute poisoning cases in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Southern India

    Arulmurugan C.

    2015-10-01

    Results: Incidence was high among males (60.36% compared to females (39.64%. Most of the cases of acute poisoning were in the age group 10 to 30 years (60.95% followed by 30 to 50 years age group (30.77%. A majority of poisoning cases (27.2% were due to organophosphorus (OPC insecticide. Total mortality was found to be 5.32%. Mortality rate due to Paraquat, Abrus Pretorius seeds was significantly high compared with OPC because there is no specific antidote. Time lapse had a very significant role in the mortality in cases of poisoning. Conclusions: Poisoning is common with young males. The mortality is high, in cases of self-poisoning with parquet and abrus seeds. Despite the highest consumption rate, no mortality was observed with organophosphorus because of early medical intervention and specific antidote. Early medical care in a tertiary care hospital will help to reduce significant mortality in India. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(10.000: 2654-2657

  1. Analysis on the Epidemiology of Pre-hospital Emergency for Acute Poisoning in Urumqi from 2011 to 2012%乌鲁木齐市2011-2012年院前急救急性中毒流行病学分析

    杨建中; 李树林; 张亚楼; 帕尔哈提·拜合提; 王晓静; 马宏飞; 亚力坤·赛来; 肖开提·依布拉音; 贾志军

    2014-01-01

    were recorded and analyzed, Results There was significant difference in incidence of acute poisoning among different age groups (χ2 = 7 776, 77,P < 0, 05),most acute poisoning patients were 40 - 49 years old(P < 0, 05), 7 475(75, 48% )acute poison-ing patients were male,2 428(24, 52% )were female,there was significant difference in incidence of acute poisoning among different gender groups(χ2 = 1 077, 47,P < 0, 000 1), The incidence of alcohol poisoning in pre - hospital male patients was significantly higher than that in pre - hospital female patients,while incidences of gas poisoning,drug poisoning,pesticide poi-soning and drug poisoning in pre - hospital male patients were significantly lower than those in pre - hospital female patients(P <0, 05), There was significant difference in incidence of acute poisoning among different nationality groups(χ2 = 586, 63,P <0, 000 1),most acute poisoning patients were Han nationality(χ2 = 8, 14,P = 0, 004), There was significant difference in inci-dence of acute poisoning among different kind of toxicant groups(χ2 = 26 267, 86,P < 0, 01),most acute poisoning patients had alcohol poisoning(χ2 = 1 014, 09,P < 0, 01), There was significant difference in incidence of acute poisoning among different season groups(χ2 = 263, 73,P < 0, 01),most patients had acute poisoning in winter(χ2 = 1 401, 15,P < 0, 01), There was significant difference in incidence of acute poisoning among different poisoning routes groups(χ2 = 11, 56,P = 0, 009),most patients had gastrointestinal poisoning(χ2 = 3 419, 24,P < 0, 01), Among 69(0, 70% )dead patients,45 cases(65, 22% ) died from carbon monoxide poisoning,11 cases(15, 79% )died from drug poisoning,9 cases(13, 20% )died from alcohol poisoning,4 cases(5, 79% )died from pesticide poisoning, Conclusion The epidemiology of pre - hospital patients with acute poisoning in Urumqi,such as age,gender,nationality,cause of poisoning,poisoning routes,poisoning seasons,cause of death,has regional

  2. Speciation analysis of arsenic compounds in the serum and urine of a patient with acute arsine poisoning

    Yamanaka K.; Yamano Y.; Yoshimura Y.; Shimoda Y.; Endo Y; Endo G.

    2013-01-01

    Arsine is one of the most potent hemolytic agents. It is important to clarify arsine metabolism as well as its chemical interactions with biological components. The aim of the present study was to clarify arsine metabolism by arsenic speciation analysis in serum and urine from an acute poisoning patient with hematuria, anemia, and renal and liver dysfunction. Speciation analysis of arsenics in serum and urine was performed using HPLC-ICP-MS. The total arsenic (T-As) concentration in serum was...

  3. 天津市宝坻区农药中毒报告现状的分析%Analysis of pesticide poisoning reports in Baodi District of Tianjin City

    刘河

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解天津市宝坻区农药中毒的现状.方法 对2010-2012年每年上报的农药中毒报告卡进行统计学分析.结果 2010-2012年宝坻区报告农药中毒102例,其中生产性中毒、生活性中毒分别占总中毒例数的67.65%和32.35%,病死率为10.78%.中毒者平均年龄为37.26岁,20 ~59岁青壮年占93.14%;生产性中毒以男性为主,生活性中毒以女性为主;中毒农药的类别分布以杀虫剂为主,占54.90%;且以敌敌畏有机磷中毒为主.结论 目前宝坻区农药中毒的严重性应引起社会,特别是政府和卫生工作人员的关注.%[Objective] To understand the status of pesticide poisoning in Baodi District of Tianjin City.[Methods] The annually reported pesticide poisoning cards were statistically analyzed from 2010-2012.[Results] From 2010-2012,102 cases of pesticide poisoning were reported in Baodi District.The cases of poisoning in production and in daily life occupied 67.65% and 32.35% of total cases,the mortality rate was 10.78%.The average age of the poisoned people was 37.26 years,20-59 years occupied 93.16%.Most cases of poisoning in production were male,and most cases of poisoning in daily life were female.The main kind of pesticide caused poisoning was insecticide (54.90%),mainly was dichlorvos organophosphate poisoning.[Conclusion] The severity of pesticide poisoning should attract social attentions in Baodi District,especially from government and health workers.

  4. Determination of as by instrumental neutron activation analysis in sectional hair samples for forensic purposes. Chronic or acute poisoning?

    Complete text of publication follows. Autopsy of 29-year old woman suspicious of having committed suicide by ingestion of As2O3 yielded contradictory findings. All pathological findings as well as clinical symptoms suggested acute poisoning, while a highly elevated. As level of 26.4 μg g-1 in her hair collected at the autopsy (measured with ICP-MS) indicated chronic poisoning. To elucidate this discrepancy, INAA with proven accuracy of sectional hair samples obtained from a hair-brush from the left estate of the deceased person was performed. Levels of As found in this work in the range of 0.06-0.26 μg g-1 excluded chronic poisoning, because the person died after approximately 14 hours after the As2O3 ingestion. Two reasons for the discordant As results are considered: (1) accidental, non-removed contamination of hair on the As2O3 ingestion; (2) erroneous performance of ICP-MS. A brief review is also presented of As determination in hair for forensic purposes, including supposed, and until now frequently discussed, poisoning of Napoleon Bonaparte.

  5. Community uptake of safe storage boxes to reduce self-poisoning from pesticides in rural Sri Lanka

    Konradsen, Flemming; Pieris, Ravi; Weerasinghe, Manjula;

    2007-01-01

    feasibility of such an approach. Therefore, the objective of the study presented here was to determine community perceptions and use of in-house safe storage boxes for pesticides in rural Sri Lanka. METHODS: Boxes with a lock, to be used for the in-house safe storage of pesticides, were distributed to 200...... household one month after distribution. No further encouragement was offered. A follow-up survey assessed storage practices seven months into the project. RESULTS: Following the distribution of the boxes the community identified a number of benefits including the protection of pesticide containers against...... exposure from the rain and sun and a reduced risk of theft. Data were analysed for 172 households that reported agricultural use of pesticides at follow-up. Of these, 141 (82%) kept pesticides in the house under lock against 3 (2%) at baseline. As expected, the distribution of boxes significantly reduced...

  6. EFFECTS OF ORGANOPHOSPHATES ON ACUTE POISONING AND ACETYL CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN ZEBRA FISH

    TH Sukirtha* MV Usharani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates (Ops. are the most widely used insecticides available today. These are a group of insecticides used in chemical sprays to kill bugs, and insects in orchards, vineyards, vegetables and cereal crops. The present study examined effects of the pesticide Methyl parathion, Dichlorvos and Chlorpyrifos on adult zebra fish were exposed to various concentrations (5, 10 & 25mg/L for 24 and 48hrs acute toxic study. Chlorpyrifos showed mortality in all concentrations and Methyl parathion and Dichlorvos showed the same in 25 mg/L. LC 50 value for Methyl parathion and Dichlorvos was 5 & 10 mg/L respectively. The total protein, LPO content was increased except SOD, Catalase in the brain tissue of the treated fishes.  There was no significant decrease in the GPX activity at 5ppm test groups. The GPX activity decreased significantly in test group treated with 10ppm and a significant difference was found between 5ppm and 10ppm test groups. The histopathological studies of brain tissue showed that neuronal degeneration and tissue damages in the brain of treated fishes when compared with the control. Ops. produce toxicity by inhibiting the cholinesterase enzymes in the nervous system. Monitoring of acetyl cholinesterase (AChE inhibition has been widely used in terrestrial and freshwater aquatic systems as an indicator of OP exposure and effects.

  7. An epidemiological study on pesticide poisoning with mixed preparation%混配农药中毒的流行病学研究

    甘文奇; 陈曙旸; 陶炳根; 叶明宪; 文保元; 阎永建; 许庆忠; 贾建华; 冒明建; 丁伟

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of pesticide poisoning with mixed preparation and risk factors contributing to it.Methods Twenty-five administrative villages were studied in three townships of Jiangsu and Shandong Provinces with cluster sampling.The sampled villages were divided into study group (12 villages) and control group (13 villages) with approximately equal number of people each.Pesticide sprayers in the study group applied mixed preparation containing organophosphorous and dimethrin and those in the control group applied single organophosphorous preparation.All the sprayers in sampled villages were interviewed with a same questionnaire about their situation of pesticide spraying during the observation period.Cases of pesticide poisoning were ascertained by seniors physicians in occupational diseases after group discussion.Results Incidence of pesticide poisoning was higher in 2 179 sprayers of the study group (10.10‰) than that in 2 615 of the control group (2.29‰), with a highly statistically difference (χ2=12.46,P<0.01) and an risk ratio (RR) of 4.45 (95% CI=1.94~10.05) adjusted for other risk factors by logistic regression.Other risk factors for pesticide poisoning with mixed preparation were smoking or taking food during spraying, leaking or breakdown of sprayers, without washing their whole body as soon as possible after spraying, poor personal protection, spraying for a long time, spraying by women and spraying pesticide on cotton.Conclusions If toxicity of mixed preparation of single pesticide showed a synergistic or additional effect, risk of poisoning by spraying mixed preparation increased.Health education and technical training should be strengthened for pesticide sprayers.%目的查明混配农药中毒的发病水平和农药中毒的危险因素。方法采用整群抽样方法,在江苏省和山东省的3个乡随机抽取25个行政村,按大约1∶1的人数比例分为研究组(12个行政村)与对照

  8. Acute oral and percutaneous toxicity of pesticides to mallards: Correlations with mammalian toxicity data

    Hudson, R.H.; Haegele, M.A.; Tucker, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    Acute oral (po) and 24-hr percutaneous (perc) LD50 values for 21 common pesticides (19 anticholinesterases, of which 18 were organophosphates, and one was a carbamate; one was an organochlorine central nervous system stimulant; and one was an organonitrogen pneumotoxicant) were determined in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Three of the pesticides tested were more toxic percutaneously than orally. An index to the percutaneous hazard of a pesticide, the dermal toxicity index (DTI = po LD50/perc LD50 ? 100), was also calculated for each pesticide. These toxicity values in mallards were compared with toxicity data for rats from the literature. Significant positive correlations were found between log po and log percutaneous LD50 values in mallards (r = 0.65, p 0.10). Variations in percutaneous methodologies are discussed with reference to interspecies variation in toxicity values. It is recommended that a mammalian DTI value approaching 30 be used as a guideline for the initiation of percutaneous toxicity studies in birds, when the po LD50 and/or projected percutaneous LD50 are less than expected field exposure levels.

  9. A one-year observational study of all hospitalized acute poisonings in Oslo: complications, treatment and sequelae

    Lund Cathrine

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Changes in poisoning trends may affect both complications and outcomes in patients with acute poisoning. This study reports the treatments given and the frequency of complications, also related to treatment, mortality and sequelae related to various toxic agents. Methods All acute poisonings in adults (≥16 years admitted to the five hospitals in Oslo were included consecutively during one year (2008 to 2009 in an observational cross-sectional multicenter study. A standardized form was completed by the treating physician, which covered the study aims. Results There were 1065 admissions in 912 patients. The median length of hospital stay was one day, and 49% were observed in an intensive care unit (ICU. Active treatment was given to 83%, and consisted of supportive therapy (70%, antidote(s (38%, activated charcoal (16% and gastric lavage (9%. The most commonly used antidotes were flumazenil (19%, naloxone (17% and N-acetylcysteine (11%. The rate of treatment-related complications was 2.4% (21/884. Neither flumazenil, naloxone, nor the combination, was associated with convulsions or other complications. Among those receiving N-acetylcysteine, 5% (6/120 developed allergic reactions, one of which mandated discontinuation of treatment. Nineteen percent presented in a coma. Complications developed in 30%, compared with 18% in a 2003 study, mainly respiratory depression (12%, prolonged QTc interval (6% and hypotension (5%. Eight patients died (0.8% and five (0.5% survived with permanent sequelae, mainly anoxic brain damage. Discussion Few patients stayed more than two days. The use of the ICU was liberal, considering that only one out of five presented in a coma. Antidotes were frequently given diagnostically. Although N-acetylcysteine induced allergic reactions, most were mild and treatment discontinuation was only necessary once. The frequency of complications had almost doubled in five years, although the poisoning pattern was

  10. Bioconcentration and Acute Intoxication of Brazilian Freshwater Fishes by the Methyl Parathion Organophosphate Pesticide.

    de Salles, João Bosco; Lopes, Renato Matos; de Salles, Cristiane M C; Cassano, Vicente P F; de Oliveira, Manildo Marcião; Bastos, Vera L F Cunha; Bastos, Jayme Cunha

    2015-01-01

    Three species of freshwater Brazilian fishes (pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus; piavussu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus) were exposed to an acute dose of 5 ppm methyl parathion organophosphate pesticide. Three to five individuals per species were exposed, one at a time, to 40 liters tap water spiked with Folidol 600. Pesticide concentrations and cholinesterase (ChE) activities were evaluated in serum, liver, brain, heart, and muscle. The bioconcentration of methyl parathion was similar for all studied fishes. Brain tissue showed the highest pesticide concentration, reaching 80 ppm after exposure for 30 min to methyl parathion. Three to 5 hours of 5 ppm methyl parathion exposure provoked the death of all P. lineatus at 92% brain AChE inhibition, whereas fish from the other two species survived for up to 78 hours with less than 80% brain AChE inhibition. Our results indicate that acute toxic effects of methyl parathion to fish are correlated with brain AChE sensitivity to methyl paraoxon. PMID:26339593

  11. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF POISONING IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Stephen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AIMS : The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the rate and chara cteristics of acute poisoning cases admitted to adult intensive care unit ( ICU in a tertiary care medical college hospital. We report clinical features , demographic data , laboratory results , mortality rate , and the results of our treatment in cases who ca me with the history of poisoning. METHODS: The study was done in patients admitted with history of poisoning under the department of medicine at RRMCH Hospital , Bengaluru from December 2013 to November 2014. This study includes 84 poisoning Patients who we re admitted to ICU care. Detailed history , clinical examination and laboratory inv est igations were done in all patients. Ventilator support and supportive treatment was instituted to required patients as p er our ICU criteria of intubation and Ventilation. Data was collected in structured format and analyzed. RESULTS: Majority of the cases were due to organophosphorus compound poisoning ( n=47 , 61% . Others had consumed drugs which included analgesics , carbomates , anti - hypertensive , spirit , benzodiazepines. A mongst these , 4 had consumed aluminum phosphide and all 4 of them died. In some history did not reveal the identity of the drugs. The most common indication for mechanical ventilation in these patients was respiratory failure due to OP poisoning. CONCLUSIO N: Pesticides were the main cause of poisoning ( 68.97% . The reasons being agriculture based economics , poverty due to poor agricultural yield and easy availability of pesticides. Patient education by conducting community based public awareness camps and l ectures might also help in bringing down the incidence of poisoning. The mortality could be decreased by enhanced ICU care , better medical management , appropriate supportive therapy and further restrictions on the highly toxic pesticides.

  12. 一起由有机磷农药引起食物中毒的调查报告%Investigation report on a case of food poisoning caused by organophosphorus pesticide

    叶瑞国; 罗铭; 梁阳; 覃彦琳; 彭丽; 柒挺

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To analyze field epidemiological investigation and laboratory test results on food poisoning caused by or-ganophosphorus pesticide contamination, providing reference for handling food poisoning cases. Methods: Samples from the patients' vomit, blood and leftover were collected and detection of four common physical and chemical poisoning indexes; organo-phosphorus, tetramine, carbamate esters and fluorine ethyl amide were detected according to the clinical symptoms. Results: or-ganophosphorus pesticide were detected from the pickled food the patients took, the leftover and vomit of patients. Conclusion: This case of food poisoning was caused by organophosphorus pesticide.%目的:总结分析有机磷农药污染引起的食物中毒的现场流行病学调查和实验室检测情况,为类似食物中毒处理提供参考资料.方法:采集患者的呕吐物、血液及剩余食物,根据临床症状进行了有机磷、毒鼠强、氨基甲酸酯、氟乙酰胺四项常见理化中毒指标检测.结果:从患者吃剩的酸料食物和呕吐物中均检出有机磷农药.结论:本起食物中毒由有机磷农药引起.

  13. Intoxicação por agrotóxicos no Brasil: os sistemas oficiais de informação e desafios para realização de estudos epidemiológicos Pesticides poisoning in Brazil: the official notification system and challenges to conducting epidemiological studies

    Neice Müller Xavier Faria

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é um dos líderes mundiais em consumo de agrotóxicos e os trabalhadores expostos são numerosos e diversificados. As intoxicações agudas são a face mais visível do impacto destes produtos na saúde. A avaliação dos vários sistemas oficiais de informação que notificam os casos de intoxicações concluiu que nenhum deles responde adequadamente ao papel de sistema de vigilância. Na prática, só se registram os casos agudos e mais graves. Uma importante lacuna é a informação de exposição a agrotóxicos: a avaliação da única fonte oficial (os Receituários Agronômicos revelou muitas limitações. A revisão das publicações brasileiras aponta um crescimento quantitativo e qualitativo dos estudos nesta área, com vários tipos de abordagens. O impacto da intensa carga química e o enorme contingente de trabalhadores expostos são duas importantes razões para o desenvolvimento da pesquisa epidemiológica sobre intoxicações por agrotóxicos, que no Brasil ainda tem um vasto campo para se desenvolver.Brazil is one of the world leaders in pesticide consumption and exposed workers are numerous and diversified. Acute poisonings are just the most visible aspect of pesticide impact on human health. An assessment of many official information systems that notify pesticide poisoning concluded that none of them performed appropriately the role of a surveillance system. Only acute and severe cases are notified. One of the main gaps concerns exposure information: the only official source (the Agronomic Prescriptions has many limitations and is not available for research. A review of published articles in Brazil shows a quantitative and qualitative increase of studies in this area with many different approaches. The impact of such a high chemical burden and the huge numbers of workers exposed are two important reasons for the development of an epidemiological research on pesticide poisoning, an issue that has still a vast field to

  14. A Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship for acute oral toxicity of pesticides on rats: Validation, Domain of Application and Prediction

    Hamadache, Mabrouk; Benkortbi, Othmane; Hanini, Salah; Amrane, Abdeltif; Khaouane, Latifa; Si Moussa, Cherif

    2016-01-01

    International audience Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models are expected to play an important role in the risk assessment of chemicals on humans and the environment. In this study, we developed a validated QSAR model to predict acute oral toxicity of 329 pesticides to rats because a few QSAR models have been devoted to predict the Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) of pesticides on rats. This QSAR model is based on 17 molecular descriptors, and is robust, externally predictive and...

  15. Determination of As by instrumental neutron activation analysis in sectioned hair samples for forensic purposes: chronic or acute poisoning?

    Autopsy of 29-year old woman suspicious of committing suicide by the ingestion of As2O3 yielded contradictory findings. All pathological findings as well as clinical symptoms suggested acute poisoning, while a highly elevated As level of 26.4 μg g-1 in her hair collected at the autopsy, which was determined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry indicated chronic poisoning. To elucidate this discrepancy, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with proven accuracy was performed of another set of sectioned hair samples. Levels of As found by INAA in the range of 0.16-0.26 μg g-1 excluded chronic poisoning, because the person died after approximately 14 h after the As2O3 ingestion. Two reasons for the discordant As results obtained by ICP-MS and INAA are considered: (1) accidental, non-removed contamination of hair on the As2O3 ingestion; (2) erroneous performance of ICP-MS. (author)

  16. The Antidotal Effects of High-dosage γ-Aminobutyric Acid on Acute Tetramine Poisoning as Compared with Sodium Dimercaptopropane Sulfonate

    SUN Peng; HAN Jiyuan; WENG Yuying

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of high-dosage γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on acute tetramine (TET) poisoning, 50 Kunming mice were divided into 5 groups at random and the antidotal effects of GABA or sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate (Na-DMPS) on poisoned mice in different groups were observed in order to compare the therapeutic effects of high-dosage GABA with those of Na-DMPS. Slices of brain tissue of the poisoned mice were made to examine pathological changes of cells. The survival analysis was employed. Our results showed that both high-dosage GABA and Na-DMPS could obviously prolong the survival time, delay onset of convulsion and muscular twitch, and ameliorate the symptoms after acute tetramine poisoning in the mice.Better effects could be achieved with earlier use of high dosage GABA or Na-DMPS. There was no significant difference in prolonging the survival time between high-dose GABA and Na-DMPS used immediately after poisioning. It is concluded that high-dosage GABA can effectively antagonize acute toxicity of teramine in mice. And it is suggested that high-dosage GABA may be used as an excellent antidote for acute TET poisoning in clinical practice. The indications and correct dosage for clinical use awaits to be further studied.

  17. Temperature-dependent acute toxicity of methomyl pesticide on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species.

    Lau, Edward Tak Chuen; Karraker, Nancy Elizabeth; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee

    2015-10-01

    Relative to other animal taxa, ecotoxicological studies on amphibians are scarce, even though amphibians are experiencing global declines and pollution has been identified as an important threat. Agricultural lands provide important habitats for many amphibians, but often these lands are contaminated with pesticides. The authors determined the acute toxicity, in terms of 96-h median lethal concentrations, of the carbamate pesticide methomyl on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species, the Asian common toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus), the brown tree frog (Polypedates megacephalus), and the marbled pygmy frog (Microhyla pulchra), at 5 different temperatures (15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C, 30 °C, and 35 °C) to examine the relationships between temperature and toxicity. Significant interspecific variation in methomyl sensitivity and 2 distinct patterns of temperature-dependent toxicity were found. Because high proportions of malformation among the surviving tadpoles were observed, a further test was carried out on the tree frog to determine effect concentrations using malformation as the endpoint. Concentrations as low as 1.4% of the corresponding 96-h median lethal concentrations at 25 °C were sufficient to cause malformation in 50% of the test population. As the toxicity of pesticides may be significantly amplified at higher temperatures, temperature effects should not be overlooked in ecotoxicological studies and derivation of safety limits in environmental risk assessment and management. PMID:25959379

  18. Epidemiology Characteristics and Prognosis Risk Factors Analysis Research on Acute Pesticide Intoxication in One District%急性农药中毒流行特征及预后影响因素研究

    杜育刚; 李清雅; 陈建南

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the epidemiology characteristics of acute pesticide intoxication, then make clear the risk factors of acute pesticide intoxication prognosis, and explore its regularity of the poisoning and the feasibility of controlling measures. METHODS 306 cases of acute pesticide intoxication were collected from January 2007 to December 2011 with self-design questionnaire, and each data of them were collected. RESULTS In 306 cases, 173 cases (56.5%) were poisoned by orgnaophosphorus, 49 cases (16.0%) by pyrethroid and 81 cases (26.5%) by parquet. The risk factors affecting the prognosis of acute pesticide intoxication included sex (OR = 3.930), poisoning extent (OR = 10.166) , poisonous types (OR = 5.854) , oxygen inhale (OR =0.211), respiratory system abnormality (OR =6.180), fever (OR = 7.182), pulse (OR =4.063), renal functions (OR = 4.670) and electrocardiography (OR - 2.272). CONCLUSION We have made clear the epidemiology characteristics, and analyzed the risk factors of prognosis. We raise prevention and remedy strategies of acute pesticide intoxication.%目的 分析急性农药中毒病例的流行特征,摸清影响预后的危险因素,探讨其发病规律及可行的防治策略.方法 通过回顾性收集2007年1月~2011年12月期间的306例急性农药中毒病例;采用自行设计的调查表,收集各个病例的各种资料.结果 306例患者中,有机磷中毒173例(56.5%)、拟除虫菊酯中毒49例(16.0%)、百草枯中毒81例(26.5%)、其他中毒3例(1.0%);影响预后的因素包括性别(OR=3.930)、中毒程度(OR=10.166)、毒物种类(OR=5.854)、氧气吸入(OR=0.211)、呼吸系统异常(OR=6.180)、发热(OR=7.182)、脉搏(OR=4.063)、肾功能(OR=4.670)、心电图检查(OR=2.272)等指标.结论 摸清了急性农药中毒的流行特征,分析了影响预后的危险因素,并提出了急性农药中毒的预防和救治策略.

  19. The comparison of clinical manifestation of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (OPP) between oral exposure and occupational exposure in field work%田间作业致有机磷农药中毒与口服中毒的临床比较

    胡雪珍; 卢中秋; 孙来芳; 王征

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨田间作业中毒和口服有机磷农药中毒在临床表现及治疗上的差异.方法 回顾性分析我院2007年7月至2010年7月收治的85例中、重度急性有机磷农药中毒患者的临床资料,按中毒途径分为口服组(51例)和非口服组(34例),比较不同途径中毒后的临床表现、治疗特点及预后.结果 口服组中度中毒患者的肌颤肌痉挛和共济失调的发生率(86.4%、90.9%)均明显高于非口服组(50.0%、55.0%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05,P<0.01);口服组重度中毒患者的肺水肿、肌颤肌痉挛及昏迷的发生率(100.0%、89.7%、93.1%)均明显高于非口服组(71.4%、64.3%、50.0%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05 ).非口服组解毒时间[中度:(35.0±6.2)h、重度:(45.0±11.1)h]较口服组[中度:(49.0±7.7)h、重度:(77.0±10.3)h]明显缩短,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).治疗后24、48、72 h,中、重度非口服组胆碱酯酶活力明显高于口服组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01);中、重度非口服组的氯磷定用量、阿托品化用量及阿托品总量明显低于口服组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 田间作业有机磷农药中毒在临床表现上与口服中毒不尽相同,且治疗的阿托品及氯磷定用量相对较少,胆碱酯酶活力恢复较快.%Objective To investigate the differences of clinical manifestation and therapy of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (OPP) between oral exposure and occupational exposure in field work. Methods From July 2007 to July 2010, 85 patients with acute severe OPP were treated in a hospital, which were divided into oral poisoning group (51 cases) and non-oral poisoning group (34 cases). The differences of clinical manifestations, curative effects and prognosis between two groups were compared. Results The rates of myoclonus and ataxia in cases with moderate poisoning of oral poisoning group were 86.4% and 90.9%, which were significantly higher than those (50

  20. A case of 5-month baby poisoning caused by organophosphorus pesticide and review of literature.%有机磷农药致五个月婴儿中毒一例并文献复习

    陈丽珠; 胡世轩; 陈永伴; 陈永传

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study thc clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning in baby. Methods Here we report a case of baby poisoning caused by organophosphorus pesticide, and comb/ned with literature review, to discuss clinical features, diagnosis and treatment, and propose preventive measures. Results Symptoms of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning was very complex, progression rapid,medical history is unknown and misdiagnosed. Conclusion Babies could easily poison by organophosphorus pesticide, and clinicians should be timely medical examinations, laboratory examinations can not be excessive, so as not to affect the rescue time.%目的 探讨有机磷农药致婴儿中毒的临床特征、诊断及治疗方法.方法 报告一例有机磷农药致5个月婴儿中毒,结合文献探讨这种病例的临床表现特征、诊断和治疗方法,并提出相应的预防措施.结果 有机磷农药中毒临床表现症状复杂多变,病情发展迅速,病史不详且误诊率高.结论 有机磷农药较易导致婴儿中毒,且症状不典型.临床医生应及时的进行体格检查,不能过度依赖辅助检查,以免影响抢救时机.

  1. Cholinesterase Research Outreach Project (CROP): measuring cholinesterase activity and pesticide use in an agricultural community

    Cotton, Jacqueline; Lewandowski, Paul; Brumby, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Australian farmers and their workers are exposed to a wide variety of pesticides. Organophosphate (OP) insecticides are a widely used class of pesticide used for animal husbandry practices (Naphthalophos for sheep dipping, jetting and drench), crop production for pest control (Dimethoate) and in public health (Maldison for head lice). Acute poisonings with this class of insecticide are reported among agricultural workers and children around the globe, due to the inhibition of acety...

  2. Four-Year Study on Acute Poisoning Cases Admitted to a Tertiary Hospital in Bangladesh: Emerging Trend of Poisoning in Commuters

    Mohammad Shafiqul Bari

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion:Commuter or travel-related poisoning is an emerging public health threat in this part of Bangladesh. Public awareness should be raised and school-based educational programs should be emphasized regarding the commuter poisoning and the consequence of accepting and eating food from strangers.

  3. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary acute exposure of the population of Denmark to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christensen, Tue

    2009-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides and as such have a common mode of action. We assessed the cumulative acute exposure of the population of Denmark to 25 organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide residues from the consumption of fruit, vegetables...... and cereals. The probabilistic approach was used in the assessments. Residue data obtained from the Danish monitoring programme carried out in the period 2004-2007, which included 6704 samples of fruit, vegetables and cereals, were used in the calculations. Food consumption data were obtained from...... the nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-2002. Contributions from 43 commodities were included in the calculations. We used the relative potency factor (RPF) approach to normalize the toxicity of the various organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides to the two index compounds chlorpyriphos...

  4. Probabilistic acute dietary exposure assessments to captan and tolylfluanid using several European food consumption and pesticide concentration databases

    Boon, Polly E.; Svensson, Kettil; Moussavian, Shahnaz; van der Voet, Hilko; Petersen, Annette; Ruprich, Jiri; Debegnach, Francesca; de Boer, Waldo J.; van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Brera, Carlo; van Klaveren, Jacob D.; Busk, Leif

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic dietary acute exposure assessments of captan and tolylfluanid were performed for the populations of the Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden. The basis for these assessments was national databases for food consumption and pesticide concentration data harmonised...... at the level of raw agricultural commodity. Data were obtained from national food consumption surveys and national monitoring programmes and organised in an electronic platform of databases connected to probabilistic software. The exposure assessments were conducted by linking national food...... consumption data either (1) to national pesticide concentration data or (2) to a pooled database containing all national pesticide concentration data. We show that with this tool national exposure assessments can be performed in a harmonised way and that pesticide concentrations of other countries can be...

  5. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Probably Caused by Arsenic-Based Pesticides: Findings from an Investigation Study of a Household

    Yongfang Li; Feng Ye; Anwei Wang; Da Wang; Boyi Yang; Quanmei Zheng; Guifan Sun; Xinghua Gao

    2016-01-01

    In addition to naturally occurring arsenic, man-made arsenic-based compounds are other sources of arsenic exposure. In 2013, our group identified 12 suspected arsenicosis patients in a household (32 living members). Of them, eight members were diagnosed with skin cancer. Interestingly, all of these patients had lived in the household prior to 1989. An investigation revealed that approximately 2 tons of arsenic-based pesticides had been previously placed near a well that had supplied drinking ...

  6. 13例抑郁症患者合并有机磷农药中毒的护理体会%Nursing experience of 13 depression patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    徐莉; 蒋燕; 董林

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the nursing methods for the depression patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Methods 13 depression patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were conducted with emergency treatment and nursing. Results All of 13 patients were cured and discharged after the emergency treatment and nursing, and no patient died. Conclusion High — grade nursing is an important factor in the successful emergency treatment for the depression patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.%目的 探讨抑郁症合并有机磷农药中毒的护理方法.方法 对13例抑郁症合并有机磷农药中毒的患者进行抢救治疗和护理.结果 13例患者经抢救和护理均治愈出院,无1例死亡.结论 高质量的护理是此类患者抢救成功的重要因素.

  7. Epidemiological analysis of poisoning cases in Van, Turkey

    Objective: To investigate the etiological and demographical characteristics of acute adult poisoning cases in eastern Turkey. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Emergency Department of Yuzuncu Yil University, School of Medicine, and comprised data related to the period between 2007 and 2009. The data obtained included age, gender, referrals, manner of poisoning, manner of application, the department which followed up on the patients, duration of hospital stay. All data was noted on proforma. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the total cases visiting the Emergency Department, 1207 (1.1%) related to poisoning. Of them, 880 (72.9%) had attempted suicide; 858 (71.1%) were female; 349 (29%) were male. The average age of the females was 25.4+-8.5 years, and that of the males 28.3+-14.3 years. Single-medicine was noted in poisoning 544 (45.1%) patients. Other poisoning types were multidrugs 373 (30.9%); rat poisoning, insecticide and pesticides, 145 (12%); corrosives 38 (3.1%); and weed, mushroomang; food 47 (3.8%). Oral poisoning was noted in 1141 (94.5%) cases. A total of 1019 (84.4%) patients received treatment and were followed up in the Emergency Department. Six (0.6%) patients died. Conclusion: There is a need to generate more awareness about the hazards of domestic cleaning products and to keep it away at some distinct place to minimised chances of confusion. (author)

  8. Hazardous pesticides in Central America.

    Wesseling, C; Aragón, A; Castillo, L; Corriols, M; Chaverri, F; de la Cruz, E; Keifer, M; Monge, P; Partanen, T J; Ruepert, C; van Wendel de Joode, B

    2001-01-01

    Pesticides are an extensively documented occupational and environmental hazard in Central America. Yet, severe problems persist. Toxic pesticide use in the Region increased during 1985-1999. High exposure levels and ineffectiveness of personal protective equipment evidence the difficulties for risk reduction. Acute poisonings remain a severe problem. Delayed and/or long-lasting health effects include dermatoses, cancer, and genotoxic, neurotoxic, and respiratory effects. The use of hazardous pesticides persists through deficiencies in government-driven assessment and risk management; excessive focus on regional harmonization; short-term economic interests; strong links between industry and governments; aggressive marketing; weak trade unions; and failure of universities to reach decision makers. Regulation based on local data is lacking. An agreement of the Ministries of Health for restricting the most toxic pesticides in Central America has potential for progress. The most effective way to reduce risk is to greatly reduce pesticide use. Actions needed include development of multidisciplinary strategies for local studies on health and environmental impact of pesticides; development of sustainable nonchemical agricultural technologies; evaluation of interventions; extending and sharing of expertise within the Region; strengthening of unions and communities; and redefining the role of industry toward development of safer products, with responsible marketing and reliable information. PMID:11783858

  9. Analysis of serum anion gap and osmolal gap in diagnosis and prognosis of acute methanol poisoning: clinical study in 86 patients

    Zakharov, S.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Pelclová, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 146, č. 5 (2015), s. 787-794. ISSN 0026-9247 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : serum anion gap * osmolal gap * acute methanol poisoning Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.222, year: 2014

  10. Correlations among copeptin, ischemia-modified albumin, and the extent of myocardial injury in patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Li, J; Wang, J S; Xie, Z X; Wang, W Z; Wang, L; Ma, G Y; Li, Y Q; Wang, P

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationships among copeptin, ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), and extent of myocardial injury in patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACOP). A total of 110 patients with different degrees of ACOP were selected as the poisoning group, and 30 healthy individuals as the control group. The levels of troponin I (cTnI), IMA, and copeptin were detected. Based on the presence of complications, the patients were assigned to the complication (26 patients) or non-complication (84 patients) group. Levels of cTnI, IMA, and copeptin were compared among the control, complication, and non-complication groups. Compared with the control group, in the 2 h after admission, the IMA levels decreased and copeptin levels increased in the poisoning group; these changes were more significant in patients with severe ACOP than in those with mild ACOP, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). There were no differences in the IMA and copeptin levels between the groups 7 days after admission; the cTnI levels increased more significantly in patients with severe ACOP than in patients with mild and moderate ACOP, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). In the complication group, at 7 days after admission, the IMA levels decreased whereas the copeptin and cTnI levels were significantly higher than in the non-complication group, with a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). IMA was negatively correlated with copeptin. IMA and copeptin detection is clinically useful in the early diagnosis and prognosis of ACOP-related myocardial injury and in guiding early clinical drug application. PMID:26345979